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Sample records for mftf-b plasma diagnostic

  1. MFTF-B plasma-diagnostic system

    Throop, A.L.; Goerz, D.A.; Thomas, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the current design status of the plasma diagnostic system for MFTF-B. In this paper we describe the system requirement changes which have occurred as a result of the funded rescoping of the original MFTF facility into MFTF-B. We outline the diagnostic instruments which are currently planned, and present an overview of the diagnostic system

  2. Mechanical considerations for MFTF-B plasma-diagnostic system

    Thomas, S.R. Jr.; Wells, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    The reconfiguration of MFTF to a tandem mirror machine with thermal barriers has caused a significant expansion in the physical scope of plasma diagnostics. From a mechanical perspective, it complicates the plasma access, system interfaces, growth and environmental considerations. Conceptual designs characterize the general scope of the design and fabrication which remains to be done

  3. Overview of the data acquisition and control system for plasma diagnostics on MFTF-B

    Wyman, R.H.; Deadrick, F.J.; Lau, N.H.; Nelson, B.C.; Preckshot, G.G.; Throop, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    For MFTF-B, the plasma diagnostics system is expected to grow from a collection of 12 types of diagnostic instruments, initially producing about 1 Megabyte of data per shot, to an expanded set of 22 diagnostics producing about 8 Megabytes of data per shot. To control these diagnostics and acquire and process the data, a system design has been developed which uses an architecture similar to the supervisory/local-control computer system which is used to control other MFTF-B subsystems. This paper presents an overview of the hardware and software that will control and acquire data from the plasma diagnostics system. Data flow paths from the instruments, through processing, and into final archived storage will be described. A discussion of anticipated data rates, including anticipated software overhead at various points of the system, is included, along with the identification of possible bottlenecks. A methodology for processing of the data is described, along with the approach to handle the planned growth in the diagnostic system. Motivations are presented for various design choices which have been made

  4. The local area network for the plasma Diagnostics System of MFTF-B

    Lau, N.H.; Minor, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    The MFTF-B Plasma Diagnostics System will be implemented in stages, beginning with a start-up set of diagnostics and evolving toward a basic set. The start-up set contains 12 diagnostics which will acquire a total of about 800 Kbytes of data per machine pulse; the basic set contains 23 diagnostics which will acquire a total of about 8 Mbytes of data per pulse. Each diagnostic is controlled by a ''Foundation System'' consisting of a DEC LSI-11/23 microcomputer connected to CAMAC via a 5 Mbits/second serial fiber-optic link and connected to a supervisory computer (Perkin-Elmer 3250) via a 9600 baud RS232 link. The Foundation System is a building block used throughout MFTF-B for control and status monitoring. However, its 9600 baud link to the supervisor presents a bottleneck for the large data transfers required by diagnostics. To overcome this bottleneck the diagnostics Foundation Systems will be connected together with an additional LSI-11/23 called the ''master'' to form a Local Area Network (LAN) for data acquisition. The Diagnostics LAN has a ring architecture with token passing arbitration

  5. A user interface on networked workstations for MFTF-B plasma diagnostic instruments

    Balch, T.R.; Renbarger, V.L.

    1986-01-01

    A network of Sun-2/170 workstations is used to provide an interface to the MFTF-B Plasma Diagnostics System at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Plasma Diagnostics System (PDS) is responsible for control of MFTF-B plasma diagnostic instrumentation. An EtherNet Local Area Network links the workstations to a central multiprocessing system which furnishes data processing, data storage and control services for PDS. These workstations permit a physicist to command data acquisition, data processing, instrument control, and display of results. The interface is implemented as a metaphorical desktop, which helps the operator form a mental model of how the system works. As on a real desktop, functions are provided by sheets of paper (windows on a CRT screen) called worksheets. The worksheets may be invoked by pop-up menus and may be manipulated with a mouse. These worksheets are actually tasks that communicate with other tasks running in the central computer system. By making entries in the appropriate worksheet, a physicist may specify data acquisition or processing, control a diagnostic, or view a result

  6. Local area network for the plasma diagnostics system of MFTF-B

    Lau, N.H.; Minor, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    The MFTF-B Plasma Diagnostics System will be implemented in stages, beginning with a start-up set of diagnostics and evolving toward a basic set. The start-up set contains 12 diagnostics which will acquire a total of about 800 Kbytes of data per machine pulse; the basic set contains 23 diagnostics which will acquire a total of about 8 Mbytes of data per pulse. Each diagnostic is controlled by a Foundation System consisting of a DEC LSI-11/23 microcomputer connected to CAMAC via a 5 Mbits/second serial fiber-optic link and connected to a supervisory computer (Perkin-Elmer 3250) via a 9600 baud RS232 link. The Foundation System is a building block used throughout MFTF-B for control and status monitoring. However, its 9600 baud link to the supervisor presents a bottleneck for the large data transfers required by diagnostics. To overcome this bottleneck the diagnostics Foundation Systems will be connected together with an additional LSI-11/23 called the master to form a Local Area Network (LAN) for data acquisition

  7. Use of spreadsheets for interactive control of MFTF-B plasma diagnostic instruments

    Preckshot, G.G.; Goldner, A.L.; Kobayashi, A.

    1986-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has a variety of highly individualized plasma diagnostic instruments attached to the experiment. These instruments are controlled through graphics workstations networked to a central computer system. A distributed spreadsheet-like program runs in both the graphics workstations and in the central computer system. An interface very similar to a commercial spreadsheet program is presented to the user at a workstation. In a commercial spreadsheet program, the user may attach mathematical calculation functions to spreadsheet cells. At MFTF-B, hardware control functions, hardware monitoring functions, and communications functions, as well as mathematical functions, may be attached to cells. Both the user and feedback from instrument hardware may make entries in spreadsheet cells; any entry in a spreadsheet cell may cause reevaluation of the cell's associated functions. The spreadsheet approach makes the addition of a new instrument a matter of designing one or more spreadsheet tables with associated meta-language-defined control and communication function strings. This paper describes the details of the spreadsheets and the implementation experience

  8. Use of spreadsheets for interactive control of MFTF-B plasma diagnostic instruments

    Preckshot, G.G.; Goldner, A.; Kobayashi, A.

    1985-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has a variety of highly individualized plasma diagnostic instruments attached to the experiment. These instruments are controlled through graphics workstations networked to a central computer system. A distributed spreadsheet-like program runs in both the graphics workstations and in the central computer system. An interface very similar to a commercial spreadsheet program is presented to the user at a workstation. In a commercial spreadsheet program, the user may attach mathematical calculation functions to spreadsheet cells. At MFTF-B, hardware control functions, hardware monitoring functions, and communications functions, as well as mathematical functions, may be attached to cells. Both the user and feedback from instrument hardware may make entries in spreadsheet cells; any entry in a spreadsheet cell may cause reevaluation of the cell's associated functions. The spreadsheet approach makes the addition of a new instrument a matter of designing one or more spreadsheet tables with associated meta-language-defined control and communication function strings. We report here details of our spreadsheets and our implementation experience

  9. Design of the electromagnetic fluctuations diagnostic for MFTF-B

    House, P.A.; Goerz, D.A.; Martin, R.

    1983-01-01

    The Electromagnetic Fluctuations (EMF) diagnostic will be used to monitor ion fluctuations which could be unstable in MFTF-B. Each probe assembly includes a high impedance electrostatic probe to measure potential fluctuations, and a group of nested, single turn loops to measure magnetic fluctuations in three directions. Eventually, more probes and loops will be added to each probe assembly for making more detailed measurements. The sensors must lie physically close to the plasma edge and are radially positionable. Also, probes at separate axial locations can be positioned to connect along the same magnetic field line. These probes are similar in concept to the rf probes used on TMX, but the high thermal load for 30-second shots on MFTF-B requires a water-cooled design along with temperature monitors. Each signal channel has a bandwidth of .001 to 150 MHz and is monitored by up to four different data channels which obtain amplitude and frequency information. This paper describes the EMF diagnostic and presents the detailed mechanical and electrical designs

  10. Design of a magnetic field alignment diagnostic for the MFTF-B magnet system

    Deadrick, F.J.; House, P.A.; Frye, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Magnet alignment in tandem mirror fusion machines plays a crucial role in achieving and maintaining plasma confinement. Various visual alignment tools have been described by Post et al. to align the Tara magnet system. We have designed and installed a remotely operated magnetic field alignment (MFA) diagnostic system as a part of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B). It measures critical magnetic field alignment parameters of the MFTF-B coil set while under full-field operating conditions. The MFA diagnostic employs a pair of low-energy, electron beam guns on a remotely positionable probe to trace and map selected magnetic field lines. An array of precision electrical detector paddles locates the position of the electron beam, and thus the magnetic field line, at several critical points. The measurements provide a means to compute proper compensating currents to correct for mechanical misalignments of the magnets with auxiliary trim coils if necessary. This paper describes both the mechanical and electrical design of the MFA diagnostic hardware

  11. Plasma potential formation and measurement in TMX-U and MFTF-B

    Grubb, D.P.

    1984-01-01

    Tandem mirrors control the axial variation of the plasma potential to create electrostatic plugs that improve the axial confinement of central cell ions and, in a thermal barrier tandem mirror, control the electron axial heat flow. Measurements of the spatial and temporal variations of the plasma potential are, therefore, important to the understanding of confinement in a tandem mirror. In this paper we discuss potential formation in a thermal barrier tandem mirror and examine the diagnostics and data obtained on the TMX-U device, including measurements of the thermal barrier potential profile using a diagnostic neutral beam and charged particle energy-spectroscopy. We then describe the heavy ion beam probe and other new plasma potential diagnostics that are under development for TMX-U and MFTF-B and examine problem areas where additional diagnostic development is desirable

  12. Evaluating and tuning system response in the MFTF-B control and diagnostics computers

    Palasek, R.L.; Butner, D.N.; Minor, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    The software system running on the Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System (SCDS) of MFTF-B is, for the major part, an event driven one. Regular, periodic polling of sensors' outputs takes place only at the local level, in the sensors' corresponding local control microcomputers (LCC's). An LCC reports a sensor's value to the supervisory computer only if there was a significant change. This report is passed as a message, routed among and acted upon by a network of applications and systems tasks within the supervisory computer (SCDS). Commands from the operator's console are similarly routed through a network of tasks, but in the oppostie direction to the experiment's hardware. In a network such as this, response time is partialy determined by system traffic. Because the hardware of MFTF-B will not be connected to the computer system for another two years, we are using the local control computers to simulate the event driven traffic that we expect to see during MFTF-B operation. In this paper we show how we are using the simulator to measure and evaluate response, loading, throughput, and utilization of components within the computer system. Measurement of the system under simulation allows us to identify bottlenecks and verify their unloosening. We also use the traffic simulators to evaluate prototypes of different algorithms for selected tasks, comparing their responses under the spectrum of traffic intensities

  13. Plasma modeling of MFTF-B and the sensitivity to vacuum conditions

    Porter, G.D.; Rensink, M.

    1984-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) is a large tandem mirror device currently under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The completed facility will consist of a large variety of components. Specifically, the vacuum vessel that houses the magnetic coils is basically a cylindrical vessel 60 m long and 11 m in diameter. The magnetics system consists of some 28 superconducting coils, each of which is located within the main vacuum vessel. Twenty of these coils are relatively simple solenoidal coils, but the remaining eight are of a more complicated design to provide an octupole component to certain regions of the magnetic field. The vacuum system is composed of a rough vacuum chain, used to evacuate the vessel from atmospheric pressure, and a high vacuum system, used to maintain good vacuum conditions during a plasma shot. High vacuum pumping is accomplished primarily by cryogenic panels cooled to 4.5 0 K. The MFTF-B coil set is shown together with typical axial profiles of magnetic field (a), electrostatic potential (b), and plasma density (c). The plasma is divided into nine regions axially, as labelled on the coil set in Figure 1. The central cell, which is completely azimuthally symmetric, contains a large volume plasma that is confined by a combination of the magnetic fields and the electrostatic potentials in the yin-yang cell

  14. Report on the experience with the Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System (SCDS) of MFTF-B

    Wyman, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    The Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System (SCDS) of MFTF is a multiprocessor computer system using graphics oriented displays with touch sensitive panels as the primary operator interface. Late in the calendar year 1981 the system was used to control an integrated test of the vacuum vessel, vacuum system, cryogenics system and the superconducting magnet of MFTF. Since the completion of those tests and starting in early calendar 1983 the system has been used for control of the neutral beam test facility at LLNL. This paper presents a short overview of SCDS for the purpose of orientation and then proceeds to describe the difficulties encountered in these preliminary encounters with reality. The band-aids used to hold things together as disaster threatened as well as the long-term solutions to the problems will be discussed. Finally, we will present some comments on system costs and management philosophy

  15. Central cell confinement in MFTF-B

    Jong, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The point code TANDEM has been used to survey the range of plasma parameters which can be attained in MFTF-B. The code solves for the electron and ion densities and temperatures in the central cell, yin-yang, barrier, and A-cell regions as well as the plasma potential in each region. In these studies, the A-cell sloshing ion beams were fixed while the neutral beams in the yin-yang and central cell, the gas feed in the central cell, and the applied ECRH power β, central cell ion density and temperature, and the confining potential are discussed

  16. Neutral-beam aiming and calorimetry for MFTF-B

    Goldner, A.I.; Margolies, D.

    1981-01-01

    The vessel for the Tandem Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) will have up to eleven 0.5-s-duration neutral-beam injectors for the initial heating of the MFTF-B plasma. Knowing the exact alignment of the beams and their total power is critical to the performance of the experiment. Using prototype aiming and calorimetry systems on the High Voltage Test Stand (HVTS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we hope to prove our ability to obtain an aiming accuracy of +-1 cm at the plasma and a calorimetric accuracy of +-5% of the actual total beam energy

  17. Axicell MFTF-B superconducting-magnet system

    Wang, S.T.; Bulmer, R.; Hanson, C.; Hinkle, R.; Kozman, T.; Shimer, D.; Tatro, R.; VanSant, J.; Wohlwend, J.

    1982-01-01

    The Axicell MFTF-B magnet system will provide the field environment necessary for tandem mirror plasma physics investigation with thermal barriers. The performance of the device will stimulate DT to achieve energy break-even plasma conditions. Operation will be with deuterium only. There will be 24 superconducting coils consisting of 2 sets of yin-yang pairs, 14 central-cell solenoids, 2 sets of axicell mirror-coil pairs, and 2 transition coils between the axicell mirror coil-pairs and the yin-yang coils. This paper describes the progress in the design and construction of MFTF-B Superconducting-Magnet System

  18. 1000 kW ICRH amplifiers for MFTF-B

    Boksberger, U.

    1986-01-01

    For the startup of the MFTF-B ICRH heating will be applied. Two commercial amplifiers derived from standard broadcast transmitters provide 1000 kW RF power each into a matching system for any VSWR as high as 1.5. Emphasis is put on the specific environment of magnetic fields and seismic loads as well as to the particular RF power control requirements and remote operation. Also addressed is the amplifier's performance into a typical load. The load variations due to the MFTF-B plasma coupling were calculated by TRW

  19. MFTF-B quasi-optical ECRH transmission system

    Yugo, J.J.; Shearer, J.W.; Ziolkowski, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    The microwave transmission system for ERCH on MFTF-B will utilize quasi-optical transmission techniques. The system consists of ten gyrotron oscillators: two gyrotrons at 28 GHz, two at 35 GHz, and six at 56 GHz. The 28 and 35 GHz gyrotrons both heat the electrons in the end plug (potential peak) while the 56 GHz sources heat the minimum-B anchor region (potential minimum). Microwaves are launched into a pair of cylindrical mirrors that form a pseudo-cavity which directs the microwaves through the plasma numerous times before they are lost out of the cavity. The cavity allows the microwave beam to reach the resonance zone over a wide range of plasma densities and temperatures. The fundamental electron cyclotron resonance moves to higher axial positions as a result of beta-depression of the magnetic field, doppler shifting of the resonance, and relativistic mass corrections for the electrons. With this system the microwave beam will reach the resonance surface at the correct angle of incidence for any density or temperature without active aiming of the antennas. The cavity also allows the beam to make multiple passes through the plasma to increase the heating efficiency at low temperatures and densities when the single pass absorption is low. In addition, neutral beams and diagnostics have an unobstructed view of the plasma

  20. Progress on axicell MFTF-B superconducting magnet systems

    Wang, S.T.; Kozman, T.A.; Hanson, C.L.; Shimer, D.W.; VanSant, J.H.; Zbasnik, J.

    1983-01-01

    Since the entire Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) Magnet System was reconfigured from the original A-cell to an axicell design, much progress has been made on the design, fabrication, and installation planning. The axicell MFTF-B magnet array consists of a total of 26 large superconducting main coils. This paper provides an engineering overview of the progress of these coils. Recent studies on the effects of field errors on the plasma at the recircularizing region (transition coils) show that small field errors will generate large displacements of the field lines. These field errors might enhance radial electron heat transport and deteriorate the plasma confinement. Therefore, 16 superconducting trim coils have been designed to correct the coil misalignments. Progress of the trim coils are reported also

  1. Application of structural mechanics methods to the design of large tandem mirror fusion devices (MFTF-B)

    Karpenko, V.N.; Ng, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory requires state-of-the-art structural-mechanics methods to deal with access constraints for plasma heating and diagnostics, alignment requirements, and load complexity and variety. Large interactive structures required an integrated analytical approach to achieve a resonable level of overall system optimization. The Tandem Magnet Generator (TMG) creates a magnet configuration for the EFFI calculation of electromagnetic-field forces that, coupled with other loads, form the input loading to magnetic and vessel finite-element models. The anlytical results provide the data base for detailed design of magnet, vessel, foundation, and interaction effects. (orig.)

  2. Design and prototype results of a far-infrared interferometer for MFTF-B

    Monjes, J.A.; Throop, A.L.; Thomas, S.R.; Peebles, A.; Zu, Qin-Zin.

    1983-01-01

    A Far-Infrared (FIR) Laser Interferometer (FLI), operating at 185 μm wavelength is planned as part of the initial start-up set of plasma diagnostics for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B). The FLI will consist of a heterodyne, three-chord laser interferometer which will be used initially to measure line-integrated plasma density in the high-density, center cell region of the machine. The conceptual system design and analysis has been completed. There are several unique environmental/physical constraints and performance requirements for this system which have required that technology-evaluation and prototyping experiments be completed to support the design effort and confirm the expected performance parameters. Issues which have been addressed include extensive use of long-path dielectric waveguide, coupling and control of free-space propagation of the beam, and polarization control. The results and conclusions of the design analysis and experimental measurements will be presented

  3. Data triggered data processing at MFTF-B

    Jackson, R.J.; Balch, T.R.; Preckshot, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    A primary characteristic of most batch systems is that the input data files must exist before jobs are scheduled. On the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory we schedule jobs to process experimental data to be collected during a five minute shot cycle. Our data-driven processing system emulates a coarsely granular data flow architecture. Processing jobs are scheduled before the experimental data is collected. Processing jobs ''fire'', or execute, as input data becomes available. Similar to UNIX ''pipes'', data produced by upstream processing nodes may be used as inputs by following nodes. Users, working on our networked SUN workstations, specify data processing templates which define processes and their data dependencies. Data specifications indicate the source of data; actual associations with specific data instantiations are made when the jobs are scheduled. We report here on details of diagnostic data processing and our experiences

  4. Application of structural-mechanics methods to the design of large tandem-mirror fusion devices (MFTF-B). Revision 1

    Karpenko, V.N.; Ng, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory requires state-of-the-art structural-mechanics methods to deal with access constraints for plasma heating and diagnostics, alignment requirements, and load complexity and variety. Large interactive structures required an integrated analytical approach to achieve a reasonable level of overall system optimization. The Tandem Magnet Generator (TMG) creates a magnet configuration for the EFFI calculation of electromagnetic-field forces that, coupled with other loads, form the input loading to magnet and vessel finite-element models. The analytical results provide the data base for detailed design of magnet, vessel, foundation, and interaction effects. 13 refs

  5. Magnetic shielding tests for MFTF-B neutral beamlines

    Kerns, J.; Fabyan, J.; Wood, R.; Koger, P.

    1983-01-01

    A test program to determine the effectiveness of various magnetic shielding designs for MFTF-B beamlines was established at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The proposed one-tenth-scale shielding-design models were tested in a uniform field produced by a Helmholtz coil pair. A similar technique was used for the MFTF source-injector assemblies, and the model test results were confirmed during the Technology Demonstration in 1982. The results of these tests on shielding designs for MFTF-B had an impact on the beamline design for MFTF-B. The iron-core magnet and finger assembly originally proposed were replaced by a simple, air-core, race-track-coil, bending magnet. Only the source injector needs to be magnetically shielded from the fields of approximately 400 gauss

  6. User interface on networked workstations for MFTF plasma diagnostic instruments

    Renbarger, V.L.; Balch, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    A network of Sun-2/170 workstations is used to provide an interface to the MFTF-B Plasma Diagnostics System at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Plasma Diagnostics System (PDS) is responsible for control of MFTF-B plasma diagnostic instrumentation. An EtherNet Local Area Network links the workstations to a central multiprocessing system which furnishes data processing, data storage and control services for PDS. These workstations permit a physicist to command data acquisition, data processing, instrument control, and display of results. The interface is implemented as a metaphorical desktop, which helps the operator form a mental model of how the system works. As on a real desktop, functions are provided by sheets of paper (windows on a CRT screen) called worksheets. The worksheets may be invoked by pop-up menus and may be manipulated with a mouse. These worksheets are actually tasks that communicate with other tasks running in the central computer system. By making entries in the appropriate worksheet, a physicist may specify data acquisition or processing, control a diagnostic, or view a result

  7. MFTF-B PACE tests and final cost report

    Krause, K.H.; Kozman, T.A.; Smith, J.L.; Horan, R.J.

    1986-10-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) construction project was successfully completed in February 1986, with the conclusion of the Plant and Capital Equipment (PACE) Tests. This series of tests, starting in September 1985 and running through February 1986, demonstrated the overall machine capabilities and special facilities accomplishments for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility Project

  8. Axicell design for the end plugs of MFTF-B

    Thomassen, K.I.; Karpenko, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    Certain changes in the end-plug design in the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) are described. The Laboratory (LLNL) proposes to implement these changes as soon as possible in order to construct the machine in an axicell configuration. The present physics and technology goals as well as the project cost and schedule will not be affected by these changes

  9. Physics conceptual design for the MFTF-B transition coil

    Baldwin, D.E.; Bulmer, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    The physics constraints related to finite-β equilibria, β limits due to curvature-driven MHD modes, and ion transport in the central cell. These physics constraints had to be satisfied subject to certain non-physics constraints. Principal among these were the geometric and structural features of the existing MFTF-B magnet set and the required access for neutral beams for pumping. These constraints and their origins are discussed

  10. Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) start-up antenna for the mirror fusion test facility (MFTF-B)

    McCarville, T.M.; Romesser, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the ICRH start-up antenna on MFTF-B is to heat the plasma and control the ion distribution as the density increases during start-up. The antenna, consisting of two center fed half turn loops phased 180 0 apart, has been designed for 1 MW of input power, with a goal of coupling 400 kW into the ions. To vary the heating frequency relative to the local ion cyclotron frequency, the antenna is tunable over a range from 7.5 to 12.5 MHz. The thermal requirements common to low duty cycle ICRH antennas are especially severe for the MFTF-B antenna. The stress requirements are also unique, deriving from the possibility of seismic activity or JxB forces if the magnets unexpectedly quench. Considerable attention has been paid to contact control at high current bolt-up joints, and arranging geometries so as to minimize the possibility of voltage breakdown

  11. Maintenance and availability considerations for MFTF-B upgrade

    Spampinato, P.T.

    1983-01-01

    The upgrade of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) tandem mirror device incorporates the operation of advanced systems plus the requirement for remote maintenance. To determine if the operating availability goal of this device is achievable, an assessment of component lifetimes was made, along with estimates of device downtime. Key subsystem components were considered from the magnet, heating, impurity control, pumping, and test module systems. Component replacements were grouped into three categories, and a lifetime operating plan, including component replacements, was developed. It was determined that this device could achieve a 10% operating availability

  12. Electrical supply for MFTF-B superconducting magnet system

    Shimer, D.W.; Owen, E.W.

    1985-01-01

    The MFTF-B magnet system consists of 42 superconducting magnets which must operate continuously for long periods of time. The magnet power supply system is designed to meet the operational requirements of accuracy, flexibility, and reliability. The superconducting magnets require a protection system to protect against critical magnet faults of quench, current lead overtemperature, and overcurrent. The protection system is complex because of the large number of magnets, the strong coupling between magnets, and the high reliability requirement. This paper describes the power circuits and the components used in the design

  13. Drift orbits in the TMX and MFTF-B tandem mirrors

    Byers, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Drift orbits for the TMX and MFTF-B tandem-mirror designs are followed by using a long-thin expansion of the drift equations. Unexpected asymmetries in the field-line curvatures in the yin-yang end-mirror traps, caused by the transition coils between the solenoid and the yin-yang, result in an elliptical distortion of the drift surface with a/b=1.5 at most, a perhaps tolerable deviation from omnigenity. Yushmanov-trapped particles are no worse than the bulk hot particles. Finite-beta plasma fields, coupled to the asymmetric curvature, produce sizeable banana orbits with widths comparable to the plasma radius, but these orbits are possible for only a few of the particles. Details of the transition through resonance in the solenoid are shown, including the banana shapes of the drift surfaces and the disruption of the surface in the stochastic regime. The orbits in the original design for the A-cell of MFTF-B are the most extreme; in the vacuum fields they all have an extended peanut shape that finally closes only at about 3m. This shape is strongly non-omnigenous and suggests a hollow plasma-density profile. Finite-beta B vectorxnablaB drifts can help to minimize the radial extent of these orbits, but the strength of the vacuum curvatures makes omnigenity only marginally possible. Including B vectorxnablaphi drifts makes omnigenity even more unlikely for the ions, for which the B vectorxnablaB and B vectorxnablaphi drifts are of opposite sign, and conversely helps to omnigenize the drift surfaces of the ECRH 200-keV electrons. It is argued that not every class of particles can have good, i.e. near-omnigenous drifts, regardless of the ability of phi(r) to adjust to limit the radial extent of the orbits. This lack of omnigenity leaves one with no theoretical base for describing the MHD equilibrium in the original designs, but a new magnetic field design for MFTF-B A-cell has apparently completely restored omnigenous orbits. (author)

  14. Options for axisymmetric operation of MFTF-B

    Fenstermacher, M.E.; Devoto, R.S.; Thomassen, K.I.

    1986-01-01

    The flexibility of MFTF-B for axisymmetric experiments has been investigated. Interhcanging the axicell coils and increasing their separation results in an axisymmetric plug cell with 12:1 and 6:1 inner and outer mirror ratios, respectively. For axisymmetric operation, the sloshing-ion neutral beams, ECRH gyrotrons, and the pumping system would be moved to the axicell. Stabilization by E-rings could be explored in this configuration. With the addition of octopole magnets, off-axis multipole stabilization could also be tested. Operating points for octopole and E-ring-stabilized configurations with properties similar to those of the quadrupole MFTF-B, namely T/sub ic/ = 10 - 15 keV and n/sub c/ approx. = 3 x 10 13 cm -3 , have been obtained. Because of the negligible radial transport of central-cell ions, the required neutral-beam power in the central cell has been dramatically reduced. In addition, because MHD stabilization is achieved by off-axis hot electrons in both cases, much lower barrier beta is possible, which aids in reducing the barrier ECRH power. Total ECRH power in the end cell is projected to be approx. =1 MW. Possible operating points for both octopole and E-ring configurations are described along with the stability considerations involved

  15. Design lessons from using programmable controllers in the MFTF-B personnel safety and interlocks system

    Branum, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Applying programmable controllers in critical applications such as personnel safety and interlocks systems requires special considerations in the design of both hardware and software. All modern programmable controller systems feature extensive internal diagnostic capabilities to protect against problems such as program memory errors; however most, if not all present designs lack an intrinsic capability for detecting and countering failures on the field-side of their I/O modules. Many of the most common styles of I/O modules can also introduce potentially dangerous sneak circuits, even without component failure. This paper presents the most significant lessons learned to date in the design of the MFTF-B Personnel Safety and Interlocks System, which utilizes two non-redundant programmable controllers with over 800 I/O points each. Specific problems recognized during the design process as well as those discovered during initial testing and operation are discussed along with their specific solutions in hardware and software

  16. Plasma Diagnostics

    Zaveryaev, V [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); others, and

    2012-09-15

    The success in achieving peaceful fusion power depends on the ability to control a high temperature plasma, which is an object with unique properties, possibly the most complicated object created by humans. Over years of fusion research a new branch of science has been created, namely plasma diagnostics, which involves knowledge of almost all fields of physics, from electromagnetism to nuclear physics, and up-to-date progress in engineering and technology (materials, electronics, mathematical methods of data treatment). Historically, work on controlled fusion started with pulsed systems and accordingly the methods of plasma parameter measurement were first developed for short lived and dense plasmas. Magnetically confined hot plasmas require the creation of special experimental techniques for diagnostics. The diagnostic set is the most scientifically intensive part of a plasma device. During many years of research operation some scientific tasks have been solved while new ones arose. New tasks often require significant changes in the diagnostic system, which is thus a very flexible part of plasma machines. Diagnostic systems are designed to solve several tasks. As an example here are the diagnostic tasks for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER: (1) Measurements for machine protection and basic control; (2) Measurements for advanced control; (3) Additional measurements for performance evaluation and physics. Every new plasma machine is a further step along the path to the main goal - controlled fusion - and nobody knows in advance what new phenomena will be met on the way. So in the planning of diagnostic construction we should keep in mind further system upgrading to meet possible new scientific and technical challenges. (author)

  17. Design and fabrication of the MFTF-B magnet system

    Tatro, R.E.; Kozman, T.A.

    1985-09-01

    The MFTF-B superconducting magnet system consists of 40 NbTi magnets and two Nb 3 Sn magnets. General Dynamics (GD) designed all magnets except for the small trim coils. GD then fabricated 20 NbTi magnets, while LLNL fabricated 20 NbTi magnets and two Nb 3 Sn magnets. The design phase was completed in February 1984 and included the competitive procurement of magnet structural fabrication, superconductor, G-10CR insulation, support struts and bearings, vapor-cooled leads, and thermal shields for all magnets. Fabrication of all magnets was completed in March 1985. At GD, dual assembly lines were necessary during fabrication in order to meet the aggressive LLNL schedule. The entire magnet system has been installed and aligned at LLNL, and Tech Demo tests will be performed during September-November 1985

  18. Alternative connections for the large MFTF-B solenoids

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.; Wang, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    The MFTF-B central-cell solenoids are a set of twelve closely coupled, large superconducting magnets with similar but not exactly equal currents. Alternative methods of connecting them to their power supplies and dump resistors are investigated. The circuits are evaluated for operating conditions and fault conditions. The factors considered are the voltage to ground during a dump, short circuits, open circuits, quenches, and failure of the protection system to detect a quench. Of particular interest are the current induced in coils that remain superconducting when one or more coils quench. The alternative connections include separate power supplies, combined power supplies, individual dump resistors, series dump resistors and combinations of these. A new circuit that contains coupling resistors is proposed. The coupling resistors do not affect normal fast dumps but reduce the peak induced currents while also reducing the energy rating of the dump resistors. Another novel circuit, the series circuit with diodes, is discussed in detail

  19. Sparking protection for MFTF-B Neutral Beam Power Supplies

    Cummings, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the upgrade of MFTF-B Neutral Beam Power Supplies for sparking protection. High performance ion sources spark repeatedly so ion source power supplies must be insensitive to sparking. The hot deck houses the series tetrode, arc and filament supplies, and controls. Hot deck shielding has been upgraded and a continuous shield around the arc, filament, gradient grid, and control cables now extends from the hot deck, through the core snubber, to the source. The shield carries accelerating current and connects only to the source. Shielded source cables go through an outer duct which now connects to a ground plane under the hot deck. This hybrid transmission line is a low inductance path for sparks discharging the stray capacitance of the hot deck and isolation transformers, reducing coupling to building steel. Parallel DC current return cables inside the duct lower inductance to reduce inductive turn-off transients. MOVs to ground further limit surges in the remote power supply return. Single point grounding is at the source. No control or rectifier components have been damaged nor are there any known malfunctions due to sparking up to 80 kV output

  20. Sparking protection for MFTF-B neutral beam power supplies

    Cummings, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the upgrade of MFTF-B Neutral Beam Power Supplies for sparking protection. High performance ion sources spark repeatedly so ion source power supplies must be insensitive to sparking. The hot deck houses the series tetrode, arc and filament supplies, and controls. Hot deck shielding has been upgraded and a continuous shield around the arc, filament, gradient grid, and control cables now extends from the hot deck, through the core snubber, to the source. The shield carries accelerating current and connects only to the source. Shielded source cables go through an outer duct which now connects to a ground plane under the hot deck. This hybrid transmission line is a low inductance path for sparks discharging the stray capacitance of the hot deck and isolation transformers, reducing coupling to building steel. Parallel dc current return cables inside the duct lower inductance to reduce inductive turn-off transients. MOVs to ground further limit surges in the remote power supply return. Single point grounding is at the source. No control or rectifier components have been damaged nor are there any known malfunctions due to sparking up to 80 kV output

  1. Physics basis for an axicell design for the end plugs of MFTF-B

    Baldwin, D.E.; Logan, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    The primary motivation for conversion of MFTF-B to an axicell configuration lies in its engineering promise as a reactor geometry based on circular high-magnetic-field coils. In comparing this configuration to the previous A-cell geometry, we find a number of differences that might significantly affect the physics performance. The purpose of the present document is to examine those features and to assess their impact on the performance of the axicell, as compared to the A-cell configuration, for MFTF-B. In so doing, we address only those issues thought to be affected by the change in geometry and refer to the original report Physics Basis for MFTF-B, for discussion of those issues thought not to be affected. In Sec. 1, we summarize these physics issues. In Sec. 2, we describe operating scenarios in the new configuration. In the Appendices, we discuss those physics issues that require more detailed treatment

  2. Lectures in plasma diagnostics

    Hutchinson, I.H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics on plasma diagnostics: Electric probes in flowing and magnetized plasmas; Electron cyclotron emission absorption; Magnetic diagnostics; Spectroscopy; and Thomson Scattering

  3. Report on the engineering test of the LBL 30 second neutral beam source for the MFTF-B project

    Vella, M.C.; Pincosy, P.A.; Hauck, C.A.; Pyle, R.V.

    1984-08-01

    Positive ion based neutral beam development in the US has centered on the long pulse, Advanced Positive Ion Source (APIS). APIS eventually focused on development of 30 second sources for MFTF-B. The Engineering Test was part of competitive testing of the LBL and ORNL long pulse sources carried out for the MFTF-B Project. The test consisted of 500 beam shots with 80 kV, 30 second deuterium, and was carried out on the Neutral Beam Engineering Test Facility (NBETF). This report summarizes the results of LBL testing, in which the LBL APIS demonstrated that it would meet the requirements for MFTF-B 30 second sources. In part as a result of this test, the LBL design was found to be suitable as the baseline for a Common Long Pulse Source design for MFTF-B, TFTR, and Doublet Upgrade

  4. Design features of the solenoid magnets for the central cell of the MFTF-B

    Wohlwend, J.W.; Tatro, R.E.; Ring, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    The 14 superconducting solenoid magnets which form the central cell of the MFTF-B are being designed and fabricated by General Dynamics for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Each solenoid coil has a mean diameter of five meters and contains 600 turns of a proven conductor type. Structural loading resulting from credible fault events, cooldown and warmup requirements, and manufacturing processes consistent with other MFTF-B magnets have been considered in the selection of 304 LN as the structural material for the magnet. The solenoid magnets are connected by 24 intercoil beams and 20 solid struts which resist the longitudinal seismic and electromagnetic attractive forces and by 24 hanger/side supports which react magnet dead weight and seismic loads. A modular arrangement of two solenoid coils within a vacuum vessel segment allow for sequential checkout and installation

  5. Startup experience with the MFTF-B ECRH 100 kV dc power supply

    Bishop, S.R.; Goodman, R.A.; Wilson, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    One of the 24 Accel dc Power Supplies (ADCPS) originally intended for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) Neutral Beam Power Supply (NBPS) System has been converted to provide negative polarity output at 90 kV with a load current of 64 A dc. The load duty cycle is a pulse of 30-seconds duration with a pulse repetition period of five minutes. A new control system has been built which will serve as a prototype for the MFTF-B ADCPS controls, and a test setup was built which will be used to test the ADCPS. The Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) dc Power Supply (DCPS) has been tested under both no-load and dummy-load conditions, under remote control, without notable problems. Test results indicate that the power supply should be reliable and safe to operate, and will meet the load duty requirements

  6. Startup experience with the MFTF-B ECRH 100 kV dc power supply

    Bishop, S.R.; Goodman, R.A.; Wilson, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    One of the 24 Accel DC Power Supplies (ADCPS) originally intended for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) Neutral Beam Power Supply (NBPS) System has been converted to provide negative polarity output at 90 kV with a load current of 64 A dc. The load duty cycle is a pulse of 30-seconds duration with a pulse repetition period of five minutes. A new control system has been built which will serve as a prototype for the MFTF-B ADCPS controls, and a test setup was built which will be used to test the ADCPS. The Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) DC Power Supply (DCPS) has been tested under both no-load and dummy-load conditions, under remote control, without notable problems. Test results indicate that the power supply should be reliable and safe to operate, and will meet the load duty requirements

  7. Computer circuit analysis of induced currents in the MFTF-B magnet system

    Magnuson, G.D.; Woods, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis was made of the induced current behavior of the MFTF-B magnet system. Although the magnet system consists of 22 coils, because of its symmetry we considered only 11 coils in the analysis. Various combinations of the coils were dumped either singly or in groups, with the current behavior in all magnets calculated as a function of time after initiation of the dump

  8. Structural design considerations in the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) vacuum vessel

    Vepa, K.; Sterbentz, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    In view of favorable results from the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) also at LLNL, the MFTF project is now being rescoped into a large tandem mirror configuration (MFTF-B), which is the mainline approach to a mirror fusion reactor. This paper concerns itself with the structural aspects of the design of the vessel. The vessel and its intended functions are described. The major structural design issues, especially those influenced by the analysis, are described. The objectives of the finite element analysis and their realization are discussed at length

  9. Integrated operations plan for the MFTF-B Mirror Fusion Test Facility. Volume I. Organization plan

    1981-12-01

    This plan and the accompanying MFTF-B Integrated Operations Plan are submitted in response to UC/LLNL Purchase Order 3883801, dated July 1981. The organization plan also addresses the specific tasks and trade studies directed by the scope of work. The Integrated Operations Plan, which includes a reliability, quality assurance, and safety plan and an integrated logistics plan, comprises the burden of the report. In the first section of this volume, certain underlying assumptions and observations are discussed setting the requirements and limits for organization. Section B presents the recommended structure itself. Section C Device Availability vs Maintenance and Support Efforts and Section D Staffing Levels and Skills provide backup detail and justification. Section E is a trade study on maintenance and support by LLNL staff vs subcontract and Section F is a plan for transitioning from the construction phase into operation. A brief summary of schedules and estimated costs concludes the volume

  10. Noise filtering algorithm for the MFTF-B computer based control system

    Minor, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    An algorithm to reduce the message traffic in the MFTF-B computer based control system is described. The algorithm filters analog inputs to the control system. Its purpose is to distinguish between changes in the inputs due to noise and changes due to significant variations in the quantity being monitored. Noise is rejected while significant changes are reported to the control system data base, thus keeping the data base updated with a minimum number of messages. The algorithm is memory efficient, requiring only four bytes of storage per analog channel, and computationally simple, requiring only subtraction and comparison. Quantitative analysis of the algorithm is presented for the case of additive Gaussian noise. It is shown that the algorithm is stable and tends toward the mean value of the monitored variable over a wide variety of additive noise distributions

  11. Low level signal data acquisition for the MFTF-B superconducting magnet system

    Montoya, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Acquisition of low level signals from sensors mounted on the superconducting magnets in the Tandem Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) impose very strict requirements on the magnet signal conditioning and data acquisition system. Of the various types of sensors required, thermocouples and strain gages produce very low level outputs. These low level outputs must be accurately measured in the harsh environment of slowly varying magnetic fields, cryogenic temperatures, high vacuum, 80 kV pulse power, 60 Hz, 17 MHz and 28, 35, and 56 GHz electrical noise and possible neutron radiation. Successful measurements require careful attention to grounding, shielding, signal handling and processing in the data acquisition system. The magnet instrumentation system provides a means of effectively measuring both low level signals and high level signals from all types of sensors. Various methods involved in the design and implementation of the system for signal conditioning and data gathering will be presented

  12. 12-T solenoid-design options for the MFTF-B Upgrade

    Schultz, J.H.; Diatchenko, N.

    1983-01-01

    The major options for the 12 T magnets examined here are the selection of normal, superconducting or hybrid normal/superconducting magnet systems. The tradeoffs are those between the higher initial cost of superconducting magnet system, the need for thick shielding of superconducting magnets, higher recirculating power in the normal magnets and poorly characterized reliability of lightly shielded normal magnets. The size and shielding tradeoffs among these options are illustrated. The design concepts presented here are evaluated only for the first design iteration of MFTF-B + T, mentioned above. In particular, all concepts now being considered have made topological improvements in the center cell, so that neutral beam power is no longer a strong function of choke coil size. This function was strongly favorable to the use of normal magnets over superconducting magnets and its absence will be discussed qualitatively in the cost comparisons

  13. Polychromatic holographic plasma diagnostics

    Zhiglinskij, A.G.; Morozov, A.O.

    1992-01-01

    Review of holographic interferometry properties is performed and advantages of this method by plasma diagnostics are indicated. Main results obtained by the method of holographic interferometry in studies of various-type plasmas are considered. Special attention is paid to multiwave plasma diagnostics, the necessity of which is related as a rule to multicomponent composition of plasma. The eight laser and gas-discharge sources and holographic schemes, which make it possible to realize plasma polychromatic and holographic interferometry, are considered. The advantages of the method are demonstrated by examples of polychromatic holographic diagnostics of arc discharge and discharge in a hollow cathode. Review of theoretical works determining the applicability area of resonance polychromatic interferometry is carried out

  14. Plasma diagnostic reflectometry

    Cohen, B.I.; Afeyan, B.B.; Garrison, J.C.; Kaiser, T.B.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Domier, C.W.; Chou, A.E.; Baang, S.

    1996-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of plasma diagnostic reflectometry have been undertaken as a collaborative research project between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California Department of Applied Science Plasma Diagnostics Group under the auspices of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL. Theoretical analyses have explored the basic principles of reflectometry to understand its limitations, to address specific gaps in the understanding of reflectometry measurements in laboratory experiments, and to explore extensions of reflectometry such as ultra-short-pulse reflectometry. The theory has supported basic laboratory reflectometry experiments where reflectometry measurements can be corroborated by independent diagnostic measurements

  15. Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B (MFTF-B) axicell configuration: NbTi magnet system. Manufacturing/producibility final report. Volume 2

    Ritschel, A.J.; White, W.L.

    1985-05-01

    This Final MFTF-B Manufacturing/Producibility Report covers facilities, tooling plan, manufacturing sequence, schedule and performance, producibility, and lessons learned for the solenoid, axicell, and transition coils, as well as a deactivation plan, conclusions, references, and appendices

  16. Corpuscular plasma diagnostics

    Afrosimov, V.; Petrov, M.

    1984-01-01

    An elementary explanation is presented of the physical principles and important methods of corpuscular plasma diagnostics. The invaluable role of corpuscular methods for measuring the hot plasma ion component in thermonuclear facilities, especially hydrogen ions in tokamaks, is emphasized. All corpuscular methods employ analysis of fast neutral atoms and therefore the mechanism of their creation inside a hot plasma is explained first. The ammount of information obtainable from spectra of fast neutrals is discussed. Multichannel analyzers developed at the FTI A.F. Ioffe in Leningrad are described in detail. Classical passive corpuscular diagnostics are examined as are active methods using artifitial beams of hydrogen atoms. The method used for obtaining local values of ion temperature and density is explained. Corpuscular spectroscopic diagnostics and its application for measuring impurities is mentioned. (J.U.)

  17. Design and fabrication of the superconducting-magnet system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B)

    Tatro, R.E.; Wohlwend, J.W.; Kozman, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    The superconducting magnet system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) consists of 24 magnets; i.e. two pairs of C-shaped Yin-Yang coils, four C-shaped transition coils, four solenoidal axicell coils, and a 12-solenoid central cell. General Dynamics Convair Division has designed all the coils and is responsible for fabricating 20 coils. The two Yin-Yang pairs (four coils) are being fabricated by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Since MFTF-B is not a magnet development program, but rather a major physics experiment critical to the mirror fusion program, the basic philosophy has been to use proven materials and analytical techniques wherever possible. The transition and axicell coils are currently being analyzed and designed, while fabrication is under way on the solenoid magnets

  18. Design features of the A-cell and transition coils of MFTF-B

    Tatro, R.E.; Wohlwend, J.W.; Ring, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    The MFTF-B transition coil and A-cell magnet designs use variations of the copper-stabilized NbTi conductor developed by LLNL for the MFTF Yin-Yang magnets. This conductor will be wound on the one inch thick (12.7 mm) stainless steel coil forms using a two-axis winding machine similar to the existing LLNL Yin-Yang winding machine. After winding, covers will be placed over the coil and welded to the coil form to form a helium-tight jacket around the conductor. These jacketed coils are then enclosed in thick structural cases that react the large Lorentz forces on the magnets. The space between the coil jacket and case will be filled by a stainless steel bladder that will be injected with urethane. The injection bladder will provide cooling passages during cooldown as well as transmitting the Lorentz forces between the jacket and the case. The large self-equilibrating lobe-spreading forces on the magnets (29.10 6 lb, 127.0 MN) for the A-cell are reacted primarily through the thick 304 LN case into the external superstructure. The net Lorentz forces and the inertial forces on the magnet are reacted through support systems into the LLNL vacuum vessel structure

  19. Integrated operations plan for the MFTF-B Mirror Fusion Test Facility. Volume II. Integrated operations plan

    1981-12-01

    This document defines an integrated plan for the operation of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B). The plan fulfills and further delineates LLNL policies and provides for accomplishing the functions required by the program. This plan specifies the management, operations, maintenance, and engineering support responsibilities. It covers phasing into sustained operations as well as the sustained operations themselves. Administrative and Plant Engineering support, which are now being performed satisfactorily, are not part of this plan unless there are unique needs.

  20. Integrated operations plan for the MFTF-B Mirror Fusion Test Facility. Volume II. Integrated operations plan

    1981-12-01

    This document defines an integrated plan for the operation of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B). The plan fulfills and further delineates LLNL policies and provides for accomplishing the functions required by the program. This plan specifies the management, operations, maintenance, and engineering support responsibilities. It covers phasing into sustained operations as well as the sustained operations themselves. Administrative and Plant Engineering support, which are now being performed satisfactorily, are not part of this plan unless there are unique needs

  1. Plasma diagnostics discharge parameters and chemistry

    Auciello, Orlando

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Diagnostics, Volume 1: Discharge Parameters and Chemistry covers seven chapters on the important diagnostic techniques for plasmas and details their use in particular applications. The book discusses optical diagnostic techniques for low pressure plasmas and plasma processing; plasma diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources; as well as Langmuir probes. The text also describes the mass spectroscopy of plasmas, microwave diagnostics, paramagnetic resonance diagnostics, and diagnostics in thermal plasma processing. Electrical engineers, nuclear engineers, microwave engineers, che

  2. Plasma diagnostics on large tokamaks

    Orlinskij, D.V.; Magyar, G.

    1988-01-01

    The main tasks of the large tokamaks which are under construction (T-15 and Tore Supra) and of those which have already been built (TFTR, JET, JT-60 and DIII-D) together with their design features which are relevant to plasma diagnostics are briefly discussed. The structural features and principal characteristics of the diagnostic systems being developed or already being used on these devices are also examined. The different diagnostic methods are described according to the physical quantities to be measured: electric and magnetic diagnostics, measurements of electron density, electron temperature, the ion components of the plasma, radiation loss measurements, spectroscopy of impurities, edge diagnostics and study of plasma stability. The main parameters of the various diagnostic systems used on the six large tokamaks are summarized in tables. (author). 351 refs, 44 figs, 22 tabs

  3. Laser-aided plasma diagnostics

    Donne, A. J. H.; Barth, C. J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper will focus on two types of laser-aided diagnostics: Thomson scattering and laser-induced fluorescence. Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic, which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can

  4. Spectroscopic diagnostics of industrial plasmas

    Joshi, N.K.

    2004-01-01

    Plasmas play key role in modern industry and are being used for processing micro electronic circuits to the destruction of toxic waste. Characterization of industrial plasmas which includes both 'thermal plasmas' and non-equilibrium plasmas or 'cold plasmas' in industrial environment offers quite a challenge. Numerous diagnostic techniques have been developed for the measurement of these partially ionized plasma and/or particulate parameters. The 'simple' non-invasive spectroscopic methods for characterization of industrial plasmas will be discussed in detail in this paper. The excitation temperature in thermal (DC/RF) plasma jets has been determined using atomic Boltzmann technique. The central axis temperature of thermal plasma jets in a spray torch can be determined using modified atomic Boltzmann technique with out using Abel inversion. The Stark broadening of H β and Ar-I (430 nm) lines have been used to determine the electron number density in thermal plasma jets. In low-pressure non-equilibrium argon plasma, electron temperature has been measured using the Corona model from the ratio of line intensities of atomic and ionic transitions. (author)

  5. Engineering study of the neutral beam and rf heating systems for DIII-D, MFTF-B, JET, JT-60 and TFTR

    Lindquist, W.B.; Staten, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    An engineering study was performed on the rf and neutral beam heating systems implemented for DIII-D, MFTF-B, JET, JT-60 and TFTR. Areas covered include: methodology used to implement the systems, technology, cost, schedule, performance, problems encountered and lessons learned. Systems are compared and contrasted in the areas studied. Summary statements were made on common problems and lessons learned. 3 refs., 6 tabs

  6. Optical plasma diagnostics

    Gross, B.

    1973-01-01

    The measurement is described of the radial courses of temperature and electron, atom and ion density in the plasma of a water-stabilized arc with currents from 20 A to 60 A. For temperature measurement a method based on the determination of the relative intensity of Balmer lines was used. The electron density was measured by determining the Hsub(β) line profile and the relative density of other particles was measured by determining the intensity ratio of radiation emitted by the respective atoms or ions. (author)

  7. Optical diagnostics for plasma etching

    Bisschops, T.H.J.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; de Zeeuw, C.J.H.; Timmermans, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Several optical diagnostics were used to det. plasma properties and etch rates in an single wafer etch reactor. Results of UV-visible spectroscopy and IR absorption spectroscopy, indicating different mol. species and their densities are presented. The construction of an interferometer to det. the

  8. Spark gap produced plasma diagnostics

    Chang, H.Y.

    1990-01-01

    A Spark Gap (Applied voltage : 2-8KV, Capacitor : 4 Micro F. Dia of the tube : 1 inch, Electrode distance : .3 ∼.5 inch) was made to generate a small size dynamic plasma. To measure the plasma density and temperature as a function of time and position, we installed and have been installing four detection systems - Mach-Zehnder type Interferometer for the plasma refractivity, Expansion speed detector using two He-Ne laser beams, Image Processing using Lens and A Optical-Fiber Array for Pointwise Radiation Sensing, Faraday Rotation of a Optical Fiber to measure the azimuthal component of B-field generated by the plasma drift. These systems was used for the wire explosion diagnostics, and can be used for the Laser driven plasma also

  9. Plasma diagnostics for tokamaks and stellarators

    Stott, P E; Sanchez, J

    1994-07-01

    A collection of papers on plasma diagnostics is presented. The papers show the state of the art developments in a series of techniques: Magnetic diagnostics, Edge diagnostics, Langmuir probes, Spectroscopy, Microwave and FIR diagnostics as well as Thomson Scattering. Special interest was focused on those diagnostics oriented to fluctuations measurements in the plasma. (Author) 451 refs.

  10. Plasma diagnostics for tokamaks and stellarators

    Stott, P.E.; Sanchez, J.

    1994-01-01

    A collection of papers on plasma diagnostics is presented. The papers show the state of the art developments in a series of techniques: magnetic diagnostics, Edge diagnostics, Langmuir probes, Spectroscopy, Microwave and FIR diagnostics as well as Thomson Sattering. Special interest was focused on those diagnostics oriented to fluctuations measurements in the plasma

  11. Far infrared fusion plasma diagnostics

    Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Peebles, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last several years, reflectometry has grown in importance as a diagnostic for both steady-state density Profiles as well as for the investigation of density fluctuations and turbulence. As a diagnostic for density profile measurement, it is generally believed to be well understood in the tokamak environment. However, its use as a fluctuation diagnostic is hampered by a lack of quantitative experimental understanding of its wavenumber sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several researchers, have theoretically investigated these questions. However, prior to the UCLA laboratory investigation, no group has experimentally investigated these questions. Because of the reflectometer's importance to the world effort in understanding plasma turbulence and transport, UCLA has, over the last year, made its primary Task IIIA effort the resolution of these questions. UCLA has taken the lead in a quantitative experimental understanding of reflectometer data as applied to the measurement of density fluctuations. In addition to this, work has proceeded on the design, construction, and installation of a reflectometer system on UCLA's CCT tokamak. This effort will allow a comparison between the improved confinement regimes (H-mode) observed on both the DIII-D and CCT machines with the goal of achieving a physics understanding of the phenomena. Preliminary investigation of a new diagnostic technique to measure density profiles as a function of time has been initiated at UCLA. The technique promises to be a valuable addition to the range of available plasma diagnostics. Work on advanced holographic reflectometry technique as applied to fluctuation diagnostics has awaited a better understanding of the reflectometer signal itself as discussed above. Efforts to ensure the transfer of the diagnostic developments have continued with particular attention devoted to the preliminary design of a multichannel FIR interferometer for MST.

  12. MTX [Microwave Tokamak Experiment] plasma diagnostic system

    Rice, B.W.; Hooper, E.B.; Brooksby, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, a general overview of the MTX plasma diagnostics system is given. This includes a description of the MTX machine configuration and the overall facility layout. The data acquisition system and techniques for diagnostic signal transmission are also discussed. In addition, the diagnostic instruments planned for both an initial ohmic-heating set and a second FEL-heating set are described. The expected range of plasma parameters along with the planned plasma measurements will be reviewed. 7 refs., 5 figs

  13. Diagnostics of laser-produced plasmas

    Batani Dimitri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the general challenges of plasma diagnostics for laser-produced plasmas and give a few more detailed examples: spherically bent crystals for X-ray imaging, velocity interferometers (VISAR for shock studies, and proton radiography.

  14. High field Nb/sub 3/Sn Axicell insert coils for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B (MFTF-B) axicell configuration. Final report

    Baldi, R.W.; Tatro, R.E.; Scanlan, R.M.; Agarwal, K.L.; Bailey, R.E.; Burgeson, J.E.; Kim, I.K.; Magnuson, G.D.; Mallett, B.D.; Pickering, J.L.

    1984-03-01

    Two 12-tesla superconducting insert coils are being designed by General Dynamics Convair Division for the axicell regions of MFTF-B for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A major challenge of this project is to ensure that combined fabrication and operational strains induced in the conductor are within stringent limitations of the relatively brittle Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor filaments. These coils are located in the axicell region of MFTF-B. They have a clear-bore diameter of 36.195cm (14.25 inches) and consist of 27 double pancakes (i.e., 54 pancakes per coil) would on an electrically insulated 304LN stainless steel/bobbin helium vessel. Each pancake has 57 turns separated by G-10CR insulation. The complete winding bundle has 4.6 million ampere-turns and uniform current density of 2007 A/cm/sup 2/. In conjunction with the other magnets in the system, they produce a 12-tesla central field and a 12.52-tesla peak field. A multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn conductor was selected to meet these requirements. The conductor consists of a monolithic insert soldered into a copper stabilizer. Sufficient cross-sectional area and work-hardening of the copper stabilizer has been provided for the conductor to self-react the electromagnetic Lorentz force induced hoop stresses with normal operational tensile strains less than 0.07 percent.

  15. High field Nb3Sn Axicell insert coils for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B (MFTF-B) axicell configuration. Final report

    Baldi, R.W.; Tatro, R.E.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1984-03-01

    Two 12-tesla superconducting insert coils are being designed by General Dynamics Convair Division for the axicell regions of MFTF-B for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A major challenge of this project is to ensure that combined fabrication and operational strains induced in the conductor are within stringent limitations of the relatively brittle Nb 3 Sn superconductor filaments. These coils are located in the axicell region of MFTF-B. They have a clear-bore diameter of 36.195cm (14.25 inches) and consist of 27 double pancakes (i.e., 54 pancakes per coil) would on an electrically insulated 304LN stainless steel/bobbin helium vessel. Each pancake has 57 turns separated by G-10CR insulation. The complete winding bundle has 4.6 million ampere-turns and uniform current density of 2007 A/cm 2 . In conjunction with the other magnets in the system, they produce a 12-tesla central field and a 12.52-tesla peak field. A multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn conductor was selected to meet these requirements. The conductor consists of a monolithic insert soldered into a copper stabilizer. Sufficient cross-sectional area and work-hardening of the copper stabilizer has been provided for the conductor to self-react the electromagnetic Lorentz force induced hoop stresses with normal operational tensile strains less than 0.07 percent

  16. X-ray hot plasma diagnostics

    Cojocaru, E.

    1984-11-01

    X-ray plasma emission study is powerful diagnostic tool of hot plasmas. In this review article the main techniques of X-ray plasma emission measurement are shortly presented: X-ray spectrometry using absorbent filters, crystal and grating spectrometers, imaging techniques using pinhole cameras, X-ray microscopes and Fresnel zone plate cameras, X-ray plasma emission calorimetry. Advances in these techniques with examples for different hot plasma devices are also presentes. (author)

  17. Microwave reflectometry for fusion plasma diagnostics

    1992-01-01

    This document contains a collection of 26 papers on ''Microwave Reflectometry for Fusion Plasma Diagnostics'', presented at the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting of the same name held at the JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, United Kingdom, March 4-6, 1992. It contains five papers on the measurement of plasma density profiles, six papers on theory and simulations in support of the development and application of this type of plasma diagnostics, eight papers on the measurement of density transients and fluctuations, and seven on new approaches to reflectometry-based plasma diagnostics. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. International Conference on Plasma Diagnostics. Slides, papers and posters of Plasma Diagnostics 2010

    Hartfuss, H.J.; Bonhomme, G.; Grisolia, C.; Hirsch, M.; Klos, Z.; Mazouffre, S.; Musielok, J.; Ratynskaya, S.; Sadowski, M.; Van de Sanden, R.; Sentis, M.; Stroth, U.; Tereshin, V.; Tichy, M.; Unterberg, B.; Weisen, H.; Zoletnik, S.

    2011-01-01

    Plasma diagnostics 2010 is an International Conference on Diagnostic Methods involved in Research and Applications of Plasmas, originating on combining the 5. German-Polish Conference on Plasma Diagnostics for Fusion and Applications and the 7. French-Polish Seminar on Thermal Plasma in Space and Laboratory. The Scientific Committee of 'Plasma 2007' decided to concentrate the attention of future conferences more on the diagnostic development and diagnostic interpretation in the fields of high and low temperature plasmas and plasma applications. It is aimed at involving all European activities in the fields. The Scientific Program will cover the fields from low temperature laboratory to fusion plasmas of various configurations as well as dusty and astrophysical plasmas and industrial plasma applications

  19. ECR plasma photographs as a plasma diagnostic

    Racz, R; Biri, S; Palinkas, J [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary)

    2011-04-15

    Low, medium or highly charged ions delivered by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources all are produced in the ECR plasma. In order to study such plasmas, high-resolution visible light plasma photographs were taken at the ATOMKI ECR ion source. An 8 megapixel digital camera was used to photograph plasmas made from He, methane, N, O, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe gases and from their mixtures. The analysis of the photo series gave many qualitative and some valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas. A comparison was made between the plasma photos and computer simulations, and conclusions were drawn regarding the cold electron component of the plasma. The warm electron component of similar simulation was compared with x-ray photos emitted by plasma ions. While the simulations are in good agreement with the photos, a significant difference was found between the spatial distribution of the cold and warm electrons.

  20. Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B (MFTF-B) axicell configuration: NbTi magnet system. Design and analysis summary. Volume 1

    Heathman, J.H.; Wohlwend, J.W.

    1985-05-01

    This report summarizes the designs and analyses produced by General Dynamics Convair for the four Axicell magnets (A1 and A20, east and west), the four Transition magnets (T1 and T2, east and west), and the twelve Solenoid magnets (S1 through S6, east and west). Over four million drawings and specifications, in addition to detailed stress analysis, thermal analysis, electrical, instrumentation, and verification test reports were produced as part of the MFTF-B design effort. Significant aspects of the designs, as well as key analysis results, are summarized in this report. In addition, drawing trees and lists off detailed analysis and test reports included in this report define the locations of the detailed design and analysis data

  1. Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B (MFTF-B) axicell configuration: NbTi magnet system. Design and analysis summary. Volume 1

    Heathman, J.H.; Wohlwend, J.W.

    1985-05-01

    This report summarizes the designs and analyses produced by General Dynamics Convair for the four Axicell magnets (A1 and A20, east and west), the four Transition magnets (T1 and T2, east and west), and the twelve Solenoid magnets (S1 through S6, east and west). Over four million drawings and specifications, in addition to detailed stress analysis, thermal analysis, electrical, instrumentation, and verification test reports were produced as part of the MFTF-B design effort. Significant aspects of the designs, as well as key analysis results, are summarized in this report. In addition, drawing trees and lists off detailed analysis and test reports included in this report define the locations of the detailed design and analysis data.

  2. Molecular Diagnostics of Fusion and Laboratory Plasmas

    Fantz, U.

    2005-05-01

    The presence of molecules in the cold scrape-off layer of fusion experiments and industrial plasmas requires an understanding of the molecular dynamics in these low temperature plasmas. Suitable diagnostic methods can provide an insight in molecular processes in the plasma volume as well as for plasma surface interactions. A very simple but powerful technique is the molecular emission spectroscopy. Spectra are obtained easily, whereas interpretation might be very complex and relies on the availability of atomic and molecular data. Examples are given for hydrogen plasmas and plasmas with hydrocarbons which both are of importance in industrial applications as well as in fusion experiments.

  3. Molecular Diagnostics of Fusion and Laboratory Plasmas

    Fantz, U.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of molecules in the cold scrape-off layer of fusion experiments and industrial plasmas requires an understanding of the molecular dynamics in these low temperature plasmas. Suitable diagnostic methods can provide an insight in molecular processes in the plasma volume as well as for plasma surface interactions. A very simple but powerful technique is the molecular emission spectroscopy. Spectra are obtained easily, whereas interpretation might be very complex and relies on the availability of atomic and molecular data. Examples are given for hydrogen plasmas and plasmas with hydrocarbons which both are of importance in industrial applications as well as in fusion experiments

  4. ISTTOK plasma control with the tomography diagnostic

    Fernandes, H.; Caralho, P.J.; Duarte, P.; Pereira, T.; Coelho, R.; Silva, C. [Association Euratom/IST, Institute of Plasmas and Nuclear Fusion, Technology Graduate Institute, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-07-01

    A real-time plasma position control system is mandatory to achieve long duration (up to 250 ms), Alternating Current (AC) discharges on the ISTTOK tokamak. Such a system has been used for some time supported only on magnetic field diagnostic data. However, this system does not function accurately when the plasma current is low, rendering it inoperative during the plasma current reversal. A tomography diagnostic with 3 pinhole cameras and 8 silicone photodiode channels per camera was installed and customized to supply alternative plasma position to be used for plasma position control. As no filtering is applied, most of the radiation detected is in the visible/near-UV range. This system (i) executes a tomographic reconstruction, (ii) determines the average emissivity position from it, (iii) calculates the shift from the required position and (iv) supplies the vertical field power supply unit with the desired current value, all in less than 100 {mu}s. The horizontal magnetic field power supply unit is expected to be included in the system and will have no impact in the process time. This paper presents the tomography diagnostic architecture together with results of its scientific exploitation in ISTTOK AC discharges, where it has proven to be capable of supplying an accurate plasma position during the current reversal. The use of the tomography diagnostic for plasma position overcomes some limitations of the magnetic diagnostics, but poses challenges of its own such as blindness to plasma current direction. (authors)

  5. Plasma Diagnostics in High Density Reactors

    Daltrini, A. M.; Moshkalyov, S.; Monteiro, M. J. R.; Machida, M.; Kostryukov, A.; Besseler, E.; Biasotto, C.; Diniz, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Langmuir electric probes and optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics were developed for applications in high density plasmas. These diagnostics were employed in two plasma sources: an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma and an RF driven inductively coupled plasma (ICP) plasma. Langmuir probes were tested using a number of probing dimensions, probe tip materials, circuits for probe bias and filters. Then, the results were compared with the optical spectroscopy measurements. With these diagnostics, analyses of various plasma processes were performed in both reactors. For example, it has been shown that species like NH radicals generated in gas phase can have critical impact on films deposited by ECR plasmas. In the ICP source, plasmas in atomic and molecular gases were shown to have different spatial distributions, likely due to nonlocal electron heating. The low-to-high density transitions in the ICP plasma were also studied. The role of metastables is shown to be significant in Ar plasmas, in contrast to plasmas with additions of molecular gases

  6. Plasma impact on diagnostic mirrors in JET

    A. Garcia-Carrasco; P. Petersson; M. Rubel; A. Widdowson; E. Fortuna-Zalesna; S. Jachmich; M. Brix; L. Marot

    2017-01-01

    Metallic mirrors will be essential components of all optical systems for plasma diagnosis in ITER. This contribution provides a comprehensive account on plasma impact on diagnostic mirrors in JET with the ITER-Like Wall. Specimens from the First Mirror Test and the lithium-beam diagnostic have been studied by spectrophotometry, ion beam analysis and electron microscopy. Test mirrors made of molybdenum were retrieved from the main chamber and the divertor after exposure to the 2013–2014 experi...

  7. Plasma diagnostics surface analysis and interactions

    Auciello, Orlando

    2013-01-01

    Plasmas and their interaction with materials have become subjects of major interest because of their importance in modern forefront technologies such as microelectronics, fusion energy, and space. Plasmas are used in microelectronics to process semiconductors (etching of patterns for microcircuits, plasma-induced deposition of thin films, etc.); plasmas produce deleterious erosion effects on surfaces of materials used for fusion devices and spaceships exposed to the low earth environment.Diagnostics of plasmas and materials exposed to them are fundamental to the understanding of the physical a

  8. Diagnostics of laser ablated plasma plumes

    Amoruso, S.; Toftmann, B.; Schou, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    The effect of an ambient gas on the expansion dynamics of laser ablated plasmas has been studied for two systems by exploiting different diagnostic techniques. First, the dynamics of a MgB2 laser produced plasma plume in an Ar atmosphere has been investigated by space-and time-resolved optical...... of the laser ablated plasma plume propagation in a background gas. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved....

  9. Plasma diagnostics by means of electric probes

    Colunga S, S.

    1991-04-01

    In this work a summary of the classical theoretical models to interpret the characteristic curve of a Langmuir electric probe placed in a plasma without magnetic field and with the one is made. The methodology for the electron temperature calculation and the density of the plasma in both cases is given, starting from the characteristic curve of the probe, as well as the approaches for the correct application of this diagnostic method of the plasma. (Author)

  10. Diagnostics of peripheric plasma in thermonuclear devices

    Vojtsenya, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    Review of basic methods, applied or developed for peripheral plasma diagnostics is given, including electric probes of various types, collecting probes for studying impurity ion and main plasma component characteristics, spectroscopic and corpuscular-optical methods, laser fluorescence spectroscopy, mass-spectrometry, heavy ion and atom (lithium and hydrogen) beam methods. Ranges of plasma parameters their measurements being provided by the methods indicated are presented

  11. Optical diagnostics of atmospheric pressure air plasmas

    Laux, C O; Spence, T G; Kruger, C H; Zare, R N

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure air plasmas are often thought to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium owing to fast interspecies collisional exchange at high pressure. This assumption cannot be relied upon, particularly with respect to optical diagnostics. Velocity gradients in flowing plasmas and/or elevated electron temperatures created by electrical discharges can result in large departures from chemical and thermal equilibrium. This paper reviews diagnostic techniques based on optical emission spectroscopy and cavity ring-down spectroscopy that we have found useful for making temperature and concentration measurements in atmospheric pressure plasmas under conditions ranging from thermal and chemical equilibrium to thermochemical nonequilibrium

  12. Optical fibres for fusion plasma diagnostics systems

    Brichard, B.

    2005-01-01

    The condition to achieve and maintain the ignition of a thermonuclear fusion plasma ignition calls for the construction of a large scale fusion reactor, namely ITER. This reactor is designed to deliver an average fusion power of 500 MW. The burning of fusion plasma at such high power level will release a tremendous amount of energy in the form of particle fluxes and ionising radiation. This energy release, primarily absorbed by the plasma facing components, can significantly degrade the performances of the plasma diagnostic equipment surrounding the machine. To ensure a correct operation of the Tokamak we need to develop highly radiation-resistance devices. In plasma diagnostic systems, optical fibre is viewed as a convenient tool to transport light from the plasma edge to the diagnostic area. Radiation affects the optical performances of the fibre mainly by the occurrence of radiation-induced absorption and luminescence. Both effects degrade the light signal used for plasma diagnostic. SCK-CEN is currently assessing radiation-resistant glasses for optical fibres and is developing the associated qualification procedure. The main objectives of this study were to increase the lifetime of optical components in high radiation background and to develop a radiation resistance optical fibre capable to operate in the radiation background of ITER

  13. Development of gyrotrons for plasma diagnostics (invited)

    Woskoboinikow, P.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in high-frequency (>100 GHz) gyrotron technology are reviewed and application to millimeter/submillimeter wave plasma diagnostics is discussed. Gyrotrons have useful capabilities of high-power (>1 kW), long pulse/cw operation, narrow linewidth (<100 kHz), and good spatial mode quality with efficient (--90%) mode converters. These capabilities could be used to significantly improve collective Thomson scattering diagnostics for the study of instabilities, plasma waves, turbulence, and thermal ion fluctuations. Imaging applications with many detector arrays of plasma density, field direction, and microinstabilities may be possible with gyrotons. In a high-field compact ignition tokamak experiment a possible millimeter wave diagnostics window could be exploited by a gyrotron to measure a number of parameters, including alpha particle density and velocity distribution

  14. Spectroscopic diagnostics of high temperature plasmas

    Moos, W.

    1990-01-01

    A three-year research program for the development of novel XUV spectroscopic diagnostics for magnetically confined fusion plasmas is proposed. The new diagnostic system will use layered synthetic microstructures (LSM) coated, flat and curved surfaces as dispersive elements in spectrometers and narrow band XUV filter arrays. In the framework of the proposed program we will develop impurity monitors for poloidal and toroidal resolved measurements on PBX-M and Alcator C-Mod, imaging XUV spectrometers for electron density and temperature fluctuation measurements in the hot plasma core in TEXT or other similar tokamaks and plasma imaging devices in soft x-ray light for impurity behavior studies during RF heating on Phaedrus T and carbon pellet ablation in Alcator C-Mod. Recent results related to use of multilayer in XUV plasma spectroscopy are presented. We also discuss the latest results reviewed to q o and local poloidal field measurements using Zeeman polarimetry

  15. Diagnostics for Pioneer I imploding plasma experiments

    Lee, P.H.Y.; Benjamin, R.F.; Brownell, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Pioneer I series of imploding plasma experiments are aimed at collapsing a thin aluminum foil with a multimegampere, submicrosecond electrical pulse produced by an explosive flux compression generator and fast plasma compression opening switch. Anticipated experimental conditions are bounded by implosion velocities of 2 x 10 7 cm/s and maximum plasma temperatures of 100 eV. A comprehensive array of diagnostics have been deployed to measure implosion symmetry (gated microchannel plate array and other time-resolved imaging), temperature of the imploding plasma (visible/uv spectroscopy), stagnation geometry (x-ray pinhole imaging), radiation emission characteristics at pinch (XRD's, fast bolometry), and electrical drive history (Rogowski loops, Faraday rotation current detectors, and capacitive voltage probes). Diagnostic performance is discussed and preliminary results are presented

  16. Diagnostics of atmospheric pressure air plasmas

    Laux, C.O.; Kruger, C.H.; Zare, R.N.

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure air plasmas are often thought to be in Local Thermodynamics Equilibrium (LTE) owing to fast interspecies collisional exchanges at high pressure. As will be seen here, this assumption cannot be relied upon, particularly with respect to optical diagnostics. Large velocity gradients in flowing plasmas and/or elevated electron temperatures created by electrical discharges can result in large departures from chemical and thermal equilibrium. Diagnostic techniques based on optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) have been developed and applied at Stanford University to the investigation of atmospheric pressure plasmas under conditions ranging from thermal and chemical equilibrium to thermochemical nonequilibrium. This article presents a review of selected temperature and species concentration measurement techniques useful for the study of air and nitrogen plasmas

  17. Measuring methods for the TFR plasma diagnostics

    Etievant, C.

    1975-02-01

    The measuring methods in operation or still under development for the diagnostics of the TFR plasma parameters (ion and electron temperatures, electron density, current density are reviewed, the diagnostics of the electrical behavior of the discharge, the neutral gas densities, the impurities and the parameters of the plasma turbulence being also investigated. Actual works are principally devoted to: improving ion temperature measurements by the possible use of the Doppler effect or infra-red incoherent scattering; improving n(e) and T(e) measurement by Thomson scattering; measuring the poloidal field and current density; measuring impurities by X and UV spectroscopy and measuring instabilities and turbulence [fr

  18. RF and microwave diagnostics of plasma

    Basu, J.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review of RF and microwave investigations carried out at laboratory plasma is presented. Both the immersive and non-immersive RF probes of various types are discussed, the major emphasis being laid on the work carried out in extending the scope of the immersive impedance probe and non-immersive coil probe. The standard microwave methods for plasma diagnosis are mentioned. The role of relatively new diagnostic tool, viz., a dielectric-rod waveguide, is described, and the technique of measuring the admittance of such a waveguide (or an antenna) enveloped in plasma is discussed. (K.B.)

  19. Miniature Coaxial Plasma injector Diagnostics by Beam Plasma Interaction

    El-Tayeb, H.; El-Gamal, H.

    2003-01-01

    A miniature coaxial gun has been used to study the interaction between plasma beam and low density plasma formed in glow discharge. The peak discharge current flow between the coaxial electrodes was 5.25 kA as a single pulse with pulse width of 60 mu. Investigations are carried out with argon gas at pressure 0.4 Torr. The plasma stream ejected from the coaxial discharge propagates in the neutral argon atoms with mean velocity of 1.2x10 5 cm/s. The plasma stream temperature and density were 4.2 eV and 2.4x10 13 cm -3 respectively. An argon negative glow has been used as base plasma where its electron temperature and density were 2.2 eV and 6.2x10 7 cm -3 respectively. When the plasma stream propagates through the negative glow discharge region its velocity decreased to 8.8 x 10 4 cm/s and also the plasma electron temperature decreased to 3.1 eV, while the stream density remained the same. An excited wave appeared on the electric probe having frequency equal to the plasma frequency of the plasma under consideration. Simulation of the problem showed that this method could be applied for plasma diagnostics within the region of investigation. Those further studies for high temperature, dense, and magnetized plasma will be considered

  20. Correlation measurements for fusion plasma diagnostics

    Pazsit, I.

    1995-01-01

    A list of a few methods for plasma diagnostics via fluctuations (noise) analysis of random (both temporally and spatially) system parameters is reviewed. Analogy is drawn with certain noise analysis methods, used in the diagnostics of fission reactors. These methods have been applied also to fusion measurements to some extent. However, the treatment of fusion plasma fluctuations is dominated by an approach that allows for temporal randomness, but assumes periodicity in space. This approach suits well a large class of phenomena such as magnetic fluctuations (MHD effects), but is much less suited to treat localised effects such as turbulence and density fluctuations. This paper discusses the potentials of the former approach, i.e. ordinary noise analysis methods of non-periodic variables in fusion plasma diagnostics. A new recommendation is to use the crossed beam correlation analysis of soft X-ray signals for determining the local short-range correlations in the plasma and to perform a systematic exploration of the plasma spatial correlation structure with that and other methods. 16 refs, 7 figs

  1. Some optical diagnostics for the plasma focus

    Korzhavin, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    Some aspects of studying plasma focus dynamics are reported. Particular efforts were made to develop an infrared (IR) diagnostics. The plasma focus is formed in a discharge chamber, when shock waves and plasma sheath cumulate on the axis as a result of the break-down of filling gas by the application of high voltage. The current J was measured with a Rogovsky coil, and the voltage U was measured with a capacitor divider. The current derivative was measured with magnetic probes, and X-ray and neutron emission intensities were measured with a plastic scintillator. The total neutron yield were measured by the activation method. The time-integrated soft X-ray pictures of plasma focus were taken with a pin-hole camera. The formation and disruption of plasma focus were studied by multi-picture speed photography. Laser interferometry was used to study the time-space distribution of plasma density. For the study of turbulence phenomena in plasma focus, a new type IR detector was employed. The results of measurements suggest that there exists some superthermal radiation during the second compression of plasma focus, but it is not so strong. (Kato, T.)

  2. ECR plasma diagnostics with Langmuir probe

    Kenez, L.; Biri, S.; Valek, A.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. An Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Ion Source is a tool to generate highly charged ions. The ion beam is extracted from the plasma chamber of the ECRIS. Higher charge states and beam intensities are the main objectives of ECR research. The heart of an ion source is the confined plasma which should be well known to reach those objectives. Information about the plasma can be obtained by plasma diagnostics methods. Langmuir probes were successfully used in case of other plasmas, e.g. TOKAMAK. Until last year plasma diagnostics at the ATOMKI ECRIS was performed by X-ray and visible light measurements. While X-ray measurements give global information, the Langmuir probe method can give information on the local plasma parameters. This is an advantage because the local parameters are not known in detail. By Langmuir probe measurements it is possible to get information on plasma density, plasma potential and partly on the electron temperature. From the experimental point of view a Langmuir probe is very simple. However, the precise positioning of the probe in the plasma chamber (HV platform, strong magnetic field, RF waves) is a difficult task. Also the theory of probes is complicated: the ECR plasma is a special one because the confining magnetic field is inhomogeneous, beside hot electrons it contains cold ions with different charge states and it is heated with high frequency EM waves. What can be measured with a probe is a voltage-current (U-I) characteristics. Figure 1 shows a typical U-I curve measured in our lab. As it can be seen in the figure the diagram has three main parts. An ion saturation current region (I.), an electron saturation current region (III.) and a transition region (II.) between them. These measurements were performed using two different power supplies to bias the probe to positive and negative voltage. To perform more precise U-I measurements we need a special power supply which is presently being built in

  3. Diagnostics of ytterbium/aluminium laser plasmas

    Bailey, J.; Lee, R.W.; Landen, O.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Lewis, C.L.; Busquet, M.

    1986-11-01

    Microdot spectroscopy was used to study the x-ray emission from laser-produced plasmas consisting of 10% ytterbium, 90% aluminium. Spectra were recorded with a space-resolving flat crystal (PET) mini-spectrometer in the 4.0-8.0 A range. The Janus research laser at LLNL irradiated the targets with green (0.53 μm) light in a 1 nsec pulse. The power density was varied between 4x10 13 and 3x10 14 W/cm 2 . The plasma electron density and temperature were determined from the aluminium XI, XII and XIII line emission. By examining correlations between changes in the plasma conditions with changes in the ytterbium spectra, we will determine the potential for using ytterbium line emission as a plasma diagnostic

  4. Mirror fusion test facility plasma diagnostics system

    Thomas, S.R. Jr.; Coffield, F.E.; Davis, G.E.; Felker, B.

    1979-01-01

    During the past 25 years, experiments with several magnetic mirror machines were performed as part of the Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Program at LLL. The latest MFE experiment, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF), builds on the advances of earlier machines in initiating, stabilizing, heating, and sustaining plasmas formed with deuterium. The goals of this machine are to increase ion and electron temperatures and show a corresponding increase in containment time, to test theoretical scaling laws of plasma instabilities with increased physical dimensions, and to sustain high-beta plasmas for times that are long compared to the energy containment time. This paper describes the diagnostic system being developed to characterize these plasma parameters

  5. Diagnostic methods of thermal dusty plasma flows

    Nefedov, A.P.

    1995-01-01

    The presence in the high-temperature flows of condensed disperse phase (CDP) particles may lead either to an increase of the electron number density n e if the particles assume a positive charge or to its decrease if the charge is negative. The existence of CDP also may effect on optical parameters of the thermal dusty plasma flows, on heat and radiative transfer in the plasma. The entire range of states, from a Debye plasma to a highly nonideal system of charged particles, is realized in a thermal dusty plasma under standard conditions T=2000-3000 K, n e =10 8 - 10 14 cm -3 . The advanced probe and optical diagnostic instruments are needed to study the optical and electrophysical properties of thermal dusty plasma flows. The diagnostic techniques must give the data about such parameters of gas and dispersed phase as temperatures of gas and particles, number densities of electrons, atoms and ions of alkali metals, sizes, velocities and concentrations of CDP particles. It should be noted that number density of alkali metal atoms and gas temperature may be measured by the well known full absorption and generalized reversal methods. This paper describes the probe and optical techniques for diagnostic of dusty plasma flows developed in High Energy Density Research Center of Russian Academy of Sciences. The Forward Angle Scattering Transmissometer (FAST) allows measurement of the average size (Sauter diameter), mass number density, and refractive index of particles in the 0.5-15.0 gm size range. The basis of the method is a dependence of the measured extinction of radiation upon an angular acceptance aperture of the photo detector. The FAST instrument allows one to determine the mass density and the Sauter diameter of a polydispersion of particles without a priori specification of the particle size distribution model and exact data about the article refractive index

  6. Diagnostic methods of thermal dusty plasma flows

    Nefedov, A.P.

    1995-01-01

    The presence in the high-temperature flows of condensed disperse phase (CDP) particles may lead either to an increase of the electron number density n e if the particles assume a positive charge or to its decrease if the charge is negative. The existence of CDP also may effect on optical parameters of the thermal dusty plasma flows, on heat and radiative transfer in the plasma. The entire range of states, from a Debye plasma to a highly nonideal system of charged particles, is realized in a thermal dusty plasma under standard conditions T=2000-3000 K, n e =10 8 -10 14 cm -3 . The advanced probe and optical diagnostic instruments are needed to study the optical and electrophysical properties of thermal dusty plasma flows. The diagnostic techniques must give the data about such parameters of gas and dispersed phase as temperatures of gas and particles, number densities of electrons, atoms and ions of alkali metals, sizes, velocities and concentrations of CDP particles. It should be noted that number density of alkali metal atoms and gas temperature may be measured by the well known full absorption and generalized reversal methods. This paper describes the probe and optical techniques for diagnostic of dusty plasma flows developed in High Energy Density Research Center of Russian Academy of Sciences. The Forward Angle Scattering Transmissometer (FAST) allows measurement of the average size (Sauter diameter), mass number density, and refractive index of particles in the 0.5-15.0 μm size range. The basis of the method is a dependence of the measured extinction of radiation upon an angular acceptance aperture of the photo detector. The FAST instrument allows one to determine the mass density and the Sauter diameter of a polydispersion of particles without a priori specification of the particle size distribution model and exact data about the particle refractive index

  7. Hypervelocity Dust Injection for Plasma Diagnostic Applications

    Ticos, Catalin

    2005-10-01

    Hypervelocity micron-size dust grain injection was proposed for high-temperature magnetized plasma diagnosis. Multiple dust grains are launched simultaneously into high temperature plasmas at several km/s or more. The hypervelocity dust grains are ablated by the electron and ion fluxes. Fast imaging of the resulting luminous plumes attached to each grain is expected to yield local magnetic field vectors. Combination of multiple local magnetic field vectors reproduces 2D or even 3D maps of the internal magnetic field topology. Key features of HDI are: (1) a high spatial resolution, due to a relatively small transverse size of the elongated tail, and (2) a small perturbation level, as the dust grains introduce negligible number of particles compared to the plasma particle inventory. The latter advantage, however, could be seriously compromised if the gas load from the accelerator has an unobstructed access to the diagnosed plasma. Construction of a HDI diagnostic for National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), which includes a coaxial plasma gun for dust grain acceleration, is underway. Hydrogen and deuterium gas discharges inside accelerator are created by a ˜ 1 mF capacitor bank pre-charged up to 10 kV. The diagnostic apparatus also comprises a dust dispenser for pre-loading the accelerator with dust grains, and an imaging system that has a high spatial and temporal resolution.

  8. Diagnostics for the Plasma Liner Experiment

    Lynn, A. G.; Merritt, E.; Gilmore, M.; Hsu, S. C.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Cassibry, J. T.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) is to explore and demonstrate the feasibility of forming imploding spherical ''plasma liners'' via merging high Mach number plasma jets to reach peak liner pressures of ∼0.1 Mbar using ∼1.5 MJ of initial stored energy. Such a system would provide HED plasmas for a variety of fundamental HEDLP, laboratory astrophysics, and materials science studies, as well as a platform for experimental validation of rad-hydro and rad-MHD simulations. It could also prove attractive as a potential standoff driver for magnetoinertial fusion. Predicted parameters from jet formation to liner stagnation cover a large range of plasma density and temperature, varying from n i ∼10 16 cm -3 , T e ≅T i ∼1 eV at the plasma gun mouth to n i >10 19 cm -3 , T e ≅T i ∼0.5 keV at stagnation. This presents a challenging problem for the plasma diagnostics suite which will be discussed.

  9. Diagnostics for the plasma liner experiment.

    Lynn, A G; Merritt, E; Gilmore, M; Hsu, S C; Witherspoon, F D; Cassibry, J T

    2010-10-01

    The goal of the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) is to explore and demonstrate the feasibility of forming imploding spherical "plasma liners" via merging high Mach number plasma jets to reach peak liner pressures of ∼0.1 Mbar using ∼1.5 MJ of initial stored energy. Such a system would provide HED plasmas for a variety of fundamental HEDLP, laboratory astrophysics, and materials science studies, as well as a platform for experimental validation of rad-hydro and rad-MHD simulations. It could also prove attractive as a potential standoff driver for magnetoinertial fusion. Predicted parameters from jet formation to liner stagnation cover a large range of plasma density and temperature, varying from n(i)∼10(16) cm(-3), T(e)≈T(i)∼1 eV at the plasma gun mouth to n(i)>10(19) cm(-3), T(e)≈T(i)∼0.5 keV at stagnation. This presents a challenging problem for the plasma diagnostics suite which will be discussed.

  10. Plasma diagnostics for the compact ignition tokamak

    Medley, S.S.; Young, K.M.

    1988-06-01

    The primary mission of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is to study the physics of alpha-particle heating in an ignited D-T plasma. A burn time of about 10 /tau//sub E/ is projected in a divertor configuration with baseline machine design parameters of R=2.10 m, 1=0.65 m, b=1.30 m, I/sub p/=11 MA, B/sub T/=10 T and 10-20 MW of auxiliary rf heating. Plasma temperatures and density are expected to reach T/sub e/(O) /approximately/20 keV, T/sub i/(O) /approximately/30 keV, and n/sub e/(O) /approximately/ 1 /times/ 10 21 m/sup /minus/3/. The combined effects of restricted port access to the plasma, the presence of severe neutron and gamma radiation backgrounds, and the necessity for remote of in-cell components create challenging design problems for all of the conventional diagnostic associated with tokamak operations. In addition, new techniques must be developed to diagnose the evolution in space, time, and energy of the confined alpha distribution as well as potential plasma instabilities driven by collective alpha-particle effects. The design effort for CIT diagnostics is presently in the conceptual phase with activity being focused on the selection of a viable diagnostic set and the identification of essential research and development projects to support this process. A review of these design issues and other aspects impacting the selection of diagnostic techniques for the CIT experiment will be presented. 28 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  11. MFTF plasma diagnostics data acquisition system

    Davis, G.E.; Coffield, F.E.

    1979-01-01

    The initial goal of the Data Acquisition System (DAS) is to control 11 instruments chosen as the startup diagnostic set and to collect, process, and display the data that these instruments produce. These instruments are described in a paper by Stan Thomas, et. al. entitled ''MFTF Plasma Diagnostics System.'' The DAS must be modular and flexible enough to allow upgrades in the quantity of data taken by an instrument, and also to allow new instruments to be added to the system. This is particularly necessary to support a research project where needs and requirements may change rapidly as a result of experimental findings. Typically, the startup configuration of the diagnostic instruments will contain only a fraction of the planned detectors, and produce approximately one half the data that the expanded version is designed to generate. Expansion of the system will occur in fiscal year 1982

  12. NSTX Diagnostics for Fusion Plasma Science Studies

    Kaita, R.; Johnson, D.; Roquemore, L.; Bitter, M.; Levinton, F.; Paoletti, F.; Stutman, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will discuss how plasma science issues are addressed by the diagnostics for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), the newest large-scale machine in the magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) program. The development of new schemes for plasma confinement involves the interplay of experimental results and theoretical interpretations. A fundamental requirement, for example, is a determination of the equilibria for these configurations. For MCF, this is well established in the solutions of the Grad-Shafranov equation. While it is simple to state its basis in the balance between the kinetic and magnetic pressures, what they are as functions of space and time are often not easy to obtain. Quantities like the plasma pressure and current density are not directly measurable. They are derived from data that are themselves complex products of more basic parameters. The same difficulties apply to the understanding of plasma instabilities. Not only are the needs for spatial and temporal resolution more stringent, but the wave parameters which characterize the instabilities are difficult to resolve. We will show how solutions to the problems of diagnostic design on NSTX, and the physics insight the data analysis provides, benefits both NSTX and the broader scientific community

  13. Plasma impact on diagnostic mirrors in JET

    A. Garcia-Carrasco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Metallic mirrors will be essential components of all optical systems for plasma diagnosis in ITER. This contribution provides a comprehensive account on plasma impact on diagnostic mirrors in JET with the ITER-Like Wall. Specimens from the First Mirror Test and the lithium-beam diagnostic have been studied by spectrophotometry, ion beam analysis and electron microscopy. Test mirrors made of molybdenum were retrieved from the main chamber and the divertor after exposure to the 2013–2014 experimental campaign. In the main chamber, only mirrors located at the entrance of the carrier lost reflectivity (Be deposition, while those located deeper in the carrier were only slightly affected. The performance of mirrors in the JET divertor was strongly degraded by deposition of beryllium, tungsten and other species. Mirrors from the lithium-beam diagnostic have been studied for the first time. Gold coatings were severely damaged by intense arcing. As a consequence, material mixing of the gold layer with the stainless steel substrate occurred. Total reflectivity dropped from over 90% to less than 60%, i.e. to the level typical for stainless steel.

  14. Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    Nakamura, K.; Gonsalves, A.J.; Lin, C.; Sokollik, T.; Smith, A.; Rodgers, D.; Donahue, R.; Bryne, W.; Leemans, W.P.

    2010-01-01

    The electron energy dependence of a scintillating screen (Lanex Fast) was studied with sub-nanosecond electron beams ranging from 106 MeV to 1522 MeV at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron booster accelerator. The sensitivity of the Lanex Fast decreased by 1percent per 100 MeV increase of the energy. The linear response of the screen against the charge was verified with charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm2 and 0.4 pC/ps/mm2, respectively. For electron beams from the laser plasma accelerator, a comprehensive study of charge diagnostics has been performed using a Lanex screen, an integrating current transformer, and an activation based measurement. The charge measured by each diagnostic was found to be within +/-10 percent.

  15. Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    Nakamura, K.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Lin, C.; Sokollik, T.; Smith, A.; Rodgers, D.; Donahue, R.; Bryne, W.; Leemans, W. P.

    2010-01-01

    The electron energy dependence of a scintillating screen (Lanex Fast) was studied with sub-nanosecond electron beams ranging from 106 MeV to 1522 MeV at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron booster accelerator. The sensitivity of the Lanex Fast decreased by 1% per 100 MeV increase of the energy. The linear response of the screen against the charge was verified with charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm 2 and 0.4 pC/ps/mm 2 , respectively. For electron beams from the laser plasma accelerator, a comprehensive study of charge diagnostics has been performed using a Lanex screen, an integrating current transformer, and an activation based measurement. The charge measured by each diagnostic was found to be within ±10%.

  16. Diagnostic Development for ST Plasmas on NSTX

    Johnson, D.

    2003-01-01

    Spherical tokamaks (STs) have much lower aspect ratio (a/R) and lower toroidal magnetic field, relative to tokamaks and stellarators. This paper will highlight some of the challenges and opportunities these features pose in the diagnosis of ST plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), and discuss some of the corresponding diagnostic development that is underway. The low aspect ratio necessitates a small center stack, with tight space constraints and large thermal excursions, complicating the design of magnetic sensors in this region. The toroidal magnetic field on NSTX is less than or equal to 0.6 T, making it impossible to use ECE as a good monitor of electron temperature. A promising new development for diagnosing electron temperature is electron Bernstein wave (EBW) radiometry, which is currently being pursued on NSTX. A new high-resolution charge exchange recombination spectroscopy system is being installed. Since non-inductive current initiation and sustainment ar e top-level NSTX research goals, measurements of the current profile J(R) are essential to many planned experiments. On NSTX several modifications are planned to adapt the MSE technique to lower field, and two novel MSE systems are being prototyped. Several high speed 2-D imaging techniques are being developed, for viewing both visible and x-ray emission. The toroidal field is comparable to the poloidal field at the outside plasma edge, producing a large field pitch (>50 o ) at the outer mid-plane. The large shear in pitch angle makes some fluctuation diagnostics like beam emission spectroscopy very difficult, while providing a means of achieving spatial localization for microwave scattering investigations of high-k turbulence, which are predicted to be virulent for NSTX plasmas. A brief description of several of these techniques will be given in the context of the current NSTX diagnostic set

  17. Plasma Diagnostics of Coronal Dimming Events

    Vanninathan, Kamalam; Veronig, Astrid M.; Dissauer, Karin; Temmer, Manuela

    2018-04-01

    Coronal mass ejections are often associated with coronal dimmings, i.e., transient dark regions that are most distinctly observed in Extreme Ultra-violet wavelengths. Using Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) data, we apply Differential Emission Measure diagnostics to study the plasma characteristics of six coronal dimming events. In the core dimming region, we find a steep and impulsive decrease of density with values up to 50%–70%. Five of the events also reveal an associated drop in temperature of 5%–25%. The secondary dimming regions also show a distinct decrease in density, but less strong, decreasing by 10%–45%. In both the core and the secondary dimming the density changes are much larger than the temperature changes, confirming that the dimming regions are mainly caused by plasma evacuation. In the core dimming, the plasma density reduces rapidly within the first 20–30 minutes after the flare start and does not recover for at least 10 hr later, whereas the secondary dimming tends to be more gradual and starts to replenish after 1–2 hr. The pre-event temperatures are higher in the core dimming (1.7–2.6 MK) than in the secondary dimming regions (1.6–2.0 MK). Both core and secondary dimmings are best observed in the AIA 211 and 193 Å filters. These findings suggest that the core dimming corresponds to the footpoints of the erupting flux rope rooted in the AR, while the secondary dimming represents plasma from overlying coronal structures that expand during the CME eruption.

  18. Time resolved two- and three-dimensional plasma diagnostics

    1991-03-01

    This collection of papers on diagnostics in fusion plasmas contains work on the data analysis of inverse problems and on the experimental arrangements presently used to obtain spatially and temporally resolved plasma radial profiles, including electron and ion temperature, plasma density and plasma current profiles. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. 3D Diagnostic Of Complex Plasma

    Hall, Edward; Samsonov, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a three-dimensional(3D) dust particle position diagnostic for complex plasmas. A beam produce by Light Emitting Diodes(LEDs) is formed into horizontal sheet, for the illumination of the particles. The light sheet has a vertical colour gradient across its width, from two opposing colours. The light scattered from the particles is imaged with the camera from above. The horizontal coordinates are measured from the positions on the image. The third coordinate is determined from the colour which represents a position on the gradient of the light sheet. The use of LEDs as a light source reduces a variation in Mie scattered intensity from the particles due to the particle size distribution. The variation would induce a large vertical positional error.

  20. Novel diagnostics for dust in space, Laboratory and fusion plasmas

    Castaldo, C.

    2011-01-01

    In situ diagnostics for mobile dust, based on dust impact ionization phenomena, as well as silica aerogel dust collectors are discussed for applications to space and fusion plasmas. The feasibility of an electro-optical probe to detect hypervelocity (>1 km/s) dust particles in tokamaks is evaluated. For quiescent plasmas, a diagnostic of submicron dust based on measurements of plasma fluctuation spectra can be used (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Passive Spectroscopic Diagnostics for Magnetically-confined Fusion Plasmas

    Stratton, B.C.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.W.; Hillis, D.L.; Hogan, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    Spectroscopy of radiation emitted by impurities and hydrogen isotopes plays an important role in the study of magnetically-confined fusion plasmas, both in determining the effects of impurities on plasma behavior and in measurements of plasma parameters such as electron and ion temperatures and densities, particle transport, and particle influx rates. This paper reviews spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma radiation that are excited by collisional processes in the plasma, which are termed 'passive' spectroscopic diagnostics to distinguish them from 'active' spectroscopic diagnostics involving injected particle and laser beams. A brief overview of the ionization balance in hot plasmas and the relevant line and continuum radiation excitation mechanisms is given. Instrumentation in the soft X-ray, vacuum ultraviolet, ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared regions of the spectrum is described and examples of measurements are given. Paths for further development of these measurements and issues for their implementation in a burning plasma environment are discussed.

  2. Passive Spectroscopic Diagnostics for Magnetically-confined Fusion Plasmas

    Stratton, B. C.; Biter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Hillis, D. L.; Hogan, J. T.

    2007-07-18

    Spectroscopy of radiation emitted by impurities and hydrogen isotopes plays an important role in the study of magnetically-confined fusion plasmas, both in determining the effects of impurities on plasma behavior and in measurements of plasma parameters such as electron and ion temperatures and densities, particle transport, and particle influx rates. This paper reviews spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma radiation that are excited by collisional processes in the plasma, which are termed 'passive' spectroscopic diagnostics to distinguish them from 'active' spectroscopic diagnostics involving injected particle and laser beams. A brief overview of the ionization balance in hot plasmas and the relevant line and continuum radiation excitation mechanisms is given. Instrumentation in the soft X-ray, vacuum ultraviolet, ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared regions of the spectrum is described and examples of measurements are given. Paths for further development of these measurements and issues for their implementation in a burning plasma environment are discussed.

  3. Neutron measurements as fusion plasma diagnostics

    Nishitani, Takeo; Hoek, M.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron measurements play important roles as the diagnostics of many aspects of the plasma in large tokamak devices such as JT-60U and JET. In the d-d discharges of JT-60U, the most important application of the neutron measurement is the investigation of the fusion performance using fission chambers. The ion velocity distribution function, and the triton slowing down are investigated by the neutron spectrometer and the 14 MeV neutron detector, respectively. TANSY is a combined proton-recoil and neutron time-of flight spectrometer for 14 MeV neutrons to be used during the d-t phase at JET. The detection principle is based on the measurements of the flight time of a scattered initial neutron and the energy of a corresponding recoil proton. The scattering medium is a polyethylene foil. The resolution and efficiency, using a thin foil (0.95 mg/cm 2 ), is 155 keV and 1.4x10 -5 cm 2 , respectively. (author)

  4. Rare gases transition probabilities for plasma diagnostics

    Katsonis, K.; Siskos, A.; Ndiaye, A.; Clark, R.E.H.; Cornille, M.; Abdallah, J. Jr

    2005-01-01

    Emission spectroscopy is a powerful optical diagnostics tool which has been largely used in studying and monitoring various industrial, laboratory and natural plasmas. As these plasmas are rarely in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) a prerequisite of satisfactory evaluation of the plasma electron density n e and temperature T e is the existence of a detailed Collisional-Radiative (C-R) model taking into account the main physical processes influencing the plasma state and dynamics of its main constituents. The theoretical spectra which such a model generates match the experimental ones whenever the experimental values of ne and T e are introduced. In practice, in validating such models, discrepancies are observed which often are due to the atomic data included in the C-R model. In generating theoretical spectra pertaining to each atom(ion) multiplet, the most sensible atomic data are the relevant transition probabilities A j→i and electron collision excitation cross sections σ i→j . We note that the latter are actually poorly known, especially for low ionization stages and near the excitation threshold. We address here the evaluation of the former, especially of the A j→i of the Ar 2+ ion responsible for the Ar III spectra and of those of the Xe 2+ ion which are evaluated in an analogous way. Extensive studies of the Ar III and Xe III spectra exist, but the present status of Aj i cannot be considered sufficient for the generation of the theoretical spectra even of the most prominent visible lines coming from the Ar III multiplets 4s - 4p, 5p (corresponding to the well known '' red '' and 'blue' lines of Ar I) 4p - 4d, 5d and 3p - 4s, 5s (resonant) and the analogous Xe III multiplets (which have principal quantum numbers increased by two). Due to the gap observed in the Grotrian diagrams, the resonant lines which, together with the important metastable ones, belong to the 3p - 4s, 5s multiplets, (5p - 6s, 7s for Xe III), give spectra in the UV region. On

  5. Nonneutral plasma diagnostic commissioning for the ALPHA Antihydrogen experiment

    Konewko, S.; Friesen, T.; Tharp, T. D.; Alpha Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The ALPHA experiment at CERN creates antihydrogen by mixing antiproton and positron plasmas. Diagnostic measurements of the precursor plasmas are performed using a diagnostic suite, colloquially known as the ``stick.'' This stick has a variety of sensors and is able to move to various heights to align the desired diagnostic with the beamline. A cylindrical electrode, a faraday cup, an electron gun, and a microchannel-plate detector (MCP) are regularly used to control and diagnose plasmas in ALPHA. We have designed, built, and tested a new, upgraded stick which includes measurement capabilities in both beamline directions.

  6. Multiphoton ionization for hydrogen plasma diagnostics

    Bonnie, J.H.M.

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis the processes leading to the formation of negative ions (H - ) in hydrogen discharges are studied. These ions enable efficient production of a beam of fast neutral particles. Such beams are applied in nuclear fusion research. A model has been generally accepted in which H - is formed by means of dissociative attachment (DA) of electrons to vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules [H 2 (υ'')] molecule: when υ'' is low, electron emission is most probable, but when υ'' is high, H - production dominates. A necessary preliminary to the DA process is the presence of sufficient [H 2 (υ'')] molecules with υ'' > 4. By determining the densities of hydrogen molecules in the various vibrational levels as a function of the various discharge parameters (scaling laws), insight can be gained into the extent to which the DA process contributes to H - formation. Since the de-excitation of [H 2 (υ'')] molecules by H atoms is expected to have a large cross section, it is also relevant to determine the scaling laws for atomic hydrogen. This thesis gives an account of the development of an experimental setup for obtaining such measurements, and reports the first results achieved. In view of the anticipated density of the vibrationally excited molecules and the detection limit considered feasible, the diagnostic chosen was resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI). The principle is based on state-selective ionization with REMPI of particles effusing from the discharge chamber through an aperture in the wall. The ions produced in the REMPI-process are then detected. The use of both an electric and a magnetic field makes it possible to distinguish the REMPI ions from those originating elsewhere, such as plasma ions or photodesorption ions. 145 refs.; 25 figs.; 6 tabs

  7. Magnetic diagnostic plasma position in the TCA/BR tokamak

    Galvao, R.M.O.; Kuznetsov, Yu.K.; Nascimento, I.C.

    1996-01-01

    The cross-section of the plasma column is TCA/BR has a nearly circular plasma shape. This allows implementation of simplified methods of magnetic diagnostics. Although these methods were in may tokamaks and are well described, their accuracies are not clearly defined because the very simplified theoretical model of plasma equilibrium on which they are based differs from the real conditions in tokamaks like TCA/BR. In this paper we present the methods of plasma position diagnostics in TCA/BR from external magnetic measurements with an error analysis. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  8. Applying Fibre Optics to Plasma Jet Diagnostics

    Šonský, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2007), s. 15-31 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/1341; GA ČR GA202/05/0728 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : plasma jet * plasma torch * photodiode array Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  9. Second topical conference on high-temperature plasma diagnostics

    Jahoda, F.C.; Freese, K.B.

    1978-02-01

    This report contains the program and abstracts of papers presented at the Second American Physical Society Topical Conference on High Temperature Plasma Diagnostics, March 1-3, 1978, Santa Fe, New Mexico

  10. Advancements of microwave diagnostics in magnetically confined plasmas

    Mase, A.; Kogi, Y.; Ito, N.; Yokota, Y.; Akaki, K.; Kawahata, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Tokuzawa, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Hojo, H.; Oyama, N.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Park, H. K.; Donne, A. J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Microwave to millimeter-wave diagnostic techniques such as interferometry, reflectometry, scattering and radiometry have been powerful tools for diagnosing magnetically confined plasmas. Recent advances in electronic devices and components together with computer technology have enabled the

  11. Microwave imaging for plasma diagnostics and its applications

    Mase, A.; Kogi, Y.; Ito, N.

    2007-01-01

    Microwave to millimeter-wave diagnostic techniques such as interferometry, reflectometry, scattering, and radiometry have been powerful tools for diagnosing magnetically confined plasmas. Important plasma parameters were measured to clarify the physics issues such as stability, wave phenomena, and fluctuation-induced transport. Recent advances in microwave and millimeter-wave technology together with computer technology have enabled the development of advanced diagnostics for visualization of 2D and 3D structures of plasmas. Microwave/millimeter-wave imaging is expected to be one of the most promising diagnostic methods for this purpose. We report here on the representative microwave diagnostics and their industrial applications as well as application to magnetically-confined plasmas. (author)

  12. Distortion of plasma diagnostics by an ambient gas

    Pearlman, J.S.; Matzen, M.K.

    1978-03-01

    The effect of vacuum chamber background gas on the ion measurements of a laser-produced, expanding plasma is studied over a wide range of background gas pressures. Experimental measurements are compared with calculations from a coupled rate equation-hydrodynamics code. The code is then used for a parametric study of the effect of background gas pressure on plasma diagnostic measurements. Charge exchange is found to be an important process in our diagnostics above vacuum chamber pressures of 10 -5 Torr

  13. Irradiation effects on plasma diagnostic components

    Nishitani, Takeo; Iida, Toshiyuki; Ikeda, Yujiro

    1998-10-01

    One of the most important issues to develop the diagnostics for the experimental thermonuclear reactor such as ITER is the irradiation effects on the diagnostics components. Typical neutron flux and fluence on the first wall are 1 MW/m 2 and 1 MWa/m 2 , respectively for ITER. In such radiation condition, most of the present diagnostics could not survive so that those will be planed to be installed far from the vacuum vessel. However, some diagnostics sensors such as bolometers and magnetic probes still have to be install inside vessel. And many transmission components for lights, wave and electric signals are inevitable even inside vessel. As a part of this R and D program of the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA), we carried out the irradiation tests on the basic materials of the transmission components and in-vessel diagnostics sensors in order to identify radiation hardened materials that can be used for diagnostic systems. (J.P.N.)

  14. Technology Issues of Burning Plasma Diagnostics

    Kaye, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    The ITER Tokamak will require many diagnostics both for safe and reliable operation of the machine and for understanding of the physics underlying the performance. The design of these diagnostics raises many challenging technical issues not faced on smaller machines. These arise partly from the increase demands on established diagnostics arising from the increased size, higher magnetic field, large heating power, and in particular the dramatically longer pulse duration of ITER, which make issue such as power loading on first wall components more challenging. The demands on reliability and availability of the machine in order to achieve the objectives within the agreed time schedule also place severe additional demands on the design, quality assurance and maintainability of diagnostics. ITER will produce many orders of magnitude more neutrons than previous Tokamaks and will be a licensed nuclear facility. This has important implications for the traceability, quality assurance and availability of safety critical diagnostics, and for the control of the design and procurement of all diagnostics. The high neutron flux/fluence also constrains the design of diagnostics, which must offer shielding consistent with the allowable dose rates on critical components of the Tokamak, and themselves be tolerant of the radiation level at the diagnostic. This paper presents an overview of the more critical issues for ITER diagnostics

  15. Recent Advancements in Microwave Imaging Plasma Diagnostics

    Park, H.; Chang, C.C.; Deng, B.H.; Domier, C.W.; Donni, A.J.H.; Kawahata, K.; Liang, C.; Liang, X.P.; Lu, H.J.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Mase, A.; Matsuura, H.; Mazzucato, E.; Miura, A.; Mizuno, K.; Munsat, T.; Nagayama, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Pol, M.J. van de; Wang, J.; Xia, Z.G.; Zhang, W-K.

    2002-01-01

    Significant advances in microwave and millimeter wave technology over the past decade have enabled the development of a new generation of imaging diagnostics for current and envisioned magnetic fusion devices. Prominent among these are revolutionary microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI), microwave phase imaging interferometers, imaging microwave scattering and microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) systems for imaging electron temperature and electron density fluctuations (both turbulent and coherent) and profiles (including transport barriers) on toroidal devices such as tokamaks, spherical tori, and stellarators. The diagnostic technology is reviewed, and typical diagnostic systems are analyzed. Representative experimental results obtained with these novel diagnostic systems are also presented

  16. Diagnostics of ST Plasmas in NSTX: Challenges and Opportunities

    Johnson, D.; Efthimion, P.; Foley, J.; Jones, B.; Mazzucato, E.; Park, H.; Taylor, G.; Levinton, F.; Luhmann, N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will highlight some of the challenges and opportunities present in the diagnosis of spherical torus (ST) plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and discuss the corresponding diagnostic development that is presently underway. After a brief description of diagnostic systems currently installed, examples of ST-specific diagnostic challenges will be highlighted, as will another case, where the ST configuration offers opportunities for new measurements

  17. Status and challenges in electrical diagnostics of processing plasmas

    Stamate, Eugen

    2014-01-01

    Dry processing based on reactive plasmas was the main driven force for micro- and recently nano-electronic industry. Once with the increasing in plasma complexity new diagnostics methods have been developed to ensure a proper process control during etching, thin film deposition, ion implantation...

  18. A new method of diagnostics for the magnetospheric plasma

    Etcheto, Jacqueline; Petit, Michel

    1977-01-01

    A new diagnostic technique for magnetospheric plasma, based on in situ excitation of the plasma resonances, has been used for the first time on board the Geos satellite. The preliminary results are very gratifying: electron density and magnetic field intensity are derived reliably and accurately from the resonances observed; hopefully, temperature and electric field will be deduced from the data as well [fr

  19. Multi-Directional Optical Diagnostics of Thermal Plasma Jets

    Hlína, Jan; Chvála, František; Šonský, Jiří; Gruber, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2008), s. 1-6 ISSN 0957-0233 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/05/0728 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : thermal plasma jet * optical diagnostics * Radon transform Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.493, year: 2008

  20. Development of innovative thermal plasma and particle diagnostics

    Bachmann, Benjamin-Leon

    2013-09-24

    Three original plasma diagnostic systems have been developed to investigate transient three-dimensional plasma processes with high spatial and temporal resolution. The developed diagnostics have been analyzed and tested by increasing the complexity from a stationary free burning Argon arc to a dc pulsed process and finally to a transient gas metal arc including droplet transfer through the plasma. The transient plasma parameters that have been determined include three-dimensional axially symmetric plasma densities (n{sub e}, n{sub A}, n{sub A+}, n{sub A++}), electron temperatures (T{sub e}), electrical conductivities (σ{sub el}), magnetic flux densities (B) and current densities (j{sub el}). In the case of a droplet transfer through an arc consisting of an Iron/Argon plasma, the droplet density, surface tension, viscosity, and temperature have been determined.

  1. Workshop on extremely high energy density plasmas and their diagnostics

    Ishii, Shozo

    2001-09-01

    Compiled are the papers presented at the workshop on 'Extremely High Energy Density Plasmas and Their Diagnostics' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. The papers cover physics and applications of extremely high-energy density plasmas such as dense z-pinch, plasma focus, and intense pulsed charged beams. Separate abstracts were presented for 7 of the papers in this report. The remaining 25 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (author)

  2. Edge Plasma Physics and Relevant Diagnostics on the CASTOR tokamak

    Stöckel, Jan; Devynck, P.; Gunn, J.; Martines, E.; Bonhomme, G.; Van Oost, G.; Hron, Martin; Ďuran, Ivan; Pánek, Radomír; Stejskal, Pavel; Adámek, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 3, - (2004), s. 1-6 ISSN 1433-5581. [First Cairo Conference on Plasma Physics & Applications. Cairo, 11.10.2003-15.10.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0786; GA ČR GP202/03/P062 Keywords : tokamak * edge plasma * probe diagnostics * biasing * turbulence * polarization Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  3. Workshop on extremely high energy density plasmas and their diagnostics

    Ishii, Shozo (ed.)

    2001-09-01

    Compiled are the papers presented at the workshop on 'Extremely High Energy Density Plasmas and Their Diagnostics' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. The papers cover physics and applications of extremely high-energy density plasmas such as dense z-pinch, plasma focus, and intense pulsed charged beams. Separate abstracts were presented for 7 of the papers in this report. The remaining 25 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (author)

  4. Advanced probes for edge plasma diagnostics on the CASTOR tokamak

    Stöckel, Jan; Adámek, Jiří; Balan, P.; Hronová-Bilyková, Olena; Brotánková, Jana; Dejarnac, Renaud; Devynck, P.; Ďuran, Ivan; Gunn, J. P.; Hron, Martin; Horáček, Jan; Ionita, C.; Kocan, M.; Martines, E.; Pánek, Radomír; Peleman, P.; Schrittwieser, R.; Van Oost, G.; Žáček, František

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 0 (2006), 012001-012002 E-ISSN 1742-6596. [SECOND INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP AND SUMMER SCHOOL ON PLASMA PHYSICS. Kiten, 03.07.2006-09.07.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100430504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma * tokamak * electric probes * diagnostics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  5. Laser diagnostics and modelling of microwave plasmas

    Carbone, E.A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave induced plasmas are applied in many fabrication processes such as the deposition of SiO2 for the production of optical fibers and the deposition of Si to make solar cells. To control these deposition processes a good understanding of the plasma kinetics is required. Experimental

  6. High speed photography diagnostics in laser-plasma interaction experiments

    Andre, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report on their effort in the development of techniques involved in laser-plasma experiments. This includes not only laser technology but also diagnostics studies and targets design and fabrication. Among the different kind of diagnostics currently used are high speed streak cameras, fast oscilloscopes and detectors sensitive in the i.r., visible, the u.v. region and the x-rays. In this presentation the authors describe the three high power lasers which are still in operation (P 102, OctAL and PHEBUS) and the main diagnostics used to characterize the plasma

  7. Density dependence of line intensities and application to plasma diagnostics

    Masai, Kuniaki.

    1993-02-01

    Electron density dependence of spectral lines are discussed in view of application to density diagnostics of plasmas. The dependence arises from competitive level population processes, radiative and collisional transitions from the excited states. Results of the measurement on tokamak plasmas are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of line intensity ratios for density diagnostics. Also general characteristics related to density dependence are discussed with atomic-number scaling for H-like and He-like systems to be helpful for application to higher density plasmas. (author)

  8. Challenges for Plasma Diagnostic in a Next Step Device (FIRE)

    Young, Kenneth M.

    2002-01-01

    The physics program of any next-step tokamak such as FIRE [Fusion Ignition Research Experiment] sets demands for plasma measurement which are at least as comprehensive as on present tokamaks, with the additional capabilities needed for control of the plasma and for understanding the effects of the alpha-particles. The diagnostic instrumentation must be able to provide the fine spatial and temporal resolution required for the advanced tokamak plasma scenarios. It must also be able to overcome the effects of neutron- and gamma-induced electrical noise in ceramic components or detectors, and fluorescence and absorption in optical components. There are practical engineering issues of minimizing radiation streaming while providing essential diagnostic access to the plasma. Many diagnostics will require components at or close to the first wall, e.g., ceramics and MI cable for magnetic diagnostics and mirrors for optical diagnostics; these components must be mounted to operate, and survive, i n fluxes which require special material selection. A better set of diagnostics of alpha-particles than that available for the TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] is essential; it must be qualified well before moving into D-T [deuterim-tritium] experiments. A start has been made to assessing the potential implementation of key diagnostics for the FIRE device. The present status is described

  9. Laser-aided diagnostics of plasmas and gases

    Muraoka, K

    2000-01-01

    Updated and expanded from the original Japanese edition, Laser-Aided Diagnostics of Gases and Plasmas takes a unique approach in treating laser-aided diagnostics. The book unifies the subject by joining applications instead of describing each application as a totally separate system. In taking this approach, it highlights the relative strengths of each method and shows how they can complement each other in the study of gases and plasmas.The first part of the book presents a general introduction to the laser-aided study of gases and plasmas, including the various principles and hardware needed for each method, while the second part describes the applications of each general system in detail.Beneficial to a wide spectrum of academic and industrial researchers, this book provides a solid examination of the various options and methods available when involved in the analysis and diagnostics of gases and plasmas.

  10. Irradiation effects on plasma diagnostic components

    Nishitani, Takeo [ed.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Iida, Toshiyuki; Ikeda, Yujiro [and others

    1998-10-01

    One of the most important issues to develop the diagnostics for the experimental thermonuclear reactor such as ITER is the irradiation effects on the diagnostics components. Typical neutron flux and fluence on the first wall are 1 MW/m{sup 2} and 1 MWa/m{sup 2}, respectively for ITER. In such radiation condition, most of the present diagnostics could not survive so that those will be planed to be installed far from the vacuum vessel. However, some diagnostics sensors such as bolometers and magnetic probes still have to be install inside vessel. And many transmission components for lights, wave and electric signals are inevitable even inside vessel. As a part of this R and D program of the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA), we carried out the irradiation tests on the basic materials of the transmission components and in-vessel diagnostics sensors in order to identify radiation hardened materials that can be used for diagnostic systems. (J.P.N.)

  11. Lasers as a tool for plasma diagnostics

    Jahoda, F.C.

    1981-01-01

    Lasers can be used as non-perturbative probes to measure many plasma parameters. Plasma refractivity is primarily a function of electron density, and interferometric measurements of phase changes with either pulsed or CW lasers can determine this parameter with spatial or temporal resolution over several orders of magnitude sensitivity by using laser wavelengths from the near uv to the far infrared. Laser scattering from free electrons yields the most fundamental electron temperature measurements in the plasma parameter range where individual scattering events are uncorrelated in phase and ion temperature or plasma wave and turbulence structure in the opposite limit. Laser scattering from bound electrons can be many orders of magnitude larger if the laser is matched to appropriate resonance frequencies and can be used in specialized circumstances for measuring low-ionized impurity or dominant species neutral concentrations and velocities

  12. Plasma diagnostics with a retarding potential analyzer

    Jack, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    The plasma rocket is located at NASA Johnson Space Center. To produce a thrust in space, an inert gas is ionized into a plasma and heated in the linear section of a tokamak fusion device. The magnetic field used to contain the plasma has a magnitude of 2--10 kGauss. The plasma plume has a variable thrust and specific impulse. A high temperature retarding potential analyzer (RPA) is being developed to characterize the plasma in the plume and at the edge of the magnetically contained plasma. The RPA measures the energy and density of ions or electrons entering into its solid angle of collection. An oscilloscope displays the ion flux versus the collected current. All measurements are made relative to the facility ground. Testing of this device involves the determination of its output parameters, sensitivity, and responses to a wide range of energies and densities. Each grid will be tested individually by changing only its voltage and observing the output from the RPA. To verify that the RPA is providing proper output, it is compared to the output from a Langmuir or Faraday probe

  13. Diagnostics and biomedical applications of radiofrequency plasmas

    Lazović, Saša

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present spatial profiles of ion and atomic oxygen concentrations in a large scale cylindrical 13.56 MHz capacitively coupled plasma low pressure reactor suitable for indirect biomedical applications (like treatment of textile to increase antibacterial properties) and direct (treatment of seeds of rare and protected species). Such reactor can easily be used for the sterilization of medical instruments by removing bacteria, spores, prions and fungi as well. We also discuss electrical properties of the system based on the signals obtained by the derivative probes and show the light emission profiles close to the sample platform. In the case of seeds treatment, the desired effect is to plasma etch the outer shell of the seed which will lead to the easier nutrition and therefore increase of the germination. In the case of textile treatment the functionalization is done by bounding atomic oxygen to the surface. It appears that antibacterial properties of the textile are increased by incorporating nanoparticles to the fibres which can successfully be done after the plasma treatment. From these two examples it is obvious that the balance of ion and atomic oxygen concentrations as well as proper choice of ion energy and power delivered to the plasma direct the nature of the plasma treatment.

  14. Edge plasma diagnostics on Tore Supra tokamak

    Fujita, Junji

    1991-01-01

    From 1988 to 1991, the international scientific research 'Diagnosis of peripheral plasma in Tore Supra tokamak' was carried out as a three-year plan receiving the support of the scientific research expense of the Ministry of Education. This is to apply the method of measuring electron density distribution by neutral lithium beam probe spectroscopy to the measurement of the electron density distribution in the peripheral plasma in Tore Supra Tokamak in France. Among many tokamaks in operation doing respective characteristics researches, the Tore Supra generates the toroidal magnetic field by using superconducting coils, and aims at the long time discharge for 30 sec. for the time being, and for 300 sec. in future. In the plasma generators for long time discharge like this, the technology of particle control is a large problem. For this purpose, a divertor was added to the Tore Supra. In order to advance the research on particle control, it is necessary to examine the behavior of plasma in the peripheral part in detail. The measurement of peripheral plasma in tokamaks, beam probe spectroscopy, the Tore Supra tokamak, the progress of the joint research, the problems in the joint research and the perspective of hereafter are reported. (K.I.)

  15. Microwave-plasma interactions studied via mode diagnostics in ALPHA

    Friesen, T., E-mail: tim.friesen@cern.ch [University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Andresen, G. B. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Ashkezari, M. D. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Bertsche, W. [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Bowe, P. D. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Butler, E. [CERN, Physics Department (Switzerland); Cesar, C. L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica (Brazil); Chapman, S. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Charlton, M.; Eriksson, S. [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Fajans, J. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Fujiwara, M. C. [University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Gill, D. R. [TRIUMF (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hangst, J. S. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Hardy, W. N. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hayano, R. S. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics (Japan); Hayden, M. E. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Humphries, A. J. [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-15

    The goal of the ALPHA experiment is the production, trapping and spectroscopy of antihydrogen. A direct comparison of the ground state hyperfine spectra in hydrogen and antihydrogen has the potential to be a high-precision test of CPT symmetry. We present a novel method for measuring the strength of a microwave field for hyperfine spectroscopy in a Penning trap. This method incorporates a non-destructive plasma diagnostic system based on electrostatic modes within an electron plasma. We also show how this technique can be used to measure the cyclotron resonance of the electron plasma, which can potentially serve as a non-destructive measurement of plasma temperature.

  16. Plasma diagnostics by Abel inversion in hyperbolic geometry

    Alhasi, A.S.; Elliott, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Plasma confined in the UMIST linear quadrupole adopts a configuration with approximately hyperbolic symmetry. The normal diagnostic is a Langmuir probe, but we have developed an alternative method using optical emission tomography based upon an analytic Abel inversion. Plasma radiance is obtained as a function of a parameter identifying magnetic flux surfaces. The inversion algorithm has been tested using artificial data. Experimentally, the results show that ionizing collisions cause the confined plasma distribution to broaden as the plasma travels through the confining field. This is shown to be a consequence of the approximate incompressibility of the E x B flow. (author)

  17. Infrared laser scattering system for plasma diagnostics

    Muraoka, K; Hiraki, N; Kawasaki, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1975-05-01

    The possibility of observing the collective scattering of infrared laser light from plasmas is discussed in terms of the laser power requirement, the necessary optical system and the detector performance, and is shown to be feasible with the present day techniques to get the ion temperature by means of a CO/sub 2/ laser on theta pinch plasmas. Based on this estimate, the construction of the TEA CO/sub 2/ laser and the preparations of the optical components have been started and some preliminary results of these are described.

  18. Infrared laser scattering system for plasma diagnostics

    Muraoka, Katsunori; Hiraki, Naoji; Kawasaki, Shoji

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of observing the collective scattering of infrared laser light from plasmas is discussed in terms of the laser power requirement, the necessary optical system and the detector performance, and is shown to be feasible with the present day techniques to get the ion temperature by means of a CO 2 laser on theta pinch plasmas. Based on this estimate, the construction of the TEA CO 2 laser and the preparations of the optical components have been started and some preliminary results of these are described. (auth.)

  19. Diagnostics of mobile dust in scrape-off layer plasmas

    Ratynskaia, S; Castaldo, C; Bergsaaker, H; Rudakov, D

    2011-01-01

    Dust production and accumulation pose serious safety and operational implications for the next generation fusion devices. Mobile dust particles can result in core plasma contamination with impurities, and those with high velocities can significantly contribute to the wall erosion. Diagnostics for monitoring dust in tokamaks during plasma discharges are hence important as they can provide information on dust velocity and size, and-in some cases-on dust composition. Such measurements are also valuable as an input for theoretical models of dust dynamics in scrape-off layer plasmas. Existing in situ dust diagnostics, focusing on the range of dust parameters they can detect, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the diagnostics which allow us to detect tails of the dust velocity and size distributions, e.g. small and very fast particles. Some of the techniques discussed have been adopted from space-related research and have been shown to be feasible and useful for tokamak applications as well.

  20. UV laser ionization and electron beam diagnostics for plasma lenses

    Govil, R.; Volfbeyn, P.; Leemans, W.

    1995-04-01

    A comprehensive study of focusing of relativistic electron beams with overdense and underdense plasma lenses requires careful control of plasma density and scale lengths. Plasma lens experiments are planned at the Beam Test Facility of the LBL Center for Beam Physics, using the 50 MeV electron beam delivered by the linac injector from the Advanced Light Source. Here we present results from an interferometric study of plasmas produced in tri-propylamine vapor with a frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm. To study temporal dynamics of plasma lenses we have developed an electron beam diagnostic using optical transition radiation to time resolve beam size and divergence. Electron beam ionization of the plasma has also been investigated

  1. Physicians' use of plasma methylmalonic acid as a diagnostic tool

    Hvas, A M; Vestergaard, H; Gerdes, Lars Ulrik

    2000-01-01

    with a plasma methylmalonic acid measurement above the reference interval. Information on diagnostic decisions was available for 177 patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reasons for requesting plasma methylmalonic acid and the reactions to the finding of elevated plasma methylmalonic acid. RESULTS: An explicit......OBJECTIVES: To investigate physicians' reasons for requesting plasma methylmalonic acid and their reactions to an increased concentration of plasma methylmalonic acid. DESIGN: Study of medical records. SETTING: Three somatic district hospitals in Denmark. SUBJECTS: Medical records of 198 patients...... reason for requesting plasma methylmalonic acid was stated in 57% of 198 examined medical records, known or suspected anaemia being the most frequent reason. No further action was taken in 109 (62%) of the 177 cases available for follow-up. Amongst the remaining 68 patients, the finding of an increased...

  2. Examples for application and diagnostics in plasma-powder interaction

    Kersten, H; Wiese, R; Thieme, G; Froehlich, M; Kopitov, A; Bojic, D; Scholze, F; Neumann, H; Quaas, M; Wulff, H; Hippler, R

    2003-01-01

    Low-pressure plasmas offer a unique possibility of confinement, control and fine tailoring of particle properties. Hence, dusty plasmas have grown into a vast field and new applications of plasma-processed dust particles are emerging. There is demand for particles with special properties and for particle-seeded composite materials. For example, the stability of luminophore particles could be improved by coating with protective Al 2 O 3 films which are deposited by a PECVD process using a metal-organic precursor gas. Alternatively, the interaction between plasma and injected micro-disperse powder particles can also be used as a diagnostic tool for the study of plasma surface processes. Two examples will be provided: the interaction of micro-sized (SiO 2 ) grains confined in a radiofrequency plasma with an external ion beam as well as the effect of a dc-magnetron discharge on confined particles during deposition have been investigated

  3. Signal processing methods for MFE plasma diagnostics

    Candy, J.V.; Casper, T.; Kane, R.

    1985-02-01

    The application of various signal processing methods to extract energy storage information from plasma diamagnetism sensors occurring during physics experiments on the Tandom Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) is discussed. We show how these processing techniques can be used to decrease the uncertainty in the corresponding sensor measurements. The algorithms suggested are implemented using SIG, an interactive signal processing package developed at LLNL

  4. Plasma diagnostics using synchrotron radiation in tokamaks

    Fidone, I.; Giruzzi, G.; Granata, G.

    1995-09-01

    This report deal with the use of synchrotron radiation in tokamaks. The main advantage of this new method is that it enables to overcome several deficiencies, caused by cut-off, refraction, and harmonic overlap. It also makes it possible to enhance the informative contents of the familiar low harmonic scheme. The basic theory of the method is presented and illustrated by numerical applications, for plasma parameters of relevance in present and next step tokamaks. (TEC). 10 refs., 13 figs

  5. Applications of digital processing for noise removal from plasma diagnostics

    Kane, R.J.; Candy, J.V.; Casper, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    The use of digital signal techniques for removal of noise components present in plasma diagnostic signals is discussed, particularly with reference to diamagnetic loop signals. These signals contain noise due to power supply ripple in addition to plasma characteristics. The application of noise canceling techniques, such as adaptive noise canceling and model-based estimation, will be discussed. The use of computer codes such as SIG is described. 19 refs., 5 figs

  6. Paul Ion Trap as a Diagnostic for Plasma Focus

    Sadat Kiai, S. M.; Adlparvar, S.; Zirak, A.; Alhooie, Samira; Elahi, M.; Sheibani, S.; Safarien, A.; Farhangi, S.; Dabirzadeh, A. A.; Khalaj, M. M.; Mahlooji, M. S.; KaKaei, S.; Talaei, A.; Kashani, A.; Tajik Ahmadi, H.; Zahedi, F.

    2010-02-01

    The plasma discharge contamination by high and low Z Impurities affect the rate of nuclear fusion reaction products, specially when light particles have to be confined. These impurities should be analyzed and can be fairly controlled. This paper reports on the development of a Paul ion trap with ion sources by impact electron ionization as a diagnostic for the 10 kJ Iranian sunshine plasma focus device. Preliminary results of the residual gas are analyzed and presented.

  7. Active neutral particle diagnostics for high temperature plasma

    Tobita, Kenji

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes experimental studies related to active neutral particle diagnostics in the JT-60 tokamak. Detection efficiencies of a micro-channel plate (MCP), which has widely used in plasma diagnostics, were determined for ions and neutrals. Multi-step processes for a neutral beam is predicted to enhance the beam stopping cross section in a plasma. In order to confirm the predictions, shine-through for a hydrogen and for a helium beam was measured in the JT-60 ohmic plasmas. The measurements for a hydrogen beam resulted in the cross sectional enhancement in the beam stopping. The same experiment using a helium beam indicated that the cross sectional enhancement for helium was much smaller than that for hydrogen at almost same plasma parameters. Ion temperature diagnostic using active beam scattering was developed in data processing technique, in consideration of the device function of a neutral particle analyzer and in estimation of the effect of beam ion component. Fundamental experiments for detecting helium ions in a plasma were performed using two-electron transfer reaction between a helium atomic beam and helium ions, and the energy distribution and the density of the helium ions were determined. These experiments demonstrated promise of the two-electron transfer reaction as an alpha ash detection in a burning plasma. A parasitic neutral efflux accompanied by active beam injection was investigated. (J.P.N.)

  8. [Spectroscopic diagnostics of high temperature plasmas

    Moos, W.

    1989-01-01

    A research program in soft x-ray/ultraviolet/visible diagnostics for magnetic fusion is described. Recent results include the electron temperature, electron density and impurity densities during EML activity on the TEXT tokamak. The Zeeman effect induced circular polarization in Li neutral beam emissions has been analyzed to determine the safety factor in sawtoothing and ECRH heated discharge. The reflective properties of multilayer mirrors (10-200 Angstrom) were measured. Future work includes an order of magnitude improvement in the time resolution of the circular-polarimeter, development of a soft x-ray normal incidence spectrometer and a feasibility study for a narrow band x-ray photometer

  9. Ultrafast Diagnostics for Electron Beams from Laser Plasma Accelerators

    Matlis, N.H.; Bakeman, M.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Gonsalves, T.; Lin, C.; Nakamura, K.; Osterhoff, J.; Plateau, G.R.; Schroeder, C.B.; Shiraishi, S.; Sokollik, T.; van Tilborg, J.; Toth, Cs.; Leemans, W.P.

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of diagnostic techniques for measuring key parameters of electron bunches from Laser Plasma Accelerators (LPAs). The diagnostics presented here were chosen because they highlight the unique advantages (e.g., diverse forms of electromagnetic emission) and difficulties (e.g., shot-to-shot variability) associated with LPAs. Non destructiveness and high resolution (in space and time and energy) are key attributes that enable the formation of a comprehensive suite of simultaneous diagnostics which are necessary for the full characterization of the ultrashort, but highly-variable electron bunches from LPAs.

  10. Data needs for diagnostics of low pressure plasmas

    Graham, Bill

    2000-01-01

    The low pressure plasma processing environment is complex and presents many diagnostic challenges. Here the diagnostic techniques used for accurate and detailed measurement of the density and energy distributions of charged and neutral species are reviewed. Most of the techniques rely heavily on atomic and molecular data. The specific data needs of each diagnostic are outlined. It is shown that in total these data needs are vast and diverse and cannot all be met from specific measurements or calculations. The real need is for generic scaling rules for each of the significant atomic and molecular processes

  11. Ultrafast Diagnostics for Electron Beams from Laser Plasma Accelerators

    Matlis, N. H.; Bakeman, M.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Gonsalves, T.; Lin, C.; Nakamura, K.; Osterhoff, J.; Plateau, G. R.; Schroeder, C. B.; Shiraishi, S.; Sokollik, T.; van Tilborg, J.; Toth, Cs.; Leemans, W. P.

    2010-06-01

    We present an overview of diagnostic techniques for measuring key parameters of electron bunches from Laser Plasma Accelerators (LPAs). The diagnostics presented here were chosen because they highlight the unique advantages (e.g., diverse forms of electromagnetic emission) and difficulties (e.g., shot-to-shot variability) associated with LPAs. Non destructiveness and high resolution (in space and time and energy) are key attributes that enable the formation of a comprehensive suite of simultaneous diagnostics which are necessary for the full characterization of the ultrashort, but highly-variable electron bunches from LPAs.

  12. Three dimensional imaging technique for laser-plasma diagnostics

    Jiang Shaoen; Zheng Zhijian; Liu Zhongli

    2001-01-01

    A CT technique for laser-plasma diagnostic and a three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction program (CT3D) have been developed. The 3D images of the laser-plasma are reconstructed by using a multiplication algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) from five pinhole camera images obtained along different sight directions. The technique has been used to measure the three-dimensional distribution of X-ray of laser-plasma experiments in Xingguang II device, and the good results are obtained. This shows that a CT technique can be applied to ICF experiments

  13. Whispering Gallery Mode Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic for Dusty Plasmas

    Thieme, G.; Basner, R.; Ehlbeck, J.; Roepcke, J.; Maurer, H.; Kersten, H.; Davies, P. B.

    2008-01-01

    Whispering-gallery-mode spectroscopy is being assessed as a diagnostic method for the characterisation of size and chemical composition of spherical particles levitated in a plasma. With a pulsed laser whispering gallery modes (cavity resonances) are excited in individual microspheres leading to enhanced Raman scattering or fluorescence at characteristic wavelengths. This method can be used to gain specific information from the particle surface and is thus of great interest for the characterisation of layers deposited on microparticles, e.g. in molecular plasmas. We present investigations of different microparticles in air and results from fluorescent particles levitated in an Argon rf plasma.

  14. Three dimensional imaging technique for laser-plasma diagnostics

    Shaoen, Jiang; Zhijian, Zheng; Zhongli, Liu [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Chengdu (China)

    2001-04-01

    A CT technique for laser-plasma diagnostic and a three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction program (CT3D) have been developed. The 3D images of the laser-plasma are reconstructed by using a multiplication algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) from five pinhole camera images obtained along different sight directions. The technique has been used to measure the three-dimensional distribution of X-ray of laser-plasma experiments in Xingguang II device, and the good results are obtained. This shows that a CT technique can be applied to ICF experiments.

  15. Development of frequency tunable gyrotrons for plasma diagnostics

    Idehara, T.; Mitsudo, S.; Sabchevski, S.; Glyavin, M.; Ogawa, I.; Sato, M.; Kawahata, K.; Brand, G.F.

    2000-01-01

    Development of two types of frequency tunable gyrotrons are described. One is frequency step-tunable gyrotrons (Gyrotron FU Series) which cover wide range from millimeter to submillimeter wavelength region. The other is a quasi-optical gyrotron operating in 90 and 180 GHz bands. Both are applicable for plasma diagnostics as power sources. (author)

  16. DIAGNOSTICS FOR EROSION AND DEPOSITION PROCESSES IN FUSION PLASMAS

    van Rooij, G. J.; Wright, G. M.

    2010-01-01

    An overview is given of the wide range of diagnostics that is providing valuable information on the interaction between plasma and the material wall in a fusion device. Of each technique, a brief description is given in combination with the main advantages and disadvantages for PSI research.

  17. Diagnostics for erosion and deposition processes in fusion plasmas

    van Rooij, G. J.; Wright, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    An overview is given of the wide range of diagnostics that is providing valuable information on the interaction between plasma and the material wall in a fusion device. Of each technique, a brief description is given in combination with the main advantages and disadvantages for PSI research.

  18. Diagnostics for erosion and deposition processes in fusion plasmas

    van Rooij, G. J.; Wright, G. M.

    2008-01-01

    An overview is given of the wide range of diagnostics that is providing valuable information on the interaction between plasma and the material wall in a fusion device. Of each technique, a brief description is given in combination with the main advantages and disadvantages for PSI research.

  19. Development in Diagnostics Application to Control Advanced Tokamak Plasma

    Koide, Y.

    2008-01-01

    For continuous operation expected in DEMO, all the plasma current must be non-inductively driven, with self-generated neoclassical bootstrap current being maximized. The control of such steady state high performance tokamak plasma (so-called 'Advanced Tokamak Plasma') is a challenge because of the strong coupling between the current density, the pressure profile and MHD stability. In considering diagnostic needs for the advanced tokamak research, diagnostics for MHD are the most fundamental, since discharges which violate the MHD stability criteria either disrupt or have significantly reduced confinement. This report deals with the development in diagnostic application to control advanced tokamak plasma, with emphasized on recent progress in active feedback control of the current profile and the pressure profile under DEMO-relevant high bootstrap-current fraction. In addition, issues in application of the present-day actuators and diagnostics for the advanced control to DEMO will be briefly addressed, where port space for the advanced control may be limited so as to keep sufficient tritium breeding ratio (TBR)

  20. Polarizer design for millimeter-wave plasma diagnostics

    Leipold, Frank; Salewski, Mirko; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2013-01-01

    Radiation from magnetized plasmas is in general elliptically polarized. In order to convert the elliptical polarization to linear polarization, mirrors with grooved surfaces are currently employed in our collective Thomson scattering diagnostic at ASDEX Upgrade. If these mirrors can be substituted...

  1. Infrared laser scattering system for the plasma diagnostics

    Hiraki, Naoji; Kawasaki, Shoji; Muraoka, Katsunori

    1975-01-01

    As the results of the parametric studies of the double discharge TEA CO 2 laser, the required properties on the laser system for the scattering diagnostics of plasmas are shown to be realized with our CO 2 laser. The direction of the future improvements of the laser performance is also discussed. (auth.)

  2. ICTP-IAEA Workshop on Dense Magnetized Plasma and Plasma Diagnostics: an executive summary

    Gribkov, V.A.; Mank, G.; Markowicz, A.; Miklaszewski, R.; Tuniz, C.; Crespo, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    The Workshop on Dense Magnetized Plasma and Plasma Diagnostics was held from 15 to 26 November 2010 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. It was attended by 60 participants, including 15 lecturers, 2 tutors and 37 trainees, representing 25 countries. (conference report)

  3. ICTP-IAEA Workshop on Dense Magnetized Plasma and Plasma Diagnostics: an executive summary

    Gribkov, V. A.; Mank, G.; Markowicz, A.; Miklaszewski, R.; Tuniz, C.; Crespo, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Workshop on Dense Magnetized Plasma and Plasma Diagnostics was held from 15 to 26 November 2010 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. It was attended by 60 participants, including 15 lecturers, 2 tutors and 37 trainees, representing 25 countries.

  4. Two novel plasma diagnostic tools: fiber sensors and phase conjugation

    Jahoda, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    A rapidly developing technology (single-mode optical fiber sensors) and recent fundamental research in nonlinear optics (phase conjugation) both offer opportunities for novel plasma diagnostics. Single-mode fiber sensors can replace electrical wire probes for current and magnetic field measurements with advantages in voltage insulation requirements, electromagnetic noise immunity, much greater bandwidth, and some configuration flexibility. Faraday rotation measurements through fibers wound on the ZT-40M RFP have demonstrated quantitative results, but competing linear birefringence effects still hinder independent interpretation. Twisted fiber may solve this problem. Optical phase conjugation (in which a phase reversed copy of a laser beam is generated) allows real time distortion corrections in laser diagnostics. Self-pumped phase conjugation in BaTiO 3 improves the quality of phase conjugation imagery and greatly simplifies experimentation directed toward plasma diagnostics. Our initial applications are a) time-differential refractometry with high spatial resolution and b) intracavity absorption Zeeman spectroscopy

  5. Recent reflectometry results from the UCLA plasma diagnostics group

    Gilmore, M.; Doyle, E.J.; Kubota, S.; Nguyen, X.V.; Peebles, W.A.; Rhodes, T.L.; Zeng, L.

    2001-01-01

    The UCLA Plasma Diagnostics Group has an active ongoing reflectometry program. The program is threefold, including 1) profile and 2) fluctuation measurements on fusion devices (DIII-D, NSTX, and others), and 3) basic reflectometry studies in linear and laboratory plasmas that seek to develop new measurement capabilities and increase the physics understanding of reflectometry. Recent results on the DIII-D tokamak include progress toward the implementation of FM reflectometry as a standard density profile diagnostic, and correlation length measurements in QDB discharges that indicate a very different scaling than normally observed in L-mode plasmas. The first reflectometry measurements in a spherical torus (ST) have also been obtained on NSTX. Profiles in NSTX show good agreement with those of Thomson scattering. Finally, in a linear device, a local magnetic field strength measurement based on O-X correlation reflectometry has been demonstrated to proof of principle level, and correlation lengths measured by reflectometry are in good agreement with probes. (author)

  6. Plasma diagnostics by means of electric probes; Diagnostico del plasma por medio de sondas electricas

    Colunga S, S

    1991-04-15

    In this work a summary of the classical theoretical models to interpret the characteristic curve of a Langmuir electric probe placed in a plasma without magnetic field and with the one is made. The methodology for the electron temperature calculation and the density of the plasma in both cases is given, starting from the characteristic curve of the probe, as well as the approaches for the correct application of this diagnostic method of the plasma. (Author)

  7. Irradiation effects on plasma diagnostic components (2)

    Nishitani, Takeo; Sugie, Tatsuo

    2002-03-01

    Irradiation tests on a number of diagnostic components under fission neutrons, gamma-rays and 14 MeV neutrons have been carried out as a part of the ITER technology R and D program. UV range transmission losses of a KU-1 quartz were measured during 14 MeV neutron and 60 Co gamma-ray irradiation. Significant transmission losses were observed in the wavelength of 200-300 nm. Five kinds of ITER round robin fibers were irradiated in JMTR and the 60 Co gamma-ray irradiation facility. KS-4V, KU-H2G and F-doped fibers have a rather good radiation hardness, which might be available just outside of the vacuum vessel in ITER. Mica substrate bolometer was irradiated in JMTR up to 0.1 dpa. During the cool down phase of the first cycle all connections went open circuit. The use of gold meanders in the bolometer might be problematic in ITER. The magnetic probes were irradiated in JMTR. Drift of 10 - 40 mVs for 1000s was observed with a digital longterm integrator, however, which might be induced not only by RIEMF but also drift inside the integrator itself. ITER-relevant magnetic coil could be made with MI-cables, whose electric drift for 1000-s integration is less than 0.5 mVs. (author)

  8. Electron Beam Diagnostics in Plasmas Based on Electron Beam Ionization

    Leonhardt, Darrin; Leal-Quiros, Edbertho; Blackwell, David; Walton, Scott; Murphy, Donald; Fernsler, Richard; Meger, Robert

    2001-10-01

    Over the last few years, electron beam ionization has been shown to be a viable generator of high density plasmas with numerous applications in materials modification. To better understand these plasmas, we have fielded electron beam diagnostics to more clearly understand the propagation of the beam as it travels through the background gas and creates the plasma. These diagnostics vary greatly in sophistication, ranging from differentially pumped systems with energy selective elements to metal 'hockey pucks' covered with thin layers of insulation to electrically isolate the detector from the plasma but pass high energy beam electrons. Most importantly, absolute measurements of spatially resolved beam current densities are measured in a variety of pulsed and continuous beam sources. The energy distribution of the beam current(s) will be further discussed, through experiments incorporating various energy resolving elements such as simple grids and more sophisticated cylindrical lens geometries. The results are compared with other experiments of high energy electron beams through gases and appropriate disparities and caveats will be discussed. Finally, plasma parameters are correlated to the measured beam parameters for a more global picture of electron beam produced plasmas.

  9. Note: Additionally refined new possibilities of plasma probe diagnostics

    Riaby, V. A.; Savinov, V. P.; Masherov, P. E.; Yakunin, V. G.

    2018-03-01

    In two previous Notes published in this journal, a method of measuring probe sheath thickness and ion mass was described using Langmuir probe diagnostics in low pressure xenon plasma close to Maxwellian substance. According to the first Note, this method includes two stages: (i) in a special experiment with known ion mass, the Bohm and Child-Langmuir-Boguslavsky (CLB) equations for cylindrical Langmuir probes used in this xenon plasma were solved jointly to determine the probe sheath thicknesses and Bohm coefficient CBCyl ≈ 1.13; and (ii) in a general experiment, with known CBCyl, the same equations could be solved to obtain the probe sheath thicknesses and the mean ion mass. In the second Note, the (i) stage of this method was refined: the results of the CLB probe sheath model application, which were termed "evaluations," were corrected using the step-front probe sheath model, which was closer to reality in the special experiment with the xenon plasma. This process resulted in a Bohm coefficient of CBCyl ≈ 1.23 for the cylindrical probe. In the present Note, corrected xenon plasma parameters without the influence of the bare probe protective shield were used for the (i) stage of this diagnostic method. This action also refined the Bohm coefficient, lowering it to CBCyl ≈ 0.745 for cylindrical probes. This advance makes the new diagnostics method more objective and reliable.

  10. Nondispersive x-ray diagnostics of short lived plasmas

    Day, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    In this NATO Advanced Study Institute, we have discussed in detail the diagnosis of many pulse power machine properties, including their electrical behavior, grounding and shielding, and related data acquisition techniques. The purpose for many of these machines is to create high temperature/high density plasmas and, therefore, the subsequent behavior of these plasmas is of critical concern. The energy density of these plasmas is such that they will naturally radiate in the x-ray regime and thus the diagnosis of their x-ray emission is a crucial measurement of the entire system performance. In this lecture, I describe the general techniques used to perform nondispersive x-ray diagnostics of these short lived plasmas

  11. Microwave and optical diagnostics in a gadolinium plasma

    Larousse, B.

    1997-01-01

    The optimization of the separation process of the gadolinium isotopes by Ion Cyclotron Resonance requires a precise knowledge of the physical characteristics of the plasma. Thus, two kinds of diagnostics have been developed: the first one to estimate the microwave power inside the source and the second one to measure the density of atomic and ionic of the gadolinium inside the plasma source and in front of the collector. Microwave diagnostic: A microstrip antenna has been designed and developed in order to characterize the microwave at 36 GHz frequency in the plasma source. The experimental results for different plasma regimes are presented. The measurements inside the plasma source show a maximum of microwave absorption for an argon pressure of 10 -4 mb (93% of absorption of the incident wave in the conditions of isotope separation). Laser absorption diagnostic: The theory of laser absorption in presence of a magnetic field is recalled and the first results are presented. In the spectral range between 560 and 620 nm, corresponding to high energy levels of gadolinium, no signal is obtained so that the density is below the detection limit 10 10 cm -3 . In the spectral range between 380 and 400 nm, two lines are observed, issue from the fundamental and metastable (633 cm -1 ) levels. The density of metastable level of gadolinium ions is about 10 10 cm -3 with a relative precision of 15 % and its variation is studied as a function of argon pressure, at different sections of the plasma column (source, collector). The achieved set of measurements has been performed in order to check the theoretical models. (author)

  12. Laser Induced Fluorescence Diagnostic for the Plasma Couette Experiment

    Katz, Noam; Skiff, Fred; Collins, Cami; Weisberg, Dave; Wallace, John; Clark, Mike; Garot, Kristine; Forest, Cary

    2010-11-01

    The Plasma Couette Experiment (PCX) at U. Wisconsin-Madison consists of a rotating high-beta plasma and is well-suited to the study of flow-driven, astrophysically-relevant plasma phenomena. PCX confinement relies on alternating rings of 1kG permanent magnets and the rotation is driven by electrode rings, interspersed between the magnets, which provide an azimuthal ExB. I will discuss the development of a laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic (LIF) to characterize the ion distribution function of argon plasmas in PCX. The LIF system--which will be scanned radially--will be used to calibrate internal Mach probes, as well as to measure the time-resolved velocity profile, ion temperature and density non-perturbatively. These diagnostics will be applied to study the magneto-rotational instability in a plasma, as well as the buoyancy instability thought to be involved in producing the solar magnetic field. This work is supported by NSF and DOE.

  13. Evaluation of two-beam spectroscopy as a plasma diagnostic

    Billard, B.D.

    1980-04-01

    A two-beam spectroscopy (TBS) system is evaluated theoretically and experimentally. This new spectroscopic technique uses correlations between components of emitted light separated by a small difference in angle of propagation. It is thus a non-perturbing plasma diagnostic which is shown to provide local (as opposed to line-of-sight averaged) information about fluctuations in the density of light sources within a plasma - information not obtainable by the usual spectroscopic methods. The present design is an improvement on earlier systems proposed in a thesis by Rostler

  14. Remote network control plasma diagnostic system for Tokamak T-10

    Troynov, V I; Zimin, A M; Krupin, V A; Notkin, G E; Nurgaliev, M R

    2016-01-01

    The parameters of molecular plasma in closed magnetic trap is studied in this paper. Using the system of molecular diagnostics, which was designed by the authors on the «Tokamak T-10» facility, the radiation of hydrogen isotopes at the plasma edge is investigated. The scheme of optical radiation registration within visible spectrum is described. For visualization, identification and processing of registered molecular spectra a new software is developed using MatLab environment. The software also includes electronic atlas of electronic-vibrational-rotational transitions for molecules of protium and deuterium. To register radiation from limiter cross-section a network control system is designed using the means of the Internet/Intranet. Remote control system diagram and methods are given. The examples of web-interfaces for working out equipment control scenarios and viewing of results are provided. After test run in Intranet, the remote diagnostic system will be accessible through Internet. (paper)

  15. Some non-LTE diagnostic methods for hydrogen plasmas

    Eddy, T.L.; Cho, K.Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper shows that if electric and magnetic fields are not negligible, then the 2-T model assumed by many non-LTE plasma diagnostic techniques may lead to serious errors. Significant difference between T e and T ex have been shown to exist with electric field strengths as low as ∼10 V/cm. Multithermal equilibrium (MTE) calculations show significant deviations in line emission coefficients when T e ≠ T ex compared to equivalent T e ≠ T q . A quasi non-dimentional MTE continuum relation is present to assist in diagnostics. Normalized line emission coefficients verses N e are used to indicate the type and extent of non-LTE. The MTE state diagram for hydrogen is used to show why non-LTE plasmas often appear to be in LTE based on N e determinations

  16. Proton Radiography for the Diagnostics of a Dense Plasma

    Barminova, H. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The possibility of using high-energy proton radiography for dense plasma diagnostics is discussed. The designed telescopic ion optical system for a proton radiography installation with a 1 GeV beam is presented. The schematic diagram of the proton microscope is given. It is shown that the estimate of spatial resolution for the installation obtained with consideration of chromatic aberrations of magnetic quadrupole lenses is limited from below.

  17. Microwave and optical diagnostics in a gadolinium plasma; Diagnostics hyperfrequence et optique dans un plasma magnetise de gadolinium

    Larousse, B. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Procedes d`Enrichissement]|[Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The optimization of the separation process of the gadolinium isotopes by Ion Cyclotron Resonance requires a precise knowledge of the physical characteristics of the plasma. Thus, two kinds of diagnostics have been developed: the first one to estimate the microwave power inside the source and the second one to measure the density of atomic and ionic of the gadolinium inside the plasma source and in front of the collector. Microwave diagnostic: A microstrip antenna has been designed and developed in order to characterize the microwave at 36 GHz frequency in the plasma source. The experimental results for different plasma regimes are presented. The measurements inside the plasma source show a maximum of microwave absorption for an argon pressure of 10{sup -4} mb (93% of absorption of the incident wave in the conditions of isotope separation). Laser absorption diagnostic: The theory of laser absorption in presence of a magnetic field is recalled and the first results are presented. In the spectral range between 560 and 620 nm, corresponding to high energy levels of gadolinium, no signal is obtained so that the density is below the detection limit 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}. In the spectral range between 380 and 400 nm, two lines are observed, issue from the fundamental and metastable (633 cm{sup -1}) levels. The density of metastable level of gadolinium ions is about 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} with a relative precision of 15 % and its variation is studied as a function of argon pressure, at different sections of the plasma column (source, collector). The achieved set of measurements has been performed in order to check the theoretical models. (author) 32 refs.

  18. The possibilities of laser scattering diagnostics in plasmas

    Doebele, H.F.

    1974-01-01

    The laser has opened many new possibilities for plasma diagnostics. Intensive monochromatic light sources with higher precision and better time resolution have helped to improve such well-known techniques as interferometry and Schlieren method. At the same time, the range of applicability was extended into the infrared range. Due to the wave length dependence of the plasma diffraction index, the effects increase approximately lambda in interferometry and approximately lambda 2 in the Schlieren methods. The laser also helped to develop entirely new methods such as utilization of the Faraday effect in the electrons of a plasma in a magnetic field which allows the calculation of the product nsub(e) x B from the rotation of the polarization plane of monochromatic light with linear polarization. Here, too, the effect increases approximately lambda 2 , and measurements have been carried out up to FIR (HCN,337 μ). The best diagnostic possibilities are offered by the Thomson scattering diagnostics. Electron and ion temperatures, electron densities, drift velocities, magnetic fields, wave propagation and dissipation can be measured by this method. (orig./AK) [de

  19. Applications of quantum cascade lasers in plasma diagnostics: a review

    Röpcke, J; Lang, N; Davies, P B; Rousseau, A; Welzel, S

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy based on quantum cascade lasers operating over the region from 3 to 12 µm and called quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy or QCLAS has progressed considerably as a powerful diagnostic technique for in situ studies of the fundamental physics and chemistry of molecular plasmas. The increasing interest in processing plasmas containing hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons, nitrogen oxides and organo-silicon compounds has led to further applications of QCLAS because most of these compounds and their decomposition products are infrared active. QCLAS provides a means of determining the absolute concentrations of the ground states of stable and transient molecular species at time resolutions below a microsecond, which is of particular importance for the investigation of reaction kinetics and dynamics. Information about gas temperature and population densities can also be derived from QCLAS measurements. Since plasmas with molecular feed gases are used in many applications such as thin film deposition, semiconductor processing, surface activation and cleaning, and materials and waste treatment, this has stimulated the adaptation of QCLAS techniques to industrial requirements including the development of new diagnostic equipment. The recent availability of external cavity (EC) QCLs offers a further new option for multi-component detection. The aim of this paper is fourfold: (i) to briefly review spectroscopic issues arising from applying pulsed QCLs, (ii) to report on recent achievements in our understanding of molecular phenomena in plasmas and at surfaces, (iii) to describe the current status of industrial process monitoring in the mid-infrared and (iv) to discuss the potential of advanced instrumentation based on EC-QCLs for plasma diagnostics. (topical review)

  20. Applying Quantum Cascade Laser Spectroscopy in Plasma Diagnostics

    Jürgen Röpcke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The considerably higher power and wider frequency coverage available from quantum cascade lasers (QCLs in comparison to lead salt diode lasers has led to substantial advances when QCLs are used in pure and applied infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, they can be used in both pulsed and continuous wave (cw operation, opening up new possibilities in quantitative time resolved applications in plasmas both in the laboratory and in industry as shown in this article. However, in order to determine absolute concentrations accurately using pulsed QCLs, careful attention has to be paid to features like power saturation phenomena. Hence, we begin with a discussion of the non-linear effects which must be considered when using short or long pulse mode operation. More recently, cw QCLs have been introduced which have the advantage of higher power, better spectral resolution and lower fluctuations in light intensity compared to pulsed devices. They have proved particularly useful in sensing applications in plasmas when very low concentrations have to be monitored. Finally, the use of cw external cavity QCLs (EC-QCLs for multi species detection is described, using a diagnostics study of a methane/nitrogen plasma as an example. The wide frequency coverage of this type of QCL laser, which is significantly broader than from a distributed feedback QCL (DFB-QCL, is a substantial advantage for multi species detection. Therefore, cw EC-QCLs are state of the art devices and have enormous potential for future plasma diagnostic studies.

  1. Plasma diagnostics in the CECI device through visible spectroscopy

    Ueda, M.; Kayama, M.E.; Aso, Y.

    1991-11-01

    In this paper we discuss the application of a visible spectrometer which was used to diagnose a plasma produced in an RFP device, called CECI. A Jobin Yvon, HR-640 S spectrometer with a photomultiplier detector was used to measure the Doppler broadening of lines emitted by the plasma, and allowed to measure the ion temperatures of the order of 2-3 eV. The electron temperature of 40-50 eV was determined by the method of He I line intensity ratio. The spectroscopically determined ion temperature is in better accordance with the 10 eV electron temperature obtained with an electrostatic probe. The line emissions of He II, H I, C II and O II were compared with signals from other diagnostics, and their correlations indicated the presence of MHD instabilities in the plasma. (author)

  2. XII All-Russian conference Diagnostics of high-temperature plasma. Abstracts of reports and conference program

    2007-01-01

    Abstracts of reports made on the XII All-Russian conference on high-temperature plasma diagnostics are presented. The different methods of hot plasma diagnostics are considered, namely microwave diagnostic methods, laser diagnostic techniques, X-ray plasma diagnostics and corpuscular diagnostic methods. The particular attention is given to wall plasma diagnostics and diagnostics of inertial synthesis systems. Current diagnostic tools and metrological provision for plasma diagnostics are considered. The diagnostic complexes of thermonuclear devices are described. The problems of experimental data processing are discussed [ru

  3. High density plasmas and new diagnostics: An overview (invited)

    Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.

    2016-01-01

    One of the limiting factors for the full understanding of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRISs) fundamental mechanisms consists of few types of diagnostic tools so far available for such compact machines. Microwave-to-plasma coupling optimisation, new methods of density overboost provided by plasma wave generation, and magnetostatic field tailoring for generating a proper electron energy distribution function, suitable for optimal ion beams formation, require diagnostic tools spanning across the entire electromagnetic spectrum from microwave interferometry to X-ray spectroscopy; these methods are going to be implemented including high resolution and spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy made by quasi-optical methods (pin-hole cameras). The ion confinement optimisation also requires a complete control of cold electrons displacement, which can be performed by optical emission spectroscopy. Several diagnostic tools have been recently developed at INFN-LNS, including “volume-integrated” X-ray spectroscopy in low energy domain (2-30 keV, by using silicon drift detectors) or high energy regime (>30 keV, by using high purity germanium detectors). For the direct detection of the spatially resolved spectral distribution of X-rays produced by the electronic motion, a “pin-hole camera” has been developed also taking profit from previous experiences in the ECRIS field. The paper will give an overview of INFN-LNS strategy in terms of new microwave-to-plasma coupling schemes and advanced diagnostics supporting the design of new ion sources and for optimizing the performances of the existing ones, with the goal of a microwave-absorption oriented design of future machines

  4. Far-infrared fusion plasma diagnostics. Task IIIA. Final report

    Luhmann, N.C. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The Task IIIA program at UCLA has been concerned with the development of innovative yet practical plasma diagnostic systems capable of providing detailed information essential to the success of the fusion program but not presently available within the fusion community. Historically, this has involved an initial development in the laboratory, followed by a test of feasibility on the Microtor tokamak prior to transfer of the technique/instrument to main line fusion devices. Strong emphasis has been placed upon the far-infrared (FIR) spectral region where novel diagnostic systems and technology have been developed and then distributed throughout the fusion program. The major diagnostics under development have been the measurement of plasma microturbulence and coherent modes via multichannel cw collective Thomson scattering, and the application of phase/polarization imaging techniques to provide accurate and detailed (>20 channel) electron density and current profiles not presently available using conventional methods. The eventual transfer of the above techniques to main line fusion devices is, of course, a major goal of the UCLA development program. The multichannel scattering development at UCLA was efficiently transferred to TEXT a few years ago. The apparatus has been employed to investigate the strong spectral and spatial asymmetries in the microturbulence uncovered through the unique multichannel and spatial scanning capabilities of the system. The scattering apparatus has also produced evidence for the ion pressure gradient driven eta/sub i/ modes thought responsible for anomalous transport in the edge regions of tokamak plasmas, as well as providing insight into the wave-wave coupling processes between various plasma modes

  5. 13. TOPICAL CONFERENCE ON HIGH TEMPERATURE PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM

    Barnes, C.

    2000-01-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) has been employed as a standard electron temperature profile diagnostic on many tokamaks and stellarators, but most magnetically confined plasma devices cannot take advantage of standard ECE diagnostics to measure temperature. They are either overdense, operating at high density relative to the magnetic field (e.g. ω pe >> (Omega) ce in a spherical torus) or they have insufficient density and temperature to reach the blackbody condition (τ > 2). Electron Bernstein waves (EBWs) are electrostatic waves which can propagate in overdense plasmas and have a high optical thickness at the electron cyclotron resonance layers, as a result of their large K i . This talk reports on measurements of EBW emission on the CDX-U spherical torus, where B 0 ∼ 2 kG, e > ∼ 10 13 cm -3 and T e ∼ 10 - 200 eV. Results will be presented for both direct detection of EBWs and for mode-converted EBW emission. The EBW emission was absolutely calibrated and compared to the electron temperature profile measured by a multi-point Thomson scattering diagnostic. Depending on the plasma conditions, the mode-converted EBW radiation temperature was found to be ≤ T e and the emission source was determined to be radially localized at the electron cyclotron resonance layer. A Langmuir triple probe was employed to measure changes in edge density profile in the vicinity of the upper hybrid resonance where the mode conversion of the EBWs is expected to occur. Changes in the mode conversion efficiency may explain the observation of mode-converted EBW radiation temperatures below T e . Initial results suggest EBW emission and EBW heating are viable concepts for plasmas where ω pe >> (Omega) ce

  6. Electron Beam Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    Nakamura, Kei; Gonsalves, Anthony; Lin, Chen; Smith, Alan; Rodgers, David; Donahue, Rich; Byrne, Warren; Leemans, Wim

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive study of charge diagnostics is conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beams produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs). First, a scintillating screen (Lanex) was extensively studied using subnanosecond electron beams from the Advanced Light Source booster synchrotron, at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Lanex was cross calibrated with an integrating current transformer (ICT) for up to the electron energy of 1.5 GeV, and the linear response of the screen was confirmed for charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm 2 and 0.4 pC/(ps mm 2 ), respectively. After the radio-frequency accelerator based cross calibration, a series of measurements was conducted using electron beams from an LPA. Cross calibrations were carried out using an activation-based measurement that is immune to electromagnetic pulse noise, ICT, and Lanex. The diagnostics agreed within ±8%, showing that they all can provide accurate charge measurements for LPAs.

  7. Solar Prominence Modelling and Plasma Diagnostics at ALMA Wavelengths

    Rodger, Andrew; Labrosse, Nicolas

    2017-09-01

    Our aim is to test potential solar prominence plasma diagnostics as obtained with the new solar capability of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We investigate the thermal and plasma diagnostic potential of ALMA for solar prominences through the computation of brightness temperatures at ALMA wavelengths. The brightness temperature, for a chosen line of sight, is calculated using the densities of electrons, hydrogen, and helium obtained from a radiative transfer code under non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) conditions, as well as the input internal parameters of the prominence model in consideration. Two distinct sets of prominence models were used: isothermal-isobaric fine-structure threads, and large-scale structures with radially increasing temperature distributions representing the prominence-to-corona transition region. We compute brightness temperatures over the range of wavelengths in which ALMA is capable of observing (0.32 - 9.6 mm), however, we particularly focus on the bands available to solar observers in ALMA cycles 4 and 5, namely 2.6 - 3.6 mm (Band 3) and 1.1 - 1.4 mm (Band 6). We show how the computed brightness temperatures and optical thicknesses in our models vary with the plasma parameters (temperature and pressure) and the wavelength of observation. We then study how ALMA observables such as the ratio of brightness temperatures at two frequencies can be used to estimate the optical thickness and the emission measure for isothermal and non-isothermal prominences. From this study we conclude that for both sets of models, ALMA presents a strong thermal diagnostic capability, provided that the interpretation of observations is supported by the use of non-LTE simulation results.

  8. Application of optical phase conjugation to plasma diagnostics (invited)

    Jahoda, F.C.; Anderson, B.T.; Forman, P.R.; Weber, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    Several possibilities for plasma diagnostics provided by optical phase conjugation and, in particular, self-pumped phase conjugation in barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ) are discussed. These include placing a plasma within a dye laser cavity equipped with a phase conjugate mirror for intracavity absorption measurements, time differential refractometry with high spatial resolution, and simplified real-time holographic interferometry. The principles of phase conjugation with particular reference to photorefractive media and the special advantages of self-pumped phase conjugation are reviewed prior to the discussion of the applications. Distinctions are made in the applications between those for which photorefractive conjugators are essential and those for which they only offer experimental simplification relative to other types of phase conjugators

  9. Optically pumped FIR lasers and their application in plasma diagnostics

    Bakos, J.S.

    1986-06-01

    The pysics and the construction of the far infrared lasers (FIRL) and of the infrared lasers pumping them are reviewed. The details of the construction, resonating and pumping systems, spectral and power characteristics of the FIRLs are discussed. Recently more than 1000 laser lines are known and used in the 27-80 mm wavelength range, but in many cases the laser kinetics are not fully understood, and some instability phenomena cannot be prevented. New nonlinear processes were found: two-photon pumping, hyper Raman laser tuning and relaxation phenomena. A broad application field, the plasma diagnostics by far infrared lasers is described. Scattering of infrared laser radiation can give new interesting information on the not understood effect of the anomalous transport in the high temperature plasma. (D.Gy.)

  10. Wave launching as a diagnostic tool to investigate plasma turbulence

    Tsui, H.Y.W.; Bengtson, R.D.; Li, G.X.; Richards, B.; Uglum, J.; Wootton, A.J.; Uckan, T.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental scheme to extend the investigation of plasma turbulence has been implemented. It involves driving waves into the plasma to modify the statistical properties of the fluctuations; the dynamic balance of the turbulence is perturbed via the injection of waves at selected spectral regions. A conditional sampling technique is used in conjunction with correlation analyses to study the wave launching and the wave-wave coupling processes. Experimental results from TEXT-U tokamak show that the launched waves interact with the intrinsic fluctuations both linearly and nonlinearly. The attainment of driven nonlinearity is necessary for this diagnostic scheme to work. It is also the key to an active modification and control of edge turbulence in tokamaks

  11. High speed manyframe optical methods for plasma diagnostics

    Erokhin, A.A.; Shikanov, A.S.; Sklizkov, G.V.; Zakharenkov, Yu.A.; Zorev, N.N.

    1979-01-01

    A complex of active optical plasma and strong ionized shock wave diagnostics is described. The complex consisted of a specially developed high speed manyframe systems of shadow, schlieren and interferometric photography. The comparison of results obtained by a simultaneous registration of investigated object by means of different optical methods allowed us to determine optimal employment range for the methods. The sensitivity, temporal and space resolution of each optical method under conditions of high probe radiation refraction are discussed. The application boundaries of these methods for ionized shock wave investigation were found to depend on the shock wave front width. The methods described were used for the study of laser-produced plasma phenomena, occuring in the experiments on powerful nine-channel laser installation ''Kalmar''. (author)

  12. Broadband notch filter design for millimeter-wave plasma diagnostics

    Furtula, Vedran; Michelsen, Poul; Leipold, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Notch filters are integrated in plasma diagnostic systems to protect millimeter-wave receivers from intensive stray radiation. Here we present a design of a notch filter with a center frequency of 140 GHz, a rejection bandwidth of ∼ 900 MHz, and a typical insertion loss below 2 dB in the passband...... of ±9 GHz. The design is based on a fundamental rectangular waveguide with eight cylindrical cavities coupled by T-junction apertures formed as thin slits. Parameters that affect the notch performance such as physical lengths and conductor materials are discussed. The excited resonance mode...

  13. Double-grating polychromator for laser-aided plasma diagnostics

    Mukhin, E.E.; Razdobarin, G.T.; Semenov, V.V.; Shilnikov, A.N.; Sukhanov, V.L.; Tolstjakov, S.Yu.; Kochergin, M.M.; Mihailovskij, Yu.K.; Bakh, L.I.

    2004-01-01

    A wide bandpass double-grating polychromator with high rejection and high transmission has been designed and manufactured for laser-aided plasma diagnostics. The special mount utilizes subtractive dispersion in the second stage of the double polychromator such that the larger dispersion of the second stage is reduced by that of the first stage. This affects the intensity of the stray light background at the laser wavelength. The background at the edge of the laser line was measured at 10 -5 of the light incident on the input slit. At the short end of the 200 nm bandpass, the stray light relative intensity approached 10 -7

  14. Investigation of relativistic laser-plasmas using nuclear diagnostics

    Guenther, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    The present work explores with the development of a novel nuclear diagnostic method for the investigation of the electron dynamics in relativistic laser-plasma interactions. An additional aim of this work was the determination of the real laser peak intensity via the interaction of an intense laser short-pulse with a solid target. The nuclear diagnostics is based on a photo-neutron disintegration nuclear activation method. The main constituent of the nuclear diagnostic are novel pseudoalloic activation targets as a kind of calorimeter to measure the high-energy bremsstrahlung produced by relativistic electrons. The targets are composed of several stable isotopes with different (γ,xn)-reaction thresholds. The activated nuclides were identified via the characteristic gamma-ray decay spectrum by using high-resolution gamma spectroscopy after the laser irradiation. Via the gamma spectroscopy the (γ,xn)-reaction yields were determined. The high-energy bremsstrahlung spectrum has been deconvolved using a novel analysis method based on a modified Penfold-Leiss method. This facilitates the reconstruction of the spectrum of bremsstrahlung photons without any anticipated fit procedures. Furthermore, the characterization of the corresponding bremsstrahlung electrons in the interaction zone is accessible immediately. The consolidated findings about the properties of the relativistic electrons were used to determine the real peak intensity at the laser-plasma interaction zone. In the context of this work, experiments were performed at three different laser facilities. First Experiments were carried out at the 100 TW laser facility at Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intense (LULI) in France and supplementary at the Vulcan laser facility at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in United Kingdom. The main part of the activation experiments were performed at the PHELIX laser facility (Petawatt High Energy Laser for heavy Ion EXperiments) at GSI-Helmholtzzentrum fuer

  15. Neutral Beam Injection for Plasma and Magnetic Field Diagnostics

    Vainionpaa, Jaakko Hannes; Leung, Ka Ngo; Kwan, Joe W.; Levinton, Fred

    2007-01-01

    At the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) a diagnostic neutral beam injection system for measuring plasma parameters, flow velocity, and local magnetic field is being developed. High proton fraction and small divergence is essential for diagnostic neutral beams. In our design, a neutral hydrogen beam with an 8 cm x 11 cm (or smaller) elliptical beam spot at 2.5 m from the end of the extraction column is produced. The beam will deliver up to 5 A of hydrogen beam to the target with a pulse width of ∼1 s, once every 1-2 min. The H1+ ion species of the hydrogen beam will be over 90 percent. For this application, we have compared two types of RF driven multicusp ion sources operating at 13.56MHz. The first one is an ion source with an external spiral antenna behind a dielectric RF-window. The second one uses an internal antenna in similar ion source geometry. The source needs to generate uniform plasma over a large (8 cm x 5 cm) extraction area. We expect that the ion source with internal antenna will be more efficient at producing the desired plasma density but might have the issue of limited antenna lifetime, depending on the duty factor. For both approaches there is a need for extra shielding to protect the dielectric materials from the backstreaming electrons. The source walls will be made of insulator material such as quartz that has been observed to generate plasma with higher atomic fraction than sources with metal walls. The ion beam will be extracted and accelerated by a set of grids with slits, thus forming an array of 6 sheet-shaped beamlets. The multiple grid extraction will be optimized using computer simulation programs. Neutralization of the beam will be done in neutralization chamber, which has over 70 percent neutralization efficiency

  16. PWFA plasma source - interferometric diagnostics for Li vapor density measurements

    Sivakumaran, V.; Mohandas, K.K.; Singh, Sneha; Ravi Kumar, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    A prototype (40 cm long) plasma source based on Li heat pipe oven has been developed for the Plasma Wakefield Acceleration (PWFA) experiments at IPR (IPR), Gujarat as a part of the ongoing Accelerator Programme. Li vapor in the oven is produced by heating solid Li in helium buffer gas. A uniform column of Li plasma is generated by UV photo ionization (193 nm) of the Li vapor in the heat pipe oven. In these experiments, an accurate measurement of Li vapor density is important as it has got a direct consequence on the plasma electron density. In the present experiment, the vapor density is measured optically by using Hook method (spectrally resolved white light interferometry). The hook like structure formed near the vicinity of the Li 670.8 nm resonance line was recorded with a white light Mach Zehnder interferometer crossed with an imaging spectrograph to estimate the Li vapor density. The vapor density measurements have been carried out as a function of external oven temperature and the He buffer gas pressure. This technique has the advantage of being insensitive to line broadening and line shape, and its high dynamic range even with optically thick absorption line. Here, we present the line integrated Lithium vapor density measurement using Hook method and also compare the same with other optical diagnostic techniques (White light absorption and UV absorption) for Li vapor density measurements. (author)

  17. Studies of neutron measurement methods for fusion plasma diagnostics

    Beimer, K.H.

    1986-03-01

    This thesis comprises several studies mainly devoted to neutron measurement systems for plasma diagnostics at JET (Joint European Torus). An in situ calibration of the U-235 fission chamber detectors located at JET is presented. These detectors are used for measuring the neutron yield from the thermonuclear reactions in the plasma. The energy spectrum of the neutrons from the reactions D(d,n) 3 He has been studied by means of a 3 He spectrometer. Especially, it was found that by measuring the width of the full energy peak in the response spectrum of the 3 He-spectrometer, the deuterium distribution in the deuterium targets used can be estimated. In order to measure different neutron energies it is necessary to obtain a detailed knowledge of the response of the spectrometer. Therefore, the response function to monoenergetic neutrons in the energy range 130-3030 keV was experimentally determined. Some work has been related to a design study of a 14 MeV spectrometer for neutron diagnostics. It is a combined proton-recoil and time-of-flight spectrometer for high resolution measurements. The main parts of it are the collimator, the scattering foil, and the detectors for the recoil protons and the scattered neutrons. The influence of proton straggling in the foil on the resolution and efficiency of the spectrometer has been studied. Furthermore, a three dimensional Monte Carlo code has been written and used for the design of the collimator. (author)

  18. X-ray diodes for laser fusion plasma diagnostics

    Day, R.H.; Lee, P.; Saloman, E.B.; Nagel, D.J.

    1981-02-01

    Photodiodes with x-ray sensitive photocathodes are commonly used as broadband x-ray detectors in fusion plasma diagnostics. We have measured the risetime of the detector system and have measured the quantum efficiency between 1 to 500 A of numerous photocathode materials of practical interest. The materials studied include aluminum, copper, nickel, gold, three forms of carbon, chromium, and cesium iodide. The results of the measurements are compared with Henke's semiempirical model of photoyield. We have studied the effects of long-term cathode aging and use as a plasma diagnostic on cathode quantum efficiency. In addition, we have measured the x-ray mass-absorption coefficient of several ultrasoft x-ray windows in energy regions where data were unavailable. Windows studied were made of aluminum, Formvar, polypropylene, and Kimfoil. Measurements between 1 to 50 A were performed with the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's low-energy x-ray calibration facility, and the measurements between 50 to 550 A were performed at the National Bureau of Standard's synchrotron ultraviolet radiation facility

  19. Multi-layer distributed storage of LHD plasma diagnostic database

    Nakanishi, Hideya; Kojima, Mamoru; Ohsuna, Masaki; Nonomura, Miki; Imazu, Setsuo; Nagayama, Yoshio

    2006-01-01

    At the end of LHD experimental campaign in 2003, the amount of whole plasma diagnostics raw data had reached 3.16 GB in a long-pulse experiment. This is a new world record in fusion plasma experiments, far beyond the previous value of 1.5 GB/shot. The total size of the LHD diagnostic data is about 21.6 TB for the whole six years of experiments, and it continues to grow at an increasing rate. The LHD diagnostic database and storage system, i.e. the LABCOM system, has a completely distributed architecture to be sufficiently flexible and easily expandable to maintain integrity of the total amount of data. It has three categories of the storage layer: OODBMS volumes in data acquisition servers, RAID servers, and mass storage systems, such as MO jukeboxes and DVD-R changers. These are equally accessible through the network. By data migration between them, they can be considered a virtual OODB extension area. Their data contents have been listed in a 'facilitator' PostgreSQL RDBMS, which contains about 6.2 million entries, and informs the optimized priority to clients requesting data. Using the 'glib' compression for all of the binary data and applying the three-tier application model for the OODB data transfer/retrieval, an optimized OODB read-out rate of 1.7 MB/s and effective client access speed of 3-25 MB/s have been achieved. As a result, the LABCOM data system has succeeded in combination of the use of RDBMS, OODBMS, RAID, and MSS to enable a virtual and always expandable storage volume, simultaneously with rapid data access. (author)

  20. Construction of a nitrogen laser for plasma diagnostics

    Ishiekwene, G.C.

    1994-07-01

    The challenge faced in finding new sources of energy to bridge the gap between the availability and demand of energy is difficult to be overemphasized. Nuclear fusion seems to provide a potentially limitless source of energy which offers a bright prospect for solving this problem. Although an elaborate programme in fusion may be beyond the economic reach of most third world countries, some modest experiments are necessary to provide an indigenous expertise capable of enhancing international fusion studies. In order to initiate experimental research sufficient for plasma studies at an affordable cost to developing countries, this paper illustrates the construction of a simple, low cost, high power nitrogen laser and investigates some of its performance characteristics. Also, the laser is utilized as a source of illumination in the techniques of shadowgraphy. A series of shadowgrams depicting the temporal development of the plasma discharge is presented. The constructed laser is found to be cost-effective and useful in small-scale researches in laser-plasma diagnostics. (author). 6 refs, 5 figs

  1. Physics basis for MFTF-B

    Baldwin, D.E.; Logan, B.G.; Simonen, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    The physics overview covers the following topics: (1) classical energetics, (2) single-particle adiabaticity and drift effects, (3) equilibrium considerations, (4) low-frequency stability, (5) microstability of plugs and barriers, and (6) electron axial thermal conduction. Operation scenarios and summaries of initial TMX results are also described

  2. Selection of suitable diagnostic techniques for an RF atmospheric pressure plasma

    Kong, M.G.; Deng, X.T.

    2001-01-01

    As an early report of our study, this paper summaries the RF atmospheric pressure plasma system we intend to characterize and a number of diagnostic techniques presently under assessment for our plasma rig. By discussing the advantages and disadvantages of these diagnostic techniques at this meeting, we hope to gain feedback and comments to improve our choice of appropriate diagnostic techniques as well as our subsequent application of these techniques to nonthermal RF atmospheric pressure plasmas

  3. Development of Diagnostics for Large-Scale Experiments with Dense Magnetized Plasmas - MJ Plasma-focus diagnostics systems

    Scholz, M.; Karpinski, L.; Paduch, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Zielinska, E.; Chodukowski, T. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Sadowski, M.J. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)] [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swiert (Poland); Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Czaus, K.; Kwiatkowski, R.; Malinowski, K. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swiert (Poland); Krauz, S. [RNC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mitrovanov, K. [FGUP GNC RF Triniti, Troick (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    This document presents the diagnostics arrangements and interesting results of research on fusion pulsed plasma, which was generated within the large PF-1000 facility operated in the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (Warsaw, Poland). Experimental studies were carried out with the following diagnostic techniques: 1) Rogovski coil for current measurements; 2) Four dI/dt probes in different places around the collector of PF-1000; 3) Voltage divider; 4) Mach-Zender interferometer (16 frames); 5) Fast scintillation probes for X-ray and neutron detection; 6) Silver activation counters; 7) Specially prepared current probes; 8) Thomson spectrometer for mass- and energy-analysis of deuterium beams; 9) Ion-pinhole cameras equipped with nuclear-track detectors, etc. The studies have been carried out with the pure deuterium filling, and particular attention was paid to correlations between the fast-neutron emission and an evolution of plasma parameters. The total fusion-neutron yield, as measured with four silver-activation counters, was found to be up to 7*10{sup 11} per shot, depending on the experimental conditions. Correlations of the neutron pulses with interferometric frame-pictures of the PF pinch column were studied. From time-of-flight (ToF) measurements of the fusion neutrons it was possible to estimate a CM velocity of deuterons involved in the D-D reactions. The fast fusion-produced protons have also been recorded and analyzed by means pinhole cameras and shielded track detectors. The document is composed of an abstract followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  4. Electron beam charge diagnostics for laser plasma accelerators

    K. Nakamura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study of charge diagnostics is conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beams produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs. First, a scintillating screen (Lanex was extensively studied using subnanosecond electron beams from the Advanced Light Source booster synchrotron, at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Lanex was cross calibrated with an integrating current transformer (ICT for up to the electron energy of 1.5 GeV, and the linear response of the screen was confirmed for charge density and intensity up to 160  pC/mm^{2} and 0.4  pC/(ps  mm^{2}, respectively. After the radio-frequency accelerator based cross calibration, a series of measurements was conducted using electron beams from an LPA. Cross calibrations were carried out using an activation-based measurement that is immune to electromagnetic pulse noise, ICT, and Lanex. The diagnostics agreed within ±8%, showing that they all can provide accurate charge measurements for LPAs.

  5. Proceedings of the 13th international symposium on laser-aided plasma diagnostics

    Kawahata, Kazuo

    2007-09-01

    The 9th international symposium on LASER-AIDED PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS was held from 18th November to 21st September, 2007 at Takayama, Japan. This symposium was organized by the National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan. The topics of the symposium include laser diagnostics and diagnostics aided by lasers for fusion plasmas, industrial process plasmas, environmental plasmas as well as for other plasma applications and processes related to plasmas. Hardware development related to laser-aided plasma diagnostics is another topic. Over 80 participants attended this international symposium. 1 Akazaki lecture, 10 general talks, 10 topical talks, 12 short oral talks and 45 posters were presented. This issue is the collection of the papers presented at the title symposium. The 41 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  6. Use of the shearing interferometry for dense inhomogeneous plasma diagnostics

    Zakharenkov, Yu.A.; Sklizkov, G.V.; Shikanov, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated is a possibility of applying the shearing interferometry for diagnostics of a dense inhomogeneous laser plasma which makes it possible to measure the electron density without losses in accuracy near the critical surface. A shearing interferogram is formed upon interference of two identical images of the object under study shifted at some fixed distance. The value of the interference band deflection inside phase inhomogeneity depends on the gradient of the index of refraction in the direction of shift. It has been found that for studying the inner region of the laser plasma a small shift should be used, and for the external one - a large one. The version of a radial shift interferometry is shown to be optimum. For the inner region of the interferogram the error of the electron density restoration does not exceed 10%, and for the external one the error is comparable with that for the version of standard interferometry. A systematic analysis of the optimum type interferometers shows advantages of shearing interferometers. The maximum electron density recorded in experiments makes up approximately equal to 10 20 cm -3 , which is 3-5 times higher than the corresponding value obtained by a standard double-slit type interferometer at equal limiting parameters of the optical system applied

  7. Forbidden lines of highly ionized ions for localized plasma diagnostics

    Hinnov, E.; Fonck, R.; Suckewer, S.

    1980-06-01

    Numerous optically forbidden lines resulting from magnetic dipole transitions in low-lying electron configurations of highly ionized Fe, Ti and Cr atoms have been identified in PLT and PDX tokamak discharges, and applied for localized diagnostics in the high-temperature (0.5 to 3.0 keV) interior of these plasmas. The measurements include determination of local ion densities and their variation in time, and of ion motions (ion temperature, plasma rotations) through Doppler effect of the lines. These forbidden lines are particularly appropriate for such measurements because under typical tokamak conditions their emissivities are quite high (10 11 to 10 14 photons/cm 3 -sec), and their relatively long wavelengths allow the use of intricate optical techniques and instrumentation. The spatial location of the emissivity is directly measurable, and tends to occur near radii where the ionization potential of the ion in question is equal to the local electron temperature. In future larger and presumably higher-temperature tokamaks analogous measurements with somewhat heavier atoms, particularly krypton, and perhaps zirconium appear both feasible and desirable

  8. Spectroscopic diagnostics of tungsten-doped CH plasmas

    Klapisch, M.; Colombant, D.; Lehecka, T.

    1998-11-01

    Spectra of CH with different concentrations of W dopant and laser intensities ( 2.5-10 x10^12 W/cm^2 ) were obtained at NRL with the Nike Laser. They were recorded in the 100-500 eV range with an XUV grating spectrometer. The hydrodynamic simulations are performed with the 1D code FAST1D(J. H. Gardner et al., Phys. Plasmas, 5, May (1998).) where non LTE effects are introduced by Busquet's model( M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B, 5, 4191 (1993); M. Klapisch, A. Bar-Shalom, J. Oreg and D. Colombant, Phys. Plasmas, 5, May (1998).). They are then post-processed with TRANSPEC( O. Peyrusse, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 51, 281 (1994)), a time dependent collisional radiative code with radiation coupling. The necessary atomic data are obtained from the HULLAC code( M. Klapisch and A. Bar-Shalom, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 58, 687 (1997).). The post processing and diagnostics were performed on carbon lines and the results are compared with the experimental data.

  9. Plasma diagnostics package. Volume 1: OSS-1 section

    Pickett, Jolene S. (Compiler); Frank, L. A. (Compiler); Kurth, W. S. (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    This volume (1) of the Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP) final science report contains a summary of all of the data reduction and scientific analyses which were performed using PDP data obtained on STS-3 as a part of the Office of Space Science first payload (OSS-1). This work was performed during the period of launch, March 22, l982, through June 30, l983. During this period the primary data reduction effort consisted of processing summary plots of the data received by the 14 instruments located on the PDP and submitting these data to the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). The scientific analyses during the performance period consisted of general studies which incorporated the results of several of the PDP's instruments, detailed studies which concentrated on data from only one or two of the instruments, and joint studies of beam-plasma interactions with the OSS-1 Fast Pulse Electron Generator (FPEG) of the Vehicle Charging and Potential Investigation (VCAP). Internal reports, published papers and oral presentations which involve PDP/OSS-1 data are listed in Sections 3 and 4. A PDP/OSS-1 scientific results meeting was held at the University of Iowa on April 19-20, 1983. This meeting was attended by most of the PDP and VCAP investigators and provided a forum for discussing and comparing the various results, particularly with regard to the shuttle orbiter environment. One of the most important functional objectives of the PDP on OSS-1 was to characterize the orbiter environment.

  10. Mobile CARS instrument for combustion and plasma diagnostics

    Anderson, T.J.; Eckbreth, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    A mobile CARS system for combustion and plasma diagnostics is described. The instrument is compact, easily transportable, readily adaptable to a wide variety of laboratories and experiments, capable of withstanding high noise and vibration levels, and remotely operable to protect the operator and delicate components from high noise or hazardous environments. The system is intended for single-pulse temperature and concentration measurements in practical combustion systems, such as gas turbines and diesel engines and plasma process applications. The instrument consists of three major subsystems, each of which is easily transportable. The transmitter consists of a modified, commercially available, 20 Hz Nd:YAG laser, self-constructed dye lasers, and appropriate optics to produce the CARS pump and Stokes beams in the properly phase-matched orientation and direct them to the measured point. The transmitter consists of two optical pallets on a 2 1/2- x 5-ft cart and is connected by a single umbilical to the laser power supply. The receiver subsystem is a smaller optical pallet (2 x 2 ft), which collects the Stokes, pump, and CARS beams, separates them, and focuses the CARS beam into an optical fiber for transmission to a remotely located spectrograph. The receiver also contains two photomultiplier tubes, one to monitor alignment of the transmitter and the other, used in conjunction with a reference cell and the residual Stokes and pump beams, to determine gas concentrations

  11. Plasma diagnostic tools for optimizing negative hydrogen ion sources

    Fantz, U.; Falter, H.D.; Franzen, P.; Speth, E.; Hemsworth, R.; Boilson, D.; Krylov, A.

    2006-01-01

    The powerful diagnostic tool of optical emission spectroscopy is used to measure the plasma parameters in negative hydrogen ion sources based on the surface mechanism. Results for electron temperature, electron density, atomic-to-molecular hydrogen density ratio, and gas temperature are presented for two types of sources, a rf source and an arc source, which are currently under development for a neutral beam heating system of ITER. The amount of cesium in the plasma volume is obtained from cesium radiation: the Cs neutral density is five to ten orders of magnitude lower than the hydrogen density and the Cs ion density is two to three orders of magnitude lower than the electron density in front of the grid. It is shown that monitoring of cesium lines is very useful for monitoring the cesium balance in the source. From a line-ratio method negative ion densities are determined. In a well-conditioned source the negative ion density is of the same order of magnitude as the electron density and correlates with extracted current densities

  12. Charge exchange recombination spectroscopy as a plasma diagnostic tool

    Fonck, R.J.

    1984-12-01

    Intensity and line profile measurements of the spectra of light hydrogenic ion which are excited by charge exchange reactions with fast neutral atoms are being widely used as diagnostics for fusion plasma research. This technique, which is referred to as charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, allows measurements of the densities of fully stripped impurity ions and particle transport coefficients with only minor uncertainties arising from atomic processes. The excitation of long wavelength transitions in light ions such as He + , C 5+ , and O 7+ allows relatively easy measurements of ion velocity distributions to determine ion temperatures and plasma rotation velocities. Among its advantages for such measurements are the facts that fiber optic coupling between a remote spectrometer and the immediate reactor environment is possible in many cases. The measurement is localized by the intersection region of a neutral beamline and viewing sightline, and intrinsic ions can be used so that injection of potentially perturbing impurities can be avoided. A particularly challenging application of this technique lies in the diagnosis of alpha particles expected to be produced in the present generation of Q approx. = 1 tokamak experiments

  13. DIAGNOSTIC SPECTROSCOPIQUE EN TEMPERATURE ELECTRONIQUE DES PLASMAS PHOTOIONISES

    A. K Ferouani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we are interested in the diagnostics in electronic temperature of a plasma purely photoionized, based on the intensity ration of lines emitted by ions helium-like, witch have an atomic number Z relatively small. We considered the three lines corresponding to the transitions starting from the excited levels 1s2l towards the fundamental level 1s2 1S0, like appropriate lines. More precisely, the line of resonance w due to the transition 1s2p 1P1 1s2 1 S0, the line of intercombinaison (x,y 1s2p 3 P2,1 1s2 1 S0 as well as prohibited line z due to the transition 1s2 3 S1 1s2 1 S0. These lines appear clearly in the spectra of astrophysical plasmas. As helium-like ion, we chose two, the oxygen O6+ (Z=8 and neon Ne8+ (Z=10. We carried out calculations of the ration of lines intensity G=(zxy/w of O6+ and Ne8+ according to the electronic temperature in the range going from 105 to 107 K. We will see that, like it was shown by Gabriel and Jordan in 1969, this intensity ration can be very sensitive to the temperature electronic and practically independent of the electronic density. Consequently, the ration G can be used to determine in a reliable way the electronic temperature of plasma observed.

  14. Plasma diagnostics package. Volume 2: Spacelab 2 section, part A

    Pickett, Jolene S. (Compiler); Frank, L. A. (Compiler); Kurth, W. S. (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    This volume (2), which consists of two parts (A and B), of the Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP) Final Science Report contains a summary of all of the data reduction and scientific analyses which were performed using PDP data obtained on STS-51F as a part of the Spacelab 2 (SL-2) payload. This work was performed during the period of launch, July 29, l985, through June 30, l988. During this period the primary data reduction effort consisted of processing summary plots of the data received by 12 of the 14 instruments located on the PDP and submitting these data to the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). The scientific analyses during the performance period consisted of follow-up studies of shuttle orbiter environment and orbiter/ionosphere interactions and various plasma particle and wave studies which dealt with data taken when the PDP was on the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm and when the PDP was in free flight. Of particular interest during the RMS operations and free flight were the orbiter wake studies and joint studies of beam/plasma interactions with the SL-2 Fast Pulse Electron Generator (FPEG) of the Vehicle Charging and Potential Investigation (VCAP). Internal reports, published papers and presentations which involve PDP/SL-2 data are listed in Sections 3 and 4. A PDP/SL-2 scientific results meeting was held at the University of Iowa on June 10, l986. This meeting was attended by most of the PDP and VCAP investigators and provided a forum for discussing and comparing the various results, particularly with regard to the PDP free flight.

  15. Diagnostics

    Donné, A.J.H.; Costley, A.E.; Barnsley, R.

    2007-01-01

    of the measurements—time and spatial resolutions, etc—will in some cases be more stringent. Many of the measurements will be used in the real time control of the plasma driving a requirement for very high reliability in the systems (diagnostics) that provide the measurements. The implementation of diagnostic systems...... on ITER is a substantial challenge. Because of the harsh environment (high levels of neutron and gamma fluxes, neutron heating, particle bombardment) diagnostic system selection and design has to cope with a range of phenomena not previously encountered in diagnostic design. Extensive design and R......&D is needed to prepare the systems. In some cases the environmental difficulties are so severe that new diagnostic techniques are required. The starting point in the development of diagnostics for ITER is to define the measurement requirements and develop their justification. It is necessary to include all...

  16. Design advances of the Core Plasma Thomson Scattering diagnostic for ITER.

    Scannell, R.; Maslov, M.; Naylor, G.; O’Gorman, T.; Kempenaars, M.; Carr, M.; Bílková, Petra; Böhm, Petr; Giudicotti, L.; Pasqualotto, R.; Bassan, M.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M.; Huxford, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, November (2017), č. článku C11010. ISSN 1748-0221. [International Symposium on Laser-Aided Plasma Diagnostics (LAPD2017) /18./. Prague, 24.09.2017-28.09.2017] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Nuclear instruments and methods for hot plasma diagnostics * Plasma diagnostics - interferometry * spectroscopy and imaging Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: 2.11 Other engineering and technologies Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-0221/12/11/C11010/pdf

  17. Frontiers of beam diagnostics in plasma accelerators: Measuring the ultra-fast and ultra-cold

    Cianchi, A.; Anania, M. P.; Bisesto, F.; Chiadroni, E.; Curcio, A.; Ferrario, M.; Giribono, A.; Marocchino, A.; Pompili, R.; Scifo, J.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F.; Mostacci, A.; Bacci, A.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L.; Zigler, A.

    2018-05-01

    Advanced diagnostics are essential tools in the development of plasma-based accelerators. The accurate measurement of the quality of beams at the exit of the plasma channel is crucial to optimize the parameters of the plasma accelerator. 6D electron beam diagnostics will be reviewed with emphasis on emittance measurement, which is particularly complex due to large energy spread and divergence of the emerging beams, and on femtosecond bunch length measurements.

  18. Development of a test bed plasma and diagnostic methods for detailed K-shell spectroscopy

    Hall, I.M.; Chambers, D.M.; Courtois, C.; Förster, E.; Gregory, C.D.; Howe, J.; Renner, Oldřich; Uschmann, I.; Woolsey, N.C.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 133, - (2006), s. 1009-1011 ISSN 1155-4339 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser-produced plasmas * x-ray and optical emission * plasma modelling * plasma diagnostics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.315, year: 2006

  19. The inverse problem for the refractometry diagnostics of electromagnetic turbulence in plasma

    Lazarian, A [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics

    1994-06-01

    Turbulence is an important property of laboratory plasmas. A number of relevant diagnostics are based on the interaction of an electromagnetic beam with plasma. Here we discuss a refractometry technique, where information on plasma properties is obtained by probing plasma with a plane polarized electromagnetic beam. It is shown that the problem of recovering statistical properties of plasma turbulence from the line integrated data can be solved uniquely using a realistic model of plasma. Analytical expressions relating statistics of both the random density and random magnetic fields to the measured statistics have been found. This information is of importance in studies of plasma turbulence. (author).

  20. The inverse problem for the refractometry diagnostics of electromagnetic turbulence in plasma

    Lazarian, A.

    1994-01-01

    Turbulence is an important property of laboratory plasmas. A number of relevant diagnostics are based on the interaction of an electromagnetic beam with plasma. Here we discuss a refractometry technique, where information on plasma properties is obtained by probing plasma with a plane polarized electromagnetic beam. It is shown that the problem of recovering statistical properties of plasma turbulence from the line integrated data can be solved uniquely using a realistic model of plasma. Analytical expressions relating statistics of both the random density and random magnetic fields to the measured statistics have been found. This information is of importance in studies of plasma turbulence. (author)

  1. Dynamic mode decomposition for plasma diagnostics and validation

    Taylor, Roy; Kutz, J. Nathan; Morgan, Kyle; Nelson, Brian A.

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate the application of the Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) for the diagnostic analysis of the nonlinear dynamics of a magnetized plasma in resistive magnetohydrodynamics. The DMD method is an ideal spatio-temporal matrix decomposition that correlates spatial features of computational or experimental data while simultaneously associating the spatial activity with periodic temporal behavior. DMD can produce low-rank, reduced order surrogate models that can be used to reconstruct the state of the system with high fidelity. This allows for a reduction in the computational cost and, at the same time, accurate approximations of the problem, even if the data are sparsely sampled. We demonstrate the use of the method on both numerical and experimental data, showing that it is a successful mathematical architecture for characterizing the helicity injected torus with steady inductive (HIT-SI) magnetohydrodynamics. Importantly, the DMD produces interpretable, dominant mode structures, including a stationary mode consistent with our understanding of a HIT-SI spheromak accompanied by a pair of injector-driven modes. In combination, the 3-mode DMD model produces excellent dynamic reconstructions across the domain of analyzed data.

  2. CO{sub 2} laser diagnostics for measurements of the plasma density profile and plasma density fluctuations on LHD

    Vyacheslavov, L.N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Tanaka, K.; Kawahata, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    A CO{sub 2} laser based diagnostics complimentary to the existing FIR interferometer is proposed. It combines interferometry for plasma density profile measurement under conditions of large density gradients, and both imaging and scattering techniques for observation of plasma fluctuations. Two-colour interferometer with a slablike probe beam and a single multichannel linear detector array provide observation of plasma density profile and density fluctuations at two locations along the probe beam. Basic characteristics of the diagnostics are considered as well as some effects that include dispersion and are critical for two colour imaging technique. The results of the bench-top experiments with the prototype of the interferometer are presented. (author)

  3. CO2 laser diagnostics for measurements of the plasma density profile and plasma density fluctuations on LHD

    Vyacheslavov, L.N.; Tanaka, K.; Kawahata, K.

    2001-04-01

    A CO 2 laser based diagnostics complimentary to the existing FIR interferometer is proposed. It combines interferometry for plasma density profile measurement under conditions of large density gradients, and both imaging and scattering techniques for observation of plasma fluctuations. Two-colour interferometer with a slablike probe beam and a single multichannel linear detector array provide observation of plasma density profile and density fluctuations at two locations along the probe beam. Basic characteristics of the diagnostics are considered as well as some effects that include dispersion and are critical for two colour imaging technique. The results of the bench-top experiments with the prototype of the interferometer are presented. (author)

  4. Diagnostic setup for investigation of plasma wall interactions at Wendelstein 7-X

    Neubauer, Olaf; Biel, Wolfgang; Czymek, Guntram; Denner, Peter; Effenberg, Florian; Krämer-Flecken, Andreas; Liang, Yunfeng; Marchuk, Oleksandr; Offermanns, Guido; Rack, Michael; Samm, Ulrich; Schmitz, Oliver; Schweer, Bernd; Terra, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We are investigating plasma wall interactions at Wendelstein 7-X stellarator. • Steady state operation and island divertor are unique. • We are developing diagnostics for divertor plasma and plasma facing surfaces. • A multi-purpose fast manipulator allows for exposure of probes and samples. • Versatile endoscopes allow for local divertor spectroscopy from IR to UV. - Abstract: Wendelstein 7-X being the most advanced stellarator is currently prepared for commissioning at Greifswald. Forschungszentrum Jülich is preparing a research programme in the field of plasma wall interactions (PWI) by developing a dedicated set of diagnostic systems. The specific interest at Wendelstein 7-X is to understand PWI processes in presence of a 3D plasma boundary of an island divertor. Furthermore, for the first time steady state plasma at high density and low temperature in the divertor region will be available. Since PWI only could be understood in conjunction with the edge plasma properties the aim of the setup is to observe both the edge plasma as well as surface processes. For optimum combination of different diagnostic methods the edge diagnostic systems are aligned toroidally along one out of five magnetic islands. Main systems are a multipurpose fast probe manipulator, two gas boxes in opposite divertor modules together with two endoscopes each observing the divertor regions, a poloidal correlation reflectometer, a dispersion interferometer in the divertor, and VUV and X-ray spectroscopy in the plasma core. The concept of the diagnostic setup is presented in this paper.

  5. Diagnostic setup for investigation of plasma wall interactions at Wendelstein 7-X

    Neubauer, Olaf, E-mail: o.neubauer@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Biel, Wolfgang; Czymek, Guntram; Denner, Peter [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Effenberg, Florian [University Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Krämer-Flecken, Andreas; Liang, Yunfeng; Marchuk, Oleksandr; Offermanns, Guido; Rack, Michael; Samm, Ulrich [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Schmitz, Oliver [University Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Schweer, Bernd [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas – Laboratorium voor Plasmafysica, ERM/KMS, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Terra, Alexis [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We are investigating plasma wall interactions at Wendelstein 7-X stellarator. • Steady state operation and island divertor are unique. • We are developing diagnostics for divertor plasma and plasma facing surfaces. • A multi-purpose fast manipulator allows for exposure of probes and samples. • Versatile endoscopes allow for local divertor spectroscopy from IR to UV. - Abstract: Wendelstein 7-X being the most advanced stellarator is currently prepared for commissioning at Greifswald. Forschungszentrum Jülich is preparing a research programme in the field of plasma wall interactions (PWI) by developing a dedicated set of diagnostic systems. The specific interest at Wendelstein 7-X is to understand PWI processes in presence of a 3D plasma boundary of an island divertor. Furthermore, for the first time steady state plasma at high density and low temperature in the divertor region will be available. Since PWI only could be understood in conjunction with the edge plasma properties the aim of the setup is to observe both the edge plasma as well as surface processes. For optimum combination of different diagnostic methods the edge diagnostic systems are aligned toroidally along one out of five magnetic islands. Main systems are a multipurpose fast probe manipulator, two gas boxes in opposite divertor modules together with two endoscopes each observing the divertor regions, a poloidal correlation reflectometer, a dispersion interferometer in the divertor, and VUV and X-ray spectroscopy in the plasma core. The concept of the diagnostic setup is presented in this paper.

  6. Multi-probe ionization chamber system for nuclear-generated plasma diagnostics

    Choi, W.Y.; Ellis, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the pulsed ionization chamber (PIC) plasma diagnostic system used in studies of nuclear seeded plasma kinetics upgraded to increase the capabilities and extend the range of plasma parameter measurements to higher densities and temperatures. The PIC plasma diagnostic chamber has been provided with additional measurement features in the form of conductivity and Langmuir probes, while the overall experimental system has been fully automated, with computerized control, measurement, data acquisition and analysis by means of IEEE-488 (GPIB) bus control and data transfer protocols using a Macintosh series microcomputer. The design and use of a simple TTL switching system enables remote switching among the various GPIB instruments comprising the multi-probe plasma diagnostic system using software, without the need for a microprocessor. The new system will be used to extend the present study of nuclear generated plasma in He, Ar, Xe, fissionable UF 6 and other fluorine containing gases

  7. THz Backward-wave oscillators for plasma diagnostic in nuclear fusion

    Paoloni, Claudio; Yue, Lingna; Tang, Xiaopin; Zhang, Fuzhi; Popovic, Branko; Himes, Logan; Barchfeld, Robert; Gamzina, Diana; Mineo, Mauro; Letizia, Rosa; Luhmann Jr., Neville C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary form only given. The understanding of plasma turbulence in nuclear fusion is related to the availability of powerful THz sources and the possibility to map wider plasma regions. A novel approach to realize compact THz sources to be implemented in the plasma diagnostic at NSTX experiment (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, USA) is reported.Two novel 0.346 THz Backward-Wave Oscillators (BWOs) have been designed and are presently in the fabrication phase. One BWO is based on the Double...

  8. Relativistic electron kinetic effects on laser diagnostics in burning plasmas

    Mirnov, V. V.; Den Hartog, D. J.

    2018-02-01

    Toroidal interferometry/polarimetry (TIP), poloidal polarimetry (PoPola), and Thomson scattering systems (TS) are major optical diagnostics being designed and developed for ITER. Each of them relies upon a sophisticated quantitative understanding of the electron response to laser light propagating through a burning plasma. Review of the theoretical results for two different applications is presented: interferometry/polarimetry (I/P) and polarization of Thomson scattered light, unified by the importance of relativistic (quadratic in vTe/c) electron kinetic effects. For I/P applications, rigorous analytical results are obtained perturbatively by expansion in powers of the small parameter τ = Te/me c2, where Te is electron temperature and me is electron rest mass. Experimental validation of the analytical models has been made by analyzing data of more than 1200 pulses collected from high-Te JET discharges. Based on this validation the relativistic analytical expressions are included in the error analysis and design projects of the ITER TIP and PoPola systems. The polarization properties of incoherent Thomson scattered light are being examined as a method of Te measurement relevant to ITER operational regimes. The theory is based on Stokes vector transformation and Mueller matrices formalism. The general approach is subdivided into frequency-integrated and frequency-resolved cases. For each of them, the exact analytical relativistic solutions are presented in the form of Mueller matrix elements averaged over the relativistic Maxwellian distribution function. New results related to the detailed verification of the frequency-resolved solutions are reported. The precise analytic expressions provide output much more rapidly than relativistic kinetic numerical codes allowing for direct real-time feedback control of ITER device operation.

  9. Emissions from heavy current carrying high density plasma and their diagnostics

    Hirano, Katsumi

    1987-06-01

    Workshop on ''Emissions from heavy current carrying high density plasma and diagnostics'' was held at Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University on 3. and 4. December 1986 under a collaborating research Program. The workshop was attended by 43 researchers from 19 labolatories. A total of 22 papers were submitted and are presented in these proceedings. The largest group of papers was that on soft X-ray emission. It seems this topic is a foremost interest for groups which engaged in research of the Z pinch and the plasma focus. A variety of problems in pinched dense plasmas, namely spectroscopy, diagnostics, pinch dynamics, and related engineering aspects were also discussed. (author)

  10. Diagnostics of plasma jet instabilities using fast shutter imaging

    Chumak, Oleksiy; Hrabovský, Milan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, suppl.B (2006), B767-B773 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology /22nd./. Praha, 26.6.2006-29.6.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0669 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma jet * jet instabilities * plasma fluctuation * visualization Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  11. Electron Impact Excitation Cross Sections of Xenon for Optical Plasma Diagnostic

    Srivastava, Rajesh

    2007-01-01

    In this project the researcher had taken up the calculation of xenon apparent emission-excitation cross sections for emission lines that have diagnostic value in the analysis of Xe-propelled electric thruster plasmas...

  12. Present status on atomic and molecular data relevant to fusion plasma diagnostics and modeling

    Tawara, H.

    1997-01-01

    This issue is the collection of the paper presented status on atomic and molecular data relevant to fusion plasma diagnostics and modeling. The 10 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  13. Edge plasma diagnostics in the compact helical system (CHS) device using fast neutral lithium beam

    Ueda, Mario

    1992-05-01

    This paper reports the research activities of the author on using fast neutral lithium beam edge plasma diagnostic, at the Japanese National Institute for Fusion Science compact helical system (CHS). (author). 20 figs.

  14. Proposed neutral-beam diagnostics for fast confined alpha particles in a burning plasma

    Schlachter, A.S.; Cooper, W.S.

    1986-10-01

    Diagnostic methods for fast confined alpha particles are essential for a burning plasma experiment. Several methods which use energetic neutral beams have been proposed. We review these methods and discuss system considerations for their implementation

  15. Quantitative single shot and spatially resolved plasma wakefield diagnostics

    Kasim, Muhammad Firmansyah; Ceurvorst, Luke; Levy, Matthew C; Ratan, Naren; Sadler, James; Bingham, Robert; Burrows, Philip N; Trines, Raoul; Wing, Matthew; Norreys, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosing plasma conditions can give great advantages in optimizing plasma wakefield accelerator experiments. One possible method is that of photon acceleration. By propagating a laser probe pulse through a plasma wakefield and extracting the imposed frequency modulation, one can obtain an image of the density modulation of the wakefield. In order to diagnose the wakefield parameters at a chosen point in the plasma, the probe pulse crosses the plasma at oblique angles relative to the wakefield. In this paper, mathematical expressions relating the frequency modulation of the laser pulse and the wakefield density profile of the plasma for oblique crossing angles are derived. Multidimensional particle-in-cell simulation results presented in this paper confirm that the frequency modulation profiles and the density modulation profiles agree to within 10%. Limitations to the accuracy of the measurement are discussed in this paper. This technique opens new possibilities to quantitatively diagnose the plasma wakefie...

  16. Advanced diagnostics for laser plasma interaction studies and some recent experiments

    Chaurasia, S.; Munda, D.S.; Dhareshwar, L.J.

    2008-10-01

    The complete characterization of Laser plasma interaction studies related to inertial confinement fusion laser and Equation of state (EOS) studies needs many diagnostics to explain the several physical phenomena occurring simultaneously in the laser produced plasma. This involves many on ion emission are important to understand physical phenomena which are responsible for generation of laser plasma as well as its interaction with an intense laser. In this report we describe the development of various x-ray diagnostics which are used in determining temporal, spatial and spectral properties of x-rays radiated from laser produced plasma. Diagnostics which have been used in experiments for investigation of laser-produced plasma as a source of ions are also described. Techniques using an optical streak camera and VISAR which are being used in the Equation of States (EOS) studies of various materials, which are important for material science, astrophysics as well as ICF is described in details. (author)

  17. Development, diagnostic and applications of radio-frequency plasma reactor

    Puac, N.

    2008-07-01

    In many areas of the industry, plasma processing of materials is a vital technology. Nonequilibrium plasmas proved to be able to produce chemically reactive species at a low gas temperature while maintaining highly uniform reaction rates over relatively large areas (Makabe and Petrovic 2006). At the same time nonequilibrium plasmas provide means for good and precise control of the properties of active particles that determine the surface modification. Plasma needle is one of the atmospheric pressure sources that can be used for treatment of the living matter which is highly sensitive when it comes to low pressure or high temperatures (above 40 C). Dependent on plasma conditions, several refined cell responses are induced in mammalian cells (Sladek et al. 2005). It appears that plasma treatment may find many biomedical applications. However, there are few data in the literature about plasma effects on plant cells and tissues. So far, only the effect of low pressure plasmas on seeds was investigated. It was shown that short duration pretreatments by non equilibrium low temperature air plasma were stimulative in light induced germination of Paulownia tomentosa seeds (Puac et al. 2005). As membranes of plants have different properties to those of animals and as they show a wide range of properties we have tried to survey some of the effects of typical plasma which is envisaged to be used in biotechnological applications on plant cells. In this paper we will make a comparison between two configurations of plasma needle that we have used in treatment of biological samples (Puac et al. 2006). Difference between these two configurations is in the additional copper ring that we have placed around glass tube at the tip of the needle. We will show some of the electrical characteristics of the plasma needle (with and without additional copper ring) and, also, plasma emission intensity obtained by using fast ICCD camera.

  18. Current means for plasma diagnostics and their application for materials and environment control. Materials of IV Russian seminar

    2003-01-01

    The collection contains reports made at the Fourth Russian seminar Current means of plasma diagnostics and their application for materials and environment control. The seminar took place in Moscow, November 12-14, 2003. The content of the collection covers both questions of plasma diagnostics in thermonuclear reactors and problems of diagnostics of pulsed and stationary gas discharges in research and technological installations. The reports on plasma diagnostics applied for some tasks of medicine and environment control are presented [ru

  19. Spatial diagnostics of the laser induced lithium fluoride plasma

    Baig, M. A.; Qamar, Aisha; Fareed, M. A.; Anwar-ul-Haq, M.; Ali, Raheel [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2012-06-15

    We present spatial characteristics of the lithium fluoride plasma generated by the fundamental and second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser. The plume emission has been recorded spatially using five spectrometers covering the spectral region from 200 nm to 720 nm. The electron density is measured from the Stark broadened line profile of the line at 610.37 nm, whereas the plasma temperature has been determined using the Boltzmann plot method including all the observed spectral lines of lithium. Both the plasma parameters; electron density and plasma temperature decrease with the increase of the distance from the target surface. The thermal conduction towards the target, the radiative cooling of the plasma, and the conversion of thermal energy into kinetic energy are the main mechanisms responsible for the spatially decrease of the plasma parameters.

  20. Plasma diagnostics in compact torus of UNICAMP (Campinas state university)

    Ueda, M; Doi, Y.; Aramaki, E.A.; Porto, P.; Berni, L.; Machida, M.

    1989-08-01

    This paper which describes experiments carried out in the Compact Torus of UNICAMP (TC-1) is divided into 3 parts: 1) summary of TC-1 characteristics and its operation mode; 2) description of diagnostics in use and ones to be installed, 3) recent experimental results using optical and electromagnetical diagnostics. (author)

  1. Some new possibilities for the diagnostics of single-phase and two-phase plasma jets

    Goldfarb, V M

    1979-02-01

    The literature on three classes of methods for the diagnostics of plasma jets is reviewed. These classes include nonintrusive measurements (spectroscopy, refractometry, scatterometry, and plasma velocimetry) intrusive measurements (electrostatic probes and calorimeters) and measurements of solid-phase properties (pyrometry, particle track records, diffractometry, light attenuation measurements, and laser Doppler velocimeters).

  2. Millimeter-wave receiver design for plasma diagnostics

    Leipold, Frank; Hansen, S. K.; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2016-01-01

    Scattered millimeter waves entering from the collective Thomson scattering diagnostic at ASDEX Upgrade fusion device are generally elliptically polarized. In order to convert the millimeter waves to linearly polarized waves (required for the detector), birefringent window assemblies (sapphire) ha...

  3. Spectroscopic and imaging diagnostics of pulsed laser deposition laser plasmas

    Thareja, Raj K.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of laser spectroscopic techniques used in the diagnostics of laser ablated plumes used for thin film deposition is given. An emerging laser spectroscopic imaging technique for the laser ablation material processing is discussed. (author)

  4. Plasma diagnostic development and UHV testing for the ALPHA collaboration at Marquette University

    Tharp, T. D.; Alpha Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    At Marquette, we are developing the next generation of nonneutral plasma diagnostics for the ALPHA experiment at CERN. ALPHA is building a new vertical experiment to test the gravitational interaction of antihydrogen with Earth. This expansion requires significant changes to the design of our plasma diagnostic suites: the next generation of tools must be able to measure plasmas from two directions, and must be capable of operating in a horizontal position. The diagnostic suite includes measurements of plasma density, shape, and temperature. The hardware used includes a MicroChannel Plate (MCP), a Faraday Cup, and an electron gun. In addition, we are building a vacuum chamber to test the viability of 3-d printed components for UHV compatibility, with target pressures of 10-10 mbar.

  5. Diagnostics of MCF plasmas using Lyman-α fluorescence excited by one or two photons

    Voslamber, D.

    1998-11-01

    Laser-induced Lyman-α fluorescence of the hydrogen isotopes is investigated with regard to diagnostic applications in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. A formal analysis is presented for two excitation schemes: one-photon and Doppler-free two-photon excitation. The analysis includes estimates of the expected experimental errors arising from the photon noise and from the sensitivity of the observed fluorescence signals to variations of the plasma and laser parameters. Both excitation schemes are suitable primarily for application in the plasma edge, but even in the plasma bulk of large machines they can still be applied in combination with a diagnostic neutral beam. The two-photon excitation scheme is particularly attractive because it involves absorption spectra that are resolved within the Doppler width. This implies a large diagnostic potential and in particular offers a way to measure the deuterium-tritium fuel mix in fusion reactors. (author)

  6. Improved Temperature Diagnostic for Non-Neutral Plasmas with Single-Electron Resolution

    Shanman, Sabrina; Evans, Lenny; Fajans, Joel; Hunter, Eric; Nelson, Cheyenne; Sierra, Carlos; Wurtele, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    Plasma temperature diagnostics in a Penning-Malmberg trap are essential for reliably obtaining cold, non-neutral plasmas. We have developed a setup for detecting the initial electrons that escape from a trapped pure electron plasma as the confining electrode potential is slowly reduced. The setup minimizes external noise by using a silicon photomultiplier to capture light emitted from an MCP-amplified phosphor screen. To take advantage of this enhanced resolution, we have developed a new plasma temperature diagnostic analysis procedure which takes discrete electron arrival times as input. We have run extensive simulations comparing this new discrete algorithm to our existing exponential fitting algorithm. These simulations are used to explore the behavior of these two temperature diagnostic procedures at low N and at high electronic noise. This work was supported by the DOE DE-FG02-06ER54904, and the NSF 1500538-PHY.

  7. Dark-ground illumination: a quantitative diagnostic for plasma density

    Paul, S.F.

    1981-01-01

    Radial electron density profiles of a toroidal belt pinch plasma have been obtained by a single measurement. Collimated ruby laser light, incident on the plasma, is focused to a diffraction limited spot (100 μm). The technique, a variation of the dark-ground microscope, involves masking the center of the plasma diffraction pattern with a thin wire. Undiffracted light is blocked by a thin wire, whereas light diffracted by the plasma passes around the wire and onto a photoplate. The resulting interference generates a high contrast fringe pattern whose intensity varies as 1-cosΔ phi, where Δ phi is the phase shift induced by the plasma. The fringes are recorded on Polaroid type 46L transparency film. Using this technique, radial density profiles of the plasma produced in the Columbia Torus I belt pinch have been measured. The plasma minor cross section is elliptical with a approx. 2 cm, b approx. 30 cm and approx. 3 x 10 16 /cm 3 . Average densities as low as 2 x 10 15 /cm 3 have been measured

  8. Magnetic Field Measurements In Magnetized Plasmas Using Zeeman Broadening Diagnostics

    Haque, Showera; Wallace, Matthew; Presura, Radu; Neill, Paul

    2017-10-01

    The Zeeman effect has been used to measure the magnetic field in high energy density plasmas. This method is limited when plasma conditions are such that the line broadening due to the high plasma density and temperature surpasses the Zeeman splitting. We have measured magnetic fields in magnetized laser plasmas under conditions where the Zeeman splitting was not spectrally resolved. The magnetic field strength was determined from the difference in widths of two doublet components, using an idea proposed by Tessarin et al. (2011). Time-gated spectra with one-dimensional space-resolution were obtained at the Nevada Terawatt Facility for laser plasmas created by 20 J, 1 ns Leopard laser pulses, and expanding in the azimuthal magnetic field produced by the 0.6 MA Zebra pulsed power generator. We explore the response of the Al III 4s 2S1/2 - 4p 2P1 / 2 , 3 / 2 doublet components to the external magnetic field spatially along the plasma. Radial magnetic field and electron density profiles were measured within the plasma plume. This work was supported by the DOE/OFES Grant DE-SC0008829 and DOE/NNSA contract DE-FC52-06NA27616.

  9. Spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma during laser processing of aluminium

    Lober, R; Mazumder, J

    2007-01-01

    The role of the plasma in laser-metal interaction is of considerable interest due to its influence in the energy transfer mechanism in industrial laser materials processing. A 10 kW CO 2 laser was used to study its interaction with aluminium under an argon environment. The objective was to determine the absorption and refraction of the laser beam through the plasma during the processing of aluminium. Laser processing of aluminium is becoming an important topic for many industries, including the automobile industry. The spectroscopic relative line to continuum method was used to determine the electron temperature distribution within the plasma by investigating the 4158 A Ar I line emission and the continuum adjacent to it. The plasmas are induced in 1.0 atm pure Ar environment over a translating Al target, using f/7 and 10 kW CO 2 laser. Spectroscopic data indicated that the plasma composition and behaviour were Ar-dominated. Experimental results indicated the plasma core temperature to be 14 000-15 300 K over the incident range of laser powers investigated from 5 to 7 kW. It was found that 7.5-29% of the incident laser power was absorbed by the plasma. Cross-section analysis of the melt pools from the Al samples revealed the absence of any key-hole formation and confirmed that the energy transfer mechanism in the targets was conduction dominated for the reported range of experimental data

  10. Spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma during laser processing of aluminium

    Lober, R.; Mazumder, J.

    2007-10-01

    The role of the plasma in laser-metal interaction is of considerable interest due to its influence in the energy transfer mechanism in industrial laser materials processing. A 10 kW CO2 laser was used to study its interaction with aluminium under an argon environment. The objective was to determine the absorption and refraction of the laser beam through the plasma during the processing of aluminium. Laser processing of aluminium is becoming an important topic for many industries, including the automobile industry. The spectroscopic relative line to continuum method was used to determine the electron temperature distribution within the plasma by investigating the 4158 Å Ar I line emission and the continuum adjacent to it. The plasmas are induced in 1.0 atm pure Ar environment over a translating Al target, using f/7 and 10 kW CO2 laser. Spectroscopic data indicated that the plasma composition and behaviour were Ar-dominated. Experimental results indicated the plasma core temperature to be 14 000-15 300 K over the incident range of laser powers investigated from 5 to 7 kW. It was found that 7.5-29% of the incident laser power was absorbed by the plasma. Cross-section analysis of the melt pools from the Al samples revealed the absence of any key-hole formation and confirmed that the energy transfer mechanism in the targets was conduction dominated for the reported range of experimental data.

  11. Fusion plasma diagnostics with mm-waves an introduction

    Hartfuss, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Filling a gap in the literature, this introduction to the topic covers the physics of the standard microwave diagnostics established on modern fusion experiments, and the necessary technological background from the field of microwave engineering. Written by well-known mm-wave diagnosticians in the field of fusion physics, the textbook includes such major diagnostic techniques as electron cyclotron emission, interferometry, reflectometry, polarimetry, and scattering.

  12. Electromagnetic analysis of ITER diagnostic equatorial port plugs during plasma disruptions

    Zhai, Y.; Feder, R.; Brooks, A.; Ulrickson, M.; Pitcher, C.S.; Loesser, G.D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Disruption loads on ITER diagnostic equatorial port plugs are extracted. ► Upward major disruption produces the largest radial moment and radial force on diagnostic first walls and diagnostic shield modules. ► Large eddy currents on supporting rails, keys and water pipes are observed during disruption. -- Abstract: ITER diagnostic port plugs perform many functions including structural support of diagnostic systems under high electromagnetic loads while allowing for diagnostic access to the plasma. The design of diagnostic equatorial port plugs (EPP) are largely driven by electromagnetic loads and associate responses of EPP structure during plasma disruptions and VDEs. This paper summarizes results of transient electromagnetic analysis using Opera 3d in support of the design activities for ITER diagnostic EPP. A complete distribution of disruption loads on the diagnostic first walls (DFWs), diagnostic shield modules (DSMs) and the EPP structure, as well as impact on the system design integration due to electrical contact among various EPP structural components are discussed

  13. Plasma diagnostics using the He I 447.1 nm line at high and low densities

    Gonzalez, Manuel A [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, E.T.S.I. Informatica, Universidad de Valladolid, 47071 Valladolid (Spain); Ivkovic, Milivoje; Jovicevic, Sonja; Konjevic, Nikola [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, 11081 Belgrade, PO Box 68 (Serbia); Gigosos, Marco A; Lara, Natividad, E-mail: manuelgd@termo.uva.es, E-mail: gigosos@coyanza.opt.cie.uva.es [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47071 Valladolid (Spain)

    2011-05-18

    The broadening of the He I 447.1 nm line and its forbidden components in plasmas is studied using computer simulation techniques and the results are compared with our and other experiments. In these calculations wide ranges of electron densities and temperatures are considered. Experimental measurements are performed with a high electron density pulsed discharge and with a low electron density microwave torch at atmospheric pressure. Both calculations and experimental measurements are extended from previous works towards low electron densities in order to study the accuracy of plasma diagnostics using this line in ranges of interest in different practical applications. The calculation results are compared with experimental profiles registered in plasmas diagnosed using independent techniques. The obtained agreement justifies the use of these line parameters for plasma diagnostics. The influence of self-absorption on line parameters is also analysed. It is shown that the separation between the peaks of the allowed and forbidden components exhibits a clear dependence upon plasma electron density free of self-absorption influence. This allows the peak separation to be used as a good parameter for plasma diagnostics. From the simulation results, a simple fitting formula is applied that permits obtaining the electron number density plasma diagnostics in the range 5 x 10{sup 22}-7 x 10{sup 23} m{sup -3}. At lower densities the fitting of simulated to experimental full profiles is a reliable method for N{sub e} determination.

  14. Development and Integration of a Data Acquisition System for SST-1 Phase-1 Plasma Diagnostics

    Srivastava, Amit K; Sharma, Manika; Mansuri, Imran; Sharma, Atish; Raval, Tushar; Pradhan, Subrata

    2012-01-01

    Long pulse (of the order of 1000 s or more) SST-1 tokamak experiments demand a data acquisition system that is capable of acquiring data from various diagnostics channels without losing useful data (and hence physics information) while avoiding unnecessary generation of a large volume data. SST-1 Phase-1 tokamak operation has been envisaged with data acquisition of several essential diagnostics channels. These channels demand data acquisition at a sampling rate ranging from 1 kilo samples per second (KSPS) to 1 mega samples per second (MSPS). Considering the technical characteristics and requirements of the diagnostics, a data acquisition system based on PXI and CAMAC has been developed for SST-1 plasma diagnostics. Both these data acquisition systems are scalable. Present data acquisition needs involving slow plasma diagnostics are catered by the PXI based data acquisition system. On the other hand, CAMAC data acquisition hardware meets all requirements of the SST-1 Phase-1 fast plasma diagnostics channels. A graphical user interface for both data acquisition systems (PXI and CAMAC) has been developed using LabVIEW application development software. The collected data on the local hard disk are directly streaming to the central server through a dedicated network for post-shot data analysis. This paper describes the development and integration of the data acquisition system for SST-1 Phase-1 plasma diagnostics. The integrated testing of the developed data acquisition system has been performed using SST-1 central control and diagnostics signal conditioning units. In the absence of plasma shots, the integrated testing of the data acquisition system for the initial diagnostics of SST-1 Phase-1 operation has been performed with simulated physical signals. The primary engineering objective of this integrated testing is to validate the performance of the developed data acquisition system under simulated conditions close to that of actual tokamak operation. The data

  15. Plasma Channel Diagnostic Based on Laser Centroid Oscillations

    Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Osterhoff, Jens; Shiraishi, Satomi; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Toth, Csaba; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2010-01-01

    A technique has been developed for measuring the properties of discharge-based plasma channels by monitoring the centroid location of a laser beam exiting the channel as a function of input alignment offset between the laser and the channel. The centroid position of low-intensity ( 14 Wcm -2 ) laser pulses focused at the input of a hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide was scanned and the exit positions recorded to determine the channel shape and depth with an accuracy of a few %. In addition, accurate alignment of the laser beam through the plasma channel can be provided by minimizing laser centroid motion at the channel exit as the channel depth is scanned either by scanning the plasma density or the discharge timing. The improvement in alignment accuracy provided by this technique will be crucial for minimizing electron beam pointing errors in laser plasma accelerators.

  16. The use of laser beams for plasma diagnostics

    Gex, J.P.; Jolas, A.; Launspach, J.; Schirmann, D.

    1975-01-01

    The optical properties of lasers allow them to be a promising source for plasma diagnosis. The Q-switched lasers provide the opportunity to make observations in a very short time interval down to a few picoseconds. The laser space and time coherence properties allow interferometric measurements of plasma electron densities. Thus in the experiments of laser-matter interactions, the radiation obtained by frequency conversion of the Nd: glass laser emission is used for density measurements (up to 10 20 cm -3 ) in small scale plasmas (approximately equal to 1mm). Owing to the monochromaticity and high intensity of the Q-switched laser radiation, density fluctuations and microscopic instabilities of the plasma can be studied by Thompson scattering measurements. Finally, some statistically isotropic media become birefringent under the action of the strong electrical field of the laser beam radiation. This effect can be used for laser pulse duration measurements in a range not exceeding a few picoseconds [fr

  17. Ion temperature profiles along a hydrogen diagnostic beam in a TORE SUPRA tokamak plasma

    Romannikov, A.; Petrov, Yu.; Platts, P.; Khess, V.; Khutter, T.; Farzhon, Zh.; Moro, F.

    2002-01-01

    By means of corpuscular diagnostics one studies temperature of ions along a diagnostic hydrogen beam. Paper presents comparison of temperature of plasma (deuterium) basic ions measures by means of the active corpuscular diagnostics with temperature of C + carbon ions along a beam. One studies behavior peculiarities of T i ion temperature profiles for TORE-SUPRA different modes, such as: formation of plane and even hollow T i profiles for ohmic modes, variation of T i profiles under operation of an ergodic diverter, difference of temperature of basic ions measured by means of the active corpuscular diagnostics from C +5 temperature. Paper offers clear explanation of these peculiarities [ru

  18. Time-dependent electron temperature diagnostics for high-power aluminum z-pinch plasmas

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Nash, T.J.; Mock, R.C.

    1996-08-01

    Time-resolved x-ray pinhole photographs and time-integrated radially-resolved x-ray crystal-spectrometer measurements of azimuthally-symmetric aluminum-wire implosions suggest that the densest phase of the pinch is composed of a hot plasma core surrounded by a cooler plasma halo. The slope of the free-bound x-ray continuum, provides a time-resolved, model-independent diagnostic of the core electron temperature. A simultaneous measurement of the time-resolved K-shell line spectra provides the electron temperature of the spatially averaged plasma. Together, the two diagnostics support a 1-D Radiation-Hydrodynamic model prediction of a plasma whose thermalization on axis produces steep radial gradients in temperature, from temperatures in excess of a kilovolt in the core to below a kilovolt in the surrounding plasma halo

  19. Plasma levels and diagnostic utility of VEGF, MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in the diagnostics of breast cancer patients.

    Ławicki, Sławomir; Zajkowska, Monika; Głażewska, Edyta Katarzyna; Będkowska, Grażyna Ewa; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2017-03-01

    We investigated plasma levels and diagnostic utility of vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) in comparison to cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3). Plasma levels of tested parameters were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while CA 15-3 with chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). The plasma levels of VEGF, TIMP-2 showed significantly higher than CA 15-3 values of the diagnostic sensitivity, the predictive values of positive and negative test results (PPV, NPV) and the area under the receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC) in early stages of breast cancer (BC). The combined use of the tested parameters with CA 15-3 resulted in the increase in sensitivity, NPV and AUC, especially in the combination with VEGF (83%; 72%; 0.888) and TIMP-2 (83%; 72%; 0.894). The highest values were obtained for combination of all three parameters (93%; 85%; 0.923). These findings suggest the usefulness of the tested parameters in the diagnosis of BC, especially VEGF and TIMP-2 with CA 15-3 in early stages of BC, which could be a new diagnostic panel.

  20. Plasma cell gingivitis associated with cheilitis: A diagnostic dilemma!

    Presanthila Janam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cell gingivitis is a rare condition characterized by diffuse and massive infiltration of plasma cells into the sub-epithelial connective tissue. Clinically, it appears as a diffuse reddening and edematous swelling of the gingiva with a sharp demarcation along the mucogingival border. Though considered as a hypersensitive reaction to an allergen, the etiology of this bizarre condition is still not properly understood. Here, we present an interesting case of plasma cell gingivitis associated with an enlarged and fissured upper lip, which is quite a rarity. The condition was diagnosed based on clinical and histopathologic findings and treated by gingivectomy. The associated cheilitis has dramatically reduced after treatment of the gingival lesion.

  1. Diagnostic studies of ion beam formation in inductively coupled plasma

    Jacobs, Jenee L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation describes a variety of studies focused on the plasma and the ion beam in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ability to use ICP-MS for measurements of trace elements in samples requires the analytes to be efficiently ionized. Updated ionization efficiency tables are discussed for ionization temperatures of 6500 K and 7000 K with an electron density of 1 x 1015 cm-3. These values are reflective of the current operating parameters of ICP-MS instruments. Calculations are also discussed for doubly charged (M2+) ion formation, neutral metal oxide (MO) ionization, and metal oxide (MO+) ion dissociation for similar plasma temperature values. Ionization efficiency results for neutral MO molecules in the ICP have not been reported previously.

  2. Diagnostics for plasma control on DEMO: challenges of implementation

    Donne, A. J. H.; Costley, A. E.; Morris, A. W.

    2012-01-01

    As a test fusion power plant, DEMO will have to demonstrate reliability and very long pulse/steady-state operation, which calls for unprecedented robustness and reliability of all diagnostic systems (also requiring adequate redundancy). But DEMO will have higher levels of neutron and gamma fluxes,

  3. Plasma diagnostics during magnetron sputtering of aluminum doped zinc oxide

    Stamate, Eugen; Crovetto, Andrea; Sanna, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Plasma parameters during magnetron sputtering of aluminum-doped zinc oxide are investigated with optical emission spectroscopy, electrostatic probes and mass spectrometry with the aim of understanding the role of negative ions of oxygen during the film growth and improving the uniformity of the f......Plasma parameters during magnetron sputtering of aluminum-doped zinc oxide are investigated with optical emission spectroscopy, electrostatic probes and mass spectrometry with the aim of understanding the role of negative ions of oxygen during the film growth and improving the uniformity...

  4. Perspective: The physics, diagnostics, and applications of atmospheric pressure low temperature plasma sources used in plasma medicine

    Laroussi, M.; Lu, X.; Keidar, M.

    2017-07-01

    Low temperature plasmas have been used in various plasma processing applications for several decades. But it is only in the last thirty years or so that sources generating such plasmas at atmospheric pressure in reliable and stable ways have become more prevalent. First, in the late 1980s, the dielectric barrier discharge was used to generate relatively large volume diffuse plasmas at atmospheric pressure. Then, in the early 2000s, plasma jets that can launch cold plasma plumes in ambient air were developed. Extensive experimental and modeling work was carried out on both methods and much of the physics governing such sources was elucidated. Starting in the mid-1990s, low temperature plasma discharges have been used as sources of chemically reactive species that can be transported to interact with biological media, cells, and tissues and induce impactful biological effects. However, many of the biochemical pathways whereby plasma affects cells remain not well understood. This situation is changing rather quickly because the field, known today as "plasma medicine," has experienced exponential growth in the last few years thanks to a global research community that engaged in fundamental and applied research involving the use of cold plasma for the inactivation of bacteria, dental applications, wound healing, and the destruction of cancer cells/tumors. In this perspective, the authors first review the physics as well as the diagnostics of the principal plasma sources used in plasma medicine. Then, brief descriptions of their biomedical applications are presented. To conclude, the authors' personal assessment of the present status and future outlook of the field is given.

  5. X radiation diagnostics of high-temperature laser plasma

    Marsak, Z.; Bryknar, Z.; Legova, S.; Pina, L.

    1980-01-01

    Main aspects of X-ray emission from plasma heated by a pulsed laser and methods of its detection are presented, especially using a pinhole camera and a multichannel spectrometer with p-i-n diodes and Be-filters for measurement in the energy range 0.5 keV to 3 keV. (author)

  6. Plasma diagnostics and physics in the W7-AS stellarator

    Weller, A; Baldzuhn, J; Brakel, R; Burhenn, R; Erckmann, V; Feng, Y; Fiedler, S; Geiger, J; Giannone, L.; Grigull, P; Hartfuss, H J; Hirsch, M; Hofmann, J V; Kick, M; Konrad, C; Maassberg, H; Rust, N; Sardei, F [Association Euratom-Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Suvorov, E V [Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhniy Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    A survey of experimental techniques and analysis tools used at the W7-AS stellarator for the investigation of the equilibrium, stability, transport and edge plasma is given, and examples for typical results are presented. In particular, the exploitation of boundary islands for use as an `island divertor` and for the establishment of a radiating island chain are important issues. (orig.) 14 refs.

  7. Plasma diagnostics and physics in the W7-AS stellarator

    Weller, A.; Baldzuhn, J.; Brakel, R.; Burhenn, R.; Erckmann, V.; Feng, Y.; Fiedler, S.; Geiger, J.; Giannone, L.; Grigull, P.; Hartfuss, H.J.; Hirsch, M.; Hofmann, J.V.; Kick, M.; Konrad, C.; Maassberg, H.; Rust, N.; Sardei, F.; Suvorov, E.V.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of experimental techniques and analysis tools used at the W7-AS stellarator for the investigation of the equilibrium, stability, transport and edge plasma is given, and examples for typical results are presented. In particular, the exploitation of boundary islands for use as an 'island divertor' and for the establishment of a radiating island chain are important issues. (orig.)

  8. Electro-optical frequency shifting of lasers for plasma diagnostics

    Forman, P.R.

    1977-07-01

    An electro-optical frequency shifting device is proposed as an aid for plasma physics heterodyne interferometry and heterodyne scattering experiments. The method has the advantage over other electro-optic shifters, that a pure separable frequency shifted beam can be obtained even when less than half wave voltage is applied. (orig.) [de

  9. EDITORIAL: The 9th Workshop on Frontiers in Low Temperature Plasma Diagnostics The 9th Workshop on Frontiers in Low Temperature Plasma Diagnostics

    SAME ADDRESS--> Nader Sadeghi,

  1. On polluted by admixtures plasma cloud state diagnostics

    Temko, S.W.; Temko, K.W.; Kuz'min, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    The state of bounded plasma is dependent on perturbations which are caused from changing of inner and outer thermodynamical parameters. The authors describe interactions in a plasma cloud by potential functions. Potential functions are mathematical models of real interactions of particles with each others and with ionized cloud surface. Potential functions define potential energy of corresponding interactions at ionized cloud. Potential functions are sums of far-action and near-action potentials. An ionized cloud is formed under action of inner, outer and surface forces nearly connected with each others. The result of the indicated forces joint action is geometrical form and dimensions of the weakly ionized plasma cloud. Geometrical form of the cloud and its dimensions are able to be changed. They consider only the small changing of small perturbations type. Surface geometrical form and dimensions of the cloud are not given a priori. They are to be obtained by self-consistent problem solving. The self-consistent problem is solved by space non-linear statistical thermodynamics proposed before by the authors. They use abstract potential theory, distribution theory, results by N.M. Krylov and N.N. Bogoljubov and known N.N. Bogoljubov methods of statistical physics. To choose potential functions, their numerical parameters, surface form and dimensions of the cloud, they use optimal experiment planning, likelihood method, Monte-Carlo, directed random search and computer experiment methods. To be likelihood function they used free energy of ionized cloud with admixtures. They refuse describing single particle behavior at small volume. They consider particles to be washed spots and describe particles by distributions. According to R. Feinman it is lawful. Bounded plasma state is described by vector-density of particles distribution. Term distribution is used in Sobolev-Schwartc sence. To precipitate admixtures is effective ultrasound coagulation

  2. Diagnostics of microwave assisted electron cyclotron resonance plasma source for surface modification of nylon 6

    More, Supriya E.; Das, Partha Sarathi; Bansode, Avinash; Dhamale, Gayatri; Ghorui, S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Sahasrabudhe, S. N.; Mathe, Vikas L.

    2018-01-01

    Looking at the increasing scope of plasma processing of materials surface, here we present the development and diagnostics of a microwave assisted Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma system suitable for surface modification of polymers. Prior to the surface-treatment, a detailed diagnostic mapping of the plasma parameters throughout the reactor chamber was carried out by using single and double Langmuir probe measurements in Ar plasma. Conventional analysis of I-V curves as well as the elucidation form of the Electron Energy Distribution Function (EEDF) has become the source of calibration of plasma parameters in the reaction chamber. The high energy tail in the EEDF of electron temperature is seen to extend beyond 60 eV, at much larger distances from the ECR zone. This proves the suitability of the rector for plasma processing, since the electron energy is much beyond the threshold energy of bond breaking in most of the polymers. Nylon 6 is used as a representative candidate for surface processing in the presence of Ar, H2 + N2, and O2 plasma, treated at different locations inside the plasma chamber. In a typical case, the work of adhesion is seen to almost get doubled when treated with oxygen plasma. Morphology of the plasma treated surface and its hydrophilicity are discussed in view of the variation in electron density and electron temperature at these locations. Nano-protrusions arising from plasma treatment are set to be responsible for the hydrophobicity. Chemical sputtering and physical sputtering are seen to influence the surface morphology on account of sufficient electron energies and increased plasma potential.

  3. Spectral diagnostic of plasma in the coaxial gun

    Bacilek, J.; Hruska, J.; Kubes, P.

    1975-01-01

    Plasma ejected from a coaxial plasma gun was investigated spectroscopically. The coaxial gun consisted of two copper coaxial electrodes 57 and 100 mm in diameter, the length of the central electrode being 67 mm. The gun was fed by a 11 μF capacitor bank of 16 kV operating voltage. Hydrogen, helium and air were used as working gases. The emission spectra were recorded with spectrograph ISP-51 and with a monochromator-photomultiplier system. The plasma density reached its maximum of 4x10 15 cm -3 with the ejecting voltage applied some 20 to 30 μs after the gas injection. At this moment also the spectral lines of electrode material were most intensive. The electron temperature calculated from the presence of spectral lines of OII, CII and NII was about 2 eV. The velocity of fast hydrogen ions was 4x10 7 cmsec -1 calculated from the Hsub(β) line. (J.U.)

  4. HAIFA: A modular, fiber-optic coupled, spectroscopic diagnostic for plasmas

    Ramsey, A.T.; Turner, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    HAIFA is a modular, multichannel, fiber optically coupled spectroscopy diagnostic for tokamak plasmas. It operates in the visible, measuring H/sub α/ radiation, the visible continuum from thermal bremsstrahlung, and selected impurity lines. HAIFA is characterized by high modularity and flexibility, good radiation resistance, high noise immunity, and low cost. Details of design, construction, and calibration are given. The analysis of visible bremsstrahlung radiation measurements to deduce the effective ionic charge in a plasma is discussed

  5. Contribution to the electron density diagnostics of a plasma by means of three-wave interferometry

    Says, L.P.

    1988-01-01

    Plasma use can be considered as an acceleration technique but a high precision diagnostic is necessary. This can be provided by refractive index determination. A three wave interferometer gives an accuracy in the range of a few nanometers in optical path measurements. Such an apparatus has been designed, built and tested on a discharge plasma, previously diagnosed by conventional methods. Results are in good agreement and the expected accuracy is achieved [fr

  6. Plasma diagnostic techniques in thermal-barrier tandem-mirror fusion experiments

    Silver, E.H.; Clauser, J.F.; Carter, M.R.; Failor, B.H.; Foote, J.H.; Hornady, R.S.; James, R.A.; Lasnier, C.J.; Perkins, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    We review two classes of plasma diagnostic techniques used in thermal-barrier tandem-mirror fusion experiments. The emphasis of the first class is to study mirror-trapped electrons at the thermal-barrier location. The focus of the second class is to measure the spatial and temporal behavior of the plasma space potential at various axial locations. The design and operation of the instruments in these two categories are discussed and data that are representative of their performance is presented

  7. Machine and plasma diagnostic instrumentation systems for the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade

    Coutts, G.W.; Coffield, F.E.; Lang, D.D.; Hornady, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    To evaluate performance of a second generation Tandem Mirror Machine, an extensive instrumentation system is being designed and installed as part of the major device fabrication. The systems listed will be operational during the start-up phase of the TMX Upgrade machine and provide bench marks for future performance data. In addition to plasma diagnostic instrumentation, machine parameter monitoring systems will be installed prior to machine operation. Simultaneous recording of machine parameters will permit evaluation of plasma parameters sensitive to machine conditions

  8. Electron density and temperature profile diagnostics for C-2 field reversed configuration plasmas

    Deng, B. H.; Kinley, J. S.; Schroeder, J. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The 9-point Thomson scattering diagnostic system for the C-2 field reversed configuration plasmas is improved and the measured electron temperature profiles are consistent with theoretical expectations. Rayleigh scattering revealed a finite line width of the ruby laser emission, which complicates density calibration. Taking advantage of the plasma wobble motion, density profile reconstruction accuracy from the 6-chord two-color CO{sub 2}/HeNe interferometer data is improved.

  9. Extraordinary mode absorption at the electron cyclotron harmonic frequencies as a Tokamak plasma diagnostic

    Pachtman, A.

    1986-09-01

    Measurements of Extraordinary mode absorption at the electron cyclotron harmonic frequencies are of unique value in high temperature, high density Tokamak plasma diagnostic applications. An experimental study of Extraordinary mode absorption at the semi-opaque second and third harmonics has been performed on the ALCATOR C Tokamak. A narrow beam of submillimeter laser radiation was used to illuminate the plasma in a horizontal plane, providing a continuous measurement of the one-pass, quasi-perpendicular transmission

  10. A two photon absorption laser induced fluorescence diagnostic for fusion plasmas

    Magee, R. M.; Galante, M. E.; McCarren, D.; Scime, E. E. [Physics Department, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Boivin, R. L.; Brooks, N. H.; Groebner, R. J.; Hill, D. N. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Porter, G. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The quality of plasma produced in a magnetic confinement fusion device is influenced to a large extent by the neutral gas surrounding the plasma. The plasma is fueled by the ionization of neutrals, and charge exchange interactions between edge neutrals and plasma ions are a sink of energy and momentum. Here we describe a diagnostic capable of measuring the spatial distribution of neutral gas in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. A high intensity (5 MW/cm{sup 2}), narrow bandwidth (0.1 cm{sup -1}) laser is injected into a hydrogen plasma to excite the Lyman {beta} transition via the simultaneous absorption of two 205 nm photons. The absorption rate, determined by measurement of subsequent Balmer {alpha} emission, is proportional to the number of particles with a given velocity. Calibration is performed in situ by filling the chamber to a known pressure of neutral krypton and exciting a transition close in wavelength to that used in hydrogen. We present details of the calibration procedure, including a technique for identifying saturation broadening, measurements of the neutral density profile in a hydrogen helicon plasma, and discuss the application of the diagnostic to plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak.

  11. A two photon absorption laser induced fluorescence diagnostic for fusion plasmas.

    Magee, R M; Galante, M E; McCarren, D; Scime, E E; Boivin, R L; Brooks, N H; Groebner, R J; Hill, D N; Porter, G D

    2012-10-01

    The quality of plasma produced in a magnetic confinement fusion device is influenced to a large extent by the neutral gas surrounding the plasma. The plasma is fueled by the ionization of neutrals, and charge exchange interactions between edge neutrals and plasma ions are a sink of energy and momentum. Here we describe a diagnostic capable of measuring the spatial distribution of neutral gas in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. A high intensity (5 MW/cm(2)), narrow bandwidth (0.1 cm(-1)) laser is injected into a hydrogen plasma to excite the Lyman β transition via the simultaneous absorption of two 205 nm photons. The absorption rate, determined by measurement of subsequent Balmer α emission, is proportional to the number of particles with a given velocity. Calibration is performed in situ by filling the chamber to a known pressure of neutral krypton and exciting a transition close in wavelength to that used in hydrogen. We present details of the calibration procedure, including a technique for identifying saturation broadening, measurements of the neutral density profile in a hydrogen helicon plasma, and discuss the application of the diagnostic to plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak.

  12. Laser and plasma diagnostics for the OMEGA Upgrade Laser System (invited) (abstract)

    Letzring, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The upgraded OMEGA laser system will be capable of delivering up to 30 kJ of 351-nm laser light with various temporal pulse shapes onto a variety of targets for both ICF and basic plasma physics experiments. ICF experiments will cover a wide parameter space up to near-ignition conditions, and basic interaction and plasma physics experiments will cover previously unattainable parameter spaces. The laser system is the tool with which the experiments are performed; the diagnostics, both of the laser system and the interaction between the laser and the target, form the heart of the experiment. A new suite of diagnostics is now being designed and constructed. Most of these are based on diagnostics previously fielded on the OMEGA laser system very successfully over the last ten years, but there are some new diagnostics, both for the laser and the interaction experiments, which have had to be invented. Laser system diagnostics include high-energy, full-beam calorimetry for all of the 60 beams of the upgrade; a novel, multispectral energy-measuring system for assessing the tuning of the frequency-multiplying crystals; a beam-balance diagnostic that forms the heart of the energy-balance system; and a peak power diagnostic that forms the heart of the power-balance system. Target diagnostics will include the usual time-integrated x-ray imaging systems, both pinhole cameras and x-ray microscopes; x-ray spectrometers, both imaging and spatially integrating; plamsa calorimeters, including x-ray calorimetry; and time-resolved x-ray diagnostics, both nonimaging and imaging in one and two dimensions. Neutron diagnostics will include several measurements of total yield, secondary, and possibly tertiary yield and neutron spectroscopy with several time-of-flight spectrometers. Other measurements will include ''knock-on'' particle measurements and neutron activation of shell materials as a diagnostic of compressed fuel and shell density

  13. Nuclear diagnostics of high intensity laser plasma interactions

    Krushelnick, K.; Santala, M.I.K.; Beg, F.N.; Clark, E.L.; Dangor, A.E.; Tatarakis, M.; Watts, I.; Wei, M.S.; Zepf, M.; Ledingham, K.W.D.; McCanny, T.; Spencer, I.; Clarke, R.J.; Norreys, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear activation has been observed in materials exposed to energetic protons and heavy ions generated from high intensity laser-solid interactions (at focused intensities up to 5x10 19 W/cm 2 ). The energy spectrum of the protons is determined through the use of these nuclear activation techniques and is found to be consistent with other ion diagnostics. Heavy ion fusion reactions and large neutron fluxes from the (p, n) reactions were also observed. The reduction of proton emission and increase in heavy ion energy using heated targets was also observed

  14. Mass spectrometric identification of diagnostic markers for chronic prostatitis in seminal plasma by analysis of seminal plasma protein clinical samples.

    Rokka, A; Mehik, A; Tonttila, P; Vaarala, M

    2017-08-15

    There are few specific diagnostic markers for chronic prostatitis. Therefore, we used mass spectrometry to evaluate differences in seminal plasma protein expression among patients with prostatitis and young and middle-aged healthy controls. We analysed pooled seminal plasma protein samples from four prostatitis patients (two pools), three young controls (one pool), and three middle-aged controls (one pool). The samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Of the 349 proteins identified, 16 were differentially expressed between the two control pools. Five proteins were up- or down-regulated in both of the prostatitis pools compared to middle-aged controls but not between young and middle-aged pools. Progestagen-associated endometrial protein (PAEP) was over-expressed in prostatitis samples compared to young and middle-aged controls. Our findings and those of previous studies indicate that PAEP is a potential seminal plasma marker for chronic prostatitis. In conclusion, we found age-related changes in seminal plasma protein expression. PAEP expression in seminal plasma should be investigated further to evaluate its potential as a diagnostic marker for chronic prostatitis.

  15. Simulated plasma facing component measurements for an in situ surface diagnostic on Alcator C-Moda)

    Hartwig, Z. S.; Whyte, D. G.

    2010-10-01

    The ideal in situ plasma facing component (PFC) diagnostic for magnetic fusion devices would perform surface element and isotope composition measurements on a shot-to-shot (˜10 min) time scale with ˜1 μm depth and ˜1 cm spatial resolution over large areas of PFCs. To this end, the experimental adaptation of the customary laboratory surface diagnostic—nuclear scattering of MeV ions—to the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is being guided by ACRONYM, a Geant4 synthetic diagnostic. The diagnostic technique and ACRONYM are described, and synthetic measurements of film thickness for boron-coated PFCs are presented.

  16. Spectroscopic diagnostics and modelling of silane microwave plasmas

    Fantz, U.

    1998-01-01

    Low-pressure silane plasmas (2-20 Pa) diluted with the noble gases helium and argon as well as hydrogen were generated by microwave excitation in order to determine plasma parameters and absolute particle number densities. Specific silane radicals (SiH, Si, H 2 , H) were measured by means of optical emission spectroscopy, whereas particle densities of silane, disilane and molecular hydrogen were measured with mass spectroscopy. Experimental results confirm model calculations, which were carried out to determine number densities of all silane radicals and of higher silanes as well as electron temperature. The electron temperature varies from 1.5 to 4 eV depending on pressure and gas mixture. The temperature of heavy particles is 450 K and the electron number density is 9x10 16 m -3 . The rotational temperatures of SiH are between room temperature and 2000 K due to increasing dissociative excitation. In the plasma the number density of silane is reduced, whereas the number density of molecular hydrogen is close to the silane density, which is fed in. Particle densities of SiH 3 , disilane and atomic hydrogen are in the range of a few per cent of the silane number density. At low pressure the SiH 2 density is similar to SiH 3 and decreases with increasing pressure due to heavy particle collisions with silane producing higher silanes. Particle densities of SiH and Si are only in the range of some 10 -3 of the silane density decreasing with increasing collisions of heavy particles with silane and molecular hydrogen. In mixtures with argon Penning reactions increase the silane dissociation. (author)

  17. III Workshop on Microwave Reflectometry for Fusion Plasma Diagnostics

    Sanchez, J.; Luna, E. de la.

    1997-11-01

    Microwave reflectometry is based on the analysis of the properties (phase delay, time delay, amplitude) of a millimeter wave beam which is launched and reflected at the plasma critical layer. Operation with a fixed frequency beam can be used to analyze the electron density fluctuations in the reflecting region. If several frequencies are launched, information about the density profile can be obtained. In these proceedings, a collection of papers is presented on the issues of density fluctuation studies and profile analysis as well as a special contribution about the development of reflectometry for the ITER project. (Author) 145 refs

  18. III Workshop on Microwave Reflectometry for Fusion Plasma Diagnostics

    Sanchez, J; Luna, E de la

    1997-11-01

    Microwave reflectometry is based on the analysis of the properties (phase delay, time delay, amplitude) of a millimeter wave beam which is launched and reflected at the plasma critical layer. Operation with a fixed frequency beam can be used to analyze the electron density fluctuations in the reflecting region. If several frequencies are launched, information about the density profile can be obtained. In these proceedings, a collection of papers is presented on the issues of density fluctuation studies and profile analysis as well as a special contribution about the development of reflectometry for the ITER project. (Author) 145 refs.

  19. Electron-Beam Produced Air Plasma: Optical and Electrical Diagnostics

    Vidmar, Robert; Stalder, Kenneth; Seeley, Megan

    2006-10-01

    High energy electron impact excitation is used to stimulate optical emissions that quantify the measurement of electron beam current. A 100 keV 10-ma electron beam source is used to produce air plasma in a test cell at a pressure between 1 mTorr and 760 Torr. Optical emissions originating from the N2 2^nd positive line at 337.1 nm and the N2^+ 1^st negative line at 391.4 nm are observed. Details on calibration using signals from an isolated transmission window and a Faraday plate are discussed. Results using this technique and other electrical signal are presented.

  20. Laser-Induced Fluorescence diagnostic of barium ion plasmas in the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment

    Chung, Moses; Gilson, Erik P.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Efthimion, Philip C.; Majeski, Richard; Startsev, Edward A.

    2005-01-01

    The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) is a cylindrical Paul trap whose purpose is to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of intense charged particle beam propagation in alternating-gradient magnetic transport systems. To investigate the ion plasma microstate in PTSX, including the ion density profile and the ion velocity distribution function, a laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic system is being developed as a nondestructive diagnostic. Instead of cesium, which has been used in the initial phase of the PTSX experiment, barium has been selected as the preferred ion for the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic. A feasibility study of the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic using barium ions is presented with the characterization of a tunable dye laser. The installation of the barium ion source and the development of the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic system are also discussed

  1. Infrared and far-infrared laser development for plasma diagnostics at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Casson, W.H.; Bennett, C.A.; Fletcher, L.K.; Hunter, H.T.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Lee, J.; Ma, C.DH.; Richards, R.K.; Vander Sluis, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    Three IR and FIR based diagnostics will be developed ann installed on the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) at ORNL. An interferometer operating at 119 mu m will measure plasma density along 14 vertical chords across the plasma cross-section. A small-angle Thomson scattering experiment using a 10.6-mu m pulsed laser will determine the feasibility of measuring alpha particle distribution in a burning plasma. Plans are being developed for installing an FIR-based scattering experiment on ATF to measure density fluctuations. 4 refs., 4 figs

  2. On the potential of CARS spectroscopy in low-temperature plasma diagnostics

    Ambrazyavichyus, A.B.; Gladkov, S.M.; Grigajtis, Yu.P.; Koroteev, N.I.

    1989-01-01

    The principles of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and its application to the diagnostics of technological plasmas are briefly discussed. THe CARS spectrometer is described, developed in IPTPE, Caunas for investigations of a nitrogen plasma stream generated by an industrial plasmatron, and several CARS spectra of nitrogen molecules are presented. As the CARS signal from vibrational-rotational energy levels decreases substantially at plasma temperatures above 2000 K, an alternative scheme using electronlevels of atoms or ions has to be used. To test the method, CARS signals from the lines of the first nitrogen ion were studied in a low-voltage spark discharge. (J.U.)

  3. Features of laser spectroscopy and diagnostics of plasma ions in high magnetic fields

    Semerok, A F; Fomichev, S V

    2003-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence and laser absorption spectroscopies of plasma ions in high magnetic fields have been investigated. Both the high degree of Zeeman splitting of the resonant transitions and the ion rotational movement drastically change the properties of the resonance interaction of the continuous wave laser radiation with ions in highly magnetized plasma. Numerical solution of the density matrix equation for a dissipative two-level system with time-dependent detuning from resonance was used to analyse this interaction. A theoretical simulation was performed and compared with the experimental results obtained from the laser spectroscopy diagnostics of barium plasma ions in high magnetic fields in the several tesla range

  4. FAR-TECH's Nanoparticle Plasma Jet System and its Application to Disruptions, Deep Fueling, and Diagnostics

    Thompson, J. R.; Bogatu, I. N.; Galkin, S. A.; Kim, J. S.

    2012-10-01

    Hyper-velocity plasma jets have potential applications in tokamaks for disruption mitigation, deep fueling and diagnostics. Pulsed power based solid-state sources and plasma accelerators offer advantages of rapid response and mass delivery at high velocities. Fast response is critical for some disruption mitigation scenario needs, while high velocity is especially important for penetration into tokamak plasma and its confining magnetic field, as in the case of deep fueling. FAR-TECH is developing the capability of producing large-mass hyper-velocity plasma jets. The prototype solid-state source has produced: 1) >8.4 mg of H2 gas only, and 2) >25 mg of H2 and >180 mg of C60 in a H2/C60 gas mixture. Using a coaxial plasma gun coupled to the source, we have successfully demonstrated the acceleration of composite H/C60 plasma jets, with momentum as high as 0.6 g.km/s, and containing an estimated C60 mass of ˜75 mg. We present the status of FAR-TECH's nanoparticle plasma jet system and discuss its application to disruptions, deep fueling, and diagnostics. A new TiH2/C60 solid-state source capable of generating significantly higher quantities of H2 and C60 in <0.5 ms will be discussed.

  5. Optical diagnostics of lead and PbGa2S4 layered crystal laser plasmas

    Shuaibov, A.K.; Dashchenko, A.I.; Shevera, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    Laser plasmas produced at the surfaces of lead and a PbGa 2 S 4 layered crystal irradiated by a neodymium laser with λ = 1.06 μm, pulse duration τ = 20 ns, and intensity W = (1-2) x 10 9 W/cm 2 are studied using optical diagnostics. It is shown that, in a lead plasma, the most intense (characteristic) lines are the PbI 405.7-nm, PbI 368.3-nm, PbI 364-nm, and PbII 220.4-nm lines. In a layered crystal plasma, the emission spectrum is an aggregation of the most intense PbI and GaI lines, whereas sulfur lines are absent. The bottlenecks of the recombination of the ionic and atomic components of the lead and PbGa 2 S 4 crystal plasmas are determined. The average propagation velocity of the lead laser plume is 18-20 km/s. A comparative analysis of the emission dynamics of PbI and GaI lines in the laser plasmas of these metals and in the plasma of a PbGa 2 S 4 crystal is carried out. The results obtained are important for the optical diagnostics of the plasmas of lead- and gallium-containing crystals and for the optimization of laser deposition of the thin films of these substances

  6. Optimization of plasma diagnostics using Bayesian probability theory

    Dreier, H.; Dinklage, A.; Hirsch, M.; Kornejew, P.; Fischer, R.

    2006-01-01

    The diagnostic set-up for Wendelstein 7-X, a magnetic fusion device presently under construction, is currently in the design process to optimize the outcome under given technical constraints. Compared to traditional design approaches, Bayesian Experimental Design (BED) allows to optimize with respect to physical motivated design criterions. It aims to find the optimal design by maximizing an expected utility function that quantifies the goals of the experiment. The expectation marginalizes over the uncertain physical parameters and the possible values of future data. The approach presented here bases on maximization of an information measure (Kullback-Leibler entropy). As an example, the optimization of an infrared multichannel interferometer is shown in detail. Design aspects like the impact of technical restrictions are discussed

  7. A dual far-infrared laser diagnostic of magnetized plasmas

    Darrow, D.S.; Park, H.K.

    1988-02-01

    A dual far-infrared laser has been constructed and its properties have been exploited to probe tokamak-like discharges in the CDX toroidal device. Thermal variation of the difference frequency between the two far-infrared cavities is slow, though the cavities lack thermal stabilization, simply because their assembly on the same chassis exposes them to virtually identical temperature changes. The optical arrangement beyond the laser permits conversion within minutes between interferometry and density fluctuation observation, and within an hour between different operating wavelengths. Line-average densities of 2 /times/ 10 13 cm -3 and coherent fluctuations in the neighborhood of 20 kHz have been measured with this diagnostic. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Development of high performance Schottky barrier diode and its application to plasma diagnostics

    Fujita, Junji; Kawahata, Kazuo; Okajima, Shigeki

    1993-10-01

    At the conclusion of the Supporting Collaboration Research on 'Development of High Performance Detectors in the Far Infrared Range' carried out from FY1990 to FY1992, the results of developing Schottky barrier diode and its application to plasma diagnostics are summarized. Some remarks as well as technical know-how for the correct use of diodes are also described. (author)

  9. Optical diagnostics of lead and PbGa2S4 layered crystal laser plasmas

    Shuaibov, A.K.; Dashchenko, A.I.; Shevera, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    Paper presents the results of the optic diagnostics of plasma of laser flames formed from lead surface and PbGa 2 S 4 laminar crystal using a neodymium laser. It is shown that the most intensive lines in the lead laser plasma are as follows: 405.7, 368.3, 364.0 nm PbI and 220.4 nm PbII while for the laminar crystal base plasma - the combination of the most intensive lines of PbI and GaI emission. One determined the narrow point of recombination fluxes for the ion and the atomic components of laser plasma of lead and of PbGa 2 S 4 crystal. One conducted comparison study of emission dynamics of PbI and GaI lines in laser plasma of the respective metals and of PbGa 2 S 4 crystal [ru

  10. Plasma diagnostics for tokamaks and stellarators. Proceedings of the IV Course and Workshop on Magnetic Confinement Fusion. UIMP Santander (Spain), June 1992

    Stott, P. E.; Sanchez, J.

    1994-01-01

    A collection of papers on plasma diagnostics is presented. The papers show the state of the art developments in a series of techniques: Magnetic diagnostics, Edge diagnostics, Langmuir probes, Spectroscopy, Microwave and FIR diagnostics as well as Thomson Scattering. Special interest was focused on those diagnostics oriented to fluctuations measurements in the plasma. (Author) 451 refs

  11. Basis set expansion for inverse problems in plasma diagnostic analysis

    Jones, B.; Ruiz, C. L.

    2013-07-01

    A basis set expansion method [V. Dribinski, A. Ossadtchi, V. A. Mandelshtam, and H. Reisler, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2634 (2002)], 10.1063/1.1482156 is applied to recover physical information about plasma radiation sources from instrument data, which has been forward transformed due to the nature of the measurement technique. This method provides a general approach for inverse problems, and we discuss two specific examples relevant to diagnosing fast z pinches on the 20-25 MA Z machine [M. E. Savage, L. F. Bennett, D. E. Bliss, W. T. Clark, R. S. Coats, J. M. Elizondo, K. R. LeChien, H. C. Harjes, J. M. Lehr, J. E. Maenchen, D. H. McDaniel, M. F. Pasik, T. D. Pointon, A. C. Owen, D. B. Seidel, D. L. Smith, B. S. Stoltzfus, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, L. K. Warne, J. R. Woodworth, C. W. Mendel, K. R. Prestwich, R. W. Shoup, D. L. Johnson, J. P. Corley, K. C. Hodge, T. C. Wagoner, and P. E. Wakeland, in Proceedings of the Pulsed Power Plasma Sciences Conference (IEEE, 2007), p. 979]. First, Abel inversion of time-gated, self-emission x-ray images from a wire array implosion is studied. Second, we present an approach for unfolding neutron time-of-flight measurements from a deuterium gas puff z pinch to recover information about emission time history and energy distribution. Through these examples, we discuss how noise in the measured data limits the practical resolution of the inversion, and how the method handles discontinuities in the source function and artifacts in the projected image. We add to the method a propagation of errors calculation for estimating uncertainties in the inverted solution.

  12. Basis set expansion for inverse problems in plasma diagnostic analysis

    Jones, B.; Ruiz, C. L. [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    A basis set expansion method [V. Dribinski, A. Ossadtchi, V. A. Mandelshtam, and H. Reisler, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2634 (2002)] is applied to recover physical information about plasma radiation sources from instrument data, which has been forward transformed due to the nature of the measurement technique. This method provides a general approach for inverse problems, and we discuss two specific examples relevant to diagnosing fast z pinches on the 20–25 MA Z machine [M. E. Savage, L. F. Bennett, D. E. Bliss, W. T. Clark, R. S. Coats, J. M. Elizondo, K. R. LeChien, H. C. Harjes, J. M. Lehr, J. E. Maenchen, D. H. McDaniel, M. F. Pasik, T. D. Pointon, A. C. Owen, D. B. Seidel, D. L. Smith, B. S. Stoltzfus, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, L. K. Warne, J. R. Woodworth, C. W. Mendel, K. R. Prestwich, R. W. Shoup, D. L. Johnson, J. P. Corley, K. C. Hodge, T. C. Wagoner, and P. E. Wakeland, in Proceedings of the Pulsed Power Plasma Sciences Conference (IEEE, 2007), p. 979]. First, Abel inversion of time-gated, self-emission x-ray images from a wire array implosion is studied. Second, we present an approach for unfolding neutron time-of-flight measurements from a deuterium gas puff z pinch to recover information about emission time history and energy distribution. Through these examples, we discuss how noise in the measured data limits the practical resolution of the inversion, and how the method handles discontinuities in the source function and artifacts in the projected image. We add to the method a propagation of errors calculation for estimating uncertainties in the inverted solution.

  13. Improvements in a tracer - encapsulated solid pellet and its injector for more advanced plasma diagnostics

    Tamura, Naoki; Suzuki, Chihiro; Funaba, Hisamichi; Hayashi, Hiromi; Maeno, Hiroya; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Ogawa, Hideki; Sudo, Shigeru; Takagi, Masaru; Satoh, Nakahiro

    2015-01-01

    Although we are facing the age of the International Thermonuclear Experiment Reactor (ITER), many physics issues related to the confinement of magnetically-confined toroidal plasma still remain to be clarified. For example, under some conditions, impurities inside the magnetically-confined toroidal plasma tend to accumulate into the core region of the plasma. This will cause a dilution of fusion fuel. Moreover, a radiation loss from the core plasma will be enhanced due to the impurity accumulation, and then the temperature in the core region will be decreased dramatically. Consequently, fusion plasma performance will be degraded below the acceptable level. In order to develop strategy for obviating and suppressing the impurity accumulation, it is significantly important to gain a full understanding of the impurity transport in the magnetically-confined toroidal plasma. In consideration of such a situation, we have developed a Tracer-Encapsulated Solid Pellet (TESPEL) for promoting a precise study of the impurity transport. To put it plainly, the TESPEL is a double-layered impurity pellet. This form enables us to produce a both poloidally and toroidally localized 'tracer' impurity source in the plasma, and to specify the total amount of the tracer impurity deposited in the plasma precisely. In this contribution, we introduce new-type TESPELs, which are greatly improved in regard to the above-mentioned features. Owing to this improvement, we have achieved a shallower penetration of the TESPEL into the plasma with sufficient quantities of the tracer particles, which can be measured with the existing diagnostics. In addition, we also introduce a new TESPEL injector, which enables us to inject the TESPEL obliquely into the plasma. This injector can also contribute to a further shallower penetration of the TESPEL into the plasma. Moreover, we will discuss a future strategy of the TESPEL in the research of fusion plasma and plasma application. (author)

  14. The diagnostic neutral beam injector with arc-discharge plasma source on the TCV Tokamak

    Karpushov, Alexander N. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)], E-mail: alexander.karpushov@epfl.ch; Andrebe, Yanis; Duval, Basil P.; Bortolon, Alessandro [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-06-15

    The diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNBI) together with a charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) system has been used on the TCV Tokamak as a diagnostic tool for local measurements of plasma ion temperature, velocity and carbon impurity density based on analysis of the beam induced impurity radiation emission since 2000. To improve the performance of the CXRS diagnostic, several upgrades of both the optical system and the neutral beam were performed. An increase of the plasma source size together with beam optimization in 2003 resulted in a twofold increase the beam current. The RF plasma generator was replaced by an arc-discharge plasma source together with a new ion optical system (IOS) in 2006 and subsequent beam optimization is presented herein. This was designed to increase the line brightness of the beam in the CXRS observation region without increasing of the injected power (to avoid plasma perturbation by the beam). The beam characteristics are measured by a multi-chord scanning of Doppler-shifted H{sub {alpha}} emission, thermal measurements on a movable calorimeter and visible optical measurements inside the Tokamak vessel.

  15. Recent progress in thin film processing by magnetron sputtering with plasma diagnostics

    Han, Jeon G

    2009-01-01

    The precise control of the structure and related properties becomes crucial for sophisticated applications of thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering in emerging industries including the flat panel display, digital electronics and nano- and bio-industries. The film structure is closely related to the total energy delivered to the substrate surface for nucleation and growth during all kinds of thin film processes, including magnetron sputtering. Therefore, the energy delivered to the surface for nucleation and growth during magnetron sputtering should be measured and analysed by integrated diagnostics of the plasma parameters which are closely associated with the process parameters and other external process conditions. This paper reviews the background of thin film nucleation and growth, the status of magnetron sputtering technology and the progress of plasma diagnostics for plasma processing. The evolution of the microstructure during magnetron sputtering is then discussed with respect to the change in the process variables in terms of the plasma parameters along with empirical data of the integrated plasma diagnostics for various magnetron sputtering conditions with conventional dc, pulsed dc and high power pulsed dc sputtering modes. Among the major energy terms to be discussed are the temperature change in the top surface region and the energies of ions and neutral species. (topical review)

  16. Improving plasma shaping accuracy through consolidation of control model maintenance, diagnostic calibration, and hardware change control

    Baggest, D.S.; Rothweil, D.A.; Pang, S.

    1995-12-01

    With the advent of more sophisticated techniques for control of tokamak plasmas comes the requirement for increasingly more accurate models of plasma processes and tokamak systems. Development of accurate models for DIII-D power systems, vessel, and poloidal coils is already complete, while work continues in development of general plasma response modeling techniques. Increased accuracy in estimates of parameters to be controlled is also required. It is important to ensure that errors in supporting systems such as diagnostic and command circuits do not limit the accuracy of plasma parameter estimates or inhibit the ability to derive accurate plasma/tokamak system models. To address this issue, we have developed more formal power systems change control and power system/magnetic diagnostics calibration procedures. This paper discusses our approach to consolidating the tasks in these closely related areas. This includes, for example, defining criteria for when diagnostics should be re-calibrated along with required calibration tolerances, and implementing methods for tracking power systems hardware modifications and the resultant changes to control models

  17. Diagnostic study of multiple double layer formation in expanding RF plasma

    Chakraborty, Shamik; Paul, Manash Kumar; Roy, Jitendra Nath; Nath, Aparna

    2018-03-01

    Intensely luminous double layers develop and then expand in size in a visibly glowing RF discharge produced using a plasma source consisting of a semi-transparent cylindrical mesh with a central electrode, in a linear plasma chamber. Although RF discharge is known to be independent of device geometry in the absence of magnetic field, the initiation of RF discharge using such a plasma source results in electron drift and further expansion of the plasma in the vessel. The dynamics of complex plasma structures are studied through electric probe diagnostics in the expanding RF plasma. The measurements made to study the parametric dependence of evolution of double layer structures are analyzed and presented here. The plasma parameter measurements suggest that the complex potential structures initially form with low potential difference between the layers and then gradually expand producing burst oscillations. The present study provides interesting information about the stability of plasma sheath and charge particle dynamics in it that are important to understand the underlying basic sheath physics along with applications in plasma acceleration and propulsion.

  18. Diagnostics and results from coaxial plasma gun development for the PLX- α project

    Case, A.; Brockington, S.; Cruz, E.; Witherspoon, F. D.

    2016-10-01

    We present results from the diagnostics used during development of the contoured gap coaxial plasma guns for the PLX- α project at LANL. Plasma-jet diagnostics include fast photodiodes for velocimetry, a ballistic pendulum for total plasmoid momentum, and interferometry for line integrated density. Deflectometry will be used for line integrated perpendicular density gradients. Time-resolved high-resolution spectroscopy using a novel detector and time-integrated survey spectroscopy are used for measurements of velocity and temperature, as well as impurities. We will also use a Faraday cup for density, fast imaging for plume geometry, and time-integrated imaging for overall light emission. Experimental results are compared to the desired target parameters for the plasma jets (up to n 2 ×1016cm-3 , v 50km / s , mass 5gm , radius = 4cm , and length 10cm). This work supported by the ARPA-E ALPHA Program.

  19. PREFACE: IX International Conference on Modern Techniques of Plasma Diagnostics and their Application

    Savjolov, A. S.; Dodulad, E. I.

    2016-01-01

    The IX Conference on ''Modern Techniques of Plasma Diagnosis and their Application'' was held on 5 - 7 November, 2014 at National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (NRNU MEPhI). The goal of the conference was an exchange of information on both high-temperature and low-temperature plasma diagnostics as well as deliberation and analysis of various diagnostic techniques and their applicability in science, industry, ecology, medicine and other fields. The Conference also provided young scientists from scientific centres and universities engaged in plasma diagnostics with an opportunity to attend the lectures given by the leading specialists in this field as well as present their own results and findings. The first workshop titled ''Modern problems of plasma diagnostics and their application for control of chemicals and the environment'' took place at Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute (MEPhI) in June 1998 with the support of the Section on Diagnostics of the Council of Russian Academic of Science on Plasma Physics and since then these forums have been held at MEPhI every two years. In 2008 the workshop was assigned a conference status. More than 150 specialists on plasma diagnostics and students took part in the last conference. They represented leading Russian scientific centres (such as Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Thermonuclear Research, National Research Centre ''Kurchatov Institute'', Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics and others) and universities from Belarus, Ukraine, Germany, USA, Belgium and Sweden. About 30 reports were made by young researchers, students and post-graduate students. All presentations during the conference were broadcasted online over the internet with viewers in Moscow, Prague, St. Petersburgh and other cities. The Conference was held within the framework of the Centre of Plasma, Laser Research and Technology supported by MEPhI Academic Excellence Project (Russian

  20. Ionization-potential depression and other dense plasma statistical property studies - Application to spectroscopic diagnostics.

    Calisti, Annette; Ferri, Sandrine; Mossé, Caroline; Talin, Bernard

    2017-02-01

    The radiative properties of an emitter surrounded by a plasma, are modified through various mechanisms. For instance the line shapes emitted by bound-bound transitions are broadened and carry useful information for plasma diagnostics. Depending on plasma conditions the electrons occupying the upper quantum levels of radiators no longer exist as they belong to the plasma free electron population. All the charges present in the radiator environment contribute to the lowering of the energy required to free an electron in the fundamental state. This mechanism is known as ionization potential depression (IPD). The knowledge of IPD is useful as it affects both the radiative properties of the various ionic states and their populations. Its evaluation deals with highly complex n-body coupled systems, involving particles with different dynamics and attractive ion-electron forces. A classical molecular dynamics (MD) code, the BinGo-TCP code, has been recently developed to simulate neutral multi-component (various charge state ions and electrons) plasma accounting for all the charge correlations. In the present work, results on IPD and other dense plasma statistical properties obtained using the BinGo-TCP code are presented. The study focuses on aluminum plasmas for different densities and several temperatures in order to explore different plasma coupling conditions.

  1. Decreased plasma prorenin levels in primary aldosteronism: potential diagnostic implications.

    Berge, Constance; Courand, Pierre-Yves; Harbaoui, Brahim; Paget, Vinciane; Khettab, Fouad; Bricca, Giampiero; Fauvel, Jean-Pierre; Lantelme, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism could exert a negative feedback on prorenin secretion, of possibly different magnitude, whether it is related to an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) or an idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the level of prorenin in three subgroups: APA, IHA, and essential hypertension; and the performance of the aldosterone-to-prorenin ratio (APR) for the diagnosis of an APA. Seven hundred and forty-six hypertensive patients with a standardized work-up, including a prorenin measurement, were considered. Ninety-six patients without neutral treatment and 38 patients with other forms of secondary hypertension were excluded. APA and IHA were categorized according to computed tomography scan, adrenal venous sampling, pathological analysis and improvement of hypertension after surgery. Thirty-five patients had a diagnosis of APA, 57 of IHA and 504 of essential hypertension. Prorenin was lower in APA and IHA than in essential hypertension (32.9, 40.4 and 50.3  pg/ml, respectively; P < 0.001). APR was higher in patients with APA and IHA than in those with essential hypertension (24.0, 11.8, and 4.0  pmol/l per pg/ml, respectively; P < 0.001). The APR was more discriminant than the aldosterone-to-renin ratio to identify APA compared to IHA (area under the receiver operating curve at 0.750 and 0.639, respectively; P = 0.04). The optimal cut-off values were 22  pmol/l per pg/ml for APR (sensitivity 57.0%, specificity 93.0%) and 440  pmol/l per pg/ml for aldosterone-to-renin ratio (sensitivity 54.3%, specificity 82.5%). Primary aldosteronism and particularly its most caricatural form, that is APA, seems associated with a lower level of prorenin than essential hypertension. The APR could be included in the diagnostic strategy of APA.

  2. Edge and Plasma -Wall Interaction Diagnostics in the TJ-II Stellarator

    Tabares, F. L.; Tafalla, D.; Branas, B.; Hidalgo, A.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Ortiz, P.

    2003-07-01

    The operation of the TJ-II stellarator, carried out under ECR heating conditions until now, the plasma edge parameters and those processes has been identified. Therefore, an important , has implieda careful control of partied e sources and the associated plasma-wall interaction processes. A clear coupling between the plasma edge parameters and those processes has been identified. Therefore, an important effort has been devoted to the development of dedicated diagnostics in both fields. Remarkable success has been attained in the development of atomic-beam based edge diagnostics, namely, thermal Li and supersonic He beams. In particular, fast (up to 200 Hz) sampling of temperature and density profiles has been made possible thorough an upgraded version of the pulsed, supersonic He beam diagnostic. In this paper, whorl devoted to the upgrading of these techniques is described. Also, preliminary experiments oriented to the validation of the collisional radiative models use din the beam-based diagnostic interpretaron as well as simulations of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) studies of level populations of electronically excited He atoms are shown. (Author) 17 refs.

  3. Diagnostic Suite for HyperV Coaxial Plasma Gun Development for the PLX- α Project

    Case, Andrew; Brockington, Sam; Witherspoon, F. Douglas

    2015-11-01

    We present the diagnostic suite to be used during development of the coaxial guns HyperV will deliver to LANL in support of the ARPA-E Accelerating Low-Cost Plasma Heating And Assembly (ALPHA) program. For plasma jet diagnostics this includes fast photodiodes for velocimetry, a ballistic pendulum for measuring total plasmoid momentum, interferometry for line integrated plasma density, deflectometry for line integrated perpendicular density gradient measurements, and spectroscopy, both time resolved high resolution spectroscopy using a novel detector developed by HyperV and time integrated survey spectroscopy, for measurements of velocity and temperature as well as impurities. In addition, we plan to use fast pressure probes for stagnation pressure, a Faraday cup for density, fast imaging for plume geometry and time integrated imaging for overall light emission. A novel low resolution long record length camera developed by HyperV will also be used for plume diagnostics. For diagnostics of gun operation, we will use Rogowski coils to measure current, voltage dividers for voltages, B-dot probes for magnetic field, and time resolved fast photodiodes to measure plasmoid velocity inside the accelerator. This work supported by the ARPA-E ALPHA program.

  4. Edge and Plasma-Wall Interaction Diagnostics in the TJ-II Stellarator

    Tabares, F.L.; Tafalla, D.; Branas, B.; Hidalgo, A.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Ortiz, P.

    2003-01-01

    The operation of the TJ-II stellarator, carried out under ECR heating conditions until now, the plasma edge parameters and those processes has been identified. Therefore, an important, has implied a careful control of partied e sources and the associated plasma-wall interaction processes. A clear coupling between the plasma edge parameters and those processes has been identified. Therefore, an important effort has been devoted to the development of dedicated diagnostics in both fields. Remarkable success has been attained in the development of atomic-beam based edge diagnostics, namely, thermal Li and supersonic He beams. In particular, fast (up to 200 Hz) sampling of temperature and density profiles has been made possible thorough an upgraded version of the pulsed, supersonic He beam diagnostic. In this paper, whorl devoted to the upgrading of these techniques is described. Also, preliminary experiments oriented to the validation of the collisional radiative models used in the beam-based diagnostic interpretaron as well as simulations of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) studies of level populations of electronically excited He atoms are shown. (Author) 17 refs

  5. Proceedings of the fifth Australia-Japan workshop on plasma diagnostics

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The fifth Australia-Japan Workshop on Plasma Diagnostics was held at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Naka, Japan, from December 15 to 17 in 1999. The first workshop was held at JAERI, Naka in 1989, and the workshops have been held almost every two years in Australia and Japan under the Agreement between the Government of Japan and the Government of Australia on cooperation in the field of Science and Technology. In the workshops, latest research works for plasma diagnostics and plasma experiment have been presented and discussed. The research works of both countries have been developed, and the mutual understanding became deeper through the workshops. In the fifth workshop, the statuses of JT-60U (JAERI), LHD (National Institute for Fusion Science) and H-1NF (Australian National University) were introduced, and the latest research works for plasma diagnostics were also presented. The active and deeper discussions were performed. This report contains twenty-eight papers presented at the workshop. The 25 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  6. Some historic and current aspects of plasma diagnostics using atomic spectroscopy

    Hutton, Roger; Zou, Yaming; Andersson, Martin; Brage, Tomas; Martinson, Indrek

    2010-07-01

    In this paper we give a short introduction to the use of atomic spectroscopy in plasma diagnostics. Both older works and exciting new branches of atomic physics, which have relevance to diagnostics, are discussed. In particular we focus on forbidden lines in Be-like ions, lines sensitive to magnetic fields and levels which have a lifetime dependence on the nuclear spin of the ion, i.e. f-dependent lifetimes. Finally we mention a few examples of where tokamaks, instead of needing atomic data, actually provide new data and lead to developments in atomic structure studies. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Nicol J Peacock (1931-2008), a distinguished plasma scientist who contributed much to the field of spectroscopy applied to plasma, and in particular, fusion plasma diagnostics. During the final stages of the preparation of this paper Professor Indrek Martinson passed away peacefully in his sleep on 14 November 2009. Indrek will be greatly missed by many people, both for his contributions to atomic spectroscopy and for his great kindness and friendliness, which many of us experienced.

  7. Papers presented at the eleventh topical conference on high-temperature plasma diagnostics

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report contains the following eleven papers presented at the conference: Neutral Beam Diagnostics for Alcator C-Mod; A Study for the Installation of the TEXT HIBP on DIII-D; Time-domain Triple-probe Measurement of Edge Plasma Turbulence on TEXT-U; A Langmuir/Mach Probe Array for Edge Plasma Turbulence and Flow; Determination of Field Line Location and Safety Factor in TEXT-U; Hybrid ECE Imaging Array System for TEXT-U; First Results from the Phase Contrast Imaging System on TEXT-U; A Fast Tokamak Plasma Flux and Electron Density Reconstruction Technique; Time-series Analysis of Nonstationary Plasma Fluctuations Using Wavelet Transforms; Quantitative Modeling of 3-D Camera Views for Tokamak Divertors; and Variable-frequency Complex Demodulation Technique for Extracting Amplitude and Phase Information. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Construction, calibration, and application of a compact spectrophotometer for EUV(300-2500 A) plasma diagnostics

    Moos, H.W.; Chen, K.I.; Terry, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    A 400-mm normal incidence concave grating spectrophotometer, specifically designed for plasma diagnostics, is described. The wavelength drive, in which the grating is translated as well as rotated, is discussed in detail; the wavelength linearity of the sine drive and methods of improving it are analyzed. The instrument can be used in any orientation, is portable under vacuum, and quite rugged. The construction techniques utilized produce a high quality vacuum making the instrument compatible with both high purity plasma devices and synchrotron radiation sources. The photometric sensitivity calibration was found to be very stable during extended use on high temperature plasma devices. The applications of the instrument to diagnose plasmas in two tokamaks and a mirror device are decribed. A facility used for photometric calibration of extreme ultraviolet (lambda>300-A) spectrophotometers against NBS standard diodes is described. The instrumental calibration obtained using this facility was checked by using synchrotron radiation from SURF II; very good agreement was observed

  9. Diagnostics of a stationary MPD-type plasma jet with a HCN laser interferometer

    Graser, W.; Hoffmann, P.

    1975-01-01

    A HCN laser interferometer of the Ashby-Jephcott type operating at a wavelength of 337 μm was used to measure spatially resolved electron densities in a stationary MPD-type plasma jet with non-LTE behavior. Experiments were performed with and without superimposed magnetic fields up to 0.1 T at the exit of the plasma accelerator. Electron densities were obtained within the limits of 5times10 12 and 10 15 cm -3 with an accuracy better than 10%. Within the axially symmetric expanding plasma of about 15-cm average diameter and 50-cm length the radial resolving power came to less than 1 cm. So this technique has proved to be suitable to fill a gap in the diagnostics of stationary magnetized plasmas in the mean range of electron densities. (auth)

  10. Papers presented at the eleventh topical conference on high-temperature plasma diagnostics

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the following eleven papers presented at the conference: Neutral Beam Diagnostics for Alcator C-Mod; A Study for the Installation of the TEXT HIBP on DIII-D; Time-domain Triple-probe Measurement of Edge Plasma Turbulence on TEXT-U; A Langmuir/Mach Probe Array for Edge Plasma Turbulence and Flow; Determination of Field Line Location and Safety Factor in TEXT-U; Hybrid ECE Imaging Array System for TEXT-U; First Results from the Phase Contrast Imaging System on TEXT-U; A Fast Tokamak Plasma Flux and Electron Density Reconstruction Technique; Time-series Analysis of Nonstationary Plasma Fluctuations Using Wavelet Transforms; Quantitative Modeling of 3-D Camera Views for Tokamak Divertors; and Variable-frequency Complex Demodulation Technique for Extracting Amplitude and Phase Information. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  11. X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics of high-temperature dense plasmas created in different gaseous media

    Skobelev, I.Y.; Dyakin, V.M.; Faenov, A.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The investigations of emission x-ray spectra of multicharged ions of some chemical elements (S, F, Ar, Fr, O) have been carried out. These atoms are contained in gases and consequently can be used as diagnostic elements in a dense plasma focus experiments. The investigations were done in the dense high-temperature plasma (N e ∼ 10 21 cm -3 , T e ∼ 500 eV) created by laser heating of high-pressure gas puff targets, and X-ray spectrographs with a spherically bent mica crystals were used for spectra observations. Some new spectroscopic results (line identifications, high-precision wavelength measurements) have been obtained and have been applied to determine a spatial distribution of plasma parameters. It is shown that spectroscopic techniques used is a very suitable tool for studies of a plasma with complicated spatial structure

  12. Additive manufacture (3d printing) of plasma diagnostic components and assemblies for fusion experiments

    Sieck, Paul; Woodruff, Simon; Stuber, James; Romero-Talamas, Carlos; Rivera, William; You, Setthivoine; Card, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) is now becoming sufficiently accurate with a large range of materials for use in printing sensors needed universally in fusion energy research. Decreasing production cost and significantly lowering design time of energy subsystems would realize significant cost reduction for standard diagnostics commonly obtained through research grants. There is now a well-established set of plasma diagnostics, but these expensive since they are often highly complex and require customization, sometimes pace the project. Additive manufacturing (3D printing) is developing rapidly, including open source designs. Basic components can be printed for (in some cases) less than 1/100th costs of conventional manufacturing. We have examined the impact that AM can have on plasma diagnostic cost by taking 15 separate diagnostics through an engineering design using Conventional Manufacturing (CM) techniques to determine costs of components and labor costs associated with getting the diagnostic to work as intended. With that information in hand, we set about optimizing the design to exploit the benefits of AM. Work performed under DOE Contract DE-SC0011858.

  13. Neutral Beam Source and Target Plasma for Development of a Local Electric Field Fluctuation Diagnostic

    Bakken, M. R.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Lewicki, B. T.; Rhodes, A. T.; Winz, G. R.

    2016-10-01

    A new diagnostic measuring local E-> (r , t) fluctuations is being developed for plasma turbulence studies in tokamaks. This is accomplished by measuring fluctuations in the separation of the π components in the Hα motional Stark spectrum. Fluctuations in this separation are expected to be Ẽ / ẼEMSE 10-3EMSE 10-3 . In addition to a high throughput, high speed spectrometer, the project requires a low divergence (Ω 0 .5°) , 80 keV, 2.5 A H0 beam and a target plasma test stand. The beam employs a washer-stack arc ion source to achieve a high species fraction at full energy. Laboratory tests of the ion source demonstrate repeatable plasmas with Te 10 eV and ne 1.6 ×1017 m-3, sufficient for the beam ion optics requirements. Te and ne scalings of the ion source plasma are presented with respect to operational parameters. A novel three-phase resonant converter power supply will provide 6 mA/cm2 of 80 keV H0 at the focal plane for pulse lengths up to 15 ms, with low ripple δV / 80 keV 0.05 % at 280 kHz. Diagnostic development and validation tests will be performed on a magnetized plasma test stand with 0.5 T field. The test chamber will utilize a washer-stack arc source to produce a target plasma comparable to edge tokamak plasmas. A bias-plate with programmable power supply will be used to impose Ẽ within the target plasma. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-89ER53296.

  14. Development and Testing of Atomic Beam-Based Plasma Edge Diagnostics in the CIEMAT Fusion Devices

    Tafalla, D.; Tabares, F.L.; Ortiz, P.; Herrero, V.J.; Tanarro, I.

    1998-01-01

    In this report the development of plasma edge diagnostic based on atomic beam techniques fir their application in the CIEMAT fusion devices is described. The characterisation of the beams in laboratory experiments at the CSIC, together with first results in the Torsatron TJ-II are reported. Two types of beam diagnostics have been developed: a thermal (effusive) Li and a supersonic, pulsed He beams. This work has been carried out in collaboration between the institutions mentioned above under partial financial support by EURATOM. (Author) 17 refs

  15. Diagnostics for real-time plasma control in PBX-M

    Kaita, R.; Batha, S.; Bell, R. E.; Bernabei, S.; Hatcher, R.; Kozub, T.; Kugel, H.; Levinton, F.; Okabayashi, M.; Sesnic, S.; von Goeler, S.; Zolfaghari, A.; PBX-M Group

    1995-01-01

    An important issue for future tokamaks is real-time plasma control for the avoidance of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and other applications that require detailed plasma profile and fluctuation data. Although measurements from diagnostics providing this information require significantly more processing than magnetic flux data, recent advancements could make them practical for adjusting operational settings for plasma heating and current drive systems as well as field coil currents. On the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification (PBX-M), the lower hybrid current drive phasing can be varied during a plasma shot using digitally programmable ferrite phase shifters, and neural beam functions can be fully computer controlled. PBX-M diagnostics that may be used for control purposes include motional Stark-effect polarimetry for magnetic field pitch angle profiles, soft x-ray arrays for plasma position control and the separation of βp from li, hard x-ray detectors for energetic electron distributions, a multichannel electron cyclotron emission radiometer for ballooning mode identification, and passive plate eddy current monitors for kink stabilization. We will describe the present status of these systems on PBX-M, and discuss their suitability for feedback applications.

  16. Diagnostics of plasma produced by femtosecond laser pulse impact upon a target with an internal nanostructure

    Skobelev, I. Yu.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Gasilov, S. V.; Pikuz, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; Magunov, A. I.; Boldarev, A. S.; Gasilov, V. A.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray diagnostics of the interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with intensities of 10 16 -10 18 W/cm 2 with CO 2 clusters and frozen nanosize water particles is carried out. The stage of cluster expansion and the formation of a plasma channel, which governs the parameters of the formed X-ray radiation source and accelerated ion flows, is studied. The measurements are based on recording spatially resolved X-ray spectra of H- and He-like oxygen ions. Utilization of Rydberg transitions for spectra diagnostics makes it possible to determine plasma parameters on a time scale of t ∼ 10 ps after the beginning of a femtosecond pulse. The role of the rear edge of the laser pulse in sustaining the plasma temperature at a level of ∼100 eV in the stage of a nonadiabatic cluster expansion is shown. The analysis of the profiles and relative intensities of spectral lines allows one to determine the temperature and density of plasma electrons and distinguish the populations of 'thermal' ions and ions that are accelerated up to energies of a few tens of kiloelectronvolts. It is shown that the use of solid clusters made of frozen nanoscale water droplets as targets leads to a substantial increase in the number of fast He-like ions. In this case, however, the efficiency of acceleration of H-like ions does not increase, because the time of their ionization in plasma exceeds the time of cluster expansion.

  17. Plasma water as a diagnostic tool in the assessment of dehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis.

    Plaisier, Annemarie; Maingay-de Groof, Femke; Mast-Harwig, Roechama; Kalkman, Patricia M J; Wulkan, Remi W; Verwers, Renee; Neele, Marjolein; Hop, Wim C J; Groeneweg, Michael

    2010-07-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is common in childhood. The estimation of the degree of dehydration is essential for management of acute gastroenteritis. Plasma water was assessed as a diagnostic tool in children with acute gastroenteritis and dehydration admitted to hospital. In a prospective cohort study, 101 patients presenting at the emergency department with dehydration were included. Clinical assessment, routine laboratory tests, and plasma water measurement were performed. Plasma water was measured as a percentage of water content using dry weight method. During admission, patients were rehydrated in 12 h. Weight gain at the end of the rehydration period and 2 weeks thereafter was used to determine the percentage of weight loss as a gold standard for the severity of dehydration. Clinical assessment of dehydration was not significantly associated with the percentage of weight loss. Blood urea nitrogen (r = 0.3, p = 0.03), base excess (r =-0.31, p = 0.03), and serum bicarbonate (r = 0.32, p = 0.02) were significantly correlated with the percentage of weight loss. Plasma water did not correlate with the percentage of weight loss. On the basis of the presented data, plasma water should not be used as a diagnostic tool in the assessment of dehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis.

  18. Progress On The Thomson Scattering Diagnostic For The Helicon Plasma Experiment (HPX)

    Green, A.; Emami, T.; Davies, R.; Frank, J.; Hopson, J.; Karama, J.; James, R. W.; Hopson, J.; Paolino, R. N.; Sandri, E.; Turk, J.; Wicke, M.; Cgapl Team

    2017-10-01

    A high-performance spectrometer utilizing volume-phase-holographic (VPH) grating and a charge coupled device (CCD) camera with a range of 380-1090 nm and resolution of 1024x1024 has been assembled on HPX at the Coast Guard Academy Plasma Laboratory (CGAPL). This spectrometer will collect doppler shifted photons, emitted from the plasma by the first harmonic (1064 nm) of a 2.5 J Nd:YAG laser. Direct measurements of the plasma's temperature and density will be determined using HPX's Thomson Scattering (TS) single spatial point diagnostic system. A zero order half wave plate rotates the polarization of the second harmonic TS laser beam when operating at a wavelength of 532 nm. A linear actuated periscope has been constructed to remotely redirect the beam so that 532 and 1064 nm wavelengths can both be used. TS has the capability of determining plasma properties on short time scales and will be used to create a robust picture of the internal plasma parameters. Operating at both 532 and 1064 nm results in a self-consistent measurement and better use our existing spectrometer and soon to be constructed polychrometer. A prototype spectrometer has been constructed to explore the Andor CCD camera's resolution and sensitivity. The current status of the diagnostic development, spectrometer, and collection optics system will be reported. Supported by U.S. DEPS Grant [HEL-JTO] PRWJFY17.

  19. Diagnostics for real-time plasma control in PBX-M

    Kaita, R.; Batha, S.; Bell, R.E.; Bernabei, S.; Hatcher, R.; Kozub, T.; Kugel, H.; Levinton, F.; Okabayashi, M.; Sesnic, S.; Goeler, S. von; Zolfaghari, A.

    1995-01-01

    An important issue for future tokamaks is real-time plasma control for the avoidance of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and other applications that require detailed plasma profile and fluctuation data. Although measurements from diagnostics providing this information require significantly more processing than magnetic flux data, recent advancements could make them practical for adjusting operational settings for plasma heating and current drive systems as well as field coil currents. On the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification (PBX-M), the lower hybrid current drive phasing can be varied during a plasma shot using digitally programmable ferrite phase shifters, and neural beam functions can be fully computer controlled. PBX-M diagnostics that may be used for control purposes include motional Stark-effect polarimetry for magnetic field pitch angle profiles, soft x-ray arrays for plasma position control and the separation of β p from l i , hard x-ray detectors for energetic electron distributions, a multichannel electron cyclotron emission radiometer for ballooning mode identification, and passive plate eddy current monitors for kink stabilization. We will describe the present status of these systems on PBX-M, and discuss their suitability for feedback applications

  20. Diagnostics of plasma-biological surface interactions in low pressure and atmospheric pressure plasmas

    Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of plasma-surface interaction are required to understand in order to control the reactions precisely. Recent progress in atmospheric pressure plasma provides to apply as a tool of sterilization of contaminated foodstuffs. To use the plasma with safety and optimization, the real time in situ detection of free radicals - in particular dangling bonds by using the electron-spin-resonance (ESR) technique has been developed because the free radical plays important roles for dominantly biological reactions. First, the kinetic analysis of free radicals on biological specimens such as fungal spores of Penicillium digitatum interacted with atomic oxygen generated plasma electric discharge. We have obtained information that the in situ real time ESR signal from the spores was observed and assignable to semiquinone radical with a g-value of around 2.004 and a line width of approximately 5G. The decay of the signal was correlated with a link to the inactivation of the fungal spore. Second, we have studied to detect chemical modification of edible meat after the irradiation. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF-MS) and ESR, signals give qualification results for chemical changes on edible liver meat. The in situ real-time measurements have proven to be a useful method to elucidate plasma-induced surface reactions on biological specimens. (author)

  1. Formation of Imploding Plasma Liners for HEDP and MIF Applications - Diagnostics

    Gilmore, Mark [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Hsu, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Witherspoon, F. Douglas [HyperV Technologies Corp., Chantilly, VA (United States); Cassibry, Jason [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States); Bauer, Bruno S. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-04-27

    The goal of the plasma liner experiment (PLX) was to explore and demonstrate the feasibility of forming imploding spherical plasma liners that can reach High Energy Density (HED)-relevant (~ 0.1 Mbar) pressures upon stagnation. The plasma liners were to be formed by a spherical array of 30 – 36 railgun-driven hypervelocity plasma jets (Mach 10 – 50). Due to funding and project scope reductions in year two of the project, this initial goal was revised to focus on studies of individual jet propagation, and on two jet merging physics. PLX was a collaboration between a number of partners including Los Alamos National Laboratory, HyperV Technologies, University of New Mexico (UNM), University of Alabama, Huntsville, and University of Nevada, Reno. UNM’s part in the collaboration was primary responsibility for plasma diagnostics. Though full plasma liner experiments could not be performed, the results of single and two jet experiments nevertheless laid important groundwork for future plasma liner investigations. Though challenges were encountered, the results obtained with one and two jets were overwhelmingly positive from a liner formation point of view, and were largely in agreement with predictions of hydrodynamic models.

  2. Far infrared fusion plasma diagnostics. Task 3A, Progress report, FY 1990

    Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Peebles, W.A.

    1990-12-31

    Over the last several years, reflectometry has grown in importance as a diagnostic for both steady-state density Profiles as well as for the investigation of density fluctuations and turbulence. As a diagnostic for density profile measurement, it is generally believed to be well understood in the tokamak environment. However, its use as a fluctuation diagnostic is hampered by a lack of quantitative experimental understanding of its wavenumber sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several researchers, have theoretically investigated these questions. However, prior to the UCLA laboratory investigation, no group has experimentally investigated these questions. Because of the reflectometer`s importance to the world effort in understanding plasma turbulence and transport, UCLA has, over the last year, made its primary Task IIIA effort the resolution of these questions. UCLA has taken the lead in a quantitative experimental understanding of reflectometer data as applied to the measurement of density fluctuations. In addition to this, work has proceeded on the design, construction, and installation of a reflectometer system on UCLA`s CCT tokamak. This effort will allow a comparison between the improved confinement regimes (H-mode) observed on both the DIII-D and CCT machines with the goal of achieving a physics understanding of the phenomena. Preliminary investigation of a new diagnostic technique to measure density profiles as a function of time has been initiated at UCLA. The technique promises to be a valuable addition to the range of available plasma diagnostics. Work on advanced holographic reflectometry technique as applied to fluctuation diagnostics has awaited a better understanding of the reflectometer signal itself as discussed above. Efforts to ensure the transfer of the diagnostic developments have continued with particular attention devoted to the preliminary design of a multichannel FIR interferometer for MST.

  3. Diagnostic system for EUV radiation measurements from dense xenon plasma generated by MPC

    Petrov, Yu.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Solyakov, D.G.; Marchenko, A.K.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Ladygina, M.S.; Staltsov, V.V.; Yelisyeyev, D.V.; Hassanein, A.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetoplasma compressor (MPC) of compact geometry has been designed and tested as a source of EUV radiation. In present paper diagnostic system for registration of EUV radiation is described. It was applied for radiation measurements in different operation modes of MPC. The registration system was designed on the base of combination of different types of AXUV photodiodes. Possibility to minimize the influence of electrons and ions flows from dense plasma stream on AXUV detector performance and results of the measurements has been discussed.

  4. PREFACE: The 8th Workshop on Frontiers in Low Temperature Plasma Diagnostics The 8th Workshop on Frontiers in Low Temperature Plasma Diagnostics

    Sadeghi, Nader; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2010-03-01

    The 8th Workshop on Frontiers in Low Temperature Plasma Diagnostics (FLTPD) was held in Blansko, near Brno, Czech Republic. FLTPD is a biennial European event in which scientists working on low temperature plasmas present their recent results, pointing out in particular the originality of the diagnostic techniques used. The idea of starting this series of workshops was born out of a discussion between Frieder Döbele, Bill Graham and one of us when travelling together from Bar Harbor, USA (after the 6th LAPD) to Montreal, Canada, in October 1993. It became evident that we had been lacking a European meeting that could bring together experts in the field of low temperature plasma diagnostics and facilitate sharing the knowledge of these diagnostics with a new generation of scientists. The first FLTPD was held in Les Houches, France, in February 1995. Since then it has been held in the spring of every other year in different European countries, as shown below. The next meeting will be held in Zinnowitz, near Greifswald, Germany, in May 2011. Year Location Chair of LOC 1995 Les Houches, France J Derouard 1997 Bad Honnef, Germany F Döbele 1999 Saillon, Switzerland Ch Hollenstein 2001 Rolduc, The Netherlands R van de Sanden 2003 Specchia, Italy S De Benedictis 2005 Les Houches, France N Sadeghi 2007 Cumbria, United Kingdom M Bowden 2009 Blansko, Czech Republic F Krčma To favour brainstorming and extended discussions between participants, FLTPD meetings have always been organized in isolated locations with the number of attendees limited to about 70. Workshops are held over three and a half days with about ten expert presentations by invited speakers (a few from overseas), as well as short oral or poster contributions. This special issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics contains 20 articles representative of contributions to the last FLTPD in Blansko. All invited speakers and others who gave presentations, as selected by the Scientific Committee, were invited

  5. Papers presented at the Tenth Topical Conference on High-Temperature Plasma Diagnostics

    1994-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Effects of limited spatial resolution on fluctuation measurements; vertical viewing of electron-cyclotron radiation in Text-U; measurement of temperature fluctuations from electron-cyclotron emission; a varying cross section magnetic coil diagnostic used in digital feedback control of plasma position in Text-Upgrade; high-sensitivity, high resolution measurements of radiated power on Text-U; wave launching as a diagnostic tool to investigate plasma turbulence; edge parameters from an energy analyzer and particle transport on Text-U; initial results from a charge exchange q-Diagnostic on Text-U; a method for neutral spectra analysis taking ripple-trapped particle losses into account; application of a three sample volume S(k,ω ) estimate to optical measurements of turbulence on Text; initial operation of the 2D Firsis on Text-Upgrade; horizontal-view interferometer on Text-Upgrade; plasma potential measurements on Text-Upgrade with A 2 MeV heavy ion beam; fluctuation measurements using the 2 MeV heavy ion beam probe on Text-U; the time domain triple probe method; a phase contrast imaging system for Text-U; and development of rugged corner cube detectors for the Text-U-Fir interferometer. These papers have been placed on the database elsewhere

  6. Electrical and spectroscopic diagnostic of an atmospheric double arc argon plasma jet

    Tu, X; Cheron, B G; Yan, J H; Cen, K F

    2007-01-01

    An atmospheric argon plasma jet generated by an original dc double anode plasma torch has been investigated through its electrical and spectroscopic diagnostics. The arc instabilities and dynamic behavior of the argon plasma are analyzed using classical tools such as the statistical method, fast Fourier transform (FFT) and correlation function. The takeover mode is identified as the fluctuation characteristic of the double arc argon plasma jet in our experiment. The FFT and correlation analysis of electrical signals exhibit the only characteristic frequency of 150 Hz, which originates from the torch power and is independent of any change in the operating parameters. No high frequency fluctuations (1-15 kHz) are observed. This indicates that the nature of fluctuations in an argon plasma jet is induced mainly by the undulation of the tri-phase rectified power supply. It is found that each arc root attachment is diffused rather than located at a fixed position on the anode wall. Moreover, the emission spectroscopic technique is performed to determine the electron temperature and number density of the plasma jet inside and outside the arc chamber. Along the torch axis, the measured electron temperature and number density of the double arc argon plasma drop from 12 300 K and 7.6 x 10 22 m -3 at the divergent part of the first anode nozzle, to 10 500 K and 3.1 x 10 22 m -3 at the torch exit. In addition, the validity criteria of the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) state in the plasma arc are examined. The results show that the measured electron densities are in good agreement with those calculated from the LTE model, which indicates that the double arc argon plasma at atmospheric pressure is close to the LTE state under our experimental conditions

  7. Research support for plasma diagnostics on Elmo Bumpy Torus: investigation of diamagnetic diagnostics for the electron rings

    Carpenter, K.H.

    1981-02-01

    Diamagnetic diagnostics for the EBT electron rings are fundamental to the experiment. The diamagnetic flux pickup loops on each cavity output signals proportional to ring perpendicular energy. A data analysis technique is described, which in its simplest form is subtracting 1/4 the signal from each neighboring cavity pickup loop from the central one's, which provides a signal proportional to the energy in a single ring. The calibration factor relating absolute perpendicular energy to diamagnetic signal depends weakly on the geometrical model for the ring. Calculations with a bumpy cylinder MHD equilibrium code give calibration factors in reasonable agreement (20%) to the values obtained using a simple, concentric cylindrical current sheet model. The cylindrical current sheet model is used to show that diamagnetic field components measured external to the plasma require high precision or correlation with other diagnostics in order to fix model parameters. A computer simulation shows an assumption of constant ring thickness and energy density with increasing length (and energy) is compatible to diamagnetic field observations on NBT

  8. Limited Diagnostic Utility of Plasma Adrenocorticotropic Hormone for Differentiation between Adrenal Cushing Syndrome and Cushing Disease.

    Hong, A Ram; Kim, Jung Hee; Hong, Eun Shil; Kim, I Kyeong; Park, Kyeong Seon; Ahn, Chang Ho; Kim, Sang Wan; Shin, Chan Soo; Kim, Seong Yeon

    2015-09-01

    Measurement of the plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level has been recommended as the first diagnostic test for differentiating between ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome (CS) and ACTH-dependent CS. When plasma ACTH values are inconclusive, a differential diagnosis of CS can be made based upon measurement of the serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) level and results of the high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDST). The aim of this study was to assess the utility of plasma ACTH to differentiate adrenal CS from Cushing' disease (CD) and compare it with that of the HDST results and serum DHEA-S level. We performed a retrospective, multicenter study from January 2000 to May 2012 involving 92 patients with endogenous CS. The levels of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol, 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC) after the HDST, and serum DHEA-S were measured. Fifty-seven patients had adrenal CS and 35 patients had CD. The area under the curve of plasma ACTH, serum DHEA-S, percentage suppression of serum cortisol, and UFC after HDST were 0.954, 0.841, 0.950, and 0.997, respectively (all Pdisease, especially when the plasma ACTH level alone is not conclusive.

  9. Development of GEM detector for plasma diagnostics application: simulations addressing optimization of its performance

    Chernyshova, M.; Malinowski, K.; Kowalska-Strzęciwilk, E.; Czarski, T.; Linczuk, P.; Wojeński, A.; Krawczyk, R. D.

    2017-12-01

    The advanced Soft X-ray (SXR) diagnostics setup devoted to studies of the SXR plasma emissivity is at the moment a highly relevant and important for ITER/DEMO application. Especially focusing on the energy range of tungsten emission lines, as plasma contamination by W and its transport in the plasma must be understood and monitored for W plasma-facing material. The Gas Electron Multiplier, with a spatial and energy-resolved photon detecting chamber, based SXR radiation detection system under development by our group may become such a diagnostic setup considering and solving many physical, technical and technological aspects. This work presents the results of simulations aimed to optimize a design of the detector's internal chamber and its performance. The study of the effect of electrodes alignment allowed choosing the gap distances which maximizes electron transmission and choosing the optimal magnitudes of the applied electric fields. Finally, the optimal readout structure design was identified suitable to collect a total formed charge effectively, basing on the range of the simulated electron cloud at the readout plane which was in the order of ~ 2 mm.

  10. Electron bunch diagnostics for laser-plasma accelerators, from THz to X-rays

    Plateau, G.

    2011-10-01

    This thesis presents a series of single-shot non-intrusive diagnostics of key attributes of electron bunches produced by a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA). Three injection mechanisms of the LPA are characterized: channeled and self-guided self-injection, plasma down-ramp injection, and two-beam colliding pulse injection. New diagnostic techniques are successfully demonstrated: up to 8 times higher sensitivity wavefront sensor-based plasma density measurements, strong spatio-temporal coupling of the focused THz pulse is demonstrated using the temporal electric-field cross-correlation (TEX) of a long chirped probe with a short probe and confirms the two-component structure of the bunch observed by electron spectrometry, and normalized transverse emittances as low as 0.1 mm mrad are demonstrated for 0.5 GeV-class beams produced in a capillary-guided LPA by characterizing the betatron radiation emitted by the electrons inside the plasma using a new single-shot X-ray spectroscopy technique. (author)

  11. Measurement of electron density of the plasma in the Tokamak TCABR, through Thomson scattering diagnostic

    Jeronimo, Leonardo Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years is remarkable, so increasingly evident the need for a new source of energy for mankind. One promising option is through nuclear fusion, where the plasma produced in the reactor can be converted into electrical energy. Therefore, knowing the characteristics of this plasma is very important to control it and understand it so desirable. One of the diagnostic options is called Thomson scattering . This is considered the most reliable method for the determination of important plasma parameters such as temperature and electron density, and may also help in the study and explanation of various internal mechanisms. The great advantage lies in the tact that they consist of a direct measurement and nonperturbative. But it is a diagnosis whose installation and execution is admittedly complex, limiting it only a few laboratories in the fíeld of fusion for the world. Among the main difficulties, wc can highlight the fact that the scattered signal is very small, thus requiring a large increase of the incident power. Moreover, the external physical conditions can cause mechanical vibrations that eliminate or minimize them as much as possible, is a great challenge, considering the optical micrometrically very sensitive and needs involved in the system. This work describes the entire process of installation and operation of Thomson scattering diagnostic in tokamak TCABR and through this diagnosis, we work on results of electron temperature, to finally be able to calculate the electron density of the plasma. (author)

  12. Diagnostics of helium plasma by collisional-radiative modeling and optical emission spectroscopy

    Lee, Wonwook; Kwon, Duck-Hee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Optical diagnostics for the electron temperature (T{sub e}) and the electron density (n{sub e}) of fusion plasma is important for understanding and controlling the edge and the divertor plasmas in tokamak. Since the line intensity ratio method using the collisional-radiative modeling and OES (optical emission spectroscopy) is simple and does not disturb the plasma, many fusion devices with TEXTOR, JET, JT-60U, LHD, and so on, have employed the line intensity ratio method as a basic diagnostic tool for neutral helium (He I). The accuracy of the line intensity ratio method depends on the reliability of the cross sections and rate coefficients. We performed state-of-the-art R-matrix calculations including couplings up to n=7 states and the distorted wave (DW) calculations for the electron-impact excitation (EIE) cross sections of He I using the flexible atomic code (FAC). The collisional-radiative model for He I was constructed using the calculated the cross sections. The helium collisional-radiative model for He I was constructed to diagnose the electron temperature and the electron density of the plasma. The electron temperature and density were determined by using the line intensity ratio method.

  13. Schlieren method diagnostics of plasma compression in front of coaxial gun

    Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Hruska, J.; Bacilek, J.

    1983-01-01

    The schlieren method employing a movable knife edge placed in the focal plane of a laser beam was used for the diagnostics of plasma produced by a coaxial plasma gun. When compared with the interferometric method reported earlier, spatial resolution was improved by more than one order of magnitude. In the determination of electron density near the gun orifice, spherical symmetry of the current sheath inhomogeneities and cylindrical symmetry of the compression maximum were assumed. Radial variation of electron density could be reconstructed from the photometric measurements of the transversal variation of schlieren light intensity. Due to small plasma dimensions, electron density was determined directly from the knife edge shift necessary for shadowing the corresponding part of the picture. (J.U.)

  14. Development of the Megahertz Planar Laser-induced Fluorescence Diagnostic for Plasma Turbulence Visualization

    Kuritsyn, Aleksey; Levinton, Fred M.

    2004-01-01

    A megahertz LIF-based diagnostic system for measuring ion density fluctuations in two spatial dimensions is described. Well resolved spatial and temporal 2D images of turbulent structures will be useful in understanding ion turbulence in magnetically confined plasmas which is a key factor in the performance of fusion experimental devices. A sheet beam of a megahertz repetition rate tunable Alexandrite laser is used to excite ion emission from argon plasma. The fluorescence emitted from the plane of the laser beam is detected with a narrow band interference filter and intensified ultra-fast CCD camera providing 2D images of relative ion density fluctuations every microsecond. It is expected that the edge plasma on fusion devices will be accessible to this technique

  15. Internal plasma diagnostic with a multichannel magnetic probe system using automatic data acquisition

    Korten, M.; Carolan, P.G.; Sand, F.; Waelbroeck, F.

    1975-04-01

    A 20-channel magnetic probe system inserted into the plasma is used to measure spatial distributions of poloidal and toroidal magnetic fields in the pulsed toroidal high β-experiment TEE. Plasma parameters, e.g. the β-value, toroidal current density and radial pressure distribution were derived applying static equilibrium theory and can be calculated from the measurements. A data acquisition system used in conjuction with a process computer was operated to obtain the experimental data automatically and to perform the multiple computational tasks. The program system described was built to serve as a first stage of a more common software system applicable for computational data handling for different diagnostics of a plasma physics confinement experiment. (orig.) [de

  16. Pre-ionization and spectroscopic diagnostic of plasma generated and confined by magnetic fields

    Honda, R.Y.

    1980-01-01

    A θ-pinch system has been constructed with pre-heating devices with a total energy of 2 kJ. During this experiment a He Plasma was studied using the following three different diagnostics. a) Magnetic Probes b) Visible Spectroscopy using the Optical Multichannel Analyser - OMA c) Image Converter Camera. The experimental results have been checked with existing theoretical models. The electrical characteristics of the system were determined with the magnetic probe. The Doppler and Stark broadening effects of the λ o = 4686 (angstrom) (HeII) have been used to determine the ionic temperature and electronic density respectively. The time evolution of these parameters was obtained using the OMA. The dynamics of the plasma were observed by high speed photography. Instabilities in the plasma columm have been observed. Good agreement between the experimental and theoretical values was obtained. (author) [pt

  17. PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS OF AN EIT WAVE OBSERVED BY HINODE/EIS AND SDO/AIA

    Veronig, A. M.; Kienreich, I. W.; Muhr, N.; Temmer, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Goemoery, P. [Astronomical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, SK-05960 Tatranska Lomnica (Slovakia); Vrsnak, B. [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, Kaciceva 26, 1000 Zagreb (Croatia); Warren, H. P., E-mail: astrid.veronig@uni-graz.at [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2011-12-10

    We present plasma diagnostics of an Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) wave observed with high cadence in Hinode/Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) sit-and-stare spectroscopy and Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly imagery obtained during the HOP-180 observing campaign on 2011 February 16. At the propagating EIT wave front, we observe downward plasma flows in the EIS Fe XII, Fe XIII, and Fe XVI spectral lines (log T Almost-Equal-To 6.1-6.4) with line-of-sight (LOS) velocities up to 20 km s{sup -1}. These redshifts are followed by blueshifts with upward velocities up to -5 km s{sup -1} indicating relaxation of the plasma behind the wave front. During the wave evolution, the downward velocity pulse steepens from a few km s{sup -1} up to 20 km s{sup -1} and subsequently decays, correlated with the relative changes of the line intensities. The expected increase of the plasma densities at the EIT wave front estimated from the observed intensity increase lies within the noise level of our density diagnostics from EIS Fe XIII 202/203 A line ratios. No significant LOS plasma motions are observed in the He II line, suggesting that the wave pulse was not strong enough to perturb the underlying chromosphere. This is consistent with the finding that no H{alpha} Moreton wave was associated with the event. The EIT wave propagating along the EIS slit reveals a strong deceleration of a Almost-Equal-To -540 m s{sup -2} and a start velocity of v{sub 0} Almost-Equal-To 590 km s{sup -1}. These findings are consistent with the passage of a coronal fast-mode MHD wave, pushing the plasma downward and compressing it at the coronal base.

  18. Microwave heating and diagnostic of suprathermal electrons in an overdense stellarator plasma

    Stange, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    of the heating efficiencies of the different heating scenarios (overdense non-resonant heating, underdense and overdense resonant heating) a variety of diagnostic methods have been used. Based on heat wave experiments and measuring the response of the total plasma radiation, an estimate of the absorbed heating power and the energy confinement time has been achieved with an accuracy of ±10% dependent on the measurement accuracy of the radiated power.

  19. 13th TOPICAL CONFERENCE ON HIGH TEMPERATURE PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM

    C. BARNES

    2000-07-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) has been employed as a standard electron temperature profile diagnostic on many tokamaks and stellarators, but most magnetically confined plasma devices cannot take advantage of standard ECE diagnostics to measure temperature. They are either overdense, operating at high density relative to the magnetic field (e.g. {omega}{sub pe} >> {Omega}{sub ce} in a spherical torus) or they have insufficient density and temperature to reach the blackbody condition ({tau} > 2). Electron Bernstein waves (EBWs) are electrostatic waves which can propagate in overdense plasmas and have a high optical thickness at the electron cyclotron resonance layers, as a result of their large K{sub i}. This talk reports on measurements of EBW emission on the CDX-U spherical torus, where B{sub 0} {approx} 2 kG, {approx} 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} and T{sub e} {approx} 10 - 200 eV. Results will be presented for both direct detection of EBWs and for mode-converted EBW emission. The EBW emission was absolutely calibrated and compared to the electron temperature profile measured by a multi-point Thomson scattering diagnostic. Depending on the plasma conditions, the mode-converted EBW radiation temperature was found to be {le} T{sub e} and the emission source was determined to be radially localized at the electron cyclotron resonance layer. A Langmuir triple probe was employed to measure changes in edge density profile in the vicinity of the upper hybrid resonance where the mode conversion of the EBWs is expected to occur. Changes in the mode conversion efficiency may explain the observation of mode-converted EBW radiation temperatures below T{sub e}. Initial results suggest EBW emission and EBW heating are viable concepts for plasmas where {omega}{sub pe} >> {Omega}{sub ce}.

  20. Temperature diagnostics of a non-thermal plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    Schäfer, Jan

    2013-09-01

    The study reflects the concept of the temperature as a physical quantity resulting from the second thermodynamic law. The reliability of different approaches of the temperature diagnostics of open non-equilibrium systems is discussed using examples of low temperature atmospheric pressure discharges. The focus of this work is a miniaturized non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet for local surface treatment at ambient atmosphere. The micro-discharge is driven with a capacitively coupled radio frequency electric field at 27.12 MHz and fed with argon at rates of about 1 slm through the capillary with an inner diameter of 4 mm. The discharge consists of several contracted filaments with diameter around 300 μm which are rotating azimuthally in the capillary in a self-organized manner. While the measured temperatures of the filament core exceed 700 K, the heat impact on a target below the plasma jet remains limited leading to target temperatures below 400 K. Different kinds of temperatures and energy transport processes are proposed and experimentally investigated. Nevertheless, a reliable and detailed temperature diagnostics is a challenge. We report on a novel diagnostics approach for the spatially and temporally resolved measurement of the gas temperature based on the optical properties of the plasma. Laser Schlieren Deflectometry is adapted to explore temperature profiles of filaments and their behaviour. In parallel, the method demonstrates a fundamental Fermat's principle of minimal energy. Information acquired with this method plays an important role for the optimization of local thin film deposition and surface functionalization by means of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The work was supported in part by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft within SFB-TR 24.

  1. Development of Laser Based Plasma Diagnostics for Fusion Research on NSTX-U

    Barchfeld, Robert Adam

    plasma diagnostics. Plasma diagnostics collect data from fusion reactors in a number of different ways. Among these are far infrared (FIR) laser based systems. By probing a fusion plasma with FIR lasers, many properties can be measured, such as density and density fluctuations. This dissertation discusses the theory and design of two laser based diagnostic instruments: 1) the Far Infrared Tangential Interferometer and Polarimeter (FIReTIP) systems, and 2) the High-ktheta Scattering System. Both of these systems have been designed and fabricated at UC Davis for use on the National Spherical Torus Experiment - Upgrade (NSTX-U), located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). These systems will aid PPPL scientists in fusion research. The FIReTIP system uses 119 ?m methanol lasers to pass through the plasma core to measure a chord averaged plasma density through interferometry. It can also measure the toroidal magnetic field strength by the way of polarimetery. The High-ktheta Scattering System uses a 693 GHz formic acid laser to measure electron scale turbulence. Through collective Thomson scattering, as the probe beam passes through the plasma, collective electron motion will scatter power to a receiver with the angle determined by the turbulence wavenumber. This diagnostic will measure ktheta from 7 to 40 cm-1 with a 4-channel receiver array. The High-ktheta Scattering system was designed to facilitate research on electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes, which are believed to be a major contributor to anomalous transport on NSTX-U. The design and testing of these plasma diagnostics are described in detail. There are a broad range of components detailed including: optically pumped gas FIR lasers, overmoded low loss waveguide, launching and receiving optical designs, quasi-optical mixers, electronics, and monitoring and control systems. Additionally, details are provided for laser maintenance, alignment techniques, and the fundamentals of nano-CNC-machining.

  2. Plasma spectroscopy diagnostics in pulsed-power X-ray radiography diode research

    Maron, Yitzhak; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Portillo, Salvador; Johnston, Mark D.; Rose, David Vincent; Hahn, Kelly Denise; Schamiloglu, Edl; Welch, Dale R.; Droemer, Darryl W.; Rovang, Dean Curtis; Maenchen, John Eric

    2005-01-01

    Spectroscopic investigations in the visible and near UV are underway to study plasmas present in X-ray radiography diodes during the time of the electron beam propagation. These studies are being performed on the RITS-3 accelerator (5.25 MV and 120 kA) at Sandia National Laboratories using several diode configurations. The proper characterization of the plasmas occurring during the time of the X-ray pulse can lead to a greater understanding of diode behavior and X-ray spot size evolution. By studying these plasmas along with the use of selective dopants, insights into such phenomena as impedance collapse, thermal and non-thermal species behavior, charge and current neutralization, anode and cathode plasma formation and propagation, and beam/foil interactions, can be obtained. Information from line and continuum emission and absorption can give key plasma parameters such as temperatures, densities, charge states, and expansion velocities. This information is important for proper modeling and future predictive capabilities for the design and improvement of flash X-ray radiography diodes. Diagnostics include a gated, intensified multichannel plate camera combined with a 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator with a multi-fiber spectral input, allowing for both temporal and spatial resolution. Recent results are presented.

  3. Development of reconfigurable analog and digital circuits for plasma diagnostics measurement systems

    Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Sharma, Atish; Raval, Tushar

    2009-01-01

    In long pulse discharge tokamak, a large number of diagnostic channels are being used to understand the complex behavior of plasma. Different diagnostics demand different types of analog and digital processing for plasma parameters measurement. This leads to variable requirements of signal processing for diagnostic measurement. For such types of requirements, we have developed hardware with reconfigurable electronic devices, which provide flexible solution for rapid development of measurement system. Here the analog processing is achieved by Field Programmable Analog Array (FPAA) integrated circuit while reconfigurable digital devices (CPLD/FPGA) achieve digital processing. FPAA's provide an ideal integrated platform for implementing low to medium complexity analog signal processing. With dynamic reconfigurability, the functionality of the FPAA can be reconfigured in-system by the designer or on the fly by a microprocessor. This feature is quite useful to manipulate the tuning or the construction of any part of the analog circuit without interrupting operation of the FPAA, thus maintaining system integrity. The hardware operation control logic circuits are configured in the reconfigurable digital devices (CPLD/FPGA) to control proper hardware functioning. These reconfigurable devices provide the design flexibility and save the component space on the board. It also provides the flexibility for various setting through software. The circuit controlling commands are either issued by computer/processor or generated by circuit itself. (author)

  4. In situ plasma diagnostics study of a commercial high-power hollow cathode magnetron deposition tool

    Meng Liang; Raju, Ramasamy; Flauta, Randolph; Shin, Hyungjoo; Ruzic, David N.; Hayden, Douglas B.

    2010-01-01

    Using a newly designed and built plasma diagnostic system, the plasma parameters were investigated on a commercial 200 mm high-power hollow cathode magnetron (HCM) physical vapor deposition tool using Ta target under argon plasma. A three dimensional (3D) scanning radio frequency (rf)-compensated Langmuir probe was constructed to measure the spatial distribution of the electron temperature (T e ) and electron density (n e ) in the substrate region of the HCM tool at various input powers (2-15 kW) and pressures (10-70 mTorr). The T e was in the range of 1-3 eV, scaling with decreasing power and decreasing pressure. Meanwhile, n e was in the range of 4x10 10 -1x10 12 cm -3 scaling with increasing power and decreasing pressure. As metal deposits on the probe during the probe measurements, a self-cleaning plasma cup was designed and installed in the chamber to clean the tungsten probe tip. However, its effectiveness in recovering the measured plasma parameters was hindered by the metal layer deposited on the insulating probe tube which was accounted for the variation in the plasma measurements. Using a quartz crystal microbalance combined with electrostatic filters, the ionization fraction of the metal flux was measured at various input power of 2-16 kW and pressure of 5-40 mTorr. The metal ionization fraction reduced significantly with the increasing input power and decreasing gas pressure which were attributed to the corresponding variation in the ionization cross section and the residence time of the sputtered atoms in the plasma, respectively. Both the metal neutral and ion flux increased at higher power and lower pressure. The 3D measurements further showed that the ionization fraction decreased when moving up from the substrate to the cathode.

  5. Construction and characterization of a plasma focus device and diagnostic test ion

    Morales Arango, Diana Marsela

    2013-01-01

    In this work we designed and built a Plasma Focus device 2kJ power in order to extend the energy range of devices designed in DPTN CCHEN and study the scaling laws type Plasma Focus Device. The operating parameters of this device are: T/ 4 =907ns, C = 8000nF, L = 42nH, E = 2kJ, lo = 276kA. In such a way to optimize the device tests were performed with various electrode configurations, insulator length, to determine the conditions under which it operates in Plasma Focus mode. Subsequent to the construction tests were performed on devices PF-400J (T /4 = 300ns, C = 880nF, L = 38nH, E = 400J, lo = 168kA) y PF-2kJ (device between the hundreds of joules and kilojoules of energy) diagnostic charged particle emission used the Faraday Cup consisting of a biased graphite collector. For a series of shots on the PF-400J and PF-2kJ operated at 27kV and 20kV respectively kinetic energy distribution of proton between 60keV-150keV were found, deuterons between 60KeV-300KeV. With the idea of optimizing the results in future diagnostic type spectrometer Thompson, spectroscopy and diffraction networks in gas mixture will be implemented

  6. On scattering diagnostics with periodically pulsed lasers to follow the continuous evolution of time dependent plasma parameters

    Hellermann, M. von; Hirsch, K.; Doeble, H.F.

    1977-04-01

    The possibilities to use periodically pulsed lasers for plasma scattering diagnostics are discussed. An experiment with succesful application of a periodically pulsed frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser is described and results are given. Application of the method to monitor continuously, with millisecond time resolution, parameters of Tokamak type plasmas, is considered. (orig.) [de

  7. Influence of excited state spatial distributions on plasma diagnostics: Atmospheric pressure laser-induced He-H2 plasma

    Monfared, Shabnam K.; Hüwel, Lutz

    2012-10-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasmas in helium-hydrogen mixtures with H2 molar concentrations ranging from 0.13% to 19.7% were investigated at times from 1 to 25 μs after formation by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Spatially integrated electron density values are obtained using time resolved optical emission spectroscopic techniques. Depending on mixture concentration and delay time, electron densities vary from almost 1017 cm-3 to about 1014 cm-3. Helium based results agree reasonably well with each other, as do values extracted from the Hα and Hβ emission lines. However, in particular for delays up to about 7 μs and in mixtures with less than 1% hydrogen, large discrepancies are observed between results obtained from the two species. Differences decrease with increasing hydrogen partial pressure and/or increasing delay time. In mixtures with molecular hydrogen fraction of 7% or more, all methods yield electron densities that are in good agreement. These findings seemingly contradict the well-established idea that addition of small amounts of hydrogen for diagnostic purposes does not perturb the plasma. Using Abel inversion analysis of the experimental data and a semi-empirical numerical model, we demonstrate that the major part of the detected discrepancies can be traced to differences in the spatial distributions of excited helium and hydrogen neutrals. The model yields spatially resolved emission intensities and electron density profiles that are in qualitative agreement with experiment. For the test case of a 1% H2 mixture at 5 μs delay, our model suggests that high electron temperatures cause an elevated degree of ionization and thus a reduction of excited hydrogen concentration relative to that of helium near the plasma center. As a result, spatially integrated analysis of hydrogen emission lines leads to oversampling of the plasma perimeter and thus to lower electron density values compared to those obtained from helium lines.

  8. Stimulated cold fusion by positronium atoms, cross sections, and wall interactions in plasmas, used to diagnostics

    Emami, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Because of the technical complexities, involved in the controlled thermonuclear, reactions, a simple vicegerent agent cold plasma, stimulated by positronium atoms (achieved through a ring storage) as stimulus, introduced by this author in ITC 12 conference. In the present paper, the interaction between γ rays emitted through positronium atoms annihilation (in the forms of doublet and triplet electromagnetic photonic radiation) with plasma particles (including electrons, ions and neutral particles) investigated. Proper lifetime of singlet γ rays τs are about 100 ns and from that of triplet γ rays, i.e τt about 100 fems, reside in the following transition times in Ne and Argon elements in He-Ne and Ar lasers respectively: Ne*(3S2) [transition time τ = 105 ns] -> Ne*(2P4); Ar+*(3P4 4S) [transition time τ = 105 fems] -> Ar+(3P5). Then the interactions of γ rays with mater in plasma could follow up as treated from that of the laser and mater in one extreme while the comparison of this situation with normal plasmas in other extreme could serve as diagnostics key role in magnetically confined plasmas reactors. Collisions between charge and neutral species in plasma with electromagnetic radiation (γ photonic radiation) including the energy loss and scattering lead to different consequences. Light electrons can take up appreciably amounts of energy from the incident rays, lead to heating cold plasma, whereas massive ions absorb very little energy. Thus loss of incident energy in radiation occurs almost entirely in collisions with electrons , which, referred to the γ rays energy this would led to plasma heating about thermonuclear reaction ( Eγ = hν = 0.5 MeV). The heavy ions and neutral species in interaction with electromagnetic γ radiation, result on the other hand in scattering, in turn may increase the ionization level of the cold plasma, toward fully ionized plasma. Although all the essential features of these different interaction cross sections deduced

  9. Proceeding of JSPS-CAS Core University Program seminar on production and control of high performance plasmas with advanced plasma heating and diagnostic systems

    Gao Xiang; Morita, Shigeru

    2011-02-01

    The JSPS-CAS Core University Program (CUP) seminar on 'Production and control of high performance plasmas with advanced plasma heating and diagnostic systems' took place in Guilin Bravo Hotel, Guilin, China, 1-4 November 2010. This seminar was organized in the framework of CUP in the field of plasma and nuclear fusion. Two special talks and 46 oral talks were presented in the seminar including 36 Chinese, 18 Japanese and 4 Korean attendees. Production and control of high performance plasmas is a crucial issue for realizing an advanced nuclear fusion reactor in addition to developments of advanced plasma heating and diagnostics. This seminar was motivated along the issues. Results in the field of fusion experiments obtained through CUP activities during recent two years were summarized. Possible direction of future collaboration and further encouragement of scientific activity of younger scientists were also discussed in this seminar with future experimental plans in both countries. (author)

  10. Proceeding of JSPS-CAS core university program seminar on production and control of high performance plasmas with advanced plasma heating and diagnostic systems

    Gao Xiang; Morita, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    The JSPS-CAS Core University Program (CUP) seminar on 'Production and control of high performance plasmas with advanced plasma heating and diagnostic systems' took place in Shiner hotel, Lijiang, China, 4-7 November 2008. This seminar was organized in the framework of CUP in the field of plasma and nuclear fusion. One special talk and 34 oral talks were presented in the seminar including 16 Japanese attendees. Production and control of high performance plasmas is a crucial issue for realizing an advanced nuclear fusion reactor in addition to developments of advanced plasma heating and diagnostics. This seminar was motivated along the issues. Results obtained from CUP activities during recent four years were summarized. Several crucial issues to be resolved near future were also extracted in this seminar. The 31 of the papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. Analysis and Interpretation of the Plasma Dynamic Response to Additional Heating Power using different Diagnostics

    Manini, A.

    2002-07-01

    The main goal in the research of nuclear fusion, and therefore in tokamak research as well, is the development of a high power, steady-state power plant. To obtain the high power required for igniting the plasma, the size of the device must be very large. The performance of the tokamak plasma depends in particular on the plasma shape and on the internal plasma profiles. These profiles include those of the current density and the pressure, two quantities that can be modified by means of auxiliary heating methods such as Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH). ECH is a very important tool due to its capability of injecting highly localised and intense power. Off-axis ECH and Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (ECCD) modify both current density and electron temperature profiles, leading to modification of confinement and stability properties. in particular, complete stabilisation of magnetohydrodynamic modes using ECCD is feasible. Furthermore, ECH is crucial as a mean of increasing the bootstrap current fraction through the formation of internal transport barriers, so that confinement is also improved. Finally, it is also noted that modulated ECH (MECH) is a very effective tool for perturbative energy transport experiments in many different regimes. Experiments performed in the TCV and the ASDEX Upgrade tokamaks are presented. The role of TCV is very important due to its flexibility of varying the plasma shape, its versatile high power ECH system at both the second and third electron cyclotron harmonics, and due to the numerous diagnostics installed, e.g. the two soft X-ray (SXR) diagnostics which simultaneously allow high temporal and spatial resolutions. The importance of ASDEX Upgrade is related to its large size, which makes it a reactor-relevant experimental facility, and to the Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) and ECH heating facilities, which allow a study of heat and particle transport in either mostly ion-heated or mostly electron-heated regimes. Moreover, for the

  12. A simple, high performance Thomson scattering diagnostic for high temperature plasma research

    Hartog, D.J.D.; Cekic, M.

    1994-02-01

    This Thomson scattering diagnostic is used to measure the electron temperature and density of the plasma in the MST reversed-field pinch, a magnetic confinement fusion research device. This diagnostic system is unique for its type in that it combines high performance with simple design and low cost components. In the design of this instrument, careful attention was given to the suppression of stray laser line light with simple and effective beam dumps, viewing dumps, aperatures, and a holographic edge filter. This allows the use of a single grating monochromator for dispersion of the Thomson scattered spectrum onto the microchannel plate detector. Alignment and calibration procedures for the laser beam delivery system, the scattered light collection system, and the spectrometer and detector are described. A sample Thomson scattered spectrum illustrates typical data

  13. Serial data acquisition for the X-ray plasma diagnostics with selected GEM detector structures

    Czarski, T.; Chernyshova, M.; Pozniak, K.T.; Kasprowicz, G.; Zabolotny, W.; Kolasinski, P.; Krawczyk, R.; Wojenski, A.; Zienkiewicz, P.

    2015-01-01

    The measurement system based on GEM—Gas Electron Multiplier detector is developed for X-ray diagnostics of magnetic confinement tokamak plasmas. The paper is focused on the measurement subject and describes the fundamental data processing to obtain reliable characteristics (histograms) useful for physicists. The required data processing have two steps: 1—processing in the time domain, i.e. events selections for bunches of coinciding clusters, 2—processing in the planar space domain, i.e. cluster identification for the given detector structure. So, it is the software part of the project between the electronic hardware and physics applications. The whole project is original and it was developed by the paper authors. The previous version based on 1-D GEM detector was applied for the high-resolution X-ray crystal spectrometer KX1 in the JET tokamak. The current version considers 2-D detector structures for the new data acquisition system. The fast and accurate mode of data acquisition implemented in the hardware in real time can be applied for the dynamic plasma diagnostics. Several detector structures with single-pixel sensors and multi-pixel (directional) sensors are considered for two-dimensional X-ray imaging. Final data processing is presented by histograms for selected range of position, time interval and cluster charge values. Exemplary radiation source properties are measured by the basic cumulative characteristics: the cluster position distribution and cluster charge value distribution corresponding to the energy spectra. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1 st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  14. Serial data acquisition for the X-ray plasma diagnostics with selected GEM detector structures

    Czarski, T.; Chernyshova, M.; Pozniak, K. T.; Kasprowicz, G.; Zabolotny, W.; Kolasinski, P.; Krawczyk, R.; Wojenski, A.; Zienkiewicz, P.

    2015-10-01

    The measurement system based on GEM—Gas Electron Multiplier detector is developed for X-ray diagnostics of magnetic confinement tokamak plasmas. The paper is focused on the measurement subject and describes the fundamental data processing to obtain reliable characteristics (histograms) useful for physicists. The required data processing have two steps: 1—processing in the time domain, i.e. events selections for bunches of coinciding clusters, 2—processing in the planar space domain, i.e. cluster identification for the given detector structure. So, it is the software part of the project between the electronic hardware and physics applications. The whole project is original and it was developed by the paper authors. The previous version based on 1-D GEM detector was applied for the high-resolution X-ray crystal spectrometer KX1 in the JET tokamak. The current version considers 2-D detector structures for the new data acquisition system. The fast and accurate mode of data acquisition implemented in the hardware in real time can be applied for the dynamic plasma diagnostics. Several detector structures with single-pixel sensors and multi-pixel (directional) sensors are considered for two-dimensional X-ray imaging. Final data processing is presented by histograms for selected range of position, time interval and cluster charge values. Exemplary radiation source properties are measured by the basic cumulative characteristics: the cluster position distribution and cluster charge value distribution corresponding to the energy spectra. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  15. Reproducible diagnostic metabolites in plasma from typhoid fever patients in Asia and Africa.

    Näsström, Elin; Parry, Christopher M; Vu Thieu, Nga Tran; Maude, Rapeephan R; de Jong, Hanna K; Fukushima, Masako; Rzhepishevska, Olena; Marks, Florian; Panzner, Ursula; Im, Justin; Jeon, Hyonjin; Park, Seeun; Chaudhury, Zabeen; Ghose, Aniruddha; Samad, Rasheda; Van, Tan Trinh; Johansson, Anders; Dondorp, Arjen M; Thwaites, Guy E; Faiz, Abul; Antti, Henrik; Baker, Stephen

    2017-05-09

    Salmonella Typhi is the causative agent of typhoid. Typhoid is diagnosed by blood culture, a method that lacks sensitivity, portability and speed. We have previously shown that specific metabolomic profiles can be detected in the blood of typhoid patients from Nepal (Näsström et al., 2014). Here, we performed mass spectrometry on plasma from Bangladeshi and Senegalese patients with culture confirmed typhoid fever, clinically suspected typhoid, and other febrile diseases including malaria. After applying supervised pattern recognition modelling, we could significantly distinguish metabolite profiles in plasma from the culture confirmed typhoid patients. After comparing the direction of change and degree of multivariate significance, we identified 24 metabolites that were consistently up- or down regulated in a further Bangladeshi/Senegalese validation cohort, and the Nepali cohort from our previous work. We have identified and validated a metabolite panel that can distinguish typhoid from other febrile diseases, providing a new approach for typhoid diagnostics.

  16. Development of a multi-channel horn mixer array for microwave imaging plasma diagnostics

    Ito, Naoki; Kuwahara, Daisuke; Nagayama, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Microwave to millimeter-wave diagnostics techniques, such as interferometry, reflectometry, scattering, and radiometry, have been powerful tools for diagnosing magnetically confined plasmas. The resultant measurements have clarified several physics issues, including instability, wave phenomena, and fluctuation-induced transport. Electron cyclotron emission imaging has been an important tool in the investigation of temperature fluctuations, while reflectometry has been employed to measure plasma density profiles and their fluctuations. We have developed a horn-antenna mixer array (HMA), a 50 - 110 GHz 1D antenna array, which can be easily stacked as a 2D array. This article describes an upgrade to the horn mixer array that combines well-characterized mixers, waveguide-to-microstrip line transitions, intermediate frequency amplifiers, and internal local oscillator modules using a monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology to improve system performance. We also report on the use of a multi-channel HMA system. (author)

  17. MTX [Microwave Tokamak Experiment] diagnostic and auxiliary systems for confinement, transport, and plasma physics studies

    Hooper, E.B.; Allen, S.L.; Casper, T.A.; Thomassen, K.I.

    1989-01-01

    This note describes the diagnostics and auxiliary systems on the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) for confinement, transport, and other plasma physics studies. It is intended as a reference on the installed and planned hardware on the machine for those who need more familiarity with this equipment. Combined with the tokamak itself, these systems define the opportunities and capabilities for experiments in the MTX facility. We also illustrate how these instruments and equipment are to be used in carrying out the MTX Operations Plan. Near term goals for MTX are focussed on the absorption and heating by the microwave beam from the FEL, but the Plan also includes using the facility to study fundamental phenomena in the plasma, to control MHD activity, and to drive current noninductively

  18. Spectroscopic Challenges in the Modelling and Diagnostics of High Temperature Air Plasma Radiation for Aerospace Applications

    Laux, Christophe O.

    2007-01-01

    State-of-the-art spectroscopic models of the radiative transitions of interest for Earth re-entry and ground-based diagnostic facilities for aerospace applications are reviewed. The spectral range considered extends from the vacuum ultraviolet to the mid-infrared range (80 nm to 5.5 μm). The modeling results are compared with absolute intensity measurements of the ultraviolet-visible-infrared emission of a well-characterized high-temperature air plasma produced with a 50 kW inductively coupled radio-frequency plasma torch, and with high-resolution absorption spectra from the Center for Astrophysics in the vacuum ultraviolet. The Spectroscopic data required to better model the spectral features of interest for aerospace applications are discussed

  19. A neutron time of flight spectrometer appropriate for D-T plasma diagnostics

    Elevant, T.

    1984-02-01

    A neutron time-of-flight spectrometer with 2 m flight path for diagnostics of deuterium plasmas in JET is presently under construction. An upgrade of this spectrometer to make it appropriate for 14-MeV neutron spectroscopy is presented here. It is suggested to use backscattering in a deuterium based scintillator. The flight path length is 1-2 m and the efficiency is of the order of 2.10 -5 cm -5 . Results from test of principle are presented with estimates for neutron and gamma backgrounds

  20. Neutron degradation of UV enhanced optical fibers for fusion installation plasma diagnostics

    Sporea, D.; Vata, I.; Dudu, D.; Danis, Ana

    2004-01-01

    The remote diagnostics of plasmas in fusion installations requires adequate connection links to transfer the measured signals in media subjected to high electromagnetic disturbances. We evaluated the neutron irradiation induced optical absorption in several commercially available optical fibers, as they were assessed for their possible use in fusion installations. Optical fiber samples were subjected to subsequent irradiation with fluences from 6 x 10 11 to 6 x 10 13 n/cm 2 . Significant radiation induced absorption was observed in the 220-260 nm spectral band, mainly for small core diameter optical fibers (200/220 μm), independent of the cladding material used

  1. Plasma-focus neutron diagnostics by means of high-sensitivity bubble detectors

    Zoita, V.; Pantea, A.; Patran, A.; Lee, P.; Springham, S.V.; Koh, M.; Rawat, R.S.; Zhang, T.; Hassan, M.

    2005-01-01

    A new type of bubble detector (a superheated fluid detector), the DEFENDER TM , was tested as a neutron diagnostics device on the NX2 plasma focus (PF) device at the NIE/NTU, Singapore. The DEFENDER TM detector was recently developed and commercialised by BTI, Canada, and it is characterised by a very high sensitivity (a factor of about 30 higher than the standard detectors) to fast neutrons (energy above 100 keV). Together with its particular energy response this high sensitivity allows for the development of improved neutron diagnostics for the PF devices. The NX2 plasma focus device has the following typical operating parameters: condenser bank charging voltage: 15 kV; stored energy: 2.3 kJ; peak current: 420 kA; current rise-time: 1.35 μs; deuterium pressure: 20 mbar. During most of the experiments reported here the NX2 device was operated at 14 kV charging voltage and 20 mbar deuterium pressure. A few shots were done at voltages of 14.5 and 15 kV and the same gas pressure. The bubble detector neutron diagnostics experiments carried out on the NX2 machine involved the following measurements: 1. Relative calibration of the four detectors. The detectors were irradiated simultaneously, in identical conditions, by plasma focus neutron pulses and their neutron responses were compared.; 2. angular distribution of the neutron fluence (single shot). The distribution of the neutron fluence was measured at four angles with respect to the PF electrode axis: 0, 30, 60 and 90 deg; 3. Reproducibility of the neutron yield at high repetition rate operation. The NX2 device was operated at 1 Hz repetition rate.; 4. Bubble detector response time. The response time of the DEFENDER TM detector was tested by using the short PF neutron pulses and a high-speed video camera. The paper will present the results of these experiments and their implications for the development of neutron plasma diagnostics techniques based on the bubble detectors and their broader class of superheated

  2. Investigation of relativistic laser-plasmas using nuclear diagnostics; Untersuchung relativistischer Laserplasmen mittels nukleardiagnostischer Verfahren

    Guenther, Marc M.

    2011-01-19

    The present work explores with the development of a novel nuclear diagnostic method for the investigation of the electron dynamics in relativistic laser-plasma interactions. An additional aim of this work was the determination of the real laser peak intensity via the interaction of an intense laser short-pulse with a solid target. The nuclear diagnostics is based on a photo-neutron disintegration nuclear activation method. The main constituent of the nuclear diagnostic are novel pseudoalloic activation targets as a kind of calorimeter to measure the high-energy bremsstrahlung produced by relativistic electrons. The targets are composed of several stable isotopes with different ({gamma},xn)-reaction thresholds. The activated nuclides were identified via the characteristic gamma-ray decay spectrum by using high-resolution gamma spectroscopy after the laser irradiation. Via the gamma spectroscopy the ({gamma},xn)-reaction yields were determined. The high-energy bremsstrahlung spectrum has been deconvolved using a novel analysis method based on a modified Penfold-Leiss method. This facilitates the reconstruction of the spectrum of bremsstrahlung photons without any anticipated fit procedures. Furthermore, the characterization of the corresponding bremsstrahlung electrons in the interaction zone is accessible immediately. The consolidated findings about the properties of the relativistic electrons were used to determine the real peak intensity at the laser-plasma interaction zone. In the context of this work, experiments were performed at three different laser facilities. First Experiments were carried out at the 100 TW laser facility at Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intense (LULI) in France and supplementary at the Vulcan laser facility at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in United Kingdom. The main part of the activation experiments were performed at the PHELIX laser facility (Petawatt High Energy Laser for heavy Ion EXperiments) at GSI

  3. Picosecond high power laser systems and picosecond diagnostic technique in laser produced plasma

    Kuroda, Hiroto; Masuko, H.; Maekawa, Shigeru; Suzuki, Yoshiji; Sugiyama, Masaru.

    1979-01-01

    Highly repetitive, high power YAG and Glass laser systems have been developed and been successfully used for the studies of laser-plasma interactions. Various picosecond diagnostic techniques have been developed for such purposes in the regions from optical to X-ray frequency. Recently highly sensitive X-ray (1 - 10 KeV) streak camera for highly repetitive operations have been developed. Preliminary experiment shows the achievement of 28ps temporal resolution (100μm slit) and good sensitivity with detectable minimum number of 10E3-1KeV photons/shot/slit area. (author)

  4. Kinetic and Diagnostic Studies of Molecular Plasmas Using Laser Absorption Techniques

    Welzel, S; Rousseau, A; Davies, P B; Roepcke, J

    2007-01-01

    Within the last decade mid infrared absorption spectroscopy between 3 and 20 μm, known as Infrared Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (IRLAS) and based on tuneable semiconductor lasers, namely lead salt diode lasers, often called tuneable diode lasers (TDL), and quantum cascade lasers (QCL) has progressed considerably as a powerful diagnostic technique for in situ studies of the fundamental physics and chemistry of molecular plasmas. The increasing interest in processing plasmas containing hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons, organo-silicon and boron compounds has lead to further applications of IRLAS because most of these compounds and their decomposition products are infrared active. IRLAS provides a means of determining the absolute concentrations of the ground states of stable and transient molecular species, which is of particular importance for the investigation of reaction kinetics. Information about gas temperature and population densities can also be derived from IRLAS measurements. A variety of free radicals and molecular ions have been detected, especially using TDLs. Since plasmas with molecular feed gases are used in many applications such as thin film deposition, semiconductor processing, surface activation and cleaning, and materials and waste treatment, this has stimulated the adaptation of infrared spectroscopic techniques to industrial requirements. The recent development of QCLs offers an attractive new option for the monitoring and control of industrial plasma processes as well as for highly time-resolved studies on the kinetics of plasma processes. The aim of the present article is threefold: (i) to review recent achievements in our understanding of molecular phenomena in plasmas (ii) to report on selected studies of the spectroscopic properties and kinetic behaviour of radicals, and (iii) to describe the current status of advanced instrumentation for TDLAS in the mid infrared

  5. Spectroscopic diagnostics of high temperature plasmas, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    1991-01-01

    During 1991, the activities of the John Hopkins University Plasma Spectroscopy Group have covered several areas of research, in the domain of XUV spectroscopy of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. While the main effort concentrated on the development of novel diagnostics which utilize Layered Synthetic Microstructures (LSMs) as the dispersive/filtering elements, work has been done in the area of detector development and the physics of the tokamak edge plasma. An XUV monochromator for the 20--200 Angstrom range, which uses flat LSMs, has been built and is currently operated on the D3-D tokamak at General Atomics in San Diego. A design for a follow-up experiment at D3-D is now in progress. As a preliminary step toward tokamak plasma imaging in the XUV wavelength range using curved LSM coated substrates, a prototype XUV camera was built and operated in our laboratory in image the A1 3 emission at λ-175 Angstrom from a Penning Ionization Discharge plasma. Based on these laboratory results, the design of the XUV camera, which will image plasma in the Phaedrus T tokamak O VI emission (150 Angstrom), has been completed. This instrument is presently under construction. Also a detailed design of a system composed of four LSM based imaging devices for N e (0) and T e (0) fluctuation measurements on TEXT has been completed. The accuracy and the uniformity of the LSM coatings on flat and small curved surfaces used in the above-mentioned instruments have been evaluated in our laboratory using an in-house built calibration facility and at the SURF II synchrotron at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

  6. X-ray pinhole camera setups used in the Atomki ECR Laboratory for plasma diagnostics

    Rácz, R., E-mail: rracz@atomki.hu; Biri, S.; Pálinkás, J. [Institute for Nuclear Research (Atomki), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/C, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Caliri, C.; Gammino, S. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Romano, F. P. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CNR, Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Imaging of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas by using CCD camera in combination with a pinhole is a non-destructive diagnostics method to record the strongly inhomogeneous spatial density distribution of the X-ray emitted by the plasma and by the chamber walls. This method can provide information on the location of the collisions between warm electrons and multiple charged ions/atoms, opening the possibility to investigate the direct effect of the ion source tuning parameters to the plasma structure. The first successful experiment with a pinhole X-ray camera was carried out in the Atomki ECR Laboratory more than 10 years ago. The goal of that experiment was to make the first ECR X-ray photos and to carry out simple studies on the effect of some setting parameters (magnetic field, extraction, disc voltage, gas mixing, etc.). Recently, intensive efforts were taken to investigate now the effect of different RF resonant modes to the plasma structure. Comparing to the 2002 experiment, this campaign used wider instrumental stock: CCD camera with a lead pinhole was placed at the injection side allowing X-ray imaging and beam extraction simultaneously. Additionally, Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) and High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors were installed to characterize the volumetric X-ray emission rate caused by the warm and hot electron domains. In this paper, detailed comparison study on the two X-ray camera and detector setups and also on the technical and scientific goals of the experiments is presented.

  7. X-ray pinhole camera setups used in the Atomki ECR Laboratory for plasma diagnostics.

    Rácz, R; Biri, S; Pálinkás, J; Mascali, D; Castro, G; Caliri, C; Romano, F P; Gammino, S

    2016-02-01

    Imaging of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas by using CCD camera in combination with a pinhole is a non-destructive diagnostics method to record the strongly inhomogeneous spatial density distribution of the X-ray emitted by the plasma and by the chamber walls. This method can provide information on the location of the collisions between warm electrons and multiple charged ions/atoms, opening the possibility to investigate the direct effect of the ion source tuning parameters to the plasma structure. The first successful experiment with a pinhole X-ray camera was carried out in the Atomki ECR Laboratory more than 10 years ago. The goal of that experiment was to make the first ECR X-ray photos and to carry out simple studies on the effect of some setting parameters (magnetic field, extraction, disc voltage, gas mixing, etc.). Recently, intensive efforts were taken to investigate now the effect of different RF resonant modes to the plasma structure. Comparing to the 2002 experiment, this campaign used wider instrumental stock: CCD camera with a lead pinhole was placed at the injection side allowing X-ray imaging and beam extraction simultaneously. Additionally, Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) and High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors were installed to characterize the volumetric X-ray emission rate caused by the warm and hot electron domains. In this paper, detailed comparison study on the two X-ray camera and detector setups and also on the technical and scientific goals of the experiments is presented.

  8. UV Laser Diagnostics of the 1-MA Z-pinch Plasmas

    Altemara, S. D.; Ivanov, V. V.; Astanovitskiy, A. L.; Haboub, A.

    2009-01-01

    The 532 nm laser diagnostic set at the Zebra generator shows the details of the ablation and stagnation phases in cylindrical, planar, and star-like wire arrays but it cannot show the structure of the stagnated z-pinch and the implosion in small diameter loads, 1-3 mm in diameter. The absorption increment and the refraction angle of the 532 nm laser, when passing through the plasma, are too great to obtain quality images. An ultraviolet probing beam at the wavelength of 266 nm was developed to study small-diameter loads and to investigate the structure of the 1-MA z-pinch. The UV radiation has a much smaller absorption increment and refraction angles in plasmas than the 532 nm light and allows for better imaging of the z-pinch plasmas. Estimates showed that UV probing would be able to probe the high-density z-pinch plasma in experiments on the Zebra generator, and the early results of UV probing on the Zebra generator have shown promise.

  9. On performance of cylindrical dipole antenna in diagnostics of wave phenomena in space plasma

    Kiraga, A.

    within upper hybrid band do not show up. In equivalent circuit simulations, salient spectral characteristics can be matched and related to specific impedances. Equivalent circuit analysis was enforced by apparent difference between local plasma frequencies derived from onboard topside sounder data and frequencies of adjacent maximum in passive mode spectra. It has been subsequently verified and developed with the aid of impedance measurements, onboard sounder data and analysis of electron beam induced spectra. We show that circuit resonance can be neatly controlled to provide very low interference technique to monitor density of cold plasma. Circuit resonance monitoring, if properly coupled with impedance measurements and electron beam injection may be very useful, low interference tool for diagnostics of highly structured plasmas like those in auroral region.

  10. Diagnostic systems for the nuclear fusion and plasma research in the PF-24 plasma focus laboratory at the IFJ PAN

    Marciniak Łukasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a set of diagnostics dedicated to PF-24 - new medium size - plasma focus (PF device built and operated at the Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN. The PF-24 can operate at energy level up to 93 kJ and charging voltage up to 40 kV. Each condenser is connected with a specially designed spark gap with a very small jitter, which ensures a high effi ciency and a low current rise time. The working parameters of PF-24 generator make it a suitable tool for testing new detection systems to be used in fusion research. Four types of such detection systems are presented in this article: three diagnostic systems used to measure electric quantities (Rogowski coil, magnetic probe, capacitance probe, neutron counter based on beryllium activation, fast neutron pinhole camera based on small-area BCF-12 plastic scintillation detectors and high-speed four-frame soft X-ray camera with microchannel plate.

  11. ALCBEAM - Neutral beam formation and propagation code for beam-based plasma diagnostics

    Bespamyatnov, I. O.; Rowan, W. L.; Liao, K. T.

    2012-03-01

    ALCBEAM is a new three-dimensional neutral beam formation and propagation code. It was developed to support the beam-based diagnostics installed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The purpose of the code is to provide reliable estimates of the local beam equilibrium parameters: such as beam energy fractions, density profiles and excitation populations. The code effectively unifies the ion beam formation, extraction and neutralization processes with beam attenuation and excitation in plasma and neutral gas and beam stopping by the beam apertures. This paper describes the physical processes interpreted and utilized by the code, along with exploited computational methods. The description is concluded by an example simulation of beam penetration into plasma of Alcator C-Mod. The code is successfully being used in Alcator C-Mod tokamak and expected to be valuable in the support of beam-based diagnostics in most other tokamak environments. Program summaryProgram title: ALCBEAM Catalogue identifier: AEKU_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKU_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 66 459 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7 841 051 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: IDL Computer: Workstation, PC Operating system: Linux RAM: 1 GB Classification: 19.2 Nature of problem: Neutral beams are commonly used to heat and/or diagnose high-temperature magnetically-confined laboratory plasmas. An accurate neutral beam characterization is required for beam-based measurements of plasma properties. Beam parameters such as density distribution, energy composition, and atomic excited populations of the beam atoms need to be known. Solution method: A neutral beam is initially formed as an ion beam which is extracted from

  12. The radioenzymatic determination of adrenaline and noradrenaline in plasma and its use in the diagnostic of pheochromocytomas

    Neuhaus, C.P.E.

    1982-01-01

    The radioenzymatic determination of adrenaline and noradrenaline in human plasma for the diagnosis of pheochromocytomas was put to use after improvements were made with respect to extraction and separation steps. The plasma catecholamines at rest were distinctly higher in patients with pheochromocytomas. The plasma catecholamine level showed a significant increase as well with the glucagon test between the second and fifth minute. The method was not well suited for the localisation diagnostic where the plasma catecholamines were determined in selectively taken blood from the lower vena cava. Overall, however, the radioenzymatic determination of catecholamines in plasma proved itself to be a relatively ponderous, but exact and sensitive method for the measuring of basal catecholamine level and its changes. In the clinical area it is used as a valuable supplement to the contemporary diagnostic of pheochromocytomas. (orig./TRV) [de

  13. Improvements to a high-frequency fiber-optic system for plasma diagnostics

    Ogle, J.W.; Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.; Hocker, L.; Nelson, M.A.; Zagarino, P.A.; Davies, T.J.; Simmons, R.D.; Selk, R.; Hopkins, B.

    1981-01-01

    A system for high-frequency recording of plasma diagnostics has previously been reported. Substantial improvements have been made in the system response, dynamic range, and calibration of the system. Plastic-clad silica fiber is used as a radiation-to-light converter using the Cerenkov process. A spectral equalizer device is used to compensate for the material dispersion in the fiber, increasing the frequency response (approx. = 1 GHz-km) and the dynamic range (a factor of > 20 over a FWHM 1 nm, 50% transmitting interference filter). The calibration system uses a pulsed injection laser diode (< 100 ps FWHM) injected into the fiber at the radiation end of the fiber and detected by a microchannel plate photomultiplier tube on the recording end. The injection laser diode is triggered by a synchronous trigger delay unit, which also triggers a sampling or real time scope after as much as 10 μs delay with < 50 ps jitter. The system improvements are described in detail and the utility of these components in other plasma diagnostic systems is discussed

  14. Gamma diagnostics of thermonuclear plasma using D(d, gamma)4He reaction: Feasibility study

    Robouch, B.V.; Brzosko, J.S.; Ingrosso, L.

    1993-01-01

    Recent measurements of the D(d, Y) 4 He (Ey=25 MeV) reaction cross-section at low energies indicate values about 3 orders of magnitude higher than those obtained through extrapolations of previous experimental data. The new information triggers interest in the use of 25 MeV photons for diagnostics of fusion plasma. Both the spectral broadening of the neutron emission from the D(d, n)-reaction and that of the of the 25 MeV Gamma line offer two sensitive methods for the measurement of plasma temperature. Implementing this method presents an advantage over the classical neutron spectra broadening ((d, n)-branch) since it is simpler, more compact and cheaper. Moreover, once the necessary enhancement of the Y/n ratio is ensured, other complementary Y-diagnostics (under intense neutron fluxes) become possible. A preliminary version of such a system was developed using the 3D-MCSC-RWR subroutine complex of Monte Carlo random walk. The detecting system, composed of a HPGe-detector surrounded by a multilayer shield, appears to be very promising

  15. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and spontaneous Raman scattering diagnostics of nonequilibrium plasmas and flows

    Lempert, Walter R.; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2014-10-01

    The paper provides an overview of the use of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and spontaneous Raman scattering for diagnostics of low-temperature nonequilibrium plasmas and nonequilibrium high-enthalpy flows. A brief review of the theoretical background of CARS, four-wave mixing and Raman scattering, as well as a discussion of experimental techniques and data reduction, are included. The experimental results reviewed include measurements of vibrational level populations, rotational/translational temperature, electric fields in a quasi-steady-state and transient molecular plasmas and afterglow, in nonequilibrium expansion flows, and behind strong shock waves. Insight into the kinetics of vibrational energy transfer, energy thermalization mechanisms and dynamics of the pulse discharge development, provided by these experiments, is discussed. Availability of short pulse duration, high peak power lasers, as well as broadband dye lasers, makes possible the use of these diagnostics at relatively low pressures, potentially with a sub-nanosecond time resolution, as well as obtaining single laser shot, high signal-to-noise spectra at higher pressures. Possibilities for the development of single-shot 2D CARS imaging and spectroscopy, using picosecond and femtosecond lasers, as well as novel phase matching and detection techniques, are discussed.

  16. Multi-megawatt neutral beams for MFTF-B

    Kerr, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Multi-megawatt neutral-beam sources have successfully made the transition from prototype to commercial production, with some operational improvements due to the commercialization. Long pulse source operation results will be available soon

  17. Advanced beam dynamics and diagnostics concepts for laser-plasma accelerators

    Dornmair, Irene

    2017-05-15

    Laser-Plasma Accelerators (LPAs) combine a multitude of unique features, which makes them very attractive as drivers for next generation brilliant light sources including compact X-ray free-electron lasers. They provide high accelerating gradients, thereby drastically shrinking the accelerator size, while at the same time the produced electron bunches are intrinsically as short as a few femtoseconds and carry high peak currents. LPA are subject of very active research, yet, the field currently faces the challenge of improving the beam quality, and achieving stable and well-controlled injection and acceleration. This thesis tackles this issue from three different sides. A novellongitudinal phase space diagnostics is proposed that employs the strong fields present in plasma wakefields to streak ultrashort electron bunches. This allows for a temporal resolution down to the attosecond range, enabling direct determination to the current profile and the slice energy spread, both crucial quantities for the performance of free-electron lasers. Furthermore, adiabatic matching sections at the plasma-vacuum boundary are investigated. These can drastically reduce the beam divergence and thereby relax the constraints on the subsequent beam optics. For externally injected beams, the matching sections could even provide the key technology that permits emittance conservation by increasing the matched beam size to a level achievable with currently available magnetic optics. Finally, a new method is studied that allows to modify the wakefield shape. To this end, the plasma density is periodically modulated. One possible application can be to remove the linearly correlated energy spread, or chirp, from the accelerated bunch, which is suspected of being responsible for the main part of the often large energy spread of plasma accelerated beams.

  18. Advanced beam dynamics and diagnostics concepts for laser-plasma accelerators

    Dornmair, Irene

    2017-05-01

    Laser-Plasma Accelerators (LPAs) combine a multitude of unique features, which makes them very attractive as drivers for next generation brilliant light sources including compact X-ray free-electron lasers. They provide high accelerating gradients, thereby drastically shrinking the accelerator size, while at the same time the produced electron bunches are intrinsically as short as a few femtoseconds and carry high peak currents. LPA are subject of very active research, yet, the field currently faces the challenge of improving the beam quality, and achieving stable and well-controlled injection and acceleration. This thesis tackles this issue from three different sides. A novellongitudinal phase space diagnostics is proposed that employs the strong fields present in plasma wakefields to streak ultrashort electron bunches. This allows for a temporal resolution down to the attosecond range, enabling direct determination to the current profile and the slice energy spread, both crucial quantities for the performance of free-electron lasers. Furthermore, adiabatic matching sections at the plasma-vacuum boundary are investigated. These can drastically reduce the beam divergence and thereby relax the constraints on the subsequent beam optics. For externally injected beams, the matching sections could even provide the key technology that permits emittance conservation by increasing the matched beam size to a level achievable with currently available magnetic optics. Finally, a new method is studied that allows to modify the wakefield shape. To this end, the plasma density is periodically modulated. One possible application can be to remove the linearly correlated energy spread, or chirp, from the accelerated bunch, which is suspected of being responsible for the main part of the often large energy spread of plasma accelerated beams.

  19. Application of mid-infrared tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy to plasma diagnostics: a review

    Roepcke, J; Lombardi, G; Rousseau, A; Davies, P B

    2006-01-01

    Within the last decade mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy over a region from 3 to 17μm and based on tuneable lead salt diode lasers, often called tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy or TDLAS, has progressed considerably as a powerful diagnostic technique for in situ studies of the fundamental physics and chemistry in molecular plasmas. The increasing interest in processing plasmas containing hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons, organo-silicon and boron compounds has led to further applications of TDLAS because most of these compounds and their decomposition products are infrared active. TDLAS provides a means of determining the absolute concentrations of the ground states of stable and transient molecular species, which is of particular importance for the investigation of reaction kinetic phenomena. Information about gas temperature and population densities can also be derived from TDLAS measurements. A variety of free radicals and molecular ions have been detected by TDLAS. Since plasmas with molecular feed gases are used in many applications such as thin film deposition, semiconductor processing, surface activation and cleaning, and materials and waste treatment, this has stimulated the adaptation of infrared spectroscopic techniques to industrial requirements. The recent development of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) offers an attractive new option for the monitoring and control of industrial plasma processes. The aim of the present paper is threefold: (i) to review recent achievements in our understanding of molecular phenomena in plasmas (ii) to report on selected studies of the spectroscopic properties and kinetic behaviour of radicals and (iii) to describe the current status of advanced instrumentation for TDLAS in the mid-infrared

  20. Proposed development of novel diagnostics for intense, ultrafast laser-plasma experiments at JAEA-KPSI

    Bolton, Paul R.; Tatchyn, Roman; Fukuda, Yuji; Kando, Masaki; Daito, Izuru; Ma, Jinglong; Chen, Liming; Pirozhkov, Alexander; Tajima, Toshiki

    2007-01-01

    Development of new diagnostics is critical for future laser-plasma accelerators, laser-driven light sources and for x-ray FELs. Recent laser wakefield electron acceleration developments and novel beam-based light source schemes (such as free electron lasers) obviate the need for next generation ultrafast diagnostics, capable of temporal resolution of a few femtoseconds (and in some cases attoseconds) for laser pulses (high order harmonics), x-ray pulses and electron bunches. Single shot detection capability in noninvasive and parasitic modes is also important. Alterations of laser pulse spectra and the associated dynamics can be informative diagnostics. The portion of a high intensity laser pulse that is transmitted through a self-induced underdense plasma (such as in laser wakefield acceleration LWFA schemes) carries the effects of plasma processes it has experienced. A distinction between the self-modulated laser wakefield (SMLWF) acceleration regime and the forced laser wakefield (FLWF) acceleration regime is in the spectral signature of the transmitted ir laser pulse. The former regime generates sidebands from stimulated Raman forward scattering (SRS-F) and the latter exhibits general spectral broadening that evidences ir laser pulse compression. Transmitted spectral effects can diagnose these acceleration regimes. Existing noninvasive electro-optic (EO) schemes for detection of ultrashort electron bunches are limited by material properties to temporal resolution at the 50-100 femtosecond level. While timing jitter at conventional accelerators is of this order (or greater), single bunch longitudinal profile measurements can require improvement of at least an order of magnitude. A new FO technique is described here which monitors enhancement and associated dynamics of spectral components in a probe pulse. Three correlation schemes for detecting ultrashort x-ray pulses are described. Two-photon absorption in tailored ion targets is proposed for scanning auto

  1. Magnetic diagnostics: General principles and the problem of reconstruction of plasma current and pressure profiles in toroidal systems

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    Restrictions on magnetic diagnostics are discussed. Being related to the integral nature of the measurable quantities, these follow from the fundamental laws of electromagnetism. A series of examples demonstrating the strength of these restrictions is analysed. The general rule is emphasized that information obtained from external magnetic measurements is insufficient for reliable evaluation of plasma current and pressure profiles in tokamaks and in stellarators. The underlying reason is that outside the plasma the self-field of the equilibrium plasma currents is determined by the boundary conditions on the plasma surface alone. (author)

  2. Magnetic diagnostics: general principles and the problem of reconstruction of plasma current and pressure profiles in toroidal systems

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    2000-04-01

    The restrictions of the magnetic diagnostics are discussed. Being related to the integral nature of the measurable quantities, they follow from the fundamental laws of electromagnetism. A series of particular examples demonstrating the strength of these restrictions is given and analyzed. A general rule is emphasized that the information obtained from external magnetic measurements is obviously insufficient for the reliable evaluation of plasma current and pressure profiles in tokamaks or in stellarators. The underlying reason is that outside the plasma the own field of the equilibrium plasma currents is determined by the boundary conditions on the plasma surface only. (author)

  3. Heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) diagnostics as a tool for investigations into the plasma turbulence and the local electric field of dense plasma

    Krupnik, L.I.; Chmyga, A.A.; Komarov, A.D.; Kozachok, A.S.; Zhezhera, A.I. [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC KIPT, 310108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Melnikov, A.V.; Eliseev, L.G.; Lysenko, S.E.; Mavrin, V.A.; Perfilov, S.V. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Hidalgo, C.; Ascasibar, E.; Estrada, T.; Liniers, M.; Ochando, M.A.; Pablos, J.L. de; Pedrosa, M.A.; Tabares, F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion por Confinamiento Magnetico, Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    One of essential achievements of the Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostics is the possibility to use it for investigation of plasma confinement by measuring the fluctuations of electric field and plasma density; the method is based on the important role of the plasma electric fields. Both edge and core transport barriers are related to a large increase in the E*B sheared flows in a fusion device. In the TJ-II stellarator the HIBP diagnostics has recently been upgraded for two-point measurements with a good spatial (1 cm) and temporal (10 {mu}s) resolution of the plasma electric potential and density, as well as their fluctuations and poloidal component of electric field, E{sub p} equals ({phi}1 - {phi}2)/{Delta}r [V/cm]; these data give chance to extract the radial turbulent particle flux: {Gamma}(r) equals {Gamma}(Epol*Btor) equals {Gamma}(E*B). (authors)

  4. Plasma diagnostics using laser-excited coupled and transmission ring resonators

    Haas, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    In this paper a simple two-level laser model is used to investigate the frequency response of coupled-cavity laser interferometers. It is found that under certain circumstances, often satisfied by molecular gas lasers, the frequency response exhibits a resonant behavior. This behavior severely complicates the interpretation of coupled-cavity laser interferometer measurements of rapidly varying plasmas. To circumvent this limitation a new type of laser interferometer plasma diagnostic with significantly improved time response was developed. In this interferometer the plasma is located in one arm of a transmission ring resonator cavity that is excited by an externally positioned laser. Thus, the laser is decoupled from the interferometer cavity and the time response of the interferometer is then limited by the Q of the ring resonator cavity. This improved time response is acquired without loss of spatial resolution, but requires a more sensitive signal detector since the laser is no longer used as a detector as it is in conventional coupled-cavity laser interferometers. Thus, the new technique incorporates the speed of the Mach--Zender interferometer and the sensitivity of the coupled-cavity laser interferometer. The basic operating principles of this type of interferometer have been verified using a CO 2 laser

  5. Time-resolved diagnostics of excimer laser-generated ablation plasmas used for pulsed laser deposition

    Geohegan, D.B.

    1994-09-01

    Characteristics of laser plasmas used for pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of thin films are examined with four in situ diagnostic techniques: Optical emission spectroscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy, ion probe studies, and gated ICCD (intensified charge-coupled-device array) fast photography. These four techniques are complementary and permit simultaneous views of the transport of ions, excited states, ground state neutrals and ions, and hot particulates following KrF laser ablation of YBCO, BN, graphite and Si in vacuum and background gases. The implementation and advantages of the four techniques are first described in order to introduce the key features of laser plasmas for pulsed laser deposition. Aspects of the interaction of the ablation plume with background gases (i.e., thermalization, attenuation, shock formation) and the collision of the plasma plume with the substrate heater are then summarized. The techniques of fast ICCD photography and gated photon counting are then applied to investigate the temperature, velocity, and spatial distribution of hot particles generated during KrF ablation of YBCO, BN, Si and graphite. Finally, key features of fast imaging of the laser ablation of graphite into high pressure rare gases are presented in order to elucidate internal reflected shocks within the plume, redeposition of material on a surface, and formation of hot nanoparticles within the plume.

  6. Time-resolved diagnostics of excimer laser-generated ablation plasmas used for pulsed laser deposition

    Geohegan, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    Characteristics of laser plasmas used for pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of thin films are examined with four in situ diagnostic techniques: Optical emission spectroscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy, ion probe studies, and gated ICCD (intensified charge-coupled-device array) fast photography. These four techniques are complementary and permit simultaneous views of the transport of ions, excited states, ground state neutrals and ions, and hot particulates following KrF laser ablation of YBCO, BN, graphite and Si in vacuum and background gases. The implementation and advantages of the four techniques are first described in order to introduce the key features of laser plasmas for pulsed laser deposition. Aspects of the interaction of the ablation plume with background gases (i.e., thermalization, attenuation, shock formation) and the collision of the plasma plume with the substrate heater are then summarized. The techniques of fast ICCD photography and gated photon counting are then applied to investigate the temperature, velocity, and spatial distribution of hot particles generated during KrF ablation of YBCO, BN, Si and graphite. Finally, key features of fast imaging of the laser ablation of graphite into high pressure rare gases are presented in order to elucidate internal reflected shocks within the plume, redeposition of material on a surface, and formation of hot nanoparticles within the plume

  7. Schlieren, Phase-Contrast, and Spectroscopy Diagnostics for the LBNL HIF Plasma Channel Experiment

    Ponce, D. M.; Niemann, C.; Fessenden, T. J.; Leemans, W.; Vandersloot, K.; Dahlbacka, G.; Yu, S. S.; Sharp, W. M.; Tauschwitz, A.

    1999-11-01

    The LBNL Plasma Channel experiment has demonstrated stable 42-cm Z-pinch discharge plasma channels with peak currents in excess of 50 kA for a 7 torr nitrogen, 30 kV discharge. These channels offer the possibility of transporting heavy-ion beams for inertial fusion. We postulate that the stability of these channels resides in the existance of a neutral-gas density depresion created by a pre-pulse discharge before the main capacitor bank discharge is created. Here, we present the results and experimental diagnostics setup used for the study of the pre-pulse and main bank channels. Observation of both the plasma and neutral gas dynamics is achieved. Schlieren, Zernike's phase-contrast, and spectroscopic techniques are used. Preliminary Schlieren results show a gas shockwave moving radially at a rate of ≈ 10^6 mm/sec as a result of the fast and localized deposited energy during the evolution of the pre-pulse channel. This data will be used to validate simulation codes (BUCKY and CYCLOPS).

  8. Analytical investigation of microwave resonances of a curling probe for low and high-pressure plasma diagnostics

    Arshadi, Ali; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2017-01-01

    The concept of ‘active plasma resonance spectroscopy’ (APRS) has attracted greater interest in recent years as an established plasma diagnostic technique. The APRS describes a class of related methods utilizing the intrinsic ability of plasma to resonate at or near the electron plasma frequency {ω\\text{pe}} . The Curling probe (CP) as a novel realization of the APRS idea, is a miniaturized spiral slot embedded flatly in the chamber wall. Consequently, a plasma diagnostic technique with minimum disturbance and without metal contamination can be developed. To measure the plasma parameters the CP is fed with a weak frequency-swept signal from the exterior of the plasma chamber by a network analyzer which also records the response of the plasma versus the frequency. The resonance behavior is strongly dependent on the electron density and the gas pressure. The CP has also the advantage of resonating at a frequency greater than {ω\\text{pe}} which is dependent on the spiral’s length. The double resonance characteristic gives the CP the ability to be applied in varying plasma regimes. Assuming that the spiralization does not have a considerable effect on the resonances, a ‘straightened’ infinite length CP has recently been investigated (Arshadi and Brinkmann 2016 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 25 045014) to obtain the surface wave resonances. This work generalizes the approach and models the CP by a rectangular slot-type resonator located between plasma and quartz. Cold plasma theory and Maxwell’s equations are utilized to compute the electromagnetic fields propagating into the plasma by the diffraction of an incident plane wave at the slot. A mathematical model is employed and both kinds of resonances are derived. The analytical study of this paper shows good agreement with the numerical results of the probe inventors.

  9. Spectroscopic Investigations of Highly Charged Tungsten Ions - Atomic Spectroscopy and Fusion Plasma Diagnostics

    Clementson, Joel [Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    The spectra of highly charged tungsten ions have been investigated using x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy. These heavy ions are of interest in relativistic atomic structure theory, where high-precision wavelength measurements benchmark theoretical approaches, and in magnetic fusion research, where the ions may serve to diagnose high-temperature plasmas. The work details spectroscopic investigations of highly charged tungsten ions measured at the Livermore electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility. Here, the EBIT-I and SuperEBIT electron beam ion traps have been employed to create, trap, and excite tungsten ions of M- and L-shell charge states. The emitted spectra have been studied in high resolution using crystal, grating, and x-ray calorimeter spectrometers. In particular, wavelengths of n = 0 M-shell transitions in K-like W55+ through Ne-like W64+, and intershell transitions in Zn-like W44+ through Co-like W47+ have been measured. Special attention is given to the Ni-like W46+ ion, which has two strong electric-dipole forbidden transitions that are of interest for plasma diagnostics. The EBIT measurements are complemented by spectral modeling using the Flexible Atomic Code (FAC), and predictions for tokamak spectra are presented. The L-shell tungsten ions have been studied at electron-beam energies of up to 122 keV and transition energies measured in Ne-like W64+ through Li-like W71+. These spectra constitute the physics basis in the design of the ion-temperature crystal spectrometer for the ITER tokamak. Tungsten particles have furthermore been introduced into the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) spheromak in Livermore in order to investigate diagnostic possibilities of extreme ultraviolet tungsten spectra for the ITER divertor. The spheromak measurement and spectral modeling using FAC suggest that tungsten ions in charge states around Er-like W6+ could be useful for

  10. Image-converter diagnostics of laser and laser plasma in pico-femtosecond region

    Schelev, M.Ya.

    1979-01-01

    In the present communication we would like to outline some new trends in development of pico-femtosecond image-converter diagnostics for laser and laser plasma research on the basis of the recent works done in P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute. The discussion of the following subjects will be included: new generation of picosecond image-converter tubes (ICT), pulsed control circuitry, late prototype of picosecond image-converter cameras (ICC), test installation consisting of Nd: glass and YAG lasers for production the ultra-short pulses and sinusoidally modulated radiation, methods and techniques for image tube and camera dynamic measurements in IR, visible and X-ray spectral regions. Also discussed are the image processing technique for pictures taken with picosecond ICC in order to correct the geometrical distortions, enhance pictures quality and evaluate parameters of the input signals through their recorded images. (author)

  11. Plasma mass density, species mix and fluctuation diagnostics using fast Alfven wave

    Ikezi, H.; deGrassie, J.S.; Pinsker, R.I.; Snider, R.T.

    1996-06-01

    The authors propose to employ a fast Alfven wave interferometer and reflectometer as a tokamak diagnostic to measure the plasma mass density, D-T species mix profile, and density fluctuations. Utilize the property that the phase velocity of the fast wave propagating across the magnetic field is the Alfven speed with thermal correction, this fast wave interferometer on the DIII-D tokamak was successfully used to obtain the line integrated density. Since the position of the ion-ion hybrid cut-off in tokamaks is uniquely determined by the species mix ratio and the wave frequency, the reflectometer arrangement finds the species mix profile. The inversion method of reflectometry is discussed. The multiple chord interferometer also measures the mass density fluctuation profile.

  12. Plasma mass density, species mix and fluctuation diagnostics using fast Alfven wave

    Ikezi, H.; deGrassie, J.S.; Pinsker, R.I.; Snider, R.T.

    1996-06-01

    The authors propose to employ a fast Alfven wave interferometer and reflectometer as a tokamak diagnostic to measure the plasma mass density, D-T species mix profile, and density fluctuations. Utilize the property that the phase velocity of the fast wave propagating across the magnetic field is the Alfven speed with thermal correction, this fast wave interferometer on the DIII-D tokamak was successfully used to obtain the line integrated density. Since the position of the ion-ion hybrid cut-off in tokamaks is uniquely determined by the species mix ratio and the wave frequency, the reflectometer arrangement finds the species mix profile. The inversion method of reflectometry is discussed. The multiple chord interferometer also measures the mass density fluctuation profile

  13. Plasma diagnostics package. Volume 2: Spacelab 2 section. Part B: Thesis projects. Final science report

    Pickett, J.S.; Frank, L.A.; Kurth, W.S.

    1988-06-01

    This volume (2), which consists of two parts (A and B), of the Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP) Final Science Report contains a summary of all of the data reduction and scientific analyses which were performed using PDP data obtained on STS-51F as a part of the Spacelab 2 (SL-2) payload. This work was performed during the period of launch, July 29, 1985, through June 30, 1988. During this period the primary data reduction effort consisted of processing summary plots of the data received by 12 of the 14 instruments located on the PDP and submitting these data to the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). Three Master's and three Ph.D. theses were written using PDP instrumentation data. These theses are listed in Volume 2, Part B

  14. X-ray calibration facility for plasma diagnostics of the MegaJoule laser

    Hubert, S.; Prevot, V.

    2013-01-01

    The Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) located at CEA-CESTA will be equipped with x-ray plasma diagnostics using different kinds of x-ray components such as filters, mirrors, crystals, detectors and cameras. To guarantee LMJ measurements, detectors such as x-ray cameras need to be regularly calibrated. An x-ray laboratory is devoted to this task and performs absolute x-ray calibrations for similar x-ray cameras running on Laser Integration Line (LIL). This paper presents the x-ray calibration bench with its x-ray tube based High Energy x-ray Source (HEXS) and some calibration results. By mean of an ingenious transposition system under vacuum absolute x-ray calibration of x-ray cameras, like streak and stripline ones, can be carried out. Coupled to a new collimation system with micrometric accuracy on aperture sensitivity quantum efficiency measurements can be achieved with reduced uncertainties. (authors)

  15. A twin optically-pumped far-infrared CH3OH laser for plasma diagnostics

    Yamanaka, M.; Takeda, Y.; Tanigawa, S.; Nishizawa, A.; Noda, N.

    1979-11-01

    A twin optically-pumped far-infrared CH 3 OH laser has been constructed for use in plasma diagnostics. The anti-symmetric doublet due to the Raman-type resonant two-photon transition is reproducibly observed at 118.8 μm. With the 118.8-μm line, it is obtained from the frequency separation of the anti-symmetric doublet that the CH 3 OH absorption line center is 16 +- 1 MHz higher than the pump 9.7-μm P(36) CO 2 laser line center. It is shown that the Raman-type resonant two-photon transition is useful in order to get several-MHz phase modulation for the far-infrared laser interferometer. Some preliminary performances of this twin laser for the modulated interferometer are described. (author)

  16. Plasma diagnostics package. Volume 2: Spacelab 2 section. Part B: Thesis projects

    Pickett, Jolene S. (Compiler); Frank, L. A. (Compiler); Kurth, W. S. (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    This volume (2), which consists of two parts (A and B), of the Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP) Final Science Report contains a summary of all of the data reduction and scientific analyses which were performed using PDP data obtained on STS-51F as a part of the Spacelab 2 (SL-2) payload. This work was performed during the period of launch, July 29, 1985, through June 30, 1988. During this period the primary data reduction effort consisted of processing summary plots of the data received by 12 of the 14 instruments located on the PDP and submitting these data to the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). Three Master's and three Ph.D. theses were written using PDP instrumentation data. These theses are listed in Volume 2, Part B.

  17. Plasma Fluctuation Studies in the TCV Tokamak: Modeling of Shaping Effects and Advanced Diagnostic Development

    Marinoni, A.

    2009-10-01

    One of the most important issues for magnetic-confinement fusion research is the so-called anomalous transport across magnetic field lines, i.e. transport that is in excess of that caused by collisional processes. The need to reduce anomalous transport in order to increase the efficiency of a prospective fusion reactor must be addressed through an investigation of its fundamental underlying causes. This thesis is divided into two distinct components: one experimental and instrumental, and the other theoretical and based on numerical modeling. The experimental part consists of the design and installation of a new diagnostic for core turbulence fluctuations in the TCV tokamak. An extensive conceptual investigation of a number of possible solutions, including Beam Emission Spectroscopy, Reflectometry, Cross Polarization, Collective Scattering and different Imaging techniques, was carried out at first. A number of criteria, such as difficulties in data interpretation, costs, variety of physics issues that could be addressed and expected performance, were used to compare the different techniques for specific application to the TCV tokamak. The expected signal to noise ratio and the required sampling frequency for TCV were estimated on the basis of a large number of linear, local gyrokinetic simulations of plasma fluctuations. This work led to the choice of a Zernike phase contrast imaging system in a tangential launching configuration. The diagnostic was specifically designed to provide information on turbulence features up to now unknown. In particular, it is characterized by an outstanding spatial resolution and by the capability to measure a very broad range of fluctuations, from ion to electron Larmor radius scales, thus covering the major part of the instabilities expected to be at play in TCV. The spectrum accessible covers the wavenumber region from 0.9 cm -1 to 60 cm -1 at 24 radial positions with 3 MHz bandwidth. The diagnostic is an imaging technique and is

  18. Application of optical fluctuation diagnostics to transport studies in high temperature tokamak plasmas

    Fonck, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    First data was obtained from the TFTR BES system in May 1990, after the prototype 4-channel system with photomultiplier detectors from PBX-M was transferred to the TFTR Hot Cell. The system was expanded to 16 spatial channels during the Summer 1990 run period, and data of interest was obtained near the end of the run in October 1990. The most attention has been given to a radial profile data set obtained for an L-mode plasma condition in TFTR, where we characterized the nature of the long-wavelength turbulence seen by the BES diagnostic. We summarize here highlights of the initial run with BES or TFTR. We also give a progress report on support activities at UW

  19. Twin optically-pumped far-infrared CH3OH laser for plasma diagnostics

    Yamanaka, M.; Takeda, Y.; Tanigawa, S.; Nishizawa, A.

    1980-01-01

    A twin optically-pumped far-infrared CH 3 OH laser has been constructed for use in plasma diagnostics. The antisymmetric doublet due to the Raman-type resonant two-photon transition is reproducibly observed at 118.8 microns. With the 118.8-micron line, it is found that CH 3 OH absorption line center is 16 + or - 1 MHz higher than the pump 9.7-micron P(36) CO 2 laser line center. It is shown that the Raman-type resonant two-photon transition is useful in order to get several MHz phase modulation for the far-infrared laser interferometer. Some preliminary performances of this twin laser for the modulated interferometer are described

  20. Transverse phase space diagnostics for ionization injection in laser plasma acceleration using permanent magnetic quadrupoles

    Li, F.; Nie, Z.; Wu, Y. P.; Guo, B.; Zhang, X. H.; Huang, S.; Zhang, J.; Cheng, Z.; Ma, Y.; Fang, Y.; Zhang, C. J.; Wan, Y.; Xu, X. L.; Hua, J. F.; Pai, C. H.; Lu, W.; Mori, W. B.

    2018-04-01

    We report the transverse phase space diagnostics for electron beams generated through ionization injection in a laser-plasma accelerator. Single-shot measurements of both ultimate emittance and Twiss parameters are achieved by means of permanent magnetic quadrupole. Beams with emittance of μm rad level are obtained in a typical ionization injection scheme, and the dependence on nitrogen concentration and charge density is studied experimentally and confirmed by simulations. A key feature of the transverse phase space, matched beams with Twiss parameter α T ≃ 0, is identified according to the measurement. Numerical simulations that are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results reveal that a sufficient phase mixing induced by an overlong injection length leads to the matched phase space distribution.

  1. Thermal and mechanical design of the plasma core CXRS diagnostics for the fusion reactor ITER; Thermische und mechanische Auslegung der Plasma Core CXRS Diagnostik des ITER Kernfusionsreaktors

    Greza, H. [WTI Wissenschaftlich-Technische Ingenieurberatung GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Neubauer, O.; Wolters, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In the frame of the research project ITER (international thermonuclear experimental reactor) the plasma state is monitored using the plasma core diagnostics CXRS (charge exchange recombination spectroscopy).The authors describe the thermal and mechanical design of the first mirror of the CXRS diagnostics. The components of the first mirror are exposed to high heat and neutron irradiation. The surface temperature will be 300 to 400 deg C. The misalignment tolerance is plus or minus 0.1 degree. The maximum mechanical stresses in the mirror have to be minimized. The design calculations use the finite element code ANSYS. The results indicate that the heat input from the plasma can be removed by the coolant flow. Further calculation shave to concern the brazed joints between mirror and cooling block.

  2. Thermal and mechanical design of the plasma core CXRS diagnostics for the fusion reactor ITER; Thermische und mechanische Auslegung der Plasma Core CXRS Diagnostik des ITER Kernfusionsreaktors

    Greza, H.; Knauff, R. [Wissenschaftlich-Technische Ingenieurberatung GmbH (WTI), Juelich (Germany); Neubauer, O.; Wolters, J.; Offermanns, G.; Biel, W. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In the frame of the research project ITER (international thermonuclear experimental reactor) the plasma state is monitored using the plasma core diagnostics CXRS (charge exchange recombination spectroscopy).The authors describe the thermal and mechanical design of the first mirror of the CXRS diagnostics. The components of the first mirror are exposed to high heat and neutron irradiation. The surface temperature will be 300 to 400 deg C. The misalignment tolerance is plus or minus 0.1 degree. The maximum mechanical stresses in the mirror have to be minimized. The design calculations use the finite element code ANSYS. The results indicate that the heat input from the plasma can be removed by the coolant flow. Further calculation shave to concern the brazed joints between mirror and cooling block.

  3. Diagnostic-management system and test pulse acquisition for WEST plasma measurement system

    Wojenski, A.; Kasprowicz, G.; Pozniak, K.T.; Byszuk, A.; Juszczyk, B.; Zabolotny, W.; Zienkiewicz, P.; Chernyshova, M.; Czarski, T.; Mazon, D.; Malard, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes current status of electronic, firmware and software development for new plasma measurement system for use in WEST facility. The system allows to perform two dimensional plasma visualization (in time) with spectrum measurement. The analog front-end is connected to Gas Electron Multiplier detector (GEM detector). The system architecture have high data throughput due to use of PCI-Express interface, Gigabit Transceivers and sampling frequency of ADC integrated circuits. The hardware is based on several years of experience in building X-ray spectrometer system for Joint European Torus (JET) facility. Data streaming is done using Artix7 FPGA devices. The system in basic configuration can work with up to 256 channels, while the maximum number of measurement channels is 2048. Advanced firmware for the FPGA is required in order to perform high speed data streaming and analog signal sampling. Diagnostic system management has been developed in order to configure measurement system, perform necessary calibration and prepare hardware for data acquisition. (authors)

  4. Plasma diagnostics by electron guns and electric field probes on ISEE-1

    Pedersen, A.

    1982-01-01

    The use of electron guns to control the potential of a satellite with conductive surfaces is discussed with reference to the results of the ISEE-1 satellite experiment. The two electron guns carried by the satellite can emit electrons with energies up to 48 eV, and the emitted electron current has a maximum value of 0.5-1.0 mA. The satellite potential, with or without gun operation, can be measured with reference to one or two spherical electric field probes positioned on booms at a distance of 36 m from the satellite. The probes are biased with a negative current from a high-impedance source to be slightly positive (0.5-1.0 V) relative to the plasma, and the spacecraft is normally several volts more positive and can be further positively charged by operating the electron gun. Plasma diagnostics can be carried out by appropriate sweeps of gun currents and energy of emitted electrons to obtain information about density and characteristic energy of ambient electrons. 9 references

  5. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy for warm dense matter studies and ICF plasma diagnostics

    Hansen, S. B.; Harding, E. C.; Knapp, P. F.; Gomez, M. R.; Nagayama, T.; Bailey, J. E.

    2018-05-01

    The burning core of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) plasma produces bright x-rays at stagnation that can directly diagnose core conditions essential for comparison to simulations and understanding fusion yields. These x-rays also backlight the surrounding shell of warm, dense matter, whose properties are critical to understanding the efficacy of the inertial confinement and global morphology. We show that the absorption and fluorescence spectra of mid-Z impurities or dopants in the warm dense shell can reveal the optical depth, temperature, and density of the shell and help constrain models of warm, dense matter. This is illustrated by the example of a high-resolution spectrum collected from an ICF plasma with a beryllium shell containing native iron impurities. Analysis of the iron K-edge provides model-independent diagnostics of the shell density (2.3 × 1024 e/cm3) and temperature (10 eV), while a 12-eV red shift in Kβ and 5-eV blue shift in the K-edge discriminate among models of warm dense matter: Both shifts are well described by a self-consistent field model based on density functional theory but are not fully consistent with isolated-atom models using ad-hoc density effects.

  6. Plasma Diagnostics by Microwave Interferometry in MHD Channels with the Aid of an Open Waveguide

    Muenkel, J. [Rheinische-Westfalische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1966-10-15

    Plasma diagnostics of a novel kind, using microwave interferometry, is described. Use is made of an open non-conventional waveguide in the test path of the microwave bridge. Guiding the microwave has several advantages over free transmission of the test h.f. beam between two horn antennas if there are small plasma streams bounded by ceramics and metals as in the case of MHD channels. There are less unknown and uncontrolled disturbances of the electromagnetic waves introduced by the boundaries. On the other hand most guiding structures disturb the homogeneity of the streaming plasma (cf. arrangements with Lecher wires, dielectric rods, etc.); the waveguide used here does not do so. This waveguide, a so-called groove guide, consists of two parallel metal plates or bands with a shallow axially-directed groove in each. The plasma stream to be tested flows between these plates in a direction perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the microwaves. The groove guide has properties similar to the ideal parallel-plate guide with infinite side wards extension, but the energy flow is concentrated in the middle region by the grooves. An approximate analysis, the transverse resonance analysis, has been used to calculate the field distribution and propagation characteristics of the guide. Because of the cross-sectional dimensions of the MHD channel in question (height 16 mm) and the wavelength (4 mm) chosen, considering the expected electron density, the groove guide had to be built for use in an oversized quasi-optical technique. The transition from rectangular (hollow pipe) guide to the open guide is done in two steps. With a good knowledge of the groove guide data and an appropriate theory of propagation of electromagnetic waves in ionized media, measuring phase shift and additional damping of the microwaves by introduction of the ionized gas allows the electron density and collision frequency, two of the most important plasma parameters, to be evaluated. The system

  7. Collision excitation studies useful for plasma diagnostics in astrophysics and fusion research

    Man Mohan; Aggarwal, Sunny

    2015-01-01

    The urgent research for energy sources has led many countries to collaborate on demonstrating the scientific and technological feasibility of magnetic fusion through the construction of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor in France. Data on highly charged ions with high Z will be important in this quest. Atomic data such as energy levels, radiative rates and collision excitation plays an important role in fusion research and extensive knowledge of atomic parameters is needed for plasma diagnostics. There is a very limited knowledge so far about the heavy atoms due to involvement of strong relativistic effects. For heavy atoms, electron correlation effects and relativistic effects are strongly coupled making it necessary to use a relativistic theory which also incorporates 'electron correlations effects on the same footing. For treating heavy atoms there have been new developments and many codes in the relativistic domain have been developed by various authors. Among them, multi-configuration Hartree (Dirac) Fock (MCDF) model based codes have been found very useful in ab-initio investigations. We have calculated the energy levels, radiative rates and lifetimes for heavy charged F, Na and Mg like tungsten ions using MCDF and FAC and compared our results with the other available theoretical and experimental results. Also, we have performed collision excitation calculations for F, Na and Mg like tungsten ions which will be useful for astrophysical and fusion, plasma. Also, we have compared our collision excitation results with distorted wave calculations and they are found to be in good agreement. The main goal of this paper is to provide useful atomic physics data for use in fusion research and in astrophysical and industrial plasmas. (author)

  8. The diagnostic value of plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor levels in children with heart failure.

    Li, Gang; Song, Xueqing; Xia, Jiyi; Li, Jing; Jia, Peng; Chen, Pengyuan; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor in children with heart failure. Methods and results Plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor was determined in 61 children, including 41 children with heart failure, 20 children without heart failure, and 30 healthy volunteers. The correlations between plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor levels and clinical parameters were investigated. Moreover, the diagnostic value of N-terminal connective tissue growth factor levels was evaluated. Compared with healthy volunteers and children without heart failure, plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor levels were significantly elevated in those with heart failure (p0.05), but it obviously improved the ability of diagnosing heart failure in children, as demonstrated by the integrated discrimination improvement (6.2%, p=0.013) and net re-classification improvement (13.2%, p=0.017) indices. Plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor is a promising diagnostic biomarker for heart failure in children.

  9. Application and Continued Development of Thin Faraday Collectors as a Lost Ion Diagnostic for Tokamak Fusion Plasmas

    F. Ed Cecil

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes the accomplishment of sixteen years of work toward the development of thin foil Faraday collectors as a lost energetic ion diagnostic for high temperature magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. Following initial, proof of principle accelerator based studies, devices have been tested on TFTR, NSTX, ALCATOR, DIII-D, and JET (KA-1 and KA-2). The reference numbers refer to the attached list of publications. The JET diagnostic KA-2 continues in operation and hopefully will provide valuable diagnostic information during a possible d-t campaign on JET in the coming years. A thin Faraday foil spectrometer, by virtue of its radiation hardness, may likewise provide a solution to the very challenging problem of lost alpha particle measurements on ITER and other future burning plasma machines.

  10. Cross-calibrating Spatial Positions of Light-viewing Diagnostics using Plasma Edge Sweeps in DIII-D

    Solomon, W.M.; Burrell, K.H.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.; Kaplan, D.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental technique is presented that permits diagnostics viewing light from the plasma edge to be spatially calibrated relative to one another. By sweeping the plasma edge, each chord of each diagnostic sweeps out a portion of the light emission profile. A nonlinear least-squares fit to such data provides superior cross-calibration of diagnostics located at different toroidal locations compared with simple surveying. Another advantage of the technique is that it can be used to monitor the position of viewing chords during an experimental campaign to ensure that alignment does not change over time. Moreover, should such a change occur, the data can still be cross-calibrated and its usefulness retained

  11. Study on re-sputtering during CN{sub x} film deposition through spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma

    Liang, Peipei; Yang, Xu; Li, Hui; Cai, Hua [Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Sun, Jian; Xu, Ning [Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Ultra-Precision Optical Manufacturing, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Jiada, E-mail: jdwu@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Ultra-Precision Optical Manufacturing, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Engineering Research Center of Advanced Lighting Technology, Ministry of Education, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-10-15

    A nitrogen-carbon plasma was generated during the deposition of carbon nitride (CN{sub x}) thin films by pulsed laser ablation of a graphite target in a discharge nitrogen plasma, and the optical emission of the generated nitrogen-carbon plasma was measured for the diagnostics of the plasma and the characterization of the process of CN{sub x} film deposition. The nitrogen-carbon plasma was recognized to contain various species including nitrogen molecules and molecular ions excited in the ambient N{sub 2} gas, carbon atoms and atomic ions ablated from the graphite target and CN radicals. The temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the CN emission and their dependence on the substrate bias voltage show two groups of CN radicals flying in opposite directions. One represents the CN radicals formed as the products of the reactions occurring in the nitrogen-carbon plasma, revealing the reactive deposition of CN{sub x} film due to the reactive expansion of the ablation carbon plasma in the discharge nitrogen plasma and the effective formation of gaseous CN radicals as precursors for CN{sub x} film growth. The other one represents the CN radicals re-sputtered from the growing CN{sub x} film by energetic plasma species, evidencing the re-sputtering of the growing film accompanying film growth. And, the re-sputtering presents ion-induced sputtering features.

  12. Development of an energy analyzer as diagnostic of beam-generated plasma in negative ion beam systems

    Sartori, E.; Carozzi, G.; Veltri, P.; Spolaore, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.

    2017-08-01

    The measurement of the plasma potential and the energy spectrum of secondary particles in the drift region of a negative ion beam offers an insight into beam-induced plasma formation and beam transport in low pressure gasses. Plasma formation in negative-ion beam systems, and the characteristics of such a plasma are of interest especially for space charge compensation, plasma formation in neutralizers, and the development of improved schemes of beam-induced plasma neutralisers for future fusion devices. All these aspects have direct implications in the ITER Heating Neutral Beam and the operation of the prototypes, SPIDER and MITICA, and also have important role in the conceptual studies for NBI systems of DEMO, while at present experimental data are lacking. In this paper we present the design and development of an ion energy analyzer to measure the beam plasma formation and space charge compensation in negative ion beams. The diagnostic is a retarding field energy analyzer (RFEA), and will measure the transverse energy spectra of plasma molecular ions. The calculations that supported the design are reported, and a method to interpret the measurements in negative ion beam systems is also proposed. Finally, the experimental results of the first test in a magnetron plasma are presented.

  13. An in situ accelerator-based diagnostic for plasma-material interactions science on magnetic fusion devices.

    Hartwig, Zachary S; Barnard, Harold S; Lanza, Richard C; Sorbom, Brandon N; Stahle, Peter W; Whyte, Dennis G

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a novel particle accelerator-based diagnostic that nondestructively measures the evolution of material surface compositions inside magnetic fusion devices. The diagnostic's purpose is to contribute to an integrated understanding of plasma-material interactions in magnetic fusion, which is severely hindered by a dearth of in situ material surface diagnosis. The diagnostic aims to remotely generate isotopic concentration maps on a plasma shot-to-shot timescale that cover a large fraction of the plasma-facing surface inside of a magnetic fusion device without the need for vacuum breaks or physical access to the material surfaces. Our instrument uses a compact (~1 m), high-current (~1 milliamp) radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator to inject 0.9 MeV deuterons into the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at MIT. We control the tokamak magnetic fields--in between plasma shots--to steer the deuterons to material surfaces where the deuterons cause high-Q nuclear reactions with low-Z isotopes ~5 μm into the material. The induced neutrons and gamma rays are measured with scintillation detectors; energy spectra analysis provides quantitative reconstruction of surface compositions. An overview of the diagnostic technique, known as accelerator-based in situ materials surveillance (AIMS), and the first AIMS diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is given. Experimental validation is shown to demonstrate that an optimized deuteron beam is injected into the tokamak, that low-Z isotopes such as deuterium and boron can be quantified on the material surfaces, and that magnetic steering provides access to different measurement locations. The first AIMS analysis, which measures the relative change in deuterium at a single surface location at the end of the Alcator C-Mod FY2012 plasma campaign, is also presented.

  14. Feasibility of arc-discharge and plasma-sputtering methods in cleaning plasma-facing and diagnostics components of fusion reactors

    Hakola, Antti, E-mail: antti.hakola@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland); Likonen, Jari [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland); Karhunen, Juuso; Korhonen, Juuso T. [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University (Finland); Aints, Märt; Laan, Matti; Paris, Peeter [Department of Physics, University of Tartu (Estonia); Kolehmainen, Jukka; Koskinen, Mika; Tervakangas, Sanna [DIARC-Technology Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Feasibility of the arc-discharge and plasma-sputtering techniques in removing deposited layers from ITER-relevant samples demonstrated. • Samples with the size of an A4 paper can be cleaned from 1-μm thick deposited layers in 10–20 minutes by the arc-discharge method. • The plasma-sputtering method is 5–10 times slower but the resulting surfaces are very smooth. • Arc-discharge method could be used for rapid cleaning of plasma-facing components during maintenance shutdowns of ITER, plasma sputtering is preferred for diagnostics mirrors. - Abstract: We have studied the feasibility of arc-discharge and plasma-sputtering methods in removing deposited layers from ITER-relevant test samples. Prototype devices have been designed and constructed for the experiments and the cleaning process is monitored by a spectral detection system. The present version of the arc-discharge device is capable of removing 1-μm thick layers from 350-mm{sup 2} areas in 4–8 s, but due to the increased roughness of the cleaned surfaces and signs of local melting, mirror-like surfaces cannot be treated by this technique. The plasma-sputtering approach, for its part, is some 5–10 times slower in removing the deposited layers but no changes in surface roughness or morphology of the samples could be observed after the cleaning phase. The arc-discharge technique could therefore be used for rapid cleaning of plasma-facing components during maintenance shutdowns of ITER while in the case of diagnostics mirrors plasma sputtering is preferred.

  15. Computer control and data acquisition system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating System (ICRH)

    Cheshire, D.L.; Thomas, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) large Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) will employ an Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ICRH) system for plasma startup. As the MFTF-B Industrial Participant, TRW has responsibility for the ICRH system, including development of the data acquisition and control system. During the MFTF-B Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System (SCDS). For subsystem development and checkout at TRW, and for verification and acceptance testing at LLNL, the system will be run from a stand-alone computer system designed to simulate the functions of SCDS. The ''SCDS Simulator'' was developed originally for the MFTF-B ECRH System; descriptions of the hardware and software are updated in this paper. The computer control and data acquisition functions implemented for ICRH are described, including development status, and test schedule at TRW and at LLNL. The application software is written for the SCDS Simulator, but it is programmed in PASCAL and designed to facilitate conversion for use on the SCDS computers

  16. The diagnostic value of ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy combined with plasma D-dimer assay in diagnosis of pulmonary embolism

    Wang Qian; Huang Lili; Qin Shuling; Yue Minggang; Wang Yu; Nie Yuxin; Liang Tiejun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical diagnostic value of ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy combined with plasma D-dimer assay in diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods: One hundred and four patients with clinically suspected PE underwent both pulmonary ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy and plasma D-dimer assay. According to the criteria of prospective investigation of the pulmonary embolism diagnosis (PIOPED), ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy was interpreted as normal, very low or low probability of PE, intermediate probability of PE and high probability of PE. High probability was considered as positive; normal and very low or low probability as negative and intermediate probability as non-diagnostic. Plasma D-dimer levels were measured using a quantitative immunoturbidimetric method, and a cut-off value of 500 mg/L was used in the diagnosis of PE. Clinical diagnostic value of ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy, D-dimer assay and combined use of ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy and D-dimer assay for diagnosing PE was evaluated, respectively, comparing with the final clinical diagnosis that was based on the clinical findings. Results: Among the 104 patients, 44 were diagnosed with PE and 60 were excluded. Ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy provided diagnostic interpretations for 86 (82.7%) patients, and non-diagnostic interpretations for 18 (17.3%) patients. For diagnosing PE, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy was 84.1%, 75.0%, 78.8%, 71.2% and 86.5%, respectively, and with D-dimer assay was 93.2%, 60.0%, 74.0%, 63.1% and 92.3%, respectively. If a plasma D-dimer level of < 500 mg/L was taken as a criterion to exclude PE for those intermediate probability of ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy, the diagnostic specificity and accuracy would be raised to 85.0% and 84.6%, respectively. Conclusions: When a non-diagnostic interpretation was occurred on

  17. Propagation Diagnostic Simulations Using High-Resolution Equatorial Plasma Bubble Simulations

    Rino, C. L.; Carrano, C. S.; Yokoyama, T.

    2017-12-01

    In a recent paper, under review, equatorial-plasma-bubble (EPB) simulations were used to conduct a comparative analysis of the EPB spectra characteristics with high-resolution in-situ measurements from the C/NOFS satellite. EPB realizations sampled in planes perpendicular to magnetic field lines provided well-defined EPB structure at altitudes penetrating both high and low-density regions. The average C/NOFS structure in highly disturbed regions showed nearly identical two-component inverse-power-law spectral characteristics as the measured EPB structure. This paper describes the results of PWE simulations using the same two-dimensional cross-field EPB realizations. New Irregularity Parameter Estimation (IPE) diagnostics, which are based on two-dimensional equivalent-phase-screen theory [A theory of scintillation for two-component power law irregularity spectra: Overview and numerical results, by Charles Carrano and Charles Rino, DOI: 10.1002/2015RS005903], have been successfully applied to extract two-component inverse-power-law parameters from measured intensity spectra. The EPB simulations [Low and Midlatitude Ionospheric Plasma DensityIrregularities and Their Effects on Geomagnetic Field, by Tatsuhiro Yokoyama and Claudia Stolle, DOI 10.1007/s11214-016-0295-7] have sufficient resolution to populate the structure scales (tens of km to hundreds of meters) that cause strong scintillation at GPS frequencies. The simulations provide an ideal geometry whereby the ramifications of varying structure along the propagation path can be investigated. It is well known path-integrated one-dimensional spectra increase the one-dimensional index by one. The relation requires decorrelation along the propagation path. Correlated structure would be interpreted as stochastic total-electron-content (TEC). The simulations are performed with unmodified structure. Because the EPB structure is confined to the central region of the sample planes, edge effects are minimized. Consequently

  18. Early diagnostic value of plasma PCT and BG assay for CRBSI after OLT.

    Chen, J; Wang, Y; Shen, Z; Zhu, Z; Song, Y; Han, R

    2011-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate the role of procalcitonin (PCT) and (1-3)-β-D-glucan (BG) tests for early detection or exclusion of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in patients after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Fifty-five patients with clinically suspected CRBSI were assessed after OLT in this prospective study. On the day of clinical suspicion of CRBSI, blood samples were obtained from central venous catheters and a peripheral vein for blood cultures and from a peripheral vein for PCT and BG tests. Plasma PCT and BG values were measured by using an immunoluminometric assay and Fungitell BG assay, respectively. No prisoners or organs from prisoners were used in this study. Twenty-five patients (45%) were diagnosed with CRBIS. Among them, 13 (52%) displayed gram-positive bacteriemia, 11 (44%) gram-negative bacteriemia, and 1 (4%) fungemia. The PCT values were higher in CRBSI than in non-CRBSI patients (P = .003). CRBSI patients did not show significant increases in plasma BG values compared with non-CRBSI subjects (P = .051). PCT and BG area under receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.840 and 0.486, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of a PCT of ≥ 3.1 ng/mL for the diagnosis of CRBSI were 0.72, 0.87, 0.82, and 0.79, respectively. The figures for a BG of ≥ 83 pg/mL were 0.32, 0.90, 0.73, and 0.61, respectively. Among the 24 patients with bacteria infections, PCT was higher in patients with gram-negative than those with gram-positive bacterial infections (P = .022). We concluded that the PCT assay may be a useful rapid diagnostic adjunct for the diagnosis of suspected CRBSI in OLT patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Admissible Crosstalk Limits in a Two Colour Interferometers for Plasma Density Diagnostics. A Reduction Algorithm

    Sanchez, M.; Esteban, L.; Kornejew, P.; Hirsch, M.

    2008-01-01

    Mid Infrared (10,6 μm CO 2 laser lines) interferometers as a plasma density diagnostic must use two-colour systems with superposed interferometers beams at different wavelengths in order to cope with mechanical vibrations and drifts. They require a highly precise phase difference measurement where all sources of error must be reduced. One of these is the cross-talk between the signals which creates nonlinear spurious periodic mixing products. The reason may be either optical or electrical crosstalk both resulting in similar perturbations of the measurement. In the TJII interferometer a post-processing algorithm is used to reduce the crosstalk in the data. This post-processing procedure is not appropriate for very long pulses, as it is the case for in new tokamak (ITER) or stellarator (W7-X) projects. In both cases an on-line reduction process is required or--even better--the unwanted signal components must be reduced in the system itself CO 2 laser interferometers which as the second wavelength use the CO laser line (5,3 μm), may apply a single common detector sensitive to both wavelengths and separate the corresponding IF signals by appropriate bandpass filters. This reduces complexity of the optical arrangement and avoids a possible source of vibration induced phase noise as both signals share the same beam path. To avoid cross talk in this arrangement filtering must be appropriate. In this paper we present calculations to define the limits of crosstalk for a desired plasma density precision. A crosstalk reduction algorithm has been developed and is applied to experimental results from TJ-II pulses. Results from a single detector arrangement as under investigation for the CO 2 /CO laser interferometer developed for W7-X are presented

  20. Creation of a confined plasma column and diagnostic arrangement for X-ray laser development

    Voorhees, D.; Keane, C.; Milchberg, H.; Semet, A.; Skinner, C.; Suckewer, S.

    1983-01-01

    We present the experimental arrangement for our soft X-ray laser development program. We describe the various components of the apparatus. These consist of a CO 2 laser, focusing components, solenoidal magnet, targets, pulsed gas mechanisms, diagnostics and data acquisition systems. The experiment utilizes a CO 2 laser with an output energy up to 1 KJ to create a plasma column confined in a solenoidal magnetic field (B less than or equal to 100 KG). Two alternative methods are used to focus the laser energy into the vacuum chamber of the experiment. The first uses a system of two flat mirrors to reflect the 25 cm annular beam to a NaCl lens. The beam then passes through a NaCl window forming the entrance to the vacuum system. A second method consists of a two chamber vacuum system enclosing two flat mirrors and a third spherical mirror. The incident beam passes into the vacuum through one NaCl window eliminating the losses encountered at the NaCl lens of the previously described system. In each case the focused beam interacts with either a solid target, a gas target, or a combination of the two. With gas targets we have used orifices to create a pressure gradient near the point of laser interaction. For some experiments gas is introduced into the system via a fast solenoid valve or piezoactuated puff valve. A calibrated piezoelectronic transducer is utilized to characterize the gas pressure as a function of time and position along the magnetvacuum chamber axis. The resultant pressure profiles enable us to synchronize the firing of the gas valve, magnet and laser to achieve optimum densities in the plasma

  1. Suprathermal electron studies in Tokamak plasmas by means of diagnostic measurements and modeling

    Kamleitner, J.

    2015-01-01

    To achieve reactor-relevant conditions in a tokamak plasma, auxiliary heating systems are required and can be realized by waves injected in the plasma that heat ions or electrons. Electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) is a very flexible and robust technique featuring localized power deposition and current drive (CD) capabilities. Its fundamental principles are well understood and the application of ECRH is a proven and established tool; electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) is regularly used to develop advanced scenarios and control magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) instabilities in the plasma by tailoring the current profile. There remain important open questions, such as the phase space dynamics, the observed radial broadening of the supra-thermal electron distribution function and discrepancies in predicted and experimental CD efficiency. A main goal is to improve the understanding of wave-particle interaction in plasmas and current drive mechanisms. This was accomplished by combined experimental and numerical studies, strongly based on the conjunction of hard X-ray (HXR) Bremsstrahlung measurements and Fokker-Planck modelling, characterizing the supra-thermal electron population. The hard X-ray tomographic spectrometer (HXRS) diagnostic was developed to perform these studies by investigating spatial HXR emission asymmetries in the co- and counter-current directions and within the poloidal plane. The system uses cadmium-telluride detectors and digital acquisition to store the complete time history of incoming photon pulses. An extensive study of digital pulse processing algorithms was performed and its application allows the HXRS to handle high count rates in a noisy tokamak environment. Numerical tools were developed to improve the time resolution by conditional averaging and to obtain local information with the general tomographic inversion package. The interfaces of the LUKE code and the well-established CQL3D Fokker-Planck code to the Tokamak a

  2. Solar wind and magnetosphere plasma diagnostics by spacecraft electrostatic potential measurements

    A. Pedersen

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Several satellites (GEOS-1, GEOS-2, ISEE-1, Viking and CRRES carried electric field experiments on which probes were driven by a current from the satellite to be close to the plasma potential. The potential difference between an electric field probe and its spacecraft (with conductive surfaces can be used to determine the ambient electron density and/or electron flux with limited accuracy but with high time resolution, of the order of 10-100 ms. It is necessary for the development of this diagnostic method to understand the photoemission characteristics of probes and satellites. According to the electric field experiments on the above-mentioned satellites, all materials develop very similar photoemission properties when they are beyond the influence of atmospheric oxygen. The photoelectron yield steadily increases over the first few months in space and reaches values well above those measured on clean surfaces in the laboratory. The method can be used for solar radiation levels corresponding to distances from 0.4 to 5 AU from the Sun.

  3. A collisional radiative model of hydrogen plasmas developed for diagnostic purposes of negative ion sources

    Iordanova, Snejana, E-mail: snejana@phys.uni-sofia.bg; Paunska, Tsvetelina [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2016-02-15

    A collisional radiative model of low-pressure hydrogen plasmas is elaborated and applied in optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics of a single element of a matrix source of negative hydrogen ions. The model accounts for the main processes determining both the population densities of the first ten states of the hydrogen atom and the densities of the positive hydrogen ions H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, and H{sub 3}{sup +}. In the calculations, the electron density and electron temperature are varied whereas the atomic and molecular temperatures are included as experimentally obtained external parameters. The ratio of the H{sub α} to H{sub β} line intensities is calculated from the numerical results for the excited state population densities, obtained as a solution of the set of the steady-state rate balance equations. The comparison of measured and theoretically obtained ratios of line intensities yields the values of the electron density and temperature as well as of the degree of dissociation, i.e., of the parameters which have a crucial role for the volume production of the negative ions.

  4. RADAR upper hybrid resonance scattering diagnostics of small-scale fluctuations and waves in tokamak plasmas

    Bulyiginskiy, D.G.; Gurchenko, A.D.; Gusakov, E.Z.; Korkin, V.V.; Larionov, M.M.; Novik, K.M.; Petrov, Yu.V.; Popov, A.Yu.; Saveliev, A.N.; Selenin, V.L.; Stepanov, A.Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The upper hybrid resonance (UHR) scattering technique possessing such merits as one-dimensional probing geometry, enhancement of cross section, and fine localization of scattering region is modified in the new diagnostics under development to achieve wave number resolution. The fluctuation wave number is estimated in the new technique from the scattering signal time delay measurements. The feasibility of the scheme is checked in the proof of principal experiment in a tokamak. The time delay of the UHR scattering signal exceeding 10 ns is observed. The small scale low frequency density fluctuations are investigated in the UHR RADAR backscattering experiment. The UHR cross-polarization scattering signal related to small scale magnetic fluctuations is observed. The lower hybrid (LH) wave propagation and both linear and nonlinear wave conversion are investigated. The small wavelength (λ≤0.02 cm) high number ion Bernstein harmonics, resulting from the linear wave conversion of the LH wave are observed in a tokamak plasma for the first time

  5. Development of precise measurement method of neutron energy for plasma temperature diagnostics in thermonuclear fusion

    Mori, Chizuo; Gotoh, Junichi; Uritani, Akira; Miyahara, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Yuichiro; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Kaneko, Junichi

    1998-01-01

    There are many types of fast neutron spectrometers for plasma temperature diagnostics, 28 Si(n,α) 25 Mg reaction giving the energy resolution of 2.2% for 14 MeV neutrons, the 12 C(n,α) 9 Be reaction giving the resolution of 2.15%. These detectors, however suffer from radiation damage, which demands to exchange the detector to a new one in every a few month depending on the usage. Recoil proton method has also been developed by using liquid scintillator or plastic scintillator, as a neutron-to-proton converter in front of a Si-detector, which is called counter telescope type, giving a resolution of 4.0%. This type of spectrometer can reduce radiation damage by placing Si-detector at outside Neutron beam. The scintillator can measure the lost energy of protons in the converter (i.e. the scintillator) and the measured energy loss can be used for improving the energy resolution. However, the energy resolution of organic scintillator itself is generally not so good. We proposed to use a proportional counter with CH 4 as counting gas and also as a neutron-proton converter, which has far better energy resolution than plastic scintillators, although the time resolution of counting in proportional counters is generally inferior to that in organic scintillation counters. The characteristics of the new spectrometer were experimentally studied and also were simulated with analytical calculation. (author)

  6. Synchrotron emission diagnostic of full-orbit kinetic simulations of runaway electrons in tokamaks plasmas

    Carbajal Gomez, Leopoldo; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego

    2017-10-01

    Developing avoidance or mitigation strategies of runaway electrons (RE) for the safe operation of ITER is imperative. Synchrotron radiation (SR) of RE is routinely used in current tokamak experiments to diagnose RE. We present the results of a newly developed camera diagnostic of SR for full-orbit kinetic simulations of RE in DIII-D-like plasmas that simultaneously includes: full-orbit effects, information of the spectral and angular distribution of SR of each electron, and basic geometric optics of a camera. We observe a strong dependence of the SR measured by the camera on the pitch angle distribution of RE, namely we find that crescent shapes of the SR on the camera pictures relate to RE distributions with small pitch angles, while ellipse shapes relate to distributions of RE with larger pitch angles. A weak dependence of the SR measured by the camera with the RE energy, value of the q-profile at the edge, and the chosen range of wavelengths is found. Furthermore, we observe that oversimplifying the angular distribution of the SR changes the synchrotron spectra and overestimates its amplitude. Research sponsored by the LDRD Program of ORNL, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. DoE.

  7. DIAGNOSTICS OF HYBRID WATER/ARGON THERMAL PLASMA JET WITH WATER, ETHANOL AND THEIR MIXTURE INJECTION TO PLASMA

    Hlína, Michal; Mašláni, Alan; Medřický, Jan; Kotlan, Jiří; Mušálek, Radek; Hrabovský, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 2 (2016), s. 62-65 ISSN 2336-2626. [SPPT 2016 - 27th Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/27./. Prague, 20.06.2016-23.06.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-12145S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma spraying * suspension * enthalpy probe * spectroscopy * air entrainment Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://ppt.fel.cvut.cz/

  8. Expansion tunnel characterization and development of non-intrusive microwave plasma diagnostics

    Dufrene, Aaron T.

    The focus of this research is the development of non-intrusive microwave diagnostics for characterization of expansion tunnels. The main objectives of this research are to accurately characterize the LENS XX expansion tunnel facility, develop non-intrusive RF diagnostics that will work in short-duration expansion tunnel testing, and to determine plasma properties and other information that might otherwise be unknown, less accurate, intrusive, or more difficult to determine through conventional methods. Testing was completed in LENS XX, a new large-scale expansion tunnel facility at CUBRC, Inc. This facility is the largest known expansion tunnel in the world with an inner diameter of 24 inches, a 96 inch test section, and an end-to-end length of more than 240 ft. Expansion tunnels are currently the only facilities capable of generating high-enthalpy test conditions with minimal or no freestream dissociation or ionization. However, short test times and freestream noise at some conditions have limited development of these facilities. To characterize the LENS XX facility, the first step is to evaluate the facility pressure, vacuum, temperature, and other mechanical restrictions to derive a theoretical testing parameter space. Test condition maps are presented for a variety of parameters and gases based on 1D perfect gas dynamics. Test conditions well beyond 10 km/s or 50 MJ/kg are identified with minimum test times of 200 us. Additionally, a four-chamber expansion tube configuration is considered for extending the stagnation enthalpy range of the facility even further. A microwave shock speed diagnostic measures primary and secondary shock speeds accurately every 30 in. down the entire length of the facility resulting in a more accurate determination of freestream conditions required for computational comparisons. The high resolution of this measurement is used to assess shock speed attenuation as well as secondary diaphragm performance. Negligible shock attenuation is

  9. Progress in Development of C60 Nanoparticle Plasma Jet for Diagnostic of Runaway Electron Beam-Plasma Interaction and Disruption Mitigation Study for ITER

    Bogatu, I. N.; Thompson, J. R.; Galkin, S. A.; Kim, J. S.

    2013-10-01

    We produced a C60 nanoparticle plasma jet (NPPJ) with uniquely fast response-to-delivery time (~ 1 - 2 ms) and unprecedentedly high momentum (~ 0 . 6 g .km/s). The C60 NPPJ was obtained by using a solid state TiH2/C60 pulsed power cartridge producing ~180 mg of C60 molecular gas by sublimation and by electromagnetic acceleration of the C60 plasma in a coaxial gun (~35 cm length, 96 kJ energy) with the output of a high-density (>1023 m-3) hyper-velocity (>4 km/s) plasma jet. The ~ 75 mg C60/C plasma jet has the potential to rapidly and deeply deliver enough mass to significantly increase electron density (to ne ~ 2 . 4 ×1021 m-3, i.e. ~ 60 times larger than typical DIII-D pre-disruption value, ne 0 ~ 4 ×1019 m-3), and to modify the 'critical electric field' and the runaway electrons (REs) collisional drag during different phases of REs dynamics. The C60 NPPJ, as a novel injection technique, allows RE beam-plasma interaction diagnostic by quantitative spectroscopy of C ions visible/UV line intensity. The system is scalable to ~ 1 - 2 g C60/C plasma jet output and technology is adaptable to ITER acceptable materials (BN and Be) for disruption mitigation. Work supported by US DOE DE-FG02-08ER85196 grant.

  10. Application of piezodetectors for diagnostics of pulsed and quasi-steady-state plasma streams

    Bandura, A.N.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Tereshin, V.I.; Ladygina, M.S. [NSC KIPT, Kharkov (Ukraine). Inst. of Plasma Physics

    2006-04-15

    The paper reports on studies of the plasma streams generated by two experimental devices: the quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator (QSPA) Kh-50 and the pulsed plasma gun PROSVET. The radial distributions of the plasma pressure for different times and varied distances from the accelerator output have been used for investigation of the plasma stream dynamics and study the plasma compression in the focus region for different operational regimes of plasma accelerators. In experiments for the application of pulsed plasma streams for surface modification of different industrial steels, optimal regimes of surface processing have been chosen on the basis of the plasma pressure measurements. Examples of application of the piezodetectors in simulation experiments on plasma surface interaction under high heat loads are presented.

  11. Application of piezodetectors for diagnostics of pulsed and quasi-steady-state plasma streams

    Bandura, A.N.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Tereshin, V.I.; Ladygina, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    The paper reports on studies of the plasma streams generated by two experimental devices: the quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator (QSPA) Kh-50 and the pulsed plasma gun PROSVET. The radial distributions of the plasma pressure for different times and varied distances from the accelerator output have been used for investigation of the plasma stream dynamics and study the plasma compression in the focus region for different operational regimes of plasma accelerators. In experiments for the application of pulsed plasma streams for surface modification of different industrial steels, optimal regimes of surface processing have been chosen on the basis of the plasma pressure measurements. Examples of application of the piezodetectors in simulation experiments on plasma surface interaction under high heat loads are presented

  12. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), part I: review of basic diagnostics and plasma-particle interactions: still-challenging issues within the analytical plasma community.

    Hahn, David W; Omenetto, Nicoló

    2010-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has become a very popular analytical method in the last decade in view of some of its unique features such as applicability to any type of sample, practically no sample preparation, remote sensing capability, and speed of analysis. The technique has a remarkably wide applicability in many fields, and the number of applications is still growing. From an analytical point of view, the quantitative aspects of LIBS may be considered its Achilles' heel, first due to the complex nature of the laser-sample interaction processes, which depend upon both the laser characteristics and the sample material properties, and second due to the plasma-particle interaction processes, which are space and time dependent. Together, these may cause undesirable matrix effects. Ways of alleviating these problems rely upon the description of the plasma excitation-ionization processes through the use of classical equilibrium relations and therefore on the assumption that the laser-induced plasma is in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Even in this case, the transient nature of the plasma and its spatial inhomogeneity need to be considered and overcome in order to justify the theoretical assumptions made. This first article focuses on the basic diagnostics aspects and presents a review of the past and recent LIBS literature pertinent to this topic. Previous research on non-laser-based plasma literature, and the resulting knowledge, is also emphasized. The aim is, on one hand, to make the readers aware of such knowledge and on the other hand to trigger the interest of the LIBS community, as well as the larger analytical plasma community, in attempting some diagnostic approaches that have not yet been fully exploited in LIBS.

  13. Development of ion diagnostic system based on electrostatic probe in the boundary plasma of the JFT-2M tokamak

    Uehara, Kazuya; Kawakami, Tomohide; Amemiya, Hiroshi; Hoethker, K.; Cosler, A.; Bieger, W.

    1995-06-01

    An ion diagnostic system using electrostatic probes for measurements in the JFT-2M tokamak boundary plasma has been developed under the collaboration program between KFA and JAERI. The rotating double probe system, on which the Hoethker double probe and Amemiya asymmetric probe can mounted, are manufactured at KFA workshop while the linear driver to support the rotating double probe, the ion toothbrush probe, the Katsumata probe and the cubic Mach probe are developed at JAERI. This report describes the hardware of this probe system for ion diagnostics in the boundary plasma and preliminary data obtained by means of this system. Furthermore, results on the transport are estimated on the basis of these probe data. (author)

  14. The cluster charge identification in the GEM detector for fusion plasma imaging by soft X-ray diagnostics

    Czarski, T., E-mail: tomasz.czarski@ifpilm.pl; Chernyshova, M.; Malinowski, K. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Pozniak, K. T.; Kasprowicz, G.; Kolasinski, P.; Krawczyk, R.; Wojenski, A.; Zabolotny, W. [Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-11-15

    The measurement system based on gas electron multiplier detector is developed for soft X-ray diagnostics of tokamak plasmas. The multi-channel setup is designed for estimation of the energy and the position distribution of an X-ray source. The focal measuring issue is the charge cluster identification by its value and position estimation. The fast and accurate mode of the serial data acquisition is applied for the dynamic plasma diagnostics. The charge clusters are counted in the space determined by 2D position, charge value, and time intervals. Radiation source characteristics are presented by histograms for a selected range of position, time intervals, and cluster charge values corresponding to the energy spectra.

  15. Hyperfine Induced Transitions as Diagnostics of Low Density Plasmas and Isotopic Abundance ratios.

    Brage, T.; Judge, P. G.; Aboussaid, A.; Godefroid, M. R.; Jonsson, P.; Leckrone, D. S.

    1996-05-01

    We propose a new diagnostics of isotope abundance ratios and electron densities for low density plasmas, in the form of J = 0 -> J(') = 0 radiative transitions. These are usually viewed as being allowed only through two-photon decay, but they may also be induced by the hyperfine (HPF) interaction in atomic ions. This predicts a companion line to the E1] and M2 lines in the UV0.01 multiplet of ions isoelectronic to beryllium (e.g. C III, N IV, O V and Fe XXII) or magnesium (e.g. Si II, Ca IX, Fe XV and Ni XVII). As an example the companion line to the well known lambda lambda 1906.7,1908.7 lines in C III will be at 1909.597 Angstroms, but only present in the (13) C isotope (which has nuclear spin different from zero). We present new and accurate decay rates for the nsnp (3P^oJ) -> ns(2) (1S_{J('}=0)) transitions in ions of the Be (n=2) and Mg (n=3) isoelectronic sequences. We show that the HPF induced decay rates for the J = 0 -> J(') = 0 transitions are many orders of magnitude larger than those for the competing two-photon processes and, when present, are typically one or two orders of magnitude smaller than the decay rates of the magnetic quadrupole ( J = 2-> J(') = 0) transitions for these ions. We show that several of these HPF-induced transitions are of potential astrophysical interest, in ions of C, N, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Cr, Fe and Ni. We highlight those cases that may be of particular diagnostic value for determining isotopic abundance ratios and/or electron densities from UV or EUV emission line data. We present our atomic data in the form of scaling laws so that, given the isotopic nuclear spin and magnetic moment, a simple expression yields estimates for HPF induced decay rates. We examine some UV solar and nebular data in the light of these new results and suggest possible cases for future study. We could not find evidence for the existence of HPF induced lines in the spectra we examined, but we demonstrate that existing data have come close to providing

  16. Data acquisition and real-time signal processing of plasma diagnostics on ASDEX Upgrade using LabVIEW RT

    Giannone, L.; Cerna, M.; Cole, R.; Fitzek, M.; Kallenbach, A.; Lueddecke, K.; McCarthy, P.J.; Scarabosio, A.; Schneider, W.; Sips, A.C.C.; Treutterer, W.; Vrancic, A.; Wenzel, L.; Yi, H.; Behler, K.; Eich, T.; Eixenberger, H.; Fuchs, J.C.; Haas, G.; Lexa, G.

    2010-01-01

    The existing VxWorks real-time system for the position and shape control in ASDEX Upgrade has been extended to calculate magnetic flux surfaces in real-time using a multi-core PCI Express system running LabVIEW RT 8.6. real-time signal processing of bolometers and manometers is performed with the on-board FPGA to calculate the measured radiated power flux and particle flux respectively from the raw data. Radiation feedback experiments use halo current measurements from the outer divertor with real-time median filter pre-processing to remove the excursions produced by ELMs. Integration of these plasma diagnostics into the control system by the exchange of XML sheets for communicating the real-time variables to be produced and consumed is in operation. Reflective memory and UDP are employed by the LabVIEW RT plasma diagnostics to communicate with the control system and other plasma diagnostics in a multi-platform real-time network.

  17. Data acquisition and real-time signal processing of plasma diagnostics on ASDEX Upgrade using LabVIEW RT

    Giannone, L., E-mail: Louis.Giannone@ipp.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Cerna, M. [National Instruments, Austin, TX 78759-3504 (United States); Cole, R.; Fitzek, M. [Unlimited Computer Systems GmbH, 82393 Iffeldorf (Germany); Kallenbach, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lueddecke, K. [Unlimited Computer Systems GmbH, 82393 Iffeldorf (Germany); McCarthy, P.J. [Department of Physics, University College Cork, Association EURATOM-DCU, Cork (Ireland); Scarabosio, A.; Schneider, W.; Sips, A.C.C.; Treutterer, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Vrancic, A.; Wenzel, L.; Yi, H. [National Instruments, Austin, TX 78759-3504 (United States); Behler, K.; Eich, T.; Eixenberger, H.; Fuchs, J.C.; Haas, G.; Lexa, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    The existing VxWorks real-time system for the position and shape control in ASDEX Upgrade has been extended to calculate magnetic flux surfaces in real-time using a multi-core PCI Express system running LabVIEW RT 8.6. real-time signal processing of bolometers and manometers is performed with the on-board FPGA to calculate the measured radiated power flux and particle flux respectively from the raw data. Radiation feedback experiments use halo current measurements from the outer divertor with real-time median filter pre-processing to remove the excursions produced by ELMs. Integration of these plasma diagnostics into the control system by the exchange of XML sheets for communicating the real-time variables to be produced and consumed is in operation. Reflective memory and UDP are employed by the LabVIEW RT plasma diagnostics to communicate with the control system and other plasma diagnostics in a multi-platform real-time network.

  18. Evaluation of electromagnetic loads on various design options of the ITER diagnostic upper port plug during plasma disruptions

    Pak, Sunil; Ku, Duck Young; Oh, Dong-Keun; Jhang, Hogun; Kim, Duck-Hoi; Cheon, Mun-Seong; Seon, Chang Rae; Lee, Hyeon Gon; Pitcher, Spencer

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) loads due to eddy current and halo current during plasma disruptions are evaluated for the ITER diagnostic upper port plug. To reduce strong EM loads acting on the port plug fixed to the vacuum vessel like a cantilever beam, three design options have been considered: removal of the diagnostic first wall, slitting of the diagnostic shield module and recess of the port plug. The main focus of the present study is to examine the efficacy of these options in terms of EM loads on the upper port plug. It is found that making slits is more effective than removing the first wall. It is also shown that the upper port plug needs to be recessed to reduce the EM load induced by halo current.

  19. High-pressure duo-multichannel soft x-ray spectrometer for tokamak plasma diagnostics

    Schwob, J.L.; Wouters, A.W.; Suckewer, S.

    1987-03-01

    A high-resolution, time-resolving soft X-ray multichannel spectrometer (SOXMOS) that permits the simultaneous measurement of emission in two different spectral ranges has been developed and tested extensively for tokamak plasma diagnostics. The basic instrument is a high-resolution, interferometrically adjusted, extreme grazing incidence Schwob-Fraenkel duochromator. The instrument is equipped with two multichannel detectors that are adjusted interferometrically and scan along the Rowland circle. Each consists of an MgF 2 coated, funneled microchannel plate, associated with a phosphor screen image intensifier that is coupled to a 1024-element photodiode array by a flexible fibrer optic conduit. The total wavelength coverage of the instrument is 5 to 340 0 A with a measured resolution (FWHM) of about 0.2 A when equipped with a 600 g/mm grating, and 5 to 85 A with a resolution of about 0.06 A using a 2400 g/mm grating. The simultaneous spectral coverage of each detector varies from 15 A at the short wavelength limit to 70 A at the long wavelength limit with the lower dispersion grating. The minimum read-out time for a full spectral portion is 17 ms, but several individual lines can be measured with 1 ms time resolution by selected pixel readout. Higher time resolution can be achieved by replacing one multichannel detector with a single channel electron multiplier detector. Examples of data from the PLT and TFTR tokamaks are presented to illustrate the instrument's versatility, high spectral resolution, and high signal-to-noise ratio even in the 10 A region. 44 refs., 20 figs

  20. Study on the diagnostic value of plasma Adrenomedullin (AM) levels determination for differentiation of pulmonary cancer from pulmonary tuberculosis

    Yu Hua; Sun Shuhong; Xu Shuhua; Zhu Wenru; Yu Hui

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between plasma adrenomedullin (AM) levels and pulmonary cancer as well as the diagnostic value of AM levels determination for differentiation of pulmonary cancer from pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: Plasma levels of AM in patients with pulmonary cancer (n=43), pulmonary tuberculosis (n=43) and 43 controls were determined with RIA. Results: Plasma levels of AM (98.46 ± 29.28 ng/ml) in patients with pulmonary cancer were significantly higher than those in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (61.46 ± 19.57 ng/ml) as well as those in controls (40.22 ± 8.23 ng/ml) (both P<0.01). Levels in patients with small cell carcinoma were significantly lower than those in patients with adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (both P<0.05). Positive correlation existed between the plasma levels of AM and the severity (grading 1 to 4) of the disease (P<0.05). Conclusion: Adrenomedullin could be regarded as a valuable plasma marker for differentiating lung cancer from tuberculosis. The plasma AM levels might be able to reflect the severity and predict the prognosis of the disease. Besides, high AM levels might suggest a tentative diagnosis of lung cancer in patients without pathologic evidence. (authors)

  1. Study of the Plasma Evolution in the PF-1000 Device by Means of Optical Diagnostics

    Kasperczuk, A.; Kumar, R.; Miklaszewski, R.; Paduch, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Scholz, M.; Tomaszewski, K.

    2002-01-01

    Investigation of a plasma evolution was carried out in a PF-1000 device with the following parameters: diameter of the inner electrode -24.4 cm, diameter of the outer one -36.8 cm, charging voltage in the range of 30-40 kV and deuterium pressure in the range of 1-5 1 To study the evolution of the plasma, an optical frame camera and YAGlaser shadowgraphy, both with exposure times of about 1 ns, were employed. Among the cases analyzed of plasma focus discharges, two types of plasma sheath disturbance can be distinguished: type I - classical MHD m = 0 instability (a wave with four maxima in the main), type 11 - singular great scale disturbance. On the basis of the plasma images, the dynamics of the plasma sheath, characteristic periods of the plasma evolution and plasma dimensions were determined. In order to reconstruct the spatial distribution of the electron density a special method was prepared

  2. Principles of spectroscopic diagnostics of a plasma with oscillating electric fields

    Oks, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Three types of main principles of spectroscopic diagnosis of the plasma with quasimonochromatic electric fields (QEF) are considered. Principles based on the effects intersectionally depending on the parameters of QEF and the plasma medium are considered. Occurrence of depressions or dips in the profiles of spectral lines is the most important effect among others. Principles based on the nonlinear theory of plasma and laser sattelites of spectral lines as well as laser-spectroscopic diagnosis of QEF in the plasma are considered

  3. ACVP-02: Plasma SIV/SHIV RNA Viral Load Measurements through the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program Quantitative Molecular Diagnostics Core | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    The SIV plasma viral load assay performed by the Quantitative Molecular Diagnostics Core (QMDC) utilizes reagents specifically designed to detect and accurately quantify the full range of SIV/SHIV viral variants and clones in common usage in the rese

  4. Beam deviation method as a diagnostic tool for the plasma focus

    Schmidt, H.; Rueckle, B.

    1978-01-01

    The application of an optical method for density measurements in cylindrical plasmas is described. The angular deviation of a probing light beam sent through the plasma is proportional to the maximum of the density in the plasma column. The deviation does not depend on the plasma dimensions, however, it is influenced to a certain degree by the density profile. The method is successfully applied to the investigation of a dense plasma focus with a time resolution of 2 ns and a spatial resolution (in axial direction) of 2 mm. (orig.) [de

  5. A review of the findings of the plasma diagnostic package and associated laboratory experiments: Implications of large body/plasma interactions for future space technology

    Murphy, Gerald B.; Lonngren, Karl E.

    1986-01-01

    The discoveries and experiments of the Plasma Diagnostic Package (PDP) on the OSS 1 and Spacelab 2 missions are reviewed, these results are compared with those of other space and laboratory experiments, and the implications for the understanding of large body interactions in a low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma environment are discussed. First a brief review of the PDP investigation, its instrumentation and experiments is presented. Next a summary of PDP results along with a comparison of those results with similar space or laboratory experiments is given. Last of all the implications of these results in terms of understanding fundamental physical processes that take place with large bodies in LEO is discussed and experiments to deal with these vital questions are suggested.

  6. Development and characterization of semiconductor ion detectors for plasma diagnostics in the range over 0.3 keV

    Cho, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Hirata, M.; Kohagura, J.; Makino, K.; Kanke, S.; Takahashi, K.; Okamura, T.; Nakashima, Y.; Yatsu, K.; Tamano, T.; Miyoshi, S.

    1997-01-01

    For the purpose of plasma-ion-energy analyses in a wide-energy range from a few hundred eV to hundreds of keV, upgraded semiconductor detectors are newly fabricated and characterized using a test-ion-beam line from 0.3 to 12 keV. In particular, the detectable lowest-ion energy is drastically improved at least down to 0.3 keV; this energy is one to two orders-of-magnitude better than those for commercially available Si-surface-barrier diodes employed for previous plasma-ion diagnostics. A signal-to-noise ratio of two to three orders-of-magnitude better than that for usual metal-collector detectors is demonstrated for the compact-sized semiconductor along with the availability of the use under conditions of a good vacuum and a strong-magnetic field. Such characteristics are achieved due to the improving methods of the optimization of the thicknesses of a Si dead layer and a SiO2 layer, as well as the nitrogen-doping technique near the depletion layer along with minimizing impurity concentrations in Si. Such an upgraded capability of an extremely low-energy-ion detection with the low-noise characteristics enlarges research regimes of plasma-ion behavior using semiconductor detectors not only in the divertor regions of tokamaks but in wider spectra of open-field plasma devices including tandem mirrors. An application of the semiconductor ion detector for plasma-ion diagnostics is demonstrated in a specially designed ion-spectrometer structure.

  7. Description of the plasma diagnostics package (PDP) for the OSS-1 Shuttle mission and JSC plasma chamber test in conjunction with the fast pulse electron gun (FPEG)

    Shawhan, S. D.

    1982-01-01

    The objectives, equipment, and techniques for the plasma diagnostics package (PDP) carried by the OSS-1 instrument payload of the STS-4 and scheduled for the Spacelab-2 mission are described. The goals of the first flight were to examine the Orbiter-magnetoplasma interactions by measuring the electric and magnetic field strengths, the ionized particle wakes, and the generated waves. The RMS was employed to lift the unit out of the bay in order to allow characterization of the fields, EM interference, and plasma contamination within 15 m of the Orbiter. The PDP will also be used to examine plasma depletion, chemical reaction rates, waves, and energized plasma produced by firing of the Orbiter thrusters. Operation of the PDP was carried out in the NASA Space Environment Simulation Laboratory test chamber, where the PDP was used to assay the fields, fluxes, wave amplitudes, and particle energy spectra. The PDP instrumentation is also capable of detecting thermal ions, thermal electrons suprathermal particles, VHF/UHF EMI levels, and the S-band field strength.

  8. Development of plasma diagnostics technologies - Measurement of transport= parameters in tokamak edge plasma by using electric transport probes

    Chung, Kyu Sun; Chang, Do Hee; Sim, Yeon Gun; Kim, Jin Hee [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    Electric transport probe system is developed for the measurement of electron temperature, floating potential, plasma density and flow velocity of= edge plasmas in the KT-2 medium size tokamak. Experiments have been performed in KT-1 small size tokamak. Electric transport probe is composed of a single probe(SP) and a Mach probe (MP). SP is used for the measurements of electron density, floating potential, and plasma density and measured values are {approx} 3*10{sup 11}/cm{sup -3}, -20 volts, 15 {approx} 25 eV. For the most discharges, respectively. MP is for the measurements of toroidal(M{sub T}) and poloidal(M{sub P}) flow velocities, and density, which are M{sub T} {approx_equal} .0.85, M{sub P} {approx_equal}. 0.17, n. {approx_equal} 2.1*10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}, respectively. A triple probe is also developed for the direct reading of T{sub e} and n{sub e}, and is used for DC, RF, and RF+DC plasma in APL of Hanyang university. 38 refs., 36 figs. (author)

  9. IR and FIR laser polarimetry as a diagnostic tool in high-. beta. and Tokamak plasmas

    Pereira, D; Machida, M; Scalabrin, A

    1986-03-01

    The change of the polarization state of an electromagnetic wave (EMW) propagating across a magnetized plasma may be used to determine plasma parameters. In a plasma machine of the Tokamak type, the Faraday rotation of the EMW allows for the determination of the product of the plasma electronic density by the poloidal magnetic field. A novel optical configuration which permits simultaneous measurements of these two parameters without the use of an auxiliary interferometric set up is proposed. By choosing appropriate laser wave length this method can be used in Tokamaks (lambda >= 1mm) and also in theta-pinch plasmas (lambda approx. 10..mu..m). The application of these results is discussed to plasma machines now in operation in Brazil, like the Tokamak/USP and theta-pinch/UNICAMP, using lasers developed at UNICAMP.

  10. Second derivative Langmuir probe diagnostics of gas discharge plasma at intermediate pressures (review article)

    Popov, Tsv K; Dimitrova, M; Dias, F M; Tsaneva, V N; Stelmashenko, N A; Blamire, M G; Barber, Z H

    2006-01-01

    The second-derivative Langmuir probe method for precise determination of the plasma potential, the electron energy distribution function (respectively the electron temperature,) and the electron density of gas discharge plasma at intermediate pressures (100-1000 Pa) is reviewed. Results of applying the procedure proposed to different kinds of gas discharges are presented. Factors affecting the accuracy of the plasma characteristics evaluated are discussed

  11. Development of Langmuir probe diagnostic system for 13.56 MHz plasma sources

    Ranjini, K.; Nabhiraj, P.Y.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    A work on development of high brightness ion source has been started recently. Plasma parameters are strongly linked to the brightness of the ion beams produced from the ion sources. A self compensated Langmuir probe and related automation system for the measurement of plasma parameters is developed. This paper describes design of the probe, software, hardware and the results. (author)

  12. Dual-wavelength differential spectroscopic imaging for diagnostics of laser-induced plasma

    Motto-Ros, V., E-mail: vincent.motto-ros@univ-lyon1.fr [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, CNRS, UMR5579, LASIM (France); Ma, Q.L. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, CNRS, UMR5579, LASIM (France); Gregoire, S. [CRITT Matriaux Alsace, 19 rue de St Junien, 67300 Schiltigheim (France); Lei, W.Q.; Wang, X.C. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, CNRS, UMR5579, LASIM (France); Pelascini, F.; Surma, F. [CRITT Matriaux Alsace, 19 rue de St Junien, 67300 Schiltigheim (France); Detalle, V. [Laboratoire de Recherche des Monuments Historiques, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France); Yu, J. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, CNRS, UMR5579, LASIM (France)

    2012-08-15

    A specific configuration for plasma fast spectroscopic imaging was developed, where a pair of narrowband filters, one fitting an emission line of a species to be studied and the other out of its emission line, allowed double images to be taken for a laser-induced plasma. A dedicated software was developed for the subtraction between the double images. The result represents therefore the monochromatic emission image of the species in the plasma. We have shown in this work that such configuration is especially efficient for the monitoring of a plasma generated under the atmospheric pressure at very short delays after the impact of the laser pulse on the target, when a strong continuum emission is observed. The efficiency of the technique has been particularly demonstrated in the study of laser-induced plasma on a polymer target. Molecular species, such as C{sub 2} and CN, as well as atomic species, such as C and N, were imaged starting from 50 ns after the laser impact. Moreover space segregation of different species, atomic or molecular, inside of the plasma was clearly observed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imaging to study species with time and space resolution in laser induced plasma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Image display of multiple species is proposed based on RGB color model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molecular emission (CN and C{sub 2}) is observed at very short delays (50 ns). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Segregation of different species inside the plasma is clearly established.

  13. Diagnostics of an rf induction plasma torch with the aid of a magnetic probe

    Shamim, A.; Wooding, E.R.

    1978-01-01

    Estimates of a plasma temperature, electrical conductivity, and torch efficiency have been made from simple measurements made on the plasma and on the rf supply. Measurements were made with the aid of a simple magnetic probe and a pickup coil. Estimates are also made of the heating-coil constants

  14. Density and temperature diagnostics of a Ne-like germanium plasma created by laser

    Berthier, E.; Bourgade, J.L.; Combis, P.; Jacquemot, S.; Le Breton, J.P.; Louis-Jacquet, M.; Naccache, D.; Nail, M.; Peyrusse, O.

    1987-01-01

    In the framework of X-ray laser studies, experiments on Ne-like Ge plasma have been performed by laser irradiation at λ = 1.053 μm. Amplification in lasing transitions has been observed by varying the plasma length. Theoretical calculations of excited level population allow us to determine density and temperature from line intensity ratios

  15. Diagnostic studies of ac-driven plasmas in saline solutions: the effect of frequency on the plasma behavior

    Chang, Hung-wen; Hsu, Cheng-che

    2011-01-01

    The effect of frequency on the characteristics of plasmas in saline solution driven by 50-1000 Hz ac power is studied. Two distinct modes, namely bubble and jetting modes, are identified. The bubble mode occurs under low frequencies. In this mode, a millimeter-sized bubble is tightly attached to the electrode tip and oscillates with the applied voltage. With an increase in frequency, it shows the jetting mode, in which bubbles, hundreds of micometers in diameter, are continuously formed and jetted away from the electrode surface. Such a significant change in the bubble behavior influences the power input at a given applied voltage and significantly affects the plasma behavior. In spite of the fact that no significant difference is seen in the optical emission spectra, the broadening of the H β peak shows that the bubble mode has a lower electron density than that of the jetting mode. The temporally resolved optical emission intensities show light emission in the negative half of the power period regardless of the modes. This shows clearly that the driving frequency significantly influences the bubble dynamics, which in turn alters the plasma behavior.

  16. Gaseous electron multiplier-based soft x-ray plasma diagnostics development: Preliminary tests at ASDEX Upgrade

    Chernyshova, M., E-mail: maryna.chernyshova@ipplm.pl; Malinowski, K.; Czarski, T.; Kowalska-Strzęciwilk, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Wojeński, A.; Poźniak, K. T.; Kasprowicz, G.; Krawczyk, R.; Kolasiński, P.; Zabołotny, W.; Zienkiewicz, P. [Institute of Electronic Systems, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland); Vezinet, D.; Herrmann, A. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Mazon, D.; Jardin, A. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2016-11-15

    A Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM)-based detector is being developed for soft X-ray diagnostics on tokamaks. Its main goal is to facilitate transport studies of impurities like tungsten. Such studies are very relevant to ITER, where the excessive accumulation of impurities in the plasma core should be avoided. This contribution provides details of the preliminary tests at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) with a focus on the most important aspects for detector operation in harsh radiation environment. It was shown that both spatially and spectrally resolved data could be collected, in a reasonable agreement with other AUG diagnostics. Contributions to the GEM signal include also hard X-rays, gammas, and neutrons. First simulations of the effect of high-energy photons have helped understanding these contributions.

  17. Betatron radiation based diagnostics for plasma wakefield accelerated electron beams at the SPARC-LAB test facility

    Shpakov, V.; Anania, M.P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Curcio, A.; Dabagov, S.; Ferrario, M.; Filippi, F.; Marocchino, A.; Paroli, B.; Pompili, R.; Rossi, A.R.; Zigler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress with wake-field acceleration has shown a great potential in providing high gradient acceleration fields, while the quality of the beams remains relatively poor. Precise knowledge of the beam size at the exit from the plasma and matching conditions for the externally injected beams are the key for improvement of beam quality. Betatron radiation emitted by the beam during acceleration in the plasma is a powerful tool for the transverse beam size measurement, being also non-intercepting. In this work we report on the technical solutions chosen at SPARC-LAB for such diagnostics tool, along with expected parameters of betatron radiation. - Highlights: • The betatron radiation parameters in SPARC-LAB wakefiled experiments were studied. • The differences with betatron radiation in other wake-field experiments were highlighted. • The solution for betatron radiation detection was investigated.

  18. Betatron radiation based diagnostics for plasma wakefield accelerated electron beams at the SPARC-LAB test facility

    Shpakov, V.; Anania, M.P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Cianchi, A. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); “Tor Vergata” University, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Curcio, A. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Dabagov, S. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, Leninskiy Prospekt 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); NRNU “MEPhI”, Kashirskoe highway 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ferrario, M.; Filippi, F. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Marocchino, A. [Dipartimento SBAI Universitá di Roma ‘La Sapienza’, via Antonio Scarpa 14/16, 00161 Rome (Italy); Paroli, B. [INFN - MI, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Pompili, R. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Rossi, A.R. [INFN - MI, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Zigler, A. [Racah Institute of Physics Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel)

    2016-09-01

    Recent progress with wake-field acceleration has shown a great potential in providing high gradient acceleration fields, while the quality of the beams remains relatively poor. Precise knowledge of the beam size at the exit from the plasma and matching conditions for the externally injected beams are the key for improvement of beam quality. Betatron radiation emitted by the beam during acceleration in the plasma is a powerful tool for the transverse beam size measurement, being also non-intercepting. In this work we report on the technical solutions chosen at SPARC-LAB for such diagnostics tool, along with expected parameters of betatron radiation. - Highlights: • The betatron radiation parameters in SPARC-LAB wakefiled experiments were studied. • The differences with betatron radiation in other wake-field experiments were highlighted. • The solution for betatron radiation detection was investigated.

  19. Evaluation of plasma fibrinogen concentration as a diagnostic indicator of inflammation in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Moore, A Russell; Allender, Matthew C; Mitchell, Mark A; MacNeill, Amy L

    2015-01-15

    To critically evaluate plasma fibrinogen concentration as a diagnostic indicator of inflammation in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans). Prospective induced-disease model and prospective cross-sectional study. Plasma samples from 12 purpose-bred red-eared sliders and 153 farm-raised red-eared sliders. A modification of the Jacobsson method was developed to measure fibrinogen concentration in platelet-poor plasma from red-eared sliders. Purpose-bred turtles had been inoculated with a ranavirus (n = 4) or sterile PBS solution (8) as part of another study. Farm-raised red-eared sliders were categorized as healthy (n = 138) or overtly ill (15) on the basis of physical examination findings at the time of blood sample collection. Samples from 124 of the 138 healthy red-eared sliders were used to establish a fibrinogen concentration reference interval as measured by the modified Jacobsson method. Fibrinogen concentrations in ranavirus-infected and physically ill turtles were compared with those of healthy turtles to determine whether fibrinogen concentration would be a useful diagnostic indicator of inflammation in red-eared sliders. The modified Jacobsson method was reliably used to measure fibrinogen concentration. The fibrinogen concentration reference interval from healthy reproductively active female red-eared sliders was right skewed. Fibrinogen concentration did not differ significantly between healthy red-eared sliders and ranavirus-infected or overtly ill red-eared sliders. A reference interval for red-eared slider plasma fibrinogen concentration was established and partitioned by sex to account for considerable right skewing observed for females. Fibrinogen concentration was not a useful indicator of inflammation in red-eared sliders with ranavirus infection or other overt illnesses.

  20. Plasma diagnostics with electrostatic probes in the reactive low voltage ion plating process

    Lechleitner, T.; Huber, D.; Pulker, H.K.

    2002-01-01

    The analysis of cold plasmas, which are used in thin film coating techniques, is mainly important for the understanding of the correlation between the film properties and the plasma (or the process) parameters. With the knowledge of these correlations, one is able to optimise and eventually improve the coating processes for the production of films with certain desirable properties. The plasma for the reactive-low-voltage-ion-plating processes is a cold non-isothermal plasma produced by a low-pressure dc non-self sustained arc discharge, controlled by two main parameters, the arc current and the total gas pressure in the chamber. It was shown that the arc current is in a direct linear relation to the degree of ionization and the increase of the total gas pressure has a contrary effect. Besides, it was also demonstrated, that the usage of electrostatic probes for the plasma analysis od deposition processes is a powerful tool to complete the common plasma monitor measurements (energy analysing quadrupol mass spectrometer) and to improve the understanding of industrially used plasma. (nevyjel)