Sample records for mg co2 m-2

  1. Thermoelectric Performance of the MXenes M2CO2 (M = Ti, Zr, or Hf)

    KAUST Repository

    Gandi, Appala; Alshareef, Husam N.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo


    MXenes, M2CO2, where M = Ti, Zr, or Hf, in order to evaluate the effect of the metal M on the thermoelectric performance. The lattice contribution to the thermal conductivity, obtained from the phonon life times, is found to be lowest in Ti2CO2

  2. Thermoelectric Performance of the MXenes M2CO2 (M = Ti, Zr, or Hf)

    KAUST Repository

    Gandi, Appala


    We present the first report in which the thermoelectric properties of two-dimensional MXenes are calculated by considering both the electron and phonon transport. Specifically, we solve the transport equations of the electrons and phonons for three MXenes, M2CO2, where M = Ti, Zr, or Hf, in order to evaluate the effect of the metal M on the thermoelectric performance. The lattice contribution to the thermal conductivity, obtained from the phonon life times, is found to be lowest in Ti2CO2 and highest in Hf2CO2 in the temperature range from 300 K to 700 K. The highest figure of merit is predicted for Ti2CO2 . The heavy mass of the electrons due to flat conduction bands results in a larger thermopower in the case of n-doping in these compounds.

  3. A randomized comparison of daunorubicin 90 mg/m2 vs 60 mg/m2 in AML induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burnett, A. K.; Russell, N. H.; Hills, R. K.


    Modifying induction therapy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) may improve the remission rate and reduce the risk of relapse, thereby improving survival. Escalation of the daunorubicin dose to 90 mg/m(2) has shown benefit for some patient subgroups when compared with a dose of 45 mg/m(2), and has been...... = .15). In an exploratory subgroup analysis, there was no subgroup that showed significant benefit, although there was a significant interaction by FLT3 ITD mutation. This trial is registered at as #ISRCTN55675535....

  4. Exploring the MIS M2 glaciation occurring during a warm and high atmospheric CO2 Pliocene background climate (United States)

    Tan, Ning; Ramstein, Gilles; Dumas, Christophe; Contoux, Camille; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Sepulchre, Pierre; Zhang, Zhongshi; De Schepper, Stijn


    Prior to the Northern Hemisphere glaciation around ∼2.7 Ma, a large global glaciation corresponding to a 20 to 60 m sea-level drop occurred during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) M2 (3.312-3.264 Ma), interrupted the period of global warmth and high CO2 concentration (350-450 ppmv) of the mid Piacenzian. Unlike the late Quaternary glaciations, the M2 glaciation only lasted 50 kyrs and occurred under uncertain CO2 concentration (220-390 ppmv). The mechanisms causing the onset and termination of the M2 glaciation remain enigmatic, but a recent geological hypothesis suggests that the re-opening and closing of the shallow Central American Seaway (CAS) might have played a key role. In this article, thanks to a series of climate simulations carried out using a fully coupled Atmosphere Ocean General Circulation Model (GCM) and a dynamic ice sheet model, we show that re-opening of the shallow CAS helps precondition the low-latitude oceanic circulation and affects the related northward energy transport, but cannot alone explain the onset of the M2 glaciation. The presence of a shallow open CAS, together with favourable orbital parameters, 220 ppmv of CO2 concentration, and the related vegetation and ice sheet feedback, led to a global ice sheet build-up producing a global sea-level drop in the lowest range of proxy-derived estimates. More importantly, our results show that the simulated closure of the CAS has a negligible impact on the NH ice sheet melt and cannot explain the MIS M2 termination.

  5. Controlling Cooperative CO2 Adsorption in Diamine-Appended Mg2(dobpdc) Metal-Organic Frameworks. (United States)

    Siegelman, Rebecca L; McDonald, Thomas M; Gonzalez, Miguel I; Martell, Jeffrey D; Milner, Phillip J; Mason, Jarad A; Berger, Adam H; Bhown, Abhoyjit S; Long, Jeffrey R


    In the transition to a clean-energy future, CO 2 separations will play a critical role in mitigating current greenhouse gas emissions and facilitating conversion to cleaner-burning and renewable fuels. New materials with high selectivities for CO 2 adsorption, large CO 2 removal capacities, and low regeneration energies are needed to achieve these separations efficiently at scale. Here, we present a detailed investigation of nine diamine-appended variants of the metal-organic framework Mg 2 (dobpdc) (dobpdc 4- = 4,4'-dioxidobiphenyl-3,3'-dicarboxylate) that feature step-shaped CO 2 adsorption isotherms resulting from cooperative and reversible insertion of CO 2 into metal-amine bonds to form ammonium carbamate chains. Small modifications to the diamine structure are found to shift the threshold pressure for cooperative CO 2 adsorption by over 4 orders of magnitude at a given temperature, and the observed trends are rationalized on the basis of crystal structures of the isostructural zinc frameworks obtained from in situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. The structure-activity relationships derived from these results can be leveraged to tailor adsorbents to the conditions of a given CO 2 separation process. The unparalleled versatility of these materials, coupled with their high CO 2 capacities and low projected energy costs, highlights their potential as next-generation adsorbents for a wide array of CO 2 separations.

  6. CO_2 capture in Mg oxides doped with Fe and Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez S, I. F.


    In this work the CO_2 capture-desorption characteristics in Mg oxides doped with Fe and Ni obtained by the direct oxidation of Mg-Ni and Mg-Fe mixtures are presented. Mixtures of Mg-Ni and Mg-Fe in a different composition were obtained by mechanical milling in a Spex-type mill in a controlled atmosphere of ultra high purity argon at a weight / weight ratio of 4:1 powder using methanol as a lubricating agent, for 20 h. The powders obtained by mechanical milling showed as main phase, the Mg with nanocrystalline structure. Subsequently, the mixtures of Mg-Ni and Mg-Fe were oxidized within a muffle for 10 min at 600 degrees Celsius. By means of X-ray diffraction analysis, the Mg O with nano metric grain size was identified as the main phase, which was determined by the Scherrer equation. In the Mg O doped with Ni, was identified that as the Ni amount 1 to 5% by weight dispersed in the Mg O matrix was increased, the main peak intensity of the Ni phase increased, whereas in the Mg O doped with Fe was observed by XRD, that the Fe_2O_3 phase was present and by increasing the amount of Fe (1 to 5% by weight) dispersed in the crystalline phase of Mg O, the intensity of this impurity also increased. Sem-EDS analysis showed that the Ni and Fe particles are dispersed homogeneously in the Mg O matrix, and the particles are porous, forming agglomerates. Through energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis, the elemental chemical composition obtained is very close to the theoretical composition. The capture of CO_2 in the Mg O-1% Ni was carried out in a Parr reactor at different conditions of pressure, temperature and reaction time. Was determined that under the pressure of 0.2 MPa at 26 degrees Celsius for 1 h of reaction, the highest CO_2 capture of 7.04% by weight was obtained, while in Mg O-1% Fe the CO_2 capture was 6.32% by weight. The other magnesium oxides doped in 2.5 and 5% by weight Ni and Fe showed lower CO_2 capture. The different stages of mass loss and thermal

  7. Precipitation of hydrated Mg carbonate with the aid of carbonic anhydrase for CO2 sequestration (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Harrison, A. L.; Dipple, G. M.


    Strategies for sequestering CO2 directly from the atmosphere are likely required to achieve the desired reduction in CO2 concentration and avoid the most damaging effects of climate change [1]. Numerous studies have demonstrated the accelerated precipitation of calcium carbonate minerals with the aid of carbonic anhydrase (CA) as a means of sequestering CO2 in solid carbonate form; however, no study has examined precipitation of magnesium carbonate minerals using CA. Precipitation of magnesite (MgCO3) is kinetically inhibited [2]; therefore, Mg2+ must be precipitated as hydrated carbonate minerals. In laboratory experiments, the uptake of atmospheric CO2 into brine solutions (0.1 M Mg) was rate-limiting for the precipitation of dypingite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2-5H2O] with initial precipitation requiring 15 days [3]. It was also found that dypingite precipitation outpaced the uptake of CO2 gas into solution. CO2 uptake is limited by the hydration of CO2 to form carbonate ions [4]. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes are among the fastest known in nature and are able to catalyze the hydration of CO2, i.e., converting CO2(aq) to CO32- and HCO3- [5]. CA plays an important role in the carbon concentrating mechanism of photoautotrophic, chemoautotrophic, and heterotrophic prokaryotes and is involved in pH homeostasis, facilitated diffusion of CO2, ion transport, and the interconversion of CO2 and HCO3- [6]. Introducing CA into buffered Mg-rich solutions should allow for more rapid precipitation of hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals. Batch experiments were conducted using 125 mL flasks containing 100 mL of Millipore deionized water with 0.2 M of MgCl2-6H2O. To buffer pH, 1.0 g of pulverized brucite [Mg(OH)2] or 1.0 g of NaOH was added to the systems, which were amended with Bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) (Sigma-Aldrich). Solutions were stirred continuously and kept at room temperature (~22°C) with laboratory air introduced by bubbling. Temperature and pH were measured routinely

  8. Co2+ adsorption in porous oxides Mg O, Al2O3 and Zn O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno M, J. E.; Granados C, F.; Bulbulian, S.


    The porous oxides Mg O, Al 2 O 3 and Zn O were synthesized by the chemical combustion in solution method and characterized be means of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The adsorption behavior of Co 2+ ions present in aqueous solution were studied on the synthesized materials by means of experiments lots type to ambient temperature. It was found that the cobalt ions removal was of 90% in Mg O, 65% in Zn O and 72% in Al 2 O 3 respectively, indicating that the magnesium oxide is the best material to remove Co 2+ presents in aqueous solution. (Author)

  9. Efficient MgO-based mesoporous CO2 trapper and its performance at high temperature. (United States)

    Han, Kun Kun; Zhou, Yu; Chun, Yuan; Zhu, Jian Hua


    A novel MgO-based porous adsorbent has been synthesized in a facile co-precipitation method for the first time, in order to provide a candidate for trapping CO(2) in flue gas at high temperature. The resulting composite exhibits a mesoporous structure with a wide pore size distribution, due to the even dispersion and distribution of microcrystalline MgO in the framework of alumina to form a concrete-like structure. These sorbents can capture CO(2) at high temperature (150-400°C), possessing high reactivity and stability in cyclic adsorption-desorption processes, providing competitive candidates to control CO(2) emission. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. MgO-based adsorbents for CO2 adsorption: Influence of structural and textural properties on the CO2 adsorption performance. (United States)

    Elvira, Gutiérrez-Bonilla; Francisco, Granados-Correa; Víctor, Sánchez-Mendieta; Alberto, Morales-Luckie Raúl


    A series of MgO-based adsorbents were prepared through solution-combustion synthesis and ball-milling process. The prepared MgO-based powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, N 2 physisorption measurements, and employed as potential adsorbents for CO 2 adsorption. The influence of structural and textural properties of these adsorbents over the CO 2 adsorption behaviour was also investigated. The results showed that MgO-based products prepared by solution-combustion and ball-milling processes, were highly porous, fluffy, nanocrystalline structures in nature, which are unique physico-chemical properties that significantly contribute to enhance their CO 2 adsorption. It was found that the MgO synthesized by solution combustion process, using a molar ratio of urea to magnesium nitrate (2:1), and treated by ball-milling during 2.5hr (MgO-BM2.5h), exhibited the maximum CO 2 adsorption capacity of 1.611mmol/g at 25°C and 1atm, mainly via chemisorption. The CO 2 adsorption behaviour on the MgO-based adsorbents was correlated to their improved specific surface area, total pore volume, pore size distribution and crystallinity. The reusability of synthesized MgO-BM2.5h was confirmed by five consecutive CO 2 adsorption-desorption times, without any significant loss of performance, that supports the potential of MgO-based adsorbent. The results confirmed that the special features of MgO prepared by solution-combustion and treated by ball-milling during 2.5hr are favorable to be used as effective MgO-based adsorbent in post-combustion CO 2 capture technologies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Photodissociation spectroscopy of the Mg + -CO2 complex and its isotopic analogs (United States)

    Yeh, C. S.; Willey, K. F.; Robbins, D. L.; Pilgrim, J. S.; Duncan, M. A.


    Mg+-CO2 ion-molecule cluster complexes are produced by laser vaporization in a pulsed nozzle cluster source. The vibronic spectroscopy in these complexes is studied with mass-selected photodissociation spectroscopy in a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Two excited electronic states are observed (2) 2Σ+ and 2Π. The 2Π state has a vibrational progression in the metal-CO2 stretching mode (ωe'=381.8 cm-1). The complexes are linear (Mg+-OCO) and are bound by the charge-quadrupole interaction. The dissociation energy (D0`) is 14.7 kcal/mol. Corresponding spectra are measured for each of the 24, 25, and 26 isotopes of magnesium. These results are compared to theoretical predictions made by Bauschlicher and co-workers.

  12. Development of an MgO-based binder for stabilizing fine sediments and storing CO2. (United States)

    Hwang, Kyung-Yup; Ahn, Jun-Young; Kim, Cheolyong; Seo, Jeong-Yun; Hwang, Inseong


    An MgO-based binder was developed that could stabilize fine dredged sediments for reuse and store CO2. Initially, a binder consisting of fly ash (FA) and blast furnace slag (BFS) was developed by using alkaline activators such as KOH, NaOH, and lime. The FA0.4-BFS0.6 binder (mixed at a FA-to-BFS weight ratio of 4:6) showed the highest compressive strength of 10.7 MPa among FA/BFS binders when 5 M KOH was used. When lime (L) was tested as an alkaline activator, the strength was comparable with those obtained when KOH or NaOH was used. The L0.1-(FA0.4BFS0.6)0.9 binder (10 % lime mixed with the FA/BFS binder) showed the highest strength of 11.0 MPa. Finally, by amending this L0.1-(FA0.4BFS0.6)0.9 binder with MgO, a novel MgO-based binder (MgO0.5-(L0.1-(FA0.4BFS0.6)0.9) 0.5) was developed, which demonstrated the 28th day strength of 11.9 MPa. The MgO-based binder was successfully applied to stabilize a fine sediment to yield a compressive strength of 4.78 MPa in 365 days, which was higher than that obtained by the Portland cement (PC) system (3.22 MPa). Carbon dioxide sequestration was evidenced by three observations: (1) the decrease in pH of the treated sediment from 12.2 to 11.0; (2) the progress of the carbonation front inward the treated sediment; and (3) the presence of magnesium carbonates. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results showed that 67.2 kg of CO2 per ton of the treated sediment could be stored under the atmospheric condition during 1 year.

  13. Raman-spectroscopic (Fe/Fe+Mg, CO2) and Structural studies of Mg-Fe cordierites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefeker, U.


    In the course of this dissertation synthetic hexagonal and orthorhombic Mg-Fe-cordierites have been investigated with Raman-spectroscopy and XRD methods. Cordierite´s Mg- and Fe-end-members as well as their Mg-Fe solid solutions with the chemical formula (Mg, Fe 2+ ) 2 Al 4 Si 5 O 18 *nH 2 O have been synthesized. Raman-data of synthetic hydrous Mg- and Fe-cordierites have been obtained in the wavenumber-region 100-1250 cm-1 and the experimental data were then compared with the results of quantum-mechanical calculations. 86 theoretical bands could be related to specific vibrational modes of the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the cordierite structure. Maximum and mean deviation between experimentally-derived bands and calculated modes were ±7 cm -1 for Mg-cordierite and ±19 cm -1 for Fe-cordierite. Spectra comparison revealed a trend of peak downshifting as a consequence of Fe-incorporation. The calculations now allow more accurate interpretation of the Raman spectra with respect to structural changes of cordierite, resulting from Al-Si ordering and Mg-Fe exchange. Atomic motions in cordierite have been compared with those of the structurally similar mineral beryl. Investigations of 16 H 2 O-bearing synthetic well-ordered Mg-Fe-cordierites (XFe =0-1) with micro-Raman spectroscopy revealed a linear correlation between the Fe/Mg ratio and the position of certain Raman peaks. The peaks (wave-number Mg-/Fe-cordierite) at 122/111, 262/257, 430/418, 579/571, 974/967, and 1012/1007 cm -1 were selected for a detailed deconvolution analysis . The shifts of these peaks were then plotted vs. XFe and regression of the data lead to the formulation of a set of linear equations. In addition, the effect of different H 2 O contents and the degree of Al-Si ordering on the Fe/Mg determination were also investigated. Testing the calibration against data from six well-characterized natural cordierite samples yielded excellent agreement. Existing calibration diagrams for CO 2

  14. Improved CO_2 adsorption capacity and cyclic stability of CaO sorbents incorporated with MgO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah Diana Mohd Daud; Kumaravel Vignesh; Srimala Sreekantan; Abdul Rahman Mohamed


    Calcium oxide (CaO) sorbents incorporated with magnesium oxide (MgO) were synthesized using a co-precipitation route. The sorbents were prepared with different MgO concentrations (from 5 wt% to 30 wt%). The as-prepared sorbents were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and BET surface area analysis techniques. The sintering effect of CaO sorbents was decreased after the incorporation of MgO. The sorbents with 5 wt% and 10 wt% of MgO retained their CO_2 adsorption capacity over multiple cycles. Most importantly, CaO with 10 wt% MgO showed constant CO_2 adsorption capacity over 30 carbonation cycles. The results revealed that CaO with 10 wt% MgO is sufficient to produce sorbents with high surface area, good structural stability and enhanced CO_2 adsorption capacity. (authors)

  15. Environmental Benign Synthesis of Lithium Silicates and Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide from Vermiculite Mineral for CO2 Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang


    Full Text Available This research introduces a completely new environmental benign synthesis route for obtaining two kinds of inter-mediate and high temperature CO2 sorbents, Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH and Li4SiO4, from vermiculite. The mineral vermiculite was leached with acid, from which the obtained SiO2 was used for the synthesis of Li4SiO4 and the leaching waste water was used for the synthesis of Mg-Al LDH. Therefore, no waste was produced during the whole process. Both Li4SiO4 and Mg-Al LDH sorbents were carefully characterized using XRD, SEM, and BET analyses. The CO2 capturing performance of these two sorbents was comprehensively evaluated. The influence of the Li/Si ratio, calcination temperature, calcination time, and sorption temperature on the CO2 sorption capacity of Li4SiO4, and the sorption temperature on the CO2 sorption capacity of LDH, were investigated. The optimal leaching acid concentration for vermiculite and the CO2 sorption/desorption cycling performance of both the Li4SiO4 and Mg-Al LDH sorbents were determined. In sum, this demonstrated a unique and environment-friendly scheme for obtaining two CO2 sorbents from cheap raw materials, and this idea is applicable to the efficient utilization of other minerals.

  16. Hierarchically porous MgCo2O4 nanochain networks: template-free synthesis and catalytic application (United States)

    Guan, Xiangfeng; Yu, Yunlong; Li, Xiaoyan; Chen, Dagui; Luo, Peihui; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Shanxin


    In this work, hierarchically porous MgCo2O4 nanochain networks were successfully synthesized by a novel template-free method realized via a facile solvothermal synthesis followed by a heat treatment. The morphologies of MgCo2O4 precursor could be adjusted from nanosheets to nanobelts and finally to interwoven nanowires, depending on the volume ratio of diethylene glycol to deionized water in the solution. After calcination, the interwoven precursor nanowires were transformed to hierarchical MgCo2O4 nanochain networks with marco-/meso-porosity, which are composed of 10-20 nm nanoparticles connected one by one. Moreover, the relative formation mechanism of the MgCo2O4 nanochain networks was discussed. More importantly, when evaluated as catalytic additive for AP thermal decomposition, the MgCo2O4 nanochain networks show excellent accelerating effect. It is benefited from the unique hierarchically porous network structure and multicomponent effect, which effectively accelerates ammonia oxidation and {{{{ClO}}}4}- species dissociation. This approach opens the way to design other hierarchically porous multicomponent metal oxides.

  17. MgCo2-D2 and MgCoNi-D2 systems synthesized at high pressures and interaction mechanism during the HDDR processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chubin Wan


    MgCo2 is a new example of the hydrogen storage alloy, in which a successful HDDR processing results in the reversible formation of the initial intermetallic at much lower temperatures than in the equilibrium phase diagram of the Mg-Co system.

  18. Incorporation of Mg, Sr, Ba, U, and B in High-Mg Calcite Benthic Foraminifers Cultured Under Controlled pCO2 (United States)

    Not, C.; Thibodeau, B.; Yokoyama, Y.


    Measurement of elemental ratios (E/Ca) has been performed in two symbiont-bearing species of high-Mg calcite benthic foraminifers (hyaline, Baculogypsina sphaerulata and porcelaneous, Amphisorus hemprichii), cultured under five pCO2 levels, representing preindustrial, modern, and three predicted future values. E/Ca ratios were analyzed by Laser Ablation coupled with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS). We measured several E/Ca, such as Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, U/Ca, and B/Ca simultaneously. We observed that high-Mg calcite benthic foraminifers possess higher E/Ca than low-Mg calcite foraminifers, irrespective of their calcification mode (hyaline or porcelaneous). In both modes of calcification, Mg, Sr, Ba, U, and B incorporation could be controlled by Rayleigh fractionation. However, more data are needed to validate and quantify the relative importance of this process and closely investigate the presence/absence of other mechanism. Therefore, it highlights the need for a multielemental approach when looking at trace element incorporation. Finally, no significant relationship was observed between the different ratios and the pCO2 of the water, suggesting that none of the Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, U/Ca, and B/Ca is sensitive to bottom water pCO2 or pH for these species.

  19. Elucidation of structural, vibrational and dielectric properties of transition metal (Co2+) doped spinel Mg-Zn chromites (United States)

    Choudhary, Pankaj; Varshney, Dinesh


    Co2+ doped Mg-Zn spinel chromite compositions Mg0.5Zn0.5-xCoxCr2O4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) have been synthesized by the high-temperature solid state method. Synchrotron and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show single-phase crystalline nature. The structural analysis is validated by Rietveld refinement confirms the cubic structure with space group Fd3m. Crystallite size is estimated from Synchrotron XRD which was found to be 30-34 nm. Energy dispersive analysis confirms stoichiometric Mg0.5Zn0.5-xCoxCr2O4 composition. Average crystallite size distribution is estimated from imaging software (Image - J) of SEM is in the range of 100-250 nm. Raman spectroscopy reveals four active phonon modes, and a pronounced red shift is due to enhanced Co2+ concentration. Increased Co2+ concentration in Mg-Zn chromites shows a prominent narrowing of band gap from 3.46 to 2.97 eV. The dielectric response is attributed to the interfacial polarization, and the electrical modulus study supports non-Debye type of dielectric relaxation. Ohmic junctions (minimum potential drop) at electrode interface are active at lower levels of doping (x transformer applications at high frequencies.

  20. Effect of Relative Humidity and CO2 Concentration on the Properties of Carbonated Reactive MgO Cement Based Materials (United States)

    Bilan, Yaroslav

    Sustainability of modern concrete industry recently has become an important topic of scientific discussion, and consequently there is an effort to study the potential of the emerging new supplementary cementitious materials. This study has a purpose to investigate the effect of reactive magnesia (reactive MgO) as a replacement for general use (GU) Portland Cements and the effect of environmental factors (CO2 concentrations and relative humidity) on accelerated carbonation curing results. The findings of this study revealed that improvement of physical properties is related directly to the increase in CO2 concentrations and inversely to the increase in relative humidity and also depends much on %MgO in the mixture. The conclusions of this study helped to clarify the effect of variable environmental factors and the material replacement range on carbonation of reactive magnesia concrete materials, as well as providing an assessment of the optimal conditions for the effective usage of the material.

  1. Population pharmacokinetics of oxaliplatin (85 mg/m(2)) in combination with 5-fluorouracil in patients with advanced colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kho, Y.H.; Jansman, F.G.A.; Prins, N.H.; Neef, C.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.

    Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of oxaliplatin, using a dose regimen of 85mg/m(2) are lacking. A PK model may be used in future studies to investigate the relationship between pharmacokinetics and dose limiting toxicity. The purpose of this study was to construct a population PK model to describe

  2. Use of MgO to mitigate the effect of microbial CO2 production in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Brush, L.H.


    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in a salt bed in southern New Mexico, is designed by US Department of Energy to demonstrate the safe and permanent disposal of design-basis transuranic waste. WIPP performance assessment requires consideration of radionuclide release in brines in the event of inadvertent human intrusion. The mobility of radionuclides depends on chemical factors such as brine pmH (-log molality of H + ) and CO 2 fugacity. According to current waste inventory estimates, a large quantity (∼ 10 9 moles C) of organic materials will be emplaced in the WIPP. Those organic material will potentially be degraded by halophilic or halotolerant microorganisms in the presence of liquid water in the repository, especially if a large volume of brine is introduced into the repository by human intrusions. Organic material biodegradation will produce a large amount of CO 2 , which will acidify the WIPP brine and thus significantly increase the mobility of actinides. This communication addresses (1) the rate of organic material biodegradation and the quantity of CO 2 to be possibly generated, (2) the effect of microbial CO 2 production on overall WIPP performance, and (3) the mechanism of using MgO to mitigate this effect

  3. CO2 Absorption and Magnesium Carbonate Precipitation in MgCl2–NH3–NH4Cl Solutions: Implications for Carbon Capture and Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhu


    Full Text Available CO2 absorption and carbonate precipitation are the two core processes controlling the reaction rate and path of CO2 mineral sequestration. Whereas previous studies have focused on testing reactive crystallization and precipitation kinetics, much less attention has been paid to absorption, the key process determining the removal efficiency of CO2. In this study, adopting a novel wetted wall column reactor, we systematically explore the rates and mechanisms of carbon transformation from CO2 gas to carbonates in MgCl2–NH3–NH4Cl solutions. We find that reactive diffusion in liquid film of the wetted wall column is the rate-limiting step of CO2 absorption when proceeding chiefly through interactions between CO2(aq and NH3(aq. We further quantified the reaction kinetic constant of the CO2–NH3 reaction. Our results indicate that higher initial concentration of NH4Cl ( ≥ 2 mol · L − 1 leads to the precipitation of roguinite [ ( NH 4 2 Mg ( CO 3 2 · 4 H 2 O ], while nesquehonite appears to be the dominant Mg-carbonate without NH4Cl addition. We also noticed dypingite formation via phase transformation in hot water. This study provides new insight into the reaction kinetics of CO2 mineral carbonation that indicates the potential of this technique for future application to industrial-scale CO2 sequestration.

  4. Co2FeAl based magnetic tunnel junctions with BaO and MgO/BaO barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rogge


    Full Text Available We succeed to integrate BaO as a tunneling barrier into Co2FeAl based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs. By means of Auger electron spectroscopy it could be proven that the applied annealing temperatures during BaO deposition and afterwards do not cause any diffusion of Ba neither into the lower Heusler compound lead nor into the upper Fe counter electrode. Nevertheless, a negative tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR ratio of -10% is found for Co2FeAl (24 nm / BaO (5 nm / Fe (7 nm MTJs, which can be attributed to the preparation procedure and can be explained by the formation of Co- and Fe-oxides at the interfaces between the Heusler and the crystalline BaO barrier by comparing with theory. Although an amorphous structure of the BaO barrier seems to be confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM, it cannot entirely be ruled out that this is an artifact of TEM sample preparation due to the sensitivity of BaO to moisture. By replacing the BaO tunneling barrier with an MgO/BaO double layer barrier, the electric stability could effectively be increased by a factor of five. The resulting TMR effect is found to be about +20% at room temperature, although a fully antiparallel state has not been realized.

  5. Co2FeAl Heusler thin films grown on Si and MgO substrates: Annealing temperature effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmeguenai, M.; Tuzcuoglu, H.; Zighem, F.; Chérif, S. M.; Moch, P.; Gabor, M. S.; Petrisor, T.; Tiusan, C.


    10 nm and 50 nm Co 2 FeAl (CFA) thin films have been deposited on MgO(001) and Si(001) substrates by magnetron sputtering and annealed at different temperatures. X-rays diffraction revealed polycrystalline or epitaxial growth (according to CFA(001)[110]//MgO(001)[100] epitaxial relation) for CFA films grown on a Si and on a MgO substrate, respectively. For these later, the chemical order varies from the A2 phase to the B2 phase when increasing the annealing temperature (T a ), while only the A2 disorder type has been observed for CFA grown on Si. Microstrip ferromagnetic resonance (MS-FMR) measurements revealed that the in-plane anisotropy results from the superposition of a uniaxial and a fourfold symmetry term for CFA grown on MgO substrates. This fourfold anisotropy, which disappears completely for samples grown on Si, is in accord with the crystal structure of the samples. The fourfold anisotropy field decreases when increasing T a , while the uniaxial anisotropy field is nearly unaffected by T a within the investigated range. The MS-FMR data also allow for concluding that the gyromagnetic factor remains constant and that the exchange stiffness constant increases with T a . Finally, the FMR linewidth decreases when increasing T a , due to the enhancement of the chemical order. We derive a very low intrinsic damping parameter (1.1×10 −3 and 1.3×10 −3 for films of 50 nm thickness annealed at 615 °C grown on MgO and on Si, respectively)

  6. Spectroscopic Observation of Water-Mediated Deformation of the CARBOXYLATE-M2+ (M= Mg, Ca) Contact Ion Pair (United States)

    Kelleher, Patrick J.; DePalma, Joseph W.; Johnson, Mark


    The binding of alkaline earth dications to the biologically relevant carboxylate ligand has previously been studied using vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy of the air-water interface, infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy of clusters, and DFT methods. These results suggest the presence of both monodentate and bidentate binding motifs of the M2+ ions to the cayboxyl head groups depending on the extent of solvation. We revisit these systems using vibrational predissociation spectroscopy to measure the gas-phase vibrational spectra of the D2-tagged microhydrated [MgOAc(H2O)n=1-5]+ and [CaOAc(H2O)n=1-6]+ clusters. The spectra show that [MgOAc(H2O)n]+ switches from bidentate to monodentate binding promptly at n = 5, while [CaOAc(H2O)n]+ retains its bidentate attachment such that the sixth water molecule initiates the second solvation shell. The difference in binding behavior between these two divalent metal ions is analyzed in the context of the local acidity of the solvent water molecules and the strength of the metal-carboxylate and metal-water interactions. This cluster study provides insight into the chemical physics underlying the unique and surprising impacts of Mg2+ and Ca2+ on the chemistry mediated by sea spray aerosols. Funding for this work was provided by the NSF's Center for Aerosol Impacts on Climate and the Environment.

  7. Magnetic characteristics of M2FeV3O11 (M = Mg, Zn, Pb, Co, Ni) compounds (United States)

    Groń, T.; Blonska-Tabero, A.; Filipek, E.; Stokłosa, Z.; Duda, H.; Sawicki, B.


    The unusual physical characteristics of the multicomponent oxide systems renewed the interest as the potential cathode materials in high-energy cells. Since the earlier magnetic characteristics were not entirely conclusive, we report the results of dc magnetic measurements including higher harmonics of ac magnetic susceptibility of the M2FeV3O11 (M = Mg, Zn, Pb, Co, Ni) compounds. Ferrimagnetic long-range and antiferromagnetic short-range interactions for all compounds under study at low temperatures as well as superparamagnetic-like behavior with the blocking temperature of 29 K and the freezing parameter of 0.013 were observed. These effects are discussed within the framework of superexchange and double exchange magnetic interactions as well as the mixed valence band of iron ions.

  8. Precipitation kinetics of Mg-carbonates, influence of organic ligands and consequences for CO2 mineral sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, Q.


    Forming magnesium carbonate minerals through carbonation of magnesium silicates has been proposed as a safe and durable way to store carbon dioxide, with a possibly high potential to offset anthropogenic CO 2 emissions. To date however, chemical reactions involved in this process are facing strong kinetic limitations, which originate in the low reactivity of both Mg-silicates and Mg-carbonates. Numerous studies have focused on the dissolution of Mg-silicates, under the questionable hypothesis that this step limits the whole process. This thesis work focuses instead on the mechanisms and rates of formation of magnesium carbonates, which are the final products of carbonation reactions. The first part of the work is dedicated to studying the influence on magnesite precipitation kinetics of three organic ligands known to accelerate Mg-silicates dissolution rates: oxalate, citrate and EDTA. With help of mixed-flow reactor experiments performed between 100 and 150 C, we show that these ligands significantly reduce magnesite growth rates, through two combined mechanisms: (1) complexation of Mg 2+ cations in aqueous solution, which was rigorously estimated from a thermodynamic database established through a critical review of the literature, and (2) adsorption of ligands to a limited number of surface sites, leading to a decrease of the precipitation rate constant. The observed growth inhibition is maximal with citrate. We then used hydrothermal atomic force microscopy to probe the origin of the documented growth inhibition. Our observations show that citrate and oxalate interact with the crystal growth process on magnesite surface, modifying the shape of growth hillocks as well as the step generation frequency through spiral growth. We also show that the ligands adsorb preferentially on different kink-sites, which is probably related to their different structures and chemical properties. We propose that the stronger magnesite growth inhibition caused by citrate is related

  9. Overcoming double-step CO2 adsorption and minimizing water co-adsorption in bulky diamine-appended variants of Mg2(dobpdc). (United States)

    Milner, Phillip J; Martell, Jeffrey D; Siegelman, Rebecca L; Gygi, David; Weston, Simon C; Long, Jeffrey R


    Alkyldiamine-functionalized variants of the metal-organic framework Mg 2 (dobpdc) (dobpdc 4- = 4,4'-dioxidobiphenyl-3,3'-dicarboxylate) are promising for CO 2 capture applications owing to their unique step-shaped CO 2 adsorption profiles resulting from the cooperative formation of ammonium carbamate chains. Primary , secondary (1°,2°) alkylethylenediamine-appended variants are of particular interest because of their low CO 2 step pressures (≤1 mbar at 40 °C), minimal adsorption/desorption hysteresis, and high thermal stability. Herein, we demonstrate that further increasing the size of the alkyl group on the secondary amine affords enhanced stability against diamine volatilization, but also leads to surprising two-step CO 2 adsorption/desorption profiles. This two-step behavior likely results from steric interactions between ammonium carbamate chains induced by the asymmetrical hexagonal pores of Mg 2 (dobpdc) and leads to decreased CO 2 working capacities and increased water co-adsorption under humid conditions. To minimize these unfavorable steric interactions, we targeted diamine-appended variants of the isoreticularly expanded framework Mg 2 (dotpdc) (dotpdc 4- = 4,4''-dioxido-[1,1':4',1''-terphenyl]-3,3''-dicarboxylate), reported here for the first time, and the previously reported isomeric framework Mg-IRMOF-74-II or Mg 2 (pc-dobpdc) (pc-dobpdc 4- = 3,3'-dioxidobiphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylate, pc = para -carboxylate), which, in contrast to Mg 2 (dobpdc), possesses uniformally hexagonal pores. By minimizing the steric interactions between ammonium carbamate chains, these frameworks enable a single CO 2 adsorption/desorption step in all cases, as well as decreased water co-adsorption and increased stability to diamine loss. Functionalization of Mg 2 (pc-dobpdc) with large diamines such as N -( n -heptyl)ethylenediamine results in optimal adsorption behavior, highlighting the advantage of tuning both the pore shape and the diamine size for the development of

  10. Raman spectroscopy of DNA-metal complexes. II. The thermal denaturation of DNA in the presence of Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+.


    Duguid, J G; Bloomfield, V A; Benevides, J M; Thomas, G J


    Differential scanning calorimetry, laser Raman spectroscopy, optical densitometry, and pH potentiometry have been used to investigate DNA melting profiles in the presence of the chloride salts of Ba2+, Sr2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+. Metal-DNA interactions have been observed for the molar ratio [M2+]/[PO2-] = 0.6 in aqueous solutions containing 5% by weight of 160 bp mononucleosomal calf thymus DNA. All of the alkaline earth metals, plus Mn2+, elevate the melting temperature of ...

  11. Comparison of weekly administration of cisplatin versus three courses of cisplatin 100 mg/m2 for definitive radiochemotherapy of locally advanced head-and-neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rades, Dirk; Seidl, Daniel; Janssen, Stefan; Bajrovic, Amira; Karner, Katarina; Strojan, Primoz; Schild, Steven E


    To compare definitive radiochemotherapy with weekly administration of 30–40 mg/m 2 of cisplatin to 100 mg/m 2 of cisplatin on days 1, 22 and 43 for outcomes and toxicity in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head-and-neck. Seventy-five patients receiving radiochemotherapy with weekly cisplatin (30–40 mg/m 2 ) were compared to 58 patients receiving radiochemotherapy with 100 mg/m 2 cisplatin on days 1, 22 and 43. Radiochemotherapy regimen plus seven characteristics (age, gender, performance score, tumor site, T-/N-category, histologic grading) were evaluated for locoregional control (LRC), metastases-free survival (MFS) and overall survival (OS). Radiochemotherapy groups were compared for toxicity. On multivariate analysis, improved LRC was associated with cisplatin 100 mg/m 2 (hazard ratio [HR] 1.57; p = 0.008) and female gender (HR 4.37; p = 0.003). Radiochemotherapy regimen was not significantly associated with MFS on univariate analysis (p = 0.66). On multivariate analysis, better MFS was associated with ECOG performance score 0–1 (HR 5.63; p < 0.001) and histological grade 1–2 (HR 1.81; p = 0.002). On multivariate analysis, improved OS was associated with cisplatin 100 mg/m 2 (HR 1.33; p = 0.023), ECOG performance score 0–1 (HR 2.15; p = 0.029) and female gender (HR 1.98; p = 0.026). Cisplatin 100 mg/m 2 was associated with higher rates of grade ≥3 hematotoxicity (p = 0.004), grade ≥2 renal failure (p = 0.004) and pneumonia/sepsis (p = 0.033). Radiochemotherapy with 100 mg/m 2 of cisplatin every 3 weeks resulted in better LRC and OS than weekly doses of 30–40 mg/m 2 . Given the limitations of a retrospective study, 100 mg/m 2 of cisplatin appears preferable. Since this regimen was associated with considerable acute toxicity, patients require close monitoring

  12. In situ preparation of MgCo2O4 nanosheets on Ni-foam as a binder-free electrode for high performance hybrid supercapacitors. (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Subbukalai; Nagamuthu, Sadayappan; Ryu, Kwang-Sun


    A binder-free, MgCo2O4 nanosheet-like architecture was prepared on Ni-foam using a hydrothermal method. MgCo2O4/Ni-foam was characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The FESEM image revealed a nanosheet array-like architecture. The MgCo2O4 nanosheets grown on Ni-foam exhibited the maximum specific capacity of 947 C g-1 at a specific current of 2 A g-1. Approximately 96% of the specific capacity was retained from the maximum specific capacity after 5000 continuous charge-discharge cycles. This hybrid device exhibited a maximum specific capacity of 52 C g-1 at a specific current of 0.5 A g-1, and also exhibited a maximum specific energy of 12.99 W h kg-1 at a specific power of 448.7 W kg-1. These results confirmed that the binder-free MgCo2O4 nanosheets grown on Ni-foam are a suitable positive electrode material for hybrid supercapacitors.

  13. Fabrication of porous MgCo2O4 with rod-like morphology and its superb catalytic activity towards ammonium perchlorate thermal decomposition (United States)

    Li, Gang; Liu, Xiaoli; Bai, Weiyang


    In this paper, porous MgCo2O4 with rod-like morphology was successfully synthesized through the thermal treatment of metal oxalates precursor originated by the reaction of metal sulfates and oxalic acid, without the addition of other additives. The porous rod-like MgCo2O4, with a diameter of several hundred nanometers and a length of several micrometers, was formed through the agglomeration of numerous crystalline grains sized in 10–25 nm. Its catalytic effect on ammonium perchlorate (AP) thermal decomposition was evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. It was found that the pyrolysis temperature of AP reduced by 129 °C and the heat release increased more than 3.19-fold with a 2 wt% addition of MgCo2O4. Meanwhile, the addition of MgCo2O4 resulted in an AP decomposition activation energy reduction from 216 kJ mol‑1 to 155 kJ mol‑1, calculated using the Kissinger correlation. This study provides new insights into the design and development of high performance catalysts for AP thermal decomposition.

  14. Multi-core MgO NPs(at)C core-shell nanospheres for selective CO2 capture under mild conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae Kyung Kim; Kyung Joo Lee; Hoi Ri Moon; Junhan Yuh; Sang Kyu Kwak


    The core-shell structures have attracted attention in catalysis, because the outer shells isolate the catalytically active NP cores and prevent the possibility of sintering of core particles during catalytic reaction under physically and chemically harsh conditions. We aimed to adopt this core-shell system for CO 2 sorption materials. In this study, a composite material of multi-core 3 nm-sized magnesium oxide nanoparticles embedded in porous carbon nanospheres (MgO NPs(at)C) was synthesized by a gas phase reaction via a solvent-free process. It showed selective CO 2 adsorption capacity over N 2 under mild regeneration conditions. (authors)

  15. Electronic Structure and Bonding Situation in M2O2 (M=Be,Mg,Ca) Rhombic Clusters.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, W.-L.; Lu, J.-B.; Zhao, L.; Ponec, Robert; Cooper, D.L.; Li, J.; Frenking, G.

    Roč. 122, č. 10 ( 2018 ), s. 2816-2822 ISSN 1089-5639 Grant - others:NNSFCH(CN) 21590792; NNSFCH(CN) 21433005; NNSFCH(CN) 21703099; JPY NSF(CN) BK20170964; NTU(CN) 39837123 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : electronic structures * M2O2n clustery * theoretical isnights Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 2.847, year: 2016

  16. Theoretical descriptions of novel triplet germylenes M1-Ge-M2-M3 (M1 = H, Li, Na, K; M2 = Be, Mg, Ca; M3 = H, F, Cl, Br). (United States)

    Kassaee, Mohamad Zaman; Ashenagar, Samaneh


    In a quest to identify new ground-state triplet germylenes, the stabilities (singlet-triplet energy differences, ΔE S-T ) of 96 singlet (s) and triplet (t) M 1 -Ge-M 2 -M 3 species were compared and contrasted at the B3LYP/6-311++G**, QCISD(T)/6-311++G**, and CCSD(T)/6-311++G** levels of theory (M 1  = H, Li, Na, K; M 2  = Be, Mg, Ca; M 3  = H, F, Cl, Br). Interestingly, F-substituent triplet germylenes (M 3  = F) appear to be more stable and linear than the corresponding Cl- or Br-substituent triplet germylenes (M 3  = Cl or Br). Triplets with M 1  = K (i.e., the K-Ge-M 2 -M 3 series) seem to be more stable than the corresponding triplets with M 1  = H, Li, or Na. This can be attributed to the higher electropositivity of potassium. Triplet species with M 3  = Cl behave similarly to those with M 3  = Br. Conversely, triplets with M 3  = H show similar stabilities and linearities to those with M 3  = F. Singlet species of formulae K-Ge-Ca-Cl and K-Ge-Ca-Br form unexpected cyclic structures. Finally, the triplet germylenes M 1 -Ge-M 2 -M 3 become more stable as the electropositivities of the α-substituents (M 1 and M 2 ) and the electronegativity of the β-substituent (M 3 ) increase.

  17. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5/MgO bottom electrodes for magnetic tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.Q.; Wu, Y.; Gao, S.; Xu, X.G.; Miao, J.; Jiang, Y.


    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) was achieved in annealed Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 (CFAS)/MgO-based multilayers with good thermal stability up to 400 °C and a large anisotropy energy density K u over 2.0 × 10 5 J/m 3 . The thickness of the full-Heusler CFAS film to maintain PMA is up to 4.8 nm in which the co-existence of disordered A2, ordered B2 and fully ordered L2 1 structures is observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrates that the origin of the PMA is the hybridization between Co 3d and O 2p orbitals at the CFAS/MgO interface. - Highlights: • We achieved perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 (4.8 nm) film; • L2 1 , B2 and A2 phases coexist in perpendicular magnetic anisotropic Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 ; • Magnetic properties have strong dependence on the annealing temperature; • The PMA is induced by the hybridization between Co-3d and O-2p orbitals

  18. Second-line chemotherapy of disseminated malignant melanoma with cystemustine at 60 mg/m2: a phase II trial. (United States)

    Thivat, Emilie; Durando, Xavier; D'Incan, Michel; Cure, Hervé; Mouret-Reynier, Marie-Ange; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Souteyrand, Pierre; Chollet, Philippe


    Nitrosoureas possess some anti-tumor activity as a single agent in metastatic melanoma (MM). In a phase II trial, we evaluated the anti-tumor effects of cystemustine chemotherapy, a new nitrosourea, as a second-line treatment. Patients were required to have histologic evidence of disseminated MM and had failed in first-line chemotherapy. Treatment comprised cystemustine given at a dose of 60 mg/m every 2 weeks by a 15-min infusion. From February 1997 to September 1999, 22 patients (median age 66 years) were enrolled and were assessable. Two complete responses, one partial response, three stable diseases and 16 progressions were observed, giving an overall response rate of 13.6%. Median duration of response was 10 months (range 4-63). Median survival of responders and non-responders was 11 and 4 months, respectively. However, hematological toxicity, particularly thrombopenia, was a limiting factor for one-third of patients. We conclude that cystemustine at 60 mg/m is active in patients who progressed after one line of chemotherapy in advanced disease, and offers the possibility of complete responses and long durations of these responses.

  19. Characteristics of CO2 release from forest soil in the mountains near Beijing. (United States)

    Sun, Xiang Yang; Gao, Cheng Da; Zhang, Lin; Li, Su Yan; Qiao, Yong


    CO2 release from forest soil is a key driver of carbon cycling between the soil and atmosphere ecosystem. The rate of CO2 released from soil was measured in three forest stands (in the mountainous region near Beijing, China) by the alkaline absorption method from 2004 to 2006. The rate of CO2 released did not differ among the three stands. The CO2 release rate ranged from - 341 to 1,193 mg m(-2) h(-1), and the mean value over all three forests and sampling times was 286 mg m(-2) h(-1). CO2 release was positively correlated with soil water content and the soil temperature. Diurnally, CO2 release was higher in the day than at night. Seasonally, CO2 release was highest in early autumn and lowest in winter; in winter, negative values of CO2 release suggested that CO2 was absorbed by soil.

  20. Fabrication of fully epitaxial magnetic tunnel junctions with a Co2MnSi thin film and a MgO tunnel barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijima, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Marukame, T.; Matsuda, K.-I.; Uemura, T.; Yamamoto, M.


    Fully epitaxial magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) were fabricated with a Co-based full-Heusler alloy Co 2 MnSi (CMS) thin film having the ordered L2 1 structure as a lower electrode, a MgO tunnel barrier, and a Co 50 Fe 50 upper electrode. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction patterns observed in situ for each layer in the MTJ layer structure during fabrication clearly indicated that all layers of the CMS lower electrode, MgO tunnel barrier, and Co 50 Fe 50 upper electrode grew epitaxially. The microfabricated fully epitaxial CMS/MgO/Co 50 Fe 50 MTJs demonstrated relatively high tunnel magnetoresistance ratios of 90% at room temperature and 192% at 4.2 K

  1. Phase I dose-escalation study to examine the safety and tolerability of LY2603618, a checkpoint 1 kinase inhibitor, administered 1 day after pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) every 21 days in patients with cancer. (United States)

    Weiss, Glen J; Donehower, Ross C; Iyengar, Tara; Ramanathan, Ramesh K; Lewandowski, Karen; Westin, Eric; Hurt, Karla; Hynes, Scott M; Anthony, Stephen P; McKane, Scott


    This phase I study aims at assessing the safety and tolerability of LY2603618, a selective inhibitor of Checkpoint Kinase 1, in combination with pemetrexed and determining the maximum tolerable dose and the pharmacokinetic parameters. This was an open-label, multicenter, dose-escalation study in patients with advanced solid tumors. Increasing doses of LY2603618 (40-195 mg/m(2)) were combined with 500 mg/m(2) of pemetrexed. LY2603618 was administered on Days 1 and 9 and pemetrexed on Day 8 in a 28-day cycle. For all subsequent 21-day cycles, pemetrexed was administered on Day 1 and LY2603618 on Day 2. Antitumor activity was evaluated as per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.0. A total of 31 patients were enrolled into six cohorts (three at 40 mg/m(2) over 4.5-hour infusion, 1-hour infusion in subsequent cohorts: three each at 40 mg/m(2), 70 mg/m(2), and 195 mg/m(2); 13 at 105 mg/m(2); six at 150 mg/m(2)). Four patients experienced a dose-limiting toxicity: diarrhea (105 mg/m(2)); reversible infusion-related reaction (150 mg/m(2)); thrombocytopenia (195 mg/m(2)); and fatigue (195 mg/m(2)). The maximum tolerated dose was defined as 150 mg/m(2). The pharmacokinetic data demonstrated that the exposure of LY2603618 increased in a dose-dependent manner, displayed a suitable half-life for maintaining required human exposures while minimizing the intra- and inter-cycle accumulation, and was unaffected by the pemetrexed administration. The pharmacokinetic-defined biologically efficacious dose was achieved at doses ≥105 mg/m(2). LY2603618 administered approximately 24 h after pemetrexed showed acceptable safety and pharmacokinetic profiles.

  2. Fabrication of Polycrystalline Transparent Co+2: MgAl2O4 by a Combination of Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS and Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokol Maxim


    Full Text Available Transparent Co2+ doped MgAl2Ob4 spinel was fabricated by SPS consolidation followed by and HIP treatment. It was established that HIP treatment significantly improved transparency of the ceramic in a wide range of wavelengths, especially, in a range, which is relevant for Q-switching. Nonlinear absorption was demonstrated and the ground and excited state absorption cross sections were estimated. The positive effect of the HIP treatment on the optical properties is related to an elimination of extremely fine porosity and to the location of Co ions at Mg2+sites in the spinel ionic structure. The experimental results indicate that the fabricated specimens can be used as a passive laser Q-switching material.

  3. Microporous metal organic framework [M2(hfipbb)2(ted)] (M=Zn, Co; H2hfipbb=4,4-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)-bis(benzoic acid); ted=triethylenediamine): Synthesis, structure analysis, pore characterization, small gas adsorption and CO2/N2 separation properties (United States)

    Xu, William W.; Pramanik, Sanhita; Zhang, Zhijuan; Emge, Thomas J.; Li, Jing


    Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that is a major contributor to global warming. Developing methods that can effectively capture CO2 is the key to reduce its emission to the atmosphere. Recent research shows that microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are emerging as a promising family of adsorbents that may be promising for use in adsorption based capture and separation of CO2 from power plant waste gases. In this work we report the synthesis, crystal structure analysis and pore characterization of two microporous MOF structures, [M2(hfipbb)2(ted)] (M=Zn (1), Co (2); H2hfipbb=4,4-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)-bis(benzoic acid); ted=triethylenediamine). The CO2 and N2 adsorption experiments and IAST calculations are carried out on [Zn2(hfipbb)2(ted)] under conditions that mimic post-combustion flue gas mixtures emitted from power plants. The results show that the framework interacts with CO2 strongly, giving rise to relatively high isosteric heats of adsorption (up to 28 kJ/mol), and high adsorption selectivity for CO2 over N2, making it promising for capturing and separating CO2 from CO2/N2 mixtures.

  4. Influence of face-centered-cubic texturing of Co2Fe6B2 pinned layer on tunneling magnetoresistance ratio decrease in Co2Fe6B2/MgO-based p-MTJ spin valves stacked with a [Co/Pd](n)-SyAF layer. (United States)

    Takemura, Yasutaka; Lee, Du-Yeong; Lee, Seung-Eun; Chae, Kyo-Suk; Shim, Tae-Hun; Lian, Guoda; Kim, Moon; Park, Jea-Gun


    The TMR ratio of Co2Fe6B2/MgO-based p-MTJ spin valves stacked with a [Co/Pd]n-SyAF layer decreased rapidly when the ex situ magnetic annealing temperature (Tex) was increased from 275 to 325 °C, and this decrease was associated with degradation of the Co2Fe6B2 pinned layer rather than the Co2Fe6B2 free layer. At a Tex above 325 °C the amorphous Co2Fe6B2 pinned layer was transformed into a face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystalline layer textured from [Co/Pd]n-SyAF, abruptly reducing the Δ1 coherence tunneling of perpendicular-spin-torque electrons between the (100) MgO tunneling barrier and the fcc Co2Fe6B2 pinned layer.

  5. Buffer layer dependence of magnetoresistance effects in Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si/MgO/Co50Fe50 tunnel junctions (United States)

    Sun, Mingling; Kubota, Takahide; Takahashi, Shigeki; Kawato, Yoshiaki; Sonobe, Yoshiaki; Takanashi, Koki


    Buffer layer dependence of tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) effects was investigated in Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si (CFMS)/MgO/Co50Fe50 magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). Pd, Ru and Cr were selected for the buffer layer materials, and MTJs with three different CFMS thicknesses (30, 5, and 0.8 nm) were fabricated. A maximum TMR ratio of 136% was observed in the Ru buffer layer sample with a 30-nm-thick CFMS layer. TMR ratios drastically degraded for the CFMS thickness of 0.8 nm, and the values were 26% for Cr buffer layer and less than 1% for Pd and Ru buffer layers. From the annealing temperature dependence of the TMR ratios, amounts of interdiffusion and effects from the lattice mismatch were discussed.

  6. Effects of inorganic acids and divalent hydrated metal cations (Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+)) on γ-AlOOH sol-gel process. (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Xia, Yuguo; Zhang, Li; Chen, Dairong; Jiao, Xiuling


    In-depth understanding of the sol-gel process plays an essential role in guiding the preparation of new materials. Herein, the effects of different inorganic acids (HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4) and divalent hydrated metal cations (Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+)) on γ-AlOOH sol-gel process were studied based on experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In these experiments, the sol originating from the γ-AlOOH suspension was formed only with the addition of HCl and HNO3, but not with H2SO4. Furthermore, the DFT calculations showed that the strong adsorption of HSO4(-) on the surface of the γ-AlOOH particles, and the hydrogen in HSO4(-) pointing towards the solvent lead to an unstable configuration of electric double layer (EDL). In the experiment, the gelation time sequence of γ-AlOOH sol obtained by adding metal ions changed when the ionic strength was equal to or greater than 0.198 mol kg(-1). The DFT calculations demonstrated that the adsorption energy of hydrated metal ions on the γ-AlOOH surface can actually make a difference in the sol-gel process.

  7. Soil respiration in relation to photosynthesis of Quercus mongolica trees at elevated CO2. (United States)

    Zhou, Yumei; Li, Mai-He; Cheng, Xu-Bing; Wang, Cun-Guo; Fan, A-Nan; Shi, Lian-Xuan; Wang, Xiu-Xiu; Han, Shijie


    Knowledge of soil respiration and photosynthesis under elevated CO(2) is crucial for exactly understanding and predicting the carbon balance in forest ecosystems in a rapid CO(2)-enriched world. Quercus mongolica Fischer ex Ledebour seedlings were planted in open-top chambers exposed to elevated CO(2) (EC = 500 µmol mol(-1)) and ambient CO(2) (AC = 370 µmol mol(-1)) from 2005 to 2008. Daily, seasonal and inter-annual variations in soil respiration and photosynthetic assimilation were measured during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. EC significantly stimulated the daytime soil respiration by 24.5% (322.4 at EC vs. 259.0 mg CO(2) m(-2) hr(-1) at AC) in 2007 and 21.0% (281.2 at EC vs. 232.6 mg CO(2) m(-2) hr(-1) at AC) in 2008, and increased the daytime CO(2) assimilation by 28.8% (624.1 at EC vs. 484.6 mg CO(2) m(-2) hr(-1) at AC) across the two growing seasons. The temporal variation in soil respiration was positively correlated with the aboveground photosynthesis, soil temperature, and soil water content at both EC and AC. EC did not affect the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. The increased daytime soil respiration at EC resulted mainly from the increased aboveground photosynthesis. The present study indicates that increases in CO(2) fixation of plants in a CO(2)-rich world will rapidly return to the atmosphere by increased soil respiration.

  8. The heat capacity of a natural monticellite and phase equilibria in the system CaO-MgO-SiO2-CO2 (United States)

    Sharp, Z.D.; Essene, E.J.; Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Metz, G.W.; Westrum, E.F.; Hemingway, B.S.; Valley, J.W.


    The heat capacity of a natural monticellite (Ca1.00Mg.09Fe.91Mn.01Si0.99O3.99) measured between 9.6 and 343 K using intermittent-heating, adiabatic calorimetry yields Cp0(298) and S2980 of 123.64 ?? 0.18 and 109.44 ?? 0.16 J ?? mol-1 K-1 respectively. Extrapolation of this entropy value to end-member monticellite results in an S0298 = 108.1 ?? 0.2 J ?? mol-1 K-1. High-temperature heat-capacity data were measured between 340-1000 K with a differential scanning calorimeter. The high-temperature data were combined with the 290-350 K adiabatic values, extrapolated to 1700 K, and integrated to yield the following entropy equation for end-member monticellite (298-1700 K): ST0(J ?? mol-1 K-1) = S2980 + 164.79 In T + 15.337 ?? 10-3 T + 22.791 ?? 105 T-2 - 968.94. Phase equilibria in the CaO-MgO-SiO2 system were calculated from 973 to 1673 K and 0 to 12 kbar with these new data combined with existing data for akermanite (Ak), diopside (Di), forsterite (Fo), merwinite (Me) and wollastonite (Wo). The location of the calculated reactions involving the phases Mo and Fo is affected by their mutual solid solution. A best fit of the thermodynamically generated curves to all experiments is made when the S0298 of Me is 250.2 J ?? mol-1 K-1 less than the measured value of 253.2 J ?? mol-1 K-1. A best fit to the reversals for the solid-solid and decarbonation reactions in the CaO-MgO-SiO2-CO2 system was obtained with the ??G0298 (kJ ?? mole-1) for the phases Ak(-3667), Di(-3025), Fo(-2051), Me(-4317) and Mo(-2133). The two invariant points - Wo and -Fo for the solid-solid reactions are located at 1008 ?? 5 K and 6.3 ?? 0.1 kbar, and 1361 ?? 10 K and 10.2 ?? 0.2 kbar respectively. The location of the thermodynamically generated curves is in excellent agreement with most experimental data on decarbonation equilibria involving these phases. ?? 1986.

  9. Synthesis of a ruthenium(II) bipyridyl complex coordinated by a functionalized Schiff base ligand: characterization, spectroscopic and isothermal titration calorimetry measurements of M2+ binding and sensing (M2+=Ca2+, Mg2+). (United States)

    Dixit, Namrata; Mishra, Lallan; Mustafi, Sourajit M; Chary, Kandala V R; Houjou, Hirohiko


    Bis-[methylsalicylidine-4'benzoic acid]-ethylene (LH2) complexed with cis-Ru(bpy)2Cl(2).2H2O provides a complex of composition [Ru(bpy)2L].2NH4PF6 (1), which has been characterized spectroscopically. Its binding behaviour towards Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions is monitored using 1H NMR titration, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and luminescence microscopy. The luminescent ruthenium complex binds Ca2+ in a more selective manner as compared to Mg2+.

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORING_M2_164W_57N in the Bering Sea from 2013-05-06 to 2014-10-19 (NCEI Accession 0157599) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157599 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from MOORING_M2_164W_57N in the Bering Sea from 2013-05-06 to...

  11. Soil CO2 flux from three ecosystems in tropical peatland of Sarawak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melling, Lulie; Hatano, Ryusuke


    Soil CO 2 flux was measured monthly over a year from tropical peatland of Sarawak, Malaysia using a closed-chamber technique. The soil CO 2 flux ranged from 100 to 533 mg C/m 2 /h for the forest ecosystem, 63 to 245 mg C/m 2 /h for the sago and 46 to 335 mg C/m 2 /h for the oil palm. Based on principal component analysis (PCA), the environmental variables over all sites could be classified into three components, namely, climate, soil moisture and soil bulk density, which accounted for 86% of the seasonal variability. A regression tree approach showed that CO 2 flux in each ecosystem was related to different underlying environmental factors. They were relative humidity for forest, soil temperature at 5 cm for sago and water-filled pore space for oil palm. On an annual basis, the soil CO 2 flux was highest in the forest ecosystem with an estimated production of 2.1 kg C/m 2 /yr followed by oil palm at 1.5 kg C/m 2 /yr and sago at 1.1 kg C/m 2 /yr. The different dominant controlling factors in CO 2 flux among the studied ecosystems suggested that land use affected the exchange of CO 2 between tropical peatland and the atmosphere

  12. The relationship between transpiration and nutrient uptake in wheat changes under elevated atmospheric CO2. (United States)

    Houshmandfar, Alireza; Fitzgerald, Glenn J; O'Leary, Garry; Tausz-Posch, Sabine; Fletcher, Andrew; Tausz, Michael


    The impact of elevated [CO 2 ] (e[CO 2 ]) on crops often includes a decrease in their nutrient concentrations where reduced transpiration-driven mass flow of nutrients has been suggested to play a role. We used two independent approaches, a free-air CO 2 enrichment (FACE) experiment in the South Eastern wheat belt of Australia and a simulation study employing the agricultural production systems simulator (APSIM), to show that transpiration (mm) and nutrient uptake (g m -2 ) of nitrogen (N), potassium (K), sulfur (S), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn) in wheat are correlated under e[CO 2 ], but that nutrient uptake per unit water transpired is higher under e[CO 2 ] than under ambient [CO 2 ] (a[CO 2 ]). This result suggests that transpiration-driven mass flow of nutrients contributes to decreases in nutrient concentrations under e[CO 2 ], but cannot solely explain the overall decline. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  13. Specific heat and thermodynamic functions of uranovanadates of the M2+(VUO6)2 · nH2O series (M2+ = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karyakin, N.V.; Chernorukov, N.G.; Sulejmanov, E.V.; Trostin, V.L.; Alimzhanov, M.I.; Razuvaeva, E.A.


    Isobaric specific heat of crystal uranovanadates Ca(VUO 6 ) 2 · 8H 2 O, Ba(VUO 6 ) 2 · 4H 2 O in the temperature range of 10 - 300 K and of M 1 (VUO 6 ) 2 · 5H 2 O, (M 1 = Mg, Ca, Sr, Pb) at 80 -300 K are measured by the method of adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. The functions H 0 (T) - H 0 (0), S 0 (T), G 0 (T) - H 0 (T) for all the above-mentioned compounds in the range of 0 - 300 K have been calculated, the standard entropies and Gibbs functions of uranovanadates formation at 298.15 K being calculated as well [ru

  14. Raman spectroscopy of DNA-metal complexes. II. The thermal denaturation of DNA in the presence of Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+. (United States)

    Duguid, J G; Bloomfield, V A; Benevides, J M; Thomas, G J


    Differential scanning calorimetry, laser Raman spectroscopy, optical densitometry, and pH potentiometry have been used to investigate DNA melting profiles in the presence of the chloride salts of Ba2+, Sr2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+. Metal-DNA interactions have been observed for the molar ratio [M2+]/[PO2-] = 0.6 in aqueous solutions containing 5% by weight of 160 bp mononucleosomal calf thymus DNA. All of the alkaline earth metals, plus Mn2+, elevate the melting temperature of DNA (Tm > 75.5 degrees C), whereas the transition metals Co2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+ lower Tm. Calorimetric (delta Hcal) and van't Hoff (delta HVH) enthalpies of melting range from 6.2-8.7 kcal/mol bp and 75.6-188.6 kcal/mol cooperative unit, respectively, and entropies from 17.5 to 24.7 cal/K mol bp. The average number of base pairs in a cooperative melting unit () varied from 11.3 to 28.1. No dichotomy was observed between alkaline earth and transition DNA-metal complexes for any of the thermodynamic parameters other than their effects on Tm. These results complement Raman difference spectra, which reveal decreases in backbone order, base unstacking, distortion of glycosyl torsion angles, and rupture of hydrogen bonds, which occur after thermal denaturation. Raman difference spectroscopy shows that transition metals interact with the N7 atom of guanine in duplex DNA. A broader range of interaction sites with single-stranded DNA includes ionic phosphates, the N1 and N7 atoms of purines, and the N3 atom of pyrimidines. For alkaline earth metals, very little interaction was observed with duplex DNA, whereas spectra of single-stranded complexes are very similar to those of melted DNA without metal. However, difference spectra reveal some metal-specific perturbations at 1092 cm-1 (nPO2-), 1258 cm-1 (dC, dA), and 1668 cm-1 (nC==O, dNH2 dT, dG, dC). Increased spectral intensity could also be observed near 1335 cm-1 (dA, dG) for CaDNA. Optical densitometry, employed to detect DNA

  15. CO2 capture at low temperatures (30-80 °C) and in the presence of water vapor over a thermally activated Mg-Al layered double hydroxide. (United States)

    Torres-Rodríguez, Daniela A; Lima, Enrique; Valente, Jaime S; Pfeiffer, Heriberto


    The carbonation process of a calcined Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was systematically analyzed at low temperatures, varying the relative humidity. Qualitative and quantitative experiments were performed. In a first set of experiments, the relative humidity was varied while maintaining a constant temperature. Characterization of the rehydrated products by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and solid-state NMR revealed that the samples did not recover the LDH structure; instead hydrated MgCO(3) was produced. The results were compared with similar experiments performed on magnesium oxide for comparison purposes. Then, in the second set of experiments, a kinetic analysis was performed. The results showed that the highest CO(2) capture was obtained at 50 °C and 70% of relative humidity, with a CO(2) absorption capacity of 2.13 mmol/g.

  16. Regulated deficit irrigation can decrease soil CO2 emissions in fruit orchards (United States)

    Zornoza, Raul; Acosta, José Alberto; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; De la Rosa, Jose M.°; Faz, Angel; Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro


    Irrigation water restrictions in the Mediterranean area have created a growing interest in water conservation. Apart from environmental and economic benefits by water savings, regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) may contribute to reduce soil CO2 emissions and enhance C sequestration in soils, by decreasing microbial and root activity in response to decreased soil moisture levels. An experiment was established in four orchards (peach, apricot, Saturn peach and grape) to investigate the effects of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on soil CO2 emissions. Two irrigation treatments were assayed: full irrigation (FI), and RDI, irrigated as FI except for postharvest period (peach, apricot, Saturn peach) or post-veraison period (grape) were 50% of FI was applied. The application of deficit caused a significant decrease in CO2 emission rates, with rates in average of 90 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1, 120 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1, 60 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 and 60 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 lower than FI during the period when deficit was applied for peach, apricot, Saturn peach and grape. This confirms the high effectiveness of the RDI strategies not only to save water consumption but also to decrease soil CO2 emissions. However, monitoring during longer periods is needed to verify that this trend is long-term maintained, and assess if soil carbon stocks are increase or most CO2 emissions derive from root respiration. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project IRRIMAN (LIFE13 ENV/ES/000539).

  17. The thermal behaviour and structural stability of nesquehonite, MgCO3.3H2O, evaluated by in situ laboratory parallel-beam X-ray powder diffraction: New constraints on CO2 sequestration within minerals. (United States)

    Ballirano, Paolo; De Vito, Caterina; Ferrini, Vincenzo; Mignardi, Silvano


    In order to gauge the appropriateness of CO(2) reaction with Mg chloride solutions as a process for storing carbon dioxide, the thermal behaviour and structural stability of its solid product, nesquehonite (MgCO(3).3H(2)O), were investigated in situ using real-time laboratory parallel-beam X-ray powder diffraction. The results suggest that the nesquehonite structure remains substantially unaffected up to 373 K, with the exception of a markedly anisotropic thermal expansion acting mainly along the c axis. In the 371-390 K range, the loss of one water molecule results in the nucleation of a phase of probable composition MgCO(3).2H(2)O, which is characterized by significant structural disorder. At higher temperatures (423-483 K), both magnesite and MgO.2MgCO(3) coexist. Finally, at 603 K, periclase nucleation starts and the disappearance of carbonate phases is completed at 683 K. Consequently, the structural stability of nesquehonite at high temperatures suggests that it will remain stable under the temperature conditions that prevail at the Earth's surface. These results will help (a) to set constraints on the temperature conditions under which nesquehonite may be safely stored and (b) to develop CO(2) sequestration via the synthesis of nesquehonite for industrial application. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Seasonal dynamics of soil CO2 efflux and soil profile CO2 concentrations in arboretum of Moscow botanical garden (United States)

    Goncharova, Olga; Udovenko, Maria; Matyshak, Georgy


    To analyse and predict recent and future climate change on a global scale exchange processes of greenhouse gases - primarily carbon dioxide - over various ecosystems are of rising interest. In order to upscale land-use dependent sources and sinks of CO2, knowledge of the local variability of carbon fluxes is needed. Among terrestrial ecosystems, urban areas play an important role because most of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide originate from these areas. On the other hand, urban soils have the potential to store large amounts of soil organic carbon and, thus, contribute to mitigating increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Research objectives: 1) estimate the seasonal dynamics of carbon dioxide production (emission - closed chamber technique and profile concentration - soil air sampling tubes method) by soils of Moscow State University Botanical Garden Arboretum planted with Picea obovata and Pinus sylvestris, 1) identification the factors that control CO2 production. The study was conducted with 1-2 weeks intervals between October 2013 and November 2015 at two sites. Carbon dioxide soil surface efflux during the year ranged from 0 to 800 mgCO2/(m2hr). Efflux values above 0 mgCO2/(m2hr) was observed during the all cold period except for only 3 weeks. Soil CO2 concentration ranged from 1600-3000 ppm in upper 10-cm layer to 10000-40000 ppm at a depth of 60 cm. The maximum concentrations of CO2 were recorded in late winter and late summer. We associate it with high biological activity (both heterotrophic and autotrophic) during the summer, and with physical gas jamming in the winter. The high value of annual CO2 production of the studied soils is caused by high organic matter content, slightly alkaline reaction, good structure and texture of urban soils. Differences in soil CO2 production by spruce and pine urban forest soils (in the pine forest 1.5-2.0 times higher) are caused by urban soil profiles construction, but not temperature regimes. Seasonal

  19. Tunneling-Magnetoresistance Ratio Comparison of MgO-Based Perpendicular-Magnetic-Tunneling-Junction Spin Valve Between Top and Bottom Co2Fe6B2 Free Layer Structure. (United States)

    Lee, Du-Yeong; Lee, Seung-Eun; Shim, Tae-Hun; Park, Jea-Gun


    For the perpendicular-magnetic-tunneling-junction (p-MTJ) spin valve with a nanoscale-thick bottom Co2Fe6B2 free layer ex situ annealed at 400 °C, which has been used as a common p-MTJ structure, the Pt atoms of the Pt buffer layer diffused into the MgO tunneling barrier. This transformed the MgO tunneling barrier from a body-centered cubic (b.c.c) crystallized layer into a mixture of b.c.c, face-centered cubic, and amorphous layers and rapidly decreased the tunneling-magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio. The p-MTJ spin valve with a nanoscale-thick top Co2Fe6B2 free layer could prevent the Pt atoms diffusing into the MgO tunneling barrier during ex situ annealing at 400 °C because of non-necessity of a Pt buffer layer, demonstrating the TMR ratio of ~143 %.

  20. Electric Field Tuning Non-volatile Magnetism in Half-Metallic Alloys Co2FeAl/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Heterostructure (United States)

    Dunzhu, Gesang; Wang, Fenglong; Zhou, Cai; Jiang, Changjun


    We reported the non-volatile electric field-mediated magnetic properties in the half-metallic Heusler alloy Co2FeAl/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 heterostructure at room temperature. The remanent magnetization with different applied electric field along [100] and [01-1] directions was achieved, which showed the non-volatile remanent magnetization driven by an electric field. The two giant reversible and stable remanent magnetization states were obtained by applying pulsed electric field. This can be attributed to the piezostrain effect originating from the piezoelectric substrate, which can be used for magnetoelectric-based memory devices.

  1. CO2 blood test (United States)

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum; Acidosis - CO2; Alkalosis - CO2 ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  2. CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre, E.; Jammes, L.; Guyot, F.; Prinzhofer, A.; Le Thiez, P.


    This document presents the summary of a conference-debate held at the Academie des Sciences (Paris, France) on the topic of CO 2 sequestration. Five papers are reviewed: problems and solutions for the CO 2 sequestration; observation and surveillance of reservoirs; genesis of carbonates and geological storage of CO 2 ; CO 2 sequestration in volcanic and ultra-basic rocks; CO 2 sequestration, transport and geological storage: scientific and economical perspectives

  3. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Mo/Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5/MgO/Mo multilayers with optimal Mo buffer layer thickness (United States)

    Saravanan, L.; Raja, M. Manivel; Prabhu, D.; Pandiyarasan, V.; Ikeda, H.; Therese, H. A.


    Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy (PMA) was realized in as-deposited Mo(10)/Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5(CFAS)(3)/MgO(0.5)/Mo multilayer stacks with large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energy (Keff). PMA of this multilayer is found to be strongly dependent on the thickness of the individual CFAS (tCFAS), Mo (tMo) and MgO (tMgO) layers and annealing temperatures. The interactions at the Mo/CFAS/MgO interfaces are critical to induce PMA and are tuned by the interfacial oxidation. The major contribution to PMA is due to iron oxide at the CFAS/MgO interface. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR) studies further ascertain this. However, an adequate oxidation of MgO and the formation of (0 2 4) and (0 1 8) planes of α-Fe2O3 at the optimal Mo buffer layer thickness is mainly inducing PMA in Mo/CFAS/MgO/Mo stack. Microstructural changes in the films are observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrates the oxidation of CFAS/MgO interface and the formation of Fe-O bonds confirming that the real origin of PMA in Mo/CFAS/MgO is due to hybridization of Fe (3dz2) and O (2pz) orbitals and the resulted spin-orbit interaction at their interface. The half-metallic nature CFAS with Mo layer exhibiting PMA can be a potential candidate as p-MTJs electrodes for the new generation spintronic devices.

  4. Dolomite decomposition under CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerfa, F.; Bensouici, F.; Barama, S.E.; Harabi, A.; Achour, S.


    Full text.Dolomite (MgCa (CO 3 ) 2 is one of the most abundant mineral species on the surface of the planet, it occurs in sedimentary rocks. MgO, CaO and Doloma (Phase mixture of MgO and CaO, obtained from the mineral dolomite) based materials are attractive steel-making refractories because of their potential cost effectiveness and world wide abundance more recently, MgO is also used as protective layers in plasma screen manufacture ceel. The crystal structure of dolomite was determined as rhombohedral carbonates, they are layers of Mg +2 and layers of Ca +2 ions. It dissociates depending on the temperature variations according to the following reactions: MgCa (CO 3 ) 2 → MgO + CaO + 2CO 2 .....MgCa (CO 3 ) 2 → MgO + Ca + CaCO 3 + CO 2 .....This latter reaction may be considered as a first step for MgO production. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) are used to control dolomite decomposition and the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) was used to elucidate thermal decomposition of dolomite according to the reaction. That required samples were heated to specific temperature and holding times. The average particle size of used dolomite powders is 0.3 mm, as where, the heating temperature was 700 degree celsius, using various holding times (90 and 120 minutes). Under CO 2 dolomite decomposed directly to CaCO 3 accompanied by the formation of MgO, no evidence was offered for the MgO formation of either CaO or MgCO 3 , under air, simultaneous formation of CaCO 3 , CaO and accompanied dolomite decomposition

  5. Investigating and engineering spin-orbit torques in heavy metal/Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5/MgO thin film structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loong, Li Ming; Deorani, Praveen; Qiu, Xuepeng; Yang, Hyunsoo


    Current-induced spin-orbit torques (SOTs) have the potential to revolutionize magnetization switching technology. Here, we investigate SOT in a heavy metal (HM)/Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 (CFAS)/MgO thin film structure with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), where the HM is either Pt or Ta. Our results suggest that both the spin Hall effect and the Rashba effect contribute significantly to the effective fields in the Pt underlayer samples. Moreover, after taking the PMA energies into account, current-induced SOT-based switching studies of both the Pt and Ta underlayer samples suggest that the two HM underlayers yield comparable switching efficiency in the HM/CFAS/MgO material system

  6. Co2+-doped diopside: crystal structure and optical properties (United States)

    Gori, C.; Tribaudino, M.; Mezzadri, F.; Skogby, H.; Hålenius, U.


    Synthetic clinopyroxenes along the CaMgSi2O6-CaCoSi2O6 join were investigated by a combined chemical-structural-spectroscopic approach. Single crystals were synthesized by flux growth methods, both from Ca-saturated and Ca-deficient starting compositions. Single crystal structure refinements show that the incorporation of Co2+ at the octahedrally coordinated cation sites of diopside, increases the unit-cell as well as the M1 and the M2 polyhedral volumes. Spectroscopic investigations (UV-VIS-NIR) of the Ca-rich samples reveal three main optical absorption bands, i.e. 4 T 1g → 4 T 2g( F), 4 T 1g → 4 A 2g( F) and 4 T 1g → 4 T 1g( P) as expected for Co2+ at a six-coordinated site. The bands arising from the 4 T 1g → 4 T 2g( F) and the 4 T 1g → 4 T 1g( P) electronic transitions, are each split into two components, due to the distortions of the M1 polyhedron from ideal Oh-symmetry. In spectra of both types, a band in the NIR range at ca 5000 cm-1 is caused by the 4 A 2g → 4 T 1g( F) electronic transition in Co2+ in a cubic field in the M2 site. Furthermore, an additional component to a band system at 14,000 cm-1, due to electronic transitions in Co2+ at the M2 site, is recorded in absorption spectra of Ca-deficient samples. No variations in Dq and Racah B parameters for Co2+ at the M1 site in response to compositional changes, were demonstrated, suggesting complete relaxation of the M1 polyhedron within the CaMgSi2O6-CaCoSi2O6 solid solution.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Sajjadi


    Full Text Available Ni-Co/Al2O3-MgO-ZrO2 nanocatalyst with utilization of two different zirconia precursors, namely, zirconyl nitrate hydrate (ZNH and zirconyl nitrate solution (ZNS, was synthesized via the sol-gel method. The physiochemical properties of nanocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET and FTIR analyses and employed for syngas production from CO2-reforming of CH4. XRD patterns, exhibiting proper crystalline structure and homogeneous dispersion of active phase for the nanocatalyst ZNS precursor employed (NCAMZ-ZNS. FESEM and BET results of NCAMZ-ZNS presented more uniform morphology and smaller particle size and consequently higher surface areas. In addition, average particle size of NCAMZ-ZNS was 15.7 nm, which is close to the critical size for Ni-Co catalysts to avoid carbon formation. Moreover, FESEM analysis indicated both prepared samples were nanoscale. EDX analysis confirmed the existence of various elements used and also supported the statements made in the XRD and FESEM analyses regarding dispersion. Based on the excellent physiochemical properties, NCAMZ-ZNS exhibited the best reactant conversion across all of the evaluated temperatures, e.g. CH4 and CO2 conversions were 97.2 and 99% at 850 ºC, respectively. Furthermore, NCAMZ-ZNS demonstrated a stable yield with H2/CO close to unit value during the 1440 min stability test.

  8. Gully hotspot contribution to landscape methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes in a northern peatland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, N.P.; Plant, T.; Oakley, S.; Ward, S.; Wood, C.; Ostle, N.


    Peatlands are long term carbon catchments that sink atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and source methane (CH 4 ). In the uplands of the United Kingdom ombrotrophic blanket peatlands commonly exist within Calluna vulgaris (L.) dominated moorland ecosystems. These landscapes contain a range of topographical features that influence local hydrology, climate and plant community composition. In this study we examined the variation in ecosystem CO 2 respiration and net CH 4 fluxes from typical plant-soil systems in dendritic drainage gullies and adjacent blanket peat during the growing season. Typically, Eriophorum spp., Sphagnum spp. and mixed grasses occupied gullies while C. vulgaris dominated in adjacent blanket peat. Gross CO 2 respiration was highest in the areas of Eriophorum spp. (650 ± 140 mg CO 2 m -2 h -1 ) compared to those with Sphagnum spp. (338 ± 49 mg CO 2 m -2 h -1 ), mixed grasses (342 ± 91 mg CO 2 m -2 h -1 ) and C. vulgaris (174 ± 63 mg CO 2 m -2 h -1 ). Measurements of the net CH 4 flux showed higher fluxes from the Eriophorum spp (2.2 ± 0.6 mg CH 4 m -2 h -1 ) locations compared to the Sphagnum spp. (0.6 ± 0.4 mg CH 4 m -2 h -1 ), mixed grasses (0.1 ±0.1 mg CH 4 m -2 h -1 ) and a negligible flux detected from C. vulgaris (0.0 ± 0.0 mg CH 4 m -2 h -1 ) locations. A GIS approach was applied to calculate the contribution of gullies to landscape scale greenhouse gas fluxes. Findings from the Moor House National Nature Reserve in the UK showed that although gullies occupied only 9.3% of the total land surface, gullies accounted for 95.8% and 21.6% of the peatland net CH 4 and CO 2 respiratory fluxes, respectively. The implication of these findings is that the relative contribution of characteristic gully systems need to be considered in estimates of landscape scale peatland greenhouse gas fluxes

  9. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions from a megacity in the Yangtze River Delta of China. (United States)

    Hu, Cheng; Liu, Shoudong; Wang, Yongwei; Zhang, Mi; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Wei; Xu, Jiaping


    Anthropogenic CO 2 emissions from cities represent a major source contributing to the global atmospheric CO 2 burden. Here, we examined the enhancement of atmospheric CO 2 mixing ratios by anthropogenic emissions within the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China, one of the world's most densely populated regions (population greater than 150 million). Tower measurements of CO 2 mixing ratios were conducted from March 2013 to August 2015 and were combined with numerical source footprint modeling to help constrain the anthropogenic CO 2 emissions. We simulated the CO 2 enhancements (i.e., fluctuations superimposed on background values) for winter season (December, January, and February). Overall, we observed mean diurnal variation of CO 2 enhancement of 23.5~49.7 μmol mol -1 , 21.4~52.4 μmol mol -1 , 28.1~55.4 μmol mol -1 , and 29.5~42.4 μmol mol -1 in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. These enhancements were much larger than previously reported values for other countries. The diurnal CO 2 enhancements reported here showed strong similarity for all 3 years of the study. Results from source footprint modeling indicated that our tower observations adequately represent emissions from the broader YRD area. Here, the east of Anhui and the west of Jiangsu province contributed significantly more to the anthropogenic CO 2 enhancement compared to the other sectors of YRD. The average anthropogenic CO 2 emission in 2014 was 0.162 (± 0.005) mg m -2  s -1 and was 7 ± 3% higher than 2010 for the YRD. Overall, our emission estimates were significantly smaller (9.5%) than those estimated (0.179 mg m -2  s -1 ) from the EDGAR emission database.

  10. CO2NNIE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin


    We propose a system for calculating the personalized annual fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from transportation. The system, named CO2NNIE, estimates the fuel consumption on the fastest route between the frequent destinations of the user. The travel time and fuel consumption estimated are based......% of the actual fuel consumption (4.6% deviation on average). We conclude, that the system provides new detailed information on CO2 emissions and fuel consumption for any make and model....

  11. Sono-synthesis and characterization of bimetallic Ni-Co/Al2O3-MgO nanocatalyst: Effects of metal content on catalytic properties and activity for hydrogen production via CO2 reforming of CH4. (United States)

    Abdollahifar, Mozaffar; Haghighi, Mohammad; Babaluo, Ali Akbar; Talkhoncheh, Saeed Khajeh


    Sono-dispersion of Ni, Co and Ni-Co over Al2O3-MgO with Al/Mg ratio of 1.5 was prepared and tested for dry reforming of methane. The samples were characterized by XRD, FESEM, PSD, EDX, TEM, BET and FTIR analyses. In order to assess the effect of ultrasound irradiation, Ni-Co/Al2O3-MgO with Co content of 8% prepared via sonochemistry and impregnation methods. The sono-synthesized sample showed better textural properties and higher activity than that of impregnated one. Comparison of XRD patterns indicated that the NiO peaks became broader by increasing Co content over the support. The FESEM images displayed the particles are small and well-dispersed as a result of sonochemistry method. Also, EDX analysis demonstrated better dispersion of Ni and Co as a result of sonochemistry method in confirmation of XRD analysis. The sono-synthesized Ni-Co/Al2O3-MgO as a superior nanocatalyst with Co content of 3% illustrates much higher conversions (97.5% and 99% for CH4 and CO2 at 850 °C), yields (94% and 96% for H2 and CO at 850 °C) and 0.97 of H2/CO molar ratio in all samples using an equimolar feed ratio at 850 °C. During the 1200 min stability test, H2/CO molar ratio remained constant for the superior nanocatalyst. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental controls of temporal and spatial variability in CO2 and CH4 fluxes in a neotropical peatland. (United States)

    Wright, Emma L; Black, Colin R; Turner, Benjamin L; Sjögersten, Sofie


    Tropical peatlands play an important role in the global storage and cycling of carbon (C) but information on carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes from these systems is sparse, particularly in the Neotropics. We quantified short and long-term temporal and small scale spatial variation in CO2 and CH4 fluxes from three contrasting vegetation communities in a domed ombrotrophic peatland in Panama. There was significant variation in CO2 fluxes among vegetation communities in the order Campnosperma panamensis > Raphia taedigera > Cyperus. There was no consistent variation among sites and no discernible seasonal pattern of CH4 flux despite the considerable range of values recorded (e.g. -1.0 to 12.6 mg m(-2) h(-1) in 2007). CO2 fluxes varied seasonally in 2007, being greatest in drier periods (300-400 mg m(-2) h(-1)) and lowest during the wet period (60-132 mg m(-2) h(-1)) while very high emissions were found during the 2009 wet period, suggesting that peak CO2 fluxes may occur following both low and high rainfall. In contrast, only weak relationships between CH4 flux and rainfall (positive at the C. panamensis site) and solar radiation (negative at the C. panamensis and Cyperus sites) was found. CO2 fluxes showed a diurnal pattern across sites and at the Cyperus sp. site CO2 and CH4 fluxes were positively correlated. The amount of dissolved carbon and nutrients were strong predictors of small scale within-site variability in gas release but the effect was site-specific. We conclude that (i) temporal variability in CO2 was greater than variation among vegetation communities; (ii) rainfall may be a good predictor of CO2 emissions from tropical peatlands but temporal variation in CH4 does not follow seasonal rainfall patterns; and (iii) diurnal variation in CO2 fluxes across different vegetation communities can be described by a Fourier model. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. CO2-laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, E.E. Jr.


    The basic concept of laser fusion is described, with a set of requirements on the laser system. Systems and applications concepts are presented and discussed. The CO 2 laser's characteristics and advantages for laser fusion are described. Finally, technological issues in the development of CO 2 laser systems for fusion applications are discussed

  14. Land use and rainfall effect on soil CO2 fluxes in a Mediterranean agroforestry system (United States)

    Quijano, Laura; Álvaro-Fuentes, Jorge; Lizaga, Iván; Navas, Ana


    Soils are the largest C reservoir of terrestrial ecosystems and play an important role in regulating the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. The exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and soil controls the balance of C in soils. The CO2 fluxes may be influenced by climate conditions and land use and cover change especially in the upper soil organic layer. Understanding C dynamics is important for maintaining C stocks to sustain and improve soil quality and to enhance sink C capacity of soils. This study focuses on the response of the CO2 emitted to rainfall events from different land uses (i.e. forest, abandoned cultivated soils and winter cereal cultivated soils) in a representative Mediterranean agroforestry ecosystem in the central part of the Ebro basin, NE Spain (30T 4698723N 646424E). A total of 30 measurement points with the same soil type (classified as Calcisols) were selected. Soil CO2 flux was measured in situ using a portable EGM-4 CO2 analyzer PPSystems connected to a dynamic chamber system (model CFX-1, PPSystems) weekly during autumn 2016. Eleven different rainfall events were measured at least 24 hours before (n=7) and after the rainfall event (n=4). Soil water content and temperature were measured at each sampling point within the first 5 cm. Soil samples were taken at the beginning of the experiment to determine soil organic carbon (SOC) content using a LECO RC-612. The mean SOC for forest, abandoned and cultivated soils were 2.5, 2.7 and 0.6 %, respectively. The results indicated differences in soil CO2 fluxes between land uses. The field measurements of CO2 flux show that before cereal sowing the highest values were recorded in the abandoned soils varying from 56.1 to 171.9 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 whereas after cereal sowing the highest values were recorded in cultivated soils ranged between 37.8 and 116.2 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 indicating the agricultural impact on CO2 fluxes. In cultivated soils, lower mean CO2 fluxes were measured after direct seeding

  15. Outsourcing CO2 Emissions (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K. G.


    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with consumption of goods and services in each country. This consumption-based emissions inventory differs from the production-based inventory because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involved CO2 emissions. Using the latest available data and reasonable assumptions regarding trans-shipment of embodied carbon through third-party countries, we developed a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and have calculated associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 24% of CO2 emissions are effectively outsourced to other countries, with much of the developed world outsourcing CO2 emissions to emerging markets, principally China. Some wealthy countries, including Switzerland and Sweden, outsource over half of their consumption-based emissions, with many northern Europeans outsourcing more than three tons of emissions per person per year. The United States is both a big importer and exporter of emissions embodied in trade, outsourcing >2.6 tons of CO2 per person and at the same time as >2.0 tons of CO2 per person are outsourced to the United States. These large flows indicate that CO2 emissions embodied in trade must be taken into consideration when considering responsibility for increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

  16. The M2 Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santner, Paul

    Drug resistance of Influenza A against antivirals is an increasing problem. No effective Influenza A drugs targeting the crucial viral protein, the proton transporter M2 are available anymore due to widespread resistance. Thanks to research efforts elucidating M2 protein structure, function and i...... resistance escape routes from drug inhibition. We thereby were hopefully able to provide a platform for the large-scale evaluation of M2 channel activity, inhibitors and resistance....

  17. Diaroyl Tellurides: Synthesis, Structure and NBO Analysis of (2-MeOC6H4CO2Te – Comparison with Its Sulfur and Selenium Isologues. The First Observation of [MgBr][R(C=TeO] Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Ando


    Full Text Available A series of aromatic diacyl tellurides were prepared in moderate to good yields by the reactions of sodium orpotassium arenecarbotelluroates with acyl chlorides in acetonitrile. X-ray structure analyses and theoretical calculations of 2-methoxybenzoic anhydride and bis(2-methoxybenzoyl sulfide, selenide and telluride were carried out. The two 2-MeOC6H4CO moieties of bis(2-methoxybenzoyl telluride are nearly planar and the two methoxy oxygen atoms intramolecularly coordinate to the central tellurium atom from both side of C(11-Te(11-C(22 plane. In contrast, the oxygen and sulfur isologues (2-MeOC6H4CO2E (E = O, S, show that one of the two methoxy oxygen atoms contacts with the oxygen atom of the carbonyl group connected to the same benzene ring. The structure of di(2-methoxybenzoyl selenide which was obtained by MO calculation resembles that of tellurium isologues rather than the corresponding oxygen and sulfur isologues. The reactions of di(aroyl tellurides with Grignard reagents lead to the formation of tellurocarboxylato magnesium complexes [MgBr][R(C=TeO].

  18. Flooding-related increases in CO2 and N2O emissions from a temperate coastal grassland ecosystem (United States)

    Gebremichael, Amanuel W.; Osborne, Bruce; Orr, Patrick


    Given their increasing trend in Europe, an understanding of the role that flooding events play in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will be important for improved assessments of local and regional GHG budgets. This study presents the results of an analysis of the CO2 and N2O fluxes from a coastal grassland ecosystem affected by episodic flooding that was of either a relatively short (SFS) or long (LFS) duration. Compared to the SFS, the annual CO2 and N2O emissions were 1.4 and 1.3 times higher at the LFS, respectively. Mean CO2 emissions during the period of standing water were 144 ± 18.18 and 111 ± 9.51 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1, respectively, for the LFS and SFS sites. During the growing season, when there was no standing water, the CO2 emissions were significantly larger from the LFS (244 ± 24.88 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1) than the SFS (183 ± 14.90 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1). Fluxes of N2O ranged from -0.37 to 0.65 mg N2O-N m-2 h-1 at the LFS and from -0.50 to 0.55 mg N2O-N m-2 h-1 at the SFS, with the larger emissions associated with the presence of standing water at the LFS but during the growing season at the SFS. Overall, soil temperature and moisture were identified as the main drivers of the seasonal changes in CO2 fluxes, but neither adequately explained the variations in N2O fluxes. Analysis of total C, N, microbial biomass and Q10 values indicated that the higher CO2 emissions from the LFS were linked to the flooding-associated influx of nutrients and alterations in soil microbial populations. These results demonstrate that annual CO2 and N2O emissions can be higher in longer-term flooded sites that receive significant amounts of nutrients, although this may depend on the restriction of diffusional limitations due to the presence of standing water to periods of the year when the potential for gaseous emissions are low.

  19. Double versus single high-dose melphalan 200 mg/m2 and autologous stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma: a region-based study in 484 patients from the Nordic area (United States)

    Björkstrand, Bo; Klausen, Tobias W.; Remes, Kari; Gruber, Astrid; Knudsen, Lene M.; Bergmann, Olav J.; Lenhoff, Stig; Johnsen, Hans E.


    Autologous stem cell transplantation is still considered the standard of care in young patients with multiple myeloma (MM). This disease is the most common indication for high-dose therapy (HDT) supported by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and much data support the benefit of this procedure. Results of randomized studies are in favor of tandem autologous transplantation although the effect on overall survival is unclear. Based on sequential registration trials in the Nordic area, we aimed to evaluate the outcome of conventional single or double HDT. During 1994–2000 we registered a total of 484 previously untreated patients under the age of 60 years at diagnosis who on a regional basis initially were treated with single [Trial NMSG #5/94 and #7/98 (N=383)] or double [Trial Huddinge Karolinska Turku Herlev (N=101)] high-dose melphalan (200 mg/m2) therapy supported by autologous stem cell transplantation. A complete or very good partial response was achieved by 40% of patients in the single transplant group and 60% of patients in the double transplant group (p=0.0006). The probability of surviving progression free for five years after the diagnosis was 25% (95% CL 18–32%) in the singletransplant group and 46% (95% CL 33–55%) in the double transplant group (p=0.0014). The estimated overall five-year survival rate was 60% in the single transplant group and 64% in the doubletransplant (p=0.9). In a multivariate analysis of variables, including single versus double transplantation, β2 microglobulin level, age, sex and disease stage, only β2 microglobulin level was predictive for overall survival (p>0.0001) and progression free survival (p=0.001). In accordance with these results, a 1:1 case-control matched comparison between double and single transplantation did not identify significant differences in overall and progression free survival. In this retrospective analysis up front double transplantation with melphalan (200 mg/m2) as compared to single

  20. Soil CO2 concentrations and efflux dynamics of a tree island in the Pantanal wetland (United States)

    Lathuillière, Michael J.; Pinto, Osvaldo B.; Johnson, Mark S.; Jassal, Rachhpal S.; Dalmagro, Higo J.; Leite, Nei K.; Speratti, Alicia B.; Krampe, Daniela; Couto, Eduardo G.


    The Pantanal is the largest tropical wetland on the planet, and yet little information is available on the biome's carbon cycle. We used an automatic station to measure soil CO2 concentrations and oxidation-reduction potential over the 2014 and 2015 flood cycles of a tree island in the Pantanal that is immune to inundation during the wetland's annual flooding. The soil CO2 concentration profile was then used to estimate soil CO2 efflux over the two periods. In 2014, subsurface soil saturation at 0.30 m depth created conditions in that layer that led to CO2 buildup close to 200,000 ppm and soil oxidation-reduction potential below -300 mV, conditions that were not repeated in 2015 due to annual variability in soil saturation at the site. Mean CO2 efflux over the 2015 flood cycle was 0.023 ± 0.103 mg CO2-C m-2 s-1 representing a total annual efflux of 593 ± 2690 mg CO2-C m-2 y-1. Unlike a nearby tree island site that experiences full inundation during the wet season, here the soil dried quickly following repeated rain events throughout the year, which led to the release of CO2 pulses from the soil. This study highlights not only the complexity and heterogeneity in the Pantanal's carbon balance based on differences in topography, flood cycles, and vegetation but also the challenges of applying the gradient method in the Pantanal due to deviations from steady state conditions.

  1. CO2 chemical valorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerlero De Rosbo, Guillaume; Rakotojaona, Loic; Bucy, Jacques de; Clodic, Denis; Roger, Anne-Cecile; El Khamlichi, Aicha; Thybaud, Nathalie; Oeser, Christian; Forti, Laurent; Gimenez, Michel; Savary, David; Amouroux, Jacques


    Facing global warming, different technological solutions exist to tackle carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Some inevitable short term emissions can be captured so as to avoid direct emissions into the atmosphere. This CO 2 must then be managed and geological storage seems to currently be the only way of dealing with the large volumes involved. However, this solution faces major economic profitability and societal acceptance challenges. In this context, alternative pathways consisting in using CO 2 instead of storing it do exist and are generating growing interest. This study ordered by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), aims at taking stock of the different technologies used for the chemical conversion of CO 2 in order to have a better understanding of their development potential by 2030, of the conditions in which they could be competitive and of the main actions to be implemented in France to foster their emergence. To do this, the study was broken down into two main areas of focus: The review and characterization of the main CO 2 chemical conversion routes for the synthesis of basic chemical products, energy products and inert materials. This review includes a presentation of the main principles underpinning the studied routes, a preliminary assessment of their performances, advantages and drawbacks, a list of the main R and D projects underway, a focus on emblematic projects as well as a brief analysis of the markets for the main products produced. Based on these elements, 3 routes were selected from among the most promising by 2030 for an in-depth modelling and assessment of their energy, environmental and economic performances. The study shows that the processes modelled do have favorable CO 2 balances (from 1 to 4 t-CO 2 /t-product) and effectively constitute solutions to reduce CO 2 emissions, despite limited volumes of CO 2 in question. Moreover, the profitability of certain solutions will remain difficult to reach, even with an

  2. CO2 cycle (United States)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Byrne, Shane; Colaprete, Anthony; Forget, Francois; Michaels, Timothy I.; Prettyman, Thomas H.


    This chapter discusses the use of models, observations, and laboratory experiments to understand the cycling of CO2 between the atmosphere and seasonal Martian polar caps. This cycle is primarily controlled by the polar heat budget, and thus the emphasis here is on its components, including solar and infrared radiation, the effect of clouds (water- and CO2-ice), atmospheric transport, and subsurface heat conduction. There is a discussion about cap properties including growth and regression rates, albedos and emissivities, grain sizes and dust and/or water-ice contamination, and curious features like cold gas jets and araneiform (spider-shaped) terrain. The nature of the residual south polar cap is discussed as well as its long-term stability and ability to buffer atmospheric pressures. There is also a discussion of the consequences of the CO2 cycle as revealed by the non-condensable gas enrichment observed by Odyssey and modeled by various groups.

  3. Carbonate mineral solubility at low temperatures in the Na-K-Mg-Ca-H-Cl-SO 4-OH-HCO 3-CO 3-CO 2-H 2O system (United States)

    Marion, Giles M.


    Carbonate minerals have played an important role in the geochemical evolution of Earth, and may have also played an important role in the geochemical evolution of Mars and Europa. Several models have been published in recent years that describe chloride and sulfate mineral solubilities in concentrated brines using the Pitzer equations. Few of these models are parameterized for subzero temperatures, and those that are do not include carbonate chemistry. The objectives of this work are to estimate Pitzer-equation bicarbonate-carbonate parameters and carbonate mineral solubility products and to incorporate them into the FREZCHEM model to predict carbonate mineral solubilities in the Na-K-Mg-Ca-H-Cl-SO 4-OH-HCO 3-CO 3-CO 2-H 2O system at low temperatures (≤25°C) with a special focus on subzero temperatures. Most of the Pitzer-equation parameters and equilibrium constants are taken from the literature and extrapolated into the subzero temperature range. Solubility products for 14 sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium bicarbonate and carbonate minerals are included in the model. Most of the experimental data are at temperatures ≥ -8°C; only for the NaHCO 3-NaCl-H 2O and Na 2CO 3-NaCl-H 2O systems are there bicarbonate and carbonate data to temperatures as low as -21.6°C. In general, the fit of the model to the experimental data is good. For example, calculated eutectic temperatures and compositions for NaHCO 3, Na 2CO 3, and their mixtures with NaCl and Na 2SO 4 salts are in good agreement with experimental data to temperatures as low as -21.6°C. Application of the model to eight saline, alkaline carbonate waters give predicted pHs ranging from 9.2 to 10.2, in comparison with measured pHs that range from 8.7 to 10.2. The model suggests that the CaCO 3 mineral that precipitates during seawater freezing is probably calcite and not ikaite. The model demonstrates that a proposed salt assemblage for the icy surface of Europa consisting of highly hydrated MgSO 4

  4. CO2-strategier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard


    I 2007 henvendte Lyngby-Taarbæk kommunens Agenda 21 koordinator sig til Videnskabsbutikken og spurgte om der var interesse for at samarbejde om CO2-strategier. Da Videnskabsbutikken DTU er en åben dør til DTU for borgerne og deres organisationer, foreslog Videnskabsbutikken DTU at Danmarks...

  5. Tracing high-pressure metamorphism in marbles: Phase relations in high-grade aluminous calcite-dolomite marbles from the Greek Rhodope massif in the system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-CO 2 and indications of prior aragonite (United States)

    Proyer, A.; Mposkos, E.; Baziotis, I.; Hoinkes, G.


    Four different types of parageneses of the minerals calcite, dolomite, diopside, forsterite, spinel, amphibole (pargasite), (Ti-)clinohumite and phlogopite were observed in calcite-dolomite marbles collected in the Kimi-Complex of the Rhodope Metamorphic Province (RMP). The presence of former aragonite can be inferred from carbonate inclusions, which, in combination with an analysis of phase relations in the simplified system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-CO 2 (CMAS-CO 2) show that the mineral assemblages preserved in these marbles most likely equilibrated at the aragonite-calcite transition, slightly below the coesite stability field, at ca. 720 °C, 25 kbar and aCO 2 ~ 0.01. The thermodynamic model predicts that no matter what activity of CO 2, garnet has to be present in aluminous calcite-dolomite-marble at UHP conditions.

  6. CO2-neutral fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goede A. P. H.


    Full Text Available The need for storage of renewable energy (RE generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel

  7. CO2 flowrate calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carossi, Jean-Claude


    A CO 2 flowrate calculator has been designed for measuring and recording the gas flow in the loops of Pegase reactor. The analog calculator applies, at every moment, Bernoulli's formula to the values that characterize the carbon dioxide flow through a nozzle. The calculator electronics is described (it includes a sampling calculator and a two-variable function generator), with its amplifiers, triggers, interpolator, multiplier, etc. Calculator operation and setting are presented

  8. Sustained effects of atmospheric [CO2] and nitrogen availability on forest soil CO2 efflux. (United States)

    Oishi, A Christopher; Palmroth, Sari; Johnsen, Kurt H; McCarthy, Heather R; Oren, Ram


    Soil CO2 efflux (Fsoil ) is the largest source of carbon from forests and reflects primary productivity as well as how carbon is allocated within forest ecosystems. Through early stages of stand development, both elevated [CO2] and availability of soil nitrogen (N; sum of mineralization, deposition, and fixation) have been shown to increase gross primary productivity, but the long-term effects of these factors on Fsoil are less clear. Expanding on previous studies at the Duke Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) site, we quantified the effects of elevated [CO2] and N fertilization on Fsoil using daily measurements from automated chambers over 10 years. Consistent with previous results, compared to ambient unfertilized plots, annual Fsoil increased under elevated [CO2] (ca. 17%) and decreased with N (ca. 21%). N fertilization under elevated [CO2] reduced Fsoil to values similar to untreated plots. Over the study period, base respiration rates increased with leaf productivity, but declined after productivity saturated. Despite treatment-induced differences in aboveground biomass, soil temperature and water content were similar among treatments. Interannually, low soil water content decreased annual Fsoil from potential values - estimated based on temperature alone assuming nonlimiting soil water content - by ca. 0.7% per 1.0% reduction in relative extractable water. This effect was only slightly ameliorated by elevated [CO2]. Variability in soil N availability among plots accounted for the spatial variability in Fsoil , showing a decrease of ca. 114 g C m(-2) yr(-1) per 1 g m(-2) increase in soil N availability, with consistently higher Fsoil in elevated [CO2] plots ca. 127 g C per 100 ppm [CO2] over the +200 ppm enrichment. Altogether, reflecting increased belowground carbon partitioning in response to greater plant nutritional needs, the effects of elevated [CO2] and N fertilization on Fsoil in this stand are sustained beyond the early stages of stand development and

  9. CO2 efflux from cleared mangrove peat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available CO(2 emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils.We measured CO(2 efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO(2 efflux. CO(2 efflux from soils declines from time of clearing from ∼10,600 tonnes km(-2 year(-1 in the first year to 3000 tonnes km(2 year(-1 after 20 years since clearing. Disturbing peat leads to short term increases in CO(2 efflux (27 umol m(-2 s(-1, but this had returned to baseline levels within 2 days.Deforesting mangroves that grow on peat soils results in CO(2 emissions that are comparable to rates estimated for peat collapse in other tropical ecosystems. Preventing deforestation presents an opportunity for countries to benefit from carbon payments for preservation of threatened carbon stocks.

  10. Heterotic M2-branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Lambert


    Full Text Available We construct the action for N M2-branes on S1/Z2. The resulting theory has a gauge anomaly but this can be cancelled if the two fixed point planes each support 8 chiral Fermions in the fundamental of U(N. Taking the low energy limit leads to the worldsheet theory of N free heterotic strings whose quantization induces an E8 spacetime gauge symmetry on each fixed point plane. Thus this paper presents a non-abelian worldvolume analogue of the classic Hořava–Witten analysis.

  11. CO2 laser development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The research and development programs on high-energy, short-pulse CO 2 lasers were begun at LASL in 1969. Three large systems are now either operating or are being installed. The Single-Beam System (SBS), a four-stage prototype, was designed in 1971 and has been in operation since 1973 with an output energy of 250 J in a 1-ns pulse with an on-target intensity of 3.5 x 10 14 W/cm 2 . The Dual-Beam System (DBS), now in the final stages of electrical and optical checkout, will provide about ten times more power for two-beam target irradiation experiments. Four such dual-beam modules are being installed in the Laser-Fusion Laboratory to provide an Eight-Beam System (EBS) scheduled for operation at the 5- to 10-TW level in 1977. A fourth system, a 100- to 200-TW CO 2 laser, is being designed for the High-Energy Gas Laser Facility (HEGLF) program

  12. Frozen cropland soil in northeast China as source of N2O and CO2 emissions. (United States)

    Miao, Shujie; Qiao, Yunfa; Han, Xiaozeng; Brancher Franco, Roberta; Burger, Martin


    Agricultural soils are important sources of atmospheric N2O and CO2. However, in boreal agro-ecosystems the contribution of the winter season to annual emissions of these gases has rarely been determined. In this study, soil N2O and CO2 fluxes were measured for 6 years in a corn-soybean-wheat rotation in northeast China to quantify the contribution of wintertime N2O and CO2 fluxes to annual emissions. The treatments were chemical fertilizer (NPK), chemical fertilizer plus composted pig manure (NPKOM), and control (Cont.). Mean soil N2O fluxes among all three treatments in the winter (November-March), when soil temperatures are below -7°C for extended periods, were 0.89-3.01 µg N m(-2) h(-1), and in between the growing season and winter (October and April), when freeze-thaw events occur, 1.73-5.48 µg N m(-2) h(-1). The cumulative N2O emissions were on average 0.27-1.39, 0.03-0.08 and 0.03-0.11 kg N2O_N ha(-1) during the growing season, October and April, and winter, respectively. The average contributions of winter N2O efflux to annual emissions were 6.3-12.1%. In all three seasons, the highest N2O emissions occurred in NPKOM, while NPK and Cont. emissions were similar. Cumulative CO2 emissions were 2.73-4.94, 0.13-0.20 and 0.07-0.11 Mg CO2-C ha(-1) during growing season, October and April, and winter, respectively. The contribution of winter CO2 to total annual emissions was 2.0-2.4%. Our results indicate that in boreal agricultural systems in northeast China, CO2 and N2O emissions continue throughout the winter.

  13. CO2 Laser Market (United States)

    Simonsson, Samuel


    It gives me a great deal of pleasure to introduce our final speaker of this morning's session for two reasons: First of all, his company has been very much in the news not only in our own community but in the pages of Wall Street Journal and in the world economic press. And, secondly, we would like to welcome him to our shores. He is a temporary resident of the United States, for a few months, forsaking his home in Germany to come here and help with the start up of a new company which we believe, probably, ranks #1 as the world supplier of CO2 lasers now, through the combination of former Spectra Physics Industrial Laser Division and Rofin-Sinar GMBH. Samuel Simonsson is the Chairman of the Board of Rofin-Sinar, Inc., here in the U.S. and managing director of Rofin-Sinar GMBH. It is a pleasure to welcome him.

  14. The Li–CO2 battery: a novel method for CO2 capture and utilization

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Shaomao


    We report a novel primary Li-CO2 battery that consumes pure CO2 gas as its cathode. The battery exhibits a high discharge capacity of around 2500 mA h g-1 at moderate temperatures. At 100 °C the discharge capacity is close to 1000% higher than that at 40 °C, and the temperature dependence is significantly weaker for higher surface area carbon cathodes. Ex-situ FTIR and XRD analyses convincingly show that lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) is the main component of the discharge product. The feasibility of similar primary metal-CO2 batteries based on earth abundant metal anodes, such as Al and Mg, is demonstrated. The metal-CO2 battery platform provides a novel approach for simultaneous capturing of CO2 emissions and producing electrical energy. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Annual CO2 budget and seasonal CO2 exchange signals at a high Arctic permafrost site on Spitsbergen, Svalbard archipelago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luërs, J.; Westermann, Signe; Piel, K.


    -lasting snow cover, and several months of darkness. This study presents a complete annual cycle of the CO2 net ecosystem exchange (NEE) dynamics for a high Arctic tundra area at the west coast of Svalbard based on eddy covariance flux measurements. The annual cumulative CO2 budget is close to 0 g C m-2 yr-1...

  16. Homogeneous M2 duals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O’Farrill, José; Ungureanu, Mara


    Motivated by the search for new gravity duals to M2 branes with N>4 supersymmetry — equivalently, M-theory backgrounds with Killing superalgebra osp(N|4) for N>4 — we classify (except for a small gap) homogeneous M-theory backgrounds with symmetry Lie algebra so(n)⊕so(3,2) for n=5,6,7. We find that there are no new backgrounds with n=6,7 but we do find a number of new (to us) backgrounds with n=5. All backgrounds are metrically products of the form AdS 4 ×P 7 , with P riemannian and homogeneous under the action of SO(5), or S 4 ×Q 7 with Q lorentzian and homogeneous under the action of SO(3,2). At least one of the new backgrounds is supersymmetric (albeit with only N=2) and we show that it can be constructed from a supersymmetric Freund-Rubin background via a Wick rotation. Two of the new backgrounds have only been approximated numerically.

  17. Homogeneous M2 duals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa-O’Farrill, José [School of Mathematics and Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences,The University of Edinburgh,James Clerk Maxwell Building, The King’s Buildings, Peter Guthrie Tait Road,Edinburgh EH9 3FD, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ungureanu, Mara [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Mathematik,Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany)


    Motivated by the search for new gravity duals to M2 branes with N>4 supersymmetry — equivalently, M-theory backgrounds with Killing superalgebra osp(N|4) for N>4 — we classify (except for a small gap) homogeneous M-theory backgrounds with symmetry Lie algebra so(n)⊕so(3,2) for n=5,6,7. We find that there are no new backgrounds with n=6,7 but we do find a number of new (to us) backgrounds with n=5. All backgrounds are metrically products of the form AdS{sub 4}×P{sup 7}, with P riemannian and homogeneous under the action of SO(5), or S{sup 4}×Q{sup 7} with Q lorentzian and homogeneous under the action of SO(3,2). At least one of the new backgrounds is supersymmetric (albeit with only N=2) and we show that it can be constructed from a supersymmetric Freund-Rubin background via a Wick rotation. Two of the new backgrounds have only been approximated numerically.

  18. Dependency of tunneling magnetoresistance ratio on Pt seed-layer thickness for double MgO perpendicular magnetic tunneling junction spin-valves with a top Co2Fe6B2 free layer ex-situ annealed at 400 °C. (United States)

    Takemura, Yasutaka; Lee, Du-Yeong; Lee, Seung-Eun; Park, Jea-Gun


    For the double MgO based perpendicular magnetic tunneling junction (p-MTJ) spin-valves with a top Co 2 Fe 6 B 2 free layer ex situ annealed at 400 °C, the tunneling-magnetoresistance ratio (TMR) strongly depended on the platinum (Pt) seed layer thickness (t Pt ): it peaked (∼134%) at a specific t Pt (3.3 nm). The TMR ratio was initially and slightly increased from 113%-134% by the enhancement of the magnetic moment of the Co 2 Fe 6 B 2 pinned layer when t Pt increased from 2.0-3.3 nm, and then rapidly decreased from 134%-38.6% by the degrading face-centered-cubic crystallinity of the MgO tunneling barrier when t Pt increased from 3.3-14.3 nm.

  19. Crystal structures of KM(AsF6)3 (M2+ = Mg, Co, Mn, Zn), KCu(SbF6)3 and [Co(HF)2]Sr[Sr(HF)]2-[Sr(HF)2]2[AsF6]12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazej, Zoran; Goreshnik, Evgeny


    The KM(AsF 6 ) 3 (M 2+ = Mg, Co, Mn, Zn) and KCu(SbF 6 ) 3 compounds crystallize isotypically to previously known KNi(AsF 6 ) 3 . The main features of the structure of these compounds are rings of MF 6 octahedra sharing apexes with AsF 6 octahedra connected into infinite tri-dimensional frameworks. In this arrangement cavities are formed where K + cations are placed. Single crystals of CoSr 5 (AsF 6 ) 12 .8HF were obtained as one of the products after the crystallization of 3KF/CoF 2 /SrF 2 mixture in the presence of AsF 5 in anhydrous HF. The CoSr 5 (AsF 6 ) 12 .8HF is monoclinic, C/2c (No.15), with a = 26.773(5) Aa, b = 10.087(2) Aa, c = 21.141(5) Aa, β = 93.296(13) circle , V = 5699.9(19) Aa 3 at 200 K, and Z = 4. There are three crystallographically non-equivalent Sr 2+ cations in the crystal structure of CoSr 5 (AsF 6 ) 12 .8HF. The Sr1 is coordinated by ten fluorine atoms from eight different [AsF 6 ]- anions, meanwhile Sr2 and Sr3 are bound to nine fluorine atoms provided by one HF and eight AsF 6 units or by two HF and six AsF 6 units, respectively. The Co 2+ is coordinated distorted-octahedrally by six fluorine atoms from two HF molecules and four different AsF 6 units. All those moieties in the crystal structure of [Co(HF) 2 ]Sr[Sr(HF)] 2 [Sr(HF) 2 ] 2 [AsF 6 ] 12 are connected into tridimensional framework. The CoSr 5 (AsF 6 ) 12 .8HF is a unique example of compound where HF molecules are directly bound via fluorine atoms to two different metal centres.

  20. Forecasting global atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusti-Panareda, A.; Massart, S.; Boussetta, S.; Balsamo, G.; Beljaars, A.; Engelen, R.; Jones, L.; Peuch, V.H.; Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Paris, J.D.; Sherlock, V.


    A new global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) real-time forecast is now available as part of the preoperational Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate - Interim Implementation (MACC-II) service using the infrastructure of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecasting System (IFS). One of the strengths of the CO 2 forecasting system is that the land surface, including vegetation CO 2 fluxes, is modelled online within the IFS. Other CO 2 fluxes are prescribed from inventories and from off-line statistical and physical models. The CO 2 forecast also benefits from the transport modelling from a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction (NWP) system initialized daily with a wealth of meteorological observations. This paper describes the capability of the forecast in modelling the variability of CO 2 on different temporal and spatial scales compared to observations. The modulation of the amplitude of the CO 2 diurnal cycle by near-surface winds and boundary layer height is generally well represented in the forecast. The CO 2 forecast also has high skill in simulating day-to-day synoptic variability. In the atmospheric boundary layer, this skill is significantly enhanced by modelling the day-to-day variability of the CO 2 fluxes from vegetation compared to using equivalent monthly mean fluxes with a diurnal cycle. However, biases in the modelled CO 2 fluxes also lead to accumulating errors in the CO 2 forecast. These biases vary with season with an underestimation of the amplitude of the seasonal cycle both for the CO 2 fluxes compared to total optimized fluxes and the atmospheric CO 2 compared to observations. The largest biases in the atmospheric CO 2 forecast are found in spring, corresponding to the onset of the growing season in the Northern Hemisphere. In the future, the forecast will be re-initialized regularly with atmospheric CO 2 analyses based on the assimilation of CO 2 products retrieved from satellite

  1. Quantitative analysis of an engineered CO2-fixing Escherichia coli reveals great potential of heterotrophic CO2 fixation. (United States)

    Gong, Fuyu; Liu, Guoxia; Zhai, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Jie; Cai, Zhen; Li, Yin


    Production of fuels from the abundant and wasteful CO2 is a promising approach to reduce carbon emission and consumption of fossil fuels. Autotrophic microbes naturally assimilate CO2 using energy from light, hydrogen, and/or sulfur. However, their slow growth rates call for investigation of the possibility of heterotrophic CO2 fixation. Although preliminary research has suggested that CO2 fixation in heterotrophic microbes is feasible after incorporation of a CO2-fixing bypass into the central carbon metabolic pathway, it remains unclear how much and how efficient that CO2 can be fixed by a heterotrophic microbe. A simple metabolic flux index was developed to indicate the relative strength of the CO2-fixation flux. When two sequential enzymes of the cyanobacterial Calvin cycle were incorporated into an E. coli strain, the flux of the CO2-fixing bypass pathway accounts for 13 % of that of the central carbon metabolic pathway. The value was increased to 17 % when the carbonic anhydrase involved in the cyanobacterial carbon concentrating mechanism was introduced, indicating that low intracellular CO2 concentration is one limiting factor for CO2 fixation in E. coli. The engineered CO2-fixing E. coli with carbonic anhydrase was able to fix CO2 at a rate of 19.6 mg CO2 L(-1) h(-1) or the specific rate of 22.5 mg CO2 g DCW(-1) h(-1). This CO2-fixation rate is comparable with the reported rates of 14 autotrophic cyanobacteria and algae (10.5-147.0 mg CO2 L(-1) h(-1) or the specific rates of 3.5-23.7 mg CO2 g DCW(-1) h(-1)). The ability of CO2 fixation was created and improved in E. coli by incorporating partial cyanobacterial Calvin cycle and carbon concentrating mechanism, respectively. Quantitative analysis revealed that the CO2-fixation rate of this strain is comparable with that of the autotrophic cyanobacteria and algae, demonstrating great potential of heterotrophic CO2 fixation.

  2. Magnesium hydroxide extracted from a magnesium-rich mineral for CO2 sequestration in a gas-solid system. (United States)

    Lin, Pao-Chung; Huang, Cheng-Wei; Hsiao, Ching-Ta; Teng, Hsisheng


    Magnesium hydroxide extracted from magnesium-bearing minerals is considered a promising agent for binding CO2 as a carbonate mineral in a gas-solid reaction. An efficient extraction route consisting of hydrothermal treatment on serpentine in HCl followed by NaOH titration for Mg(OH)2 precipitation was demonstrated. The extracted Mg(OH)2 powder had a mean crystal domain size as small as 12 nm and an apparent surface area of 54 m2/g. Under one atmosphere of 10 vol% CO2/N2, carbonation of the serpentine-derived Mg(OH)2 to 26% of the stoichiometric limit was achieved at 325 degrees C in 2 h; while carbonation of a commercially available Mg(OH)2, with a mean crystal domain size of 33 nm and an apparent surface area of 3.5 m2/g, reached only 9% of the stoichiometric limit. The amount of CO2 fixation was found to be inversely proportional to the crystal domain size of the Mg(OH)2 specimens. The experimental data strongly suggested that only a monolayer of carbonates was formed on the crystal domain boundary in the gas-solid reaction, with little penetration of the carbonates into the crystal domain.

  3. Spatial variation of sediment mineralization supports differential CO2 emissions from a tropical hydroelectric reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Jaqueline Cardoso


    Full Text Available Substantial amounts of organic matter (OM from terrestrial ecosystems are buried as sediments in inland waters. It is still unclear to what extent this OM constitutes a sink of carbon, and how much of it is returned to the atmosphere upon mineralization to carbon dioxide (CO2. The construction of reservoirs affects the carbon cycle by increasing OM sedimentation at the regional scale. In this study we determine the OM mineralization in the sediment of three zones (river, transition and dam of a tropical hydroelectric reservoir in Brazil as well as identify the composition of the carbon pool available for mineralization. We measured sediment OC mineralization rates and related them to the composition of the OM, bacterial abundance and pCO2 of the surface water of the reservoir. Terrestrial OM was an important substrate for the mineralization. In the river and transition zones most of the OM was allochthonous (56 % and 48 %, respectively while the dam zone had the lowest allochthonous contribution (7 %. The highest mineralization rates were found in the transition zone (154.80 ± 33.50 mg C m-2 d-1 and the lowest in the dam (51.60 ± 26.80 mg C m-2 d-1. Moreover, mineralization rates were significantly related to bacterial abundance (r2 = 0.50, p < 0.001 and pCO2 in the surface water of the reservoir (r2 = 0.73, p < 0.001. The results indicate that allochthonous OM has different contributions to sediment mineralization in the three zones of the reservoir. Further, the sediment mineralization, mediated by heterotrophic bacteria metabolism, significantly contributes to CO2 supersaturation in the water column, resulting in higher pCO2 in the river and transition zones in comparison with the dam zone, affecting greenhouse gas emission estimations from hydroelectric reservoirs.

  4. Synthesis of zeolites 'type A' for adsorption of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, L.O.; Madeira, A.C.; Merlini, A.; Melo, C.R.; Mendes, E.; Santos, M.G.S.; Angioletto, E.


    The separation of gases is a very expensive step in the chemical industry and unquestionable relevance. In this work it was found the effectiveness of using zeolites of type A in the separation of CO 2 in a gas mixture containing 25% CO 2 , 4% O 2 and 71% N 2 concentrations similar to exhaust gases from combustion processes. To this end, was synthesized using zeolites type A commercial kaolin and mounted to an adsorption column to test the efficiency of zeolites in the adsorption of CO 2 . The synthesized zeolites showed surface area of 66.22m 2 /g. The CO 2 concentration was determined by gas chromatography with TCD detector. Adjusting the data to the Langmuir model, there was obtained the kinetics of adsorption. From these, we found the ability of zeolite to adsorb CO 2 used in the column of 0.461285mg/g. The results of adsorption proved promising and showed maximum adsorption of 78.4% at a time of 10 seconds. (author)

  5. Radon-calibrated emissions of CO2 from South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudry, A.; Polian, G.; Ardouin, B.; Lambert, G.


    Atmospheric CO 2 and 222 Rn have been monitored at Amsterdam Island since 1980. Data were selected in order to eliminate any local influence. Typical CO 2 concentrations of the subantarctic marine atmosphere can be determined by selecting those values for which 222 Rn radioactivity was particularly low: less than 1 pCi m -3 . 222 Rn concentrations higher than 2 pCi m -3 are mainly due to injections into the subantarctic atmosphere from the continental source of South Africa. The passage of air masses under continental influence also shows typical CO 2 variations, well correlated with 222 Rn variations. From the knowledge of the global continental fluxes of 222 Rn, it has been possible to estimate CO 2 fluxes into the atmosphere from South Africa. The mean CO 2 flux corresponding to a 6-month period from May to October is about 5 millimole m -2 h -1 . Continental CO 2 emissions reach a maximum in August. (orig.)

  6. CO2 as a refrigerant

    CERN Document Server


    A first edition, the IIR guide “CO2 as a Refrigerant” highlights the application of carbon dioxide in supermarkets, industrial freezers, refrigerated transport, and cold stores as well as ice rinks, chillers, air conditioning systems, data centers and heat pumps. This guide is for design and development engineers needing instruction and inspiration as well as non-technical experts seeking background information on a specific topic. Written by Dr A.B. Pearson, a well-known expert in the field who has considerable experience in the use of CO2 as a refrigerant. Main topics: Thermophysical properties of CO2 – Exposure to CO2, safety precautions – CO2 Plant Design – CO2 applications – Future prospects – Standards and regulations – Bibliography.

  7. Overcoming double-step CO2 adsorption and minimizing water co-adsorption in bulky diamine-appended variants of Mg2(dobpdc)† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional experimental details, and full characterization (powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectra, diamine loadings, dry N2 decomposition profiles, and CO2 adsorption data) for all new adsorbents. CCDC 1577354. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c7sc04266c (United States)

    Milner, Phillip J.; Martell, Jeffrey D.; Siegelman, Rebecca L.; Gygi, David; Weston, Simon C.


    Alkyldiamine-functionalized variants of the metal–organic framework Mg2(dobpdc) (dobpdc4– = 4,4′-dioxidobiphenyl-3,3′-dicarboxylate) are promising for CO2 capture applications owing to their unique step-shaped CO2 adsorption profiles resulting from the cooperative formation of ammonium carbamate chains. Primary,secondary (1°,2°) alkylethylenediamine-appended variants are of particular interest because of their low CO2 step pressures (≤1 mbar at 40 °C), minimal adsorption/desorption hysteresis, and high thermal stability. Herein, we demonstrate that further increasing the size of the alkyl group on the secondary amine affords enhanced stability against diamine volatilization, but also leads to surprising two-step CO2 adsorption/desorption profiles. This two-step behavior likely results from steric interactions between ammonium carbamate chains induced by the asymmetrical hexagonal pores of Mg2(dobpdc) and leads to decreased CO2 working capacities and increased water co-adsorption under humid conditions. To minimize these unfavorable steric interactions, we targeted diamine-appended variants of the isoreticularly expanded framework Mg2(dotpdc) (dotpdc4– = 4,4′′-dioxido-[1,1′:4′,1′′-terphenyl]-3,3′′-dicarboxylate), reported here for the first time, and the previously reported isomeric framework Mg-IRMOF-74-II or Mg2(pc-dobpdc) (pc-dobpdc4– = 3,3′-dioxidobiphenyl-4,4′-dicarboxylate, pc = para-carboxylate), which, in contrast to Mg2(dobpdc), possesses uniformally hexagonal pores. By minimizing the steric interactions between ammonium carbamate chains, these frameworks enable a single CO2 adsorption/desorption step in all cases, as well as decreased water co-adsorption and increased stability to diamine loss. Functionalization of Mg2(pc-dobpdc) with large diamines such as N-(n-heptyl)ethylenediamine results in optimal adsorption behavior, highlighting the advantage of tuning both the pore shape and the diamine size for the development

  8. Corrosion studies on casing steel in CO2 storage environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Benedictus, T.


    The corrosion behavior of casing steel N80 in brine plus CO2 was studied in autoclave to simulate the CO2 storage environment. The brine solution used in the study contained 130 g/l NaCl, 22.2 g/l CaCl2 and 4 g/l MgCl2. The CO2 was charged in the autoclave at different pressures (60, 80 and 100 bar)

  9. Landscape structure control on soil CO2 efflux variability in complex terrain: Scaling from point observations to watershed scale fluxes (United States)

    Diego A. Riveros-Iregui; Brian L. McGlynn


    We investigated the spatial and temporal variability of soil CO2 efflux across 62 sites of a 393-ha complex watershed of the northern Rocky Mountains. Growing season (83 day) cumulative soil CO2 efflux varied from ~300 to ~2000 g CO2 m-2, depending upon landscape position, with a median of 879.8 g CO2 m-2. Our findings revealed that highest soil CO2 efflux rates were...

  10. Geochemical Interaction of Middle Bakken Reservoir Rock and CO2 during CO2-Based Fracturing (United States)

    Nicot, J. P.; Lu, J.; Mickler, P. J.; Ribeiro, L. H.; Darvari, R.


    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of geochemical interactions when CO2 is used to create the fractures necessary to produce hydrocarbons from low-permeability Middle Bakken sandstone. The primary objectives are to: (1) identify and understand the geochemical reactions related to CO2-based fracturing, and (2) assess potential changes of reservoir property. Three autoclave experiments were conducted at reservoir conditions exposing middle Bakken core fragments to supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2) only and to CO2-saturated synthetic brine. Ion-milled core samples were examined before and after the reaction experiments using scanning electron microscope, which enabled us to image the reaction surface in extreme details and unambiguously identify mineral dissolution and precipitation. The most significant changes in the reacted rock samples exposed to the CO2-saturated brine is dissolution of the carbonate minerals, particularly calcite which displays severely corrosion. Dolomite grains were corroded to a lesser degree. Quartz and feldspars remained intact and some pyrite framboids underwent slight dissolution. Additionally, small amount of calcite precipitation took place as indicated by numerous small calcite crystals formed at the reaction surface and in the pores. The aqueous solution composition changes confirm these petrographic observations with increase in Ca and Mg and associated minor elements and very slight increase in Fe and sulfate. When exposed to sc-CO2 only, changes observed include etching of calcite grain surface and precipitation of salt crystals (halite and anhydrite) due to evaporation of residual pore water into the sc-CO2 phase. Dolomite and feldspars remained intact and pyrite grains were slightly altered. Mercury intrusion capillary pressure tests on reacted and unreacted samples shows an increase in porosity when an aqueous phase is present but no overall porosity change caused by sc-CO2. It also suggests an increase in permeability

  11. The sequestration of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Thiez, P.


    The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO 2 , represents a major technological and societal challenge in the fight against climate change. Among the measures likely to reduce anthropic CO 2 emissions, capture and geological storage holds out promise for the future. (author)

  12. CO2 Sequestration short course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaolo, Donald J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Cole, David R [The Ohio State University; Navrotsky, Alexandra [University of California-Davis; Bourg, Ian C [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


    Given the public’s interest and concern over the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) on global warming and related climate change patterns, the course is a timely discussion of the underlying geochemical and mineralogical processes associated with gas-water-mineral-interactions encountered during geological sequestration of CO2. The geochemical and mineralogical processes encountered in the subsurface during storage of CO2 will play an important role in facilitating the isolation of anthropogenic CO2 in the subsurface for thousands of years, thus moderating rapid increases in concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and mitigating global warming. Successful implementation of a variety of geological sequestration scenarios will be dependent on our ability to accurately predict, monitor and verify the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. The course was proposed to and accepted by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) and The Geochemical Society (GS).

  13. Enzymes in CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Gladis, Arne; Thomsen, Kaj

    The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) can accelerate the absorption rate of CO2 into aqueous solutions by several-fold. It exist in almost all living organisms and catalyses different important processes like CO2 transport, respiration and the acid-base balances. A new technology in the field...... of carbon capture is the application of enzymes for acceleration of typically slow ternary amines or inorganic carbonates. There is a hidden potential to revive currently infeasible amines which have an interesting low energy consumption for regeneration but too slow kinetics for viable CO2 capture. The aim...... of this work is to discuss the measurements of kinetic properties for CA promoted CO2 capture solvent systems. The development of a rate-based model for enzymes will be discussed showing the principles of implementation and the results on using a well-known ternary amine for CO2 capture. Conclusions...

  14. CO2 pellet blasting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archibald, K.E.


    Initial tests with CO 2 pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO 2 pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO 2 blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report

  15. Advective, Diffusive and Eruptive Leakage of CO2 and Brine within Fault Zone (United States)

    Jung, N. H.; Han, W. S.


    This study investigated a natural analogue for CO2 leakage near the Green River, Utah, aiming to understand the influence of various factors on CO2 leakage and to reliably predict underground CO2 behavior after injection for geologic CO2 sequestration. Advective, diffusive, and eruptive characteristics of CO2 leakage were assessed via a soil CO2 flux survey and numerical modeling. The field results show anomalous CO2 fluxes (> 10 g m-2 d-1) along the faults, particularly adjacent to CO2-driven cold springs and geysers (e.g., 36,259 g m-2 d-1 at Crystal Geyser), ancient travertines (e.g., 5,917 g m-2 d-1), joint zones in sandstone (e.g., 120 g m-2 d-1), and brine discharge zones (e.g., 5,515 g m-2 d-1). Combined to similar isotopic ratios of gas and progressive evolution of brine chemistry at springs and geysers, a gradual decrease of soil CO2 flux from the Little Grand Wash (LGW; ~36,259 g m-2 d-1) to Salt Wash (SW; ~1,428 g m-2 d-1) fault zones reveals the same CO2 origin and potential southward transport of CO2 over 10-20 km. The numerical simulations overtly exhibit lateral transport of free CO2 and CO2-rich brine from the LGW to SW fault zones through the regional aquifers (e.g., Entrada, Navajo, Kayenta, Wingate, White Rim). CO2 travels predominantly as an aqueous phase (Xco2=~0.045) as previously suggested, giving rise to the convective instability that further accelerates CO2 dissolution. While the buoyant free CO2 always tends to ascend, a fraction of dense CO2-rich brine flows laterally into the aquifer and mixes with the formation fluids during upward migration along the fault. The fault always enhances advective CO2 transport regardless of its permeability (k). However, only the low-k fault scenario engenders development of CO2 anticlinal trap within the shallow aquifers (Entrada and Navajo), concentrating high CO­­­2 fluxes (~1,273 g m-2 d-1) within the northern footwall of the LGW fault similar to the field. Moreover, eruptive CO2 leakage at a well

  16. CO2: a worldwide myth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerondeau, Ch.


    In this book, the author demonstrates the paradox that reducing CO 2 emissions leads to no CO 2 abatement at all. This assertion is based on an obvious statement. Everybody knows that oil resources are going to be exhausted in few decades. The oil that industrialized countries will not use will be consumed by emerging countries and the CO 2 emissions will remain the same. Who would believe that the oil, gas or coal still available will remain unused? The Kyoto protocol, the national policies, the European agreements of emissions abatement, the carbon taxes, the emissions abatement requests sent to the rest of the world, all these actions cost a lot and are useless. CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere will inescapably double during the 21. century but, according to the author, without any catastrophic consequence for the Earth. (J.S.)

  17. Natural analogue study of CO2 storage monitoring using probability statistics of CO2-rich groundwater chemistry (United States)

    Kim, K. K.; Hamm, S. Y.; Kim, S. O.; Yun, S. T.


    For confronting global climate change, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of several very useful strategies as using capture of greenhouse gases like CO2 spewed from stacks and then isolation of the gases in underground geologic storage. CO2-rich groundwater could be produced by CO2 dissolution into fresh groundwater around a CO2 storage site. As consequence, natural analogue studies related to geologic storage provide insights into future geologic CO2 storage sites as well as can provide crucial information on the safety and security of geologic sequestration, the long-term impact of CO2 storage on the environment, and field operation and monitoring that could be implemented for geologic sequestration. In this study, we developed CO2 leakage monitoring method using probability density function (PDF) by characterizing naturally occurring CO2-rich groundwater. For the study, we used existing data of CO2-rich groundwaters in different geological regions (Gangwondo, Gyeongsangdo, and Choongchungdo provinces) in South Korea. Using PDF method and QI (quantitative index), we executed qualitative and quantitative comparisons among local areas and chemical constituents. Geochemical properties of groundwater with/without CO2 as the PDF forms proved that pH, EC, TDS, HCO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SiO2 were effective monitoring parameters for carbonated groundwater in the case of CO2leakage from an underground storage site. KEY WORDS: CO2-rich groundwater, CO2 storage site, monitoring parameter, natural analogue, probability density function (PDF), QI_quantitative index Acknowledgement This study was supported by the "Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), which is funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2013R1A1A2058186)" and the "R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage" from KEITI (Project number: 2014001810003).

  18. Connecting CO2. Feasibility study CO2 network Southwest Netherlands; Connecting CO2. Haalbaarheidsstudie CO2-netwerk Zuidwest-Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutten, M.


    An overview is given of supply and demand of CO2 in the region Southwest Netherlands and the regions Antwerp and Gent in Belgium. Also attention is paid to possible connections between these regions [Dutch] Een inventarisatie wordt gegeven van vraag en aanbod van CO2 in de regio Zuidwest- Nederland en de regios Antwerpen en Gent in Belgie. Ook worden mogelijke koppelingen tussen de regios besproken.

  19. Foraminiferal calcification and CO2 (United States)

    Nooijer, L. D.; Toyofuku, T.; Reichart, G. J.


    Ongoing burning of fossil fuels increases atmospheric CO2, elevates marine dissolved CO2 and decreases pH and the saturation state with respect to calcium carbonate. Intuitively this should decrease the ability of CaCO3-producing organisms to build their skeletons and shells. Whereas on geological time scales weathering and carbonate deposition removes carbon from the geo-biosphere, on time scales up to thousands of years, carbonate precipitation increases pCO2 because of the associated shift in seawater carbon speciation. Hence reduced calcification provides a potentially important negative feedback on increased pCO2 levels. Here we show that foraminifera form their calcium carbonate by active proton pumping. This elevates the internal pH and acidifies the direct foraminiferal surrounding. This also creates a strong pCO2 gradient and facilitates the uptake of DIC in the form of carbon dioxide. This finding uncouples saturation state from calcification and predicts that the added carbon due to ocean acidification will promote calcification by these organisms. This unknown effect could add substantially to atmospheric pCO2 levels, and might need to be accounted for in future mitigation strategies.

  20. Seasonal and temporal CO2 dynamics in three tropical mangrove creeks - A revision of global mangrove CO2 emissions (United States)

    Rosentreter, Judith A.; Maher, D. T.; Erler, D. V.; Murray, R.; Eyre, B. D.


    Continuous high-resolution surface water pCO2 and δ13C-CO2 and 222Rn (dry season only) were measured over two tidal cycles in the wet and dry season in three tropical tidal mangrove creeks on the north-eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. Mangrove surface water pCO2 followed a clear tidal pattern (ranging from 387 to 13,031 μatm) with higher pCO2-values in the wet season than in the dry season. The δ13C-CO2 in the mangrove waters ranged from -21.7 to -8.8‰ and was rather indicative of a mixed source than a distinct mangrove signature. Surface water CO2 was likely driven by a combination of mangrove and external carbon sources, e.g. exchange with groundwater/pore water enriched in 13C, or terrestrial carbon inputs with a significant contribution of C4-vegetation (sugar cane) source. The kinetic and equilibrium fractionation during the gas exchange at the water-atmosphere interface may have further caused a 13C-enrichment of the CO2 pool in the mangrove surface waters. Average CO2 evasion rates (58.7-277.6 mmol m-2 d-1) were calculated using different empirical gas transfer velocity models. Using our high-resolution time series data and previously published data, the average CO2 flux rate in mangrove ecosystems was estimated to be 56.5 ± 8.9 mmol m-2 d-1, which corresponds to a revised global mangrove CO2 emission of 34.1 ± 5.4 Tg C per year.

  1. CO2 Capture and Reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thambimuthu, K.; Gupta, M.; Davison, J.


    CO2 capture and storage including its utilization or reuse presents an opportunity to achieve deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil energy use. The development and deployment of this option could significantly assist in meeting a future goal of achieving stabilization of the presently rising atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. CO2 capture from process streams is an established concept that has achieved industrial practice. Examples of current applications include the use of primarily, solvent based capture technologies for the recovery of pure CO2 streams for chemical synthesis, for utilization as a food additive, for use as a miscible agent in enhanced oil recovery operations and removal of CO2 as an undesired contaminant from gaseous process streams for the production of fuel gases such as hydrogen and methane. In these applications, the technologies deployed for CO2 capture have focused on gas separation from high purity, high pressure streams and in reducing (or oxygen deficient) environments, where the energy penalties and cost for capture are moderately low. However, application of the same capture technologies for large scale abatement of greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel use poses significant challenges in achieving (at comparably low energy penalty and cost) gas separation in large volume, dilute concentration and/or low pressure flue gas streams. This paper will focus on a review of existing commercial methods of CO2 capture and the technology stretch, process integration and energy system pathways needed for their large scale deployment in fossil fueled processes. The assessment of potential capture technologies for the latter purpose will also be based on published literature data that are both 'transparent' and 'systematic' in their evaluation of the overall cost and energy penalties of CO2 capture. In view of the of the fact that many of the existing commercial processes for CO2 capture have seen applications in

  2. Evasion of CO2 and dissolved carbon in river waters of three small catchments in an area occupied by small family farms in the eastern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Silva da Rosa


    Full Text Available CO2 effluxes from streams and rivers have been hypothesized to be a critical pathway of carbon flow from the biosphere back to the atmosphere. This study was conducted in three small Amazonian catchments to evaluate carbon evasion and dynamics, where land-use change has occurred on small family-farms. Monthly field campaigns were conducted from June 2006 to May 2007 in the Cumaru (CM, Pachibá (PB and São João (SJ streams. Electrical conductivity, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen measurements were done in situ, while water samples were collected to determine dissolved organic carbon (DOC and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC concentrations, as well as carbon dioxide partial pressures (pCO2 and CO2 evasion fluxes. Instantaneous discharge measured by a current meter was used to calculate DOC fluxes. Considering all the sites, DOC, DIC, pCO2, and CO2 flux measurements ranged as follows, respectively: 0.27 - 12.13 mg L-1; 3.5 - 38.9 mg L-1; 2,265 - 26,974 ppm; and 3.39 - 75.35 μmol m-2 s-1. DOC annual flux estimates for CM, SJ and PB were, respectively, 281, 245, and 169 kg C ha-1. CO2 evasion fluxes had an average of 22.70 ± 1.67 μmol m-2 s-1. These CO2 evasion fluxes per unit area were similar to those measured for major Amazonian rivers, thus confirming our hypothesis that small streams can evade substantial quantities of CO2. As secondary vegetation is abundant as a result of family farming management in the region, we conclude that this vegetation can be a major driver of an abundant carbon cycle.

  3. CO2-Philic polymer membrane with extremely high separation performance

    KAUST Repository

    Yave, Wilfredo


    Polymeric membranes are attractive for CO2 separation and concentration from different gas streams because of their versatility and energy efficiency; they can compete with, and they may even replace, traditional absorption processes. Here we describe a simple and powerful method for developing nanostructured and CO2-philic polymer membranes for CO2 separation. A poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene terephthalate) multiblock copolymer is used as membrane material. Smart additives such as polyethylene glycol dibutyl ether are incorporated as spacers or fillers for producing nanostructured materials. The addition of these specific additives produces CO2-philic membranes and increases the CO2 permeability (750 barrer) up to five-fold without the loss of selectivity. The membranes present outstanding performance for CO2 separation, and the measured CO2 flux is extremely high ( > 2 m3 m -2 h-1 bar-1) with selectivity over H2 and N2 of 10 and 40, respectively, making them attractive for CO 2 capture. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  4. CO2-Philic polymer membrane with extremely high separation performance

    KAUST Repository

    Yave, Wilfredo; Car, Anja; Funari, S.; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor


    Polymeric membranes are attractive for CO2 separation and concentration from different gas streams because of their versatility and energy efficiency; they can compete with, and they may even replace, traditional absorption processes. Here we describe a simple and powerful method for developing nanostructured and CO2-philic polymer membranes for CO2 separation. A poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene terephthalate) multiblock copolymer is used as membrane material. Smart additives such as polyethylene glycol dibutyl ether are incorporated as spacers or fillers for producing nanostructured materials. The addition of these specific additives produces CO2-philic membranes and increases the CO2 permeability (750 barrer) up to five-fold without the loss of selectivity. The membranes present outstanding performance for CO2 separation, and the measured CO2 flux is extremely high ( > 2 m3 m -2 h-1 bar-1) with selectivity over H2 and N2 of 10 and 40, respectively, making them attractive for CO 2 capture. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  5. Spatial variation of sediment mineralization supports differential CO2 emissions from a tropical hydroelectric reservoir. (United States)

    Cardoso, Simone J; Vidal, Luciana O; Mendonça, Raquel F; Tranvik, Lars J; Sobek, Sebastian; Fábio, Roland


    Substantial amounts of organic matter (OM) from terrestrial ecosystems are buried as sediments in inland waters. It is still unclear to what extent this OM constitutes a sink of carbon, and how much of it is returned to the atmosphere upon mineralization to carbon dioxide (CO2). The construction of reservoirs affects the carbon cycle by increasing OM sedimentation at the regional scale. In this study we determine the OM mineralization in the sediment of three zones (river, transition, and dam) of a tropical hydroelectric reservoir in Brazil as well as identify the composition of the carbon pool available for mineralization. We measured sediment organic carbon mineralization rates and related them to the composition of the OM, bacterial abundance and pCO2 of the surface water of the reservoir. Terrestrial OM was an important substrate for the mineralization. In the river and transition zones most of the OM was allochthonous (56 and 48%, respectively) while the dam zone had the lowest allochthonous contribution (7%). The highest mineralization rates were found in the transition zone (154.80 ± 33.50 mg C m(-) (2) d(-) (1)) and the lowest in the dam (51.60 ± 26.80 mg C m(-) (2) d(-) (1)). Moreover, mineralization rates were significantly related to bacterial abundance (r (2) = 0.50, p hydroelectric reservoirs.

  6. The CO2nnect activities (United States)

    Eugenia, Marcu


    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges we face today. A first step is the understanding the problem, more exactly what is the challenge and the differences people can make. Pupils need a wide competencies to meet the challenges of sustainable development - including climate change. The CO2nnect activities are designed to support learning which can provide pupils the abilities, skills, attitudes and awareness as well as knowledge and understanding of the issues. The project "Together for a clean and healthy world" is part of "The Global Educational Campaign CO2nnect- CO2 on the way to school" and it was held in our school in the period between February and October 2009. It contained a variety of curricular and extra-curricular activities, adapted to students aged from 11 to 15. These activities aimed to develop in students the necessary skills to understanding man's active role in improving the quality of the environment, putting an end to its degrading process and to reducing the effects of climate changes caused by the human intervention in nature, including transport- a source of CO2 pollution. The activity which I propose can be easily adapted to a wide range of age groups and linked to the curricula of many subjects: - Investigate CO2 emissions from travel to school -Share the findings using an international database -Compare and discuss CO2 emissions -Submit questions to a climate- and transport expert -Partner with other schools -Meet with people in your community to discuss emissions from transport Intended learning outcomes for pupils who participate in the CO2nnect campaign are: Understanding of the interconnected mobility- and climate change issue climate change, its causes and consequences greenhouse-gas emissions from transport and mobility the interlinking of social, environmental, cultural and economic aspects of the local transport system how individual choices and participation can contribute to creating a more sustainable development

  7. CO2 storage in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstroem, Clas; Andersson, Annika; Kling, Aasa; Bernstone, Christian; Carlsson, Anders; Liljemark, Stefan; Wall, Caroline; Erstedt, Thomas; Lindroth, Maria; Tengborg, Per; Edstroem, Mikael


    This study considers options, that could be feasible for Sweden, to transport and geologically store CO 2 , providing that technology for electricity production with CO 2 capture will be available in the future and also acceptable from cost- and reliability point of view. As a starting point, it is assumed that a new 600-1000 MW power plant, fired with coal or natural gas, will be constructed with CO 2 capture and localised to the Stockholm, Malmoe or Goeteborg areas. Of vital importance for storage of carbon dioxide in a reservoir is the possibility to monitor its distribution, i.e. its migration within the reservoir. It has been shown in the SACS-project that the distribution of carbon dioxide within the reservoir can be monitored successfully, mainly by seismic methods. Suitable geologic conditions and a large storage potential seems to exist mainly in South West Scania, where additional knowledge on geology/hydrogeology has been obtained since the year 2000 in connection to geothermal energy projects, and in the Eastern part of Denmark, bordering on South West Scania. Storage of carbon dioxide from the Stockholm area should not be excluded, but more studies are needed to clarify the storage options within this area. The possibilities to use CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery, EOR, in i.a. the North Sea should be investigated, in order to receive incomes from the CO 2 and shared costs for infrastructure, and by this also make the CO 2 regarded as a trading commodity, and thereby achieving a more favourable position concerning acceptance, legal issues and regulations. The dimensions of CO 2 -pipelines should be similar to those for natural natural gas, although regarding some aspects they have different design and construction prerequisites. To obtain cost efficiency, the transport distances should be kept short, and possibilities for co-ordinated networks with short distribution pipelines connected to common main pipelines, should be searched for. Also, synergies

  8. On a CO2 ration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, P.


    In 2 years all the large energy companies in the European Union will have a CO2 ration, including a system to trade a shortage or surplus of emission rights. A cost effective system to reduce emission, provided that the government does not auction the emission rights [nl

  9. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.


    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  10. One-pot synthetic method to prepare highly N-doped nanoporous carbons for CO2 adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Long-Yue; Park, Soo-Jin


    A one-pot synthetic method was used for the preparation of nanoporous carbon containing nitrogen from polypyrrole (PPY) using NaOH as the activated agent. The activation process was carried out under set conditions (NaOH/PPY = 2 and NaOH/PPY = 4) at different temperatures in 600–900 °C for 2 h. The effect of the activation conditions on the pore structure, surface functional groups and CO 2 adsorption capacities of the prepared N-doped activated carbons was examined. The carbon was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N2/77 K full isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The CO 2 adsorption capacity of the N-doped activated carbon was measured at 298 K and 1 bar. By dissolving the activation agents, the N-doped activated carbon exhibited high specific surface areas (755–2169 m 2 g −1 ) and high pore volumes (0.394–1.591 cm 3 g −1 ). In addition, the N-doped activated carbons contained a high N content at lower activation temperatures (7.05 wt.%). The N-doped activated carbons showed a very high CO 2 adsorption capacity of 177 mg g −1 at 298 K and 1 bar. The CO 2 adsorption capacity was found to be dependent on the microporosity and N contents. - Highlights: • A one-pot synthetic method was used for the preparation of N-doped nanoporous carbons. • Polypyrrole (PPY) were activated with NaOH under set conditions (NaOH/PPY = 2 and 4). • N-doped activated carbon exhibited high specific surface areas (2169 m 2 g −1 ). • The carbons showed a very high CO 2 adsorption capacity of 177 mg g −1 at 298 K

  11. Global energy / CO2 projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinyak, Y.


    Section headings are: (1) Social and economic problems of the 21 st century and the role of energy supply systems (2) Energy-environment interactions as a central point of energy research activities (3) New ways of technological progress and its impacts on energy demand and supply (4) Long-term global energy projections (5) Comparative analysis of global long-term energy / CO 2 studies (6) Conclusions. The author shows that, in order to alleviate the negative impacts of energy systems on the climate, it will be necessary to undertake tremendous efforts to improve the energy use efficiency, to drastically change the primary energy mix, and, at the same time, to take action to reduce greenhouse emissions from other sources and increase the CO 2 sink through enhanced reforestation. (Quittner)

  12. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM) (United States)

    Mason, Larry W.; Way, J. Douglas; Vlasse, Marcus


    The objective of CAM is to develop, test, and analyze thin film membrane materials for separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The membranes are targeted toward In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications that will operate in extraterrestrial environments and support future unmanned and human space missions. A primary application is the Sabatier Electrolysis process that uses Mars atmosphere CO2 as raw material for producing water, oxygen, and methane for rocket fuel and habitat support. Other applications include use as an inlet filter to collect and concentrate Mars atmospheric argon and nitrogen gases for habitat pressurization, and to remove CO2 from breathing gases in Closed Environment Life Support Systems (CELSS). CAM membrane materials include crystalline faujasite (FAU) zeolite and rubbery polymers such as silicone rubber (PDMS) that have been shown in the literature and via molecular simulation to favor adsorption and permeation of CO2 over nitrogen and argon. Pure gas permeation tests using commercial PDMS membranes have shown that both CO2 permeance and the separation factor relative to other gases increase as the temperature decreases, and low (Delta)P(Sub CO2) favors higher separation factors. The ideal CO2/N2 separation factor increases from 7.5 to 17.5 as temperature decreases from 22 C to -30 C. For gas mixtures containing CO2, N2, and Ar, plasticization decreased the separation factors from 4.5 to 6 over the same temperature range. We currently synthesize and test our own Na(+) FAU zeolite membranes using standard formulations and secondary growth methods on porous alumina. Preliminary tests with a Na(+) FAU membrane at 22 C show a He/SF6 ideal separation factor of 62, exceeding the Knudsen diffusion selectivity by an order of magnitude. This shows that the membrane is relatively free from large defects and associated non-selective (viscous flow) transport

  13. Fang CO2 med Aminosyrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai


    Med såkaldte “carbon capture-teknikker” er det muligt at rense røgen fra kulfyrede kraftværker, således at den er næsten helt fri for drivhusgassen CO2. Kunsten er at gøre processen tilstrækkeligt billig. Et lovende fangstredskab i denne proces er aminosyrer.......Med såkaldte “carbon capture-teknikker” er det muligt at rense røgen fra kulfyrede kraftværker, således at den er næsten helt fri for drivhusgassen CO2. Kunsten er at gøre processen tilstrækkeligt billig. Et lovende fangstredskab i denne proces er aminosyrer....

  14. Effect of CO2 enrichment and high photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) on rubisco and PEP-case activities of in vitro cultured strawberry plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desjardins, Y.; Beeson, R.; Gosselin, A.


    Standard growing conditions in vitro (low light and CO 2 ) are not conducive to autotrophy. An experiment was conducted to improve photosynthesis in vitro in the hope of increasing survival in acclimatization. A factorial experiment was elaborated where CO 2 and PPFD were supplied to in vitro cultured strawberry plants in the rooting stage. Activities of carboxylating enzymes were determined after 4 weeks of culture. The activities of non-activated and activated rubisco and PEP-Case were measured after extraction of the enzymes and a reaction with NaH 14 CO 3 followed by scintillation counting spectroscopy. High CO 2 concentration significantly increased net assimilation rates (NAR) by 165% over the control for both 1650 and 3000 ppm CO 2 . High PPFD only increased NAR by 12 and 35% for 150 and 250 μmol·m -2 ·s -1 respectively over the control. Plants grown at 3000 ppm CO 2 had the highest level of chlorophyll/g FW with 97% more than the control. The activity of PEP-Case was the highest at high light levels and high CO 2 with rates of 1.65 for 1650 ppm versus 1.22 mmol CO 2 mg -1 chl. h -1 at 250 μmol·m -2 ·s -1 . There was no difference in PEP activity at low light levels. The rubisco activity was lower at 1650 and 3000 ppm CO 2 . Increases in NAR correlate more closely to the PEP-Case than to Rubisco activity. Physiological significance of high activity of PEP-Case over rubisco will be discussed

  15. CO2 reduction by dematerialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekkert, M.P. [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Current policy for the reduction of greenhouse gases is mainly concerned with a number of types of solutions: energy saving, shifting to the use of low-carbon fuels and the implementation of sustainable energy technologies. Recent research has shown that a strategy directed at a more efficient use of materials could make a considerable contribution to reducing CO2 emissions. Moreover, the costs to society as a whole of such a measure appear to be very low.

  16. Outsourcing CO2 within China. (United States)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Davis, Steven J; Sun, Laixiang; Li, Xin; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Hubacek, Klaus


    Recent studies have shown that the high standard of living enjoyed by people in the richest countries often comes at the expense of CO2 emissions produced with technologies of low efficiency in less affluent, developing countries. Less apparent is that this relationship between developed and developing can exist within a single country's borders, with rich regions consuming and exporting high-value goods and services that depend upon production of low-cost and emission-intensive goods and services from poorer regions in the same country. As the world's largest emitter of CO2, China is a prominent and important example, struggling to balance rapid economic growth and environmental sustainability across provinces that are in very different stages of development. In this study, we track CO2 emissions embodied in products traded among Chinese provinces and internationally. We find that 57% of China's emissions are related to goods that are consumed outside of the province where they are produced. For instance, up to 80% of the emissions related to goods consumed in the highly developed coastal provinces are imported from less developed provinces in central and western China where many low-value-added but high-carbon-intensive goods are produced. Without policy attention to this sort of interprovincial carbon leakage, the less developed provinces will struggle to meet their emissions intensity targets, whereas the more developed provinces might achieve their own targets by further outsourcing. Consumption-based accounting of emissions can thus inform effective and equitable climate policy within China.

  17. Amine–mixed oxide hybrid materials for carbon dioxide adsorption from CO2/H2 mixture (United States)

    Ravi, Navin; Aishah Anuar, Siti; Yusuf, Nur Yusra Mt; Isahak, Wan Nor Roslam Wan; Shahbudin Masdar, Mohd


    Bio-hydrogen mainly contains hydrogen and high level of carbon dioxide (CO2). High concentration of CO2 lead to a limitation especially in fuel cell application. In this study, the amine-mixed oxide hybrid materials for CO2 separation from bio-hydrogen model (50% CO2:50% H2) have been studied. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations showed that the amine–mixed oxide hybrid materials successfully adsorbed CO2 physically with no chemical adsorption evidence. The dry gas of CO2/H2 mixture adsorbed physically on amine–CuO–MgO hybrid material. No carbonates were detected after several times of adsorption, which indicated the good recyclability of adsorbents. The adsorbent system of diethanolamine (DEA)/15% CuO–75% MgO showed the highest CO2 adsorption capacity of 21.2 wt% due to the presence of polar substance on MgO surface, which can adsorb CO2 at ambient condition. The alcohol group of DEA can enhance the CO2 solubility on the adsorbent surface. In the 20% CuO–50% MgO adsorbent system, DEA as amine type showed a high CO2 adsorption of 19.4 wt%. The 10% amine loading system showed that the DEA adsorption system provided high CO2 adsorption. The BET analysis confirmed that a high amine loading contributed to the decrease in CO2 adsorption due to the low surface area of the adsorbent system.

  18. CO2 Fluxes and Concentrations in a Residential Area in the Southern Hemisphere (United States)

    Weissert, L. F.; Salmond, J. A.; Turnbull, J. C.; Schwendenmann, L.


    While cities are generally major sources of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, recent research has shown that parts of urban areas may also act as CO2 sinks due to CO2 uptake by vegetation. However, currently available results are related to a large degree of uncertainty due to the limitations of the applied methods and the limited number of studies available from urban areas, particularly from the southern hemisphere. In this study, we explore the potential of eddy covariance and tracer measurements (13C and 14C isotopes of CO2) to quantify and partition CO2 fluxes and concentrations in a residential urban area in Auckland, New Zealand. Based on preliminary results from autumn and winter (March to July 2014) the residential area is a small source of CO2 (0.11 mol CO2 m-2 day-1). CO2 fluxes and concentrations follow a distinct diurnal cycle with a morning peak between 7:00 and 9:00 (max: 0.25 mol CO2 m-2 day-1/412 ppm) and midday low with negative CO2 fluxes (min: -0.17 mol CO2 m-2 day-1/392 ppm) between 10:00 and 15:00 local time, likely due to photosynthetic CO2 uptake by local vegetation. Soil CO2 efflux may explain that CO2 concentrations increase and remain high (401 ppm) throughout the night. Mean diurnal winter δ13C values are in anti-phase with CO2 concentrations and vary between -9.0 - -9.7‰. The depletion of δ13C compared to clean atmospheric air (-8.2‰) is likely a result of local CO2 sources dominated by gasoline combustion (appr. 60%) during daytime. A sector analysis (based on prevailing wind) of CO2 fluxes and concentrations indicates lower CO2 fluxes and concentrations from the vegetation-dominated sector, further demonstrating the influence of vegetation on local CO2 concentrations. These results provide an insight into the temporal and spatial variability CO2 fluxes/concentrations and potential CO2 sinks and sources from a city in the southern hemisphere and add valuable information to the global database of urban CO2 fluxes.

  19. Development of New Potassium Carbonate Sorbent for CO2 Capture under Real Flue Gas Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Esmaili


    Full Text Available In this paper, the development of a new potassium carbonateon alumina support sorbent prepared by impregnating K2CO3 with an industrial grade of Al2O3 support was investigated. The CO2 capture capacity was measured using real flue gas with 8% CO2 and 12% H2O in a fixed-bed reactor at a temperature of 65 °C using breakthrough curves. The developed sorbent showed an adsorption capacity of 66.2 mgCO2/(gr sorbent. The stability of sorbent capture capacity was higher than the reference sorbent. The SO2 impurity decreased sorbent capacity about 10%. The free carbon had a small effect on sorbent capacity after 5 cycles. After 5 cycles of adsorption and regeneration, the changes in the pore volume and surface area were 0.020 cm3/gr and 5.5 m2/gr respectively. Small changes occurred in the pore size distribution and surface area of sorbent after 5 cycles.

  20. Capture, transport and storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, B.


    The emission of greenhouse gas CO2 in industrial processes and electricity production can be reduced on a large scale. Available techniques include post-combustion, pre-combustion, the oxy-fuel process, CO2 fixation in industrial processes and CO2 mineralization. In the Netherlands, plans for CO2 capture are not developing rapidly (CCS - carbon capture and storage). [mk] [nl

  1. Temporal and spatial variations of oceanic pCO2 and air-sea CO2 flux in th Greenland Sea and the Barents Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaoka, Shin-Ichiro; Aoki, Shuji; Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Yoshikawa-Inoue, Hisayuki


    In order to elucidate the seasonal and inter annual variations of oceanic CO 2 uptake in the Greenland Sea and the Barents Sea, the partial pressure of CO 2 in the surface ocean (pCO 2 sea ) was measured in all seasons between 1992 and 2001. We derived monthly varying relationships between pCO 2 sea and sea surface temperature (SST) and combined them with the SST data from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis to determine pCO 2 sea and air-sea CO 2 flux in these seas. The pCO 2 sea values were normalized to the year 1995 by assuming that pCO 2 sea increased at the same growth rate (1.5 μatm/yr) of the pCO 2 in the air (pCO 2 air ) between 1992 and 2001. In 1995, the annual net air-sea CO 2 fluxes were evaluated to be 52 ± 20 gC/m 2 /yr in the Greenland Sea and 46 ± 18 gC/m 2 /yr in the Barents Sea. The CO 2 flux into the ocean reached its maximum in winter and minimum in summer. The wind speed and (delta)pCO 2 (=pCO 2 air -pCO 2 sea ) exerted a greater influence on the seasonal variation than the sea ice coverage. The annual CO 2 uptake examined in this study (70-80 deg N, 20 deg W-40 deg E) was estimated to be 0.050 ± 0.020 GtC/yr in 1995. The inter annual variation in the annual CO 2 uptake was found to be positively correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) via wind strength but negatively correlated with (delta)pCO 2 and the sea ice coverage. The present results indicate that the variability in wind speed and sea ice coverage play a major role, while that in (delta)pCO 2 plays a minor role, in determining the interannual variation of CO 2 uptake in this area

  2. Achieving Negative CO2 Emissions by Protecting Ocean Chemistry (United States)

    Cannara, A.


    Industrial Age CO2 added 1.8 trillion tons to the atmosphere. About ¼ has dissolved in seas. The rest still dissolves, bolstered by present emissions of >30 gigatons/year. Airborne & oceanic CO2 have induced sea warming & ocean acidification*. This paper suggests a way to induce a negative CO2-emissions environment for climate & oceans - preserve the planet`s dominant CO2-sequestration system ( 1 gigaton/year via calcifying sea life**) by promptly protecting ocean chemistry via expansion of clean power for both lime production & replacement of CO2-emitting sources. Provide natural alkali (CaO, MgO…) to oceans to maintain average pH above 8.0, as indicated by marine biologists. That alkali (lime) is available from past calcifying life's limestone deposits, so can be returned safely to seas once its CO2 is removed & permanently sequestered (Carbfix, BSCP, etc.***). Limestone is a dense source of CO2 - efficient processing per mole sequestered. Distribution of enough lime is possible via cargo-ship transits - 10,000 tons lime/transit, 1 million transits/year. New Panamax ships carry 120,000 tons. Just 10,000/transit allows gradual reduction of present & past CO2 emissions effects, if coupled with combustion-power reductions. CO2 separation from limestone, as in cement plants, consumes 400kWHrs of thermal energy per ton of output lime (or CO2). To combat yearly CO2 dissolution in seas, we must produce & distribute about 10gigatons of lime/year. Only nuclear power produces the clean energy (thousands of terawatt hours) to meet this need - 1000 dedicated 1GWe reactors, processing 12 cubic miles of limestone/year & sequestering CO2 into a similar mass of basalt. Basalt is common in the world. Researchers*** report it provides good, mineralized CO2 sequestration. The numbers above allow gradual CO2 reduction in air and seas, if we return to President Kennedy's energy path: We're on an environmental precipice due to failure to eliminate


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia LUBAŃSKA

    Full Text Available Z pojęciem ochrony środowiska wiąże się bardzo szeroko w ostatnim czasie omawiane zagadnienie dotyczące ograniczenia emisji CO2. Konsekwencją globalnych zmian klimatu wywołanego przez ludzi jest wzrost stężenia atmosferycznego gazów cieplarnianych, które powodują nasilający się efekt cieplarniany. Wzrasta na świecie liczba ludności, a co za tym idzie wzrasta konsumpcja na jednego mieszkańca, szczególnie w krajach szeroko rozwiniętych gospodarczo. Protokół z Kioto ściśle określa działania jakie należy podjąć w celu zmniejszenia stężenia dwutlenku węgla w atmosferze. Pomimo maksymalnej optymalizacji procesu spalania paliw kopalnianych wykorzystywanych do produkcji energii, zastosowania odnawialnych źródeł energii zmiana klimatu jest nieunikniona i konsekwentnie będzie postępować przez kolejne dekady. Prognozuje się, że duże znaczenie odegra nowoczesna technologia, która ma za zadanie wychwycenie CO2 a następnie składowanie go w odpowiednio wybranych formacjach geologicznych (CCS- Carbon Capture and Storage. Eksperci są zgodni, że ta technologia w niedalekiej przyszłości stanie się rozwiązaniem pozwalającym ograniczyć ogromną ilość emisji CO2 pochodzącą z procesów wytwarzania energii z paliw kopalnych. Z analiz Raportu IPCC wynika, iż technologia CSS może się przyczynić do ok. 20% redukcji emisji dwutlenku węgla przewidzianej do 2050 roku [3]. Zastosowanie jej napotyka na wiele barier, nie tylko technologicznych i ekonomicznych, ale także społecznych. Inną metodą dającą ujemne źródło emisji CO2 jest możliwość wykorzystania obszarów leśnych o odpowiedniej strukturze drzewostanu. Środkiem do tego celu, oprócz ograniczenia zużycia emisjogennych paliw kopalnych (przy zachowaniu zasad zrównoważonego rozwoju może być intensyfikacja zalesień. Zwiększanie lesistości i prawidłowa gospodarka leśna należy do najbardziej efektywnych sposobów kompensowania

  4. Outsourcing CO2 within China (United States)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Davis, Steven J.; Sun, Laixiang; Li, Xin; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Hubacek, Klaus


    Recent studies have shown that the high standard of living enjoyed by people in the richest countries often comes at the expense of CO2 emissions produced with technologies of low efficiency in less affluent, developing countries. Less apparent is that this relationship between developed and developing can exist within a single country’s borders, with rich regions consuming and exporting high-value goods and services that depend upon production of low-cost and emission-intensive goods and services from poorer regions in the same country. As the world’s largest emitter of CO2, China is a prominent and important example, struggling to balance rapid economic growth and environmental sustainability across provinces that are in very different stages of development. In this study, we track CO2 emissions embodied in products traded among Chinese provinces and internationally. We find that 57% of China’s emissions are related to goods that are consumed outside of the province where they are produced. For instance, up to 80% of the emissions related to goods consumed in the highly developed coastal provinces are imported from less developed provinces in central and western China where many low–value-added but high–carbon-intensive goods are produced. Without policy attention to this sort of interprovincial carbon leakage, the less developed provinces will struggle to meet their emissions intensity targets, whereas the more developed provinces might achieve their own targets by further outsourcing. Consumption-based accounting of emissions can thus inform effective and equitable climate policy within China. PMID:23754377

  5. M2 to D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhi, Sunil; Papageorgakis, Constantinos


    We examine the recently proposed ''3-algebra'' field theory for multiple M2-branes and show that when a scalar field valued in the 3-algebra develops a vacuum expectation value, the resulting Higgs mechanism has the novel effect of promoting topological (Chern-Simons) to dynamical (Yang-Mills) gauge fields. This leads to a precise derivation of the maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on multiple D2-branes and thereby provides a relationship between 3-algebras and Yang-Mills theories. We discuss the physical interpretation of this result.

  6. Trading CO2 emission; Verhandelbaarheid van CO2-emissies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Waal, J.F.; Looijenga, A.; Moor, R.; Wissema, E.W.J. [Afdeling Energie, Ministerie van VROM, The Hague (Netherlands)


    Systems for CO2-emission trading can take many shapes as developments in Europe show. European developments for emission trading tend to comprehend cap and-trade systems for large emission sources. In the Netherlands a different policy is in preparation. A trading system for sheltered sectors with an option to buy reductions from exposed sectors will be further developed by a Commission, appointed by the minister of environment. Exposed sectors are committed to belong to the top of the world on the area of energy-efficiency. The authors point out that a cap on the distribution of energy carriers natural gas, electricity and fuel seems to be an interesting option to shape the trade scheme. A cap on the distribution of electricity is desirable, but not easy to implement. The possible success of the system depends partly on an experiment with emission reductions. 10 refs.

  7. Geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernichowski-Lauriol, I.


    The industrial storage of CO 2 is comprised of three steps: - capture of CO 2 where it is produced (power plants, cement plants, etc.); - transport (pipe lines or boats); - storage, mainly underground, called geological sequestration... Three types of reservoirs are considered: - salted deep aquifers - they offer the biggest storage capacity; - exhausted oil and gas fields; - non-exploited deep coal mine streams. The two latter storage types may allow the recovery of sellable products, which partially or totally offsets the storage costs. This process is largely used in the petroleum industry to improve the productivity of an oil field, and is called FOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery). A similar process is applied in the coal mining industry to recover the imprisoned gas, and is called ECBM (Enhanced Coal Bed methane). Two storage operations have been initiated in Norway and in Canada, as well as research programmes in Europe, North America, Australia and Japan. International organisations to stimulate this technology have been created such as the 'Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum' and 'the Intergovernmental Group for Climate Change'. This technology will be taken into account in the instruments provided by the Tokyo Protocol. (author)

  8. Alberta industrial synergy CO2 programs initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, E.


    The various industrial sectors within Alberta produce about 350,000 tonnes of CO 2 per day. This presentation was concerned with how this large volume and high concentration of CO 2 can be used in industrial and agricultural applications, because every tonne of CO 2 used for such purposes is a tonne that does not end up in the atmosphere. There is a good potential for an industrial synergy between the producers and users of CO 2 . The Alberta Industrial Synergy CO 2 Programs Initiative was established to ultimately achieve a balance between the producers of CO 2 and the users of CO 2 by creating ways to use the massive quantities of CO 2 produced by Alberta's hydrocarbon-based economy. The Alberta CO 2 Research Steering Committee was created to initiate and support CO 2 programs such as: (1) CO 2 use in enhanced oil recovery, (2) creation of a CO 2 production inventory, (3) survey of CO 2 users and potential users, (4) investigation of process issues such as power generation, oil sands and cement manufacturing, and (5) biofixation by plants, (6) other disposal options (e.g. in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, in aquifers, in tailings ponds, in coal beds). The single most important challenge was identified as 'rationalizing the formation of the necessary infrastructure'. Failing to do that will greatly impede efforts directed towards CO 2 utilization

  9. Submesoscale CO2 variability across an upwelling front off Peru (United States)

    Köhn, Eike E.; Thomsen, Sören; Arévalo-Martínez, Damian L.; Kanzow, Torsten


    As a major source for atmospheric CO2, the Peruvian upwelling region exhibits strong variability in surface fCO2 on short spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the physical processes driving the strong variability is of fundamental importance for constraining the effect of marine emissions from upwelling regions on the global CO2 budget. In this study, a frontal decay on length scales of 𝒪(10 km) was observed off the Peruvian coast following a pronounced decrease in down-frontal (equatorward) wind speed with a time lag of 9 h. Simultaneously, the sea-to-air flux of CO2 on the inshore (cold) side of the front dropped from up to 80 to 10 mmol m-2 day-1, while the offshore (warm) side of the front was constantly outgassing at a rate of 10-20 mmol m-2 day-1. Based on repeated ship transects the decay of the front was observed to occur in two phases. The first phase was characterized by a development of coherent surface temperature anomalies which gained in amplitude over 6-9 h. The second phase was characterized by a disappearance of the surface temperature front within 6 h. Submesoscale mixed-layer instabilities were present but seem too slow to completely remove the temperature gradient in this short time period. Dynamics such as a pressure-driven gravity current appear to be a likely mechanism behind the evolution of the front.

  10. Termites as a factor of spatial differentiation of CO2 fluxes from the soils of monsoon tropical forests in Southern Vietnam (United States)

    Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Anichkin, Alexander


    Termites play the key role in biogeochemical transformation of organic matter acting as "moderators" of fluxes of carbon and other nutrients. They destroy not only leave litter but also coarse woody debris. Termites translocate considerable masses of dead organic materials into their houses, which leads to significant accumulations of organic matter in termite mounds. We studied the impact of termite mounds on redistribution of CO2 fluxes from soils in semi-deciduous monsoon tropical forests of southern Vietnam. Field study was performed in the Cat Tien National Park (11°21'-11°48'N, 107°10'-107°34'E). The spatial and temporary dynamics of CO2 fluxes from soils (Andosols) populated by termites were studied in plain lagerstroemia (Lagerstroemia calyculata Kurz) monsoon tropical forests. The rate of CO2 emission from the soil surface was measured by closed chamber method two-three times per month from November 2010 to December 2011. Permanent cylindrical PVC chambers (9 cm in diameter and 15 cm in height) were installed beyond the areas occupied by termite mounds (5 replications). Litter was not removed from the soil surface before the measurements. To estimate the spatial heterogeneity of the CO2 emission fluxes from soils populated by termites, a special 'termite' plot (TerPl) was equipped. It was 10×10 m in size and included three termite mounds: one mound built up by Globitermes sulphureus and two mounds populated by termites of the Odontotermes genus. Overall, 52 PVC chambers were installed permanently on the 'termite' plot (ca. 1 m apart from one another). The CO2 emission rate from TerPl was also measured by chamber closed method once in the dry season (April) and twice through the wet season (July and August). The average rate of CO2 emission from termite mounds was two times higher than that from the surrounding area (SurAr). In the dry season, it comprised 91±7 mg C/m2/h from the surrounding soils and 196±16 mg C/m2/h from the termite mounds. In the

  11. Acclimation of the summer annual species, lolium temulentum, to CO(2) enrichment (United States)

    Lewis; Peratoner; Cairns; Causton; Foyer


    Lolium temulentum L. Ba 3081 was grown hydroponically in air (350 &mgr;mol mol(-1) CO(2)) and elevated CO(2) (700 &mgr;mol mol(-1) CO(2)) at two irradiances (150 and 500 &mgr;mol m(-2) s(-1)) for 35 days at which point the plants were harvested. Elevated CO(2) did not modify relative growth rate or biomass at either irradiance. Foliar carbon-to-nitrogen ratios were decreased at elevated CO(2) and plants had a greater number of shorter tillers, particularly at the lower growth irradiance. Both light-limited and light-saturated rates of photosynthesis were stimulated. The amount of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) protein was increased at elevated CO(2), but maximum extractable Rubisco activities were not significantly increased. A pronounced decrease in the Rubisco activation state was found with CO(2) enrichment, particularly at the higher growth irradiance. Elevated-CO(2)-induced changes in leaf carbohydrate composition were small in comparison to those caused by changes in irradiance. No CO(2)-dependent effects on fructan biosynthesis were observed. Leaf respiration rates were increased by 68% in plants grown with CO(2) enrichment and low light. We conclude that high CO(2) will only result in increased biomass if total light input favourably increases the photosynthesis-to-respiration ratio. At low irradiances, biomass is more limited by increased rates of respiration than by CO(2)-induced enhancement of photosynthesis.

  12. Retrieval of average CO2 fluxes by combining in situ CO2 measurements and backscatter lidar information (United States)

    Gibert, Fabien; Schmidt, Martina; Cuesta, Juan; Ciais, Philippe; Ramonet, Michel; Xueref, IrèNe; Larmanou, Eric; Flamant, Pierre Henri


    The present paper deals with a boundary layer budgeting method which makes use of observations from various in situ and remote sensing instruments to infer regional average net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2. Measurements of CO2 within and above the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) by in situ sensors, in conjunction with a precise knowledge of the change in ABL height by lidar and radiosoundings, enable to infer diurnal and seasonal NEE variations. Near-ground in situ CO measurements are used to discriminate natural and anthropogenic contributions of CO2 diurnal variations in the ABL. The method yields mean NEE that amounts to 5 μmol m-2 s-1 during the night and -20 μmol m-2 s-1 in the middle of the day between May and July. A good agreement is found with the expected NEE accounting for a mixed wheat field and forest area during winter season, representative of the mesoscale ecosystems in the Paris area according to the trajectory of an air column crossing the landscape. Daytime NEE is seen to follow the vegetation growth and the change in the ratio diffuse/direct radiation. The CO2 vertical mixing flux during the rise of the atmospheric boundary layer is also estimated and seems to be the main cause of the large decrease of CO2 mixing ratio in the morning. The outcomes on CO2 flux estimate are compared to eddy-covariance measurements on a barley field. The importance of various sources of error and uncertainty on the retrieval is discussed. These errors are estimated to be less than 15%; the main error resulted from anthropogenic emissions.

  13. [Periodic characteristics of soil CO2 flux in mangrove wetland of Quanzhou Bay, China]. (United States)

    Wang, Zong-Lin; Wu, Yan-You; Xing, De-Ke; Liu, Rong-Cheng; Zhou Gui-Yao; Zhao, Kuan


    Mangrove wetland ecosystem in Quanzhou Bay in Fujian Province is newly restored with a regular semidiurnal tide. Soil CO2 concentration in the mangrove soil was determined by Li-840 portable gas analyzer, and periodic characteristics of soil CO2 emission was investigated. The soil CO2 flux in the wetland soil was relatively small because the mangrove was young. The change trends of soil CO2 concentration and flux with time were consistent in Kandelia obovate and Aegiceras corniculatum communities in the intertidal periods. The CO2 concentration and flux in the wetland soil were 557.08-2211.50 μmol · mol(-1) and -0.21-0.40 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1), respectively. The average CO2 flux in the wetland soil was 0.26 μmol · mol(-1) · s(-1) in the intertidal of morning and evening tides (early intertidal) and -0.01 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1) in the intertidal of evening and morning tides (late intertidal), respectively. At the same time after the tide, the concentration and flux of CO2 in the mangrove soil in early intertidal was higher than that in late intertidal. In early intertidal, the relationship between the flux and instantaneous concentration of CO2 in the wetland soil was expressed as a bell-shaped curve, and CO2 flux increased first and then decreased with the increasing CO2 concentration, which was in conformity with Gaussian distribution.

  14. ISLSCP II Globalview: Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GlobalView Carbon Dioxide (CO2) data product contains synchronized and smoothed time series of atmospheric CO2 concentrations at selected sites that were created...

  15. Basic study of CO2 fixation using a combination of seaweed and shells; Kaiso to kairui wo kumiawaseta CO2 koteika kiso kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, H. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)


    CO2 fixed in organic matters return to the atmosphere after putrefication and decomposition, but it is also known that CO2 fixed in inorganic shells stays there permanently. A study is made in this report about the fixation of CO2 in organic matters by use of the ulva and anchored diatom known to be high in CO2 trapping capability, and the study also covers the raising of shells aiming at the fixation of CO2 in inorganic matters. The ulva is raised in a cylindrical raceway type culture water tank, and the anchored diatom in a cylindrical culture unit, and breeding conditions under which they multiply at the highest rate are determined. Their CO2 fixation rates are, respectively, 92.76mg/liter/day and 25.45mg/liter/day, which may be converted, respectively, into 147.1 ton and 5.8 ton of CO2 per hectare per year. Fixed CO2 amounts are tentatively calculated using the above-said figures combined with the raising of shells, and it is found that CO2 may be effectively fixed when the ulva is raised in a 1-hectare area and the shells in a 3.63-hectare area. In this case, the annual CO2 fixation amounts are estimated at 74.1 ton in inorganic matters and 3.9 ton in organic matters. 6 figs.

  16. Extraction Of Cobalt From Spent CMB Catalyst Using Supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo S.-H.


    Full Text Available The metal extraction from spent CMB catalyst using supercritical CO2(scCO2 was investigated with single organic system, binary organic system and ternary organic system to extract metal ions. Leaching solution of spent CMB catalyst containing 389 mg L−1 Co2+, 187 mg L−1 Mn2+, 133 mg L−1 Na+, 14.97 mg L−1 Ca2+ and 13.2 mg L−1 Mg2+. The method consists of scCO2/ligands complexation process and metal extraction process at 60°C and 200bar. The result showed the Co and Mn was selectively extracted from Mg, Ca and Na in the ternary system of mixture of Cyanex272, DEA and Alamine304-I.

  17. Bioelectrochemical conversion of CO2 to chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bajracharya, Suman; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Strik, David P.B.T.B.; Pant, Deepak


    The recent concept of microbial electrosynthesis (MES) has evolved as an electricity-driven production technology for chemicals from low-value carbon dioxide (CO2) using micro-organisms as biocatalysts. MES from CO2 comprises bioelectrochemical reduction of CO2 to multi-carbon organic compounds

  18. Enhanced Selectivity and Uptake Capacity of CO2 and Toluene Adsorption in Co0.5 M0.33 MoS4 (M= Sb or Y) Chalcogels by Impregnated Metal Salts

    KAUST Repository

    Adhiam, Fatima Abdullah Ahmed


    The synthesis of metal chalcogenide aerogels Co0.5M0.33MoS4 (M= Sb or Y) by the sol-gel method is reported. In this system, the building blocks [MoS4]2− chelated with Co2+ and (Sb3+) or (Y3+) salts in nonaqueous solvents forming amorphous networks with a gel property. The chalcogels obtained after supercritical drying have BET surface areas of 176 m2 g−1 (Co0.5Sb0.33MoS4) and 145 m2 g−1 (Co0.5Y0.33MoS4). Electron microscopy and physisorption studies reveal that the new materials are porous with wide pore size distribution and average pore width of 16 nm. These chalcogels show higher adsorption capacity of toluene vapor (Co0.5Sb0.33MoS4: 387 mg g−1) and (Co0.5Y0.33MoS4: 304 mg g−1) over cyclohexane vapor and high selectivity of CO2 over CH4 or H2, Co0.5Sb0.33MoS4 (CO2/H2: 80 and CO2/CH4: 21), Co0.5Y0.33MoS4 (CO2/H2: 27 and CO2/CH4: 15). We also demonstrated that the impregnation of various metal species like Li+, Mg2+, and Ni2+ significantly enhanced the uptake capacity and selectivity of toluene and CO2 adsorptions in the chacogels.

  19. Forest succession at elevated CO2; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, James S.; Schlesinger, William H.


    We tested hypotheses concerning the response of forest succession to elevated CO2 in the FACTS-1 site at the Duke Forest. We quantified growth and survival of naturally recruited seedlings, tree saplings, vines, and shrubs under ambient and elevated CO2. We planted seeds and seedlings to augment sample sites. We augmented CO2 treatments with estimates of shade tolerance and nutrient limitation while controlling for soil and light effects to place CO2 treatments within the context of natural variability at the site. Results are now being analyzed and used to parameterize forest models of CO2 response

  20. Residual CO2 trapping in Indiana limestone. (United States)

    El-Maghraby, Rehab M; Blunt, Martin J


    We performed core flooding experiments on Indiana limestone using the porous plate method to measure the amount of trapped CO(2) at a temperature of 50 °C and two pressures: 4.2 and 9 MPa. Brine was mixed with CO(2) for equilibration, then the mixture was circulated through a sacrificial core. Porosity and permeability tests conducted before and after 884 h of continuous core flooding confirmed negligible dissolution. A trapping curve for supercritical (sc)CO(2) in Indiana showing the relationship between the initial and residual CO(2) saturations was measured and compared with that of gaseous CO(2). The results were also compared with scCO(2) trapping in Berea sandstone at the same conditions. A scCO(2) residual trapping end point of 23.7% was observed, indicating slightly less trapping of scCO(2) in Indiana carbonates than in Berea sandstone. There is less trapping for gaseous CO(2) (end point of 18.8%). The system appears to be more water-wet under scCO(2) conditions, which is different from the trend observed in Berea; we hypothesize that this is due to the greater concentration of Ca(2+) in brine at higher pressure. Our work indicates that capillary trapping could contribute to the immobilization of CO(2) in carbonate aquifers.

  1. CO2 clearance by membrane lungs. (United States)

    Sun, Liqun; Kaesler, Andreas; Fernando, Piyumindri; Thompson, Alex J; Toomasian, John M; Bartlett, Robert H


    Commercial membrane lungs are designed to transfer a specific amount of oxygen per unit of venous blood flow. Membrane lungs are much more efficient at removing CO 2 than adding oxygen, but the range of CO 2 transfer is rarely reported. Commercial membrane lungs were studied with the goal of evaluating CO 2 removal capacity. CO 2 removal was measured in 4 commercial membrane lungs under standardized conditions. CO 2 clearance can be greater than 4 times that of oxygen at a given blood flow when the gas to blood flow ratio is elevated to 4:1 or 8:1. The CO 2 clearance was less dependent on surface area and configuration than oxygen transfer. Any ECMO system can be used for selective CO 2 removal.

  2. Extraction of stevia glycosides with CO2 + water, CO2 + ethanol, and CO2 + water + ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pasquel


    Full Text Available Stevia leaves are an important source of natural sugar substitute. There are some restrictions on the use of stevia extract because of its distinctive aftertaste. Some authors attribute this to soluble material other than the stevia glycosides, even though it is well known that stevia glycosides have to some extent a bitter taste. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to develop a process to obtain stevia extract of a better quality. The proposed process includes two steps: i Pretreatment of the leaves by SCFE; ii Extraction of the stevia glycosides by SCFE using CO2 as solvent and water and/or ethanol as cosolvent. The mean total yield for SCFE pretreatment was 3.0%. The yields for SCFE with cosolvent of stevia glycosides were below 0.50%, except at 120 bar, 16°C, and 9.5% (molar of water. Under this condition, total yield was 3.4%. The quality of the glycosidic fraction with respect to its capacity as sweetener was better for the SCFE extract as compared to extract obtained by the conventional process. The overall extraction curves were well described by the Lack extended model.

  3. Soil organic carbon redistribution by water erosion--the role of CO2 emissions for the carbon budget. (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Cammeraat, Erik L H; Romeijn, Paul; Kalbitz, Karsten


    A better process understanding of how water erosion influences the redistribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) is sorely needed to unravel the role of soil erosion for the carbon (C) budget from local to global scales. The main objective of this study was to determine SOC redistribution and the complete C budget of a loess soil affected by water erosion. We measured fluxes of SOC, dissolved organic C (DOC) and CO2 in a pseudo-replicated rainfall-simulation experiment. We characterized different C fractions in soils and redistributed sediments using density fractionation and determined C enrichment ratios (CER) in the transported sediments. Erosion, transport and subsequent deposition resulted in significantly higher CER of the sediments exported ranging between 1.3 and 4.0. In the exported sediments, C contents (mg per g soil) of particulate organic C (POC, C not bound to soil minerals) and mineral-associated organic C (MOC) were both significantly higher than those of non-eroded soils indicating that water erosion resulted in losses of C-enriched material both in forms of POC and MOC. The averaged SOC fluxes as particles (4.7 g C m(-2) yr(-1)) were 18 times larger than DOC fluxes. Cumulative emission of soil CO2 slightly decreased at the erosion zone while increased by 56% and 27% at the transport and depositional zone, respectively, in comparison to non-eroded soil. Overall, CO2 emission is the predominant form of C loss contributing to about 90.5% of total erosion-induced C losses in our 4-month experiment, which were equal to 18 g C m(-2). Nevertheless, only 1.5% of the total redistributed C was mineralized to CO2 indicating a large stabilization after deposition. Our study also underlines the importance of C losses by particles and as DOC for understanding the effects of water erosion on the C balance at the interface of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

  4. Variability in soil CO2 production and surface CO2 efflux across riparian-hillslope transitions (United States)

    Vincent Jerald. Pacific


    The spatial and temporal controls on soil CO2 production and surface CO2 efflux have been identified as an outstanding gap in our understanding of carbon cycling. I investigated both the spatial and temporal variability of soil CO2 concentrations and surface CO2 efflux across eight topographically distinct riparian-hillslope transitions in the ~300 ha subalpine upper-...

  5. CO2 flux from Javanese mud volcanism. (United States)

    Queißer, M; Burton, M R; Arzilli, F; Chiarugi, A; Marliyani, G I; Anggara, F; Harijoko, A


    Studying the quantity and origin of CO 2 emitted by back-arc mud volcanoes is critical to correctly model fluid-dynamical, thermodynamical, and geochemical processes that drive their activity and to constrain their role in the global geochemical carbon cycle. We measured CO 2 fluxes of the Bledug Kuwu mud volcano on the Kendeng Fold and thrust belt in the back arc of Central Java, Indonesia, using scanning remote sensing absorption spectroscopy. The data show that the expelled gas is rich in CO 2 with a volume fraction of at least 16 vol %. A lower limit CO 2 flux of 1.4 kg s -1 (117 t d -1 ) was determined, in line with the CO 2 flux from the Javanese mud volcano LUSI. Extrapolating these results to mud volcanism from the whole of Java suggests an order of magnitude total CO 2 flux of 3 kt d -1 , comparable with the expected back-arc efflux of magmatic CO 2 . After discussing geochemical, geological, and geophysical evidence we conclude that the source of CO 2 observed at Bledug Kuwu is likely a mixture of thermogenic, biogenic, and magmatic CO 2 , with faulting controlling potential pathways for magmatic fluids. This study further demonstrates the merit of man-portable active remote sensing instruments for probing natural gas releases, enabling bottom-up quantification of CO 2 fluxes.

  6. Modeling of CO2 storage in aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savioli, Gabriela B; Santos, Juan E


    Storage of CO 2 in geological formations is a means of mitigating the greenhouse effect. Saline aquifers are a good alternative as storage sites due to their large volume and their common occurrence in nature. The first commercial CO 2 injection project is that of the Sleipner field in the Utsira Sand aquifer (North Sea). Nevertheless, very little was known about the effectiveness of CO 2 sequestration over very long periods of time. In this way, numerical modeling of CO 2 injection and seismic monitoring is an important tool to understand the behavior of CO 2 after injection and to make long term predictions in order to prevent CO 2 leaks from the storage into the atmosphere. The description of CO 2 injection into subsurface formations requires an accurate fluid-flow model. To simulate the simultaneous flow of brine and CO 2 we apply the Black-Oil formulation for two phase flow in porous media, which uses the PVT data as a simplified thermodynamic model. Seismic monitoring is modeled using Biot's equations of motion describing wave propagation in fluid-saturated poroviscoelastic solids. Numerical examples of CO 2 injection and time-lapse seismics using data of the Utsira formation show the capability of this methodology to monitor the migration and dispersal of CO 2 after injection.

  7. Explaining CO2 fluctuations observed in snowpacks (United States)

    Graham, Laura; Risk, David


    Winter soil carbon dioxide (CO2) respiration is a significant and understudied component of the global carbon (C) cycle. Winter soil CO2 fluxes can be surprisingly variable, owing to physical factors such as snowpack properties and wind. This study aimed to quantify the effects of advective transport of CO2 in soil-snow systems on the subdiurnal to diurnal (hours to days) timescale, use an enhanced diffusion model to replicate the effects of CO2 concentration depletions from persistent winds, and use a model-measure pairing to effectively explore what is happening in the field. We took continuous measurements of CO2 concentration gradients and meteorological data at a site in the Cape Breton Highlands of Nova Scotia, Canada, to determine the relationship between wind speeds and CO2 levels in snowpacks. We adapted a soil CO2 diffusion model for the soil-snow system and simulated stepwise changes in transport rate over a broad range of plausible synthetic cases. The goal was to mimic the changes we observed in CO2 snowpack concentration to help elucidate the mechanisms (diffusion, advection) responsible for observed variations. On subdiurnal to diurnal timescales with varying winds and constant snow levels, a strong negative relationship between wind speed and CO2 concentration within the snowpack was often identified. Modelling clearly demonstrated that diffusion alone was unable to replicate the high-frequency CO2 fluctuations, but simulations using above-atmospheric snowpack diffusivities (simulating advective transport within the snowpack) reproduced snow CO2 changes of the observed magnitude and speed. This confirmed that wind-induced ventilation contributed to episodic pulsed emissions from the snow surface and to suppressed snowpack concentrations. This study improves our understanding of winter CO2 dynamics to aid in continued quantification of the annual global C cycle and demonstrates a preference for continuous wintertime CO2 flux measurement systems.

  8. Porous Organic Polymers for CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Teng, Baiyang


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has long been regarded as the major greenhouse gas, which leads to numerous negative effects on global environment. The capture and separation of CO2 by selective adsorption using porous materials proves to be an effective way to reduce the emission of CO2 to atmosphere. Porous organic polymers (POPs) are promising candidates for this application due to their readily tunable textual properties and surface functionalities. The objective of this thesis work is to develop new POPs with high CO2 adsorption capacities and CO2/N2 selectivities for post-combustion effluent (e.g. flue gas) treatment. We will also exploit the correlation between the CO2 capture performance of POPs and their textual properties/functionalities. Chapters Two focuses on the study of a group of porous phenolic-aldehyde polymers (PPAPs) synthesized by a catalyst-free method, the CO2 capture capacities of these PPAPs exceed 2.0 mmol/g at 298 K and 1 bar, while keeping CO2/N2 selectivity of more than 30 at the same time. Chapter Three reports the gas adsorption results of different hyper-cross-linked polymers (HCPs), which indicate that heterocyclo aromatic monomers can greatly enhance polymers’ CO2/N2 selectivities, and the N-H bond is proved to the active CO2 adsorption center in the N-contained (e.g. pyrrole) HCPs, which possess the highest selectivities of more than 40 at 273 K when compared with other HCPs. Chapter Four emphasizes on the chemical modification of a new designed polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM) with high CO2/N2 selectivity (50 at 273 K), whose experimental repeatability and chemical stability prove excellent. In Chapter Five, we demonstrate an improvement of both CO2 capture capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity by doping alkali metal ions into azo-polymers, which leads a promising method to the design of new porous organic polymers.

  9. Metamorphic reprocessing of a serpentinized carbonate-bearing peridotite after detachment from the mantle wedge: A P-T path constrained from textures and phase diagrams in the system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-CO 2-H 2O (United States)

    Mposkos, E.; Baziotis, I.; Proyer, A.


    In the central Rhodope mountains of Greece a carbonate-bearing metaperidotite lens ˜ 200 × 500 m in size crops out as part of the high- to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic Upper Sidironero Complex ˜ 500 m SE of the Gorgona Village, north of Xanthi town. It is composed primarily of coarse grained (3-20 mm in size) olivine and orthopyroxene, medium grained clinohumite and medium to fine grained tremolite, chlorite, dolomite, magnesite, talc, antigorite and various spinel phases. Whole-rock chemistry, mineral textures and compositions, and phase diagram calculations show that the metaperidotite was subjected to a prograde HP metamorphism, isofacial with the surrounding migmatitic gneisses, metapelites and amphibolites. The prograde character of metamorphism is demonstrated by inclusions of talc, antigorite, chlorite, dolomite, magnesite and Ti-clinohumite in ferrit-chromite, olivine, and orthopyroxene, as well as of olivine in orthopyroxene, and by the typical change in composition of zoned spinel minerals from ferrit-chromite in the core to chromian spinel at the rim. The prograde path is characterized by successive growth of amphibole, Ti-clinohumite, olivine and orthopyroxene, followed by the breakdown of Ti-clinohumite to olivine + Mg-ilmenite and of chlorite to olivine + spinel, probably during exhumation. The construction of a partial petrogenetic P- T grid in the system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-CO 2-H 2O (CMASCH) for Ca-poor ultramafic bulk compositions has proven highly useful for the reconstruction of the metamorphic evolution and a P- T path, indicating that the use of univariant reactions in mixed volatile systems is highly warranted. The P- T path is clearly constrained to pressures below 1.5-1.7 GPa by the absence of clinopyroxene. These pressures are slightly lower than those recorded in the closely associated Jurassic eclogites and much lower than those recorded in the diamond-bearing gneisses 5 km to the south in the same tectonic unit. The carbonate

  10. Continuous CO2 capture and MSWI fly ash stabilization, utilizing novel dynamic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jianguo; Du Xuejuan; Chen Maozhe; Zhang Chang


    Novel dynamic equipment with gas in and out continuously was developed to study the capture capacity of CO 2 . Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash has a high capture rate of CO 2 in CO 2 -rich gas. Fly ash can sequester pure CO 2 rapidly, and its capacity is 16.3 g CO 2 /100 g fly ash with no water added and 21.4 g CO 2 /100 g fly ash with 20% water added. For simulated incineration gas containing 12% CO 2 , the capture rate decreased and the capacity was 13.2 g CO 2 /100 g fly ash with no water added and 18.5 g CO 2 /100 g fly ash with 20% water added. After accelerated carbonation, the C and O contents increased, indicating CO 2 capture in the fly ash; CO 2 combines with Ca(OH) 2 to form CaCO 3 , which increased the CaCO 3 content from 12.5 to 54.3%. The leaching of Pb markedly decreased from 24.48 to 0.111 mg/L. - Novel dynamic equipment designed to capture CO 2 by fly ash is more suitable for engineering application.

  11. Metal-Organic Framework-Stabilized CO2/Water Interfacial Route for Photocatalytic CO2 Conversion. (United States)

    Luo, Tian; Zhang, Jianling; Li, Wei; He, Zhenhong; Sun, Xiaofu; Shi, Jinbiao; Shao, Dan; Zhang, Bingxing; Tan, Xiuniang; Han, Buxing


    Here, we propose a CO 2 /water interfacial route for photocatalytic CO 2 conversion by utilizing a metal-organic framework (MOF) as both an emulsifier and a catalyst. The CO 2 reduction occurring at the CO 2 /water interface produces formate with remarkably enhanced efficiency as compared with that in conventional solvent. The route is efficient, facile, adjustable, and environmentally benign, which is applicable for the CO 2 transformation photocatalyzed by different kinds of MOFs.

  12. Advanced technology development reducing CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sup


    Responding to Korean government policies on green growth and global energy/ environmental challenges, SK energy has been developing new technologies to reduce CO2 emissions by 1) CO2 capture and utilization, 2) efficiency improvement, and 3) Li-ion batteries. The paper introduces three advanced technologies developed by SK energy; GreenPol, ACO, and Li-ion battery. Contributing to company vision, a more energy and less CO2, the three technologies are characterized as follows. GreenPol utilizes CO2 as a feedstock for making polymer. Advanced Catalytic Olefin (ACO) reduces CO2 emission by 20% and increase olefin production by 17%. Li-ion Batteries for automotive industries improves CO2 emission.

  13. Thermal design of heat-exchangeable reactors using a dry-sorbent CO2 capture multi-step process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hokyu; Yoo, Hoanju; Seo, Hwimin; Park, Yong-Ki; Cho, Hyung Hee


    The present study proposes a multi-stage CO 2 capture process that incorporates heat-exchangeable fluidized-bed reactors. For continuous multi-stage heat exchange, three dry regenerable sorbents: K 2 CO 3 , MgO, and CaO, were used to create a three-stage temperature-dependent reaction chain for CO 2 capture, corresponding to low (50–150 °C), middle (350–650 °C), and high (750–900 °C) temperature stages, respectively. Heat from carbonation in the high and middle temperature stages was used for regeneration for the middle and low temperature stages. The feasibility of this process is depending on the heat-transfer performance of the heat-exchangeable fluidized bed reactors as the focus of this study. The three-stage CO 2 capture process for a 60 Nm 3 /h CO 2 flow rate required a reactor area of 0.129 and 0.130 m 2 for heat exchange between the mid-temperature carbonation and low-temperature regeneration stages and between the high-temperature carbonation and mid-temperature regeneration stages, respectively. The reactor diameter was selected to provide dense fluidization conditions for each bed with respect to the desired flow rate. The flow characteristics and energy balance of the reactors were confirmed using computational fluid dynamics and thermodynamic analysis, respectively. - Highlights: • CO 2 capture process is proposed using a multi-stage process. • Reactor design is conducted considering heat exchangeable scheme. • Reactor surface is designed by heat transfer characteristics of fluidized bed

  14. Comparative study on the adsorption of Co2+ on CaCO3 compounds used as adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jesus V, S.


    The calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) was synthesized by methods of precipitation, calcination, sol-gel and trigonal/sol-gel. These materials were characterized by the techniques of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and N 2 physisorption measurements in order to identify their textural, surface and structural properties. The results show that the material synthesized by sol-gel had the highest surface area of 39.5230 m 2 /g, and a total pore volume of 0.0484 m 3 /g and a pore diameter of 4.9050 nm. The synthesized materials were used to comparatively study their adsorption capacity of Co 2+ ions present in aqueous solutions, by experiments batch or batch type at an ambient temperature (25 grades C) and to 4 hours, balance time established previously under an adsorption kinetic study. They found as maximum adsorption capacities of Co 2+ in materials of 1.8582 mg/g for the calcium carbonate obtained by precipitation, of 0.8586 mg/g for the material obtained by calcining, of 3.1895 mg/g for the material obtained by sol-gel and finally of 2.5783 mg/g for the material obtained by the trigonal/sol-gel method, therefore it follows that the material having the highest adsorption capacity of Co 2+ ions was synthesized by the sol-gel method, because it showed better surface, textural and structural properties compared to other materials studied. (Author)

  15. CO2 Allowance and Electricity Price Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    With the introduction of CO2 emission constraints on power generators in the European Union, climate policy is starting to have notable effects on energy markets. This paper sheds light on the links between CO2 prices, electricity prices, and electricity costs to industry. It is based on a series of interviews with industrial and electricity stakeholders, as well as a rich literature seeking to estimate the exact effect of CO2 prices on electricity prices.

  16. CO2 sequestration: Storage capacity guideline needed (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.; Hickman, T.S.


    Petroleum reserves are classified for the assessment of available supplies by governmental agencies, management of business processes for achieving exploration and production efficiency, and documentation of the value of reserves and resources in financial statements. Up to the present however, the storage capacity determinations made by some organizations in the initial CO2 resource assessment are incorrect technically. New publications should thus cover differences in mineral adsorption of CO2 and dissolution of CO2 in various brine waters.

  17. Economic effects on taxing CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaparanta, P.; Jerkkola, J.; Pohjola, J.


    The CO 2 emissions can be reduced by using economic instruments, like carbon tax. This project included two specific questions related to CO 2 taxation. First one was the economic effects of increasing CO 2 tax and decreasing other taxes. Second was the economic adjustment costs of reducing net emissions instead of gross emissions. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used in this analysis. The study was taken place in Helsinki School of Economics

  18. Fault-controlled CO2 leakage from natural reservoirs in the Colorado Plateau, East-Central Utah (United States)

    Jung, Na-Hyun; Han, Weon Shik; Watson, Z. T.; Graham, Jack P.; Kim, Kue-Young


    The study investigated a natural analogue for soil CO2 fluxes where CO2 has naturally leaked on the Colorado Plateau, East-Central Utah in order to identify various factors that control CO2 leakage and to understand regional-scale CO2 leakage processes in fault systems. The total 332 and 140 measurements of soil CO2 flux were made at 287 and 129 sites in the Little Grand Wash (LGW) and Salt Wash (SW) fault zones, respectively. Measurement sites for CO2 flux involved not only conspicuous CO2 degassing features (e.g., CO2-driven springs/geysers) but also linear features (e.g., joints/fractures and areas of diffusive leakage around a fault damage zone). CO2 flux anomalies were mostly observed along the fault traces. Specifically, CO2 flux anomalies were focused in the northern footwall of the both LGW and SW faults, supporting the existence of north-plunging anticlinal CO2 trap against south-dipping faults as well as higher probability of the north major fault traces as conduits. Anomalous CO2 fluxes also appeared in active travertines adjacent to CO2-driven cold springs and geysers (e.g., 36,259 g m-2 d-1 at Crystal Geyser), ancient travertines (e.g., 5,917 g m-2 d-1), joint zones in sandstone (e.g., 120 g m-2 d-1), and brine discharge zones (e.g., 5,515 g m-2 d-1). These observations indicate that CO2 has escaped through those pathways and that CO2 leakage from these fault zones does not correspond to point source leakage. The magnitude of CO2 flux is progressively reduced from north (i.e. the LGW fault zone, ∼36,259 g m-2 d-1) to south (i.e. the SW fault zone, ∼1,428 g m-2 d-1) despite new inputs of CO2 and CO2-saturated brine to the northerly SW fault from depth. This discrepancy in CO2 flux is most likely resulting from the differences in fault zone architecture and associated permeability structure. CO2-rich fluids from the LGW fault zone may become depleted with respect to CO2 during lateral transport, resulting in an additional decrease in CO2 fluxes

  19. Syngas Production from CO2 Reforming and CO2-steam Reforming of Methane over Ni/Ce-SBA-15 Catalyst (United States)

    Tan, J. S.; Danh, H. T.; Singh, S.; Truong, Q. D.; Setiabudi, H. D.; Vo, D.-V. N.


    This study compares the catalytic performance of mesoporous 10 Ni/Ce-SBA-15 catalyst for CO2 reforming and CO2-steam reforming of methane reactions in syngas production. The catalytic performance of 10 Ni/Ce-SBA-15 catalyst for CO2 reforming and CO2-steam reforming of methane was evaluated in a temperature-controlled tubular fixed-bed reactor at stoichiometric feed composition, 1023 K and atmospheric pressure for 12 h on-stream with gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 36 L gcat -1 h-1. The 10 Ni/Ce-SBA-15 catalyst possessed a high specific BET surface area and average pore volume of 595.04 m2 g-1. The XRD measurement revealed the presence of NiO phase with crystallite dimension of about 13.60 nm whilst H2-TPR result indicates that NiO phase was completely reduced to metallic Ni0 phase at temperature beyond 800 K and the reduction temperature relied on different degrees of metal-support interaction associated with the location and size of NiO particles. The catalytic reactivity was significantly enhanced with increasing H2O/CO2 feed ratio. Interestingly, the H2/CO ratio for CO2-steam reforming of methane varied between 1 and 3 indicated the occurrence of parallel reactions, i.e., CH4 steam reforming giving a H2/CO of 3 whilst reverse water-gas shift (RWGS) reaction consuming H2 to produce CO gaseous product.

  20. Pyrolysis process of agricultural waste using CO2 for waste management, energy recovery, and biochar fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jechan; Yang, Xiao; Cho, Seong-Heon; Kim, Jae-Kon; Lee, Sang Soo; Tsang, Daniel C.W.; Ok, Yong Sik; Kwon, Eilhann E.


    Highlights: • CO 2 reacts with VOCs enhancing syngas generation from pyrolysis of biomass. • CO 2 reduces tar formation by expediting thermal cracking of VOCs. • Properties of biochar can be easily modified using CO 2 as a pyrolysis agent. • A detailed mass balance for pyrolysis of red pepper stalk was provided. • Energy saving can be expected in pyrolysis of biomass using CO 2 . - Abstract: This study focused on the mechanistic understanding of CO 2 in pyrolysis process of agricultural waste to achieve waste management, energy recovery, and biochar fabrication. In order to scrutinize the genuine role of CO 2 in the biomass pyrolysis, all pyrogenic products such as syngas, pyrolytic oil (i.e., tar), and biochar generated from pyrolysis of red pepper stalk in N 2 and CO 2 were characterized. Thermo-gravimetric analysis confirmed that during the thermolysis of red pepper stalk, the magnitude of exothermic reaction in CO 2 from 220 to 400 °C was substantially different from that in N 2 , resulting in the different extents of carbonization. The physico-chemical properties of biochar produced in CO 2 were varied compared to biochar produced in N 2 . For example, the surface area of biochar produced in CO 2 was increased from 32.46 to 109.15 m 2 g −1 . This study validates the role of CO 2 not only as expediting agent for the thermal cracking of volatile organic carbons (VOCs) but also as reacting agent with VOCs. This genuine influence of CO 2 in pyrolysis of red pepper stalk led to enhanced generation of syngas, which consequently reduced tar production because VOCs evolving from devolatilization of biomass served as substrates for syngas via reaction between CO 2 and VOCs. The enhanced generation of CO reached up to 3000 and 6000% at 600 and 690 °C, respectively, whereas 33.8% tar reduction in CO 2 was identified at 600 °C.

  1. Experimental observation of permeability changes in dolomite at CO2 sequestration conditions. (United States)

    Tutolo, Benjamin M; Luhmann, Andrew J; Kong, Xiang-Zhao; Saar, Martin O; Seyfried, William E


    Injection of cool CO2 into geothermally warm carbonate reservoirs for storage or geothermal energy production may lower near-well temperature and lead to mass transfer along flow paths leading away from the well. To investigate this process, a dolomite core was subjected to a 650 h, high pressure, CO2 saturated, flow-through experiment. Permeability increased from 10(-15.9) to 10(-15.2) m(2) over the initial 216 h at 21 °C, decreased to 10(-16.2) m(2) over 289 h at 50 °C, largely due to thermally driven CO2 exsolution, and reached a final value of 10(-16.4) m(2) after 145 h at 100 °C due to continued exsolution and the onset of dolomite precipitation. Theoretical calculations show that CO2 exsolution results in a maximum pore space CO2 saturation of 0.5, and steady state relative permeabilities of CO2 and water on the order of 0.0065 and 0.1, respectively. Post-experiment imagery reveals matrix dissolution at low temperatures, and subsequent filling-in of flow passages at elevated temperature. Geochemical calculations indicate that reservoir fluids subjected to a thermal gradient may exsolve and precipitate up to 200 cm(3) CO2 and 1.5 cm(3) dolomite per kg of water, respectively, resulting in substantial porosity and permeability redistribution.

  2. A study for the biological CO2 fixation and utilization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuki, T.


    Increased CO 2 in the atmosphere is such a serious problem for mankind that many research and development approaches are implemented to reduce CO 2 emissions. One is a biological CO 2 fixation using the photosynthetic function of microalgae like Chlorella and Synechocystis sp. The target of the project is to achieve a CO 2 fixation rate of 50 g CO 2 /m 2 ·d, which is 10 times as large as that of the temperate forest. The purpose of this study is to clarify the possibilities of the biological CO 2 fixation system in view of the CO 2 balance, energy balance, and payback period. The amount of CO 2 fixation of the system should be larger than the emission of CO 2 by operating. Furthermore, the energy consumption of the system should also be less than the biochemical energy (enthalpy) of glucose, which is made by photosynthesis. After CO 2 fixation was completed by the microalgae, the biomass must be utilized practically for many markets and the initial investment in the system construction could be regained

  3. Soil CO2 flux baseline in an urban monogenetic volcanic field: the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand (United States)

    Mazot, Agnès; Smid, Elaine R.; Schwendenmann, Luitgard; Delgado-Granados, Hugo; Lindsay, Jan


    The Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) is a dormant monogenetic basaltic field located in Auckland, New Zealand. Though soil gas CO2 fluxes are routinely used to monitor volcanic regions, there have been no published studies of soil CO2 flux or soil gas CO2 concentrations in the AVF to date or many other monogenetic fields worldwide. We measured soil gas CO2 fluxes and soil gas CO2 concentrations in 2010 and 2012 in varying settings, seasons, and times of day to establish a baseline soil CO2 flux and to determine the major sources of and controlling influences on Auckland's soil CO2 flux. Soil CO2 flux measurements varied from 0 to 203 g m-2 day-1, with an average of 27.1 g m-2 day-1. Higher fluxes were attributed to varying land use properties (e.g., landfill). Using a graphical statistical approach, two populations of CO2 fluxes were identified. Isotope analyses of δ13CO2 confirmed that the source of CO2 in the AVF is biogenic with no volcanic component. These data may be used to assist with eruption forecasting in the event of precursory activity in the AVF, and highlight the importance of knowing land use history when assessing soil gas CO2 fluxes in urban environments.

  4. Experimental Ion Mobility measurements in Ne-CO$_2$ and CO$_2$-N$_2$ mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Encarnação, P.M.C.C.; Veenhof, R.; Neves, P.N.B.; Santos, F.P.; Trindade, A.M.F.; Borges, F.I.G.M.; Conde, C.A.N.


    In this paper we present the experimental results for the mobility, K0, of ions in neon-carbon dioxide (Ne-CO2) and carbon dioxide-nitrogen (CO2-N2) gaseous mixtures for total pressures ranging from 8–12 Torr, reduced electric fields in the 10–25 Td range, at room temperature. Regarding the Ne-CO2 mixture only one peak was observed for CO2 concentrations above 25%, which has been identified as an ion originated in CO2, while below 25% of CO2 a second-small peak appears at the left side of the main peak, which has been attributed to impurities. The mobility values for the main peak range between 3.51 ± 0.05 and 1.07 ± 0.01 cm2V−1s−1 in the 10%-99% interval of CO2, and from 4.61 ± 0.19 to 3.00 ± 0.09 cm2V−1s−1 for the second peak observed (10%–25% of CO2). For the CO2-N2, the time-of-arrival spectra displayed only one peak for CO2 concentrations above 10%, which was attributed to ions originated in CO2, namely CO2+(CO2), with a second peak appearing for CO2 concentrations below 10%. This secon...

  5. Mass transfer of ammonia escape and CO2 absorption in CO2 capture using ammonia solution in bubbling reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Shuangchen; Chen, Gongda; Zhu, Sijie; Han, Tingting; Yu, Weijing


    Highlights: • Mass transfer coefficient models of ammonia escape were built. • Influences of temperature, inlet CO 2 and ammonia concentration were studied. • Mass transfer coefficients of ammonia escape and CO 2 absorption were obtained. • Studies can provide the basic data as a reference guideline for process application. - Abstract: The mass transfer of CO 2 capture using ammonia solution in the bubbling reactor was studied; according to double film theory, the mass transfer coefficient models and interface area model were built. Through our experiments, the overall volumetric mass transfer coefficients were obtained, while the interface areas in unit volume were estimated. The volumetric mass transfer coefficients of ammonia escaping during the experiment were 1.39 × 10 −5 –4.34 × 10 −5 mol/(m 3 s Pa), and the volumetric mass transfer coefficients of CO 2 absorption were 2.86 × 10 −5 –17.9 × 10 −5 mol/(m 3 s Pa). The estimated interface area of unit volume in the bubbling reactor ranged from 75.19 to 256.41 m 2 /m 3 , making the bubbling reactor a viable choice to obtain higher mass transfer performance than the packed tower or spraying tower.

  6. Supercritical CO2 uptake by nonswelling phyllosilicates. (United States)

    Wan, Jiamin; Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Ashby, Paul D; Kim, Yongman; Voltolini, Marco; Gilbert, Benjamin; DePaolo, Donald J


    Interactions between supercritical (sc) CO 2 and minerals are important when CO 2 is injected into geologic formations for storage and as working fluids for enhanced oil recovery, hydraulic fracturing, and geothermal energy extraction. It has previously been shown that at the elevated pressures and temperatures of the deep subsurface, scCO 2 alters smectites (typical swelling phyllosilicates). However, less is known about the effects of scCO 2 on nonswelling phyllosilicates (illite and muscovite), despite the fact that the latter are the dominant clay minerals in deep subsurface shales and mudstones. Our studies conducted by using single crystals, combining reaction (incubation with scCO 2 ), visualization [atomic force microscopy (AFM)], and quantifications (AFM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and off-gassing measurements) revealed unexpectedly high CO 2 uptake that far exceeded its macroscopic surface area. Results from different methods collectively suggest that CO 2 partially entered the muscovite interlayers, although the pathways remain to be determined. We hypothesize that preferential dissolution at weaker surface defects and frayed edges allows CO 2 to enter the interlayers under elevated pressure and temperature, rather than by diffusing solely from edges deeply into interlayers. This unexpected uptake of CO 2 , can increase CO 2 storage capacity by up to ∼30% relative to the capacity associated with residual trapping in a 0.2-porosity sandstone reservoir containing up to 18 mass % of illite/muscovite. This excess CO 2 uptake constitutes a previously unrecognized potential trapping mechanism. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  7. Corn residue removal and CO2 emissions (United States)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) are the primary greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted from the soil due to agricultural activities. In the short-term, increases in CO2 emissions indicate increased soil microbial activity. Soil micro-organisms decompose crop residues and release...

  8. Increasing CO2 storage in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen, K.; Kovscek, A.R.; Orr, F.M. Jr.


    Oil fields offer a significant potential for storing CO 2 and will most likely be the first large scale geological targets for sequestration as the infrastructure, experience and permitting procedures already exist. The problem of co-optimizing oil production and CO 2 storage differs significantly from current gas injection practice due to the cost-benefit imbalance resulting from buying CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery projects. Consequently, operators aim to minimize the amount of CO 2 required to sweep an oil reservoir. For sequestration purposes, where high availability of low cost CO 2 is assumed, the design parameters of enhanced oil recovery processes must be re-defined to optimize the amount of CO 2 left in the reservoir at the time of abandonment. To redefine properly the design parameters, thorough insight into the mechanisms controlling the pore scale displacement efficiency and the overall sweep efficiency is essential. We demonstrate by calculation examples the different mechanisms controlling the displacement behavior of CO 2 sequestration schemes, the interaction between flow and phase equilibrium and how proper design of the injection gas composition and well completion are required to co-optimize oil production and CO 2 storage. [Author

  9. NIST Photoionization of CO2 (ARPES) Database (United States)

    SRD 119 NIST Photoionization of CO2 (ARPES) Database (Web, free access)   CO2 is studied using dispersed synchrotron radiation in the 650 Å to 850 Å spectral region. The vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra are analyzed to generate relative vibrational transition amplitudes and the angular asymmetry parameters describing the various transitions observed.

  10. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordatos, Harry


    Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.

  11. Eindhoven Airport : towards zero CO2 emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorge Simoes Pedro, Joana


    Eindhoven airport is growing and it is strongly committed to take this opportunity to invest in innovative solutions for a sustainable development. Therefore, this document proposes a strategic plan for reaching Zero CO2 emissions at Eindhoven airport. This document proposes to reduce the CO2

  12. Thermodynamic modeling of CO2 mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Martin Gamel

    Knowledge of the thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria of mixtures containing carbon dioxide (CO2) is important in several industrial processes such as enhanced oil recovery, carbon capture and storage, and supercritical extractions, where CO2 is used as a solvent. Despite this importance...

  13. Increasing CO2 storage in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen, Kristian; Kovscek, Anthony R.; Orr, Franklin M.


    Oil fields offer a significant potential for storing CO 2 and will most likely be the first large scale geological targets for sequestration as the infrastructure, experience and permitting procedures already exist. The problem of co-optimizing oil production and CO 2 storage differs significantly from current gas injection practice due to the cost-benefit imbalance resulting from buying CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery projects. Consequently, operators aim to minimize the amount of CO 2 required to sweep an oil reservoir. For sequestration purposes, where high availability of low cost CO 2 is assumed, the design parameters of enhanced oil recovery processes must be re-defined to optimize the amount of CO 2 left in the reservoir at the time of abandonment. To redefine properly the design parameters, thorough insight into the mechanisms controlling the pore scale displacement efficiency and the overall sweep efficiency is essential. We demonstrate by calculation examples the different mechanisms controlling the displacement behavior of CO 2 sequestration schemes, the interaction between flow and phase equilibrium and how proper design of the injection gas composition and well completion are required to co-optimize oil production and CO 2 storage

  14. CO2 emission calculations and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R.J.


    Evidence that the atmospheric CO 2 concentration has risen during the past several decades is irrefutable. Most of the observed increase in atmospheric CO 2 is believed to result from CO 2 releases from fossil-fuel burning. The United Nations (UN) Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), signed in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, reflects global concern over the increasing CO 2 concentration and its potential impact on climate. One of the convention's stated objectives was the ''stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. '' Specifically, the FCCC asked all 154 signing countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions, and it set nonbinding targets for some countries to control emissions by stabilizing them at 1990 levels by the year 2000. Given the importance of CO 2 as a greenhouse gas, the relationship between CO 2 emissions and increases in atmospheric CO 2 levels, and the potential impacts of a greenhouse gas-induced climate change; it is important that comprehensive CO 2 emissions records be compiled, maintained, updated, and documented

  15. Recent development of capture of CO2

    CERN Document Server

    Chavez, Rosa Hilda


    "Recent Technologies in the capture of CO2" provides a comprehensive summary on the latest technologies available to minimize the emission of CO2 from large point sources like fossil-fuel power plants or industrial facilities. This ebook also covers various techniques that could be developed to reduce the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere. The contents of this book include chapters on oxy-fuel combustion in fluidized beds, gas separation membrane used in post-combustion capture, minimizing energy consumption in CO2 capture processes through process integration, characterization and application of structured packing for CO2 capture, calcium looping technology for CO2 capture and many more. Recent Technologies in capture of CO2 is a valuable resource for graduate students, process engineers and administrative staff looking for real-case analysis of pilot plants. This eBook brings together the research results and professional experiences of the most renowned work groups in the CO2 capture field...

  16. Flow assurance studies for CO2 transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltin, J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.


    In order to compensate for the relative lack of experience of the CCTS community, Flow Assurance studies of new CO2 pipelines and networks are a very important step toward reliable operation. This report details a typical approach for Flow Assurance study of CO2 transport pipeline. Considerations to

  17. Degradation kinetics of monoethanolamine during CO2 and H2 S absorption from biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preecha Kasikamphaiboon


    Full Text Available The rate of degradation of MEA during CO2 and H2 S absorption in the biogas upgrading process was examined in four degradation systems, i.e., MEA-CO2 , MEA-CO2 -O2 , MEA-CO2 -H2 S and MEA-CO2 -O2 -H2 S. Degradation experiments were performed in a 800-ml stainless steel autoclave reactor, using MEA concentrations of 3 and 5 mol/L, CO2 loadings of 0.4 and 0.5 mol CO2 /mol MEA, O2 pressure of 200 kPa, and H2 S concentrations of 84 and 87 mg/L at temperatures of 120 and 140C. The results showed that, for the MEA-CO2 system, an increase in temperature or MEA concentration resulted in a higher rate of MEA degradation. In contrast, an increase in CO2 loading in the MEA-CO2 -O2 system led to a reduction of MEA degradation. The degradation rate of the system with O2 was with 8.3 times as high as that of the system without O2 . The presence of H2 S did not appear to affect the rate of degradation in the MEA-CO2 -H2 S system. However, for the system in which both H2 S and O2 were present, the MEA degradation was additionally induced by H2 S, thus, resulting in higher degradation rates than those of the system with O2 only. The extent of degradation under the same period of time increased in the order MEA-CO2 , MEA-CO2 -H2 S < MEA-CO2 -O2 < MEA-CO2 -O2 -H2 S.

  18. Silvering substrates after CO2 snow cleaning (United States)

    Zito, Richard R.


    There have been some questions in the astronomical community concerning the quality of silver coatings deposited on substrates that have been cleaned with carbon dioxide snow. These questions center around the possible existence of carbonate ions left behind on the substrate by CO2. Such carbonate ions could react with deposited silver to produce insoluble silver carbonate, thereby reducing film adhesion and reflectivity. Carbonate ions could be produced from CO2 via the following mechanism. First, during CO2 snow cleaning, a small amount of moisture can condense on a surface. This is especially true if the jet of CO2 is allowed to dwell on one spot. CO2 gas can dissolve in this moisture, producing carbonic acid, which can undergo two acid dissociations to form carbonate ions. In reality, it is highly unlikely that charged carbonate ions will remain stable on a substrate for very long. As condensed water evaporates, Le Chatelier's principle will shift the equilibrium of the chain of reactions that produced carbonate back to CO2 gas. Furthermore, the hydration of CO2 reaction of CO2 with H20) is an extremely slow process, and the total dehydrogenation of carbonic acid is not favored. Living tissues that must carry out the equilibration of carbonic acid and CO2 use the enzyme carbonic anhydrase to speed up the reaction by a factor of one million. But no such enzymatic action is present on a clean mirror substrate. In short, the worst case analysis presented below shows that the ratio of silver atoms to carbonate radicals must be at least 500 million to one. The results of chemical tests presented here support this view. Furthermore, film lift-off tests, also presented in this report, show that silver film adhesion to fused silica substrates is actually enhanced by CO2 snow cleaning.

  19. The ins and outs of CO2 (United States)

    Raven, John A.; Beardall, John


    It is difficult to distinguish influx and efflux of inorganic C in photosynthesizing tissues; this article examines what is known and where there are gaps in knowledge. Irreversible decarboxylases produce CO2, and CO2 is the substrate/product of enzymes that act as carboxylases and decarboxylases. Some irreversible carboxylases use CO2; others use HCO3 –. The relative role of permeation through the lipid bilayer versus movement through CO2-selective membrane proteins in the downhill, non-energized, movement of CO2 is not clear. Passive permeation explains most CO2 entry, including terrestrial and aquatic organisms with C3 physiology and biochemistry, terrestrial C4 plants and all crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, as well as being part of some mechanisms of HCO3 – use in CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) function, although further work is needed to test the mechanism in some cases. However, there is some evidence of active CO2 influx at the plasmalemma of algae. HCO3 – active influx at the plasmalemma underlies all cyanobacterial and some algal CCMs. HCO3 – can also enter some algal chloroplasts, probably as part of a CCM. The high intracellular CO2 and HCO3 – pools consequent upon CCMs result in leakage involving CO2, and occasionally HCO3 –. Leakage from cyanobacterial and microalgal CCMs involves up to half, but sometimes more, of the gross inorganic C entering in the CCM; leakage from terrestrial C4 plants is lower in most environments. Little is known of leakage from other organisms with CCMs, though given the leakage better-examined organisms, leakage occurs and increases the energetic cost of net carbon assimilation. PMID:26466660

  20. Reaction between CO2 and phosphate to form carboxyphosphate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, W.B.; Attwood, P.V.; Cleland, W.W.


    Carboxyphosphate (I) is thought to be an intermediate in the enzymic carboxylation of biotin by bicarbonate and MgATP, and a plausible mechanism of carboxyl transfer to the enolate of biotin involves decarboxylation to CO 2 and phosphate. Such a process would have to be reversible, however, as carboxylase reactions are reversible. To test this possibility, the authors undertook the synthesis of I under anhydrous conditions with a high mole fraction of CO 2 present. CO 2 was distilled into capillary tubes under vacuum containing dry tris-(tetrabutyl-ammonium)-phosphate in dimethylformamide. The tubes were sealed and warmed to -10 or 20 0 C and examined by 31 P NMR. Two resonances (1.7 ppm and -5.0 ppm) in addition to phosphate (3.3 ppm) were observed. The relative ratio of each peak to the phosphate one was dependent on the temperature and the concentrations of PO 4 3- and CO 2 . Upon freezing the tubes, cracking them, and release of the CO 2 , the two additional species decomposed slowly to PO 4 3- , and more rapidly to HPO 4 3- upon the addition of H 2 O. Under some conditions they observed an additional resonance (-7.0 ppm) which is most likely pyrophosphate (PP/sub i/). At high concentrations of PO 4 3- and CO 2 , PP/sub i/ was produced and precipitated from solution. The production of PP/sub i/ is most easily explained by attack of PO 4 3- on I. They are currently trying to identify the unknown species observed in the 31 P NMR spectra

  1. Activation of magnesium rich minerals as carbonation feedstock materials for CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroto-Valer, M.M.; Kuchta, M.E.; Zhang, Y.; Andresen, J.M.; Fauth, D.J.


    Mineral carbonation, the reaction of magnesium-rich minerals such as olivine and serpentine with CO 2 to form stable mineral carbonates, is a novel and promising approach to carbon sequestration. However, the preparation of the minerals prior to carbonation can be energy intensive, where some current studies have been exploring extensive pulverization of the minerals below 37 μm, heat treatment of minerals up to 650 o C, prior separation of CO 2 from flue gases, and carbonation at high pressures, temperatures and long reaction times of up to 125 atm, 185 o C and 6 h, respectively. Thus, the objective of the mineral activation concept is to promote and accelerate carbonation reaction rates and efficiencies through surface activation to the extent that such rigorous reaction conditions were not required. The physical activations were performed with air and steam, while chemical activations were performed with a suite of acids and bases. The parent serpentine, activated serpentines, and carbonation products were characterized to determine their surface properties and assess their potential as carbonation minerals. The results indicate that the surface area of the raw serpentine, which is approximately 8 m 2 /g, can be increased through physical and chemical activation methods to over 330 m 2 /g. The chemical activations were more effective than the physical activations at increasing the surface area, with the 650 o C steam activated serpentine presenting a surface area of only 17 m 2 /g. Sulfuric acid was the most effective acid used during the chemical activations, resulting in surface areas greater than 330 m 2 /g. Several of the samples produced underwent varying degrees of carbonation. The steam activated serpentine underwent a 60% conversion to magnesite at 155 o C and 126 atm in 1 h, while the parent sample only exhibited a 7% conversion. The most promising results came from the carbonation of the extracted Mg(OH) 2 solution, where, based on the amount of

  2. Recycling CO 2 ? Computational Considerations of the Activation of CO 2 with Homogeneous Transition Metal Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Drees, Markus; Cokoja, Mirza; Kü hn, Fritz E.


    . A similar approach, storing energy from renewable sources in chemical bonds with CO 2 as starting material, may lead to partial recycling of CO 2 created by human industrial activities. Unfortunately, currently available routes for the transformation

  3. Carbonation and CO2 uptake of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Seo, Eun-A; Tae, Sung-Ho


    This study developed a reliable procedure to assess the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) uptake of concrete by carbonation during the service life of a structure and by the recycling of concrete after demolition. To generalize the amount of absorbable CO 2 per unit volume of concrete, the molar concentration of carbonatable constituents in hardened cement paste was simplified as a function of the unit content of cement, and the degree of hydration of the cement paste was formulated as a function of the water-to-cement ratio. The contribution of the relative humidity, type of finishing material for the concrete surface, and the substitution level of supplementary cementitious materials to the CO 2 diffusion coefficient in concrete was reflected using various correction factors. The following parameters varying with the recycling scenario were also considered: the carbonatable surface area of concrete crusher-runs and underground phenomena of the decreased CO 2 diffusion coefficient and increased CO 2 concentration. Based on the developed procedure, a case study was conducted for an apartment building with a principal wall system and an office building with a Rahmen system, with the aim of examining the CO 2 uptake of each structural element under different exposure environments during the service life and recycling of the building. As input data necessary for the case study, data collected from actual surveys conducted in 2012 in South Korea were used, which included data on the surrounding environments, lifecycle inventory database, life expectancy of structures, and recycling activity scenario. Ultimately, the CO 2 uptake of concrete during a 100-year lifecycle (life expectancy of 40 years and recycling span of 60 years) was estimated to be 15.5%–17% of the CO 2 emissions from concrete production, which roughly corresponds to 18%–21% of the CO 2 emissions from the production of ordinary Portland cement. - Highlights: • CO 2 uptake assessment approach owing to the

  4. Potential and economics of CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Baptiste, Ph.; Ciais, Ph.; Orr, J.


    Increasing atmospheric level of greenhouse gases are causing global warming and putting at risk the global climate system. The main anthropogenic greenhouse gas is CO 2 . Some techniques could be used to reduced CO 2 emission and stabilize atmospheric CO 2 concentration, including i) energy savings and energy efficiency, ii) switch to lower carbon content fuels (natural gas) and use energy sources with zero CO 2 emissions such as renewable or nuclear energy, iii) capture and store CO 2 from fossil fuels combustion, and enhance the natural sinks for CO 2 (forests, soils, ocean...). The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the technology and cost for capture and storage of CO 2 and to review the various options for CO 2 sequestration by enhancing natural carbon sinks. Some of the factors which will influence application, including environmental impact, cost and efficiency, are discussed. Capturing CO 2 and storing it in underground geological reservoirs appears as the best environmentally acceptable option. It can be done with existing technology, however, substantial R and D is needed to improve available technology and to lower the cost. Applicable to large CO 2 emitting industrial facilities such as power plants, cement factories, steel industry, etc., which amount to about 30% of the global anthropic CO 2 emission, it represents a valuable tool in the baffle against global warming. About 50% of the anthropic CO 2 is being naturally absorbed by the biosphere and the ocean. The 'natural assistance' provided by these two large carbon reservoirs to the mitigation of climate change is substantial. The existing natural sinks could be enhanced by deliberate action. Given the known and likely environmental consequences, which could be very damaging indeed, enhancing ocean sinks does not appears as a satisfactory option. In contrast, the promotion of land sinks through demonstrated carbon-storing approach to agriculture, forests and land management could

  5. Electrocatalytic Alloys for CO2 Reduction. (United States)

    He, Jingfu; Johnson, Noah J J; Huang, Aoxue; Berlinguette, Curtis P


    Electrochemically reducing CO 2 using renewable energy is a contemporary global challenge that will only be met with electrocatalysts capable of efficiently converting CO 2 into fuels and chemicals with high selectivity. Although many different metals and morphologies have been tested for CO 2 electrocatalysis over the last several decades, relatively limited attention has been committed to the study of alloys for this application. Alloying is a promising method to tailor the geometric and electric environments of active sites. The parameter space for discovering new alloys for CO 2 electrocatalysis is particularly large because of the myriad products that can be formed during CO 2 reduction. In this Minireview, mixed-metal electrocatalyst compositions that have been evaluated for CO 2 reduction are summarized. A distillation of the structure-property relationships gleaned from this survey are intended to help in the construction of guidelines for discovering new classes of alloys for the CO 2 reduction reaction. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Regional-scale advective, diffusive, and eruptive dynamics of CO2 and brine leakage through faults and wellbores (United States)

    Jung, Na-Hyun; Han, Weon Shik; Han, Kyungdoe; Park, Eungyu


    Regional-scale advective, diffusive, and eruptive transport dynamics of CO2 and brine within a natural analogue in the northern Paradox Basin, Utah, were explored by integrating numerical simulations with soil CO2 flux measurements. Deeply sourced CO2 migrates through steeply dipping fault zones to the shallow aquifers predominantly as an aqueous phase. Dense CO2-rich brine mixes with regional groundwater, enhancing CO2 dissolution. Linear stability analysis reveals that CO2 could be dissolved completely within only 500 years. Assigning lower permeability to the fault zones induces fault-parallel movement, feeds up-gradient aquifers with more CO2, and impedes down-gradient fluid flow, developing anticlinal CO2 traps at shallow depths (<300 m). The regional fault permeability that best reproduces field spatial CO2 flux variation is estimated 1 × 10-17 ≤ kh < 1 × 10-16 m2 and 5 × 10-16 ≤ kv < 1 × 10-15 m2. The anticlinal trap serves as an essential fluid source for eruption at Crystal Geyser. Geyser-like discharge sensitively responds to varying well permeability, radius, and CO2 recharge rate. The cyclic behavior of wellbore CO2 leakage decreases with time.

  7. CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis for CO2 Sequestration at Enhanced Oil Recovery Sites. (United States)

    Dai, Zhenxue; Viswanathan, Hari; Middleton, Richard; Pan, Feng; Ampomah, William; Yang, Changbing; Jia, Wei; Xiao, Ting; Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian; Balch, Robert; Grigg, Reid; White, Mark


    Using CO2 in enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) is a promising technology for emissions management because CO2-EOR can dramatically reduce sequestration costs in the absence of emissions policies that include incentives for carbon capture and storage. This study develops a multiscale statistical framework to perform CO2 accounting and risk analysis in an EOR environment at the Farnsworth Unit (FWU), Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil/gas-water flow and transport in the Morrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major risk metrics: CO2/water injection/production rates, cumulative net CO2 storage, cumulative oil/gas productions, and CO2 breakthrough time. The median and confidence intervals are estimated for quantifying uncertainty ranges of the risk metrics. A response-surface-based economic model has been derived to calculate the CO2-EOR profitability for the FWU site with a current oil price, which suggests that approximately 31% of the 1000 realizations can be profitable. If government carbon-tax credits are available, or the oil price goes up or CO2 capture and operating expenses reduce, more realizations would be profitable. The results from this study provide valuable insights for understanding CO2 storage potential and the corresponding environmental and economic risks of commercial-scale CO2-sequestration in depleted reservoirs.

  8. Effects of tillage practice and atmospheric CO2 level on soil CO2 efflux (United States)

    Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) affects both the quantity and quality of plant tissues, which impacts the cycling and storage of carbon (C) within plant/soil systems and thus the rate of CO2 release back to the atmosphere. Research to accurately quantify the effects of elevated CO2 and as...

  9. Estimating CO2 Emission Reduction of Non-capture CO2 Utilization (NCCU) Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Gyu, Jang Se; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo; Choi, Jong Shin


    Estimating potential of CO 2 emission reduction of non-capture CO 2 utilization (NCCU) technology was evaluated. NCCU is sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO 2 contained in the flue gas. For the estimating the CO 2 emission reduction, process simulation using process simulator (PRO/II) based on a chemical plant which could handle CO 2 of 100 tons per day was performed, Also for the estimation of the indirect CO 2 reduction, the solvay process which is a conventional technology for the production of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate, was studied. The results of the analysis showed that in case of the solvay process, overall CO 2 emission was estimated as 48,862 ton per year based on the energy consumption for the production of NaHCO 3 (7.4 GJ/tNaHCO 3 ). While for the NCCU technology, the direct CO 2 reduction through the CO 2 carbonation was estimated as 36,500 ton per year and the indirect CO 2 reduction through the lower energy consumption was 46,885 ton per year which lead to 83,385 ton per year in total. From these results, it could be concluded that sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO 2 contained in the flue was energy efficient and could be one of the promising technology for the low CO 2 emission technology.

  10. CO2 content of electricity losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daví-Arderius, Daniel; Sanin, María-Eugenia; Trujillo-Baute, Elisa


    Countries are implementing policies to develop greener energy markets worldwide. In Europe, the ¨2030 Energy and Climate Package¨ asks for further reductions of green house gases, renewable sources integration, and energy efficiency targets. But the polluting intensity of electricity may be different in average than when considering market inefficiencies, in particular losses, and therefore the implemented policy must take those differences into account. Precisely, herein we study the importance in terms of CO2 emissions the extra amount of energy necessary to cover losses. With this purpose we use Spanish market and system data with hourly frequency from 2011 to 2013. Our results show that indeed electricity losses significantly explain CO2 emissions, with a higher CO2 emissions rate when covering losses than the average rate of the system. Additionally, we find that the market closing technologies used to cover losses have a positive and significant impact on CO2 emissions: when polluting technologies (coal or combined cycle) close the market, the impact of losses on CO2 emissions is high compared to the rest of technologies (combined heat and power, renewables or hydropower). To the light of these results we make some policy recommendations to reduce the impact of losses on CO2 emissions. - Highlights: • Electricity losses significantly explain CO2 emissions. • Policies aimed to reducing losses have a positive impact on CO2 emissions. • The market closing technology used to cover losses have impacts on CO2 emissions. • Pollutant technologies that close the market should be replaced by renewables.

  11. Responses of C4 grasses to atmospheric CO2 enrichment : I. Effect of irradiance. (United States)

    Sionit, Nasser; Patterson, David T


    The growth and photosynethetic responses to atmospheric CO 2 enrichment of 4 species of C 4 grasses grown at two levels of irradiance were studied. We sought to determine whether CO 2 enrichment would yield proportionally greater growth enhancement in the C 4 grasses when they were grown at low irradiance than when grown at high irradiance. The species studied were Echinochloa crusgalli, Digitaria sanguinalis, Eleusine indica, and Setaria faberi. Plants were grown in controlled environment chambers at 350, 675 and 1,000 μl 1 -1 CO 2 and 1,000 or 150 μmol m -2 s -1 photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). An increase in CO 2 concentration and PPFD significantly affected net photosynthesis and total biomass production of all plants. Plants grown at low PPFD had significantly lower rates of photosynthesis, produced less biomass, and had reduced responses to increases in CO 2 . Plants grown in CO 2 -enriched atmosphere had lower photosynthetic capacity relative to the low CO 2 grown plants when exposed to lower CO 2 concentration at the time of measurement, but had greater rate of photosynthesis when exposed to increasing PPFD. The light level under which the plants were growing did not influence the CO 2 compensation point for photosynthesis.

  12. CO2 fluxes near a forest edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Leclerc, Monique Y.; Zhang, Gensheng


    In contrast with recent advances on the dynamics of the flow at a forest edge, few studies have considered its role on scalar transport and, in particular, on CO2 transfer. The present study addresses the influence of the abrupt roughness change on forest atmosphere CO2 exchange and contrasts...... as a function of both sources/sinks distribution and the vertical structure of the canopy. Results suggest that the ground source plays a major role in the formation of wave-like vertical CO2 flux behavior downwind of a forest edge, despite the fact that the contribution of foliage sources/sinks changes...

  13. CO2, the promises of geological sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouat, S.


    Trapping part of the world CO 2 effluents in the deep underground is a profitable and ecological way to limit the global warming. This digest paper presents the different ways of CO 2 sequestration (depleted oil and gas fields, unexploited coal seams, saline aquifers), the other possible solutions for CO 2 abatement (injection in the bottom of the ocean, conversion into carbonates by injection into basic rocks, fixation by photosynthesis thanks to micro-algae cultivation), and takes stock of the experiments in progress (Snoehvit field in Norway, European project Castor). (J.S.)

  14. Climate change and the CO2 myth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, C.J.F.


    Further increase of the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere has little effect on the greenhouse effect contrary to the effect of the increase of other greenhouse gases. However, politicians are using targets for the reduction of CO 2 emissions that are unrealistic, taking into account the scientific uncertainties of the applied models, the doubts about the feasibility of quantitative targets and the economic consequences of such drastic measures. Some recommendations are given for a more realistic CO 2 policy. Also attention is paid to the important role that coal will play in the future of the energy supply. 5 figs., 3 ills

  15. Effect of heat treatment on CO2 adsorption of KOH-activated graphite nanofibers. (United States)

    Meng, Long-Yue; Park, Soo-Jin


    In this work, graphite nanofibers (GNFs) were successfully expanded intercalating KOH followed by heat treatment in the temperature range of 700-1000 °C. The aim was to improve the CO(2) adsorption capacity of the GNFs by increasing the porosity of GNFs. The effects of heat treatment on the pore structures of GNFs were investigated by N(2) full isotherms, XRD, SEM, and TEM. The CO(2) adsorption capacity was measured by CO(2) isothermal adsorption at 25 °C and 1 atm. From the results, it was found that the activation temperature had a major influence on CO(2) adsorption capacity and textural properties of GNFs. The specific surface area, total pore volume, and mesopore volume of the GNFs increased after heat treatment. The CO(2) adsorption isotherms showed that G-900 exhibited the best CO(2) adsorption capacity with 59.2 mg/g. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Soil warming enhances the hidden shift of elemental stoichiometry by elevated CO2 in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiangnan; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai


    sap and their partitioning in different organs of wheat plant during grain filling were investigated. Results showed that the combination of elevated [CO2] and soil warming improved wheat grain yield, but decreased plant K, Ca and Mg accumulation and their concentrations in the leaves, stems, roots......Increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and associated soil warming along with global climate change are expected to have large impacts on grain mineral nutrition in wheat. The effects of CO2 elevation (700 μmol l(-1)) and soil warming (+2.4 °C) on K, Ca and Mg concentrations in the xylem...... and grains. The reduced grain mineral concentration was attributed to the lowered mineral uptake as exemplified by both the decreased stomatal conductance and mineral concentration in the xylem sap. These findings suggest that future higher atmospheric [CO2] and warmer soil conditions may decrease...

  17. Embodied Energy and CO2 Analyses of Mud-brick and Cement-block Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abanda F.Henry


    Full Text Available In building projects, the extraction of vast quantities of materials is too common. The extraction of materials and the erection of buildings consume embodied energy and emit carbon dioxide (CO2 that impact negatively on the environment. Therefore it is necessary to consider embodied energy and CO2 amongst other factors in selecting building materials for use in building projects. In most developing countries, building environmental performance analysis has yet to gain interest from the construction community. However, with recent increase in sustainability awareness, both developed and developing nations have engaged in efforts to tackle this challenge. Embodied energy and CO2 are among the leading parameters in assessing environmental building performance. In Cameroon, studies about the assessment of embodied energy and CO2 of building projects are scarce. Hence, professionals find it difficult to make alternative choices for building materials to use in their different building projects. This study uses a detailed process analysis approach supported by two popular housing types in Cameroon (mud-brick and cement-block houses to assess the embodied energy and CO2 impacts from building materials. The emerging Building Information Modelling (BIM tool was used to validate the computational results of the process analysis method. The findings revealed the embodied energy and CO2 for the mud-brick houses are 137934.91 MJ (2007.8 MJ/m2 and 15665.56 Kg CO2 (228.03 Kg CO2/m2; the cement-block houses are 292326.81 MJ (3065.51 MJ/m2 and 37829.19 Kg CO2 (396.7 Kg CO2/m2 respectively. Thus, the cement-block house expends at least 1.5 times more embodied energy and emits at least 1.7 times more embodied CO2 than mud-brick house. Although these findings cannot be generalized, they nonetheless indicate the importance of considering embodied energy and CO2 in making alternative choices for use in different building projects.

  18. Prediction of rate of CO2 assimilation of leaf lettuce under low light irradiation during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, T.; Harada, F.; Hu, W.


    The rate of CO 2 assimilation of leaf lettuce changed with its respiration rate and gas constitution in a storage chamber. The optimum irradiance on the surface of leaf lettuce during storage using low light irradiation can be obtained by the prediction of the rate of CO 2 assimilation. For the above mentioned purpose the following equation were derived. -kd[C]/dt=0.5(1-f)I([C]-Γ/4.5[C]+10.5Γ)-ae -bt where, k: proportional constant (4.87×10 -3 mol⋅m -2 ) [C]: CO 2 concentration (ppm), t: time (h), f: fraction of light not absorbed by chloroplasts (0.23), I: irradiance (μmol⋅m-2⋅s -1 ), Γ: CO 2 compensation point without respiration (21.5ppm), a, b: parameters (0.308μmol⋅m -2 ⋅s -1 , 0.010h -1 ). Calculated values of rate of CO 2 assimilation by the equation agreed well with experimental ones at 3.4 and 6.5μmol⋅m -2 ⋅s -1 of irradiance, so it appeared that the assimilation rate could be sufficiently predicted

  19. Equilibration of metabolic CO2 with preformed CO2 and bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hems, R.; Saez, G.T.


    Entry of metabolic 14 CO 2 into urea is shown to occur more readily than it equilibrates with the general pool of cellular plus extracellular bicarbonate plus CO 2 . Since the sites of CO 2 production (pyruvate dehydrogenase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) and of fixation (carbamoylphosphate synthetase) are intramitochondrial, it is likely that the fixation of CO 2 is also more rapid than its equilibration with the cytoplasmic pool of bicarbonate plus CO 2 . This observation may point to a more general problem concerning the interpretation of isotope data, with compartmentation or proximity of sites of production and utilisation of metabolites may result in the isotope following a preferred pathway. (Auth.)


    We conducted a 4-year study of Pinus ponderosa fine root (<2 mm) responses to atmospheric CO2 and N-fertilization. Seedlings were grown in open-top chambers at 3 CO2 levels (ambient, ambient+175 mol/mol, ambient+350 mol/mol) and 3 N-fertilization levels (0, 10, 20 g?m-2?yr-1). ...

  1. Effect of CO2 Flow Rate on the Pinang Frond-Based Activated Carbon for Methylene Blue Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Herawan


    Full Text Available Activated carbons are regularly used the treatment of dye wastewater. They can be produced from various organics materials having high level of carbon content. In this study, a novel Pinang frond activated carbon (PFAC was produced at various CO2 flow rates in the range of 150–600 mL/min at activation temperature of 800°C for 3 hours. The optimum PFAC sample is found on CO2 flow rate of 300 mL/min which gives the highest BET surface area and pore volume of 958 m2/g and 0.5469 mL/g, respectively. This sample shows well-developed pore structure with high fixed carbon content of 79.74%. The removal of methylene blue (MB by 95.8% for initial MB concentration of 50 mg/L and 72.6% for 500 mg/L is achieved via this sample. The PFAC is thus identified to be a suitable adsorbent for removing MB from aqueous solution.

  2. Diurnal variability of CO2 flux at coastal zone of Taiwan based on eddy covariance observation (United States)

    Chien, Hwa; Zhong, Yao-Zhao; Yang, Kang-Hung; Cheng, Hao-Yuan


    In this study, we employed shore-based eddy covariance systems for a continuous measurement of the coastal CO2 flux near the northwestern coast of Taiwan from 2011 to 2015. To ensure the validity of the analysis, the data was selected and filtered with a footprint model and an empirical mode decomposition method. The results indicate that the nearshore air-sea and air-land CO2 fluxes exhibited a significant diurnal variability and a substantial day-night difference. The net air-sea CO2 flux was -1.75 ± 0.98 μmol-C m-2 s-1, whereas the net air-land CO2 flux was 0.54 ± 7.35 μmol-C m-2 s-1, which indicated that in northwestern Taiwan, the coastal water acts as a sink of atmospheric CO2 but the coastal land acts as a source. The Random Forest Method was applied to hierarchize the influence of Chl-a, SST, DO, pH and U10 on air-sea CO2 fluxes. The result suggests that the strength of the diurnal air-sea CO2 flux is strongly influenced by the local wind speed.

  3. Responses of soil microbial activity to cadmium pollution and elevated CO2. (United States)

    Chen, Yi Ping; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Yong Jun; Jia, Feng An; He, Xin Hua


    To address the combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and elevated CO2 on soil microbial communities, DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) profiles, respiration, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentrations, loessial soils were exposed to four levels of Cd, i.e., 0 (Cd0), 1.5 (Cd1.5), 3.0 (Cd3.0) and 6.0 (Cd6.0) mg Cd kg(-1) soil, and two levels of CO2, i.e., 360 (aCO2) and 480 (eCO2) ppm. Compared to Cd0, Cd1.5 increased fungal abundance but decreased bacterial abundance under both CO2 levels, whilst Cd3.0 and Cd6.0 decreased both fungal and bacterial abundance. Profiles of DGGE revealed alteration of soil microbial communities under eCO2. Soil respiration decreased with Cd concentrations and was greater under eCO2 than under aCO2. Soil total C and N were greater under higher Cd. These results suggest eCO2 could stimulate, while Cd pollution could restrain microbial reproduction and C decomposition with the restraint effect alleviated by eCO2.

  4. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll


    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  5. Energy Efficiency instead of CO2 levy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uetz, R.


    This article takes a look at ways of avoiding a future, planned Swiss CO 2 levy by improving the efficiency of energy use. The political situation concerning the reduction of CO 2 emissions in Switzerland is reviewed and the likeliness of the introduction of a CO 2 levy is discussed. Strategies for the reduction of fossil fuel consumption and therefore of CO 2 emissions are looked at, including process optimisation. Recommendations are made on how to approach this work systematically - data collection, assessment of the potential for reduction and the planning of measures to be taken are looked at. The high economic efficiency of immediate action is stressed and typical middle and long-term measures are listed

  6. The ATLAS IBL CO2 Cooling System

    CERN Document Server

    Verlaat, Bartholomeus; The ATLAS collaboration


    The Atlas Pixel detector has been equipped with an extra B-layer in the space obtained by a reduced beam pipe. This new pixel detector called the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is installed in 2014 and is operational in the current ATLAS data taking. The IBL detector is cooled with evaporative CO2 and is the first of its kind in ATLAS. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system is designed for lower temperature operation (<-35⁰C) than the previous developed CO2 cooling systems in High Energy Physics experiments. The cold temperatures are required to protect the pixel sensors for the high expected radiation dose up to 550 fb^-1 integrated luminosity. This paper describes the design, development, construction and commissioning of the IBL CO2 cooling system. It describes the challenges overcome and the important lessons learned for the development of future systems which are now under design for the Phase-II upgrade detectors.

  7. Capture and geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Capture and geological storage of CO 2 could be a contribution to reduce CO 2 emissions, and also a way to meet the factor 4 objective of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This publication briefly presents the capture and storage definitions and principles, and comments some key data related to CO 2 emissions, and their natural trapping by oceans, soils and forests. It discusses strengths (a massive and perennial reduction of CO 2 emissions, a well defined regulatory framework) and weaknesses (high costs and uncertain cost reduction perspectives, a technology which still consumes a lot of energy, geological storage capacities still to be determined, health environmental impacts and risks to be controlled, a necessary consultation of population for planned projects) of this option. Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly reviewed

  8. CO2 Washout Capability with Breathing Manikin (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and sufficient designs in a spacesuit and in vehicle applications such as...

  9. Emerging terawatt picosecond CO2 laser technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.


    The first terawatt picosecond (TWps) CO 2 laser is under construction at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). TWps-CO 2 lasers, having an order of magnitude longer wavelength than the well-known table-top terawatt solid state lasers, offer new opportunities for strong-field physics research. For laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) the advantage of the new class of lasers is due to a gain of two orders of magnitude in the ponderomotive potential. The large average power of CO 2 lasers is important for the generation of hard radiation through Compton back-scattering of the laser off energetic electron beams. The authors discuss applications of TWps-CO 2 lasers for LWFA modules of a tentative electron-positron collider, for γ-γ (or γ-lepton) colliders, for a possible table-top source of high-intensity x-rays and gamma rays, and the generation of polarized positron beams

  10. Porous Organic Polymers for CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Teng, Baiyang


    to reduce the emission of CO2 to atmosphere. Porous organic polymers (POPs) are promising candidates for this application due to their readily tunable textual properties and surface functionalities. The objective of this thesis work is to develop new POPs

  11. Upscaling of enzyme enhanced CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladis, Arne Berthold

    Fossil fuels are the backbone of the energy generation in the coming decades for USA, China, India and Europe, hence high greenhouse gas emissions are expected in future. Carbon capture and storage technology (CCS) is the only technology that can mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel...... the mass transfer of CO2 with slow-capturing but energetically favorable solvents can open up a variety of new process options for this technology. The ubiquitous enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), which enhances the mass transfer of CO2 in the lungs by catalyzing the reversible hydration of CO2, is one very...... enhanced CO2 capture technology by identifying the potentials and limitations in lab and in pilot scale and benchmarking the process against proven technologies. The main goal was to derive a realistic process model for technical size absorbers with a wide range of validity incorporating a mechanistic...

  12. Mechanistic Study of Magnesium Carbonate Semibatch Reactive Crystallization with Magnesium Hydroxide and CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, B.; Qu, H. Y.; Niemi, H.


    This work investigates semibatch precipitation of magnesium carbonate at ambient temperature and pressure using Mg(OH)(2) and CO2 as starting materials. A thermal analysis method was developed that reflects the dissolution rate of Mg(OH)(2) and the formation of magnesium carbonate. The method...... the liquid and solid phases. A stirring rate of 650 rpm was found to be the optimum speed as the flow rate of CO2 was 1 L/min. Precipitation rate increased with gas flow rate, which indicates that mass transfer of CO2 plays a critical role in this precipitation case. Magnesium carbonate trihydrate...

  13. Shallow soil CO2 flow along the San Andreas and Calaveras Faults, California (United States)

    Lewicki, J.L.; Evans, William C.; Hilley, G.E.; Sorey, M.L.; Rogie, J.D.; Brantley, S.L.


    We evaluate a comprehensive soil CO2 survey along the San Andreas fault (SAF) in Parkfield, and the Calaveras fault (CF) in Hollister, California, in the context of spatial and temporal variability, origin, and transport of CO2 in fractured terrain. CO2 efflux was measured within grids with portable instrumentation and continously with meteorological parameters at a fixed station, in both faulted and unfaulted areas. Spatial and temporal variability of surface CO2 effluxes was observed to be higher at faulted SAF and CF sites, relative to comparable background areas. However, ??13C (-23.3 to - 16.4???) and ??14C (75.5 to 94.4???) values of soil CO2 in both faulted and unfaulted areas are indicative of biogenic CO2, even though CO2 effluxes in faulted areas reached values as high as 428 g m-2 d-1. Profiles of soil CO2 concentration as a function of depth were measured at multiple sites within SAF and CF grids and repeatedly at two locations at the SAF grid. Many of these profiles suggest a surprisingly high component of advective CO2 flow. Spectral and correlation analysis of SAF CO2 efflux and meteorological parameter time series indicates that effects of wind speed variations on atmospheric air flow though fractures modulate surface efflux of biogenic CO2. The resulting areal patterns in CO2 effluxes could be erroneously attributed to a deep gas source in the absence of isotopic data, a problem that must be addressed in fault zone soil gas studies.

  14. Natural Analogues of CO2 Geological Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez del Villar, L.; Pelayo, M.; Recreo, F.


    Geological storage of carbon dioxide is nowadays, internationally considered as the most effective method for greenhouse gas emission mitigation, in order to minimize the global climate change universally accepted. Nevertheless, the possible risks derived of this long-term storage have a direct influence on its public acceptance. Among the favourable geological formations to store CO2, depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline reservoirs, and unamiable coal seams are highlighted. One of the most important objectives of the R and D projects related to the CO2 geological storage is the evaluation of the CO2 leakage rate through the above mentioned geological formations. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to increase our knowledge on the interaction among CO2, storage and sealing formations, as well as on the flow paths and the physical resistance of the sealing formation. The quantification of the CO2 leakage rate is essential to evaluate the effects on the human and animal health, as well as for the ecosystem and water quality. To achieve these objectives, the study of the natural analogues is very useful in order to know the natural leakage rate to the atmosphere, its flow paths, the physical, chemical and mineralogical modifications due to the long term interaction processes among the CO2 and the storage and sealing formations, as well as the effects on the groundwaters and ecosystems. In this report, we have tried to summarise the main characteristics of the natural reservoirs and surficial sources of CO2, which are both natural analogues of the geological storage and CO2 leakage, studied in EEUU, Europe and Australia. The main objective of this summary is to find the possible applications for long-term risk prediction and for the performance assessment by means of conceptual and numerical modelling, which will allow to validate the predictive models of the CO2 storage behaviour, to design and develop suitable monitoring techniques to control the CO2 behaviour

  15. CO2 emissions of nuclear power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissel, S.; Mayer-Spohn, O.; Fahl, U.; Voss, A.


    Increasingly, supported by the recent reports of the IPCC (International Panel on Climate Change), political, social and scientific institutions call for the use of atomic energy for reducing CO2 emissions. In Germany, the discussion is highly controversial. A life-cycle balance of nuclear power shows that its CO2 emissions are much lower than those of other technologies, even if changes in the nuclear fuel cycle are taken into account. (orig.)

  16. Photoacoustic CO2-Sensor for Automotive Applications


    Huber, J.; Weber, C.; Eberhardt, A.; Wöllenstein, J.


    We present a field-tested miniaturized spectroscopic CO2 sensor which is based on the photoacoustic effect. The sensor is developed for automotive applications and considers the requirements for the usage in vehicles. The sensor measures two measurement ranges simultaneously: The monitoring of the indoor air quality and the detection of possible leakages of the coolant in CO2 air-conditioning systems. The sensor consists of a miniaturized innovative photoacoustic sensor unit with integrated e...

  17. Study on CO2 global recycling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Niwa, S.


    In order to assist in finding ways to mitigate CO 2 emission and to slow the depletion of fossil fuels we have established and evaluated a representative system, which consists of three technologies developed in our laboratory. These technologies were in CO 2 recovery, hydrogen production and methanol synthesis and in addition we established the necessary supporting systems. Analysis of outline designs of the large scale renewable energy power generation system and this system and energy input for building plant, energy input for running plant has been conducted based on a case using this system for a 1000-MW coal fired power plant, followed by an evaluation of the material balance and energy balance. The results are as follows. Energy efficiency is 34%, the CO 2 reduction rate is 41%, the balance ratio of the energy and CO 2 of the system is 2.2 and 1.8, respectively, on the assumption that the primary renewable energy is solar thermal power generation, the stationary CO 2 emission source is a coal-fired power plant and the generation efficiency of the methanol power plant is 60%. By adopting the system, 3.7 million tons of CO 2 can be recovered, approximately 2.7 million tons of methanol can be produced, and 15.4 billion kWh of electricity can be generated per year. Compared to generating all electrical power using only coal, approximately 2.6 million tons of coal per year can be saved and approximately 2.15 million tons of CO 2 emission can be reduced. Therefore, it is clearly revealed that this system would be effective to reduce CO 2 emissions and to utilize renewable energy

  18. Ablation of polytetrafluoroethylene using a continuous CO2 laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstopyatov, E M


    The ablation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is studied using a continuous CO 2 laser beam of 30-50 W at a mean intensity of 0.05-50 MW m -2 . The ablation products and changes in the target layer are examined using infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The main experiments were conducted with an unfocused beam of intensity 0.9-1.2 MW m -2 . The radiation-polymer interaction characteristics were found to change appreciably as the ablation conditions are approached. Within the polymer layer, light scattering diminishes and true resonant light absorption increases. Two distinct polymer components, which differ primarily in their resistance to CO 2 laser radiation, were found to exist under ablation conditions. The less stable component depolymerizes intensively, while the more resistant component is blown up into fibres by intense gas flow. The reasons behind this behaviour are discussed. Preliminary gamma irradiation of PTFE is found to have a significant influence on the laser ablation process

  19. Anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hung Peng


    Full Text Available The focus of this review article is on the anthropogenic CO2 taken up by the ocean. There are several methods of identifying the anthropogenic CO2 signal and quantifying its inventory in the ocean. The ?C* method is most frequently used to estimate the global distribution of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean. Results based on analysis of the dataset obtained from the comprehensive surveys of inorganic carbon distribution in the world oceans in the 1990s are given. These surveys were jointly conducted during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE and the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS. This data set consists of 9618 hydrographic stations from a total of 95 cruises, which represents the most accurate and comprehensive view of the distribution of inorganic carbon in the global ocean available today. The increase of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean during the past few decades is also evaluated using direct comparison of results from repeat surveys and using statistical method of Multi-parameter Linear Regression (MLR. The impact of increasing oceanic anthropogenic CO2 on the calcium carbonate system in the ocean is reviewed briefly as well. Extensive studies of CaCO3 dissolution as a result of increasing anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean have revealed several distinct oceanic regions where the CaCO3 undersaturation zone has expanded.

  20. Recent developments in CO2 lasers (United States)

    Du, Keming


    CO2 lasers have been used in industry mainly for such things as cutting, welding, and surface processing. To conduct a broad spectrum of high-speed and high-quality applications, most of the developments in industrial CO2 lasers at the ILT are aimed at increasing the output power, optimizing the beam quality, and reducing the production costs. Most of the commercial CO2 lasers above 5 kW are transverse-flow systems using dc excitation. The applications of these lasers are limited due to the lower beam quality, the poor point stability, and the lower modulation frequency. To overcome the problems we developed a fast axial- flow CO2 laser using rf excitation with an output of 13 kW. In section 2 some of the results are discussed concerning the gas flow, the discharge, the resonator design, optical effects of active medium, the aerodynamic window, and the modulation of the output power. The first CO2 lasers ever built are diffusion-cooled systems with conventional dc excited cylindrical discharge tubes surrounded by cooling jackets. The output power per unit length is limited to 50 W/m by those lasers with cylindrical tubes. In the past few years considerable increases in the output power were achieved, using new mechanical geometries, excitation- techniques, and resonator designs. This progress in diffusion-cooled CO2 lasers is presented in section 3.

  1. How much CO2 is trapped in carbonate minerals of a natural CO2 occurrence? (United States)

    Király, Csilla; Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Szamosfalvi, Ágnes; Cseresznyés, Dóra; Király, Edit; Szabó, Csaba; Falus, György


    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a transitional technology to decrease CO2 emissions from human fossil fuel usage and, therefore, to mitigate climate change. The most important criteria of a CO2 geological storage reservoir is that it must hold the injected CO2 for geological time scales without its significant seepage. The injected CO2 undergoes physical and chemical reactions in the reservoir rocks such as structural-stratigraphic, residual, dissolution or mineral trapping mechanisms. Among these, the safest is the mineral trapping, when carbonate minerals such as calcite, ankerite, siderite, dolomite and dawsonite build the CO2 into their crystal structures. The study of natural CO2 occurrences may help to understand the processes in CO2 reservoirs on geological time scales. This is the reason why the selected, the Mihályi-Répcelak natural CO2 occurrence as our research area, which is able to provide particular and highly significant information for the future of CO2 storage. The area is one of the best known CO2 fields in Central Europe. The main aim of this study is to estimate the amount of CO2 trapped in the mineral phase at Mihályi-Répcelak CO2 reservoirs. For gaining the suitable data, we apply petrographic, major and trace element (microprobe and LA-ICP-MS) and stable isotope analysis (mass spectrometry) and thermodynamic and kinetic geochemical models coded in PHREEQC. Rock and pore water compositions of the same formation, representing the pre-CO2 flooding stages of the Mihályi-Répcelak natural CO2 reservoirs are used in the models. Kinetic rate parameters are derived from the USGS report of Palandri and Kharaka (2004). The results of petrographic analysis show that a significant amount of dawsonite (NaAlCO3(OH)2, max. 16 m/m%) precipitated in the rock due to its reactions with CO2 which flooded the reservoir. This carbonate mineral alone traps about 10-30 kg/m3 of the reservoir rock from the CO2 at Mihályi-Répcelak area, which is an

  2. How secure is subsurface CO2 storage? Controls on leakage in natural CO2 reservoirs (United States)

    Miocic, Johannes; Gilfillan, Stuart; McDermott, Christopher; Haszeldine, Stuart


    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is the only industrial scale technology available to directly reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuelled power plants and large industrial point sources to the atmosphere. The technology includes the capture of CO2 at the source and transport to subsurface storage sites, such as depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs or saline aquifers, where it is injected and stored for long periods of time. To have an impact on the greenhouse gas emissions it is crucial that there is no or only a very low amount of leakage of CO2 from the storage sites to shallow aquifers or the surface. CO2 occurs naturally in reservoirs in the subsurface and has often been stored for millions of years without any leakage incidents. However, in some cases CO2 migrates from the reservoir to the surface. Both leaking and non-leaking natural CO2 reservoirs offer insights into the long-term behaviour of CO2 in the subsurface and on the mechanisms that lead to either leakage or retention of CO2. Here we present the results of a study on leakage mechanisms of natural CO2 reservoirs worldwide. We compiled a global dataset of 49 well described natural CO2 reservoirs of which six are leaking CO2 to the surface, 40 retain CO2 in the subsurface and for three reservoirs the evidence is inconclusive. Likelihood of leakage of CO2 from a reservoir to the surface is governed by the state of CO2 (supercritical vs. gaseous) and the pressure in the reservoir and the direct overburden. Reservoirs with gaseous CO2 is more prone to leak CO2 than reservoirs with dense supercritical CO2. If the reservoir pressure is close to or higher than the least principal stress leakage is likely to occur while reservoirs with pressures close to hydrostatic pressure and below 1200 m depth do not leak. Additionally, a positive pressure gradient from the reservoir into the caprock averts leakage of CO2 into the caprock. Leakage of CO2 occurs in all cases along a fault zone, indicating that

  3. A database for CO2 Separation Performances of MOFs based on Computational Materials Screening. (United States)

    Altintas, Cigdem; Avci, Gokay; Daglar, Hilal; Nemati Vesali Azar, Ayda; Velioglu, Sadiye; Erucar, Ilknur; Keskin, Seda


    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have been considered as great candidates for CO2 capture. Considering the very large number of available MOFs, high-throughput computational screening plays a critical role in identifying the top performing materials for target applications in a time-effective manner. In this work, we used molecular simulations to screen the most recent and complete MOF database for identifying the most promising materials for CO2 separation from flue gas (CO2/N2) and landfill gas (CO2/CH4) under realistic operating conditions. We first validated our approach by comparing the results of our molecular simulations for the CO2 uptakes, CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 selectivities of various types of MOFs with the available experimental data. We then computed binary CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 mixture adsorption data for the entire MOF database and used these results to calculate several adsorbent selection metrics such as selectivity, working capacity, adsorbent performance score, regenerability, and separation potential. MOFs were ranked based on the combination of these metrics and the top performing MOF adsorbents that can achieve CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 separations with high performance were identified. Molecular simulations for the adsorption of a ternary CO2/N2/CH4 mixture were performed for these top materials in order to provide a more realistic performance assessment of MOF adsorbents. Structure-performance analysis showed that MOFs with ΔQ>30 kJ/mol, 3.8 A≤PLD≤5 A, 5 A≤LCD≤7.5 A, 0.5≤ϕ≤0.75, SA≤1,000 m2/g, ρ>1 g/cm 3 are the best candidates for selective separation of CO2 from flue gas and landfill gas. This information will be very useful to design novel MOFs with the desired structural features that can lead to high CO2 separation potentials. Finally, an online, freely accessible database was established, for the first time in the literature, which reports all computed adsorbent metrics of 3,816 MOFs for CO2/N2, CO2/CH4

  4. CO2 Emission Factors for Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orlović-Leko


    Full Text Available Emission factors are used in greenhouse gas inventories to estimate emissions from coal combustion. In the absence of direct measures, emissions factors are frequently used as a quick, low cost way to estimate emissions values. Coal combustion has been a major contributor to the CO2 flux into the atmosphere. Nearly all of the fuel carbon (99 % in coal is converted to CO2 during the combustion process. The carbon content is the most important coal parameter which is the measure of the degree of coalification (coal rank. Coalification is the alteration of vegetation to form peat, succeeded by the transformation of peat through lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous to anthracite coal. During the geochemical or metamorphic stage, the progressive changes that occur within the coal are an increase in the carbon content and a decrease in the hydrogen and oxygen content resulting in a loss of volatiles. Heterogeneous composition of coal causes variation in CO2 emission from different coals. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has produced guidelines on how to produce emission inventories which includes emission factors. Although 2006 IPCC Guidelines provided the default values specified according to the rank of the coal, the application of country-specific emission factors was recommended when estimating the national greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discusses the differences between country-specific emission factors and default IPCC CO2 emission factors, EF(CO2, for coals. Also, this study estimated EF(CO2 for two different types of coals and peat from B&H, on the basis fuel analyses. Carbon emission factors for coal mainly depend on the carbon content of the fuel and vary with both rank and geographic origin, which supports the idea of provincial variation of carbon emission factors. Also, various other factors, such as content of sulphur, minerals and macerals play an important role and influence EF(CO2 from coal. Carbonate minerals

  5. Greenhouse gas (CO2 and CH4) emissions from a high altitude hydroelectric reservoir in the tropics (Riogrande II, Colombia) (United States)

    Guérin, Frédéric; Leon, Juan


    Tropical hydroelectric reservoirs are considered as very significant source of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), especially when flooding dense forest. We report emissions from the Rio Grande II Reservoir located at 2000 m.a.s.l. in the Colombian Andes. The dam was built at the confluence of the Rio Grande and Rio Chico in 1990. The reservoir has a surface of 12 km2, a maximum depth of 40m and a residence time of 2.5 month. Water quality (temperature, oxygen, pH, conductivity), nitrate, ammonium, dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC), CO2 and CH4 were monitored bi-monthly during 1.5 year at 9 stations in the reservoir. Diffusive fluxes of CO2 and CH4 and CH4 ebullition were measured at 5 stations. The Rio grande II Reservoir is weakly stratified thermally with surface temperature ranging from 20 to 24°C and a constant bottom temperature of 18°C. The reservoir water column is well oxygenated at the surface and usually anoxic below 10m depth. At the stations close to the tributaries water inputs, the water column is well mixed and oxygenated from the surface to the bottom. As reported for other reservoirs located in "clear water" watersheds, the concentrations of nutrients are low (NO3-10 mmol m-2 d-1) were observed during the dry season. Close to the tributaries water inputs where the water column is well mixed, the average diffusive flux is 8 mmol m-2 d-1. CH4 ebullition was 3.5 mmol m-2 d-1 and no ebullition was observed for a water depth higher than 5m. The zone under the influence of the water inputs from tributaries represents 25% of the surface of the reservoir but contributed half of total CH4 emissions from the reservoir (29MgC month-1). Ebullition contributed only to 12% of total CH4 emissions over a year but it contributed up to 60% during the dry season. CH4 emissions from the Rio Grande Reservoir contributed 30% of the total GHG emissions (38GgCO2eq y-1). Overall, this study show that the majority of CH4 emissions from this

  6. Mineral CO2 sequestration by steel slag carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.


    Mineral CO2 sequestration, i.e., carbonation of alkaline silicate Ca/Mg minerals, analogous to natural weathering processes, is a possible technology for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, alkaline Ca-rich industrial residues are presented as a possible feedstock for mineral CO2 sequestration. These materials are cheap, available near large point sources of CO2, and tend to react relatively rapidly with CO2 due to their chemical instability. Ground steel slag was carbonated in aqueous suspensions to study its reaction mechanisms. Process variables, such as particle size, temperature, carbon dioxide pressure, and reaction time, were systematically varied, and their influence on the carbonation rate was investigated. The maximum carbonation degree reached was 74% of the Ca content in 30 min at 19 bar pressure, 100C, and a particle size of <38 μm. The two must important factors determining the reaction rare are particle size (<2 mm to <38 μm) and reaction temperature (25-225C). The carbonation reaction was found to occur in two steps: (1) leaching of calcium from the steel slag particles into the solution; (2) precipitation of calcite on the surface of these particles. The first step and, more in particular, the diffusion of calcium through the solid matrix toward the surface appeared to be the rate-determining reaction step, The Ca diffusion was found to be hindered by the formation of a CaCO3-coating and a Ca-depleted silicate zona during the carbonation process. Research on further enhancement of the reaction rate, which would contribute to the development of a cost-effective CO2-sequestration process, should focus particularly on this mechanism

  7. CO2 diffusion in champagne wines: a molecular dynamics study. (United States)

    Perret, Alexandre; Bonhommeau, David A; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Cours, Thibaud; Alijah, Alexander


    Although diffusion is considered as the main physical process responsible for the nucleation and growth of carbon dioxide bubbles in sparkling beverages, the role of each type of molecule in the diffusion process remains unclear. In the present study, we have used the TIP5P and SPC/E water models to perform force field molecular dynamics simulations of CO2 molecules in water and in a water/ethanol mixture respecting Champagne wine proportions. CO2 diffusion coefficients were computed by applying the generalized Fick's law for the determination of multicomponent diffusion coefficients, a law that simplifies to the standard Fick's law in the case of champagnes. The CO2 diffusion coefficients obtained in pure water and water/ethanol mixtures composed of TIP5P water molecules were always found to exceed the coefficients obtained in mixtures composed of SPC/E water molecules, a trend that was attributed to a larger propensity of SPC/E water molecules to form hydrogen bonds. Despite the fact that the SPC/E model is more accurate than the TIP5P model to compute water self-diffusion and CO2 diffusion in pure water, the diffusion coefficients of CO2 molecules in the water/ethanol mixture are in much better agreement with the experimental values of 1.4 - 1.5 × 10(-9) m(2)/s obtained for Champagne wines when the TIP5P model is employed. This difference was deemed to rely on the larger propensity of SPC/E water molecules to maintain the hydrogen-bonded network between water molecules and form new hydrogen bonds with ethanol, although statistical issues cannot be completely excluded. The remarkable agreement between the theoretical CO2 diffusion coefficients obtained within the TIP5P water/ethanol mixture and the experimental data specific to Champagne wines makes us infer that the diffusion coefficient in these emblematic hydroalcoholic sparkling beverages is expected to remain roughly constant whathever their proportions in sugars, glycerol, or peptides.

  8. Studies on CO2 removal and reduction. CO2 taisaku kenkyu no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Y [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)


    This paper summarizes study trends mainly in CO2 fixing processes. Underground CO2 storage is a most promising method because it can fix a huge amount of CO2 and has low effects on ecological systems. Storing CO2 in ocean includes such methods as storing it in deep oceans; storing it in deep ocean beds; dissolving it into sea water; neutralizing it with calcium carbonates; and precipitating it as dry ice. Japan, disposing CO2 in these ways, may create international problems. Separation of CO2 may use a chemical absorption process as a superior method. Other processes discussed include a physical adsorption method and a membrane separation method. A useful method for CO2 fixation using marine organisms is fixation using coral reefs. This process will require an overall study including circulation of phosphorus and nitrogen. Marine organisms may include planktons and algae. CO2 fixation using land plants may be able to fix one trillion and 8 hundred billion tons of CO2 as converted to carbon. This process would require forest protection, prevention of desertification, and tree planting. Discussions are being given also on improving power generation cycles, recovering CO2 from automotive exhausts, and backfilling carbons into ground by means of photosynthesis. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Fingerprinting captured CO2 using natural tracers: Determining CO2 fate and proving ownership (United States)

    Flude, Stephanie; Gilfillan, Stuart; Johnston, Gareth; Stuart, Finlay; Haszeldine, Stuart


    In the long term, captured CO2 will most likely be stored in large saline formations and it is highly likely that CO2 from multiple operators will be injected into a single saline formation. Understanding CO2 behavior within the reservoir is vital for making operational decisions and often uses geochemical techniques. Furthermore, in the event of a CO2 leak, being able to identify the owner of the CO2 is of vital importance in terms of liability and remediation. Addition of geochemical tracers to the CO2 stream is an effective way of tagging the CO2 from different power stations, but may become prohibitively expensive at large scale storage sites. Here we present results from a project assessing whether the natural isotopic composition (C, O and noble gas isotopes) of captured CO2 is sufficient to distinguish CO2 captured using different technologies and from different fuel sources, from likely baseline conditions. Results include analytical measurements of CO2 captured from a number of different CO2 capture plants and a comprehensive literature review of the known and hypothetical isotopic compositions of captured CO2 and baseline conditions. Key findings from the literature review suggest that the carbon isotope composition will be most strongly controlled by that of the feedstock, but significant fractionation is possible during the capture process; oxygen isotopes are likely to be controlled by the isotopic composition of any water used in either the industrial process or the capture technology; and noble gases concentrations will likely be controlled by the capture technique employed. Preliminary analytical results are in agreement with these predictions. Comparison with summaries of likely storage reservoir baseline and shallow or surface leakage reservoir baseline data suggests that C-isotopes are likely to be valuable tracers of CO2 in the storage reservoir, while noble gases may be particularly valuable as tracers of potential leakage.

  10. Atmospheric inversion of the surface CO2 flux with 13CO2 constraint (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Mo, G.; Deng, F.


    Observations of 13CO2 at 73 sites compiled in the GLOBALVIEW database are used for an additional constraint in a global atmospheric inversion of the surface CO2 flux using CO2 observations at 210 sites for the 2002-2004 period for 39 land regions and 11 ocean regions. This constraint is implemented using the 13CO2/CO2 flux ratio modeled with a terrestrial ecosystem model and an ocean model. These models simulate 13CO2 discrimination rates of terrestrial photosynthesis and respiration and ocean-atmosphere diffusion processes. In both models, the 13CO2 disequilibrium between fluxes to and from the atmosphere is considered due to the historical change in atmospheric 13CO2 concentration. For the 2002-2004 period, the 13CO2 constraint on the inversion increases the total land carbon sink from 3.40 to 3.70 Pg C yr-1 and decreases the total oceanic carbon sink from 1.48 to 1.12 Pg C yr-1. The largest changes occur in tropical areas: a considerable decrease in the carbon source in the Amazon forest, and this decrease is mostly compensated by increases in the ocean region immediately west of the Amazon and the southeast Asian land region. Our further investigation through different treatments of the 13CO2/CO2 flux ratio used in the inversion suggests that variable spatial distributions of the 13CO2 isotopic discrimination rate simulated by the models over land and ocean have considerable impacts on the spatial distribution of the inverted CO2 flux over land and the inversion results are not sensitive to errors in the estimated disequilibria over land and ocean.

  11. Diffuse CO2 degassing at Vesuvio, Italy (United States)

    Frondini, Francesco; Chiodini, Giovanni; Caliro, Stefano; Cardellini, Carlo; Granieri, Domenico; Ventura, Guido


    At Vesuvio, a significant fraction of the rising hydrothermal-volcanic fluids is subjected to a condensation and separation process producing a CO2-rich gas phase, mainly expulsed through soil diffuse degassing from well defined areas called diffuse degassing structures (DDS), and a liquid phase that flows towards the outer part of the volcanic cone. A large amount of thermal energy is associated with the steam condensation process and subsequent cooling of the liquid phase. The total amount of volcanic-hydrothermal CO2 discharged through diffuse degassing has been computed through a sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) approach based on several hundred accumulation chamber measurements and, at the time of the survey, amounted to 151 t d-1. The steam associated with the CO2 output, computed assuming that the original H2O/CO2 ratio of hydrothermal fluids is preserved in fumarolic effluents, is 553 t d-1, and the energy produced by the steam condensation and cooling of the liquid phase is 1.47×1012 J d-1 (17 MW). The location of the CO2 and temperature anomalies show that most of the gas is discharged from the inner part of the crater and suggests that crater morphology and local stratigraphy exert strong control on CO2 degassing and subsurface steam condensation. The amounts of gas and energy released by Vesuvio are comparable to those released by other volcanic degassing areas of the world and their estimates, through periodic surveys of soil CO2 flux, can constitute a useful tool to monitor volcanic activity.

  12. Large CO2 and CH4 release from a flooded formerly drained fen (United States)

    Sachs, T.; Franz, D.; Koebsch, F.; Larmanou, E.; Augustin, J.


    Drained peatlands are usually strong carbon dioxide (CO2) sources. In Germany, up to 4.5 % of the national CO2 emissions are estimated to be released from agriculturally used peatlands and for some peatland-rich northern states, such as Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, this share increases to about 20%. Reducing this CO2 source and restoring the peatlands' natural carbon sink is one objective of large-scale nature protection and restoration measures, in which 37.000 ha of drained and degraded peatlands in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania are slated for rewetting. It is well known, however, that in the initial phase of rewetting, a reduction of the CO2 source strength is usually accompanied by an increase in CH4 emissions. Thus, whether and when the intended effects of rewetting with regard to greenhouse gases are achieved, depends on the balance of CO2 and CH4 fluxes and on the duration of the initial CH4 emission phase. In 2013, a new Fluxnet site went online at a flooded formerly drained river valley fen site near Zarnekow, NE Germany (DE-Zrk), to investigate the combined CO2 and CH4 dynamics at such a heavily degraded and rewetted peatland. The site is dominated by open water with submerged and floating vegetation and surrounding Typha latifolia.Nine year after rewetting, we found large CH4 emissions of 53 g CH4 m-2 a-1 from the open water area, which are 4-fold higher than from the surrounding vegetation zone (13 g CH4 m-2 a-1). Surprisingly, both the open water and the vegetated area were net CO2 sources of 158 and 750 g CO2 m-2 a-1, respectively. Unusual meteorological conditions with a warm and dry summer and a mild winter might have facilitated high respiration rates, particularly from temporally non-inundated organic mud in the vegetation zone.

  13. Observational determination of surface radiative forcing by CO2 from 2000 to 2010. (United States)

    Feldman, D R; Collins, W D; Gero, P J; Torn, M S; Mlawer, E J; Shippert, T R


    The climatic impact of CO2 and other greenhouse gases is usually quantified in terms of radiative forcing, calculated as the difference between estimates of the Earth's radiation field from pre-industrial and present-day concentrations of these gases. Radiative transfer models calculate that the increase in CO2 since 1750 corresponds to a global annual-mean radiative forcing at the tropopause of 1.82 ± 0.19 W m(-2) (ref. 2). However, despite widespread scientific discussion and modelling of the climate impacts of well-mixed greenhouse gases, there is little direct observational evidence of the radiative impact of increasing atmospheric CO2. Here we present observationally based evidence of clear-sky CO2 surface radiative forcing that is directly attributable to the increase, between 2000 and 2010, of 22 parts per million atmospheric CO2. The time series of this forcing at the two locations-the Southern Great Plains and the North Slope of Alaska-are derived from Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer spectra together with ancillary measurements and thoroughly corroborated radiative transfer calculations. The time series both show statistically significant trends of 0.2 W m(-2) per decade (with respective uncertainties of ±0.06 W m(-2) per decade and ±0.07 W m(-2) per decade) and have seasonal ranges of 0.1-0.2 W m(-2). This is approximately ten per cent of the trend in downwelling longwave radiation. These results confirm theoretical predictions of the atmospheric greenhouse effect due to anthropogenic emissions, and provide empirical evidence of how rising CO2 levels, mediated by temporal variations due to photosynthesis and respiration, are affecting the surface energy balance.

  14. CO2-Water-Rock Wettability: Variability, Influencing Factors, and Implications for CO2 Geostorage. (United States)

    Iglauer, Stefan


    Carbon geosequestration (CGS) has been identified as a key technology to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and thus significantly mitigate climate change. In CGS, CO 2 is captured from large point-source emitters (e.g., coal fired power stations), purified, and injected deep underground into geological formations for disposal. However, the CO 2 has a lower density than the resident formation brine and thus migrates upward due to buoyancy forces. To prevent the CO 2 from leaking back to the surface, four trapping mechanisms are used: (1) structural trapping (where a tight caprock acts as a seal barrier through which the CO 2 cannot percolate), (2) residual trapping (where the CO 2 plume is split into many micrometer-sized bubbles, which are immobilized by capillary forces in the pore network of the rock), (3) dissolution trapping (where CO 2 dissolves in the formation brine and sinks deep into the reservoir due to a slight increase in brine density), and (4) mineral trapping (where the CO 2 introduced into the subsurface chemically reacts with the formation brine or reservoir rock or both to form solid precipitates). The efficiency of these trapping mechanisms and the movement of CO 2 through the rock are strongly influenced by the CO 2 -brine-rock wettability (mainly due to the small capillary-like pores in the rock which form a complex network), and it is thus of key importance to rigorously understand CO 2 -wettability. In this context, a substantial number of experiments have been conducted from which several conclusions can be drawn: of prime importance is the rock surface chemistry, and hydrophilic surfaces are water-wet while hydrophobic surfaces are CO 2 -wet. Note that CO 2 -wet surfaces dramatically reduce CO 2 storage capacities. Furthermore, increasing pressure, salinity, or dissolved ion valency increases CO 2 -wettability, while the effect of temperature is not well understood. Indeed theoretical understanding of CO 2 -wettability and the

  15. CO2-Induced Changes in Wheat Grain Composition: Meta-Analysis and Response Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin C. Broberg


    Full Text Available Elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2 stimulates wheat grain yield, but simultaneously reduces protein/nitrogen (N concentration. Also, other essential nutrients are subject to change. This study is a synthesis of wheat experiments with eCO2, estimating the effects on N, minerals (B, Ca, Cd, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Zn, and starch. The analysis was performed by (i deriving response functions to assess the gradual change in element concentration with increasing CO2 concentration, (ii meta-analysis to test the average magnitude and significance of observed effects, and (iii relating CO2 effects on minerals to effects on N and grain yield. Responses ranged from zero to strong negative effects of eCO2 on mineral concentration, with the largest reductions for the nutritionally important elements of N, Fe, S, Zn, and Mg. Together with the positive but small and non-significant effect on starch concentration, the large variation in effects suggests that CO2-induced responses cannot be explained only by a simple dilution model. To explain the observed pattern, uptake and transport mechanisms may have to be considered, along with the link of different elements to N uptake. Our study shows that eCO2 has a significant effect on wheat grain stoichiometry, with implications for human nutrition in a world of rising CO2.

  16. High temperature CO2 capture of hydroxyapatite extracted from tilapia scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar H. Ojeda-Niño


    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HAp was obtained from tilapia scales by two extraction methods: direct calcination and acid-base treatment. The physicochemical characteristics of the obtained HAps were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, surface area, infrared spectroscopy, and basicity measurement at 298 K by CO2-pulse titration. Furthermore, the CO2 capture capacity of the solids at high temperature was also determined. Both methods showed the presence of a HAp phase although significant differences in the properties of the solids were found. The HAp obtained by direct calcination exhibited a lower crystallinity and a greater surface area and basicity than the HAp obtained by the acid-base treatment. These features were correlated with the solid’s CO2 capture capacity. In this work, CO2 capture capacity values for HAp yielded by calcination ranged from 2.5 to 3.2 mg CO2 /g captured at 973 K, and for the acid-base treatment-derived HAp, CO2 capture capacity values between 1.2 to 2.5 mg CO2 /g were recorded. These results reveal the potential of HAps extracted from tilapia scales as solids with high CO2 capture capacity, thermal stability, and capture/release cycles reversibility.

  17. Preparation and characterization of aminated graphite oxide for CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yunxia; Ding Huiling; Zhong Qin


    Adsorption with solid sorbents is one of the most promising options for postcombustion carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture. In this study, aminated graphite oxide used for CO 2 adsorption was synthesized, based on the intercalation reaction of graphite oxide (GO) with amines, including ethylenediamine (EDA), diethylenetriamine (DETA) and triethylene tetramine (TETA). The structural information, surface chemistry and thermal behavior of the adsorbent samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), elemental analysis, particle size analysis, nitrogen adsorption as well as differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis (DSC-TGA). CO 2 capture was investigated by dynamic adsorption experiments with N 2 -CO 2 mixed gases at 30 °C. The three kinds of graphite oxide samples modified by excess EDA, DETA and TETA showed similar adsorption behaviors seen from their breakthrough curves. Among them, the sample aminated by EDA exhibited the highest adsorption capacity with the longest breakthrough time of CO 2 . Before saturation, its adsorption capacity was up to 53.62 mg CO 2 /g sample. In addition, graphite oxide samples modified by different amount of EDA (EDA/GO raw ratio 10 wt%, 50 wt% and 100 wt%) were prepared in the ethanol. Their CO 2 adsorption performance was investigated. The experimental results demonstrated that graphite oxide with 50 wt% EDA had the largest adsorption capacity 46.55 mg CO 2 /g sample.

  18. A cost effective CO2 strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , a scenario-part and a cost-benefit part. Air and sea modes are not analyzed. The model adopts a bottom-up approach to allow a detailed assessment of transport policy measures. Four generic areas of intervention were identified and the likely effect on CO2 emissions, socioeconomic efficiency and other...... are evaluated according to CO2 reduction potential and according to the ‘shadow price’ on a reduction of one ton CO2. The shadow price reflects the costs (and benefits) of the different measures. Comparing the measures it is possible to identify cost effective measures, but these measures are not necessarily...... by the Ministry of Transport, with the Technical University of Denmark as one of the main contributors. The CO2-strategy was to be based on the principle of cost-effectiveness. A model was set up to assist in the assessment. The model consists of a projection of CO2-emissions from road and rail modes from 2020...

  19. Rangeland -- plant response to elevated CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owensby, C.E.; Coyne, P.I.; Ham, J.M.; Parton, W.; Rice, C.; Auen, L.M.; Adam, N.


    Plots of a tallgrass prairie ecosystem were exposed to ambient and twice-ambient CO 2 concentrations in open-top chambers and compared to unchambered ambient CO 2 plots during the entire growing season from 1989 through 1992. Relative root production among treatments was estimated using root ingrowth bags which remained in place throughout the growing season. Latent heat flux was simulated with and without water stress. Botanical composition was estimated annuallyin all treatments. Open-top chambers appeared to reduce latent heat flux and increase water use efficiency similar to elevated CO 2 when water stress was not severe, but under severe water stress, chamber effect on water use efficiency was limited. In natural ecosystems with periodic moisture stress, increased water use efficiency under elevated CO 2 apparently would have a greater impact on productivity than photosynthetic pathway. Root ingrowth biomass was greater in 1990 and 1991 on elevated CO 2 plots compared to ambient or chambered-ambient plots. In 1992, there was no difference in root ingrowth biomass among treatments

  20. Economic efficiency of CO2 reduction programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahvonen, O.; Storch, H. von; Storch, J. von


    A highly simplified time-dependent low-dimensional system has been designed to describe conceptually the interaction of climate and economy. Enhanced emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is understood as the agent that not only favors instantaneous consumption but also causes unfavorable climate changes at a later time. The problem of balancing these two counterproductive effects of CO 2 emissions on a finite time horizon is considered. The climate system is represented by just two parameters, namely a globally averaged near-surface air-temperature and a globally averaged troposheric CO 2 concentration. The costs of abating CO 2 emissions are monitored by a function which depends quadratically on the percentage reduction of emission compared to an 'uncontrolled emission' scenario. Parameters are fitted to historical climate data and to estimates from studies of CO 2 abatement costs. Two optimization approaches, which differ from earlier attempts to describe the interaction of economy and climate, are discussed. In the 'cost oriented' strategy an optimal emission path is identified which balances the abatement costs and explicitly formulated damage costs. These damage costs, whose estimates are very uncertain, are hypothesized to be a linear function of the time-derivative of temperature. In the 'target oriented' strategy an emission path is chosen so that the abatement costs are minimal while certain restrictions on the terminal temperature and concentration change are met. (orig.)

  1. CO2-Switchable Membranes Prepared by Immobilization of CO2-Breathing Microgels. (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Wang, Zhenwu; Lei, Lei; Tang, Jun; Wang, Jianli; Zhu, Shiping


    Herein, we report the development of a novel CO 2 -responsive membrane system through immobilization of CO 2 -responsive microgels into commercially available microfiltration membranes using a method of dynamic adsorption. The microgels, prepared from soap-free emulsion polymerization of CO 2 -responsive monomer 2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DEA), can be reversibly expanded and shrunken upon CO 2 /N 2 alternation. When incorporated into the membranes, this switching behavior was preserved and further led to transformation between microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes, as indicated from the dramatic changes on water flux and BSA rejection results. This CO 2 -regulated performance switching of membranes was caused by the changes of water transportation channel, as revealed from the dynamic water contact angle tests and SEM observation. This work represents a simple yet versatile strategy for making CO 2 -responsive membranes.

  2. CO2 sensing and CO2 regulation of stomatal conductance: advances and open questions (United States)

    Engineer, Cawas; Hashimoto-Sugimoto, Mimi; Negi, Juntaro; Israelsson-Nordstrom, Maria; Azoulay-Shemer, Tamar; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Iba, Koh; Schroeder, Julian


    Guard cells form epidermal stomatal gas exchange valves in plants and regulate the aperture of stomatal pores in response to changes in the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in leaves. Moreover, the development of stomata is repressed by elevated CO2 in diverse plant species. Evidence suggests that plants can sense CO2 concentration changes via guard cells and via mesophyll tissues in mediating stomatal movements. We review new discoveries and open questions on mechanisms mediating CO2-regulated stomatal movements and CO2 modulation of stomatal development, which together function in CO2-regulation of stomatal conductance and gas exchange in plants. Research in this area is timely in light of the necessity of selecting and developing crop cultivars which perform better in a shifting climate. PMID:26482956

  3. Porous carbon derived via KOH activation of a hypercrosslinked porous organic polymer for efficient CO_2, CH_4, H_2 adsorptions and high CO_2/N_2 selectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modak, Arindam; Bhaumik, Asim


    Microporous carbon having Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 2186 m"2 g"−"1 and micropore volume of 0.85 cm"3 g"−"1 has been synthesized via KOH induced high temperature carbonization of a non-conjugated hypercrosslinked organic polymer. Owing to the templating and activation by KOH, we have succeeded in making a microporous carbon from this porous polymer and the resultant carbon material showed high uptake for CO_2 (7.6 mmol g"−"1) and CH_4 (2.4 mmol g"−"1) at 1 atm, 273 K together with very good selectivity for the CO_2/N_2 (30.2) separation. Furthermore, low pressure (1 atm) H_2 (2.6 wt%, 77 K) and water uptake (57.4 wt%, 298 K) ability of this polymer derived porous activated carbon is noteworthy. - Graphical abstract: Microporous carbon with BET surface area of 2186 m"2 g"−"1 has been synthesized via KOH activation of a porous organic polymer and it showed high uptake for CO_2 (7.6 mmol g"−"1), CH_4 (2.4 mmol g"−"1) and H_2 (2.6 wt%) at 1 atm together with very good selectivity for CO_2. - Highlights: • Porous carbon from hypercrosslinked organic polymer. • KOH activated carbon with BET surface area 2186 m"2 g"−"1. • High CO2 uptake (7.6 mmol g"−"1) and CO_2/N_2 selectivity (30.2). • Porous carbon also showed high H_2 (2.6 wt%) and H_2O (57.4 wt%) uptakes.

  4. Interannual variability in CO2 and CH4 exchange in a brackish tidal marsh in Northern California (United States)

    Knox, S. H.; Windham-Myers, L.; Anderson, F. E.; Bergamaschi, B. A.


    Carbon (C) cycling in coastal wetlands is difficult to measure and model due to extremely dynamic atmospheric and hydrologic fluxes, as well as sensitivities to dynamic land- and ocean-based drivers. To date, few studies have begun continuous measurements of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) in these systems, and as such our understanding of the key drivers of NEE in coastal wetlands remain poorly understood. Recent eddy covariance measurements of NEE in these environments show considerable variability both within and across sites, with daily CO2 uptake and annual net CO2 budgets varying by nearly an order of magnitude between years and across locations. Furthermore, measurements of CH4 fluxes in these systems are even more limited, despite the potential for CH4 emissions from brackish and freshwater coastal wetlands. Here we present 3 years of near-continuous eddy covariance measurements of CO2 and CH4 fluxes from a brackish tidal marsh in Northern California and explore the drivers of interannual variability in CO2 and CH4 exchange. CO2 fluxes showed significant interannual variability; net CO2 uptake was near-zero in 2014 (6 ± 26 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1), while much greater uptake was observed in 2015 and 2016 (209 ± 27 g C- CO2 m-2 yr-1 and 243 ± 26 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1, respectively). Conversely, annual CH4 emissions were small and consistent across years, with the wetland emitting on average 1 ± 0.1 g C-CH4 m-2 yr-1. With respect to the net atmospheric GHG budget (assuming a sustained global warming potential (SGWP) of 45, expressed in units of CO2 equivalents), the wetland was near neutral in 2014, but a net GHG sink of 706 ± 105 g CO2 eq m-2 yr-1 and 836 ± 83 g CO2 eq m-2 yr-1 in 2015 and 2016, respectively. The large interannual variability in CO2 exchange was driven by notable year-to-year differences in temperature and precipitation as California experienced a severe drought and record high temperatures from 2012 to 2015. The large interannual variability in

  5. Evasion of CO2 injected into the ocean in the context of CO2 stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheshgi, Haroon S.


    The eventual evasion of injected CO 2 to the atmosphere is one consideration when assessing deep-sea disposal of CO 2 as a potential response option to climate change concerns. Evasion estimated using an ocean carbon cycle model is compared to long-term trajectories for future CO 2 emissions, including illustrative cases leading to stabilization of CO 2 concentration at various levels. Modeled residence time for CO 2 injected into the deep ocean exceeds the 100-year time-scale usually considered in scenarios for future emissions, and the potential impacts of climate change. Illustrative cases leading monotonically to constant CO 2 concentration have been highlighted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to give guidance on possible timing of emission reductions that may be required to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at various levels. For stabilization cases considered, significant modeled evasion does not occur until long after CO 2 emissions have reached a maximum and begun to decline. Illustrative cases can also lead to a maximum in CO 2 concentration followed by a decline to slowly decreasing concentrations. In such cases, future injection of emissions into the deep ocean leads to lower maximum CO 2 concentration, with less effect on concentration later on in time

  6. Effect of Uncertainties in CO2 Property Databases on the S-CO2 Compressor Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Je Kyoung; Lee, Jeong Ik; Ahn, Yoonhan; Kim, Seong Gu; Cha, Je Eun


    Various S-CO 2 Brayton cycle experiment facilities are on the state of construction or operation for demonstration of the technology. However, during the data analysis, S-CO 2 property databases are widely used to predict the performance and characteristics of S-CO 2 Brayton cycle. Thus, a reliable property database is very important before any experiment data analyses or calculation. In this paper, deviation of two different property databases which are widely used for the data analysis will be identified by using three selected properties for comparison, C p , density and enthalpy. Furthermore, effect of above mentioned deviation on the analysis of test data will be briefly discussed. From this deviation, results of the test data analysis can have critical error. As the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle researcher knows, CO 2 near the critical point has dramatic change on thermodynamic properties. Thus, it is true that a potential error source of property prediction exists in CO 2 properties near the critical point. During an experiment data analysis with the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle experiment facility, thermodynamic properties are always involved to predict the component performance and characteristics. Thus, construction or defining of precise CO 2 property database should be carried out to develop Korean S-CO 2 Brayton cycle technology

  7. Surface CO2 leakage during the first shallow subsurface CO2 release experiment


    Lewicki, J.L.; Oldenburg, C.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.


    A new field facility was used to study CO2 migration processes and test techniques to detect and quantify potential CO2 leakage from geologic storage sites. For 10 days starting 9 July 2007, and for seven days starting 5 August 2007, 0.1 and 0.3 t CO2 d-1, respectively, were released from a ~;100-m long, sub-water table (~;2.5-m depth) horizontal well. The spatio-temporal evolution of leakage was mapped through repeated grid measurements of soil CO2 flux (FCO2). The surface leakage onset...

  8. The idea of global CO2 trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, G.T.


    The US has been criticized for wanting to earn a fortune on a global CO 2 market. However, compared to the situation without trade and provided that such a market is designed so that it does not pay to cheat, a global CO 2 market may provide the world with an epoch-making means of cost-effective control which can solve future global environmental problems. The economic gains from 'hot air' distributions of permits and CO 2 trade make the system politically attractive to potential participants. For example, vital financial subsidies from the EU to Eastern Europe are to be expected. It will probably not pay to cheat if quotas are renewed periodically by the UN. Cheating countries are then to be excluded from further profitable trade. Also, a periodical renewal of permits makes it possible to tighten target levels in the future

  9. Decoupling of CO2 emissions and GDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Rocha de Salles Lima


    Full Text Available The objetive of this work is to analyze the variation of CO2 emissions and GDP per capita throughout the years and identify the possible interaction between them. For this purpose, data from the International Energy Agency was collected on two countries, Brazil and the one with the highest GDP worldwide, the United States. Thus, the results showed that CO2 emissions have been following the country’s economic growth for many years. However, these two indicators have started to decouple in the US in 2007 while in Brazil the same happened in 2011. Furthermore, projections for CO2 emissions are made until 2040, considering 6 probable scenarios. These projections showed that even if the oil price decreases, the emissions will not be significantly affected as long as the economic growth does not decelerate.

  10. CO2 utilization: Developments in conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdogan Alper


    The potential utilization of CO2, captured at power plants, should also been taken into consideration for sustainability. This CO2 source, which is potentially a raw material for the chemical industry, will be available at sufficient quality and at gigantic quantity upon realization of on-going tangible capture projects. Products resulting from carboxylation reactions are obvious conversions. In addition, provided that enough supply of energy from non-fossil resources, such as solar [1], is ensured, CO2 reduction reactions can produce several valuable commodity chemicals including multi-carbon compounds, such as ethylene and acrylic acid, in addition to C1 chemicals and polymers. Presently, there are only few developing technologies which can find industrial applications. Therefore, there is a need for concerted research in order to assess the viability of these promising exploratory technologies rationally.

  11. Crop responses to CO2 enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, H.H.; Dahlman, R.C.


    Carbon dioxide is rising in the global atmosphere, and this increase can be expected to continue into the foreseeable future. This compound is an essential input to plant life. Crop function is affected across all scales from biochemical to agroecosystem. An array of methods (leaf cuvettes, field chambers, free-air release systems) are available for experimental studies of CO 2 effects. Carbon dioxide enrichment of the air in which crops grow usually stimulates their growth and yield. Plant structure and physiology are markedly altered. Interactions between CO 2 and environmental factors that influence plants are known to occur. Implications for crop growth and yield are enormous. Strategies designed to assure future global food security must include a consideration of crop responses to elevated atmospheric CO 2 . 137 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Waste cleaning using CO2-acid microemulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kwangheon; Sung, Jinhyun; Koh, Moonsung; Ju, Minsu


    Frequently we need to decontaminate radioactive wastes for volume reduction purposes. Metallic contaminants in wastes can be removed by dissolution to acid; however, this process produces a large amount of liquid acid waste. To reduce this 2ndary liquid waste, we suggest CO 2 -acid emulsion in removing metallic contaminants. Micro- and macro-emulsion of acid in liquid/supercritical CO 2 were successfully made. The formation region of microemulsion (water or acid in CO 2 ) was measured, and stability of the microemulsion was analyzed with respect to surfactant types. We applied micro- and macro-emulsion containing acid to the decontamination of radioactive metallic parts contaminated on the surface. The cleaning methods of micro- and macro-emulsion seemed better compared to the conventional acid cleaning. Moreover, these methods produce very small amount of secondary wastes. (author)

  13. Direct electroreduction of CO2 into hydrocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winea, Gauthier; Ledoux, Marc-Jacques; Pham-Huu, Cuong; Gangeri, Miriam; Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele


    A lot of methods exist to directly reduce carbon dioxide into hydrocarbons: the photoelectrochemical process is certainly the most interesting, essentially due to the similarities with photosynthesis. As the human activities produce a great quantity of CO 2 , this one can then be considered as an infinite source of carbon. The products of this reaction are identical to those obtained during a Fischer-Tropsch reaction, that is to say hydrocarbons, alcohols and carboxylic acids. These works deal with the electrochemical reduction of CO 2 in standard conditions of temperature and pressure. The photochemical part has been replaced by a current generator as electrons source and a KHCO 3 aqueous solution as protons source. The first catalytic results clearly show that it is possible to reduce CO 2 into light hydrocarbons, typically from C1 to C9. (O.M.)

  14. Cutting weeds with a CO2 laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisel, T.; Schou, Jørgen; Christensen, S.


    Stems of Chenopodium album. and Sinapis arvensis. and leaves of Lolium perenne. were cut with a CO2 laser or with a pair of scissors. Treatments were carried out on greenhouse-grown pot plants at three different growth stages and at two heights. Plant dry matter was measured 2 to 5 weeks after...... treatment. The relationship between dry weight and laser energy was analysed using a non-linear dose-response regression model. The regression parameters differed significantly between the weed species. At all growth stages and heights S. arvensis was more difficult to cut with a CO2 laser than C. album....... When stems were cut below the meristems, 0.9 and 2.3 J mm(-1) of CO2 laser energy dose was sufficient to reduce by 90% the biomass of C. album and S. arvensis respectively. Regrowth appeared when dicotyledonous plant stems were cut above meristems, indicating that it is important to cut close...

  15. Assessment of CO2 free energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavlina, N.; Raseta, D.; Matutinovic, I.


    One of the European Union climate and energy targets is to significantly reduce CO 2 emissions, at least 20% by 2020, compared to 1990. In the power industry, most popular solution is use of solar and wind power. Since their production varies significantly during the day, for the purpose of base-load production they can be paired with gas-fired power plant. Other possible CO 2 -free solution is nuclear power plant. This article compared predicted cost of energy production for newly built nuclear power plant and newly built combination of wind or solar and gas-fired power plant. Comparison was done using Levelized Unit of Energy Cost (LUEC). Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo method. For input parameters that have biggest uncertainty (gas cost, CO 2 emission fee) those uncertainties were addressed not only through probability distribution around predicted value, but also through different scenarios. Power plants were compared based on their economic lifetime. (authors)

  16. The ATLAS IBL CO2 Cooling System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00237783; The ATLAS collaboration; Zwalinski, L.; Bortolin, C.; Vogt, S.; Godlewski, J.; Crespo-Lopez, O.; Van Overbeek, M.; Blaszcyk, T.


    The ATLAS Pixel detector has been equipped with an extra B-layer in the space obtained by a reduced beam pipe. This new pixel detector called the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is installed in 2014 and is operational in the current ATLAS data taking. The IBL detector is cooled with evaporative CO2 and is the first of its kind in ATLAS. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system is designed for lower temperature operation (<-35⁰C) than the previous developed CO2 cooling systems in High Energy Physics experiments. The cold temperatures are required to protect the pixel sensors for the high expected radiation dose up to 550 fb^-1 integrated luminosity.

  17. Novel concepts for CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkstra, J.W.; Jansen, D.


    This paper describes the possibilities for power generation with CO 2 capture using envisaged key technologies: gas turbines, membranes and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). First, the underlying programs in the Netherlands and at ECN are introduced. Then the key technologies are introduced, and concepts using these technologies are discussed. A literature overview of systems for power generation with fuel cells in combination with CO 2 capture is presented. Then a novel concept is introduced. This concept uses a water gas shift membrane reactor to convert the CO and H 2 in the SOFC anode off-gas to gain a CO 2 rich stream, which can be used for sequestration without elaborate treatment. Several implementation schemes of the technique are discussed such as atmospheric systems and hybrid SOFC-GT systems

  18. Equilibrium Solubility of CO2 in Alkanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waseem Arshad, Muhammad; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; von Solms, Nicolas


    Equilibrium solubility of CO2 were measured in aqueous solutions of Monoethanolamine (MEA) and N,N-diethylethanolamine(DEEA). Equilibrium cells are generally used for these measurements. In this study, the equilibrium data were measured from the calorimetry. For this purpose a reaction calorimeter...... (model CPA 122 from ChemiSens AB, Sweden) was used. The advantage of this method is being the measurement of both heats of absorption and equilibrium solubility data of CO2 at the same time. The measurements were performed for 30 mass % MEA and 5M DEEA solutions as a function of CO2 loading at three...... different temperatures 40, 80 and 120 ºC. The measured 30 mass % MEA and 5M DEEA data were compared with the literature data obtained from different equilibrium cells which validated the use of calorimeters for equilibrium solubility measurements....

  19. Effects of sea-ice and biogeochemical processes and storms on under-ice water fCO2 during the winter-spring transition in the high Arctic Ocean: Implications for sea-air CO2 fluxes (United States)

    Fransson, Agneta; Chierici, Melissa; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Olsen, Are; Assmy, Philipp; Peterson, Algot K.; Spreen, Gunnar; Ward, Brian


    We performed measurements of carbon dioxide fugacity (fCO2) in the surface water under Arctic sea ice from January to June 2015 during the Norwegian young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) expedition. Over this period, the ship drifted with four different ice floes and covered the deep Nansen Basin, the slopes north of Svalbard, and the Yermak Plateau. This unique winter-to-spring data set includes the first winter-time under-ice water fCO2 observations in this region. The observed under-ice fCO2 ranged between 315 µatm in winter and 153 µatm in spring, hence was undersaturated relative to the atmospheric fCO2. Although the sea ice partly prevented direct CO2 exchange between ocean and atmosphere, frequently occurring leads and breakup of the ice sheet promoted sea-air CO2 fluxes. The CO2 sink varied between 0.3 and 86 mmol C m-2 d-1, depending strongly on the open-water fractions (OW) and storm events. The maximum sea-air CO2 fluxes occurred during storm events in February and June. In winter, the main drivers of the change in under-ice water fCO2 were dissolution of CaCO3 (ikaite) and vertical mixing. In June, in addition to these processes, primary production and sea-air CO2 fluxes were important. The cumulative loss due to CaCO3 dissolution of 0.7 mol C m-2 in the upper 10 m played a major role in sustaining the undersaturation of fCO2 during the entire study. The relative effects of the total fCO2 change due to CaCO3 dissolution was 38%, primary production 26%, vertical mixing 16%, sea-air CO2 fluxes 16%, and temperature and salinity insignificant.

  20. Livestock induces strong spatial heterogeneity of soil CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions within a semi-arid sylvo-pastoral landscape in West Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed H ASSOUMA; Dominique SER(C)A; Frédéric GU(E)RIN; Vincent BLANFORT; Philippe LECOMTE; Ibra TOUR(E); Alexandre ICKOWICZ


    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the surface soils and surface water receiving animal excreta may be important components of the GHG balance of terrestrial ecosystems,but the associated processes are poorly documented in tropical environments,especially in tropical arid and semi-arid areas.A typical sylvo-pastoral landscape in the semi-arid zone of Senegal,West Africa,was investigated in this study.The study area (706 km2 of managed pastoral land) was a circular zone with a radius of 15 km centered on a borehole used to water livestock.The landscape supports a stocking rate ranging from 0.11 to 0.39 tropical livestock units per hectare depending on the seasonal movements of the livestock.Six landscape units were investigated (land in the vicinity of the borehole,natural ponds,natural rangelands,forest plantations,settlements,and enclosed plots).Carbon dioxide (CO2),nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) fluxes were measured with static chambers set up at 13 sites covering the six landscape units,and the 13 sites are assumed to be representative of the spatial heterogeneity of the emissions.A total of 216 fluxes were measured during the one-year study period (May 2014 to April 2015).At the landscape level,soits and surface water emitted an average 19.8 t C-CO2 eq/(hm2·a) (CO2:82%,N2O:15%,and CH4:3%),but detailed results revealed notable spatial heterogeneity of GHG emissions.CO2 fluxes ranged from 1148.2 (±91.6) mg/(m2·d) in rangelands to 97,980.2 (±14,861.7) mg/(m2·d) in surface water in the vicinity of the borehole.N2O fluxes ranged from 0.6 (±0.1) mg/(m2·d) in forest plantations to 22.6 (±10.8) mg/(m2·d) in the vicinity of the borehole.CH4 fluxes ranged from-3.2 (±0.3) mg/(m2·d) in forest plantations to 8788.5 (±2295.9) mg/(m2·d) from surface water in the vicinity of the borehole.This study identified GHG emission "hot spots" in the landscape.Emissions from the surface soilts were significantly higher in the landscape units most frequently

  1. Impact of elevated CO_2 concentrations on carbonate mineral precipitation ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria and implications for CO_2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Varun G.; Wronkiewicz, David J.; Mormile, Melanie R.


    Interest in anthropogenic CO_2 release and associated global climatic change has prompted numerous laboratory-scale and commercial efforts focused on capturing, sequestering or utilizing CO_2 in the subsurface. Known carbonate mineral precipitating microorganisms, such as the anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), could enhance the rate of conversion of CO_2 into solid minerals and thereby improve long-term storage of captured gasses. The ability of SRB to induce carbonate mineral precipitation, when exposed to atmospheric and elevated pCO_2, was investigated in laboratory scale tests with bacteria from organic-rich sediments collected from hypersaline Lake Estancia, New Mexico. The enriched SRB culture was inoculated in continuous gas flow and batch reactors under variable headspace pCO_2 (0.0059 psi to 20 psi). Solution pH, redox conditions, sulfide, calcium and magnesium concentrations were monitored in the reactors. Those reactors containing SRB that were exposed to pCO_2 of 14.7 psi or less showed Mg-calcite precipitation. Reactors exposed to 20 psi pCO_2 did not exhibit any carbonate mineralization, likely due to the inhibition of bacterial metabolism caused by the high levels of CO_2. Hydrogen, lactate and formate served as suitable electron donors for the SRB metabolism and related carbonate mineralization. Carbon isotopic studies confirmed that ∼53% of carbon in the precipitated carbonate minerals was derived from the CO_2 headspace, with the remaining carbon being derived from the organic electron donors, and the bicarbonate ions available in the liquid medium. The ability of halotolerant SRB to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals can potentially be applied to the long-term storage of anthropogenic CO_2 in saline aquifers and other ideal subsurface rock units by converting the gas into solid immobile phases. - Highlights: • SRB under study are capable of precipitating calcite up to 14.7 psi pCO_2. • At 20 psi pCO_2, bacterial activity

  2. Spectroscopic technique for measuring atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, G.M.; Stokes, R.A.


    As part of a continuing effort to identify areas in which astronomical techniques and data may be profitably applied to atmospheric problems, both new and archival solar spectra have been collected to prepare for an analysis of their use for studying the changes of the atmospheric CO 2 burden. This analysis has resulted in the initiation of an observing program using the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) of the McMath Solar Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO). This program is generating spectra, the quality of which should not only aid the archival CO 2 study but also lead to analyses of other trace gases

  3. 10 MW Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig


    The Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test project was to demonstrate the inherent efficiencies of a supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) power turbine and associated turbomachinery under conditions and at a scale relevant to commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) projects, thereby accelerating the commercial deployment of this new power generation technology. The project involved eight partnering organizations: NREL, Sandia National Laboratories, Echogen Power Systems, Abengoa Solar, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Electric Power Research Institute, Barber-Nichols, and the CSP Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The multi-year project planned to design, fabricate, and validate an s-CO2 power turbine of nominally 10 MWe that is capable of operation at up to 700°C and operates in a dry-cooled test loop. The project plan consisted of three phases: (1) system design and modeling, (2) fabrication, and (3) testing. The major accomplishments of Phase 1 included: Design of a multistage, axial-flow, s-CO2 power turbine; Design modifications to an existing turbocompressor to provide s-CO2 flow for the test system; Updated equipment and installation costs for the turbomachinery and associated support infrastructure; Development of simulation tools for the test loop itself and for more efficient cycle designs that are of greater commercial interest; Simulation of s-CO2 power cycle integration into molten-nitrate-salt CSP systems indicating a cost benefit of up to 8% in levelized cost of energy; Identification of recuperator cost as a key economic parameter; Corrosion data for multiple alloys at temperatures up to 650ºC in high-pressure CO2 and recommendations for materials-of-construction; and Revised test plan and preliminary operating conditions based on the ongoing tests of related equipment. Phase 1 established that the cost of the facility needed to test the power turbine at its full power and temperature would exceed the planned funding for Phases 2 and 3. Late

  4. 14CO2 fixation pattern of cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdmann, N.; Schiewer, U.


    The 14 CO 2 fixation pattern of three cyanobacteria in the light and dark were studied. Two different chromatographic methods widely used for separating labelled photosynthetic intermediates were compared. After ethanolic extraction, a rather uniform fixation pattern reflecting mainly the β-carboxylation pathway is obtained for all 3 species. Of the intermediates, glucosylglycerol is specific and high citrulline and low malate contents are fairly specific to cyanobacteria. The composition of the 14 CO 2 fixation pattern is hardly affected by changes in temperature or light intensity, but it is severely affected by changes in the water potential of the medium. (author)

  5. Capture and Geological Storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, T.; Brockett, S.; Hegan, L.; Barbucci, P.; Tullius, K.; Scott, J.; Otter, N.; Cook, P.; Hill, G.; Dino, R.; Aimard, N.; Giese, R.; Christensen, N.P.; Munier, G.; Paelinck, Ph.; Rayna, L.; Stromberg, L.; Birat, J.P.; Audigane, P.; Loizzo, M.; Arts, R.; Fabriol, H.; Radgen, P.; Hartwell, J.; Wartmann, S.; Drosin, E.; Willnow, K.; Moisan, F.


    To build on the growing success of the first two international symposia on emission reduction and CO 2 capture and geological storage, held in Paris in 2005 and again in 2007, IFP, ADEME and BRGM organised a third event on the same topic the 5-6 November 2009. This time, the focus was on the urgency of industrial deployment. Indeed, the IPCC 4. assessment report indicates that the world must achieve a 50 to 85% reduction in CO 2 emissions by 2050 compared to 2000, in order to limit the global temperature increase to around 2 deg. C. Moreover, IPCC stresses that a 'business as usual' scenario could lead to a temperature increase of between 4 deg. C to 7 deg. C across the planet. The symposium was organized in 4 sessions: Session I - Regulatory framework and strategies for enabling CCS deployment: - CCS: international status of political, regulatory and financing issues (Tom Kerr, IEA); - EC regulatory framework (Scott Brockett, European Commission, DG ENV); - Canada's investments towards implementation of CCS in Canada (Larry Hegan, Office of Energy Research and Development - Government of Canada); - A power company perspective (Pietro Barbucci, ENEL); - EC CCS demonstration network (Kai Tullius, European Commission, DG TREN); - Strategies and policies for accelerating global CCS deployment (Jesse Scott, E3G); - The global CCS Institute, a major initiative to facilitate the rapid deployment of CCS (Nick Otter, GCCSI); Session II - From pilot to demonstration projects: - Otway project, Australia (David Hilditch, CO2 CRC); - US regional partnerships (Gerald Hill, Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership - SECARB); - CCS activities in Brazil (Rodolfo Dino, Petrobras); - Lessons learnt from Ketzin CO2Sink project in Germany (Ruediger Giese, GFZ); - CO 2 storage - from laboratory to reality (Niels-Peter Christensen, Vattenfall); - Valuation and storage of CO 2 : A global project for carbon management in South-East France (Gilles Munier, Geogreen); Session III

  6. Element mobilization and immobilization from carbonate rocks between CO 2 storage reservoirs and the overlying aquifers during a potential CO 2 leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawter, Amanda R.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Asmussen, R. Matthew; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Qafoku, Odeta; Bacon, Diana H.; Brown, Christopher F.


    Despite the numerous studies on changes within the reservoir following CO2 injection and the effects of CO2 release into overlying aquifers, little or no literature is available on the effect of CO2 release on rock between the storage reservoirs and subsurface. To address this knowledge gap, relevant rock materials, temperatures and pressures were used to study mineralogical and elemental changes in this intermediate zone. After rocks reacted with CO2, liquid analysis showed an increase of major elements (e.g., Ca, and Mg) and variable concentrations of potential contaminants (e.g., Sr and Ba); lower concentrations were observed in N2 controls. In experiments with As/Cd and/or organic spikes, representing potential contaminants in the CO2 plume originating in the storage reservoir, most or all of these contaminants were removed from the aqueous phase. SEM and Mössbauer spectroscopy results showed the formation of new minerals and Fe oxides in some CO2-reacted samples, indicating potential for contaminant removal through mineral incorporation or adsorption onto Fe oxides. These experiments show the interactions between the CO2-laden plume and the rock between storage reservoirs and overlying aquifers have the potential to affect the level of risk to overlying groundwater, and should be considered during site selection and risk evaluation.

  7. Coal lithotypes before and after saturation with CO2; insights from micro- and mesoporosity, fluidity, and functional group distribution (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Walker, R.; Morse, D.


    Four lithotypes, vitrain, bright clarain, clarain, and fusain, were hand-picked from the core of the Pennsylvanian Springfield Coal Member (Petersburg Formation) in Illinois. These lithotypes were analyzed petrographically and for meso- and micropore characteristics, functional group distribution using FTIR techniques, and fluidity. High-pressure CO2 adsorption isotherm analyses of these lithotypes were performed and, subsequently, all samples were reanalyzed in order to investigate the effects of CO2. After the high-pressure adsorption isotherm analysis was conducted and the samples were reanalyzed, there was a decrease in BET surface area for vitrain from 31.5m2/g in the original sample to 28.5m2/g, as determined by low-pressure nitrogen adsorption. Bright clarain and clarain recorded a minimal decrease in BET surface area, whereas for fusain there was an increase from 6.6m2/g to 7.9m2/g. Using low-pressure CO2 adsorption techniques, a small decrease in the quantity of the adsorbed CO2 is recorded for vitrain and bright clarain, no difference is observed for clarain, and there is an increase in the quantity of the adsorbed CO2 for fusain. Comparison of the FTIR spectra before and after CO2 injection for all lithotypes showed no differences with respect to functional group distribution, testifying against chemical nature of CO2 adsorption. Gieseler plastometry shows that: 1) softening temperature is higher for the post-CO2 sample (389.5??C vs. 386??C); 2) solidification temperature is lower for the post-CO2 sample (443.5??C vs. 451??C); and 3) the maximum fluidity is significantly lower for the post-CO2 sample (4 ddpm vs. 14 ddpm). ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Catalytic conversion of CO2 into valuable products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham-Huu, C.; Ledoux, M.J.


    Complete text of publication follows: Synthesis gas, a mixture of H 2 and CO, is an important feed-stock for several chemical processes operated in the production of methanol and synthetic fuels through a Fischer- Tropsch synthesis. Synthesis gas is produced via an endothermic steam reforming of methane (CH 4 + H 2 O → CO + 3H 2 , ΔH = +225.4 kJ.mol -1 ), catalytic or direct partial oxidation of methane (CH 4 + (1/2)O 2 → CO + 2H 2 , ΔH -38 kJ.mol -1 ) and CO 2 reforming of methane (CH 4 + CO 2 → 2CO + 2H 2 , ΔH= +247 kJ.mol -1 ). The main disadvantage of these processes is the high coke formation, essentially in the nano-filament form, which may cause severe deactivation of the catalyst by pore or active site blocking and sometimes, physical disintegration of the catalyst body causing a high pressure drop along the catalyst bed and even, in some cases, inducing damage to the reactor itself. Previous results obtained in the catalytic partial oxidation of methane have shown that due to the hot spot and carbon nano-filaments formation, especially in the case of the CO 2 reforming, the alumina-based catalyst in an extrudate form was broken into powder which induces a significant pressure drop across the catalytic bed. In the case of endothermic reactions, steam and CO 2 reforming, the temperature drop within the catalyst bed could also modified the activity of the catalyst. Silicon carbide (SiC) exhibits a high thermal conductivity, a high resistance towards oxidation, a high mechanical strength, and chemical inertness, all of which make it a good candidate for use as catalyst support in several endothermic and exothermic reactions such as dehydrogenation, selective partial oxidation, and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The gas-solid reaction allows the preparation of SiC with medium surface area, i.e. 10 to 40 m 2 .g -1 , and controlled macroscopic shape, i.e. grains, extrudates or foam, for it subsequence use as catalyst support. In addition, due to its chemical

  9. CO2 injection into fractured peridotites: a reactive percolation experiment (United States)

    Escario, S.; Godard, M.; Gouze, P.; Leprovost, R.; Luquot, L.; Garcia-Rios, M.


    Mantle peridotites have the potential to trap CO2 as carbonates. This process observed in ophiolites and in oceanic environments provides a long term and safe storage for CO2. It occurs as a part of a complex suite of fluid-rock reactions involving silicate dissolution and precipitation of hydrous phases, carbonates and minor phases that may in turn modify the hydrodynamic properties and the reactivity of the reacted rocks. The efficiency and lastingness of the process require the renewal of fluids at the mineral-fluid interface. Fractures are dominant flow paths in exhumed mantle sections. This study aims at better understanding the effect of CO2-enriched saline fluids on hydrodynamic and chemical processes through fractured peridotites. Experiments were performed using the reactive percolation bench ICARE Lab 3 - Géosciences Montpellier. It allows monitoring the permeability changes during experiments. Effluents are recurrently sampled for analysing cation concentration, pH and alkalinity. Reacted rock samples were characterized by high resolution X-ray microtomography (ESRF ID19, Grenoble, France) and SEM. Experiments consisted in injecting CO2-enriched brines (NaCl 0.5 M) at a rate of 6 mL.h-1 into artificially fractured cores (9 mm diameter × 20 mm length) of Oman harzburgites at T=170°C and Ptotal = 25 MPa for up to 2 weeks. Fractures are of few µm apertures with rough walls. Three sets of experiments were performed at increasing value of [CO2] (0, 0.1 and 1 mol/kg). All experiments showed a decrease in permeability followed by steady state regime that can be caused by a decrease in the roughness of fracture walls (dissolution dominated process), thus favouring fracture closing, or by the precipitation of secondary phases. Maximum enrichments in Mg, Fe and Ca of the effluent fluids occur during the first 2 hours of the experiments whereas Si displays a maximum enrichment at t = 20 h, suggesting extensive dissolution. Maximum enrichments are observed with

  10. Rates of CO2 Mineralization in Geological Carbon Storage. (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; DePaolo, Donald J


    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) involves capture and purification of CO 2 at industrial emission sources, compression into a supercritical state, and subsequent injection into geologic formations. This process reverses the flow of carbon to the atmosphere with the intention of returning the carbon to long-term geologic storage. Models suggest that most of the injected CO 2 will be "trapped" in the subsurface by physical means, but the most risk-free and permanent form of carbon storage is as carbonate minerals (Ca,Mg,Fe)CO 3 . The transformation of CO 2 to carbonate minerals requires supply of the necessary divalent cations by dissolution of silicate minerals. Available data suggest that rates of transformation are highly uncertain and difficult to predict by standard approaches. Here we show that the chemical kinetic observations and experimental results, when they can be reduced to a single cation-release time scale that describes the fractional rate at which cations are released to solution by mineral dissolution, show sufficiently systematic behavior as a function of pH, fluid flow rate, and time that the rates of mineralization can be estimated with reasonable certainty. The rate of mineralization depends on both the abundance (determined by the reservoir rock mineralogy) and the rate at which cations are released from silicate minerals by dissolution into pore fluid that has been acidified with dissolved CO 2 . Laboratory-measured rates and field observations give values spanning 8 to 10 orders of magnitude, but when they are evaluated in the context of a reservoir-scale reactive transport simulation, this range becomes much smaller. The reservoir scale simulations provide limits on the applicable conditions under which silicate mineral dissolution and subsequent carbonate mineral precipitation are likely to occur (pH 4.5 to 6, fluid flow velocity less than 5 m/year, and 50-100 years or more after the start of injection). These constraints lead to estimates of

  11. Heterotrophic fixation of CO2 in soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šantrůčková, Hana; Bird, M. I.; Elhottová, Dana; Novák, Jaroslav; Picek, T.; Šimek, Miloslav; Tykva, Richard


    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2005), s. 218-225 ISSN 0095-3628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/02/1036; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6066901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : heterotrophic fixation * CO2 * soil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.674, year: 2005

  12. Managing CO2 emissions in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obioh, I.B.; Oluwole, A.F.; Akeredolu, F.A.


    The energy resources in Nigeria are nearly equally divided between fossil fuels and biofuels. The increasing pressure on them, following expected increased population growth, may lead to substantial emissions of carbon into the atmosphere. Additionally agricultural and forestry management practices in vogue are those related to savannah burning and rotational bush fallow systems, which have been clearly implicated as important sources of CO 2 and trace gases. An integrated model for the prediction of future CO 2 emissions based on fossil fuels and biomass fuels requirements, rates of deforestation and other land-use indices is presented. This is further based on trends in population and economic growth up to the year 2025, with a base year in 1988. A coupled carbon cycle-climate model based on the contribution of CO 2 and other trace gases is established from the proportions of integrated global warming effects for a 20-year averaging time using the product of global warming potential (GWP) and total emissions. An energy-technology inventory approach to optimal resources management is used as a tool for establishing the future scope of reducing the CO 2 emissions through improved fossil fuel energy efficiencies. Scenarios for reduction based on gradual to swift shifts from biomass to fossil and renewable fuels are presented together with expected policy options required to effect them

  13. Detection of 14CO2 in radiotoxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonnet, Francoise; Bocquet, Colette.


    14 CO 2 is detected in exhaled air by conversion to Ba 14 CO 3 which is then filtered, dried and weighed. The radioactivity is measured by liquid scintillation counting. The radioactivity is expressed in μCi per litre of exhaled air according to the ICRP recommendations. The detection threshold is well below the values indicated by the ICRP [fr

  14. Stereotactic CO2 laser therapy for hydrocephalus (United States)

    Kozodoy-Pins, Rebecca L.; Harrington, James A.; Zazanis, George A.; Nosko, Michael G.; Lehman, Richard M.


    A new fiber-optic delivery system for CO2 radiation has been used to successfully treat non-communicating hydrocephalus. This system consists of a hollow sapphire waveguide employed in the lumen of a stereotactically-guided neuroendoscope. CO2 gas flows through the bore of the hollow waveguide, creating a path for the laser beam through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This delivery system has the advantages of both visualization and guided CO2 laser radiation without the same 4.3 mm diameter scope. Several patients with hydrocephalus were treated with this new system. The laser was used to create a passage in the floor of the ventricle to allow the flow of CSF from the ventricles to the sub-arachnoid space. Initial postoperative results demonstrated a relief of the clinical symptoms. Long-term results will indicate if this type of therapy will be superior to the use of implanted silicone shunts. Since CO2 laser radiation at 10.6 micrometers is strongly absorbed by the water in tissue and CSF, damage to tissue surrounding the lesion with each laser pulse is limited. The accuracy and safety of this technique may prove it to be an advantageous therapy for obstructive hydrocephalus.

  15. Chilled ammonia process for CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; Thomsen, Kaj; van Well, Willy J. M


    The chilled ammonia process absorbs the CO2 at low temperature (2-10 degrees C). The heat of absorption of carbon dioxide by ammonia is significantly lower than for amines. In addition, degradation problems can be avoided and a high carbon dioxide capacity is achieved. Hence, this process shows...

  16. Chilled Ammonia Process for CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; Thomsen, Kaj; Well, Willy J.M. van


    The chilled ammonia process absorbs the CO2 at low temperature (2–10°C). The heat of absorption of carbon dioxide by ammonia is significantly lower than for amines. In addition, degradation problems can be avoided and a high carbon dioxide capacity is achieved. Hence, this process shows good...

  17. The Idea of Global CO2 Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard


    -effective control which can solve future global environmental problems. The gains from CO2 trade may give vital financial subsidies from the EU to Eastern Europe, for example, and it will probably not pay to cheat if quotas are renewed periodically by the UN. Cheating countries are then to be excluded from further...

  18. Climate change and CO2 emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Duong, M.; Campos, A.S.


    This paper presents the results of an opinion poll performed on a representative sample of 1000 persons about their sensitivity to climate change and to environment protection, their knowledge about technologies which are useful for environment protection, their opinion about geological CO 2 sequestration, and technologies to be developed to struggle against climate warming

  19. CO2 emissions of nuclear electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissel, Steffen; Mayer-Spohn, Oliver; Fahl, Ulrich; Blesl, Markus; Voss, Alfred


    A survey of LCA studies on nuclear electricity generation revealed life cycle CO 2 emissions ranging between 3 g/kWhe to 60 g/kWhe and above. Firstly, this paper points out the discrepancies in studies by estimating the CO 2 emissions of nuclear power generation. Secondly, the paper sets out to provide critical review of future developments of the fuel cycle for light water reactors and illustrates the impact of uncertainties on the specific CO 2 emissions of nuclear electricity generation. Each step in the fuel cycle will be considered and with regard to the CO 2 emissions analysed. Thereby different assumptions and uncertainty levels are determined for the nuclear fuel cycle. With the impacts of low uranium ore grades for mining and milling as well as higher burn-up rates future fuel characteristics are considered. Sensitivity analyses are performed for all fuel processing steps, for different technical specifications of light water reactors as well as for further external frame conditions. (authors)

  20. CO2 effect on porous concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauman, Zdenek


    Full Text Available Not availableDebido a la acción del CO2 y de la humedad sobre un hormigón poroso, la tobermorita 11 A se descompone en vaterita, calcita y SÍO2 gel. A causa de la pseudomorfosis, la morfología de los cristales de la fase cementante no sufre cambios notables. La menor resistencia a la compresión se obtuvo después de 30 días de conservación en atmósferas de un 10 y un 30% de CO2. Después de un año de conservación, las resistencias no bajaron más de un 10%. En lo que respecta a la retracción de un hormigón poroso, la principal influencia fue la ejercida por la acción del CO2 y solamente en segundo lugar figura la acción ejercida por la humedad ambiente. Los hormigones porosos expuestos al aire (con su 0,03% de CO2 a h. r. de 50, 70 y 100% sufrieron al cabo de un año una expansión muy ligera.

  1. CO2 capture by Condensed Rotational Separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benthum, van R.J.; Kemenade, van H.P.; Brouwers, J.J.H.; Golombok, M.


    Condensed Rotational Separation (CRS) technology is a patented method to upgrade gas mixtures. A novel application is thecapture of CO2 from coal-combustion fired power stations: Condensed Contaminant Centrifugal Separation in Coal Combustion(C5sep). CRS involves partial condensation of a gas

  2. CO2 contain of the electric heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.


    A recent announcement of the RTE and the ADEME on the CO 2 contain of the electric kW, refuting a 2005 study of EDF and ADEME, perturbed the public opinion and was presented as the proof that the nuclear has no part in the fight against the climatic change. The author aims to set things straight. (A.L.B.)

  3. Towards Verifying National CO2 Emissions (United States)

    Fung, I. Y.; Wuerth, S. M.; Anderson, J. L.


    With the Paris Agreement, nations around the world have pledged their voluntary reductions in future CO2 emissions. Satellite observations of atmospheric CO2 have the potential to verify self-reported emission statistics around the globe. We present a carbon-weather data assimilation system, wherein raw weather observations together with satellite observations of the mixing ratio of column CO2 from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 are assimilated every 6 hours into the NCAR carbon-climate model CAM5 coupled to the Ensemble Kalman Filter of DART. In an OSSE, we reduced the fossil fuel emissions from a country, and estimated the emissions innovations demanded by the atmospheric CO2 observations. The uncertainties in the innovation are analyzed with respect to the uncertainties in the meteorology to determine the significance of the result. The work follows from "On the use of incomplete historical data to infer the present state of the atmosphere" (Charney et al. 1969), which maps the path for continuous data assimilation for weather forecasting and the five decades of progress since.

  4. Ocean acidification: the other CO2 problem. (United States)

    Doney, Scott C; Fabry, Victoria J; Feely, Richard A; Kleypas, Joan A


    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), primarily from human fossil fuel combustion, reduces ocean pH and causes wholesale shifts in seawater carbonate chemistry. The process of ocean acidification is well documented in field data, and the rate will accelerate over this century unless future CO2 emissions are curbed dramatically. Acidification alters seawater chemical speciation and biogeochemical cycles of many elements and compounds. One well-known effect is the lowering of calcium carbonate saturation states, which impacts shell-forming marine organisms from plankton to benthic molluscs, echinoderms, and corals. Many calcifying species exhibit reduced calcification and growth rates in laboratory experiments under high-CO2 conditions. Ocean acidification also causes an increase in carbon fixation rates in some photosynthetic organisms (both calcifying and noncalcifying). The potential for marine organisms to adapt to increasing CO2 and broader implications for ocean ecosystems are not well known; both are high priorities for future research. Although ocean pH has varied in the geological past, paleo-events may be only imperfect analogs to current conditions.

  5. The Idea of Global CO2 Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard


    -effective control which can solve future global environmental problems. The economic gains from 'hot air' distributions of permits and CO2 trade make the system politically attractive to potential participants. For example, vital financial subsidies from the EU to Eastern Europe are to be expected. It will probably...

  6. CO2 emissions vs. CO2 responsibility: An input-output approach for the Turkish economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipek Tunc, G.; Tueruet-Asik, Serap; Akbostanci, Elif


    Recently, global warming (greenhouse effect) and its effects have become one of the hottest topics in the world agenda. There have been several international attempts to reduce the negative effects of global warming. The Kyoto Protocol can be cited as the most important agreement which tries to limit the countries' emissions within a time horizon. For this reason, it becomes important to calculate the greenhouse gas emissions of countries. The aim of this study is to estimate the amount of CO 2 -the most important greenhouse gas-emissions, for the Turkish economy. An extended input-output model is estimated by using 1996 data in order to identify the sources of CO 2 emissions and to discuss the share of sectors in total emission. Besides, 'CO 2 responsibility', which takes into account the CO 2 content of imports, is estimated for the Turkish economy. The sectoral CO 2 emissions and CO 2 responsibilities are compared and these two notions are linked to foreign trade volume. One of the main conclusions is that the manufacturing industry has the first place in both of the rankings for CO 2 emissions and CO 2 responsibilities, while agriculture and husbandry has the last place

  7. Literatuuronderzoek CAM-fotosynthese en CO2-bemesting en CO2-bemesting bij bromelia's

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marissen, A.; Warmenhoven, M.G.


    De ‘normale’ wijze van CO2-opname gebeurt bij de meeste planten overdag, wanneer er licht is om de opgenomen CO2 door middel van fotosynthese direct om te zetten in suikers. Hiervoor is het nodig dat de huidmondjes overdag open staan, ‘s nachts zijn huidmondjes meestal dicht. Via de huidmondjes gaat

  8. The Li–CO2 battery: a novel method for CO2 capture and utilization

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Shaomao; Das, Shyamal K.; Archer, Lynden A.


    We report a novel primary Li-CO2 battery that consumes pure CO2 gas as its cathode. The battery exhibits a high discharge capacity of around 2500 mA h g-1 at moderate temperatures. At 100 °C the discharge capacity is close to 1000% higher than

  9. Rechargeable Al-CO2 Batteries for Reversible Utilization of CO2. (United States)

    Ma, Wenqing; Liu, Xizheng; Li, Chao; Yin, Huiming; Xi, Wei; Liu, Ruirui; He, Guang; Zhao, Xian; Luo, Jun; Ding, Yi


    The excessive emission of CO 2 and the energy crisis are two major issues facing humanity. Thus, the electrochemical reduction of CO 2 and its utilization in metal-CO 2 batteries have attracted wide attention because the batteries can simultaneously accelerate CO 2 fixation/utilization and energy storage/release. Here, rechargeable Al-CO 2 batteries are proposed and realized, which use chemically stable Al as the anode. The batteries display small discharge/charge voltage gaps down to 0.091 V and high energy efficiencies up to 87.7%, indicating an efficient battery performance. Their chemical reaction mechanism to produce the performance is revealed to be 4Al + 9CO 2 ↔ 2Al 2 (CO 3 ) 3 + 3C, by which CO 2 is reversibly utilized. These batteries are envisaged to effectively and safely serve as a potential CO 2 fixation/utilization strategy with stable Al. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Sustained effects of atmospheric [CO2] and nitrogen availability on forest soil CO2 efflux (United States)

    A. Christopher Oishi; Sari Palmroth; Kurt H. Johnsen; Heather R. McCarthy; Ram. Oren


    Soil CO2 efflux (Fsoil) is the largest source of carbon from forests and reflects primary productivity as well as how carbon is allocated within forest ecosystems. Through early stages of stand development, both elevated [CO2] and availability of soil nitrogen (N; sum of mineralization, deposition, and fixation) have been shown to increase gross primary productivity,...

  11. Well technologies for CO2 geological storage: CO2-resistant cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlet-Gouedard, V.; Rimmele, G.; Porcherie, O.; Goffe, B.


    Storing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) underground is considered the most effective way for long-term safe and low-cost CO 2 sequestration. This recent application requires long-term well-bore integrity. A CO 2 leakage through the annulus may occur much more rapidly than geologic leakage through the formation rock, leading to economic loss, reduction of CO 2 storage efficiency, and potential compromise of the field for storage. The possibility of such leaks raises considerable concern about the long-term well-bore isolation and the durability of hydrated cement that is used to isolate the annulus across the producing/injection intervals in CO 2 -storage wells. We propose a new experimental procedure and methodology to study reactivity of CO 2 -Water-Cement systems in simulating the interaction of the set cement with injected supercritical CO 2 under downhole conditions. The conditions of experiments are 90 deg. C under 280 bars. The evolution of mechanical, physical and chemical properties of Portland cement with time is studied up to 6 months. The results are compared to equivalent studies on a new CO 2 -resistant material; the comparison shows significant promise for this new material. (authors)

  12. Uncertainties in the CO2 buget associated to boundary layer dynamics and CO2-advection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaikkonen, J.P.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.


    The relationship between boundary layer dynamics and carbon dioxide (CO2) budget in the convective boundary layer (CBL) is investigated by using mixed-layer theory. We derive a new set of analytical relations to quantify the uncertainties on the estimation of the bulk CO2 mixing ratio and the

  13. A proposal for M2-brane-anti-M2-brane action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garousi, Mohammad R.


    We propose a manifestly SO(8) invariant BF type Lagrangian for describing the dynamics of M2-brane-anti-M2-brane system in flat spacetime. When one of the scalars which satisfies a free-scalar equation takes a large expectation value, the M2-brane-anti-M2-brane action reduces to the tachyon DBI action of D2-brane-anti-D2-brane system in flat spacetime.

  14. Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauth, D.J.; Filburn, T.P. (University of Hartford, West Hartford, CT); Gray, M.L.; Hedges, S.W.; Hoffman, J.; Pennline, H.W.; Filburn, T.


    Capturing CO2 emissions generated from fossil fuel-based power plants has received widespread attention and is considered a vital course of action for CO2 emission abatement. Efforts are underway at the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop viable energy technologies enabling the CO2 capture from large stationary point sources. Solid, immobilized amine sorbents (IAS) formulated by impregnation of liquid amines within porous substrates are reactive towards CO2 and offer an alternative means for cyclic capture of CO2 eliminating, to some degree, inadequacies related to chemical absorption by aqueous alkanolamine solutions. This paper describes synthesis, characterization, and CO2 adsorption properties for IAS materials previously tested to bind and release CO2 and water vapor in a closed loop life support system. Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), acrylonitrile-modified tetraethylenepentamine (TEPAN), and a single formulation consisting of TEPAN and N, N’-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (BED) were individually supported on a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate and examined. CO2 adsorption profiles leading to reversible CO2 adsorption capacities were obtained using thermogravimetry. Under 10% CO2 in nitrogen at 25°C and 1 atm, TEPA supported on PMMA over 60 minutes adsorbed ~3.2 mmol/g{sorbent} whereas, TEPAN supported on PMMA along with TEPAN and BED supported on PMMA adsorbed ~1.7 mmol/g{sorbent} and ~2.3 mmol/g{sorbent} respectively. Cyclic experiments with a 1:1 weight ratio of TEPAN and BED supported on poly (methyl methacrylate) beads utilizing a fixed-bed flow system with 9% CO2, 3.5% O2, nitrogen balance with trace gas constituents were studied. CO2 adsorption capacity was ~ 3 mmols CO2/g{sorbent} at 40°C and 1.4 atm. No beneficial effect on IAS performance was found using a moisture-laden flue gas mixture. Tests with 750 ppmv NO in a humidified gas stream revealed negligible NO sorption onto the IAS. A high SO2

  15. Impact of drought and increasing temperatures on soil CO2 emissions in a Mediterranean shrubland (gariga)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Dato, Giovanbattista Domenico; De Angelis, Paolo; Sirca, Costantino


    the soil and air night-time temperatures and to reduce water input from precipitation. The objective was to analyze the extent to which higher temperatures and a drier climate influence soil CO2 emissions in the short term and on an annual basis. The microclimate was manipulated in field plots (about 25 m2...... temperature probe. The seasonal pattern of soil CO2 efflux was characterized by higher rates during the wet vegetative season and lower rates during the dry non-vegetative season (summer). The Warming treatment did not change SR fluxes at any sampling date. The Drought treatment decreased soil CO2 emissions...... on only three of 10 occasions during 2004. The variation of soil respiration with temperature and soil water content did not differ significantly among the treatments, but was affected by the season. The annual CO2 emissions were not significantly affected by the treatments. In the semi-arid Mediterranean...

  16. CO2 capture by ionic liquids - an answer to anthropogenic CO2 emissions? (United States)

    Sanglard, Pauline; Vorlet, Olivier; Marti, Roger; Naef, Olivier; Vanoli, Ennio


    Ionic liquids (ILs) are efficient solvents for the selective removal of CO2 from flue gas. Conventional, offthe-shelf ILs are limited in use to physisorption, which restricts their absorption capacity. After adding a chemical functionality like amines or alcohols, absorption of CO2 occurs mainly by chemisorption. This greatly enhances CO2 absorption and makes ILs suitable for potential industrial applications. By carefully choosing the anion and the cation of the IL, equimolar absorption of CO2 is possible. This paper reviews the current state of the art of CO2 capture by ILs and presents the current research in this field performed at the ChemTech Institute of the Ecole d'Ingénieurs et d'Architectes de Fribourg.

  17. City density and CO_2 efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudipudi, Ramana; Fluschnik, Till; Ros, Anselmo García Cantú; Walther, Carsten; Kropp, Jürgen P.


    Cities play a vital role in the global climate change mitigation agenda. City population density is one of the key factors that influence urban energy consumption and the subsequent GHG emissions. However, previous research on the relationship between population density and GHG emissions led to contradictory results due to urban/rural definition conundrum and the varying methodologies for estimating GHG emissions. This work addresses these ambiguities by employing the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) and utilizing the gridded CO_2 emissions data. Our results, derived from the analysis of all inhabited areas in the US, show a sub-linear relationship between population density and the total emissions (i.e. the sum of on-road and building emissions) on a per capita basis. Accordingly, we find that doubling the population density would entail a reduction in the total CO_2 emissions in buildings and on-road sectors typically by at least 42%. Moreover, we find that population density exerts a higher influence on on-road emissions than buildings emissions. From an energy consumption point of view, our results suggest that on-going urban sprawl will lead to an increase in on-road energy consumption in cities and therefore stresses the importance of developing adequate local policy measures to limit urban sprawl. - Highlights: •We use gridded population, land use and CO_2 emissions data. •We attribute building and on-road sectoral emissions to populated settlements. •We apply CCA to identify unique city extents and population densities. •Doubling the population density increases CO_2 efficiency typically by 42%. •Population density has more influence on-road CO_2 efficiency than buildings sector.

  18. Imaging volcanic CO2 and SO2 (United States)

    Gabrieli, A.; Wright, R.; Lucey, P. G.; Porter, J. N.


    Detecting and quantifying volcanic carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions is of relevance to volcanologists. Changes in the amount and composition of gases that volcanoes emit are related to subsurface magma movements and the probability of eruptions. Volcanic gases and related acidic aerosols are also an important atmospheric pollution source that create environmental health hazards for people, animals, plants, and infrastructures. For these reasons, it is important to measure emissions from volcanic plumes during both day and night. We present image measurements of the volcanic plume at Kīlauea volcano, HI, and flux derivation, using a newly developed 8-14 um hyperspectral imaging spectrometer, the Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI). THI is capable of acquiring images of the scene it views from which spectra can be derived from each pixel. Each spectrum contains 50 wavelength samples between 8 and 14 um where CO2 and SO2 volcanic gases have diagnostic absorption/emission features respectively at 8.6 and 14 um. Plume radiance measurements were carried out both during the day and the night by using both the lava lake in the Halema'uma'u crater as a hot source and the sky as a cold background to detect respectively the spectral signatures of volcanic CO2 and SO2 gases. CO2 and SO2 path-concentrations were then obtained from the spectral radiance measurements using a new Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR)-based inversion algorithm, which was developed as part of this project. Volcanic emission fluxes were determined by combining the path measurements with wind observations, derived directly from the images. Several hours long time-series of volcanic emission fluxes will be presented and the SO2 conversion rates into aerosols will be discussed. The new imaging and inversion technique, discussed here, are novel allowing for continuous CO2 and SO2 plume mapping during both day and night.

  19. CO2 Orbital Trends in Comets (United States)

    Kelley, Michael; Feaga, Lori; Bodewits, Dennis; McKay, Adam; Snodgrass, Colin; Wooden, Diane


    Spacecraft missions to comets return a treasure trove of details of their targets, e.g., the Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the Deep Impact experiment at comet 9P/Tempel 1, or even the flyby of C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) at Mars. Yet, missions are rare, the diversity of comets is large, few comets are easily accessible, and comet flybys essentially return snapshots of their target nuclei. Thus, telescopic observations are necessary to place the mission data within the context of each comet's long-term behavior, and to further connect mission results to the comet population as a whole. We propose a large Cycle 11 project to study the long-term activity of past and potential future mission targets, and select bright Oort cloud comets to infer comet nucleus properties, which would otherwise require flyby missions. In the classical comet model, cometary mass loss is driven by the sublimation of water ice. However, recent discoveries suggest that the more volatile CO and CO2 ices are the likely drivers of some comet active regions. Surprisingly, CO2 drove most of the activity of comet Hartley 2 at only 1 AU from the Sun where vigorous water ice sublimation would be expected to dominate. Currently, little is known about the role of CO2 in comet activity because telluric absorptions prohibit monitoring from the ground. In our Cycle 11 project, we will study the CO2 activity of our targets through IRAC photometry. In conjunction with prior observations of CO2 and CO, as well as future data sets (JWST) and ongoing Earth-based projects led by members of our team, we will investigate both long-term activity trends in our target comets, with a particular goal to ascertain the connections between each comet's coma and nucleus.

  20. Soil CO2 efflux among four coniferous forest types of Kashmir Himalaya, India. (United States)

    Dar, Javid Ahmad; Ganie, Khursheed Ahmad; Sundarapandian, Somaiah


    Soil CO2 efflux was measured in four different coniferous forest types (Cedrus deodara (CD), Pinus wallichiana (PW), mixed coniferous (MC), and Abies pindrow (AP)) for a period of 2 years (April 2012 to December 2013). The monthly soil CO2 efflux ranged from 0.8 to 4.1 μmoles CO2 m(-2) s(-1) in 2012 and 1.01 to 5.48 μmoles CO2 m(-2) s(-1) in 2013. The soil CO2 efflux rate was highest in PW forest type in both the years, while it was lowest in MC and CD forest types during 2012 and 2013, respectively. Soil temperature (TS) at a depth of 10 cm ranged from 3.8 to 19.4 °C in 2012 and 3.5 to 19.1 °C in 2013 in all the four forest types. Soil moisture (MS) ranged from 19.8 to 58.6% in 2012 and 18.5 to 58.6% in 2013. Soil CO2 efflux rate was found to be significantly higher in summer than the other seasons and least during winter. Soil CO2 efflux showed a significant positive relationship with TS (R2=0.52 to 0.74), SOC% (R2=0.67), pH (R2=0.68), and shrub biomass (R2=0.51), whereas, only a weak positive relationship was found with soil moisture (R2=0.16 to 0.41), tree density (R2=0.25), tree basal area (R2=0.01), tree biomass (R2=0.07), herb biomass (R2=0.01), and forest floor litter (R2=0.02). Thus, the study indicates that soil CO2 efflux in high mountainous areas is greatly influenced by seasons, soil temperature, and other environmental factors.

  1. Soil surface CO2 flux in a boreal black spruce fire chronosequence (United States)

    Wang, Chuankuan; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Gower, Stith T.


    Understanding the effects of wildfire on the carbon (C) cycle of boreal forests is essential to quantifying the role of boreal forests in the global carbon cycle. Soil surface CO2 flux (Rs), the second largest C flux in boreal forests, is directly and indirectly affected by fire and is hypothesized to change during forest succession following fire. The overall objective of this study was to measure and model Rs for a black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] BSP) postfire chronosequence in northern Manitoba, Canada. The experiment design was a nested factorial that included two soil drainage classes (well and poorly drained) × seven postfire aged stands. Specific objectives were (1) to quantify the relationship between Rs and soil temperature for different aged boreal black spruce forests in well-drained and poorly drained soil conditions, (2) to examine Rs dynamics along postfire successional stands, and (3) to estimate annual soil surface CO2 flux for these ecosystems. Soil surface CO2 flux was significantly affected by soil drainage class (p = 0.014) and stand age (p = 0.006). Soil surface CO2 flux was positively correlated to soil temperature (R2 = 0.78, p aged stand combination. Soil surface CO2 flux was significantly greater at the well-drained than the poorly drained stands (p = 0.007) during growing season. Annual soil surface CO2 flux for the 1998, 1995, 1989, 1981, 1964, 1930, and 1870 burned stands averaged 226, 412, 357, 413, 350, 274, and 244 g C m-2 yr-1 in the well-drained stands and 146, 380, 300, 303, 256, 233, and 264 g C m-2 yr-1 in the poorly drained stands. Soil surface CO2 flux during the winter (from 1 November to 30 April) comprised from 5 to 19% of the total annual Rs. We speculate that the smaller soil surface CO2 flux in the recently burned than the older stands is mainly caused by decreased root respiration.

  2. Efficient capture of CO2 over ordered micro-mesoporous hybrid carbon nanosphere (United States)

    Chen, Changwei; Yu, Yanke; He, Chi; Wang, Li; Huang, Huang; Albilali, Reem; Cheng, Jie; Hao, Zhengping


    Four kinds of carbon-based adsorbents (micro-mesoporous hybrid carbon nanosphere and N-doped hollow carbon sphere with single-, double- or ruga-shell morphology) with different structural and textural properties were prepared and systematically studied in CO2 capture. All synthesized samples possess high specific surface area (828-910 m2 g-1), large pore volume (0.71-1.81 cm3 g-1), and different micropore contents varied from 2.1% to 46.4%. Amongst, the ordered micro-mesoporous carbon nanosphere (OM-CNS) exhibits the best adsorption performance with CO2 uptake as high as 3.01 mmol g-1 under conditions of 298 K and 1.0 bar, better than most of the reported CO2 adsorbents. The excellent CO2 adsorption capacity of OM-CNS can be reasonably attributed to the synergistic effect of ordered mesopore channels and abundant structural micropores which are beneficial for the diffusion and trapping of CO2 adsorbate. Moreover, the OM-CNS shows excellent CO2 trapping selectivity and superior stability and recyclability, which endow the OM-CNS as a promising and environmental-friendly adsorbent for CO2 capture and separation under practical conditions.

  3. Production of Microalgal Lipids as Biodiesel Feedstock with Fixation of CO2 by Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Hu


    Full Text Available The global warming and shortage of energy are two critical problems for human social development. CO2 mitigation and replacing conventional diesel with biodiesel are effective routes to reduce these problems. Production of microalgal lipids as biodiesel feedstock by a freshwater microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, with the ability to fixate CO2 is studied in this work. The results show that nitrogen deficiency, CO2 volume fraction and photoperiod are the key factors responsible for the lipid accumulation in C. vulgaris. With 5 % CO2, 0.75 g/L of NaNO3 and 18:6 h of light/dark cycle, the lipid content and overall lipid productivity reached 14.5 % and 33.2 mg/(L·day, respectively. Furthermore, we proposed a technique to enhance the microalgal lipid productivity by activating acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase with an enzyme activator. Citric acid and Mg2+ were found to be efficient enzyme activators of ACCase. With the addition of 150 mg/L of citric acid or 1.5 mmol/L of MgCl2, the lipid productivity reached 39.1 and 38.0 mg/(L·day, respectively, which was almost twofold of the control. This work shows that it is practicable to produce lipids by freshwater microalgae that can fixate CO2, and provides a potential route to solving the global warming and energy shortage problems.

  4. [Effects of fertilization on soil CO2 flux in Castanea mollissima stand]. (United States)

    Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Yong-Fu; Jiang, Pei-Kun; Zhou, Guo-Mo; Shen, Zhen-Ming; Liu, Juan; Wang, Zhan-Lei


    In June 2011-June 2012, a fertilization experiment was conducted in a typical Castanea mollissima stand in Lin' an of Zhejiang Province, East China to study the effects of inorganic and organic fertilization on the soil CO2 flux and the relationships between the soil CO2 flux and environmental factors. Four treatments were installed, i. e., no fertilization (CK), inorganic fertilization (IF), organic fertilization (OF), half organic plus half inorganic fertilization (OIF). The soil CO2 emission rate was determined by the method of static closed chamber/GC technique, and the soil temperature, soil moisture content, and soil water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) concentration were determined by routine methods. The soil CO2 emission exhibited a strong seasonal pattern, with the highest rate in July or August and the lowest rate in February. The annual accumulative soil CO2 emission in CK was 27.7 t CO2 x hm(-2) x a(-1), and that in treatments IF, OF, and OIF was 29.5%, 47.0%, and 50.7% higher than the CK, respectively. The soil WSOC concentration in treatment IF (105.1 mg kg(-1)) was significantly higher than that in CK (76.6 mg x kg(-1)), but was obviously lower than that in treatments OF (133.0 mg x kg(-1)) and OIF (121.2 mg x kg(-1)). The temperature sensitivity of respiration (Q10) in treatments CK, IF, OF, and OIF was 1.47, 1.75, 1.49, and 1.57, respectively. The soil CO2 emission rate had significant positive correlations with the soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm and the soil WSOC concentration, but no significant correlation with soil moisture content. The increase of the soil WSOC concentration caused by fertilization was probably one of the reasons for the increase of soil CO2 emission from the C. mollissima stand.

  5. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lac


    Full Text Available Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is a challenging and interesting task needed to be performed in order to utilise CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework and to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town Energy Balance (TEB urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 modelling between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the urban heat island (UHI with stronger urban–rural contrasts on temperature at night than during the day by up to 7 °C. Boundary layer heights (BLH have been evaluated on urban, suburban and rural sites during the campaign, and also on a suburban site over 1 yr. The diurnal cycles of the BLH are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, which are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. The main discrepancy is a small negative bias over urban and suburban sites during nighttime (respectively 45 m and 5 m, leading to a few overestimations of nocturnal CO2 mixing ratios at suburban sites and a bias of +5 ppm. The diurnal CO2 cycle is generally well captured for all the sites. At the Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL growth reaches the measurement height. At suburban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a strong spatio-temporal variability. A

  6. Fluoxetine augments ventilatory CO2 sensitivity in Brown Norway but not Sprague Dawley rats


    Hodges, Matthew R.; Echert, Ashley E.; Puissant, Madeleine M.; Mouradian, Gary C.


    The Brown Norway (BN; BN/NHsdMcwi) rat exhibits a deficit in ventilatory CO2 sensitivity and a modest serotonin (5-HT) deficiency. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine would augment CO2 sensitivity in BN but not Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Ventilation during room air or 7 % CO2 exposure was measured before, during and after 3 weeks of daily injections of saline or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg/day) in adult male BN and SD rats. Fluoxetine had minimal ...

  7. Precursory diffuse CO2 and H2S emission signatures of the 2011-2012 El Hierro submarine eruption, Canary Islands (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Padilla, Germán D.; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Melián, Gladys V.; Barrancos, José; Dionis, Samara; Nolasco, Dácil; Rodríguez, Fátima; Calvo, David; Hernández, Íñigo


    On October 12, 2011, a submarine eruption began 2 km off the coast of La Restinga, south of El Hierro Island. CO2 and H2S soil efflux were continuously measured during the period of volcanic unrest by using the accumulation chamber method at two different geochemical stations, HIE01 and HIE07. Recorded CO2 and H2S effluxes showed precursory signals that preceded the submarine eruption. Beginning in late August, the CO2 efflux time series started increasing at a relatively constant rate over one month, reaching a maximum of 19 gm-2d-1 one week before the onset of the submarine volcanic eruption. The H2S efflux time series at HIE07 showed a pulse in H2S emission just one day before the initiation of the submarine eruption, reaching peak values of 42 mg m-2 d-1, 10 times the average H2S efflux recorded during the observation period. Since CO2 and H2S effluxes are strongly influenced by external factors, we applied a multiple regression analysis to remove their contribution. A statistical analysis showed that the long-term trend of the filtered data is well correlated with the seismic energy. We find that these geochemical stations are important monitoring sites for evaluating the volcanic activity of El Hierro and that they demonstrate the potential of applying continuous monitoring of soil CO2 and H2S efflux to improve and optimize the detection of early warning signals of future volcanic unrest episodes at El Hierro. Continuous diffuse degassing studies would likely prove useful for monitoring other volcanoes during unrest episodes.

  8. CO2 Fluxes Monitoring at the Level of Field Agroecosystem in Moscow Region of Russia (United States)

    Meshalkina, Joulia; Mazirov, Ilya; Samardzic, Miljan; Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Valentini, Riccardo; Vasenev, Ivan


    The Central Russia is still one of the less GHG-investigated European areas especially in case of agroecosystem-level carbon dioxide fluxes monitoring by eddy covariance method. The eddy covariance technique is a statistical method to measure and calculate vertical turbulent fluxes within atmospheric boundary layers. The major assumption of the metod is that measurements at a point can represent an entire upwind area. Eddy covariance researches, which could be considered as repeated for the same area, are very rare. The research has been carried out on the Precision Farming Experimental Field of the Russian Timiryazev State Agricultural University (Moscow, Russia) in 2013 under the support of RF Government grant No. 11.G34.31.0079. Arable derno-podzoluvisls have around 1 The results have shown high daily and seasonal dynamic of agroecosystem CO2 emission. Sowing activates soil microbiological activity and the average soil CO2 emission and adsorption are rising at the same time. CO2 streams are intensified after crop emerging from values of 3 to 7 μmol/s-m2 for emission, and from values of 5 to 20 μmol/s-m2 for adsorption. Stabilization of the flow has come at achieving plants height of 10-12 cm. The vegetation period is characterized by high average soil CO2 emission and adsorption at the same time, but the adsorption is significantly higher. The resulted CO2 absorption during the day is approximately 2-5 times higher than emissions at night. For example, in mid-June, the absorption value was about 0.45 mol/m2 during the day-time, and the emission value was about 0.1 mol/m2 at night. After harvesting CO2 emission is becoming essentially higher than adsorption. Autumn and winter data are fluctuate around zero, but for some periods a small predominance of CO2 emissions over the absorption may be observed. The daily dynamics of CO2 emissions depends on the air temperature with the correlation coefficient changes between 0.4 and 0.8. Crop stage, agrotechnological

  9. Grazing exclusion increases soil CO2 emission during the growing season in alpine meadows on the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Guo, Na; Wang, Aidong; Allan Degen, A.; Deng, Bin; Shang, Zhanhuan; Ding, Luming; Long, Ruijun


    Soil CO2 emission is a key part of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Grazing exclusion by fencing is often considered a beneficial grassland management option to restore degraded grassland, but its effect on soil CO2 emission on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau is equivocal and is the subject of this study. Using a closed static chamber, we measured diurnal soil CO2 flux weekly from July, 2008, to April, 2009, in response to grazing and grazing exclusion in the alpine meadow and alpine shrub meadow. Concomitantly, soil temperature was measured at depths of 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm with digital temperature sensors. It emerged that: 1) non-grazed grasslands emitted more soil CO2 than grazed grasslands over the growing season; 2) the alpine shrub meadow emitted more soil CO2 than the alpine meadow; the annual cumulative soil CO2 emissions of alpine meadow and alpine shrub meadow were 241.5-326.5 g C/m2 and 429.0-512.5 g C/m2, respectively; 3) seasonal patterns were evident with more soil CO2 flux in the growing than in the non-growing season; and 4) the diurnal soil CO2 flux exhibited a single peak across all sampling sites. In addition, soil CO2 flux was correlated positively with soil temperature at 5 cm, but not at the other depths. We concluded that grazing exclusion enhanced soil CO2 emission over the growing season, and decreased carbon sequestration of alpine meadow and alpine shrub meadow on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Since an increase in soil temperature increased soil CO2 flux, global warming could have an effect on soil CO2 emission in the future.

  10. Global CO2 fluxes estimated from GOSAT retrievals of total column CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Basu


    Full Text Available We present one of the first estimates of the global distribution of CO2 surface fluxes using total column CO2 measurements retrieved by the SRON-KIT RemoTeC algorithm from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT. We derive optimized fluxes from June 2009 to December 2010. We estimate fluxes from surface CO2 measurements to use as baselines for comparing GOSAT data-derived fluxes. Assimilating only GOSAT data, we can reproduce the observed CO2 time series at surface and TCCON sites in the tropics and the northern extra-tropics. In contrast, in the southern extra-tropics GOSAT XCO2 leads to enhanced seasonal cycle amplitudes compared to independent measurements, and we identify it as the result of a land–sea bias in our GOSAT XCO2 retrievals. A bias correction in the form of a global offset between GOSAT land and sea pixels in a joint inversion of satellite and surface measurements of CO2 yields plausible global flux estimates which are more tightly constrained than in an inversion using surface CO2 data alone. We show that assimilating the bias-corrected GOSAT data on top of surface CO2 data (a reduces the estimated global land sink of CO2, and (b shifts the terrestrial net uptake of carbon from the tropics to the extra-tropics. It is concluded that while GOSAT total column CO2 provide useful constraints for source–sink inversions, small spatiotemporal biases – beyond what can be detected using current validation techniques – have serious consequences for optimized fluxes, even aggregated over continental scales.

  11. CO2 and CH4 fluxes and carbon balance in the atmospheric interaction of boreal peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm, J.


    Release of CO 2 from peat was studied using IR analyzer in a range of boreal peatlands under varying nutrient status and moisture conditions. Root associated CO 2 efflux was separated from the total release by experiments both in the field and in a greenhouse. Emissions of CO 2 and CH 4 (the latter by gas chromatography) were measured during the snow-covered period and their contribution to the annual fluxes of these gases was inspected. Ecosystem exchange of CO 2 under varying irradiation, temperature and moisture conditions was measured at different microsites at two peatland sites with different nutrient ecology. One site represented minerotrophic conditions during a wet growing season and the other site ombrotrophic conditions during an exceptionally dry growing season. Annual carbon balances were compiled for the two sites, and the role of the microsites in the annual carbon balance and CH 4 release was studied. The Holocene history of CO 2 sequestration and CH 4 emission dynamics in a raised mire were simulated using lateral and vertical growth rates derived from radiocarbon ages of peat samples from mire bottom and vertical cores. The model was formulated for a geographic information system (GIS). Artificial or natural lowering of water table increased CO 2 release from peat. A drought lasting from late May to July caused a 90 g C m 2 net loss in the annual C balance of a natural ombrotrophic bog. In drained forested sites the increase in peat CO 2 release could be even 100 %, but the development of the tree layer at least partially compensated for these losses. Wet conditions induced a net accumulation of 67 g C m -2 a -1 in the minerotrophic fen site, while the long term average accumulation rate is estimated to be only 15 g C m -2 a -1 for Finnish fens. Carbon balance in boreal peatlands is thus extremely sensitive to year-to-year climatic variations. Root activity of vascular plants contributed to the total peat CO 2 efflux by 10-40 % as root respiration

  12. A Highly Stable Microporous Covalent Imine Network Adsorbent for Natural Gas Upgrading and Flue Gas CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Swapan Kumar


    The feasible capture and separation of CO2 and N2 from CH4 is an important task for natural gas upgrading and the control of greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we studied the microporous covalent imine networks (CIN) material prepared through Schiff base condensation and exhibited superior chemical robustness under both acidic and basic conditions and high thermal stability. The material possesses a relatively uniform nanoparticle size of approximately 70 to 100 nm. This network featured permanent porosity with a high surface area (722 m2g-1) and micropores. A single-component gas adsorption study showed enhanced CO2 and CH4 uptakes of 3.32 mmol/g and 1.14 mmol/g, respectively, at 273 K and 1 bar, coupled with high separation selectivities for CO2/CH4, CH4/N2, and CO2/N2 of 23, 11.8 and 211, respectively. The enriched Lewis basicity in the porous skeletons favours the interaction of quadrupolar CO2 and polarizable CH4, resulting in enhanced CH4 and CO2 uptake and high CH4/N2, CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 selectivities. Breakthrough experiments showed high CO2/CH4, CH4/N2 and CO2/N2 selectivities of 7.29, 40 and 125, respectively, at 298 K and 1 bar. High heats of adsorption for CH4 and CO2 (QstCH4; 32.61 kJ mol-1 and QstCO2; 42.42 kJ mol-1) provide the ultimate validation for the high selectivity. To the best of our knowledge, such a versatile adsorbent material that displays both enhanced uptake and selectivity for a variety of binary gas mixtures, including CO2/ CH4, CO2/N2 and CH4/N2, has not been extensively explored.

  13. Seasonal variation of air-sea CO2 fluxes in the Terra Nova Bay of the Ross Sea, Antarctica, based on year-round pCO2 observations (United States)

    Zappa, C. J.; Rhee, T. S.; Kwon, Y. S.; Choi, T.; Yang, E. J.; Kim, J.


    The polar oceans are rapidly changing in response to climate variability. In particular, augmented inflow of glacial melt water and shrinking sea-ice extent impacts the polar coastal oceans, which may in turn shift the biogeochemistry into an unprecedented paradigm not experienced previously. Nonetheless, most research in the polar oceans is limited to the summer season. Here, we present the first direct observations of ocean and atmospheric pCO2 measured near the coast of Terra Nova Bay in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, ongoing since February, 2015 at Jang Bogo Station. The coastal area is covered by landfast sea-ice from spring to fall while continually exposed to the atmosphere during summer season only. The pCO2 in seawater swung from 120 matm in February to 425 matm in early October. Although sea-ice still covers the coastal area, pCO2 already started decreasing after reaching the peak in October. In November, the pCO2 suddenly dropped as much as 100 matm in a week. This decrease of pCO2 continued until late February when the sea-ice concentration was minimal. With growing sea ice, the pCO2 increased logarithmically reaching the atmospheric concentration in June/July, depending on the year, and continued to increase until October. Daily mean air-sea CO2 flux in the coastal area widely varied from -70 mmol m-2 d-1 to 20 mmol m-2 d-1. Based on these observations of pCO2 in Terra Nova Bay, the annual uptake of CO2 is 8 g C m-2, estimated using the fraction of sea-ice concentration estimated from AMSR2 microwave emission imagery. Extrapolating to all polynyas surrounding Antarctica, we expect the annual uptake of 8 Tg C in the atmosphere. This is comparable to the amount of CO2 degassed into the atmosphere south of the Antarctic Polar Front (62°S).

  14. National CO2 emissions trading in European perspective; Nationale CO2-emissiehandel in Europees perspectief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report is the reaction of the Social and economic council (SER) in the Netherlands to the request of the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning en Environment (VROM) to formulate an advice on the final report of the Committee CO2 Trade (a.k.a the Vogtlander Committee). This Committee has drafted a proposal for a CO2 emission trade system in the Netherlands. The SER has also taken into account the proposal of the European Committee on a guideline for CO2 emission trade in the European Union (EU)

  15. Solubility of krypton in liquid CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.; Meservey, A.B.


    The solubility of krypton in liquid CO 2 was measured experimentally over essentially the entire liquid range of CO 2 , from -53 to 29 0 C. A tracer technique using 85 Kr was employed, and equilibrated gas-liquid samples were analyzed in situ with a collimated counter. Dilute concentrations of krypton were used, and the data are expressed as a distribution ratio, Y/sub Kr//X/sub Kr/, the log of which is nearly linear with respect to temperature from the lowest temperature to about 20 0 C, above which the values fall off rapidly toward a value of unity at the critical temperature. The numerical values obtained for the distribution ratio increase from 1.44 at 29 0 C to 29.4 at -53 0 C

  16. Toxic emissions and devalued CO2-neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    With reference to the paradigme shift regarding the formation of dioxins in municiplan solid waste incinerators experimental results are taken into account which lead to the suspicion that the same mechanism of de-novo-synthesis also applies to fireplace chimneys. This can explain the dioxin...... friendly effects of substituting wood burning for fossil fuels. With reference to Bent Sørensen's classical work on 'Renewable Energy' the assumption of CO2-neutrality regarding incineration is problematised when applied to plants with long rotation periods as trees. Registered CO2-emissions from wood...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....

  17. A centrifuge CO2 pellet cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.; Fisher, P.W.; Nelson, W.D.; Schechter, D.E.


    Centrifuge-based cryogenic pellet accelerator technology, originally developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the purpose of refueling fusion reactors with high-speed pellets of frozen deuterium/tritium,is now being developed as a method of cleaning without the use of conventional solvents. In these applications large quantities of pellets made of frozen CO 2 or argon are accelerated in a high-speed rotor. The accelerated pellet stream is used to clean or etch surfaces. The advantage of this system is that the spent pellets and debris resulting from the cleaning process can be filtered leaving only the debris for disposal. This paper discusses the centrifuge CO 2 pellet cleaning system, the physics model of the pellet impacting the surface, the centrifuge apparatus, and some initial cleaning and etching tests

  18. Molecular simulations of CO2 at interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvestri, Alessandro

    trapping mechanisms that act over dierent time scales, where eectiveness is determined by phenomena that occur at the interfaces between CO2, pore uids and the pore surfaces. Solid theoretical understanding of the nanoscale interactions that result from the interplay of intermolecular and surface forces...... variety of conditions: pressure, temperature, pore solution salinity and various mineral surfaces. However, achieving representative subsurface conditions in experiments is challenging and reported data are aected by experimental uncertainties and sometimes are contradictory. Molecular modelling...... rock record and the formations are generally porous so their probable response to CO2 sequestration needs to be investigated. However, despite the large number of geologic sequestration publications on water{rock interactions over the last decade, studies on carbonate reservoirs remain scarce...

  19. Toxic emissions and devaluated CO2-neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    Environmental, energy and climate policies need fresh reflections. In order to evaluate toxics reduction policies the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is mandatory. Denmark's function as lead country for dioxin research in the context of the OSPAR Convention is contrasted...... with a climate policy whose goals of CO2-reduction were made operational by green-wash. Arguments are given for the devaluation of CO2- neutrality in case of burning wood. Alternative practices as storing C in high quality wood products and/or leaving wood in the forest are recommended. A counter......-productive effect of dioxin formation in the cooling phase of wood burning appliances has been registered akin to de-novo-synthesis in municipal solid waste incinerators. Researchers, regulators and the public are, however, still preoccupied by notions of oven design and operation parameters, assuming that dioxin...

  20. Sustainable Process Networks for CO2 Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Kongpanna, P.; Pavarajam, V.

    According to various organizations, especially the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global warming is an ever-increasing threat to the environment and poses a problem if not addressed. As a result, efforts are being made across academic and industrial fields to find methods of reducing...... drawbacks to this geologic storage system: the CO2 is not eliminated, the implementation is limited due to natural phenomena, and the capturing methods are often expensive. Thus, it is desirable to develop an alternative strategy for reducing the CO2 emissions [2]. An additional process that reduces...... that are thermodynamically feasible, including the co-reactants, catalysts, operating conditions and reactions. Research has revealed that there are a variety of reactions that fulfill the aforementioned criteria. The products that are formed fall into categories: fuels, bulk chemicals and specialty chemicals. While fuels...

  1. Anti-influenza M2e antibody (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM


    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  2. Fluxes of CH4 and N2O in aspen stands grown under ambient and twice-ambient CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Robertson, G.P.


    Elevated atmospheric CO2 has the potential to change below-ground nutrient cycling and thereby alter the soil-atmosphere exchange of biogenic trace gases. We measured fluxes of CH4 and N2O in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) stands grown in open-top chambers under ambient and twice......-ambient CO2 concentrations crossed with `high' and low soil-N conditions. Flux measurements with small static chambers indicated net CH4 oxidation in the open-top chambers. Across dates, CH4 oxidation activity was significantly (P CO2 (8.7 mu g CH4-C m(-2) h(-1)) than...... with elevated CO2 (6.5 mu g CH4-C m(-2) h(-1)) in the low N soil. Likewise, across dates and soil N treatments CH4 was oxidized more rapidly (P CO2 (9.5 mu g CH4-C m(-2) h(-1)) than in chambers with elevated CO2 (8.8 mu g CH4-C m(-2) h(-1)). Methane oxidation in soils incubated...

  3. Continuous CO2 extractor and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None listed


    The purpose of this CRADA was to assist in technology transfer from Russia to the US and assist in development of the technology improvements and applications for use in the U.S. and worldwide. Over the period of this work, ORNL has facilitated design, development and demonstration of a low-pressure liquid extractor and development of initial design for high-pressure supercritical CO2 fluid extractor.

  4. Continuous CO2 extractor and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of this CRADA was to assist in technology transfer from Russia to the US and assist in development of the technology improvements and applications for use in the U.S. and worldwide. Over the period of this work, ORNL has facilitated design, development and demonstration of a low-pressure liquid extractor and development of initial design for high-pressure supercritical CO2 fluid extractor.

  5. Throat gases against the CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, C.


    The steel production needs carbon consumption and generates carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gases. It represents about 6 % of the greenhouse gases emissions in the world. That is why the steel industry began last year a research program, Ideogaz, to reduce its CO 2 releases. The first results on the throat gases recovery seems very promising: it uses 25 % less of carbon. The author presents the program and the main technical aspects of the method. (A.L.B.)

  6. Panorama 2016 - Chemical recycling of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forti, Laurent; Fosse, Florian


    The ongoing rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is a major environmental and societal concern. Among the potential solutions for reducing carbon emissions in the energy sector, the chemical recycling of CO 2 has received considerable attention. Conversion of carbon dioxide into other recoverable substances offers the benefit of reducing the carbon footprint of newly developed products and of shifting away from the use of fossil resources. Various methods to create a wide range of products are currently being studied. (authors)

  7. Influence of CO2 on the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junod, A.


    The earth's climate is subject to long and short term fluctuations. The recent ones are being caused by mankind. The most important result is the increase in the CO 2 -content of the atmosphere, caused by burning of fossil fuels. This leads to the so-called greenhouse effect. It is judged that the average temperature of the earth's surface will rise by 2 o C between the years 2030 and 2050

  8. CO2 capture takes its industrial turn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remoue, A.; Lutzky, A.


    The CO 2 capture and sequestration is entering the industrial era. The technologies are ready, the regulation is progressively put into action, the financing of demonstration facilities is unfreezing and companies are on the starting line from Canada to China, including the USA and Europe. The market takeoff is expected for 2015 but the competition is already hard between equipment manufacturers who wish to develop proprietary technologies. (J.S.)

  9. Aridity under conditions of increased CO2 (United States)

    Greve, Peter; Roderick, Micheal L.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.


    A string of recent of studies led to the wide-held assumption that aridity will increase under conditions of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and associated global warming. Such results generally build upon analyses of changes in the 'aridity index' (the ratio of potential evaporation to precipitation) and can be described as a direct thermodynamic effect on atmospheric water demand due to increasing temperatures. However, there is widespread evidence that contradicts the 'warmer is more arid' interpretation, leading to the 'global aridity paradox' (Roderick et al. 2015, WRR). Here we provide a comprehensive assessment of modeled changes in a broad set of dryness metrics (primarily based on a range of measures of water availability) over a large range of realistic atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We use an ensemble of simulations from of state-of-the-art climate models to analyse both equilibrium climate experiments and transient historical simulations and future projections. Our results show that dryness is, under conditions of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and related global warming, generally decreasing at global scales. At regional scales we do, however, identify areas that undergo changes towards drier conditions, located primarily in subtropical climate regions and the Amazon Basin. Nonetheless, the majority of regions, especially in tropical and mid- to northern high latitudes areas, display wetting conditions in a warming world. Our results contradict previous findings and highlight the need to comprehensively assess all aspects of changes in hydroclimatological conditions at the land surface. Roderick, M. L., P. Greve, and G. D. Farquhar (2015), On the assessment of aridity with changes in atmospheric CO2, Water Resour. Res., 51, 5450-5463

  10. [Characteristics of CO2 flux before and in the heating period at urban complex underlying surface area]. (United States)

    Jia, Qing-yu; Zhou, Guang-sheng; Wang, Yu; Liu, Xiao-mei


    Urban areas were significant contributors to global carbon dioxide emissions. The eddy covariance (EC) was used to measure carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and flux data at urban area in Shenyang. This research analyzed the characteristics of atmospheric CO2 concentration and flux in October 2008 to November 2008 period before and in the heating period. The results showed that the daily variation of CO2 concentration was two-peak curve. The first peak time appeared as same as sunrise time, while the second peak time impacted by vehicles and heating. The result of CO2 flux showed that urban atmospheric CO2 was net emissions, vegetation photosynthesis absorbed CO2 of traffic, the CO2 flux peak appeared at 17:15-18:15 in the heating period, CO2 emission increased 29.37 g x (m2 x d)(-1) in the heating period than that before the heating period; there was corresponding relationship between CO2 flux and the time when temperature peak and sensible heating flux (Hc) turn positive. The results also indicated that atmospheric CO2 concentration and its flux were affected seriously by both wind direction and carbon sources.

  11. Towards Overhauser DNP in supercritical CO(2). (United States)

    van Meerten, S G J; Tayler, M C D; Kentgens, A P M; van Bentum, P J M


    Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (ODNP) is a well known technique to improve NMR sensitivity in the liquid state, where the large polarization of an electron spin is transferred to a nucleus of interest by cross-relaxation. The efficiency of the Overhauser mechanism for dipolar interactions depends critically on fast local translational dynamics at the timescale of the inverse electron Larmor frequency. The maximum polarization enhancement that can be achieved for (1)H at high magnetic fields benefits from a low viscosity solvent. In this paper we investigate the option to use supercritical CO2 as a solvent for Overhauser DNP. We have investigated the diffusion constants and longitudinal nuclear relaxation rates of toluene in high pressure CO2. The change in (1)H T1 by addition of TEMPO radical was analyzed to determine the Overhauser cross-relaxation in such a mixture, and is compared with calculations based on the Force Free Hard Sphere (FFHS) model. By analyzing the relaxation data within this model we find translational correlation times in the range of 2-4ps, depending on temperature, pressure and toluene concentration. Such short correlation times may be instrumental for future Overhauser DNP applications at high magnetic fields, as are commonly used in NMR. Preliminary DNP experiments have been performed at 3.4T on high pressure superheated water and model systems such as toluene in high pressure CO2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of longitudinally excited CO2 laser (United States)

    Masroon, N. S.; Tanaka, M.; Tei, M.; Uno, K.; Tsuyama, M.; Nakano, H.


    Simple, compact, and affordable discharged-pumped CO2 laser controlled by a fast high voltage solid state switch has been developed. In this study, longitudinal excitation scheme has been adapted for simple configuration. In the longitudinal excitation scheme, the discharge is produced along the direction of the laser axis, and the electrodes are well separated with a small discharge cross-section. Triggered spark gap switch is usually used to switch out the high voltage because of simple and low cost. However, the triggered spark gap operates in the arc mode and suffer from recovery problem causing a short life time and low efficiency for high repetition rate operation. As a result, there is now considerable interest in replacing triggered spark gap switch with solid state switches. Solid state switches have significant advantages compared to triggered spark gap switch which include longer service lifetime, low cost and stable high trigger pulse. We have developed simple and low cost fast high voltage solid state switch that consists of series connected-MOSFETs. It has been installed to the longitudinally excited CO2 laser to realize the gap switch less operation. Characteristics of laser oscillation by varying the discharge length, charging voltage, capacitance and gas pressure have been evaluated. Longer discharge length produce high power of laser oscillation. Optimum charging voltage and gas pressure were existed for longitudinally excited CO2 laser.

  13. Martian Gullies: Formation by CO2 Fluidification (United States)

    Cedillo-Flores, Y.; Durand-Manterola, H. J.


    Some of the geomorphological features in Mars are the gullies. Some theories developed tried explain its origin, either by liquid water, liquid carbon dioxide or flows of dry granular material. We made a comparative analysis of the Martian gullies with the terrestrial ones. We propose that the mechanism of formation of the gullies is as follows: In winter CO2 snow mixed with sand falls in the terrain. In spring the CO2 snow sublimate and gaseous CO2 make fluid the sand which flows like liquid eroding the terrain and forming the gullies. By experimental work with dry granular material, we simulated the development of the Martian gullies injecting air in the granular material. We present the characteristics of some terrestrial gullies forms at cold environment, sited at Nevado de Toluca Volcano near Toluca City, México. We compare them with Martian gullies choose from four different areas, to target goal recognize or to distinguish, (to identify) possible processes evolved in its formation. Also, we measured the lengths of those Martian gullies and the range was from 24 m to 1775 meters. Finally, we present results of our experimental work at laboratory with dry granular material.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of ZIF-69 membranes and separation for CO2/CO mixture

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yunyang


    Continuous and c-oriented ZIF-69 membranes were successfully synthesized on porous alpha-alumina substrates by an in situ solvothermal method. The membranes were characterized by XRD, SEM and single-gas permeation tests. The BET measurements on crystals taken from the same mother liquor that was used for membrane synthesis yield a Langmuir surface area of 1138 m(2)/g. The stability of the membrane towards heat and different solvents were studied. Single-gas permeation experiments through ZIF-69 membranes were carried out by a vacuum method at room temperature using H-2, CH4, CO, CO2 and SF6, respectively. The permeances were in the order of H-2 > CO2 > CH4 > CO > SF6. The separation of CO2/CO gas mixture was investigated by gas chromatograph (GC) and the permselectivity of CO2/CO was 3.5 +/- 0.1 with CO2 permeance of 3.6 +/- 0.3 x 10(-8) mol m(-2) s(-1) Pa-1 at room temperature. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a cost-effective CO2 adsorbent from petroleum coke via KOH activation (United States)

    Jang, Eunji; Choi, Seung Wan; Hong, Seok-Min; Shin, Sangcheol; Lee, Ki Bong


    The capture of CO2 via adsorption is considered an effective technology for decreasing global warming issues; hence, adsorbents for CO2 capture have been actively developed. Taking into account cost-effectiveness and environmental concerns, the development of CO2 adsorbents from waste materials is attracting considerable attention. In this study, petroleum coke (PC), which is the carbon residue remaining after heavy oil upgrading, was used to produce high-value-added porous carbon for CO2 capture. Porous carbon materials were prepared by KOH activation using different weight ratios of KOH/PC (1:1, 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1) and activation temperatures (600, 700, and 800 °C). The specific surface area and total pore volume of resulting porous carbon materials increased with KOH amount, reaching up to 2433 m2/g and 1.11 cm3/g, respectively. The sample prepared under moderate conditions with a KOH/PC weight ratio of 2:1 and activation temperature of 700 °C exhibited the highest CO2 adsorption uptake of 3.68 mmol/g at 25 °C and 1 bar. Interestingly, CO2 adsorption uptake was linearly correlated with the volume of micropores less than 0.8 nm, indicating that narrow micropore volume is crucial for CO2 adsorption. The prepared porous carbon materials also exhibited good selectivity for CO2 over N2, rapid adsorption, facile regeneration, and stable adsorption-desorption cyclic performance, demonstrating potential as a candidate for CO2 capture.

  16. Effects of Soil Fertility and Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on Leaf,Stem and Root Dark Respiration of Populus tremuloides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    An open-top chamber experiment was conducted at the University of Michigan Biological Station near Pellston,Michigan,USA,to study the effects of soil fertility and CO2 on leaf,sdtem and root dark respiration (Rd) of Populus tremuloides.Overall,area-based daytime leaf Rd(Rda) was significantly greater at elevated than at ambient CO2 in high-fertility soil,but not in low-fertility soil.Mass-based leaf Rd(Rdm) was overall greater for high-than for low-fertility soil grown trees at elevated,but not at ambient CO2 .Nighttime leaf Rda and Rdm were unaffected by soil fertility or CO2,nor was stem Rda ,which ranged from 1.0 to 1.4μmol m-2s-1 in the spring and 3.5 to 4.5μmol m-2s-1 in the summer.Root Rda was significantly higher in high-than in low-fertiliy soil,but was unaffected by CO2.Since biomass production of P.tremuloides will be significantly greater at elevated CO2 while specific Rd will either increase or remain unchanged,we predict that carbon loss to the atmosphere through respiration from this ecologically important species would increase at higher CO2.Soil fertility would also interact with elevated CO2 in affecting the carbon flow in the plant-soil-air system.

  17. Effects of Soil Fertility and Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on Leaf, Stem and Root Dark Respiration of Populus tremuloides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    An open-top chamber experiment was conducted at the University of Michigan Biological Station near Pellston, Michigan, USA, to study the effects of soil fertility and CO2 on leaf, stem and root dark respiration (Rd) of Populus tremuloides. Overall, area-based daytime leaf Rd (Rda) was significantly greater at elevated than at ambient CO2 in high-fertility soil, but not in low-fertility soil. Mass-based leaf Rd (Rdm) was overall greater for high- than for low-fertility soil grown trees at elevated, but not at ambient CO2. Nighttime leaf Rda and Rdm were unaffected by soil fertility or CO2, nor was stem Rda, which ranged from 1.0 to 1.4 μmol m-2 s-1 in the spring and 3.5 to 4.5 μmol m-2 s-1 in the summer. Root Rda was significantly higher in high- than in low-fertility soil, but was unaffected by CO2. Since biomass production of P. tremuloides will be significantly greater at elevated CO2 while specific Rd will either increase or remain unchanged, we predict that carbon loss to the atmosphere through respiration from this ecologically important species would increase at higher CO2. Soil fertility would also interact with elevated CO2 in affecting the carbon flow in the plant-soil-air system.

  18. Short-term effects of CO2 leakage on the soil bacterial community in a simulated gas leakage scenario. (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Wangyuan; Zhang, Shaoliang; Zhu, Qianlin; Feng, Qiyan; Chen, Fu


    The technology of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and storage (CCS) has provided a new option for mitigating global anthropogenic emissions with unique advantages. However, the potential risk of gas leakage from CO 2 sequestration and utilization processes has attracted considerable attention. Moreover, leakage might threaten soil ecosystems and thus cannot be ignored. In this study, a simulation experiment of leakage from CO 2 geological storage was designed to investigate the short-term effects of different CO 2 leakage concentration (from 400 g m -2 day -1 to 2,000 g m -2 day -1 ) on soil bacterial communities. A shunt device and adjustable flow meter were used to control the amount of CO 2 injected into the soil. Comparisons were made between soil physicochemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and microbial community diversity before and after injecting different CO 2 concentrations. Increasing CO 2 concentration decreased the soil pH, and the largest variation ranged from 8.15 to 7.29 ( p soil CO 2 concentration increased. The dominant phylum in the soil samples was Proteobacteria , whose proportion rose rapidly from 28.85% to 67.93%. In addition, the proportion of Acidobacteria decreased from 19.64% to 9.29% ( p soil ecosystems.

  19. Natural Analogues of CO2 Geological Storage; Analogos Naturales del Almacenamiento Geologico de CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez del Villar, L; Pelayo, M; Recreo, F


    Geological storage of carbon dioxide is nowadays, internationally considered as the most effective method for greenhouse gas emission mitigation, in order to minimize the global climate change universally accepted. Nevertheless, the possible risks derived of this long-term storage have a direct influence on its public acceptance. Among the favourable geological formations to store CO2, depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline reservoirs, and unamiable coal seams are highlighted. One of the most important objectives of the R and D projects related to the CO2 geological storage is the evaluation of the CO2 leakage rate through the above mentioned geological formations. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to increase our knowledge on the interaction among CO2, storage and sealing formations, as well as on the flow paths and the physical resistance of the sealing formation. The quantification of the CO2 leakage rate is essential to evaluate the effects on the human and animal health, as well as for the ecosystem and water quality. To achieve these objectives, the study of the natural analogues is very useful in order to know the natural leakage rate to the atmosphere, its flow paths, the physical, chemical and mineralogical modifications due to the long term interaction processes among the CO2 and the storage and sealing formations, as well as the effects on the groundwaters and ecosystems. In this report, we have tried to summarise the main characteristics of the natural reservoirs and surficial sources of CO2, which are both natural analogues of the geological storage and CO2 leakage, studied in EEUU, Europe and Australia. The main objective of this summary is to find the possible applications for long-term risk prediction and for the performance assessment by means of conceptual and numerical modelling, which will allow to validate the predictive models of the CO2 storage behaviour, to design and develop suitable monitoring techniques to control the CO2 behaviour

  20. Microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell for CO2 sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping


    Mineral carbonation can be used for CO2 sequestration, but the reaction rate is slow. In order to accelerate mineral carbonation, acid generated in a microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC) was examined to dissolve natural minerals rich in magnesium/calcium silicates (serpentine), and the alkali generated by the same process was used to absorb CO2 and precipitate magnesium/calcium carbonates. The concentrations of Mg2+ and Ca2+ dissolved from serpentine increased 20 and 145 times by using the acid solution. Under optimal conditions, 24mg of CO2 was absorbed into the alkaline solution and 13mg of CO2 was precipitated as magnesium/calcium carbonates over a fed-batch cycle (24h). Additionally, the MEDCC removed 94% of the COD (initially 822mg/L) and achieved 22% desalination (initially 35g/L NaCl). These results demonstrate the viability of this process for effective CO2 sequestration using renewable organic matter and natural minerals. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. A comparative study of solvent and supercritical Co2 extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjaneyulu, B.; Satyannarayana, S.; Kanjilal, S.; Siddaiah, V.; Prasanna Rani, K.N.


    In the present study, the supercritical carbon dioxide (Co2) extraction of oil from Simarouba gluaca seeds was carried out at varying conditions of pressure (300–500 bar), temperature (50–70 °C) and CO2 flow rate (10–30 g·min-1). The extraction condition for maximum oil yield was obtained at 500 bar pressure, 70 °C and at 30 g·min-1 flow rate of CO2. The extracted oil was analyzed thoroughly for physico-chemical properties and compared with those of conventional solvent extracted oil. An interesting observation is a significant reduction in the phosphorus content of the oil (8.4 mg·kg-1) extracted using supercritical CO2 compared to the phosphorous content of the solvent extracted oil (97 mg·kg-1). Moreover, the content of total tocopherols in supercritically extracted oil (135.6 mg·kg-1) was found to be higher than the solvent extracted oil (111 mg·kg-1). The rest of the physico-chemical properties of the two differently extracted oils matched well with each other. The results indicated the possible benefits of supercritical CO2 extraction over solvent extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil. [es

  2. A comparative study of solvent and supercritical CO2 extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Anjaneyulu


    Full Text Available In the present study, the supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2 extraction of oil from Simarouba gluaca seeds was carried out at varying conditions of pressure (300–500 bar, temperature (50–70 °C and CO2 flow rate (10–30 g·min-1. The extraction condition for maximum oil yield was obtained at 500 bar pressure, 70 °C and at 30 g·min-1 flow rate of CO2. The extracted oil was analyzed thoroughly for physico-chemical properties and compared with those of conventional solvent extracted oil. An interesting observation is a significant reduction in the phosphorus content of the oil (8.4 mg·kg-1 extracted using supercritical CO2 compared to the phosphorous content of the solvent extracted oil (97 mg·kg-1. Moreover, the content of total tocopherols in supercritically extracted oil (135.6 mg·kg-1 was found to be higher than the solvent extracted oil (111 mg·kg-1. The rest of the physico-chemical properties of the two differently extracted oils matched well with each other. The results indicated the possible benefits of supercritical CO2 extraction over solvent extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil.

  3. Recycling CO 2 ? Computational Considerations of the Activation of CO 2 with Homogeneous Transition Metal Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Drees, Markus


    Faced with depleting fossil carbon sources, the search for alternative energy carriers and energy storage possibilities has become an important issue. Nature utilizes carbon dioxide as starting material for storing sun energy in plant hydrocarbons. A similar approach, storing energy from renewable sources in chemical bonds with CO 2 as starting material, may lead to partial recycling of CO 2 created by human industrial activities. Unfortunately, currently available routes for the transformation of CO 2 involve high temperatures and are often not selective. With the development of more sophisticated methods and better software, theoretical studies have become both increasingly widespread and useful. This concept article summarizes theoretical investigations of the current state of the feasibility of CO 2 activation with molecular transition metal catalysts, highlighting the most promising reactions of CO 2 with olefins to industrially relevant acrylic acid/acrylates, and the insertion of CO 2 into metal-element bonds, particularly for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates and polymers. Rapidly improving computational power and methods help to increase the importance and accuracy of calculations continuously and make computational chemistry a useful tool helping to solve some of the most important questions for the future. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. CO2 capture by gas hydrate crystallization: Application on the CO2-N2 mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchemoua, A.


    CO 2 capture and sequestration represent a major industrial and scientific challenge of this century. There are different methods of CO 2 separation and capture, such as solid adsorption, amines adsorption and cryogenic fractionation. Although these processes are well developed at industrial level, they are energy intensive. Hydrate formation method is a less energy intensive and has an interesting potential to separate carbon dioxide. Gas hydrates are Document crystalline compounds that consist of hydrogen bonded network of water molecules trapping a gas molecule. Gas hydrate formation is favored by high pressure and low temperature. This study was conducted as a part of the SECOHYA ANR Project. The objective is to study the thermodynamic and kinetic conditions of the process to capture CO 2 by gas hydrate crystallization. Firstly, we developed an experimental apparatus to carry out experiments to determine the thermodynamic and kinetic formation conditions of CO 2 -N 2 gas hydrate mixture in water as liquid phase. We showed that the operative pressure may be very important and the temperature very low. For the feasibility of the project, we used TBAB (Tetrabutylammonium Bromide) as thermodynamic additive in the liquid phase. The use of TBAB may reduce considerably the operative pressure. In the second part of this study, we presented a thermodynamic model, based on the van der Waals and Platteeuw model. This model allows the estimation of thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Experimental equilibrium data of CO 2 -CH 4 and CO 2 -N 2 mixtures are presented and compared to theoretical results. (author)

  5. CO2 emission from soil after reforestation and application of sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Braga Carmo


    Full Text Available This study aimed to quantify the carbon dioxide emissions from an Oxisol under degraded pasture located in Sorocaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. The treatments were: sewage sludge (LE, sewage sludge compost (CLE, mineral fertilizer (AM and no fertilization (T0. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with analysis of the effect of the four treatments (CLE, LE, and AM T0 with four replications. The application of sewage sludge, sewage sludge compost, mineral fertilizer and no fertilizer was statistically significant for the variables of height increase and stem height of Guanandi seedlings (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambessèdes - Calophyllaceae. Treatments showed significant differences in terms of CO2 emissions from soil. The CLE exhibited the highest CO2 fluxes, reaching a peak of 9.33±0.96 g C m- 2 day- 1 (p<0.0001, as well as the LE with a maximum CO2 flux of 6.35±1.17 C m- 2 day- 1 (p<0.005. The AM treatment (4.96±1.61 g C m- 2 day- 1 had the same statistical effect as T0 (5.33±0.49 g C m- 2 day- 1. CO2 fluxes were correlated with soil temperature in all treatments. However, considering the period of 172 days of evaluation, the total loss of C as CO2 was 2.7% for sewage sludge and 0.7% for the sewage sludge compost of the total C added with the application on soil.

  6. Chemical and anatomical changes in Liquidambar styraciflua L. xylem after long term exposure to elevated CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keonhee; Labbé, Nicole; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Elder, Thomas; Rials, Timothy G.


    The anatomical and chemical characteristics of sweetgum were studied after 11 years of elevated CO 2 (544 ppm, ambient at 391 ppm) exposure. Anatomically, branch xylem cells were larger for elevated CO 2 trees, and the cell wall thickness was thinner. Chemically, elevated CO 2 exposure did not impact the structural components of the stem wood, but non-structural components were significantly affected. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to detect differences between the CO 2 treatments by considering numerous structural and chemical variables, as well as tree size, and data from previously published sources (i.e., root biomass, production and turnover). The PCA results indicated a clear separation between trees exposed to ambient and elevated CO 2 conditions. Correlation loadings plots of the PCA revealed that stem structural components, ash, Ca, Mg, total phenolics, root biomass, production and turnover were the major responses that contribute to the separation between the elevated and ambient CO 2 treated trees. - Highlights: • First study of wood properties after 11 years of higher level of CO 2 treatment. • Elevated CO 2 exposure does not impact structural components of wood. • Total phenolics content and some inorganics were significantly affected. • Branch xylem cells were larger under elevated CO 2 . • Cell wall thickness was thinner under elevated CO 2 . - Elevated CO 2 in atmosphere did not impact the structural components yet altered some of non-structural components and anatomical properties after 11 years of exposure on sweetgum

  7. Application of dual membrane contactor for simultaneous CO2 removal using continues diethanolamine (DEA) (United States)

    Rahmawati, Yeni; Nurkhamidah, Siti; Susianto, Listiyana, Nidia Intan; Putricahyani, Widyawati


    Technology of membrane contactor is an improvemet of acid gas (CO2) removal technology that combining gas absorption process with solvent and membrane technology. The objective of the experiment are study the effect of feed gas flow rate and solvent to flux CO2 and efficiency of CO2 removal, and also study the performance of membrane contactor. The experiment is conducted by circulating DEA in certain flow rate and arranging hollow fiber membrane in double-crossed section with the amount of desorption membrane three times more than absorption membrane. Feed gas streamed in the tube of membrane absorption and solvent on the shell. At the same time and condition, the process of desorption is done by streamed N2 gas as the stripping gas in desorption membrane. Performance test is conducted by running optimum variable for 8 hours. The result showed that flux of absorption gain the highest at 24,747 × 10-4 mol/m2.s, while flux of desorption gain the highest at 1,761 × 10-4 mol/m2.s. Increasing of absorption flux correspond to increasing of flow rate of feed gas and CO2 gas concentration but decreasing in flow rate of solvent. Increasing of desorption flux correspond to increasing of flow rate of feed gas and solvent but concentration of CO2 does not have impact. Efficiency increase while flow rate of mix gas and solvent decreasing, but CO2 concentration increase. The highest efficiency is 61,64%. Efficiency performance for CO2 removal of module membrane has the highest value at first 2 hours and stay constant at next running for 8 hours.

  8. Metabolic effects of Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) insufflation during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metabolic effects of Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) insufflation during laparoscopic surgery: changes in pH, arterial partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide (PaCo 2 ) and End Tidal Carbon Dioxide (EtCO 2 ) ... Respiratory adjustments were done for EtCO2 levels above 60mmHg or SPO2 below 92% or adverse haemodynamic changes.

  9. Characterization of CO2 leakage into the freshwater body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ashok; Delfs, Jens Olaf; Shao, H.


    urrent research into CO2 capture and storage is dominated by improving the CO2 storage capacity. In this context, risk related to CO2 leakage is an important issue which may cause environmental problems, particularly when freshwater resources nearby are intruded by the CO2 plume. In this work...

  10. Ethylbenzene dehydrogenation over binary FeOx–MeOy/Mg(Al)O catalysts derived from hydrotalcites

    KAUST Repository

    Balasamy, Rabindran J.; Khurshid, Alam; Al-Ali, Ali A S; Atanda, Luqman A.; Sagata, Kunimasa; Asamoto, Makiko; Yahiro, Hidenori; Nomura, Kiyoshi; Sano, Tsuneji; Takehira, Katsuomi; Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman S.


    A series of FeOx-MeOy/Mg(Al)O catalysts were prepared from hydrotalcite-like compounds as precursors and were tested in the ethylbenzene dehydrogenation to styrene in He atmosphere at 550 °C. The hydrotalcite-like precursors of the metal compositions of Mg3Fe 0.25Me0.25Al0.5 (Me = Cu, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni) were coprecipitated from the nitrates of metal components and calcined to mixed oxides at 550 °C. After the calcination, the mixed oxides showed high surface area of 150-200 m2 gcat -1, and were mainly composed of (MgMe)(Fe3+Al)O periclase in the bulk, whereas the surface was enriched by (MgMe)(Fe3+Al)2O 4 pinel. Among the Me species tested, Co2+ was the most effective, followed by Ni2+. Co2+ addition increased the activity of original FeOx/Mg(Al)O catalyst, whereas Ni2+ increased the activity at the beginning of reaction, but deactivated the catalyst during the reaction. The other metals formed isolated MeOx species in the catalyst, resulting in a decrease in the activity compared to the original FeOx/Mg(Al)O catalyst. The active Fe species exists as metastable Fe3+ on the FeOx/Mg(Al)O catalyst. By the addition of Co2+, the reduction-oxidation between Fe3+ and Fe2+ was facilitated and, moreover, the active Fe3+ species was stabilized. It is likely that the dehydrogenation proceeds on the active Fe3+ species via its reduction-oxidation assisted by Co 2+. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Ethylbenzene dehydrogenation over binary FeOx–MeOy/Mg(Al)O catalysts derived from hydrotalcites

    KAUST Repository

    Balasamy, Rabindran J.


    A series of FeOx-MeOy/Mg(Al)O catalysts were prepared from hydrotalcite-like compounds as precursors and were tested in the ethylbenzene dehydrogenation to styrene in He atmosphere at 550 °C. The hydrotalcite-like precursors of the metal compositions of Mg3Fe 0.25Me0.25Al0.5 (Me = Cu, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni) were coprecipitated from the nitrates of metal components and calcined to mixed oxides at 550 °C. After the calcination, the mixed oxides showed high surface area of 150-200 m2 gcat -1, and were mainly composed of (MgMe)(Fe3+Al)O periclase in the bulk, whereas the surface was enriched by (MgMe)(Fe3+Al)2O 4 pinel. Among the Me species tested, Co2+ was the most effective, followed by Ni2+. Co2+ addition increased the activity of original FeOx/Mg(Al)O catalyst, whereas Ni2+ increased the activity at the beginning of reaction, but deactivated the catalyst during the reaction. The other metals formed isolated MeOx species in the catalyst, resulting in a decrease in the activity compared to the original FeOx/Mg(Al)O catalyst. The active Fe species exists as metastable Fe3+ on the FeOx/Mg(Al)O catalyst. By the addition of Co2+, the reduction-oxidation between Fe3+ and Fe2+ was facilitated and, moreover, the active Fe3+ species was stabilized. It is likely that the dehydrogenation proceeds on the active Fe3+ species via its reduction-oxidation assisted by Co 2+. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Seasonal dynamics of soil CO2 emission in the boreal forests in Central Siberia (United States)

    Makhnykina, A. V.; Prokishkin, A. S.; Zyryanov, V.; Verkhovets, S. V.


    A large amount of carbon in soil is released to the atmosphere through soil respiration, which is the main pathway of transferring carbon from terrestrial ecosystems (Comstedt et al., 2011). Considering that boreal forests is a large terrestrial sink (Tans et al., 1990) and represent approximately 11 % of the Earth's total land area (Gower et al., 2001), even a small change in soil respiration could significantly intensify - or mitigate - current atmospheric increases of CO2, with potential feedbacks to climate change. The objectives of the present study are: (a) to study the dynamic of CO2emission from the soil surface during summer season (from May to October); (b) to identify the reaction of soil respiration to different amount of precipitation as the main limiting factor in the region. The research was carried out in the pine forests in Central Siberia (60°N, 90°E), Russia. Sample plots were represented by the lichen pine forest, moss pine forest, mixed forest and anthropogenic destroyed area. We used the automated soil CO2 flux system based on the infrared gas analyzer LI-8100 for measuring the soil efflux. Soil temperature was measured with Soil Temperature Probe Type E in three depths 5, 10, 15 cm. Volumetric soil moisture was measured with Theta Probe Model ML2. The presence and type of ground cover substantially affects the value of soil respiration fluxes. The carbon dioxide emission from the soil surface averaged was 5.4 ±2.3 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. The destroyed area without plant cover demonstrated the lowest soil respiration (0.1-5.6 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). The lowest soil respiration among forested areas was observed in the feathermoss pine forest. The lichen pine forest soil respiration was characterized by averages values. The maximum soil respiration values and seasonal fluctuations were obtained in the mixed forest (2.3-29.3 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). The analysis of relation between soil CO2 efflux and amount of precipitation showed that the site without any

  13. Elevated CO2 leads to carbon sequestration by modulating C4 photosynthesis pathway enzyme (PPDK) in Suaeda monoica and S. fruticosa. (United States)

    Yadav, Sonam; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath


    The C 4 halophytic species Suaeda monoica and S. fruticosa, possess the C 4 photosynthesis pathway without Kranz anatomy were grown at ambient (470ppm CO 2 ) and elevated (850ppm CO 2 ) atmospheric CO 2 under control containment facility to study the plant response under CO 2 stress condition. The relative growth of both Suaeda species was enhanced with atmospheric CO 2 enrichment compared to control (ambient) condition. The photosynthesis rate was found 2.5μmolCO 2 m -2 s -1 in both species under stress condition compared to about 1.9μmolCO 2 m -2 s -1 under control conditions. About 0.3molH 2 Om -2 s -1 conductance was detected under an unstressed condition which decreased significantly to ~0.07molH 2 Om -2 s -1 on the 6th day of stress treatment. Similarly, transpiration rate was also decreased significantly from 4.4-5.2mmolH 2 Om -2 s -1 to 1.7-1.9 under stress condition. In contrast, VpdL increased significantly from 1.9kPa to 2.5kPa under stress condition. A higher total chlorophyll content observed in S. monoica (56.36mgg -1 tissue) compared to S. fruticosa (33.12mgg -1 tissue) under unstressed (control) condition. A significant increase was found in the total chlorophyll content of S. fruticosa (45.47mgg -1 tissue) with stress treatment compared to control (33.12mgg -1 tissue). In contrast, the total chlorophyll decreased in S. monoica (51.58mgg -1 tissue) under similar stress condition compared to control plants (56.36mgg -1 tissue). About 6-6.8mg total sugar per gram tissue found under control condition which enhanced further (7.5 to 11mgg -1 tissue) under stress condition. Similarly, total reducing sugar (~2mgg -1 tissue) and total starch content (6.5-11mgg -1 tissue) increased under stress condition. About 6.5- and 3- fold higher expression of PPDK gene was observed for S. monoica and S. fruticosa, respectively under CO 2 stress condition. PPDK (1.2- and 1.5- fold) and antioxidant enzymes; APX (12.7- and two-fold), CAT (2.2- and 6.4- fold) and SOD (4

  14. Abundance and diversity of CO2-fixing bacteria in grassland soils close to natural carbon dioxide springs. (United States)

    Videmsek, Urska; Hagn, Alexandra; Suhadolc, Marjetka; Radl, Viviane; Knicker, Heike; Schloter, Michael; Vodnik, Dominik


    Gaseous conditions at natural CO2 springs (mofettes) affect many processes in these unique ecosystems. While the response of plants to extreme and fluctuating CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) is relatively well documented, little is known on microbial life in mofette soil. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to investigate the abundance and diversity of CO2-fixing bacteria in grassland soils in different distances to a natural carbon dioxide spring. Samples of the same soil type were collected from the Stavesinci mofette, a natural CO2 spring which is known for very pure CO2 emissions, at different distances from the CO2 releasing vents, at locations that clearly differed in soil CO2 efflux (from 12.5 to over 200 micromol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) yearly average). Bulk and rhizospheric soil samples were included into analyses. The microbial response was followed by a molecular analysis of cbbL genes, encoding for the large subunit of RubisCO, a carboxylase which is of crucial importance for C assimilation in chemolitoautotrophic microbes. In all samples analyzed, the "red-like" type of cbbL genes could be detected. In contrast, the "green-like" type of cbbL could not be measured by the applied technique. Surprisingly, a reduction of "red-like" cbbL genes copies was observed in bulk soil and rhizosphere samples from the sites with the highest CO2 concentrations. Furthermore, the diversity pattern of "red-like" cbbL genes changed depending on the CO(2) regime. This indicates that only a part of the autotrophic CO2-fixing microbes could adapt to the very high CO2 concentrations and adverse life conditions that are governed by mofette gaseous regime.

  15. Riverine CO2 supersaturation and outgassing in a subtropical monsoonal mountainous area (Three Gorges Reservoir Region) of China (United States)

    Li, Siyue; Ni, Maofei; Mao, Rong; Bush, Richard T.


    Rivers are an important source of CO2 to the atmosphere, however, mountainous rivers and streams with high emission rates are not well studied particularly in China. We report the first detailed investigation on monsoonal mountainous rivers in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) region, with a focus on the riverine CO2 partial pressure (pCO2), CO2 degassing and their potential controls. The pCO2 levels ranged from 50 to 6019 μatm with averages of 1573 (SD. ±1060) in dry Autumn and 1276 (SD. ±1166) μatm in wet Summer seasons. 94% of samples were supersaturated with CO2 with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium (410 μatm). Monsoonal precipitation controlled pCO2 seasonality, with both the maximal and minimal levels occurring in the wet season, and showing the overall effects of dilution. Riverine pCO2 could be predicted better in the dry season using pH, DO% and DTP, whereas pH and DOC were better predictors in the wet season. We conclude that in-situ respiration of allochthonous organic carbon, rather than photosynthesis, resulted in negative relationships between pCO2 and DO and pH, and thus CO2 supersaturation. Photosynthetic primary production was effectively limited by rapid flow velocity and short residence time. The estimated water-to-air CO2 emission rate in the TGR rivers was 350 ± 319 in the Autumn and lower, yet more variable at 326 ± 439 mmol/m2/d in Summer. Our calculated CO2 areal fluxes were in the upper-level magnitude of published data, demonstrating the importance of mountainous rivers and streams as a global greenhouse gas source, and urgency for more detailed studies on CO2 degassing, to address a global data gap for these environments.

  16. CO2 and water vapor exchange of a larch forest in northern Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Takashi; Hirata, Ryuichi; Harazono, Yoshinobu


    In the northern part of East Asia, forests dominated by larch are extensively distributed and probably play an important role in the global carbon cycle. However, a knowledge of the CO 2 balance of larch forests based on long-term flux measurements is very restricted in East Asia. Thus, a long-term flux measurement has been started in 2000 at a larch plantation on a flat terrain in Hokkaido, Japan to obtain more information on the CO 2 and energy balances of larch forests. From September 2000 to August 2001 the net ecosystem CO 2 exchange (NEE) changed seasonally in accordance with the annual cycles of phenology and climate. NEE was negative for six months of the growing season, May-September; the larch ecosystem was a carbon sink with a peak intensity of -0.38 mol m 2 d1 for this period. In the leafless season from November to April the forest ecosystem was a carbon source with an intensity ranging between 0 and 0.05 mol/m 2 /d. Annual NEE from September 2000 to August 2001 was 24.4 to 32.4 mol m 2 /yr (= 293 to 389 gC/m 2 /yr); this value is compatible with those reported from other temperate forests. Annual evapotranspiration for the same period was 367 mm, which was only 29% of annual precipitation


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O' Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen


    During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

  18. A single-ligand ultra-microporous MOF for precombustion CO2 capture and hydrogen purification. (United States)

    Nandi, Shyamapada; De Luna, Phil; Daff, Thomas D; Rother, Jens; Liu, Ming; Buchanan, William; Hawari, Ayman I; Woo, Tom K; Vaidhyanathan, Ramanathan


    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) built from a single small ligand typically have high stability, are rigid, and have syntheses that are often simple and easily scalable. However, they are normally ultra-microporous and do not have large surface areas amenable to gas separation applications. We report an ultra-microporous (3.5 and 4.8 Å pores) Ni-(4-pyridylcarboxylate)2 with a cubic framework that exhibits exceptionally high CO2/H2 selectivities (285 for 20:80 and 230 for 40:60 mixtures at 10 bar, 40°C) and working capacities (3.95 mmol/g), making it suitable for hydrogen purification under typical precombustion CO2 capture conditions (1- to 10-bar pressure swing). It exhibits facile CO2 adsorption-desorption cycling and has CO2 self-diffusivities of ~3 × 10(-9) m(2)/s, which is two orders higher than that of zeolite 13X and comparable to other top-performing MOFs for this application. Simulations reveal a high density of binding sites that allow for favorable CO2-CO2 interactions and large cooperative binding energies. Ultra-micropores generated by a small ligand ensures hydrolytic, hydrostatic stabilities, shelf life, and stability toward humid gas streams.

  19. Novel porous carbon materials with ultrahigh nitrogen contents for selective CO 2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yunfeng; Zhao, Lan; Yao, Kexin; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Qiang; Han, Yu


    Nitrogen-doped carbon materials were prepared by a nanocasting route using tri-continuous mesoporous silica IBN-9 as a hard template. Rationally choosing carbon precursors and carefully controlling activation conditions result in an optimized material denoted as IBN9-NC1-A, which possesses a very high nitrogen doping concentration (∼13 wt%) and a large surface area of 890 m 2 g -1 arising from micropores (<1 nm). It exhibits an excellent performance for CO 2 adsorption over a wide range of CO 2 pressures. Specifically, its equilibrium CO 2 adsorption capacity at 25 °C reaches up to 4.50 mmol g -1 at 1 bar and 10.53 mmol g -1 at 8 bar. In particular, it shows a much higher CO 2 uptake at low pressure (e.g. 1.75 mmol g -1 at 25 °C and 0.2 bar) than any reported carbon-based materials, owing to its unprecedented nitrogen doping level. The high nitrogen contents also give rise to significantly enhanced CO 2/N 2 selectivities (up to 42), which combined with the high adsorption capacities, make these new carbon materials promising sorbents for selective CO 2 capture from power plant flue gas and other relevant applications. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


    Borkowski, Anne H.; Barnes, Dylan C.; Blanchette, Derek R.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Klein, Donald F.; Wilson, Donald A.


    The false-suffocation hypothesis of panic disorder (Klein, 1993) suggested δ-opioid receptors as a possible source of the respiratory dysfunction manifested in panic attacks occurring in panic disorder (Preter and Klein, 2008). This study sought to determine if a lack of δ-opioid receptors in a mouse model affects respiratory response to elevated CO2, and whether the response is modulated by benzodiazepines, which are widely used to treat panic disorder. In a whole-body plethysmograph, respiratory responses to 5% CO2 were compared between δ-opioid receptor knockout mice and wild-type mice after saline, diazepam (1 mg/kg), and alprazolam (0.3 mg/kg) injection. The results show that lack of δ-opioid receptors does not affect normal response to elevated CO2, but does prevent benzodiazepines from modulating that response. Thus, in the presence of benzodiazepine agonists, respiratory responses to elevated CO2 were enhanced in δ-opioid receptor knockout mice compared to wild-type mice. This suggests an interplay between benzodiazepine receptors and δ-opioid receptors in regulating the respiratory effects of elevated CO2, which might be related to CO2 induced panic. PMID:21561601

  1. Ionothermal synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic study of Co2PO4OH isostructural with caminite. (United States)

    Wang, Guangmei; Valldor, Martin; Spielberg, Eike T; Mudring, Anja-Verena


    A new framework cobalt(II) hydroxyl phosphate, Co2PO4OH, was prepared by ionothermal synthesis using 1-butyl-4-methyl-pyridinium hexafluorophosphate as the ionic liquid. As the formation of Co2PO4F competes in the synthesis, the synthesis conditions have to be judiciously chosen to obtain well-crystallized, single phase Co2PO4OH. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal Co2PO4OH crystallizes with space group I41/amd (a = b = 5.2713(7) Å, c = 12.907(3) Å, V = 358.63(10) Å(3), and Z = 4). Astonishingly, it does not crystallize isotypically with Co2PO4F but rather isotypically with the hydroxyl minerals caminite Mg1.33[SO4(OH)0.66(H2O)0.33] and lipscombite Fe(2–y)PO4(OH) (0 ≤ y ≤ 2/3). Phosphate tetrahedra groups interconnect four rod-packed face-sharing ∞(1){CoO(6/2)} octahedra chains to form a three-dimensional framework structure. The compound Co2PO4OH was further characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform–infrared, and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, confirming the discussed structure. The magnetic measurement reveals that Co2PO4OH undergoes a magnetic transition and presents at low temperatures a canted antiferromagnetic spin order in the ground state.

  2. CaO-Based CO2 Sorbents Effectively Stabilized by Metal Oxides. (United States)

    Naeem, Muhammad Awais; Armutlulu, Andac; Imtiaz, Qasim; Müller, Christoph R


    Calcium looping (i.e., CO 2 capture by CaO) is a promising second-generation CO 2 capture technology. CaO, derived from naturally occurring limestone, offers an inexpensive solution, but due to the harsh operating conditions of the process, limestone-derived sorbents undergo a rapid capacity decay induced by the sintering of CaCO 3 . Here, we report a Pechini method to synthesize cyclically stable, CaO-based CO 2 sorbents with a high CO 2 uptake capacity. The sorbents synthesized feature compositional homogeneity in combination with a nanostructured and highly porous morphology. The presence of a single (Al 2 O 3 or Y 2 O 3 ) or bimetal oxide (Al 2 O 3 -Y 2 O 3 ) provides cyclic stability, except for MgO which undergoes a significant increase in its particle size with the cycle number. We also demonstrate a direct relationship between the CO 2 uptake and the morphology of the synthesized sorbents. After 30 cycles of calcination and carbonation, the best performing sorbent, containing an equimolar mixture of Al 2 O 3 and Y 2 O 3 , exhibits a CO 2 uptake capacity of 8.7 mmol CO 2  g -1 sorbent, which is approximately 360 % higher than that of the reference limestone. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Fluoxetine augments ventilatory CO2 sensitivity in Brown Norway but not Sprague Dawley rats. (United States)

    Hodges, Matthew R; Echert, Ashley E; Puissant, Madeleine M; Mouradian, Gary C


    The Brown Norway (BN; BN/NHsdMcwi) rat exhibits a deficit in ventilatory CO2 sensitivity and a modest serotonin (5-HT) deficiency. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine would augment CO2 sensitivity in BN but not Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Ventilation during room air or 7% CO2 exposure was measured before, during and after 3 weeks of daily injections of saline or fluoxetine (10mg/(kgday)) in adult male BN and SD rats. Fluoxetine had minimal effects on room air breathing in BN and SD rats (p>0.05), although tidal volume (VT) was reduced in BN rats (peffects of fluoxetine on CO2 sensitivity in SD rats, but fluoxetine increased minute ventilation, breathing frequency and VT during hypercapnia in BN rats (pCO2 response was reversible upon withdrawal of fluoxetine. Brain levels of biogenic amines were largely unaffected, but 5-HIAA and the ratio of 5-HIAA/5-HT were reduced (peffective 5-HT reuptake inhibition. Thus, fluoxetine increases ventilatory CO2 sensitivity in BN but not SD rats, further suggesting altered 5-HT system function may contribute to the inherently low CO2 sensitivity in the BN rat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on soil CO2 efflux in a young longleaf pine system (United States)

    Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) can affect the quantity and quality of plant tissues which will impact carbon (C) cycling and storage in plant/soil systems and the release of CO2 back to the atmosphere. Research is needed to quantify the effects of elevated CO2 on soil CO2 efflux to predi...

  5. Atmospheric CO2 concentration effects on rice water use and biomass production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Kumar

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have addressed effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration on rice biomass production and yield but effects on crop water use are less well understood. Irrigated rice evapotranspiration (ET is composed of floodwater evaporation and canopy transpiration. Crop coefficient Kc (ET over potential ET, or ETo is crop specific according to FAO, but may decrease as CO2 concentration rises. A sunlit growth chamber experiment was conducted in the Philippines, exposing 1.44-m2 canopies of IR72 rice to four constant CO2 levels (195, 390, 780 and 1560 ppmv. Crop geometry and management emulated field conditions. In two wet (WS and two dry (DS seasons, final aboveground dry weight (agdw was measured. At 390 ppmv [CO2] (current ambient level, agdw averaged 1744 g m-2, similar to field although solar radiation was only 61% of ambient. Reduction to 195 ppmv [CO2] reduced agdw to 56±5% (SE, increase to 780 ppmv increased agdw to 128±8%, and 1560 ppmv increased agdw to 142±5%. In 2013WS, crop ET was measured by weighing the water extracted daily from the chambers by the air conditioners controlling air humidity. Chamber ETo was calculated according to FAO and empirically corrected via observed pan evaporation in chamber vs. field. For 390 ppmv [CO2], Kc was about 1 during crop establishment but increased to about 3 at flowering. 195 ppmv CO2 reduced Kc, 780 ppmv increased it, but at 1560 ppmv it declined. Whole-season crop water use was 564 mm (195 ppmv, 719 mm (390 ppmv, 928 mm (780 ppmv and 803 mm (1560 ppmv. With increasing [CO2], crop water use efficiency (WUE gradually increased from 1.59 g kg-1 (195 ppmv to 2.88 g kg-1 (1560 ppmv. Transpiration efficiency (TE measured on flag leaves responded more strongly to [CO2] than WUE. Responses of some morphological traits are also reported. In conclusion, increased CO2 promotes biomass more than water use of irrigated rice, causing increased WUE, but it does not help saving water. Comparability

  6. Sequestering CO2 by mineralization into useful nesquehonite-based products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Paul Glasser


    Full Text Available The precipitation of magnesium hydroxy-carbonate hydrates has been suggested as a route to sequester CO2 into solids. We report the development of self-cementing compositions based on nesquehonite, MgCO3·3H2O, that are made from CO2-containing gas streams, the CO2 being separated from other gases by its high solubility in alkaline water, while magnesium is typically provided by waste desalination brines. Precipitation conditions are adjusted to optimize the formation of nesquehonite and the crystalline solid can readily be washed free of chloride. Products can be prepared to achieve self-cementation following two routes: (i thermal activation of the nesquehonite then rehydration of the precursor or (ii direct curing of a slurry of nesquehonite. The products thus obtained contain ~ 30 wt% CO2 and could form the basis for a new generation of lightweight, thermally insulating boards, blocks and panels, with sufficient strength for general construction.

  7. Corrosion characteristics of an aluminium alloy in the H3PO4 - CO2 mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aljinovic, Lj.; Smith, M.; Gotovac, V.


    The Al 6063 alloy examined in this work contains silicon and magnesium capable of forming Mg 2 Si and iron, which can form an intermetallic second phase (FeAl 3 ). In order to examine the influence of temperature on the corrosion behaviour of the Al 6063 alloy, examinations were carried out in aerated H 3 PO 4 and in H 3 PO 4 saturated with CO 2 at temperatures of 20, 30, 40, and 50 C. The following electrochemical methods were applied: determination of dependence of E OCP on time, recording of anodic and cathodic polarization curves, and cyclic voltammetry. It has been observed that corrosion parameters obtained are strongly temperature dependent. They also depend on CO 2 dissolved in H 3 PO 4 . CO 2 retards cathodic and anodic reactions at all temperatures, which can be attributed to formation of a kind of mechanical passivity as alloy components react with CO 2 . (orig.)

  8. Potential impact of rising atmospheric CO2 on quality of grains in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). (United States)

    Saha, Saurav; Chakraborty, Debashis; Sehgal, Vinay K; Pal, Madan


    Experiments were conducted in open-top chambers to assess the effect of atmospheric CO2 enrichment (E-CO2) on the quality of grains in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) crop. Physical attributes of the grains was not affected, but the hydration and swelling capacities of the flour increased. Increase in carbohydrates and reduction in protein made the grains more carbonaceous (higher C:N) under E-CO2. Among other mineral nutrients, K, Ca and Zn concentrations decreased, while P, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn and B concentrations did not change. The pH, bulk density and cooking time of chickpea flour remained unaffected, although the water absorption capacity of flour increased and oil absorption reduced. Results suggest that E-CO2 could affect the grain quality adversely and nutritional imbalance in grains of chickpea might occur. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The interactive effects of elevated CO2, temperature and N supply on rice yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baysa, Marieta C.; Tremmel, David C.; Reynolds, James F.; Rivero, Gilda C.; Tabbada, Reynaldo A.


    Rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR 72)was grown in growth chambers under combinations of two CO 2 (375 and 750 μL L -1 ), temperature(29/21 and 34/26 degrees centigrade day/night) and N (40 and 80 mg L -1 ) regimes from sowing until grain maturity. Panicle production was significantly enhanced by elevated CO 2 with more pronounced effects at high temperature and N. CO 2 -enriched plants grown at high temperatures had lower harvest indices due to reductions in the number of grains per panicle and grain mass. Any potential benefit of increased atmospheric CO 2 on rice grain yield and grain N content under optimal N supply may therefore be dampened by higher temperatures associated with possible future global warming conditions. (Author)

  10. Reconsideration of atmospheric CO2 lifetime: potential mechanism for explaining CO2 missing sink (United States)

    Kikuchi, R.; Gorbacheva, T.; Gerardo, R.


    Carbon cycle data (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 1996) indicate that fossil fuel use accounts for emissions to the atmosphere of 5.5±0.5 GtC (Gigatons of carbon) annually. Other important processes in the global CO2 budget are tropical deforestation, estimated to generate about 1.6±1.0 GtC/yr; absorption by the oceans, removing about 2.0±0.8 GtC/yr; and regrowth of northern forests, taking up about 0.5±0.5 GtC/yr. However, accurate measurements of CO2 show that the atmosphere is accumulating only about 3.3±0.2 GtC/yr. The imbalance of about 1.3±1.5 GtC/yr, termed the "missing sink", represents the difference between the estimated sources and the estimated sinks of CO2; that is, we do not know where all of the anthropogenic CO2 is going. Several potential mechanisms have been proposed to explain this missing carbon, such as CO2 fertilization, climate change, nitrogen deposition, land use change, forest regrowth et al. Considering the complexity of ecosystem, most of ecosystem model cannot handle all the potential mechanisms to reproduce the real world. It has been believed that the dominant sink mechanism is the fertilizing effects of increased CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere and the addition to soils of fixed nitrogen from fossil-fuel burning and agricultural fertilizers. However, a recent analysis of long-term observations of the change in biomass and growth rates suggests that such fertilization effects are much too small to explain more than a small fraction of the observed sink. In addition, long-term experiments in which small forest patches and other land ecosystems have been exposed to elevated CO2 levels for extended periods show a rapid decrease of the fertilization effect after an initial enhancement. We will explore this question of the missing sink in atmospheric CO2 residence time. Radioactive and stable carbon isotopes (13-C/12-C) show the real CO2 lifetime is about 5 years; i.e. CO2 is quickly taken out of the atmospheric

  11. Interactions between CO2, saline water and minerals during geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellevang, Helge


    The topic of this thesis is to gain a better understanding of interactions between injected CO 2 , aqueous solutions and formation mineralogies. The main focus is concerned with the potential role mineral reactions play in safe long term storage of CO 2 . The work is divided into an experimental part concentrated on the potential of dawsonite (NaAl(OH) 2 CO 3 ) as a permanent storage host of CO 2 , and the development of a new geochemical code ACCRETE that is coupled with the ATHENA multiphase flow simulator. The thesis is composed of two parts: (I) the first part introducing CO 2 storage, geochemical interactions and related work; and (II) the second part that consists of the papers. Part I is composed as follows: Chapter 2 gives a short introduction to geochemical reactions considered important during CO 2 storage, including a thermodynamic framework. Chapter 3 presents objectives of numerical work related to CO 2 -water-rock interactions including a discussion of factors that influence the outcome of numerical simulations. Chapter 4 presents the main results from paper A to E. Chapter 5 give some details about further research that we propose based on the present work and related work in the project. Several new activities have emerged from research on CO 2 -water-rock interaction during the project. Several of the proposed activities are already initiated. Papers A to F are then listed in Part II of the thesis after the citation list. The thesis presents the first data on the reaction kinetics of dawsonite at different pH (Paper A), and comprehensive numerical simulations, both batch- and large scale 3D reactive transport, that illustrate the role different carbonates have for safe storage of CO 2 in geological formations (Papers C to F). The role of dawsonite in CO 2 storage settings is treated throughout the study (Papers A to E) After the main part of the thesis (Part I and II), two appendices are included: Appendix A lists reactions that are included in the

  12. Stable isotope measurements of atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.W.C.; Ferretti, D.F.; Vaughn, B.H.; Francey, R.J.; Allison, C.E.


    The measurement of stable carbon isotope ratios of atmospheric carbon dioxide, δ 13 CO 2 are useful for partitioning surface-atmospheric fluxes into terrestrial and oceanic components. δC 18 OO also has potential for segregating photosynthetic and respiratory fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we describe in detail the techniques for making these measurements. The primary challenge for all of the techniques used to measure isotopes of atmospheric CO 2 is to achieve acceptable accuracy and precision and to maintain them over the decades needed to observe carbon cycle variability. The keys to success such an approach are diligent intercalibrations of laboratories from around the world, as well as the use of multiple techniques such as dual inlet and GC-IRMS and the intercomparison of such measurements. We focus here on two laboratories, the Stable Isotope Lab at the Institute for Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR) at the University of Colorado is described and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation - Atmospheric Research (CSIRO). Different approaches exist at other laboratories (e.g. programs operated by Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) and The Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Studies, Toboku University (TU)) however these are not discussed here. Finally, we also discuss the recently developed Gas Chromatography - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC-IRMS) technique which holds significant promise for measuring ultra-small samples of gas with good precision. (author)

  13. CO2 reduction through energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A study was carried out of the potential to economically reduce carbon dioxide emissions through energy conservation in the petroleum and natural gas industry. The study examined current and projected emissions levels, cogeneration at gas plants, flaring, economics, regulation, reporting requirements, implementation, and research and development. Economically attractive energy conservation measures can reduce oil and gas industry, exclusive of Athabasca oil sands operations, CO 2 emissions by 6-7%. The energy conservation options identified range from field energy awareness committees through to equipment retrofits and replacement. At ca 3 million tonnes/y, these reductions will not offset the increases in oil and gas related CO 2 emissions anticipated by producers and Alberta government agencies. There will be increasing emphasis on in-situ bitumen production, more energy intensive light crude oil production and increasing natural gas sales, increasing energy inputs in excess of reductions. Cogeneration of electricity for utility company distribution and for internally required steam at gas plants and in-situ production sites is not economic due to low electricity prices. 8 tabs

  14. Global CO2 emissions from cement production (United States)

    Andrew, Robbie M.


    The global production of cement has grown very rapidly in recent years, and after fossil fuels and land-use change, it is the third-largest source of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide. The required data for estimating emissions from global cement production are poor, and it has been recognised that some global estimates are significantly inflated. Here we assemble a large variety of available datasets and prioritise official data and emission factors, including estimates submitted to the UNFCCC plus new estimates for China and India, to present a new analysis of global process emissions from cement production. We show that global process emissions in 2016 were 1.45±0.20 Gt CO2, equivalent to about 4 % of emissions from fossil fuels. Cumulative emissions from 1928 to 2016 were 39.3±2.4 Gt CO2, 66 % of which have occurred since 1990. Emissions in 2015 were 30 % lower than those recently reported by the Global Carbon Project. The data associated with this article can be found at

  15. Public Acceptance for Geological CO2-Storage (United States)

    Schilling, F.; Ossing, F.; Würdemann, H.; Co2SINK Team


    Public acceptance is one of the fundamental prerequisites for geological CO2 storage. In highly populated areas like central Europe, especially in the vicinity of metropolitan areas like Berlin, underground operations are in the focus of the people living next to the site, the media, and politics. To gain acceptance, all these groups - the people in the neighbourhood, journalists, and authorities - need to be confident of the security of the planned storage operation as well as the long term security of storage. A very important point is to show that the technical risks of CO2 storage can be managed with the help of a proper short and long term monitoring concept, as well as appropriate mitigation technologies e.g adequate abandonment procedures for leaking wells. To better explain the possible risks examples for leakage scenarios help the public to assess and to accept the technical risks of CO2 storage. At Ketzin we tried the following approach that can be summed up on the basis: Always tell the truth! This might be self-evident but it has to be stressed that credibility is of vital importance. Suspiciousness and distrust are best friends of fear. Undefined fear seems to be the major risk in public acceptance of geological CO2-storage. Misinformation and missing communication further enhance the denial of geological CO2 storage. When we started to plan and establish the Ketzin storage site, we ensured a forward directed communication. Offensive information activities, an information centre on site, active media politics and open information about the activities taking place are basics. Some of the measures were: - information of the competent authorities through meetings (mayor, governmental authorities) - information of the local public, e.g. hearings (while also inviting local, regional and nation wide media) - we always treated the local people and press first! - organizing of bigger events to inform the public on site, e.g. start of drilling activities (open

  16. Fault-controlled advective, diffusive, and eruptive CO 2 leakage from natural reservoirs in the Colorado Plateau, East-Central Utah (United States)

    Jung, Na-Hyun

    This study investigated a natural analogue for CO2 leakage near Green River, Utah, aiming to understand the influence of various factors on CO2 leakage and to reliably predict underground CO2 behavior after injection for geologic CO2 sequestration. Advective, diffusive, and eruptive characteristics of CO2 leakage were assessed via a soil CO2 flux survey and numerical modeling. The field results show anomalous CO2 fluxes (> 10 g m-2 d-1 ) along the faults, particularly adjacent to CO2-driven cold springs and geysers (e.g., 36,259 g m-2 d-1 at Crystal Geyser), ancient travertines (e.g., 5,917 g m-2 d-1), joint zones in sandstone (e.g., 120 g m-2 d-1), and brine discharge zones (e.g., 5,515 g m-2 d-1). Combined with similar isotopic ratios of gas and progressive evolution of brine chemistry at springs and geysers, a gradual decrease of soil CO2 flux from the Little Grand Wash (LGW; ~36,259 g m -2 d-1) to Salt Wash (SW; ~1,428 g m-2 d-1) fault zones reveals the same CO2 origin and potential southward transport of CO2 over 10-20 km. The numerical simulations exhibit lateral transport of free CO2 and CO2-rich brine from the LGW to SW fault zones through the regional aquifers (e.g., Entrada, Navajo, Kayenta, Wingate, White Rim). CO2 travels predominantly as an aqueous phase (XCO2=~0.045) as previously suggested, giving rise to the convective instability that further accelerates CO2 dissolution. While the buoyant free CO2 always tends to ascend, a fraction of dense CO2-rich brine flows laterally into the aquifer and mixes with the formation fluids during upward migration along the fault. The fault always enhances advective CO2 transport regardless of its permeability (k). However, only low-k fault prevents unconditional upright migration of CO2 and induces fault-parallel movement, feeding the northern aquifers with more CO2. Low-k fault also impedes lateral southward fluid flow from the northern aquifers, developing anticlinal CO2 traps at shallow depths (<300 m). The

  17. CO2 fixation in alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil root nodules and partitioning of 14C to the plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, C.A.; Vance, C.P.; Heichel, G.H.; Stade, S.


    The objectives of this study were to determine if nonphotosynthetic CO 2 fixation by root nodules contributes carbon for the assimilation of fixed N 2 in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) and if assimilation products are partitioned to different plant organs. Effective alfalfa nodules excised from or attached to roots had apparent 14 CO 2 fixation rates of 50 to 80 μg CO 2 kg -1 s -1 (dry weight) at 0.0012 to 0.0038 mole fraction CO 2 . Nodule CO 2 fixation rates increased six- to seven-fold as ambient CO 2 was raised from 0.0038 to 0.0663 mole fraction. Respiration rates of nodules (3 to 4 mg CO 2 kg -1 s -1 ) were 10 to 100-fold higher than 14 CO 2 fixation rates of nodules. Pulse chase experiments with 14 CO 2 combined with nodule and xylem sap analysis demonstrated the initial products of root and nodule CO 2 fixation were organic acids. However, the export of fixed 14 C from effective nodules was primarily in the form of amino acids. In contrast, nodule and/or root fixed 14 C in ineffectively nodulated alfalfa and denodulated effective alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil was transported primarily as organic acids. Aspartate, asparagine, alanine, glutamate, and glutamine were the most heavily labeled compounds in the amino acid fraction of both effective alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil nodules exposed to 14 CO 2 . By contrast, asparate, asparagine, and glutamine were the predominantly labeled amino acids in xylem sap collected from nodulated effective roots exposed to 14 CO 2 . The occurrence of nodule CO 2 fixation in alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil and the export of fixed carbon as asparagine and aspartate to roots and shoots is consistent with a role for CO 2 fixation by nodules in providing carbon skeletons for assimilation and transport of symbiotically fixed N 2

  18. Groundwater data improve modelling of headwater stream CO2 outgassing with a stable DIC isotope approach (United States)

    Marx, Anne; Conrad, Marcus; Aizinger, Vadym; Prechtel, Alexander; van Geldern, Robert; Barth, Johannes A. C.


    A large portion of terrestrially derived carbon outgasses as carbon dioxide (CO2) from streams and rivers to the atmosphere. Particularly, the amount of CO2 outgassing from small headwater streams is highly uncertain. Conservative estimates suggest that they contribute 36 % (i.e. 0.93 petagrams (Pg) C yr-1) of total CO2 outgassing from all fluvial ecosystems on the globe. In this study, stream pCO2, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and δ13CDIC data were used to determine CO2 outgassing from an acidic headwater stream in the Uhlířská catchment (Czech Republic). This stream drains a catchment with silicate bedrock. The applied stable isotope model is based on the principle that the 13C / 12C ratio of its sources and the intensity of CO2 outgassing control the isotope ratio of DIC in stream water. It avoids the use of the gas transfer velocity parameter (k), which is highly variable and mostly difficult to constrain. Model results indicate that CO2 outgassing contributed more than 80 % to the annual stream inorganic carbon loss in the Uhlířská catchment. This translated to a CO2 outgassing rate from the stream of 34.9 kg C m-2 yr-1 when normalised to the stream surface area. Large temporal variations with maximum values shortly before spring snowmelt and in summer emphasise the need for investigations at higher temporal resolution. We improved the model uncertainty by incorporating groundwater data to better constrain the isotope compositions of initial DIC. Due to the large global abundance of acidic, humic-rich headwaters, we underline the importance of this integral approach for global applications.

  19. Incorporation of 14CO2 by illuminated intact leaves of bean (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, A.G. de


    Bean plants were grown in hydroponic nutrient solution, maintained in controlled environment. Measurements of the photosynthetic activity using the method of 14 CO 2 incorporation in intact leaves with portable equipment were made on the central leaflet of the first trifoliate leaf except when the effect of leaf age was studied in which case all central leaflets of the same branch were used. The data obtained indicated differences in the photosynthetic efficiency of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars. Relative differences in RuDP carboxylase activity in the crude extracts of leaves, leaf area and leaf chlorophyll content were also observed. Rates of 14 CO 2 incorporation at saturating light varied from 14.94 to 22.96 mg CO 2 .dm -2 .h and the 6 studied cultivars could be divided into two classes: Classe 1 (above 20 mg CO 2 .dm -2 .h): Pirata-1, Rosinha G-2, and Pintadinho Precoce; Classe 2 (below 20 mg CO 2 .dm - 2 .h): Carioca, Rosinha Precoce and Pintado. Plants of the same cultivar showed a relatively high variability and a strong dependence in relation to environmental conditions. Differences among cultivars in relation to RuDP carboxylase activity, leaf area and leaf age were correlated to photosynthetic rate. (Author) [pt

  20. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Flowers: Optimisation of Oxygenated Monoterpenes, Coumarin and Herniarin Content. (United States)

    Jerković, Igor; Molnar, Maja; Vidović, Senka; Vladić, Jelena; Jokić, Stela


    Lavandula angustifolia is good source of oxygenated monoterpenes containing coumarins as well, which are all soluble in supercritical CO 2 (SC-CO 2 ). The study objective is to investigate SC-CO 2 extraction parameters on: the total yield; GC-MS profile of the extracts; relative content of oxygenated monoterpenes; the amount of coumarin and herniarin; and to determine optimal SC-CO 2 extraction conditions by response surface methodology (RSM). SC-CO 2 extraction was performed under different pressure, temperature and CO 2 flow rate determined by Box-Behnken design (BBD). The sample mass and the extraction time were kept constant. The chemical profiles and relative content of oxygenated monoterpenes (as coumarin equivalents, CE) were determined by GC-MS. Coumarin and herniarin concentrations were dosed by HPLC. SC-CO 2 extracts contained linalool (57.4-217.9 mg CE/100 g), camphor (10.6-154.4 mg CE/100 g), borneol (6.2-99.9 mg CE/100 g), 1,8-cineole (5.0-70.4 mg CE/100 g), linalyl acetate (86.1-267.9 mg CE/100 g), coumarin (0.95-18.16 mg/100 g), and herniarin (0.95-13.63 mg/100 g). The interaction between the pressure and CO 2 flow rate as well as between the temperature and CO 2 flow rate showed statistically significant influence on the extraction yield. Applying BBD, the optimum extraction conditions for higher monoterpenes and lower coumarin content were at 10 MPa, 41°C and CO 2 flow rate 2.3 kg/h, and at 30 MPa, 50°C and CO 2 flow rate 3 kg/h for higher monoterpenes and coumarin content. SC-CO 2 extraction is a viable technique for obtaining lavender extracts with desirable flavour components. The second-order model based on BBD predicts the results for SC-CO 2 extraction quite satisfactorily. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Acidic sweep gas with carbonic anhydrase coated hollow fiber membranes synergistically accelerates CO2 removal from blood. (United States)

    Arazawa, D T; Kimmel, J D; Finn, M C; Federspiel, W J


    The use of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) is well established as a therapy for patients suffering from acute respiratory failure. Development of next generation low blood flow (carbonic anhydrase (CA) immobilized bioactive hollow fiber membrane (HFM) which significantly accelerates CO2 removal from blood in model gas exchange devices by converting bicarbonate to CO2 directly at the HFM surface. This present study tested the hypothesis that dilute sulfur dioxide (SO2) in oxygen sweep gas could further increase CO2 removal by creating an acidic microenvironment within the diffusional boundary layer adjacent to the HFM surface, facilitating dehydration of bicarbonate to CO2. CA was covalently immobilized onto poly (methyl pentene) (PMP) HFMs through glutaraldehyde activated chitosan spacers, potted in model gas exchange devices (0.0151 m(2)) and tested for CO2 removal rate with oxygen (O2) sweep gas and a 2.2% SO2 in oxygen sweep gas mixture. Using pure O2 sweep gas, CA-PMP increased CO2 removal by 31% (258 mL/min/m(2)) compared to PMP (197 mL/min/m(2)) (Premoval by 17% (230 mL/min/m(2)) compared to pure oxygen sweep gas control (Premoval increased by 109% (411 mL/min/m(2)) (Premoval, and when used in combination with bioactive CA-HFMs has a synergistic effect to more than double CO2 removal while maintaining physiologic pH. Through these technologies the next generation of intravascular and paracorporeal respiratory assist devices can remove more CO2 with smaller blood contacting surface areas. A clinical need exists for more efficient respiratory assist devices which utilize low blood flow rates (removal efficiency by shifting equilibrium from bicarbonate to gaseous CO2, through either a bioactive carbonic anhydrase enzyme coating or bulk blood acidification with lactic acid. In this study we demonstrate a novel approach to local blood acidification using an acidified sweep gas in combination with a bioactive coating to more than double CO2 removal

  2. Production of nanostructured molecular liquids by supercritical CO2 processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Kumar Sharma


    Full Text Available Stable molecular clusters of ibuprofen and naproxen were prepared in dry ice, by supersonic jet expansion of their supercritical CO2 drug formulations into a liquid nitrogen cooled collection vessel, with up to 80% yield. Mixing the “dry ice” in water, resulted in the solubilization of the clusters and in the case of ibuprofen, we were able to create solutions, with concentrations of up to 6 mg/ml, a 300-fold increase over previously reported values. Drop casting and ambient drying of these solutions on silicon substrate resulted in a stable, viscous liquid film, referred to as nanostructured molecular liquids. These liquids exhibited a highly aligned, fine (self-assembled super lattice features. In vitro cancer cell viability studies of these formulations exhibited similar cytotoxicity to that of the original raw materials, thus retaining their original potency. Besides its scientific importance, this invention is expected to open up new drug delivery platforms.

  3. Field demonstration of CO2 leakage detection in potable aquifers with a pulselike CO2-release test. (United States)

    Yang, Changbing; Hovorka, Susan D; Delgado-Alonso, Jesus; Mickler, Patrick J; Treviño, Ramón H; Phillips, Straun


    This study presents two field pulselike CO2-release tests to demonstrate CO2 leakage detection in a shallow aquifer by monitoring groundwater pH, alkalinity, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) using the periodic groundwater sampling method and a fiber-optic CO2 sensor for real-time in situ monitoring of dissolved CO2 in groundwater. Measurements of groundwater pH, alkalinity, DIC, and dissolved CO2 clearly deviated from their background values, showing responses to CO2 leakage. Dissolved CO2 observed in the tests was highly sensitive in comparison to groundwater pH, DIC, and alkalinity. Comparison of the pulselike CO2-release tests to other field tests suggests that pulselike CO2-release tests can provide reliable assessment of geochemical parameters indicative of CO2 leakage. Measurements by the fiber-optic CO2 sensor, showing obvious leakage signals, demonstrated the potential of real-time in situ monitoring of dissolved CO2 for leakage detection at a geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) site. Results of a two-dimensional reactive transport model reproduced the geochemical measurements and confirmed that the decrease in groundwater pH and the increases in DIC and dissolved CO2 observed in the pulselike CO2-release tests were caused by dissolution of CO2 whereas alkalinity was likely affected by carbonate dissolution.

  4. Response of atmospheric CO2 to changes in land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, A.W.; Emanuel, W.R.; Post, W.M.


    This chapter examines how different histories of CO 2 release from past changes in land use influence the simulation of past and future changes in atmospheric CO 2 . The authors first simulate past change in atmospheric CO 2 using reconstructed histories of land-use CO 2 release from a historical-ecological model of land-use change and CO 2 release. They examine the impact of each history on the coincidence between simulated and observed atmospheric CO 2 . They then compare these CO 2 release histories, and their contribution to coincidence or noncoincidence of simulation and observation, with histories reconstructed by deconvolution of the atmospheric CO 2 record. They conclude by exploring the implications of these deconvolved reconstructions for the simulation of future changes in atmospheric CO 2

  5. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion 2011: Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Durban, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: - estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2009; - selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; - CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information. These estimates have been calculated using the IEA energy databases and the default methods and emission factors from the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

  6. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion - 2012 Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Doha, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2010; selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; and CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information.

  7. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion 2011: Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Durban, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: - estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2009; - selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; - CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information. These estimates have been calculated using the IEA energy databases and the default methods and emission factors from the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

  8. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion - 2012 Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Doha, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2010; selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; and CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information.

  9. Seasonal dynamics of CO2 efflux in soils amended with composted and thermally-dried sludge as affected by soil tillage systems in a semi-arid agroecosystem (United States)

    García-Gil, Juan Carlos; Soler-Rovira, Pedro; López-de-Sa, Esther G.; Polo, Alfredo


    In semi-arid agricultural soils, seasonal dynamic of soil CO2 efflux (SCE) is highly variable. Based on soil respiration measurements the effects of different management systems (moldboard plowing, chisel and no-tillage) and the application of composted sludge (CS) and thermally-dried sewage sludge (TSS) was investigated in a long-term field experiment (28 years) conducted on a sandy-loam soil at the experimental station 'La Higueruela' (40o 03'N, 4o 24'W). Both organic amendments were applied at a rate of 30 Mg ha-1 prior to tillage practices. Unamended soils were used as control for each tillage system. SCE was moderate in late spring (2.2-11.8 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) when amendments were applied and tillage was performed, markedly decreased in summer (0.4-3.2 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1), following a moderate increase in autumn (3.4-14.1 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1), rising sharply in October (5.6-39.8 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 ). In winter, SCE was low (0.6-6.5 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). In general, SCE was greater in chisel and moldboard tilled soils, and in CS and particularly TSS-amended soils, due to the addition of labile C with these amendments, meanwhile no-tillage soils exhibited smaller increases in C efflux throughout the seasons. Soil temperature controlled the seasonal variations of SCE. In summer, when drought occurs, a general decrease of SCE was observed due to a deficit in soil water content. After drought period SCE jumped to high values in response to rain events ('Birch effect') that changed soil moisture conditions. Soil drying in summer and rewetting in autumn may promotes some changes on the structure of soil microbial community, affecting associated metabolic processes, and enhancing a rapid mineralization of water-soluble organic C compounds and/or dead microbial biomass that acts as an energy source for soil microorganisms. To assess the effects of tillage and amendments on SCE, Q10 values were calculated. Data were grouped into three groups according to soil moisture (0

  10. CO2 point sources and subsurface storage capacities for CO2 in aquifers in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boee, Reidulv; Magnus, Christian; Osmundsen, Per Terje; Rindstad, Bjoern Ivar


    The GESTCO project comprises a study of the distribution and coincidence of thermal CO 2 emission sources and location/quality of geological storage capacity in Europe. Four of the most promising types of geological storage are being studied. 1. Onshore/offshore saline aquifers with or without lateral seal. 2. Low entalpy geothermal reservoirs. 3. Deep methane-bearing coal beds and abandoned coal and salt mines. 4. Exhausted or near exhausted hydrocarbon structures. In this report we present an inventory of CO 2 point sources in Norway (1999) and the results of the work within Study Area C: Deep saline aquifers offshore/near shore Northern and Central Norway. Also offshore/near shore Southern Norway has been included while the Barents Sea is not described in any detail. The most detailed studies are on the Tilje and Aare Formations on the Troendelag Platform off Mid-Norway and on the Sognefjord, Fensfjord and Krossfjord Formations, southeast of the Troll Field off Western Norway. The Tilje Formation has been chosen as one of the cases to be studied in greater detail (numerical modelling) in the project. This report shows that offshore Norway, there are concentrations of large CO 2 point sources in the Haltenbanken, the Viking Graben/Tampen Spur area, the Southern Viking Graben and the central Trough, while onshore Norway there are concentrations of point sources in the Oslofjord/Porsgrund area, along the coast of western Norway and in the Troendelag. A number of aquifers with large theoretical CO 2 storage potential are pointed out in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and in the Southern Barents Sea. The storage capacity in the depth interval 0.8 - 4 km below sea level is estimated to be ca. 13 Gt (13000000000 tonnes) CO 2 in geological traps (outside hydrocarbon fields), while the storage capacity in aquifers not confined to traps is estimated to be at least 280 Gt CO 2 . (Author)

  11. Magnetic properties of Co2-xCux(OH)PO4 (x=0, 1 and 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedro, I. de; Jubera, V.; Rojo, J.M.; Lezama, L.; Sanchez Marcos, J.; Rodriguez Fernandez, J.; Mesa, J.L.; Rojo, T.; Arriortua, M.I.


    The isostructural Co 2-x Cu x (OH)PO 4 (x=0, 1 and 2) phases have been prepared from hydrothermal synthesis and characterized from powder X-ray diffraction. The structure consists of a three-dimensional framework in which M(1)O 5 -trigonal bipyramid dimers and M(2)O 6 -octahedral chains are simultaneously present. Magnetization measurements of Co 2 (OH)(PO 4 ) show the existence of two maxima attributed to a three-dimensional antiferromagnetic ordering at 70 K and a spin-glass-like state at 12 K. When Co 2+ is substituted by Cu 2+ ions, the spin-glass behavior disappears and the magnetic order is decreased

  12. Rapid establishment of the CO2 sink associated with Kerguelen's bloom observed during the KEOPS2/OISO20 cruise (United States)

    Lo Monaco, C.; Metzl, N.; D'Ovidio, F.; Llort, J.; Ridame, C.


    , between 1 and 1.5 mol C m-2 yr-1, and in the iron-poor HNLC waters, where we found a typical value of 0.4 mol C m-2 yr-1. Extrapolating our results to the ice-free Southern Ocean (~50-60° S) suggests that iron fertilization of the whole area would increase the contemporay oceanic uptake of CO2 by less than 0.1 Pg C yr-1, i.e., less than 1% of the current anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

  13. Monitoring of fumarole discharge and CO2 soil degassing in the Azores: contribution to volcanic surveillance and public health risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Faria


    Full Text Available Fluid geochemistry monitoring in the Azores involves the regular sampling and analysis of gas discharges from fumaroles and measurements of CO2 diffuse soil gas emissions. Main degassing areas under monitoring are associated with hydrothermal systems of active central volcanoes in S. Miguel, Terceira and Graciosa islands. Fumarole discharge analysis since 1991 show that apart from steam these gas emissions are CO2 dominated with H2S, H2, CH4 and N2 in minor amounts. Mapping of CO2 diffuse soil emissions in S. Miguel Island lead to the conclusion that some inhabited areas are located within hazard-zones. At Furnas village, inside Furnas volcano caldera, about 62% of the 896 houses are within the CO2 anomaly, 5% being in areas of moderate to high risk. At Ribeira Seca, on the north flank of Fogo volcano, few family houses were evacuated when CO2 concentrations in the air reached 8 mol%. To assess and analyse the CO2 soil flux emissions, continuous monitoring stations were installed in S. Miguel (2, Terceira and Graciosa islands. The statistical analysis of the data showed that some meteorological parameters influence the CO2 flux. The average of CO2 flux in S. Miguel stations ranges from 250 g/m2/d at Furnas volcano to 530 g/m2/d at Fogo volcano. At Terceira Island it is about 330 g/m2/d and at Graciosa 4400 g/m2/d.

  14. Elevated CO2, not defoliation, enhances N cycling and increases short-term soil N immobilization regardless of N addition in a semiarid grassland (United States)

    Elevated CO2 and defoliation effects on nitrogen (N) cycling in rangeland soils remain poorly understood. Here we tested whether effects of elevated CO2 and defoliation (clipping to 2.5 cm height) on N cycling depended on soil N availability (addition of 1 vs. 11 g N/m2) in intact mesocosms extracte...

  15. Plasma catalytic process for CO2 methanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizio, Magdalena


    The limited resources of oil and natural gas, together with an increasing energy demand, forces us to seek more and more efficient and cleaner energy production alternatives. Hydrogen has been recently considered as a promising energy carrier. However, there are several inherent problems to the utilization of H 2 , from its transportation to its distribution. Transformation of the H 2 molecule by fixing into a carbon-containing compound, i.e. CH 4 , will offer the possibility of using the conventional transportation network. Indeed, the Sabatier reaction, which is highly exothermic, involves the reaction of carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas in order to produce methane and water. This process, called methanation, represents a feasible approach contributing to the reduction of the CO 2 emissions in our atmosphere, through a closed carbon cycle involving the valorization of CO 2 , i.e. from capture. However, below a temperature of 250 C, the conversion becomes practically close to 0 %, whereas at higher temperatures, i.e., (≥300 C), the co-existence of secondary reactions favours the formation of CO and H 2 . This is the reason why new catalysts and process conditions are continuously being investigated in order to maximize the methane selectivity at low reaction temperatures at atmospheric pressure. Therefore, by using catalysts combined to Dielectric Barrier Discharge plasmas (DBD), the activation of the methanation reaction can be enhanced and overcome the drawbacks of existing conventional processes. Several Ni-containing catalysts were prepared using various ceria-zirconia oxides as supports, with different Ce/Zr ratios. The results obtained in the adiabatic conditions at low temperatures (ranging between 100-150 C), in the presence of catalysts activated by plasma, are promising. Indeed, the conversion of CO 2 to CH 4 is about 85 % with a selectivity close to 100 %. The same conversion in the absence of the plasma activation of the catalyst is observed at 350 C

  16. CO2 diffuse emission from maar lake: An example in Changbai volcanic field, NE China (United States)

    Sun, Yutao; Guo, Zhengfu; Liu, Jiaqi; Du, Jianguo


    Numerous maars and monogenetic volcanic cones are distributed in northeast China, which are related to westward deep subduction of the Pacific Ocean lithosphere, comprising a significant part of the "Pacific Ring of Fire". It is well known that diffuse CO2 emissions from monogenetic volcanoes, including wet (e.g., maar lake) and dry degassing systems (e.g., soil diffuse emission, fault degassing, etc.), may contribute to budget of globally nature-derived greenhouse gases. However, their relationship between wet (e.g., maar lake) and concomitant dry degassing systems (e.g., soil diffuse emission, fault degassing, etc.) related to monogenetic volcanic field is poorly understood. Yuanchi maar, one of the typical monogenetic volcanic systems, is located on the eastern flank of Tianchi caldera in Changbai volcanic field of northeast China, which displays all of three forms of CO2 degassing including the maar lake, soil micro-seepage and fault degassing. Measurements of efflux of CO2 diffusion from the Yuanchi maar system (YMS) indicate that the average values of CO2 emissions from soil micro-seepage, fault degassing and water-air interface diffusion are 24.3 ± 23.3 g m- 2 d- 1, 39.2 ± 22.4 g m- 2 d- 1 and 2.4 ± 1.1 g m- 2 d- 1, respectively. The minimum output of CO2 diffuse emission from the YMS to the atmosphere is about 176.1 ± 88.3 ton/yr, of which 80.4% results from the dry degassing system. Degassing from the fault contributes to the most of CO2 emissions in all of the three forms of degassing in the YMS. Contributions of mantle, crust, air and organic CO2 to the soil gas are 0.01-0.10%, 10-20%, 32-36% and 48-54%, respectively, which are quantitatively constrained by a He-C isotope coupling calculation model. We propose that CO2 exsolves from the upper mantle melting beneath the Tianchi caldera, which migrates to the crustal magma chamber and further transports to the surface of YMS along the deep fault system. During the transportation processes, the emission

  17. Lower responsiveness of canopy evapotranspiration rate than of leaf stomatal conductance to open-air CO2 elevation in rice. (United States)

    Shimono, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Okada, Masumi


    An elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]) can reduce stomatal conductance of leaves for most plant species, including rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, few studies have quantified seasonal changes in the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on canopy evapotranspiration, which integrates the response of stomatal conductance of individual leaves with other responses, such as leaf area expansion, changes in leaf surface temperature, and changes in developmental stages, in field conditions. We conducted a field experiment to measure seasonal changes in stomatal conductance of the uppermost leaves and in the evapotranspiration, transpiration, and evaporation rates using a lysimeter method. The study was conducted for flooded rice under open-air CO2 elevation. Stomatal conductance decreased by 27% under elevated [CO2 ], averaged throughout the growing season, and evapotranspiration decreased by an average of 5% during the same period. The decrease in daily evapotranspiration caused by elevated [CO2 ] was more significantly correlated with air temperature and leaf area index (LAI) rather than with other parameters of solar radiation, days after transplanting, vapor-pressure deficit and FAO reference evapotranspiration. This indicates that higher air temperatures, within the range from 16 to 27 °C, and a larger LAI, within the range from 0 to 4 m(2)  m(-2) , can increase the magnitude of the decrease in evapotranspiration rate caused by elevated [CO2 ]. The crop coefficient (i.e. the evapotranspiration rate divided by the FAO reference evapotranspiration rate) was 1.24 at ambient [CO2 ] and 1.17 at elevated [CO2 ]. This study provides the first direct measurement of the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on rice canopy evapotranspiration under open-air conditions using the lysimeter method, and the results will improve future predictions of water use in rice fields. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Supported modified hydrotalcites as sorbent for CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meis, N.


    presence of Na{sup +}/K{sup +} on the surface of Mg(Al)O{sub x}. Due to the larger size of these alkali ions, incorporation in an activated HT would therefore be difficult and it is proposed that the K{sup +}/Na{sup +} are located at the surface and not in the 'bulk' of the MgAlO{sub x}. The tentative mechanism is that K{sup +} substitutes an Mg{sup 2+} and additional oxygen vacancies at the surface are created. Finally, a new developed sorbent, i.e. potassium carbonate (K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) deposited on carbon nanofibers for CO2 capture at low temperatures (373K, post-combustion capture), was compared with potassium carbonate deposited on activated coal (AC) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} loaded on the CNF support revealed excellent properties as CO2 sorbent compared to the K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-AC and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sorbents, having the highest capacity and fast desorption kinetics at low desorption temperatures (423-523K). These favorable properties of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-CNF are considered to originate from relatively small K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} particles combined with a good accessibility of these particles surrounded by the CNF. Moreover, the K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-CNF could be regenerated with a low energy input estimated at 2-3 MJ/ton CO2, far below the energy needed for the currently used amine- scrubbers, which shows this sorbent's potential to become competitive with established post-combustion sorbents.

  19. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange over a larch forest in Hokkaido, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huimin Wang; Saigusa, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Susumu; Kondo, Hiroaki; Hirano, Takashi; Toriyama, Atsushi; Fujinuma, Yasumi


    Larch forests are distributed extensively in the east Eurasian continent and are expected to play a significant role in the terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycling process. In view of the fact that studies on carbon exchange for this important biome have been very limited, we have initiated a long-term flux observation in a larch forest ecosystem in Hokkaido in northern Japan since 2000. The net ecosystem CO 2 exchange (NEE) showed large seasonal and diurnal variation. Generally, the larch forest ecosystem released CO 2 in nighttime and assimilated CO 2 in daytime during the growing season from May to October. The ecosystem started to become a net carbon sink in May, reaching a maximum carbon uptake as high as 186 g C m -2 month -1 in June. With the yellowing, senescing and leaf fall, the ecosystem turned into a carbon source in November. During the non-growing season, the larch forest ecosystem became a net source of CO 2 , releasing an average of 16.7 g C m -2 month -1 . Overall, the ecosystem sequestered 141-240 g C m -2 yr -1 in 2001. The NEE was significantly influenced by environmental factors. Respiration of the ecosystem, for example, was exponentially dependent on air temperature, while photosynthesis was related to the incident PAR in a manner consistent with the Michaelis-Menten model. Although the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was scarcely higher than 15 hPa, the CO 2 uptake rate was also depressed when VPD surpassed 10 hPa (Author)

  20. Plasma Arc Augmented CO2 laser welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Andersen, Mikkel; Frederiksen, Niels


    In order to reduce the hardness of laser beam welded 2.13 mm medium strength steel CMn 250, a plasma arc has been used simultaneously with a 2.6 kW CO2 laser source. In a number of systematic laboratory tests, the plasma arc current, plasma gas flow and distance to the laser source were varied...... with all laser parameters fixed. The welds were quality assessed and hardness measured transversely to the welding direction in the top, middle and root of the seam. In the seams welded by laser alone, hardness values between 275 and 304 HV1 were measured, about the double of the base material, 150 HV1...

  1. Tritium removal by CO2 laser heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.; Mueller, D.


    Efficient techniques for rapid tritium removal will be necessary for ITER to meet its physics and engineering goals. One potential technique is transient surface heating by a scanning CO 2 or Nd:Yag laser that would release tritium without the severe engineering difficulties of bulk heating of the vessel. The authors have modeled the heat propagation into a surface layer and find that a multi-kW/cm 2 flux with an exposure time of order 10 ms is suitable to heat a 50 micron co-deposited layer to 1,000--2,000 degrees. Improved wall conditioning may be a significant side benefit. They identify remaining issues that need to be addressed experimentally

  2. Tritium removal by CO2 laser heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.; Mueller, D.


    Efficient techniques for rapid tritium removal will be necessary for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) to meet its physics and engineering goals. One potential technique is transient surface heating by a scanning CO 2 or Nd:YAG laser that would release tritium without the severe engineering difficulties of bulk heating of the vessel. The authors have modeled the heat propagation into a surface layer and find that a multi-kW/cm 2 flux with an exposure time of order 10 msec is suitable to heat a 50 micron co-deposited layer to 1,000--2,000 degrees. Improved wall conditioning may be a significant side benefit. They identify remaining issues that need to be addressed experimentally

  3. CO2 Capture for Cement Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar

    , whereas in a normal cement plant, it is 0.9 kg/ kg cl. However the thermal energy demand in the integrated plant increases from 3.9 MJ/ kg cl to 5.6 MJ/ kg cl. But on the other side this additional energy spent can be recovered as a high quality heat to generate electricity. The potential to generate...... electricity depends on the scale of the plant, the bigger the production capacity of cement plant the better, with capacity higher than 3400 tons of clinker/day is required to produce captive electricity to meet the demand both from the cement plant operations and from the CO2 capture system operations....

  4. Smart Transportation CO2 Emission Reduction Strategies (United States)

    Tarulescu, S.; Tarulescu, R.; Soica, A.; Leahu, C. I.


    Transport represents the sector with the fastest growing greenhouse gas emissions around the world. The main global objective is to reduce energy usage and associated greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. For this study it was analyzed the road transportation system from Brasov Metropolitan area. The study was made for the transportation route that connects Ghimbav city to the main surrounding objectives. In this study ware considered four optimization measures: vehicle fleet renewal; building the detour belt for the city; road increasing the average travel speed; making bicycle lanes; and implementing an urban public transport system for Ghimbav. For each measure it was used a mathematical model to calculate the energy consumption and carbon emissions from the road transportation sector. After all four measures was analyzed is calculated the general energy consumption and CO2 reduction if this are applied from year 2017 to 2020.

  5. Power stabilized CO2 gas transport laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.D.; Kirk, R.F.; Moreno, F.E.; Ahmed, S.A.


    The output power of a high power (1 kW or more) CO 2 gas transport laser is stabilized by flowing the gas mixture over copper plated baffles in the gas channel during operation of the laser. Several other metals may be used instead of copper, for example, nickel, manganese, palladium, platinum, silver and gold. The presence of copper in the laser gas circuit stabilizes output power by what is believed to be a compensation of the chemical changes in the gas due to the cracking action of the electrical discharge which has the effect of diminishing the capactiy of the carbon dioxide gas mixture to maintain the rated power output of the laser. (U.S.)

  6. CO2 laser-aided waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, J.R.; Guiberteau, P.; Caminat, P.; Bournot, P.


    Lasers are widely employed in laboratories and in certain industrial applications, notably for welding, cutting and surface treatments. This paper describes a new application, incineration, which appears warranted when the following features are required: high-temperature incineration (> 1500 deg C) with close-tolerance temperature control in an oxidizing medium while ensuring containment of toxic waste. These criteria correspond to the application presented here. Following a brief theoretical introduction concerning the laser/surface interaction, the paper describes the incineration of graphite waste contaminated with alpha-emitting radionuclides. Process feasibility has been demonstrated on a nonradioactive prototype capable of incinerating 10 kg -h-1 using a 7 kW CO 2 laser. An industrial facility with the same capacity, designed to operate within the constraints of an alpha-tight glove box environment, is now at the project stage. Other types of applications with similar requirements may be considered. (authors). 3 refs., 7 figs

  7. US calls for CO2 cut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.


    The US Government has outraged energy-intensive industries by calling for an international agreement to reduce global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other greenhouse gases. In a clear policy shift, the US--the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gases and not previously an advocate of curbing them--says it now intends to lead moves to prevent global warming. At last week's Second Conference of the Parties (COP-2) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), US Undersecretary for Global Affairs Timothy Wirth called for open-quotes an agreement that sets a realistic, verifiable, and binding medium-term emissions target.close quotes Individual countries should be free to choose how to meet targets, and the US favors market-based mechanisms, he says. open-quotes Climate change is a serious problem and will require sustained long-term investment to be addressed successfully,close quotes Wirth says

  8. Anterior capsulotomy using the CO2 laser (United States)

    Barak, Adiel; Ma-Naim, Tova; Rosner, Mordechai; Eyal, Ophir; Belkin, Michael


    Continuous circular capsulorhexis (CCC) is the preferred technique for removal of the anterior capsule during cataract surgery due to this technique assuring accurate centration of the intraocular lens. During modern cataract surgery, especially with small or foldable intra ocular lenses, centration of the lens is obligatory. Radial tears at the margin of an anterior capsulotomy may be associated with the exit of at least one loop of an intraocular lens out of the capsular bag ('pea pod' effect) and its subsequent decentration. The anterior capsule is more likely to ream intact if the continuous circular capsulorhexis (CCC) technique is used. Although manual capsulorhexis is an ideal anterior capsulectomy technique for adults, many ophthalmologists are still uncomfortable with it and find it difficult to perform, especially in complicated cases such as these done behind small pupil, cataract extraction in children and pseudoexfoliation syndrome. We have developed a technique using a CO2 laser system for safe anterior capsulotomy and tested it in animal eyes.

  9. Drivers of pCO2 dynamics in two contrasting coral reef lagoons: The influence of submarine groundwater discharge (Invited) (United States)

    Cyronak, T.; Santos, I. R.; Erler, D.; Maher, D. T.; Eyre, B.


    The carbon chemistry of coral reef lagoons can be highly variable over short time scales. While much of the diel variability in seawater carbon chemistry is explained by biological processes, external sources such as river and groundwater seepage may deliver large amounts of organic and inorganic carbon to coral reefs and represent a poorly understood feedback to ocean acidification. Here, we assess the impact of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) on pCO2 variability in two coral reef lagoons with distinct SGD driving mechanisms. Diel variability of pCO2 in the two ecosystems was explained by a combination of biological drivers and SGD inputs. In Rarotonga, a South Pacific volcanic island, SGD was driven primarily by a steep terrestrial hydraulic gradient, and the lagoon was influenced by the high pCO2 (5,501 μatm) of the fresh groundwater. In Heron Island, a Great Barrier Reef coral cay, SGD was dominated by seawater recirculation through sediments (i.e. tidal pumping) and pCO2 was mainly impacted through the stimulation of biological processes. The Rarotonga water column had a relatively higher average pCO2 (549 μatm) than Heron Island (471 μatm). However, pCO2 exhibited a greater diel range in Heron Island (778 μatm) than in Rarotonga (507 μatm). The Rarotonga lagoon received 31.2 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1 from SGD, while the Heron Island lagoon received 12.3 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1. Over the course of this study both systems were sources of CO2 to the atmosphere (3.00 to 9.67 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1), with SGD-derived CO2 contributing a large portion to the air-sea CO2 flux. The relationship between both water column pH and aragonite saturation state (ΩAr) and radon (222Rn) concentrations indicate that SGD may enhance the local acidification of some coral reef lagoons. Studies measuring the carbon chemistry of coral reefs (e.g. community metabolism, calcification rates) may need to consider SGD-derived CO2.

  10. Experimental Investigations into CO2 Interactions with Injection Well Infrastructure for CO2 Storage (United States)

    Syed, Amer; Shi, Ji-Quan; Durucan, Sevket; Nash, Graham; Korre, Anna


    Wellbore integrity is an essential requirement to ensure the success of a CO2 Storage project as leakage of CO2 from the injection or any other abandoned well in the storage complex, could not only severely impede the efficiency of CO2 injection and storage but also may result in potential adverse impact on the surrounding environment. Early research has revealed that in case of improper well completions and/or significant changes in operating bottomhole pressure and temperature could lead to the creation of microannulus at cement-casing interface which may constitute a preferential pathway for potential CO2 leakage during and post injection period. As a part of a European Commission funded CO2CARE project, the current research investigates the sealing behaviour of such microannulus at the cement-casing interface under simulated subsurface reservoir pressure and temperature conditions and uses the findings to develop a methodology to assess the overall integrity of CO2 storage. A full scale wellbore experimental test set up was constructed for use under elevated pressure and temperature conditions as encountered in typical CO2 storage sites. The wellbore cell consists of an assembly of concentric elements of full scale casing (Diameter= 0.1524m), cement sheath and an outer casing. The stainless steel outer ring is intended to simulate the stiffness offered by the reservoir rock to the displacement applied at the wellbore. The Central Loading Mechanism (CLM) consists of four case hardened shoes that can impart radial load onto the well casing. The radial movement of the shoes is powered through the synchronised movement of four precision jacks controlled hydraulically which could impart radial pressures up to 15 MPa. The cell body is a gas tight enclosure that houses the wellbore and the central loading mechanism. The setup is enclosed in a laboratory oven which acts both as temperature and safety enclosure. Prior to a test, cement mix is set between the casing and

  11. Experimental observation and numerical simulation of permeability changes in dolomite at CO2 sequestration conditions (United States)

    Tutolo, B. M.; Luhmann, A. J.; Kong, X.; Saar, M. O.; Seyfried, W. E.


    Injecting surface temperature CO2 into geothermally warm reservoirs for geologic storage or energy production may result in depressed temperature near the injection well and thermal gradients and mass transfer along flow paths leading away from the well. Thermal gradients are particularly important to consider in reservoirs containing carbonate minerals, which are more soluble at lower temperatures, as well as in CO2-based geothermal energy reservoirs where lowering heat exchanger rejection temperatures increases efficiency. Additionally, equilibrating a fluid with cation-donating silicates near a low-temperature injection well and transporting the fluid to higher temperature may enhance the kinetics of mineral precipitation in such a way as to overcome the activation energy required for mineral trapping of CO2. We have investigated this process by subjecting a dolomite core to a 650-hour temperature series experiment in which the fluid was saturated with CO2 at high pressure (110-126 bars) and 21°C. This fluid was recirculated through the dolomite core, increasing permeability from 10-16 to 10-15.2 m2. Subsequently, the core temperature was raised to 50° C, and permeability decreased to 10-16.2 m2 after 289 hours, due to thermally-driven CO2 exsolution. Increasing core temperature to 100°C for the final 145 hours of the experiment caused dolomite to precipitate, which, together with further CO2 exsolution, decreased permeability to 10-16.4 m2. Post-experiment x-ray computed tomography and scanning electron microscope imagery of the dolomite core reveals abundant matrix dissolution and enlargement of flow paths at low temperatures, and subsequent filling-in of the passages at elevated temperature by dolomite. To place this experiment within the broader context of geologic CO2 sequestration, we designed and utilized a reactive transport simulator that enables dynamic calculation of CO2 equilibrium constants and fugacity and activity coefficients by incorporating

  12. CO2 laser milling of hard tissue (United States)

    Werner, Martin; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Klasing, Manfred; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter


    Drilling of bone and tooth tissue belongs to recurrent medical procedures (screw- and pin-bores, bores for implant inserting, trepanation etc.). Small round bores can be in general quickly produced with mechanical drills. Problems arise however by angled drilling, by the necessity to fulfill the drilling without damaging of sensitive soft tissue beneath the bone, or by the attempt to mill precisely noncircular small cavities. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The "milling" is done with a CO2 laser (10.6 μm) with pulse duration of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled galvanic beam scanner and with a fine water-spray, which helps to avoid thermal side-effects. The damaging of underlying soft tissue can be prevented through control of the optical or acoustical ablation signal. The ablation of hard tissue is accompanied with a strong glowing, which is absent during the laser beam action on soft tissue. The acoustic signals from the diverse tissue types exhibit distinct differences in the spectral composition. Also computer image analysis could be a useful tool to control the operation. Laser "milling" of noncircular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth is particularly interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser "milling" of the cavities without thermal damage and with minimal tapering. It included exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines and their combinations), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, optimal position of the spray. The optimized results give evidences for the applicability of the CO2 laser for biologically tolerable "milling" of deep cavities in the hard tissue.

  13. M2 qualify laser beam propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhalim, Bencheikh; Mohamed, Bouafia


    One of the most important properties of a laser resonator is the highly collimated or spatially coherent nature of the laser output beam. Laser beam diameter and quality factor M 2 are significant parameters in a wide range of laser applications. This is because the spatial beam quality determines how closely the beam can be focused or how well the beam propagates over long distances without significant dispersion. In the present paper we have used three different methods to qualify the spatial structure of a laser beam propagating in free space, the results are obtained and discussed, and we have found that the Wigner distribution function is a powerful tool which allows a global characterization of any kind of beam

  14. Annual and seasonal CO2 fluxes from Russian southern taiga soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurganova, I.; Lopes De Gerenyu, V.; Rozanova, L.; Sapronov, D.; Myakshina, T.; Kudeyarov, V.


    Annual and seasonal characteristics of CO 2 emission from five different ecosystems were studied in situ (Russia, Moscow Region) from November 1997 through October 2000. The annual behaviour of the soil respiration rate is influenced by weather conditions during a particular year. Annual CO 2 fluxes from the soils depend on land use of the soils and averaged 684 and 906 g C/m 2 from sandy Albeluvisols (sod-podzolic soils) under forest and grassland, respectively. Annual emission from clay Phaeozems (grey forest soils) was lower and ranged from 422 to 660 g C/m 2 ; the order of precedence was arable 2 fluxes caused by weather conditions ranged from 18% (forest ecosystem on Phaeozems) to 31% (agro-ecosystem). The contribution from the cold period (with snow, November-April) to the annual CO 2 flux was substantial and averaged 21% and 14% for natural and agricultural ecosystems, respectively. The CO 2 fluxes comprised approximately 48-51% in summer, 23-24% in autumn, 18-20% in spring and 7-10% in winter of the total annual carbon dioxide flux

  15. The Effect of Breaking Waves on CO_2 Air-Sea Fluxes in the Coastal Zone (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Loza, Lucía; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; García-Nava, Héctor


    The influence of wave-associated parameters controlling turbulent CO_2 fluxes through the air-sea interface is investigated in a coastal region. A full year of high-quality data of direct estimates of air-sea CO_2 fluxes based on eddy-covariance measurements is presented. The study area located in Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico, is a net sink of CO_2 with a mean flux of -1.3 μmol m^{-2}s^{-1} (-41.6 mol m^{-2}yr^{-1} ). The results of a quantile-regression analysis computed between the CO_2 flux and, (1) wind speed, (2) significant wave height, (3) wave steepness, and (4) water temperature, suggest that the significant wave height is the most correlated parameter with the magnitude of the flux but the behaviour of the relation varies along the probability distribution function, with the slopes of the regression lines presenting both positive and negative values. These results imply that the presence of surface waves in coastal areas is the key factor that promotes the increase of the flux from and into the ocean. Further analysis suggests that the local characteristics of the aqueous and atmospheric layers might determine the direction of the flux.

  16. Dynamics of soil CO2 efflux under varying atmospheric CO2 concentrations reveal dominance of slow processes. (United States)

    Kim, Dohyoung; Oren, Ram; Clark, James S; Palmroth, Sari; Oishi, A Christopher; McCarthy, Heather R; Maier, Chris A; Johnsen, Kurt


    We evaluated the effect on soil CO 2 efflux (F CO 2 ) of sudden changes in photosynthetic rates by altering CO 2 concentration in plots subjected to +200 ppmv for 15 years. Five-day intervals of exposure to elevated CO 2 (eCO 2 ) ranging 1.0-1.8 times ambient did not affect F CO 2 . F CO 2 did not decrease until 4 months after termination of the long-term eCO 2 treatment, longer than the 10 days observed for decrease of F CO 2 after experimental blocking of C flow to belowground, but shorter than the ~13 months it took for increase of F CO 2 following the initiation of eCO 2 . The reduction of F CO 2 upon termination of enrichment (~35%) cannot be explained by the reduction of leaf area (~15%) and associated carbohydrate production and allocation, suggesting a disproportionate contraction of the belowground ecosystem components; this was consistent with the reductions in base respiration and F CO 2 -temperature sensitivity. These asymmetric responses pose a tractable challenge to process-based models attempting to isolate the effect of individual processes on F CO2 . © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Interface characteristics in Co2MnSi/Ag/Co2MnSi trilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yang; Chen, Hong; Wang, Guangzhao; Yuan, Hongkuan


    Highlights: • Inferface DO 3 disorder is most favorable in Co 2 MnSi/Ag/Co 2 MnSi trilayer. • Interface itself and inferface DO 3 disorder destroy the half-metallicity of interface layers. • Magnetoresistance is reduced by the interface itself and interface disorder. • Magnetotransport coefficient is largely reduced by the interface itself and interface disorder. - Abstract: Interface characteristics of Co 2 MnSi/Ag/Co 2 MnSi trilayer have been investigated by means of first-principles. The most likely interface is formed by connecting MnSi-termination to the bridge site between two Ag atoms. As annealed at high temperature, the formation of interface DO 3 disorder is most energetically favorable. The spin polarization is reduced by both the interface itself and interface disorder due to the interface state occurs in the minority-spin gap. As a result, the magneto-resistance ratio has a sharp drop based on the estimation of a simplified modeling.

  18. CO2-ECBM and CO2 Sequestration in Polish Coal Seam – Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Baran


    Originality/value: The results indicate successful sorption of carbon dioxide in each experiment. This provides the rationale to study the application of the coal tested to obtain methane genetic origin genetic methane with the use of the CO2 injection.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec


    Full Text Available Migration risk assessment of the injected CO2 is one of the fi rst and indispensable steps in determining locations for the implementation of projects for carbon dioxide permanent disposal in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs. Within the phase of potential storage characterization and assessment, it is necessary to conduct a quantitative risk assessment, based on dynamic reservoir models that predict the behaviour of the injected CO2, which requires good knowledge of the reservoir conditions. A preliminary risk assessment proposed in this paper can be used to identify risks of CO2 leakage from the injection zone and through wells by quantifying hazard probability (likelihood and severity, in order to establish a risk-mitigation plan and to engage prevention programs. Here, the proposed risk assessment for the injection well is based on a quantitative risk matrix. The proposed assessment for the injection zone is based on methodology used to determine a reservoir probability in exploration and development of oil and gas (Probability of Success, abbr. POS, and modifi ed by taking into account hazards that may lead to CO2 leakage through the cap rock in the atmosphere or groundwater. Such an assessment can eliminate locations that do not meet the basic criteria in regard to short-term and long-term safety and the integrity of the site

  20. Faults as Windows to Monitor Gas Seepage: Application to CO2 Sequestration and CO2-EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Klusman


    Full Text Available Monitoring of potential gas seepage for CO2 sequestration and CO2-EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery in geologic storage will involve geophysical and geochemical measurements of parameters at depth and at, or near the surface. The appropriate methods for MVA (Monitoring, Verification, Accounting are needed for both cost and technical effectiveness. This work provides an overview of some of the geochemical methods that have been demonstrated to be effective for an existing CO2-EOR (Rangely, CA, USA and a proposed project at Teapot Dome, WY, USA. Carbon dioxide and CH4 fluxes and shallow soil gas concentrations were measured, followed by nested completions of 10-m deep holes to obtain concentration gradients. The focus at Teapot Dome was the evaluation of faults as pathways for gas seepage in an under-pressured reservoir system. The measurements were supplemented by stable carbon and oxygen isotopic measurements, carbon-14, and limited use of inert gases. The work clearly demonstrates the superiority of CH4 over measurements of CO2 in early detection and quantification of gas seepage. Stable carbon isotopes, carbon-14, and inert gas measurements add to the verification of the deep source. A preliminary accounting at Rangely confirms the importance of CH4 measurements in the MVA application.


    Solubilities of four organic biocides in supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc-CO2) were measured using a dynamic flowr apparatus over a pressure range of 10 to 30 MPa and temperature of 35-80 degrees C. The biocides studied were: Amical-48 (diiodomethyl p-tolyl sulfone), chlorothalo...

  2. Enhanced transport phenomena in CO2 sequestration and CO2 EOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farajzadeh, R.


    The results of this thesis give insight into the (mass)-transfer during flow of gases, especially CO2, in various gas-liquid systems. A number of experiments was performed to investigate the transport phenomena through interfaces with and without surfactant monolayers. The observed phenomena have

  3. Methane and CO2 fluxes from peat soil, palm stems and field drains in two oil palm plantations in Sarawak, Borneo, on different tropical peat soil types. (United States)

    Manning, Frances; Lip Khoon, Kho; Hill, Tim; Arn Teh, Yit


    distance from the palm. The relationship between Rtot and root biomass, which also decreased significantly with increasing distance from the palm, allowed for the partitioning of Rtot into peat oxidation and Ra. Here rates of peat oxidation were estimated to be 0.11 g C m-2 hr-1 following partitioning, and 0.16 g C m-2 hr-1 without partitioning. Methane fluxes varied between 0 and 1.95 g C m-2 hr-1. The largest methane fluxes were emitted from collection drains. Methane oxidation was occasionally observed in field drains, when the water table dropped below the depth of the drain. Soil methane fluxes were lower than those from collection drains. The highest methane fluxes were observed next to palms (0.02 mg C m-2 hr-1) and the lowest under frond piles (0.08 mg C m-2 hr-1). Methane emissions were measured from the palm stems. Preliminary data gives a range between 0.005 and 0.27 µg C m-2 hr-1. These results show wide ranges in both CO2 and CH4 emissions from different sources within the plantations, with the collection drains being the largest source of C fluxes.

  4. Decontamination of solid matrices using supercritical CO2: study of contaminant-additives-CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galy, J.


    This work deals with the decontamination of solid matrices by supercritical CO 2 and more particularly with the study of the interactions between the surfactants and the CO 2 in one part, and with the interactions between the contaminant and the surfactants in another part. The first part of this study has revealed the different interactions between the Pluronics molecules and the supercritical CO 2 . The diagrams graphs have shown that the pluronics (PE 6100, PE 8100 and PE 10100) present a solubility in the supercritical CO 2 low but sufficient (0.1% m/m at 25 MPa and 313 K) for the studied application: the treatment of weak quantities of cerium oxide (or plutonium). An empirical approach based on the evolutions of the slops value and of the origin ordinates of the PT diagrams has been carried out to simulate the phase diagrams PT of the Pluronics. A modeling based on the state equations 'SAFT' (Statistical Associating Fluid Theory) has been studied in order to confirm the experimental results of the disorder points and to understand the role of the different blocks 'PEO' and 'PPO' in the behaviour of Pluronics; this modeling confirms the evolution of the slopes value with the 'CO 2 -phily' of the system. The measure of the surface tension in terms of the Pluronics concentration (PE 6100, 81000 and 10100) has shown different behaviours. For the PE 6100, the surface tension decreases when the surfactant concentration increases (at constant pressure and temperature); on the other hand, for the PE 8100 a slop rupture appears and corresponds to the saturation of the interface water/CO 2 and allows then to determine the Interface Saturation Concentration (ISC). The ISC value (at constant pressure and temperature) increases with an increase of the 'CO 2 -phily'). The model hydrophilous medium being an approximation, it has been replaced by a solid polar phase of CeO 2 . A parallel has been established between the evolution of the surface tension between the water and

  5. The Himalayas of Nepal, a natural laboratory for the search and measurement of CO2 discharge (United States)

    Girault, Frédéric; Koirala, Bharat P.; Bhattarai, Mukunda; Rajaure, Sudhir; Richon, Patrick; Perrier, Frédéric


    Large CO2 flux has been found in the Trisuli Valley, North of Kathmandu, Central Nepal, in 2005. This leakage zone is located in the vicinity of the Syabru-Bensi hot springs, and is characterized by an average flux of CO2 of 6500±1100 g m-2 day-1 over an area of 15 m × 15 m (Perrier et al., Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 2009). The site is also located close to the Main Central Thrust Zone (MCT Zone), one of the large Himalayan thrust, connected at depth to the Main Himalayan Thrust, the main thrust currently accommodating the India-Tibet collision (Bollinger et al., Journal of Geophysical Research, 2004). Isotopic carbon ratios (δ13C) indicate that this CO2 may come from metamorphic reactions at about 15 km of depth (Becker et al., Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 2008; Evans et al., Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 2008). Actually, this zone was originally found because of the large δ13C found in the water of the hot springs suggesting degassing (Evans et al., Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 2008). In 2007, another zone of CO2 discharge was discovered 250 m away from the main Syabru-Bensi hot springs. This new zone, located next to the road and easy to access all over the year, was intensely studied, from the end of 2007 to the beginning of 2009. In this zone, an average value of CO2 flux of 1700±300 g m-2 d-1 was obtained over an area of about 40 m × 10 m. Using CO2 flux data from repeated measurements, similar flux values were observed during the dry winter season and the wet summer period (monsoon) (Girault et al., Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 2009). Thus, in addition to fundamental issues related to global CO2 balance in orogenic belts and tectonically active zones, these small scale (100-meter) CO2 discharge sites emerge as a potentially useful laboratory for detailed methodological studies of diffusive and advective gas transport. Recently, the search for further gas discharge zones has been carried out using various clues

  6. Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources (United States)

    This revision of the 2011 report, Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources, evaluates biogenic CO2 emissions from stationary sources, including a detailed study of the scientific and technical issues associated with assessing biogenic carbon dioxide...

  7. Vertically averaged approaches for CO 2 migration with solubility trapping

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, S. E.; Nordbotten, J. M.; Celia, M. A.


    The long-term storage security of injected carbon dioxide (CO2) is an essential component of geological carbon sequestration operations. In the postinjection phase, the mobile CO2 plume migrates in large part because of buoyancy forces, following

  8. Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration in the Powder River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson


    effectively sequester over 86,000 tons (78,200 Mg) of CO2 per acre while recovering methane to offset costs. The cost to separate CO2 from flue gas was identified as the major cost driver associated with CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams. Improvements in separations technology alone are unlikely to drive costs low enough for CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin to become economically viable. Breakthroughs in separations technology could aid the economics, but in the Powder River Basin, they cannot achieve the necessary cost reductions for breakeven economics without incentives.

  9. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a primary tropical peat swamp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia (United States)

    Tang Che Ing, A.; Stoy, P. C.; Melling, L.


    Tropical peat swamp forests are widely recognized as one of the world's most efficient ecosystems for the sequestration and storage of carbon through both their aboveground biomass and underlying thick deposits of peat. As the peat characteristics exhibit high spatial and temporal variability as well as the structural and functional complexity of forests, tropical peat ecosystems can act naturally as both carbon sinks and sources over their life cycles. Nonetheless, few reports of studies on the ecosystem-scale CO2 exchange of tropical peat swamp forests are available to-date and their present roles in the global carbon cycle remain uncertain. To quantify CO2 exchange and unravel the prevailing factors and potential underlying mechanism regulating net CO2 fluxes, an eddy covariance tower was erected in a tropical peat swamp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia. We observed that the diurnal and seasonal patterns of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and its components (gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE)) varied between seasons and years. Rates of NEE declined in the wet season relative to the dry season. Conversely, both the gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE) were found to be higher during the wet season than the dry season, in which GPP was strongly negatively correlated with NEE. The average annual NEE was 385 ± 74 g C m-2 yr-1, indicating the primary peat swamp forest functioned as net source of CO2 to the atmosphere over the observation period.

  10. Winter time burst of CO2 from the High Arctic soils of Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Thomas; Hansen, Birger; Elberling, Bo

    of relatively few measurements which appear to give small and constant emission rates. Further, most studies of the processes behind winter time emission of CO2 conclude that the flux during this time of year can be linked to the respiratory release of CO2 from soil micro organisms, which is temperature...... the winter at a high arctic location in Svalbard (78°N). Measurements were conducted in the field during the winter season of 2004-2005 and show reliable and continuous measurements of CO2 fluxes down to a level of 0.01 ìmol m-2 s-1 and good correspondence with other types of soil chambers. Our results...... indicate that a substantial part of the annual CO2 emission from the ecosystem occur during the freeze in period, where more CO2 is emitted from the soil over a few weeks than the accumulated flux for the rest of the winter. During the coldest part of the...

  11. Biological CO2 mitigation from coal power plant by Chlorella fusca and Spirulina sp. (United States)

    Duarte, Jessica Hartwig; de Morais, Etiele Greque; Radmann, Elisângela Martha; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira


    CO 2 biofixation by microalgae and cyanobacteria is an environmentally sustainable way to mitigate coal burn gas emissions. In this work the microalga Chlorella fusca LEB 111 and the cyanobacteria Spirulina sp. LEB 18 were cultivated using CO 2 from coal flue gas as a carbon source. The intermittent flue gas injection in the cultures enable the cells growth and CO 2 biofixation by these microorganisms. The Chlorella fusca isolated from a coal power plant could fix 2.6 times more CO 2 than Spirulina sp. The maximum daily CO 2 from coal flue gas biofixation was obtained with Chlorella fusca (360.12±0.27mgL -1 d -1 ), showing a specific growth rate of 0.17±<0.01d -1 . The results demonstrated the Chlorella fusca LEB 111 and Spirulina sp. LEB 18 potential to fix CO 2 from coal flue gas, and sequential biomass production with different biotechnological destinations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Extracellular carbonic anhydrase in the dogfish, Squalus acanthias: a role in CO2 excretion. (United States)

    Gilmour, K M; Perry, S F; Bernier, N J; Henry, R P; Wood, C M


    In Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), plasma CO(2) reactions have access to plasma carbonic anhydrase (CA) and gill membrane-associated CA. The objectives of this study were to characterise the gill membrane-bound CA and investigate whether extracellular CA contributes significantly to CO(2) excretion in dogfish. A subcellular fraction containing membrane-associated CA activity was isolated from dogfish gills and incubated with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. This treatment caused significant release of CA activity from its membrane association, a result consistent with identification of the dogfish gill membrane-bound CA as a type IV isozyme. Inhibition constants (K(i)) against acetazolamide and benzolamide were 4.2 and 3.5 nmol L(-1), respectively. Use of a low dose (1.3 mg kg(-1) or 13 micromol L(-1)) of benzolamide to selectively inhibit extracellular CA in vivo caused a significant 30%-60% reduction in the arterial-venous total CO(2) concentration difference, a significant increase in Pco(2) and an acidosis, without affecting blood flow or ventilation. No effect of benzolamide on any measure of CO(2) excretion was detected in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). These results indicate that extracellular CA contributes substantially to CO(2) excretion in the dogfish, an elasmobranch, and confirm that CA is not available to plasma CO(2) reactions in rainbow trout, a teleost.

  13. The Impact of Diesel Oil Pollution on the Hydrophobicity and CO2 Efflux of Forest Soils. (United States)

    Hewelke, Edyta; Szatyłowicz, Jan; Hewelke, Piotr; Gnatowski, Tomasz; Aghalarov, Rufat


    The contamination of soil with petroleum products is a major environmental problem. Petroleum products are common soil contaminants as a result of human activities, and they are causing substantial changes in the biological (particularly microbiological) processes, chemical composition, structure and physical properties of soil. The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of soil moisture on CO 2 efflux from diesel-contaminated albic podzol soils. Two contamination treatments (3000 and 9000 mg of diesel oil per kg of soil) were prepared for four horizons from two forest study sites with different initial levels of soil water repellency. CO 2 emissions were measured using a portable infrared gas analyser (LCpro+, ADC BioScientific, UK) while the soil samples were drying under laboratory conditions (from saturation to air-dry). The assessment of soil water repellency was performed using the water drop penetration time test. An analysis of variance (ANVOA) was conducted for the CO 2 efflux data. The obtained results show that CO 2 efflux from diesel-contaminated soils is higher than efflux from uncontaminated soils. The initially water-repellent soils were found to have a bigger CO 2 efflux. The non-linear relationship between soil moisture content and CO 2 efflux only existed for the upper soil horizons, while for deeper soil horizons, the efflux is practically independent of soil moisture content. The contamination of soil by diesel leads to increased soil water repellency.

  14. Metal release from sandstones under experimentally and numerically simulated CO2 leakage conditions. (United States)

    Kirsch, Katie; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K; Wunsch, Assaf; McCray, John E


    Leakage of CO2 from a deep storage formation into an overlying potable aquifer may adversely impact water quality and human health. Understanding CO2-water-rock interactions is therefore an important step toward the safe implementation of geologic carbon sequestration. This study targeted the geochemical response of siliclastic rock, specifically three sandstones of the Mesaverde Group in northwestern Colorado. To test the hypothesis that carbonate minerals, even when present in very low levels, would be the primary source of metals released into a CO2-impacted aquifer, two batch experiments were conducted. Samples were reacted for 27 days with water and CO2 at partial pressures of 0.01 and 1 bar, representing natural background levels and levels expected in an aquifer impacted by a small leakage, respectively. Concentrations of major (e.g., Ca, Mg) and trace (e.g., As, Ba, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sr, U) elements increased rapidly after CO2 was introduced into the system, but did not exceed primary Maximum Contaminant Levels set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Results of sequential extraction suggest that carbonate minerals, although volumetrically insignificant in the sandstone samples, are the dominant source of mobile metals. This interpretation is supported by a simple geochemical model, which could simulate observed changes in fluid composition through CO2-induced calcite and dolomite dissolution.

  15. [Effects of plastic film mulching on soil CO2 efflux and CO2 concentration in an oasis cotton field]. (United States)