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  1. Evolution of density-dependent movement during experimental range expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronhofer, E A; Gut, S; Altermatt, F

    2017-12-01

    Range expansions and biological invasions are prime examples of transient processes that are likely impacted by rapid evolutionary changes. As a spatial process, range expansions are driven by dispersal and movement behaviour. Although it is widely accepted that dispersal and movement may be context-dependent, for instance density-dependent, and best represented by reaction norms, the evolution of density-dependent movement during range expansions has received little experimental attention. We therefore tested current theory predicting the evolution of increased movement at low densities at range margins using highly replicated and controlled range expansion experiments across multiple genotypes of the protist model system Tetrahymena thermophila. Although rare, we found evolutionary changes during range expansions even in the absence of initial standing genetic variation. Range expansions led to the evolution of negatively density-dependent movement at range margins. In addition, we report the evolution of increased intrastrain competitive ability and concurrently decreased population growth rates in range cores. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding movement and dispersal as evolving reaction norms and plastic life-history traits of central relevance for range expansions, biological invasions and the dynamics of spatially structured systems in general. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Epidemiological reference ranges for low-density lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although there is widespread acceptance that total cholesterol (TC) value reference ranges should be based on epidemiological rather than statistical considerations, the epidemiological action limits for Iow-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are still incomplete and only statistical reference ranges for apolipoprotein B ...

  3. Modal density of rectangular structures in a wide frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, A.; Ghiringhelli, G. L.

    2018-04-01

    A novel approach to investigate the modal density of a rectangular structure in a wide frequency range is presented. First, the modal density is derived, in the whole frequency range of interest, on the basis of sound transmission through the infinite counterpart of the structure; then, it is corrected by means of the low-frequency modal behavior of the structure, taking into account actual size and boundary conditions. A statistical analysis reveals the connection between the modal density of the structure and the transmission of sound through its thickness. A transfer matrix approach is used to compute the required acoustic parameters, making it possible to deal with structures having arbitrary stratifications of different layers. A finite element method is applied on coarse grids to derive the first few eigenfrequencies required to correct the modal density. Both the transfer matrix approach and the coarse grids involved in the finite element analysis grant high efficiency. Comparison with alternative formulations demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  4. Long-range analysis of density fitting in extended systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Scarontefan

    Density fitting scheme is analyzed for the Coulomb problem in extended systems from the correctness of long-range behavior point of view. We show that for the correct cancellation of divergent long-range Coulomb terms it is crucial for the density fitting scheme to reproduce the overlap matrix exactly. It is demonstrated that from all possible fitting metric choices the Coulomb metric is the only one which inherently preserves the overlap matrix for infinite systems with translational periodicity. Moreover, we show that by a small additional effort any non-Coulomb metric fit can be made overlap-preserving as well. The problem is analyzed for both ordinary and Poisson basis set choices.

  5. Landau parameters for finite range density dependent nuclear interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farine, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Landau parameters represent the effective particle-hole interaction at Fermi level. Since between the physical observables and the Landau parameters there is a direct relation their derivation from an effective interaction is of great interest. The parameter F 0 determines the incompressibility K of the system. The parameter F 1 determines the effective mass (which controls the level density at the Fermi level). In addition, F 0 ' determines the symmetry energy, G 0 the magnetic susceptibility, and G 0 ' the pion condensation threshold in nuclear matter. This paper is devoted to a general derivation of Landau parameters for an interaction with density dependent finite range terms. Particular carefulness is devoted to the inclusion of rearrangement terms. This report is part of a larger project which aims at defining a new nuclear interaction improving the well-known D1 force of Gogny et al. for describing the average nuclear properties and exotic nuclei and satisfying, in addition, the sum rules

  6. Simplified local density model for adsorption over large pressure ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangarajan, B.; Lira, C.T.; Subramanian, R.

    1995-01-01

    Physical adsorption of high-pressure fluids onto solids is of interest in the transportation and storage of fuel and radioactive gases; the separation and purification of lower hydrocarbons; solid-phase extractions; adsorbent regenerations using supercritical fluids; supercritical fluid chromatography; and critical point drying. A mean-field model is developed that superimposes the fluid-solid potential on a fluid equation of state to predict adsorption on a flat wall from vapor, liquid, and supercritical phases. A van der Waals-type equation of state is used to represent the fluid phase, and is simplified with a local density approximation for calculating the configurational energy of the inhomogeneous fluid. The simplified local density approximation makes the model tractable for routine calculations over wide pressure ranges. The model is capable of prediction of Type 2 and 3 subcritical isotherms for adsorption on a flat wall, and shows the characteristic cusplike behavior and crossovers seen experimentally near the fluid critical point

  7. Lichen ranges, animal densities and production in Finnish reindeer management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Helle

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, mean lichen biomass ranged by the earmark districts (comprising of 2-9 adjacent herding associations between 54 kg and 380 kg DM per ha correlating negatively with animal density per lichen ranges (range 1.5 - 14.3 ind. per km2. Biomasses were far below economic carrying capacity of lichen ranges (900 kg DM per ha. The condition of lichen ranges was poorest in the southern half of the area where alternative food to reindeer lichens (Deschampsia flexuosa, arboreal lichens and supplementary feeding was available. In 1980-86, recruitment (calves per 100 females was 33% higher than in the 1970's, on an average (65 vs. 49, despite a 90% increase in animal numbers between 1970 and 1986; recruitment has not been dependent on the condition of lichen ranges. The increase in production has been some higher than expected on the basis of animal numbers. The reasons for the increasing trends in animal numbers, recruitment and production remains some unclear, but they may include favorable winter conditions, supplementary feeding, medical treatment against parasites and proper harvesting policy.

  8. Properties of short-range and long-range correlation energy density functionals from electron-electron coalescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori-Giorgi, Paola; Savin, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The combination of density-functional theory with other approaches to the many-electron problem through the separation of the electron-electron interaction into a short-range and a long-range contribution is a promising method, which is raising more and more interest in recent years. In this work some properties of the corresponding correlation energy functionals are derived by studying the electron-electron coalescence condition for a modified (long-range-only) interaction. A general relation for the on-top (zero electron-electron distance) pair density is derived, and its usefulness is discussed with some examples. For the special case of the uniform electron gas, a simple parametrization of the on-top pair density for a long-range only interaction is presented and supported by calculations within the ''extended Overhauser model.'' The results of this work can be used to build self-interaction corrected short-range correlation energy functionals

  9. Outdoor stocking density in free-range laying hens: radio-frequency identification of impacts on range use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Hinch, G N; Dyall, T R; Warin, L; Little, B A; Lee, C

    2017-01-01

    The number and size of free-range laying hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) production systems are increasing within Australia in response to consumer demand for perceived improvement in hen welfare. However, variation in outdoor stocking density has generated consumer dissatisfaction leading to the development of a national information standard on free-range egg labelling by the Australian Consumer Affairs Ministers. The current Australian Model Code of Practice for Domestic Poultry states a guideline of 1500 hens/ha, but no maximum density is set. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) tracking technology was used to measure daily range usage by individual ISA Brown hens housed in six small flocks (150 hens/flock - 50% of hens tagged), each with access to one of three outdoor stocking density treatments (two replicates per treatment: 2000, 10 000, 20 000 hens/ha), from 22 to 26, 27 to 31 and 32 to 36 weeks of age. There was some variation in range usage across the sampling periods and by weeks 32 to 36 individual hens from the lowest stocking density on average used the range for longer each day (Prange with 2% of tagged hens in each treatment never venturing outdoors and a large proportion that accessed the range daily (2000 hens/ha: 80.5%; 10 000 hens/ha: 66.5%; 20 000 hens/ha: 71.4%). On average, 38% to 48% of hens were seen on the range simultaneously and used all available areas of all ranges. These results of experimental-sized flocks have implications for determining optimal outdoor stocking densities for commercial free-range laying hens but further research would be needed to determine the effects of increased range usage on hen welfare.

  10. Ergonomic assessment of drivers in MF285 and MF399 tractors during clutching using algometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Fallahi

    2016-03-01

    The results showed that the clutching forces for MF285 and MF399 tractors were 340 N and 290 N, respectively. The knee angle of the drivers of the two tractors was statistically different at the one percent level of significance. The reduction of pain threshold after 30 and 60 s clutching and also 60 s rest after clutching in MF285 tractor, for all three muscles, were more than those of MF399 tractor. The impact of clutching on the average decreases of pain threshold, for all drivers and all clutching periods, during and after clutching, in the Quadratus lumborum muscle was more than the other two muscles, in both tractors. In order to reduce the clutching force for MF285 tractor some modifications is suggested. In this regard the force transfer joint between the pedal and the clutch release linkage may be replaced with one made of cast iron.

  11. Alternative separation of exchange and correlation energies in range-separated density-functional perturbation theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornaton, Y.; Stoyanova, A.; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    of the noninteracting Kohn-Sham one. When second-order corrections to the density are neglected, the energy expression reduces to a range-separated double-hybrid (RSDH) type of functional, RSDHf, where "f" stands for "full-range integrals" as the regular full-range interaction appears explicitly in the energy...

  12. Outdoor stocking density in free-range laying hens: effects on behaviour and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Hinch, G N; Downing, J A; Lee, C

    2017-06-01

    Free-range laying hen systems are increasing within Australia and research is needed to determine optimal outdoor stocking densities. Six small (n=150 hens) experimental flocks of ISA Brown laying hens were housed with access to ranges simulating one of three outdoor stocking densities with two pen replicates per density: 2000 hens/ha, 10 000 hens/ha or 20 000 hens/ha. Birds were provided daily range access from 21 to 36 weeks of age and the range usage of 50% of hens was tracked using radio-frequency identification technology. Throughout the study, basic external health assessments following a modified version of the Welfare Quality® protocol showed most birds were in visibly good condition (although keel damage was increasingly present with age) with few differences between stocking densities. Toenail length at 36 weeks of age was negatively correlated with hours spent ranging for all pens of birds (all r⩾-0.23, P⩽0.04). At 23 weeks of age, there were no differences between outdoor stocking densities in albumen corticosterone concentrations (P=0.44). At 35 weeks of age, density effects were significant (Prange and indoors showed more dust bathing and foraging (scratching followed by ground-pecking) was performed outdoors, but more resting indoors (all Prange but the most resting outdoors, with hens from the 20 000 hens/ha densities showing the least amount of resting outdoors (all Pfree-range system management practices.

  13. DNA micro array analysis of yeast global genome expression in response to ELF-MF exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Ishibashi, T.; Kyoh, B.

    2002-01-01

    There is wide spread public concern over the possible health risk of ELF-MF. Electromagnetic fields may produce a variety of effects in several biological systems, including the elevation of cancer risk and reduction of cell growth. Epidemiological studies have shown weak correlations between the exposure to ELF and the incidence of several cancers, but negative studies have also been reported. Moreover, there are some reports that basic biological events such as the cell cycle and DNA replication were affected by exposure to MF. However, to date the molecular mechanism of the MF effect on living organism is not clear. In this study, we used yeast DNA micro array to examine the transcriptional profile of all genes in response to ELF-MF. A few years ago it was difficult to carry out a global gene expression study to identify important genes regarding ELF-MF, however, today DNA micro arrays allow gene regulation in response to high density ELF-MF exposure. Thus we used micro array to analyze changes in mRNA abundance during ELF-MF exposure

  14. Low larval densities in northern populations reinforce range expansion by a Mediterranean damselfly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therry, Lieven; Swaegers, Janne; Dinh, Khuong Van

    2016-01-01

    indicated higher food availability at low conspecific densities. Interestingly, the initial density treatment had stronger effect than densities experienced at the time of quantification on survival during the pre-freezing winter period and body condition estimates at the end of the experiment, indicating...... also delayed effects of the initial density treatment. Survival throughout a freezing period indicated extreme winter conditions are not likely a limiting factor in the range expansion of this Mediterranean species. 4. The increased survival and individual growth rates (through causing shifts......1. Contemporary climate change triggers a poleward range shift in many species. A growing number of studies document evolutionary changes in traits accelerating range expansion (such as growth rate and dispersal-related traits). In contrast, the direct impact of decreasing conspecific densities...

  15. Density of Liquid Steel over Temperature Range of 1 803-1 873 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Feng; FANG Liang

    2004-01-01

    The density of three kinds of liquid steel was measured by a modified sessile drop method over the temperature range of 1 803-1 873 K. It is found that the density of liquid steels decreases with increasing temperature and carbon content in steel. Both of the density and its absolute temperature coefficient of studied steels are smaller than the literature values of pure iron. The molar volume of the steels increases with increasing temperature.

  16. Density matrix renormalization group with efficient dynamical electron correlation through range separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegård, Erik D.; Knecht, Stefan; Kielberg, Jesper Skau

    2015-01-01

    We present a new hybrid multiconfigurational method based on the concept of range-separation that combines the density matrix renormalization group approach with density functional theory. This new method is designed for the simultaneous description of dynamical and static electroncorrelation...... effects in multiconfigurational electronic structure problems....

  17. A straightforward method for measuring the range of apparent density of microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyun; Li, Mengmeng; Deng, Hua; Cai, Li; Cai, Huiwen; Yan, Beizhan; Hu, Jun; Shi, Huahong

    2018-10-15

    Density of microplastics has been regarded as the primary property that affect the distribution and bioavailability of microplastics in the water column. For measuring the density of microplastis, we developed a simple and rapid method based on density gradient solutions. In this study, we tested four solvents to make the density gradient solutions, i.e., ethanol (0.8 g/cm 3 ), ultrapure water (1.0 g/cm 3 ), saturated NaI (1.8 g/cm 3 ) and ZnCl 2 (1.8 g/cm 3 ). Density of microplastics was measured via observing the float or sink status in the density gradient solutions. We found that density gradient solutions made from ZnCl 2 had a larger uncertainty in measuring density than that from NaI, most likely due to a higher surface tension of ZnCl 2 solution. Solutions made from ethanol, ultrapure water, and NaI showed consistent density results with listed densities of commercial products, indicating that these density gradient solutions were suitable for measuring microplastics with a density range of 0.8-1.8 g/cm 3 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Multi-configuration time-dependent density-functional theory based on range separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromager, E.; Knecht, S.; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    Multi-configuration range-separated density-functional theory is extended to the time-dependent regime. An exact variational formulation is derived. The approximation, which consists in combining a long-range Multi-Configuration- Self-Consistent Field (MCSCF) treatment with an adiabatic short...... (srGGA) approximations. As expected, when modeling long-range interactions with the MCSCF model instead of the adiabatic Buijse-Baerends density-matrix functional as recently proposed by Pernal [J. Chem. Phys. 136, 184105 (2012)10.1063/1.4712019], the description of both the 1D doubly-excited state...

  19. Density of states and magnetotransport in Weyl semimetals with long-range disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesin, D. A.; Mishchenko, E. G.; Levchenko, A.

    2015-11-01

    We study the density of states and magnetotransport properties of disordered Weyl semimetals, focusing on the case of a strong long-range disorder. To calculate the disorder-averaged density of states close to nodal points, we treat exactly the long-range random potential fluctuations produced by charged impurities, while the short-range component of disorder potential is included systematically and controllably with the help of a diagram technique. We find that, for energies close to the degeneracy point, long-range potential fluctuations lead to a finite density of states. In the context of transport, we discuss that a self-consistent theory of screening in magnetic field may conceivably lead to nonmonotonic low-field magnetoresistance.

  20. van der Waals forces in density functional theory: Perturbational long-range electron-interaction corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angyan, Janos G.; Gerber, Iann C.; Savin, Andreas; Toulouse, Julien

    2005-01-01

    Long-range exchange and correlation effects, responsible for the failure of currently used approximate density functionals in describing van der Waals forces, are taken into account explicitly after a separation of the electron-electron interaction in the Hamiltonian into short- and long-range components. We propose a 'range-separated hybrid' functional based on a local density approximation for the short-range exchange-correlation energy, combined with a long-range exact exchange energy. Long-range correlation effects are added by a second-order perturbational treatment. The resulting scheme is general and is particularly well adapted to describe van der Waals complexes, such as rare gas dimers

  1. Raman spectroscopic characterization of CH4 density over a wide range of temperature and pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Linbo; Chou, I-Ming; Burruss, Robert; Hu, Ruizhong; Bi, Xianwu

    2014-01-01

    The positions of the CH4 Raman ν1 symmetric stretching bands were measured in a wide range of temperature (from −180 °C to 350 °C) and density (up to 0.45 g/cm3) using high-pressure optical cell and fused silica capillary capsule. The results show that the Raman band shift is a function of both methane density and temperature; the band shifts to lower wavenumbers as the density increases and the temperature decreases. An equation representing the observed relationship among the CH4 ν1 band position, temperature, and density can be used to calculate the density in natural or synthetic CH4-bearing inclusions.

  2. Influence of short range chemical order on density of states in α-ZrNi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte Junior, J.

    1986-01-01

    Calculations of the density of electronic states for amorphous alloys of ZrNi and ZrCu with different chemical order degrees, in order to verify the effect of chemical ordering on this property, are presented. The results obtained for ZrCu shown that the density of states at Fermi level do not vary significantly with the ordering. The results for ZrNi shown that the introduction of short range chemical order can decrease significantly the density of states at Fermi level, leading to better agreement with experimental results. (M.C.K.) [pt

  3. Electron density values of various human tissues: in vitro Compton scatter measurements and calculated ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    Accurate direct measurements of electron density have been performed on specimens from 10 different tissue types of the human body, representing the major organs, using a Compton scatter technique. As a supplement to these experimental values, calculations have been carried out to determine the electron densities expected for these tissue types. The densities observed are in good agreement with the broad ranges deduced from the basic data previously published. The results of both the in vitro sample measurements and the approximate calculations indicate that the electron density of most normal healthy soft tissue can be expected to fall within the fairly restricted range of +- 5% around 3.4 X 10 23 electrons per cm 3 . The obvious exception to this generalisation is the result for lung tissue, which falls considerably below this range owing to the high air content inherent in its construction. In view of such an overall limited variation with little difference between tissues, it would appear that electron density alone is likely to be a rather poor clinical parameter for tissue analysis, with high accuracy and precision being essential in any in vivo Compton measurements for imaging or diagnosis on specific organs. (author)

  4. Accessible light detection and ranging: estimating large tree density for habitat identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather A. Kramer; Brandon M. Collins; Claire V. Gallagher; John Keane; Scott L. Stephens; Maggi Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Large trees are important to a wide variety of wildlife, including many species of conservation concern, such as the California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis). Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has been successfully utilized to identify the density of large-diameter trees, either by segmenting the LiDAR point cloud into...

  5. RANGE AND DENSITY OF ALIEN FISH IN WESTERN STREAMS AND RIVERS, US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alien fish have become increasingly prevalent in Western U.S. waters. The EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program's Western Pilot (12 western states), which is based upon a probabilistic design, provides an opportunity to make inferences about the range and density of...

  6. Evaluating the impact of a wide range of vegetation densities on river channel pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Ian; Roucou, Ron

    2016-04-01

    Braided rivers are very dynamic systems which have complex controls over their planform and flow dynamics. Vegetation is one variable which influences channel geometry and pattern, through its effect on local flow hydraulics and the process continuum of sediment erosion-transport-deposition. Furthermore, where in the braided floodplain stable vegetation develops depends on the temporal sequencing of the river discharge i.e. floods. Understanding the effect of vegetation in these highly dynamic systems has multiple consequences for human activity and floodplain management. This paper focusses on the specific role of vegetation density in controlling braided river form and processes. Previous research in this field has been contradictory; with Gran and Paola (2001) finding that increasing vegetation density decreased the number of active channels. In contrast, Coulthard (2005] observed that as vegetation become denser there was an increase in the number of channels. This was hypothesized to be caused by flow separation around vegetation and the development of bars immediately downstream of the plant. This paper reports the results from a set of experiments in a 4m by 1m flume, where discharge, slope and sediment size were kept constant. Artificial grass was used to represent vegetation with a density ranging from 50 plants/m2 to 400 plants/m2. Digital photographs, using a GoPro camera with a fish eye lens, were taken from ~1m above the flume at an interval of 30 seconds during the 3 hour experiment. The experiments showed that as the vegetation density increased from 50 to 150 plants/m2, the number of channel bars developing doubled from 12 to 24. At vegetation densities greater than 150 plants/m2 there was a decline in the number of bars created to a minimum of 8 bars for a density of 400 plants/m2. We attribute these patterns to the effect that the vegetation has on flow hydraulics, sediment transport processes and the spatial patterns of erosion and deposition. We

  7. Range-separated density-functional theory for molecular excitation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebolini, E.

    2014-01-01

    Linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) is nowadays a method of choice to compute molecular excitation energies. However, within the usual adiabatic semi-local approximations, it is not able to describe properly Rydberg, charge-transfer or multiple excitations. Range separation of the electronic interaction allows one to mix rigorously density-functional methods at short range and wave function or Green's function methods at long range. When applied to the exchange functional, it already corrects most of these deficiencies but multiple excitations remain absent as they need a frequency-dependent kernel. In this thesis, the effects of range separation are first assessed on the excitation energies of a partially-interacting system in an analytic and numerical study in order to provide guidelines for future developments of range-separated methods for excitation energy calculations. It is then applied on the exchange and correlation TDDFT kernels in a single-determinant approximation in which the long-range part of the correlation kernel vanishes. A long-range frequency-dependent second-order correlation kernel is then derived from the Bethe-Salpeter equation and added perturbatively to the range-separated TDDFT kernel in order to take into account the effects of double excitations. (author)

  8. Experiment and Simulation Analysis on Noise Attenuation of Al/MF Cylindrical Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the issue concerning internal noise reduction of Al-made cylindrical shell structure, the noise control method of laying melamine foam (MF layer is adopted for in-shell noise attenuation experiments of Al and Al/MF cylindrical shells and corresponding internal noise response spectrograms are obtained. Based on the Virtual.Lab acoustics software, a finite element model is established for the analysis of noise in the Al/MF cylinder shell and numerical simulation computation is conducted for the acoustic mode and in-shell acoustic response; the correctness of the finite element model is verified via comparison with measured data. On this basis, influence rules of different MF laying rate and different laying thickness on acoustic cavity resonance response within the low and medium frequency range of 100–400 Hz are studied. It is indicated that noise reduction increases with MF laying rate, but the amplification decreases along with the rising of MF laying rate; noise reduction per unit thickness decreases with the increase of laying thickness, while noise reduction per unit area increases.

  9. Ionosphere research with a HF/MF cubesat radio instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Esa; Aikio, Anita; Alho, Markku; Fontell, Mathias; Harri, Ari-Matti; Kauristie, Kirsti; Kestilä, Antti; Koskimaa, Petri; Mäkelä, Jakke; Mäkelä, Miika; Turunen, Esa; Vanhamäki, Heikki; Verronen, Pekka

    2017-04-01

    New technology provides new possibilities to study geospace and 3D ionosphere by using spacecraft and computer simulations. A type of nanosatellites, CubeSats, provide a cost effective possibility to provide in-situ measurements in the ionosphere. Moreover, combined CubeSat observations with ground-based observations gives a new view on auroras and associated electromagnetic phenomena. Especially joint and active CubeSat - ground based observation campaigns enable the possibility of studying the 3D structure of the ionosphere. Furthermore using several CubeSats to form satellite constellations enables much higher temporal resolution. At the same time, increasing computation capacity has made it possible to perform simulations where properties of the ionosphere, such as propagation of the electromagnetic waves in the medium frequency, MF (0.3-3 MHz) and high frequency, HF (3-30 MHz), ranges is based on a 3D ionospheric model and on first-principles modelling. Electromagnetic waves at those frequencies are strongly affected by ionospheric electrons and, consequently, those frequencies can be used for studying the plasma. On the other hand, even if the ionosphere originally enables long-range telecommunication at MF and HF frequencies, the frequent occurrence of spatiotemporal variations in the ionosphere disturbs communication channels, especially at high latitudes. Therefore, study of the MF and HF waves in the ionosphere has both a strong science and technology interests. We introduce recently developed simulation models as well as measuring principles and techniques to investigate the arctic ionosphere by a polar orbiting CubeSat whose novel AM radio instrument measures HF and MF waves. The cubesat, which contains also a white light aurora camera, is planned to be launched in late 2017 (http://www.suomi100satelliitti.fi/eng). The new models are (1) a 3D ray tracing model and (2) a 3D full kinetic electromagnetic simulation. We also introduce how combining of the

  10. On the universality of the long-/short-range separation in multiconfigurational density-functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromager, Emmanuel; Toulouse, Julien; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa.

    2007-02-01

    In many cases, the dynamic correlation can be calculated quite accurately and at a fairly low computational cost in Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT), using current standard approximate functionals. However, in general, KS-DFT does not treat static correlation effects (near degeneracy) adequately which, on the other hand, can be described in wave-function theory (WFT), for example, with a multiconfigurational self-consistent field (MCSCF) model. It is therefore of high interest to develop a hybrid model which combines the best of both WFT and DFT approaches. The merge of WFT and DFT can be achieved by splitting the two-electron interaction into long-range and short-range parts. The long-range part is then treated by WFT and the short-range part by DFT. In this work the authors consider the so-called "erf" long-range interaction erf(μr12)/r12, which is based on the standard error function, and where μ is a free parameter which controls the range of the long-/short-range decomposition. In order to formulate a general method, they propose a recipe for the definition of an optimal μopt parameter, which is independent of the approximate short-range functional and the approximate wave function, and they discuss its universality. Calculations on a test set consisting of He, Be, Ne, Mg, H2, N2, and H2O yield μopt≈0.4a.u.. A similar analysis on other types of test systems such as actinide compounds is currently in progress. Using the value of 0.4a.u. for μ, encouraging results are obtained with the hybrid MCSCF-DFT method for the dissociation energies of H2, N2, and H2O, with both short-range local-density approximation and PBE-type functionals.

  11. Long-range-corrected Rung 3.5 density functional approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesko, Benjamin G.; Proynov, Emil; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.

    2018-03-01

    Rung 3.5 functionals are a new class of approximations for density functional theory. They provide a flexible intermediate between exact (Hartree-Fock, HF) exchange and semilocal approximations for exchange. Existing Rung 3.5 functionals inherit semilocal functionals' limitations in atomic cores and density tails. Here we address those limitations using range-separated admixture of HF exchange. We present three new functionals. LRC-ωΠLDA combines long-range HF exchange with short-range Rung 3.5 ΠLDA exchange. SLC-ΠLDA combines short- and long-range HF exchange with middle-range ΠLDA exchange. LRC-ωΠLDA-AC incorporates a combination of HF, semilocal, and Rung 3.5 exchange in the short range, based on an adiabatic connection. We test these in a new Rung 3.5 implementation including up to analytic fourth derivatives. LRC-ωΠLDA and SLC-ΠLDA improve atomization energies and reaction barriers by a factor of 8 compared to the full-range ΠLDA. LRC-ωΠLDA-AC brings further improvement approaching the accuracy of standard long-range corrected schemes LC-ωPBE and SLC-PBE. The new functionals yield highest occupied orbital energies closer to experimental ionization potentials and describe correctly the weak charge-transfer complex of ethylene and dichlorine and the hole-spin distribution created by an Al defect in quartz. This study provides a framework for more flexible range-separated Rung 3.5 approximations.

  12. Density and radioactivity distribution of respirable range human serum albumin aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, B.; Somasundaram, S.; Soni, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    Dry human serum albumin (HSA) aerosol in the respirable size range was generated using the BARC nebulizer. The aerosol was sampled using Lovelace Aerosol Particle Separator (LAPS) and the density of HSA was determined. Labelling of HSA with 99m TcO 4 - was done, both in HSA solution and with dry denatured HSA particles, to study the distribution of radioactivity in both cases. The results are discussed. (author)

  13. Defect accumulation in welded joints of 12Kh1MF steel steam pipelines during creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhov, A.E.; Alekhova, I.A.

    1982-01-01

    Technique for investigation of micropore accumulation in 12Kh1MF steel welded joints is proposed. The micropore density in different zones of welded joints in non-uniform. It is shown that failure localization in welded joint in the softening zone during the creep takes place due to the micropore priority accumulation in this zone. It is found out that accumulation of residual deformations in different zones of 12Kh1MF welded joints under creep runs more uniformly as the level of working stresses decreases and test duration increases

  14. A general range-separated double-hybrid density-functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Cairedine; Toulouse, Julien

    2018-04-28

    A range-separated double-hybrid (RSDH) scheme which generalizes the usual range-separated hybrids and double hybrids is developed. This scheme consistently uses a two-parameter Coulomb-attenuating-method (CAM)-like decomposition of the electron-electron interaction for both exchange and correlation in order to combine Hartree-Fock exchange and second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) correlation with a density functional. The RSDH scheme relies on an exact theory which is presented in some detail. Several semi-local approximations are developed for the short-range exchange-correlation density functional involved in this scheme. After finding optimal values for the two parameters of the CAM-like decomposition, the RSDH scheme is shown to have a relatively small basis dependence and to provide atomization energies, reaction barrier heights, and weak intermolecular interactions globally more accurate or comparable to range-separated MP2 or standard MP2. The RSDH scheme represents a new family of double hybrids with minimal empiricism which could be useful for general chemical applications.

  15. Density Measurements of Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel and Diesel Blends Over Extended Pressure and Temperature Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Xuan NguyenThi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Density and compressibility are primordial parameters for the optimization of diesel engine operation. With this objective, these properties were reported for waste cooking oil biodiesel and its blends (5% and 10% by volume mixed with diesel. The density measurements were performed over expanded ranges of pressure (0.1 to 140 MPa and temperature (293.15 to 353.15 K compatible with engine applications. The isothermal compressibility was estimated within the same experimental range by density differentiation. The Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs profile of the biodiesel was determined using a Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The storage stability of the biodiesel was assessed in terms of the reproducibility of the measured properties. The transferability of this biodiesel fuel was discussed on the basis of the standards specifications that support their use in fuel engines. Additionally, this original set of data represents meaningful information to develop new approaches or to evaluate the predictive capability of models previously developed.

  16. Long-Range Corrected Hybrid Density Functionals with Damped Atom-Atom Dispersion Corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Jeng-Da; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2008-06-14

    We report re-optimization of a recently proposed long-range corrected (LC) hybrid density functionals [J.-D. Chai and M. Head-Gordon, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 084106 (2008)] to include empirical atom-atom dispersion corrections. The resulting functional, {omega}B97X-D yields satisfactory accuracy for thermochemistry, kinetics, and non-covalent interactions. Tests show that for non-covalent systems, {omega}B97X-D shows slight improvement over other empirical dispersion-corrected density functionals, while for covalent systems and kinetics, it performs noticeably better. Relative to our previous functionals, such as {omega}B97X, the new functional is significantly superior for non-bonded interactions, and very similar in performance for bonded interactions.

  17. The multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss Kyhn, Maria; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Lopez, Ana Garcia

    2007-01-01

    To establish a method allowing multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) recording with simultaneous fundus monitoring on anaesthetized pigs. In addition we characterize the peaks of the porcine mfERG trace, and compare the visual streak area with the optic nerve head, a known non-response area....... Finally we illustrate the feasibility of the method by performing mfERG after an induced laser burn in the visual streak....

  18. Disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings attain an anomalously large range of densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Adam B.; Stillinger, Frank H.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-08-01

    Previous attempts to simulate disordered binary sphere packings have been limited in producing mechanically stable, isostatic packings across a broad spectrum of packing fractions. Here we report that disordered strictly jammed binary packings (packings that remain mechanically stable under general shear deformations and compressions) can be produced with an anomalously large range of average packing fractions 0.634≤ϕ≤0.829 for small to large sphere radius ratios α restricted to α≥0.100. Surprisingly, this range of average packing fractions is obtained for packings containing a subset of spheres (called the backbone) that are exactly strictly jammed, exactly isostatic, and also generated from random initial conditions. Additionally, the average packing fractions of these packings at certain α and small sphere relative number concentrations x approach those of the corresponding densest known ordered packings. These findings suggest for entropic reasons that these high-density disordered packings should be good glass formers and that they may be easy to prepare experimentally. We also identify an unusual feature of the packing fraction of jammed backbones (packings with rattlers excluded). The backbone packing fraction is about 0.624 over the majority of the α-x plane, even when large numbers of small spheres are present in the backbone. Over the (relatively small) area of the α-x plane where the backbone is not roughly constant, we find that backbone packing fractions range from about 0.606 to 0.829, with the volume of rattler spheres comprising between 1.6% and 26.9% of total sphere volume. To generate isostatic strictly jammed packings, we use an implementation of the Torquato-Jiao sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.82.061302 82, 061302 (2010)], which is an efficient producer of inherent structures (mechanically stable configurations at the local maxima in the density landscape). The identification and

  19. Reaction energetics on long-range corrected density functional theory: Diels-Alder reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman K; Tsuneda, Takao

    2013-02-15

    The possibility of quantitative reaction analysis on the orbital energies of long-range corrected density functional theory (LC-DFT) is presented. First, we calculated the Diels-Alder reaction enthalpies that have been poorly given by conventional functionals including B3LYP functional. As a result, it is found that the long-range correction drastically improves the reaction enthalpies. The barrier height energies were also computed for these reactions. Consequently, we found that dispersion correlation correction is also crucial to give accurate barrier height energies. It is, therefore, concluded that both long-range exchange interactions and dispersion correlations are essentially required in conventional functionals to investigate Diels-Alder reactions quantitatively. After confirming that LC-DFT accurately reproduces the orbital energies of the reactant and product molecules of the Diels-Alder reactions, the global hardness responses, the halves of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy gaps, along the intrinsic reaction coordinates of two Diels-Alder reactions were computed. We noticed that LC-DFT results satisfy the maximum hardness rule for overall reaction paths while conventional functionals violate this rule on the reaction pathways. Furthermore, our results also show that the HOMO-LUMO gap variations are close to the reaction enthalpies for these Diels-Alder reactions. Based on these results, we foresee quantitative reaction analysis on the orbital energies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Describing long-range charge-separation processes with subsystem density-functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solovyeva, Alisa; Neugebauer, Johannes, E-mail: j.neugebauer@uni-muenster.de [Theoretische Organische Chemie, Organisch-Chemisches Institut and Center for Multiscale Theory and Simulation, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Corrensstraße 40, 48149 Münster (Germany); Pavanello, Michele, E-mail: m.pavanello@rutgers.edu [Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, 73 Warren St., Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2014-04-28

    Long-range charge-transfer processes in extended systems are difficult to describe with quantum chemical methods. In particular, cost-effective (non-hybrid) approximations within time-dependent density functional theory (DFT) are not applicable unless special precautions are taken. Here, we show that the efficient subsystem DFT can be employed as a constrained DFT variant to describe the energetics of long-range charge-separation processes. A formal analysis of the energy components in subsystem DFT for such excitation energies is presented, which demonstrates that both the distance dependence and the long-range limit are correctly described. In addition, electronic couplings for these processes as needed for rate constants in Marcus theory can be obtained from this method. It is shown that the electronic structure of charge-separated states constructed by a positively charged subsystem interacting with a negatively charged one is difficult to converge — charge leaking from the negative subsystem to the positive one can occur. This problem is related to the delocalization error in DFT and can be overcome with asymptotically correct exchange–correlation (XC) potentials or XC potentials including a sufficiently large amount of exact exchange. We also outline an approximate way to obtain charge-transfer couplings between locally excited and charge-separated states.

  1. Describing long-range charge-separation processes with subsystem density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovyeva, Alisa; Neugebauer, Johannes; Pavanello, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Long-range charge-transfer processes in extended systems are difficult to describe with quantum chemical methods. In particular, cost-effective (non-hybrid) approximations within time-dependent density functional theory (DFT) are not applicable unless special precautions are taken. Here, we show that the efficient subsystem DFT can be employed as a constrained DFT variant to describe the energetics of long-range charge-separation processes. A formal analysis of the energy components in subsystem DFT for such excitation energies is presented, which demonstrates that both the distance dependence and the long-range limit are correctly described. In addition, electronic couplings for these processes as needed for rate constants in Marcus theory can be obtained from this method. It is shown that the electronic structure of charge-separated states constructed by a positively charged subsystem interacting with a negatively charged one is difficult to converge — charge leaking from the negative subsystem to the positive one can occur. This problem is related to the delocalization error in DFT and can be overcome with asymptotically correct exchange–correlation (XC) potentials or XC potentials including a sufficiently large amount of exact exchange. We also outline an approximate way to obtain charge-transfer couplings between locally excited and charge-separated states

  2. Rigorous home range estimation with movement data: a new autocorrelated kernel density estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, C H; Fagan, W F; Mueller, T; Olson, K A; Leimgruber, P; Calabrese, J M

    2015-05-01

    Quantifying animals' home ranges is a key problem in ecology and has important conservation and wildlife management applications. Kernel density estimation (KDE) is a workhorse technique for range delineation problems that is both statistically efficient and nonparametric. KDE assumes that the data are independent and identically distributed (IID). However, animal tracking data, which are routinely used as inputs to KDEs, are inherently autocorrelated and violate this key assumption. As we demonstrate, using realistically autocorrelated data in conventional KDEs results in grossly underestimated home ranges. We further show that the performance of conventional KDEs actually degrades as data quality improves, because autocorrelation strength increases as movement paths become more finely resolved. To remedy these flaws with the traditional KDE method, we derive an autocorrelated KDE (AKDE) from first principles to use autocorrelated data, making it perfectly suited for movement data sets. We illustrate the vastly improved performance of AKDE using analytical arguments, relocation data from Mongolian gazelles, and simulations based upon the gazelle's observed movement process. By yielding better minimum area estimates for threatened wildlife populations, we believe that future widespread use of AKDE will have significant impact on ecology and conservation biology.

  3. Investigation of Multiconfigurational Short-Range Density Functional Theory for Electronic Excitations in Organic Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubert, Mickaël; Hedegård, Erik D.; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa

    2016-01-01

    -srDFT for a selected benchmark set of electronic excitations of organic molecules, covering the most common types of organic chromophores. This investigation confirms the expectation that the MC-srDFT method is accurate for a broad range of excitations and comparable to accurate wave function methods such as CASPT2......Computational methods that can accurately and effectively predict all types of electronic excitations for any molecular system are missing in the toolbox of the computational chemist. Although various Kohn-Sham density-functional methods (KS-DFT) fulfill this aim in some cases, they become...... and double excitations have been promising, it is nevertheless important that the accuracy of MC-srDFT is at least comparable to the best KS-DFT methods also for organic molecules that are typically of single-reference character. In this paper we therefore systematically investigate the performance of MC...

  4. An all-field-range description of the critical current density in superconducting YBCO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovchanskiy, I A; Pan, A V; Shcherbakova, O V; Fedoseev, S A; Dou, S X

    2011-01-01

    A new critical current density (J c ) model for high-quality YBCO (YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 ) thin films has been proposed, combining thermally activated flux creep with a vortex pinning potential for columnar defects. The pinning for thermally activated vortices has been described as strong pinning on chains of individual edge dislocations that form low-angle domain boundaries in high-quality YBCO thin films. The model yields an adequate description of the J c behaviour over the whole applied field range, as verified by direct measurements of J c in YBCO thin films grown by pulsed-laser deposition. It also indicates that the effective pinning landscape changes under the influence of the external conditions. Remarkably, the pinning potential obtained from the model is consistent with the values obtained for columnar defects, which confirms the validity of the overall approach.

  5. Polarizable embedding with a multiconfiguration short-range density functional theory linear response method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegård, Erik D.; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Knecht, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    . To demonstrate the capabilities of PE-MC-srDFT, we also investigated the retinylidene Schiff base chromophore embedded in the channelrhodopsin protein. While using a much more compact reference wave function in terms of active space, our PE-MC-srDFT approach yields excitation energies comparable in quality......We present here the coupling of a polarizable embedding (PE) model to the recently developed multiconfiguration short-range density functional theory method (MC-srDFT), which can treat multiconfigurational systems with a simultaneous account for dynamical and static correlation effects. PE......-MC-srDFT is designed to combine efficient treatment of complicated electronic structures with inclusion of effects from the surrounding environment. The environmental effects encompass classical electrostatic interactions as well as polarization of both the quantum region and the environment. Using response theory...

  6. High-density native-range species affects the invasive plant Chromolaena odorata more strongly than species from its invasive range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yulong; Liao, Zhiyong

    2017-11-22

    Invasive plant species often form dense mono-dominant stands in areas they have invaded, while having only sparse distribution in their native ranges, and the reasons behind this phenomenon are a key point of research in invasive species biology. Differences in species composition between native and invasive ranges may contribute to the difference in distribution status. In this study, we found that the high-density condition had a more negative effect on C. odorata than the low-density condition when co-grown with neighbor plants from its native range in Mexico, while this pattern was not in evidence when it was grown with neighbors from its invasive range in China. Different competitive ability and coevolutionary history with C. odorata between native-range neighbors and invasive-range neighbors may lead to the inconsistent patterns.

  7. A parameterization of momentum roughness length and displacement height for a wide range of canopy densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Verhoef

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Values of the momentum roughness length, z0, and displacement height, d, derived from wind profiles and momentum flux measurements, are selected from the literature for a variety of sparse canopies. These include savannah, tiger-bush and several row crops. A quality assessment of these data, conducted using criteria such as available fetch, height of wind speed measurement and homogeneity of the experimental site, reduced the initial total of fourteen sites to eight. These datapoints, combined with values carried forward from earlier studies on the parameterization of z0 and d, led to a maximum number of 16 and 24 datapoints available for d and z0, respectively. The data are compared with estimates of roughness length and displacement height as predicted from a detailed drag partition model, R92 (Raupach, 1992, and a simplified version of this model, R94 (Raupach, 1994. A key parameter in these models is the roughness density or frontal area index, λ. Both the comprehensive and the simplified model give accurate predictions of measured z0 and d values, but the optimal model coefficients are significantly different from the ones originally proposed in R92 and R94. The original model coefficients are based predominantly on measured aerodynamic parameters of relatively closed canopies and they were fitted `by eye'. In this paper, best-fit coefficients are found from a least squares minimization using the z0 and d values of selected good-quality data for sparse canopies and for the added, mainly closed canopies. According to a statistical analysis, based on the coefficient of determination (r2, the number of observations and the number of fitted model coefficients, the simplified model, R94, is deemed to be the most appropriate for future z0 and d predictions. A CR value of 0.35 and a cd1 value of about 20 are found to be appropriate for a large range of canopies varying in density from closed to very sparse. In this case, 99% of the total variance

  8. Financial liberalization and stock market cross-correlation: MF-DCCA analysis based on Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qingsong; Zhang, Shuhua; Lv, Dayong; Lu, Xinsheng

    2018-02-01

    Based on the implementation of Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect in China, this paper examines the effects of financial liberalization on stock market comovement using both multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) methods. Results based on MF-DFA confirm the multifractality of Shanghai and Hong Kong stock markets, and the market efficiency of Shanghai stock market increased after the implementation of this connect program. Besides, analysis based on MF-DCCA has verified the existence of persistent cross-correlation between Shanghai and Hong Kong stock markets, and the cross-correlation gets stronger after the launch of this liberalization program. Finally, we find that fat-tail distribution is the main source of multifractality in the cross-correlations before the stock connect program, while long-range correlation contributes to the multifractality after this program.

  9. Re-examining Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Density: Defining the Optimal PSA Range and Patients for Using PSA Density to Predict Prostate Cancer Using Extended Template Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jue, Joshua S; Barboza, Marcelo Panizzutti; Prakash, Nachiketh S; Venkatramani, Vivek; Sinha, Varsha R; Pavan, Nicola; Nahar, Bruno; Kanabur, Pratik; Ahdoot, Michael; Dong, Yan; Satyanarayana, Ramgopal; Parekh, Dipen J; Punnen, Sanoj

    2017-07-01

    To compare the predictive accuracy of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density vs PSA across different PSA ranges and by prior biopsy status in a prospective cohort undergoing prostate biopsy. Men from a prospective trial underwent an extended template biopsy to evaluate for prostate cancer at 26 sites throughout the United States. The area under the receiver operating curve assessed the predictive accuracy of PSA density vs PSA across 3 PSA ranges (10 ng/mL). We also investigated the effect of varying the PSA density cutoffs on the detection of cancer and assessed the performance of PSA density vs PSA in men with or without a prior negative biopsy. Among 1290 patients, 585 (45%) and 284 (22%) men had prostate cancer and significant prostate cancer, respectively. PSA density performed better than PSA in detecting any prostate cancer within a PSA of 4-10 ng/mL (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC]: 0.70 vs 0.53, P PSA >10 mg/mL (AUC: 0.84 vs 0.65, P PSA density was significantly more predictive than PSA in detecting any prostate cancer in men without (AUC: 0.73 vs 0.67, P PSA increases, PSA density becomes a better marker for predicting prostate cancer compared with PSA alone. Additionally, PSA density performed better than PSA in men with a prior negative biopsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bone mineral density across a range of physical activity volumes: NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Kohrt, Wendy M; Pettee Gabriel, Kelley K; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Kohl, Harold W

    2015-02-01

    The association between aerobic physical activity volume and bone mineral density (BMD) is not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between BMD and aerobic activity across a broad range of activity volumes, particularly volumes between those recommended in the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans and those of trained endurance athletes. Data from the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to quantify the association between reported physical activity and BMD at the lumbar spine and proximal femur across the entire range of activity volumes reported by US adults. Participants were categorized into multiples of the minimum guideline-recommended volume based on reported moderate- and vigorous-intensity leisure activity. Lumbar and proximal femur BMD were assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Among women, multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses revealed no significant differences in lumbar BMD across activity categories, whereas proximal femur BMD was significantly higher among those who exceeded the guidelines by 2-4 times than those who reported no activity. Among men, multivariable-adjusted BMD at both sites neared its highest values among those who exceeded the guidelines by at least 4 times and was not progressively higher with additional activity. Logistic regression estimating the odds of low BMD generally echoed the linear regression results. The association between physical activity volume and BMD is complex. Among women, exceeding guidelines by 2-4 times may be important for maximizing BMD at the proximal femur, whereas among men, exceeding guidelines by ≥4 times may be beneficial for lumbar and proximal femur BMD.

  11. Aberrant patterns of local and long-range functional connectivity densities in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanxin; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Guangdong; Tian, Hongjun; Li, Jie; Qu, Hongru; Cheng, Langlang; Zhu, Jingjing; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2017-07-18

    Schizophrenia is a disorder of brain dysconnectivity, and both the connection strength and connection number are disrupted in patients with schizophrenia. The functional connectivity density (FCD) can reflect alterations in the connection number. Alterations in the global FCD (gFCD) in schizophrenia were previously demonstrated; however, alterations in two other indices of the pathological characteristics of the brain, local FCD (lFCD) and long-range FCD (lrFCD), have not been revealed. To investigate lFCD and lrFCD alterations in patients with schizophrenia, 95 patients and 93 matched healthy controls were examined using structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. lFCD and lrFCD were measured using FCD mapping, and differences were identified using a two-sample t-test in a voxel-wise manner, with age and gender considered to increase variability. Multiple comparisons were performed using a false discovery rate method with a corrected threshold of Pschizophrenia is a disorder of brain dysconnectivity, particularly affecting the local functional connectivity network, and support the hypothesis that schizophrenia is associated with a widespread cortical functional connectivity/activity deficit, with hyper- and/or hypo-connectivity/activity coexisting in some cortical or subcortical regions.

  12. Parametrization of the average ionization and radiative cooling rates of carbon plasmas in a wide range of density and temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Gil de la Fe, Juan Miguel; Rodriguez Perez, Rafael; Florido, Ricardo; Garcia Rubiano, Jesus; Mendoza, M.A.; Nuez, A. de la; Espinosa, G.; Martel Escobar, Carlos; Mínguez Torres, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present an analysis of the influence of the thermodynamic regime on the monochromatic emissivity, the radiative power loss and the radiative cooling rate for optically thin carbon plasmas over a wide range of electron temperature and density assuming steady state situations. Furthermore, we propose analytical expressions depending on the electron density and temperature for the average ionization and cooling rate based on polynomial fittings which are valid for the whole range...

  13. Ergonomic assessment of brake and accelerator mechanisms of MF285 and MF399 tractors using electromyography method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nikkhah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Too many people are working in the agricultural sector and therefore, pay more attention to the safety and health at work in the agricultural sector is important. This issue is more important in developing industrial countries where the level of the ergonomic working condition is less than that of developed countries. Attention to ergonomic condition of agricultural machinery drivers is one of the goals of agricultural mechanization. Therefore, in this study the ergonomic conditions of brake and accelerator mechanisms for MF285 and MF399 tractor's drivers were investigated using a new method. Materials and Methods: 25 people were selected for experiment. The electrical activity of Medialis gastrocnemius, Lateralis gastrocnemius, Vastus medialis, Vastus lateralis, Quadratus Lumborum and Trapezius muscles of drivers before and during pressing the pedal and after rest time were recorded using Biovision device. Measurements were performed for each person on each muscle 30 seconds before pressing the pedal, 60 seconds after pressing the pedal and after 60 seconds of rest. For all drivers, the muscles on the right side (brake and accelerator side have been selected and tested. The measurements were performed in compliance with appropriate time intervals between the measurements. Results and Discussion: Ergonomic assessment of brake pedal: The results showed that the RMS electrical activity of muscles of Vastus medialis and Medial gastrocnemius, during 60 seconds braking were 2.47 and 1.97. So, Vastus medialis and Medial gastrocnemius had the highest stress during pressing the MF399 tractor's brake pedal. Moreover, the Medial gastrocnemius and Lateral gastrocnemius with RMS electrical activity ratio of 2.47 and 1.74 had the highest RMS electrical activity ratio respectively, during 60 seconds braking compared to before braking of MF285 tractor. The comparison of results showed that the Vastus medialis and Trapezius had the higher stress

  14. Whitebark pine, population density, and home-range size of grizzly bears in the greater yellowstone ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornlie, Daniel D; Van Manen, Frank T; Ebinger, Michael R; Haroldson, Mark A; Thompson, Daniel J; Costello, Cecily M

    2014-01-01

    Changes in life history traits of species can be an important indicator of potential factors influencing populations. For grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), recent decline of whitebark pine (WBP; Pinus albicaulis), an important fall food resource, has been paired with a slowing of population growth following two decades of robust population increase. These observations have raised questions whether resource decline or density-dependent processes may be associated with changes in population growth. Distinguishing these effects based on changes in demographic rates can be difficult. However, unlike the parallel demographic responses expected from both decreasing food availability and increasing population density, we hypothesized opposing behavioral responses of grizzly bears with regard to changes in home-range size. We used the dynamic changes in food resources and population density of grizzly bears as a natural experiment to examine hypotheses regarding these potentially competing influences on grizzly bear home-range size. We found that home-range size did not increase during the period of whitebark pine decline and was not related to proportion of whitebark pine in home ranges. However, female home-range size was negatively associated with an index of population density. Our data indicate that home-range size of grizzly bears in the GYE is not associated with availability of WBP, and, for female grizzly bears, increasing population density may constrain home-range size.

  15. Whitebark pine, population density, and home-range size of grizzly bears in the greater yellowstone ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D Bjornlie

    Full Text Available Changes in life history traits of species can be an important indicator of potential factors influencing populations. For grizzly bears (Ursus arctos in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE, recent decline of whitebark pine (WBP; Pinus albicaulis, an important fall food resource, has been paired with a slowing of population growth following two decades of robust population increase. These observations have raised questions whether resource decline or density-dependent processes may be associated with changes in population growth. Distinguishing these effects based on changes in demographic rates can be difficult. However, unlike the parallel demographic responses expected from both decreasing food availability and increasing population density, we hypothesized opposing behavioral responses of grizzly bears with regard to changes in home-range size. We used the dynamic changes in food resources and population density of grizzly bears as a natural experiment to examine hypotheses regarding these potentially competing influences on grizzly bear home-range size. We found that home-range size did not increase during the period of whitebark pine decline and was not related to proportion of whitebark pine in home ranges. However, female home-range size was negatively associated with an index of population density. Our data indicate that home-range size of grizzly bears in the GYE is not associated with availability of WBP, and, for female grizzly bears, increasing population density may constrain home-range size.

  16. Whitebark pine, population density, and home-range size of grizzly bears in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornlie, Daniel D.; van Manen, Frank T.; Ebinger, Michael R.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Thompson, Daniel J.; Costello, Cecily M.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in life history traits of species can be an important indicator of potential factors influencing populations. For grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), recent decline of whitebark pine (WBP; Pinus albicaulis), an important fall food resource, has been paired with a slowing of population growth following two decades of robust population increase. These observations have raised questions whether resource decline or density-dependent processes may be associated with changes in population growth. Distinguishing these effects based on changes in demographic rates can be difficult. However, unlike the parallel demographic responses expected from both decreasing food availability and increasing population density, we hypothesized opposing behavioral responses of grizzly bears with regard to changes in home-range size. We used the dynamic changes in food resources and population density of grizzly bears as a natural experiment to examine hypotheses regarding these potentially competing influences on grizzly bear home-range size. We found that home-range size did not increase during the period of whitebark pine decline and was not related to proportion of whitebark pine in home ranges. However, female home-range size was negatively associated with an index of population density. Our data indicate that home-range size of grizzly bears in the GYE is not associated with availability of WBP, and, for female grizzly bears, increasing population density may constrain home-range size.

  17. Threatened species richness along a Himalayan elevational gradient: quantifying the influences of human population density, range size, and geometric constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Prakash Kumar; Sipos, Jan; Brodie, Jedediah F

    2018-02-07

    A crucial step in conserving biodiversity is to identify the distributions of threatened species and the factors associated with species threat status. In the biodiversity hotspot of the Himalaya, very little is known about which locations harbour the highest diversity of threatened species and whether diversity of such species is related to area, mid-domain effects (MDE), range size, or human density. In this study, we assessed the drivers of variation in richness of threatened birds, mammals, reptiles, actinopterygii, and amphibians along an elevational gradient in Nepal Himalaya. Although geometric constraints (MDE), species range size, and human population density were significantly related to threatened species richness, the interaction between range size and human population density was of greater importance. Threatened species richness was positively associated with human population density and negatively associated with range size. In areas with high richness of threatened species, species ranges tend to be small. The preponderance of species at risk of extinction at low elevations in the subtropical biodiversity hotspot could be due to the double impact of smaller range sizes and higher human density.

  18. Application of ferrofluid density separation to particles in the micrometer-size range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebin, R.S. Jr.; Johnson, J.W.; Robertson, D.M.

    1976-02-01

    A device designed and described by AVCO* as a ''Ferrofluid Density Separator''/sup (1)/ develops an apparent fluid density from nominally 2 to 20 g/cm 3 dependent on the magnitude of an imposed magnetic field gradient. The ferrofluid retains other normal properties of a liquid. One of these devices and a concentration series of ferrofluids were obtained in order to determine the practicality of separating groups of micrometer-size particles into density fractions. Such separations would be of enormous value in the study of various particle burdens because particles of interest are almost always diluted with overwhelming amounts of other particles. The results of a study of separations of micrometer-size particles with the ferrofluid density separator are presented

  19. Assessment of density-functional approximations: Long-range correlations and self-interaction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, J.; Alvarellos, J.E.; Garcia-Gonzalez, P.; Godby, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    The complex nature of electron-electron correlations is made manifest in the very simple but nontrivial problem of two electrons confined within a sphere. The description of highly nonlocal correlation and self-interaction effects by widely used local and semilocal exchange-correlation energy density functionals is shown to be unsatisfactory in most cases. Even the best such functionals exhibit significant errors in the Kohn-Sham potentials and density profiles

  20. Long-range corrected density functional theory study on static second hyperpolarizabilities of singlet diradical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Ryohei; Bonness, Sean; Yoneda, Kyohei; Takahashi, Hideaki; Nakano, Masayoshi; Botek, Edith; Champagne, Benoît; Kubo, Takashi; Kamada, Kenji; Ohta, Koji; Tsuneda, Takao

    2010-03-07

    Within the spin-unrestricted density functional theory (DFT) the long-range correction (LC) scheme combined with the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr exchange-correlation functional, referred to as LC-UBLYP method, has been applied to the calculation of the second hyperpolarizability (gamma) of open-shell singlet diradical systems of increasing complexity and has demonstrated good performance: (i) for the simplest H(2) dissociation model, the gamma values calculated by the LC-UBLYP method significantly overshoot the full configuration interaction result but reproduce qualitatively the evolution of gamma as a function of the diradical character, (ii) for small singlet diradical 1,3-dipole systems, the diradical character dependence of gamma determined by the UCCSD and UCCSD(T) reference methods is reproduced semiquantitatively by the LC-UBLYP method except in the small diradical character region, where the spin-unrestricted solutions coincide with spin-restricted solutions, (iii) the LC-UBLYP method also closely reproduces the UCCSD(T) results on the diradical character dependence of gamma of the p-quinodimethane model system, particularly in the intermediate and large diradical character regions, whereas it shows an abrupt change for a diradical character (y) close to 0.2 originating from the triplet instability, (iv) the reliability of LC-UBLYP to reproduce reference coupled cluster results on open-shell singlet systems with intermediate and large diradical characters has also been substantiated in the case of gamma of 1,4-bis-(imidazol-2-ylidene)-cyclohexa-2,5-diene (BI2Y), then (v), for real systems built from a pair of phenalenyl radicals separated by a conjugated linker, the LC-UBLYP results have been found to closely match the UBHandHLYP values-which, for small systems are in good agreement with those obtained using correlated molecular orbital methods-whereas the UB3LYP results can be much different. These results are not only important from the viewpoint of an efficient

  1. Tilted Magnetic Levitation Enables Measurement of the Complete Range of Densities of Materials with Low Magnetic Permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroski, Alex; Soh, Siowling; Kwok, Sen Wai; Yu, Hai-Dong; Whitesides, George M

    2016-02-03

    Magnetic levitation (MagLev) of diamagnetic or weakly paramagnetic materials suspended in a paramagnetic solution in a magnetic field gradient provides a simple method to measure the density of small samples of solids or liquids. One major limitation of this method, thus far, has been an inability to measure or manipulate materials outside of a narrow range of densities (0.8 g/cm(3) MagLev"-to increase the range of densities that can be levitated magnetically. Tilting the MagLev device relative to the gravitational vector enables the magnetic force to be decreased (relative to the magnetic force) along the axis of measurement. This approach enables many practical measurements over the entire range of densities observed in matter at ambient conditions-from air bubbles (ρ ≈ 0) to osmium and iridium (ρ ≈ 23 g/cm(3)). The ability to levitate, simultaneously, objects with a broad range of different densities provides an operationally simple method that may find application to forensic science (e.g., for identifying the composition of miscellaneous objects or powders), industrial manufacturing (e.g., for quality control of parts), or resource-limited settings (e.g., for identifying and separating small particles of metals and alloys).

  2. Azimuthal asymmetries of the charged particle densities in EAS in the range of KASCADE-Grande

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sima, O.; Morariu, C.; Manailescu, C.; Rebel, H.; Haungs, A.

    2009-03-01

    The reconstruction of Extended Air Showers (EAS) observed by ground level particle detectors is based on the characteristics of observables like particle lateral density (PLD), arrival time signals etc. Lateral densities, inferred from detector data, are usually parameterized by applying various lateral distribution functions (LDF). The LDFs are used in turn for evaluating quantities like the total number of particles, the density at particular radial distances. Typical expressions for LDFs anticipate azimuthal symmetry of the density around the shower axis. The deviations of the particle lateral density from this assumption are smoothed out in the case of compact arrays like KASCADE, but not in the case of arrays like Grande, which only sample a smaller part of the azimuthal variation. In this report we discuss the origin of the asymmetry: geometric, attenuation and geomagnetic effects. Geometric effects occur in the case of inclined showers, due to the fact that the observations are made in a plane different from the intrinsic shower plane. Hence the projection procedure from the observational plane to the relevant normal shower plane plays a significant role. Attenuation effects arise from the differences between the distances travelled by particles that reach the ground at the same radial coordinate but with various azimuthal positions in the case of inclined showers. The influence of the geomagnetic field distorts additionally the charged particle distributions in a way specific to the geomagnetic location. Based on dedicated CORSIKA simulations we have evaluated the magnitude of the effects. Focused to geometric and attenuation effects, procedures for minimizing the effects of the azimuthal asymmetry of lateral density in the intrinsic shower plane were developed. The consequences of the reconstruction of the charge particle sizes determined with the Grande array are also discussed and a procedure for practical application of restoring the azimuthal symmetry

  3. Density model for medium range order in amorphous materials: application to small angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, B.; Tournarie, M.; Chieux, P.; Convert, P.

    1983-06-01

    We consider a family of randomly spaced parallel planes, each plane dressed with a density function, h(x), where x is the distance from the plane. An expression for the volume scattering power from a system of N such families with random orientations in space is derived from Fourier transform of h(x), which can subsequently be determined from experimental observations. This density model is used to interpret the small angle neutron scattering (SANS) results for the amorphous alloy TbCusub(3.54)

  4. Do sex-specific densities affect local survival of free-ranging great tits?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michler, Stephanie P. M.; Nicolaus, Marion; Ubels, Richard; van der Velde, Marco; Both, Christiaan; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Komdeur, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Competition within sexes is expected when resources are sex specific, whereas competition between sexes can occur when similar resources are exploited. Local population density and sex ratio will determine the amount of sex-specific interactions and thus the potential degree of sex-specific

  5. On the universality of the long-/short-range separation in multiconfigurational density-functional theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromager, Emmanuel; Toulouse, Julien; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2007-01-01

    In many cases, the dynamic correlation can be calculated quite accurately and at a fairly low computational cost in Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT), using current standard approximate functionals. However, in general, KS-DFT does not treat static correlation effects (near degeneracy...

  6. Effect of the isothermal transformation temperature on the fine structure of steel-12Kh1MF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mints, I.I.; Berezina, T.G.; Lanskaya, K.A.

    1976-01-01

    For detailed analysis of bainite and pearlite in steel 12Kh1MF, homogeneous structures were obtained by isothermal annealing at 350, 450, 500, and 650 0 for 1 h. Isothermal transformation of austenite leads to the formation of bainite at 350-500 0 and pearlite at 650 0 . The austenitizing temperature was 980 0 for both types of samples, with holding for 20 min. For comparison, the plates were quenched from 980 0 and 1050 0 in ice-cold brine. The investigation was conducted with use of light and electron microscopes and x-ray analysis. The long-term strength was also determined. Isothermal treatment of steel 12Kh1MF at 350-500 0 C leads to the formation of a structure consisting of upper and lower bainite. At 500 0 the structure consists primarily of upper bainite, and at 350 0 of lower bainite. With tempering of the steel with a structure of upper and lower bainite at 730 0 for 3 h the dislocations undergo redistribution of the polygonization type within ferrite needles, with development of a cellular substructure. The acicular structure of the matrix is retained in this case. The density and evenness of the distribution of carbides is higher in upper bainite than in lower bainite. Steel 12Kh1MF with a structure of upper bainite is more susceptible to recrystallization as compared with a structure of lower bainite, which is responsible for the higher heat resistance of the latter

  7. Energy Efficient Pico Cell Range Expansion and Density Joint Optimization for Heterogeneous Networks with eICIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzan Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous networks, constituted by conventional macro cells and overlaying pico cells, have been deemed a promising paradigm to support the deluge of data traffic with higher spectral efficiency and Energy Efficiency (EE. In order to deploy pico cells in reality, the density of Pico Base Stations (PBSs and the pico Cell Range Expansion (CRE are two important factors for the network spectral efficiency as well as EE improvement. However, associated with the range and density evolution, the inter-tier interference within the heterogeneous architecture will be challenging, and the time domain Enhanced Inter-cell Interference Coordination (eICIC technique becomes necessary. Aiming to improve the network EE, the above factors are jointly considered in this paper. More specifically, we first derive the closed-form expression of the network EE as a function of the density of PBSs and pico CRE bias based on stochastic geometry theory, followed by a linear search algorithm to optimize the pico CRE bias and PBS density, respectively. Moreover, in order to realize the pico CRE bias and PBS density joint optimization, a heuristic algorithm is proposed to achieve the network EE maximization. Numerical simulations show that our proposed pico CRE bias and PBS density joint optimization algorithm can improve the network EE significantly with low computational complexity.

  8. Observations of the Mf ocean tide from Geosat altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, David E.; Ray, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    Zonal averages of the 13.66-day Mf tide are derived from one year of Geosat altimetry records. The orbit errors are reduced by 1/revolution corrections taken over long (several day) arcs. The short-period tides are removed using a model previously derived from the same data. The Mf zonal averages indicate definite nonequilibrium character at nearly all latitudes. The imaginary admittances indicate a Q of at least 8; such a value is consistent with a simplified theory of coupled gravitational and vorticity modes and suggests a value for Proudman's 'friction period' about 123 days.

  9. Egg production and egg quality in free-range laying hens housed at different outdoor stocking densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Lee, C; Hinch, G N; Roberts, J R

    2017-09-01

    Free-range laying hen systems are increasing in number within Australia. Variation in outdoor stocking densities has led to development of a national information standard on free-range egg labeling, including setting a maximum density of 10,000 hens per hectare. However, there are few data on the impacts of differing outdoor densities on production and egg quality. ISA Brown hens in small (150 hens) flocks were housed in identical indoor pens, each with access (from 21 weeks) to different sized ranges simulating one of three outdoor stocking densities (2 replicates each: 2,000 hens/hectare (ha), 10,000 hens/ha, 20,000 hens/ha). Hen-day production was tracked from 21 through 35 weeks with eggs visually graded daily for external deformities. All eggs laid on one day were weighed each week. Eggs were collected from each pen at 25, 30, and 36 weeks and analyzed for egg quality. There were no effects of outdoor stocking density on average hen-day percentage production (P = 0.67), egg weight (P = 0.09), percentages of deformed eggs (P = 0.30), shell reflectivity (P = 0.74), shell breaking strength (P = 0.07), shell deformation (P = 0.83), or shell thickness (P = 0.24). Eggs from hens in the highest density had the highest percentage shell weight (P = 0.004) and eggs from the lowest density had the highest yolk color score (P egg quality is warranted. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Nitrogen distribution as affected by stocking density in a combined production system of energy crops and free-range pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Uffe; Thuesen, Janni; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    Free-range pig production is typically associated with high risks of nitrogen (N) leaching due to the pigs excretory behaviour creating nitrogen ‘hotspots’ and rooting behaviour destroying the grass sward. This challenge is reinforced at high animal densities causing high nitrogen deposition. A c...

  11. Changes in home range sizes and population densities of carnivore species along the natural to urban habitat gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin; Drahníková, L.; Tkadlec, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-14 ISSN 0305-1838 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Carnivores * home range size * natural–urban gradient * population density * review Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.116, year: 2015

  12. Parametrization of the average ionization and radiative cooling rates of carbon plasmas in a wide range of density and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Florido, R.; Rubiano, J.G.; Mendoza, M.A.; Nuez, A. de la; Espinosa, G.; Martel, P.; Minguez, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present an analysis of the influence of the thermodynamic regime on the monochromatic emissivity, the radiative power loss and the radiative cooling rate for optically thin carbon plasmas over a wide range of electron temperature and density assuming steady state situations. Furthermore, we propose analytical expressions depending on the electron density and temperature for the average ionization and cooling rate based on polynomial fittings which are valid for the whole range of plasma conditions considered in this work. -- Highlights: ► We compute the average ionization, cooling rates and emissivities of carbon plasmas. ► We compare LTE and NLTE calculations of these magnitudes. ► We perform a parametrization of these magnitudes in a wide range of plasma conditions. ► We provide information about where LTE regime assumption is accurate

  13. Extending the range of real time density matrix renormalization group simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennes, D. M.; Karrasch, C.

    2016-03-01

    We discuss a few simple modifications to time-dependent density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithms which allow to access larger time scales. We specifically aim at beginners and present practical aspects of how to implement these modifications within any standard matrix product state (MPS) based formulation of the method. Most importantly, we show how to 'combine' the Schrödinger and Heisenberg time evolutions of arbitrary pure states | ψ 〉 and operators A in the evaluation of 〈A〉ψ(t) = 〈 ψ | A(t) | ψ 〉 . This includes quantum quenches. The generalization to (non-)thermal mixed state dynamics 〈A〉ρ(t) =Tr [ ρA(t) ] induced by an initial density matrix ρ is straightforward. In the context of linear response (ground state or finite temperature T > 0) correlation functions, one can extend the simulation time by a factor of two by 'exploiting time translation invariance', which is efficiently implementable within MPS DMRG. We present a simple analytic argument for why a recently-introduced disentangler succeeds in reducing the effort of time-dependent simulations at T > 0. Finally, we advocate the python programming language as an elegant option for beginners to set up a DMRG code.

  14. Broad Anatomical Variation within a Narrow Wood Density Range--A Study of Twig Wood across 69 Australian Angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemińska, Kasia; Westoby, Mark; Wright, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    Just as people with the same weight can have different body builds, woods with the same wood density can have different anatomies. Here, our aim was to assess the magnitude of anatomical variation within a restricted range of wood density and explore its potential ecological implications. Twig wood of 69 angiosperm tree and shrub species was analyzed. Species were selected so that wood density varied within a relatively narrow range (0.38-0.62 g cm-3). Anatomical traits quantified included wood tissue fractions (fibres, axial parenchyma, ray parenchyma, vessels, and conduits with maximum lumen diameter below 15 μm), vessel properties, and pith area. To search for potential ecological correlates of anatomical variation the species were sampled across rainfall and temperature contrasts, and several other ecologically-relevant traits were measured (plant height, leaf area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity). Despite the limited range in wood density, substantial anatomical variation was observed. Total parenchyma fraction varied from 0.12 to 0.66 and fibre fraction from 0.20 to 0.74, and these two traits were strongly inversely correlated (r = -0.86, P area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity (0.24 ≤|r|≤ 0.41, P area to sapwood area ratio (0.47 ≤|r|≤ 0.65, all P area spectrum. The fibre-parenchyma spectrum does not yet have any clear or convincing ecological interpretation.

  15. Dynamic coating of mf/uf membranes for fouling mitigation

    KAUST Repository

    Tabatabai, S. Assiyeh Alizadeh; Leiknes, TorOve

    2017-01-01

    A membrane system including an anti-fouling layer and a method of applying an anti-fouling layer to a membrane surface are provided. In an embodiment, the surface is a microfiltration (MF) or an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane surface. The anti

  16. MF-Swift simulation study using benchmark data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.T.H.; Verhoeff, L.; Cremers, R.; Schmeitz, A.J.C.; Besselink, I.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The accuracy of tyre models depends to a large extent on the measurement data used to assess model parameters. The MF-Swift tyre model parameters can be identified or estimated from various combinations of experimental data. The amount and required accuracy of the measurement data can be selected

  17. Radar meteors range distribution model. II. Shower flux density and mass distribution index

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecinová, Drahomíra; Pecina, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 2 (2007), s. 107-124 ISSN 1335-1842 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/1405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : physics of meteors * radar meteors * range distribution Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  18. Radar meteors range distribution model. III. Ablation, shape-density and self-similarity parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecinová, Drahomíra; Pecina, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2007), s. 147-160 ISSN 1335-1842 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/1405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : physics of meteors * radar meteors * range distribution Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  19. Plant host range of Verticillium longisporum and microsclerotia density in Swedisch soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, A.; Goud, J.C.; Dixelius, C.

    2006-01-01

    Verticillium longisporum is a soil-borne fungal pathogen causing vascular wilt of Brassica crops. This study was conducted to enhance our knowledge on the host range of V. longisporum. Seven crop species (barley, oat, oilseed rape, pea, red clover, sugar beet and wheat) and five weed species (barren

  20. A novel approach for assessing density and range-wide abundance of prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron N. Facka; Paulette L. Ford; Gary W. Roemer

    2008-01-01

    Habitat loss, introduced disease, and government-sponsored eradication programs have caused population declines in all 5 species of prairie dogs. Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) currently occupy only about 2% of an extensive geographic range (160 million hectares) and were recently considered for listing under the United States...

  1. Density of states of two-dimensional systems with long-range logarithmic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somoza, Andrés M.; Ortuño, Miguel; Baturina, Tatyana I.; Vinokur, Valerii M.

    2015-08-03

    We investigate a single-particle density of states (DOS) in strongly disordered two- dimensional high dielectric permittivity systems with logarithmic Coulomb interaction between particles. We derive self-consistent DOS at zero temperature and show that it is appreciably suppressed as compared to the DOS expected from the Efros-Shklovskii approach.We carry out zero- and finite-temperature Monte Carlo numerical studies of the DOS and find the perfect agreement between the numerical and analytical results at zero temperature, observing, in particular, a hardening of the Coulomb gap with the increasing electrostatic screening length. At finite temperatures, we reveal a striking scaling of the DOS as a function of energy normalized to the temperature of the system.

  2. Comparative hydraulic architecture of tropical tree species representing a range of successional stages and wood density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloh, Katherine A; Meinzer, Frederick C; Sperry, John S; Lachenbruch, Barbara; Voelker, Steven L; Woodruff, David R; Domec, Jean-Christophe

    2011-09-01

    Plant hydraulic architecture (PHA) has been linked to water transport sufficiency, photosynthetic rates, growth form and attendant carbon allocation. Despite its influence on traits central to conferring an overall competitive advantage in a given environment, few studies have examined whether key aspects of PHA are indicative of successional stage, especially within mature individuals. While it is well established that wood density (WD) tends to be lower in early versus late successional tree species, and that WD can influence other aspects of PHA, the interaction of WD, successional stage and the consequent implications for PHA have not been sufficiently explored. Here, we studied differences in PHA at the scales of wood anatomy to whole-tree hydraulic conductance in species in early versus late successional Panamanian tropical forests. Although the trunk WD was indistinguishable between the successional groups, the branch WD was lower in the early successional species. Across all species, WD correlated negatively with vessel diameter and positively with vessel packing density. The ratio of branch:trunk vessel diameter, branch sap flux and whole-tree leaf-specific conductance scaled negatively with branch WD across species. Pioneer species showed greater sap flux in branches than in trunks and a greater leaf-specific hydraulic conductance, suggesting that pioneer species can move greater quantities of water at a given tension gradient. In combination with the greater water storage capacitance associated with lower WD, these results suggest these pioneer species can save on the carbon expenditure needed to build safer xylem and instead allow more carbon to be allocated to rapid growth.

  3. Examining the efficiency and interdependence of US credit and stock markets through MF-DFA and MF-DXA approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain; Nor, Safwan Mohd; Mensi, Walid; Kumar, Ronald Ravinesh

    2017-04-01

    This study examines the power law properties of 11 US credit and stock markets at the industry level. We use multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DXA) to first investigate the relative efficiency of credit and stock markets and then evaluate the mutual interdependence between CDS-equity market pairs. The scaling exponents of the MF-DFA approach suggest that CDS markets are relatively more inefficient than their equity counterparts. However, Banks and Financial credit markets are relatively more efficient. Basic Materials (both CDS and equity indices) is the most inefficient sector of the US economy. The cross-correlation exponents obtained through MF-DXA also suggest that the relationship of the CDS and equity sectors within and across markets is multifractal for all pairs. Within the CDS market, Basic Materials is the most dependent sector, whereas equity market sectors can be divided into two distinct groups based on interdependence. The pair-wise dependence between Basic Materials sector CDSs and the equity index is also the highest. The degree of cross-correlation shows that the sectoral pairs of CDS and equity markets belong to a persistent cross-correlated series within selected time intervals.

  4. Disentangling neighbors and extended range density oscillations in monatomic amorphous semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roorda, S; Martin, C; Droui, M; Chicoine, M; Kazimirov, A; Kycia, S

    2012-06-22

    High energy x-ray diffraction measurements of pure amorphous Ge were made and its radial distribution function (RDF) was determined at high resolution, revealing new information on the atomic structure of amorphous semiconductors. Fine structure in the second peak in the RDF provides evidence that a fraction of third neighbors are closer than some second neighbors; taking this into account leads to a narrow distribution of tetrahedral bond angles, (8.5 ± 0.1)°. A small peak which appears near 5 Å upon thermal annealing shows that some ordering in the dihedral bond-angle distribution takes place during structural relaxation. Extended range order is detected (in both a-Ge and a-Si) which persists to beyond 20 Å, and both the periodicity and its decay length increase upon thermal annealing. Previously, the effect of structural relaxation was only detected at intermediate range, involving reduced tetrahedral bond-angle distortions. These results enhance our understanding of the atomic order in continuous random networks and place significantly more stringent requirements on computer models intending to describe these networks, or their alternatives which attempt to describe the structure in terms of an arrangement of paracrystals.

  5. A finite range pairing force for density functional theory in superfluid nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Y.; Ma, Z.Y.; Ring, P.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of pairing in the 1 S 0 channel of finite nuclei is revisited. In nuclear matter forces of separable form can be adjusted to the bare nuclear force, to any phenomenological pairing interaction such as the Gogny force or to exact solutions of the gap equation. In finite nuclei, because of translational invariance, such forces are no longer separable. Using well-known techniques of Talmi and Moshinsky we expand the matrix elements in a series of separable terms, which converges quickly preserving translational invariance and finite range. In this way the complicated problem of a cut-off at large momenta or energies inherent in other separable or zero range pairing forces is avoided. Applications in the framework of the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov approach show that the pairing properties are depicted on almost the same footing as by the original pairing interaction not only in nuclear matter, but also in finite nuclei. This simple separable force can be easily applied for the investigation of pairing properties in nuclei far from stability as well as for further investigations going beyond mean field theory.

  6. Assessment of oscillator strengths with multiconfigurational short-range density functional theory for electronic excitations in organic molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegård, Erik Donovan

    2017-01-01

    considered the large collection of organic molecules whose excited states were investigated with a range of electronic structure methods by Thiel et al. As a by-product of our calculations of oscillator strengths, we also obtain electronic excitation energies, which enable us to compare the performance......We have in a series of recent papers investigated electronic excited states with a hybrid between a complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) wave function and density functional theory (DFT). This method has been dubbed the CAS short-range DFT method (CAS–srDFT). The previous papers...

  7. Linear interpolation method in ensemble Kohn-Sham and range-separated density-functional approximations for excited states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senjean, Bruno; Knecht, Stefan; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa

    2015-01-01

    Gross-Oliveira-Kohn density-functional theory (GOK-DFT) for ensembles is, in principle, very attractive but has been hard to use in practice. A practical model based on GOK-DFT for the calculation of electronic excitation energies is discussed. The model relies on two modifications of GOK-DFT: use...... promising results have been obtained for both single (including charge transfer) and double excitations with spin-independent short-range local and semilocal functionals. Even at the Kohn-Sham ensemble DFT level, which is recovered when the range-separation parameter is set to 0, LIM performs better than...

  8. Communication: Orbital instabilities and triplet states from time-dependent density functional theory and long-range corrected functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, John S.; Koerzdoerfer, Thomas; Zhang, Cai-Rong; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2011-10-01

    Long-range corrected hybrids represent an increasingly popular class of functionals for density functional theory (DFT) that have proven to be very successful for a wide range of chemical applications. In this Communication, we examine the performance of these functionals for time-dependent (TD)DFT descriptions of triplet excited states. Our results reveal that the triplet energies are particularly sensitive to the range-separation parameter; this sensitivity can be traced back to triplet instabilities in the ground state coming from the large effective amounts of Hartree-Fock exchange included in these functionals. As such, the use of standard long-range corrected functionals for the description of triplet states at the TDDFT level is not recommended.

  9. Combining extrapolation with ghost interaction correction in range-separated ensemble density functional theory for excited states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md. Mehboob; Deur, Killian; Knecht, Stefan; Fromager, Emmanuel

    2017-11-01

    The extrapolation technique of Savin [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A509 (2014)], which was initially applied to range-separated ground-state-density-functional Hamiltonians, is adapted in this work to ghost-interaction-corrected (GIC) range-separated ensemble density-functional theory (eDFT) for excited states. While standard extrapolations rely on energies that decay as μ-2 in the large range-separation-parameter μ limit, we show analytically that (approximate) range-separated GIC ensemble energies converge more rapidly (as μ-3) towards their pure wavefunction theory values (μ → +∞ limit), thus requiring a different extrapolation correction. The purpose of such a correction is to further improve on the convergence and, consequently, to obtain more accurate excitation energies for a finite (and, in practice, relatively small) μ value. As a proof of concept, we apply the extrapolation method to He and small molecular systems (viz., H2, HeH+, and LiH), thus considering different types of excitations such as Rydberg, charge transfer, and double excitations. Potential energy profiles of the first three and four singlet Σ+ excitation energies in HeH+ and H2, respectively, are studied with a particular focus on avoided crossings for the latter. Finally, the extraction of individual state energies from the ensemble energy is discussed in the context of range-separated eDFT, as a perspective.

  10. Angle-dependent strong-field molecular ionization rates with tuned range-separated time-dependent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sissay, Adonay [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Abanador, Paul; Mauger, François; Gaarde, Mette; Schafer, Kenneth J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Lopata, Kenneth, E-mail: klopata@lsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

    2016-09-07

    Strong-field ionization and the resulting electronic dynamics are important for a range of processes such as high harmonic generation, photodamage, charge resonance enhanced ionization, and ionization-triggered charge migration. Modeling ionization dynamics in molecular systems from first-principles can be challenging due to the large spatial extent of the wavefunction which stresses the accuracy of basis sets, and the intense fields which require non-perturbative time-dependent electronic structure methods. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent density functional theory approach which uses a Gaussian-type orbital (GTO) basis set to capture strong-field ionization rates and dynamics in atoms and small molecules. This involves propagating the electronic density matrix in time with a time-dependent laser potential and a spatial non-Hermitian complex absorbing potential which is projected onto an atom-centered basis set to remove ionized charge from the simulation. For the density functional theory (DFT) functional we use a tuned range-separated functional LC-PBE*, which has the correct asymptotic 1/r form of the potential and a reduced delocalization error compared to traditional DFT functionals. Ionization rates are computed for hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and iodoacetylene under various field frequencies, intensities, and polarizations (angle-dependent ionization), and the results are shown to quantitatively agree with time-dependent Schrödinger equation and strong-field approximation calculations. This tuned DFT with GTO method opens the door to predictive all-electron time-dependent density functional theory simulations of ionization and ionization-triggered dynamics in molecular systems using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals.

  11. Angle-dependent strong-field molecular ionization rates with tuned range-separated time-dependent density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissay, Adonay; Abanador, Paul; Mauger, François; Gaarde, Mette; Schafer, Kenneth J.; Lopata, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Strong-field ionization and the resulting electronic dynamics are important for a range of processes such as high harmonic generation, photodamage, charge resonance enhanced ionization, and ionization-triggered charge migration. Modeling ionization dynamics in molecular systems from first-principles can be challenging due to the large spatial extent of the wavefunction which stresses the accuracy of basis sets, and the intense fields which require non-perturbative time-dependent electronic structure methods. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent density functional theory approach which uses a Gaussian-type orbital (GTO) basis set to capture strong-field ionization rates and dynamics in atoms and small molecules. This involves propagating the electronic density matrix in time with a time-dependent laser potential and a spatial non-Hermitian complex absorbing potential which is projected onto an atom-centered basis set to remove ionized charge from the simulation. For the density functional theory (DFT) functional we use a tuned range-separated functional LC-PBE*, which has the correct asymptotic 1/r form of the potential and a reduced delocalization error compared to traditional DFT functionals. Ionization rates are computed for hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and iodoacetylene under various field frequencies, intensities, and polarizations (angle-dependent ionization), and the results are shown to quantitatively agree with time-dependent Schrödinger equation and strong-field approximation calculations. This tuned DFT with GTO method opens the door to predictive all-electron time-dependent density functional theory simulations of ionization and ionization-triggered dynamics in molecular systems using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals.

  12. Alternative separation of exchange and correlation energies in multi-configuration range-separated density-functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Alexandrina; Teale, Andrew M; Toulouse, Julien; Helgaker, Trygve; Fromager, Emmanuel

    2013-10-07

    The alternative separation of exchange and correlation energies proposed by Toulouse et al. [Theor. Chem. Acc. 114, 305 (2005)] is explored in the context of multi-configuration range-separated density-functional theory. The new decomposition of the short-range exchange-correlation energy relies on the auxiliary long-range interacting wavefunction rather than the Kohn-Sham (KS) determinant. The advantage, relative to the traditional KS decomposition, is that the wavefunction part of the energy is now computed with the regular (fully interacting) Hamiltonian. One potential drawback is that, because of double counting, the wavefunction used to compute the energy cannot be obtained by minimizing the energy expression with respect to the wavefunction parameters. The problem is overcome by using short-range optimized effective potentials (OEPs). The resulting combination of OEP techniques with wavefunction theory has been investigated in this work, at the Hartree-Fock (HF) and multi-configuration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) levels. In the HF case, an analytical expression for the energy gradient has been derived and implemented. Calculations have been performed within the short-range local density approximation on H2, N2, Li2, and H2O. Significant improvements in binding energies are obtained with the new decomposition of the short-range energy. The importance of optimizing the short-range OEP at the MCSCF level when static correlation becomes significant has also been demonstrated for H2, using a finite-difference gradient. The implementation of the analytical gradient for MCSCF wavefunctions is currently in progress.

  13. Floating macro-litter along the Mediterranean French coast: Composition, density, distribution and overlap with cetacean range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di-Méglio, Nathalie; Campana, Ilaria

    2017-05-15

    This study investigated the composition, density and distribution of floating macro-litter along the Liguro-Provençal basin with respect to cetaceans presence. Survey transects were performed in summer between 2006 and 2015 from sailing vessels with simultaneous cetaceans observations. During 5171km travelled, 1993 floating items were recorded, widespread in the whole study area. Plastics was the predominant category, with bags/packaging always representing >45% of total items. Overall mean density (14.98 items/km 2 ) was stable with significant increase reported only in 2010-2011; monthly analysis showed lower litter densities in July-September, suggesting possible seasonal patterns. Kernel density estimation for plastics revealed ubiquitous distribution rather than high accumulation areas, mainly due to the circulation dynamics of this area. The presence range of cetaceans (259 sightings, 6 species) corresponded by ~50% with plastic distribution, indicating high potential of interaction, especially in the eastern part of the area, but effective risks for marine species might be underrepresented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of fog on the probability density distribution of the ranging data of imaging laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenhua; Lai, JianCheng; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Gu, Zhiyong; Yan, Wei; Wang, Chunyong; Li, Zhenhua

    2018-02-01

    This paper outlines theoretically investigations of the probability density distribution (PDD) of ranging data for the imaging laser radar (ILR) system operating at a wavelength of 905 nm under the fog condition. Based on the physical model of the reflected laser pulses from a standard Lambertian target, a theoretical approximate model of PDD of the ranging data is developed under different fog concentrations, which offer improved precision target ranging and imaging. An experimental test bed for the ILR system is developed and its performance is evaluated using a dedicated indoor atmospheric chamber under homogeneously controlled fog conditions. We show that the measured results are in good agreement with both the accurate and approximate models within a given margin of error of less than 1%.

  15. The effect of fog on the probability density distribution of the ranging data of imaging laser radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Song

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines theoretically investigations of the probability density distribution (PDD of ranging data for the imaging laser radar (ILR system operating at a wavelength of 905 nm under the fog condition. Based on the physical model of the reflected laser pulses from a standard Lambertian target, a theoretical approximate model of PDD of the ranging data is developed under different fog concentrations, which offer improved precision target ranging and imaging. An experimental test bed for the ILR system is developed and its performance is evaluated using a dedicated indoor atmospheric chamber under homogeneously controlled fog conditions. We show that the measured results are in good agreement with both the accurate and approximate models within a given margin of error of less than 1%.

  16. Mass-density compensation can improve the performance of a range of different detectors under non-equilibrium conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, T S A; Hill, M A; Winter, H C; Fenwick, J D

    2013-01-01

    Dosimeters often consist of several components whose mass densities differ substantially from water. These components cause small-field correction factors to vary significantly as lateral electronic equilibrium breaks down. Even amongst instruments designed for small-field dosimetry, inter-detector variation in the correction factors associated with very small (∼0.5 cm) fields can amount to tens of per cent. For a given dosimeter, small-field correction factors vary not only with field size but also with detector azimuthal angle and position within the field. Furthermore the accurate determination of these factors typically requires time-intensive Monte Carlo simulations. Thus, if achievable, ‘correction factor free’ small-field dosimetry would be highly desirable. This study demonstrates that a new generation of mass-density compensated detectors could take us towards this goal. Using a 6 MV beam model, it shows that ‘mass-density compensation’ can be utilized to improve the performance of a range of different detectors under small-field conditions. Non-sensitive material of appropriate mass-density is incorporated into detector designs in order to make the instruments behave as if consisting only of water. The dosimeter perturbative effects are then reduced to those associated with volume averaging. An even better solution—which modifies detectors to obtain profiles that look like those measured by a point-like water structure—is also considered. Provided that adequate sensitivity can be achieved for a small measurement volume, this study shows that it may be possible to use mass-density compensation (and Monte Carlo-driven design) to produce a solid-state dosimeter/ionization chamber with a near-perfect non-equilibrium response. (paper)

  17. Broad Anatomical Variation within a Narrow Wood Density Range--A Study of Twig Wood across 69 Australian Angiosperms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasia Ziemińska

    Full Text Available Just as people with the same weight can have different body builds, woods with the same wood density can have different anatomies. Here, our aim was to assess the magnitude of anatomical variation within a restricted range of wood density and explore its potential ecological implications.Twig wood of 69 angiosperm tree and shrub species was analyzed. Species were selected so that wood density varied within a relatively narrow range (0.38-0.62 g cm-3. Anatomical traits quantified included wood tissue fractions (fibres, axial parenchyma, ray parenchyma, vessels, and conduits with maximum lumen diameter below 15 μm, vessel properties, and pith area. To search for potential ecological correlates of anatomical variation the species were sampled across rainfall and temperature contrasts, and several other ecologically-relevant traits were measured (plant height, leaf area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity.Despite the limited range in wood density, substantial anatomical variation was observed. Total parenchyma fraction varied from 0.12 to 0.66 and fibre fraction from 0.20 to 0.74, and these two traits were strongly inversely correlated (r = -0.86, P < 0.001. Parenchyma was weakly (0.24 ≤|r|≤ 0.35, P < 0.05 or not associated with vessel properties nor with height, leaf area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity (0.24 ≤|r|≤ 0.41, P < 0.05. However, vessel traits were fairly well correlated with height and leaf area to sapwood area ratio (0.47 ≤|r|≤ 0.65, all P < 0.001. Modulus of elasticity was mainly driven by fibre wall plus vessel wall fraction rather than by the parenchyma component.Overall, there seem to be at least three axes of variation in xylem, substantially independent of each other: a wood density spectrum, a fibre-parenchyma spectrum, and a vessel area spectrum. The fibre-parenchyma spectrum does not yet have any clear or convincing ecological interpretation.

  18. High energy storage density over a broad temperature range in sodium bismuth titanate-based lead-free ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haibo; Yan, Fei; Lin, Ying; Wang, Tong; Wang, Fen

    2017-08-18

    A series of (1-x)Bi 0.48 La 0.02 Na 0.48 Li 0.02 Ti 0.98 Zr 0.02 O 3 -xNa 0.73 Bi 0.09 NbO 3 ((1-x)LLBNTZ-xNBN) (x = 0-0.14) ceramics were designed and fabricated using the conventional solid-state sintering method. The phase structure, microstructure, dielectric, ferroelectric and energy storage properties of the ceramics were systematically investigated. The results indicate that the addition of Na 0.73 Bi 0.09 NbO 3 (NBN) could decrease the remnant polarization (P r ) and improve the temperature stability of dielectric constant obviously. The working temperature range satisfying TCC 150  °C  ≤±15% of this work spans over 400 °C with the compositions of x ≥ 0.06. The maximum energy storage density can be obtained for the sample with x = 0.10 at room temperature, with an energy storage density of 2.04 J/cm 3 at 178 kV/cm. In addition, the (1-x)LLBNTZ-xNBN ceramics exhibit excellent energy storage properties over a wide temperature range from room temperature to 90 °C. The values of energy storage density and energy storage efficiency is 0.91 J/cm 3 and 79.51%, respectively, for the 0.90LLBNTZ-0.10NBN ceramic at the condition of 100 kV/cm and 90 °C. It can be concluded that the (1-x)LLBNTZ-xNBN ceramics are promising lead-free candidate materials for energy storage devices over a broad temperature range.

  19. Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) on public lands: estimating density, activity, and diet in the Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cove, Michael V.; Gardner, Beth; Simons, Theodore R.; Kays, Roland; O'Connell, Allan F.

    2017-01-01

    Feral and free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) can have strong negative effects on small mammals and birds, particularly in island ecosystems. We deployed camera traps to study free-ranging cats in national wildlife refuges and state parks on Big Pine Key and Key Largo in the Florida Keys, USA, and used spatial capture–recapture models to estimate cat abundance, movement, and activities. We also used stable isotope analyses to examine the diet of cats captured on public lands. Top population models separated cats based on differences in movement and detection with three and two latent groups on Big Pine Key and Key Largo, respectively. We hypothesize that these latent groups represent feral, semi-feral, and indoor/outdoor house cats based on the estimated movement parameters of each group. Estimated cat densities and activity varied between the two islands, with relatively high densities (~4 cats/km2) exhibiting crepuscular diel patterns on Big Pine Key and lower densities (~1 cat/km2) exhibiting nocturnal diel patterns on Key Largo. These differences are most likely related to the higher proportion of house cats on Big Pine relative to Key Largo. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from hair samples of free-ranging cats (n = 43) provided estimates of the proportion of wild and anthropogenic foods in cat diets. At the population level, cats on both islands consumed mostly anthropogenic foods (>80% of the diet), but eight individuals were effective predators of wildlife (>50% of the diet). We provide evidence that cat groups within a population move different distances, exhibit different activity patterns, and that individuals consume wildlife at different rates, which all have implications for managing this invasive predator.

  20. Geospace ionosphere research with a MF/HF radio instrument on a cubesat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, E. J.; Aikio, A. T.; Alho, M.; Fontell, M.; van Gijlswijk, R.; Kauristie, K.; Kestilä, A.; Koskimaa, P.; Makela, J. S.; Mäkelä, M.; Turunen, E.; Vanhamäki, H.

    2016-12-01

    Modern technology provides new possibilities to study geospace and its ionosphere, using spacecraft and and computer simulations. A type of nanosatellites, CubeSats, provide a cost effective possibility to provide in-situ measurements in the ionosphere. Moreover, combined CubeSat observations with ground-based observations gives a new view on auroras and associated electromagnetic phenomena. Especially joint and active CubeSat - ground based observation campaigns enable the possibility of studying the 3D structure of the ionosphere. Furthermore using several CubeSats to form satellite constellations enables much higher temporal resolution. At the same time, increasing computation capacity has made it possible to perform simulations where properties of the ionosphere, such as propagation of the electromagnetic waves in the medium frequency, MF (0.3-3 MHz) and high frequency, HF (3-30 MHz), ranges is based on a 3D ionospheric model and on first-principles modelling. Electromagnetic waves at those frequencies are strongly affected by ionospheric electrons and, consequently, those frequencies can be used for studying the plasma. On the other hand, even if the ionosphere originally enables long-range telecommunication at MF and HF frequencies, the frequent occurrence of spatiotemporal variations in the ionosphere disturbs communication channels, especially at high latitudes. Therefore, study of the MF and HF waves in the ionosphere has both a strong science and technology interests. We present computational simulation results and measuring principles and techniques to investigate the arctic ionosphere by a polar orbiting CubeSat whose novel AM radio instrument measures HF and MF waves. The cubesat, which contains also a white light aurora camera, is planned to be launched in 2017 (http://www.suomi100satelliitti.fi/eng). We have modelled the propagation of the radio waves, both ground generated man-made waves and space formed space weather related waves, through the 3D

  1. Analysis and Evaluation of Manoeuvrability Characteristics of Polish Ferries m/f „Polonia” and m/f „Gryf”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Szymonski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes some specific manner of M/F “Polonia” manoeuvring at the Ystad harbour where she is regarded to be “over maximal ship” and also M/F “Gryf” manoeuvring at Trelleborg, taking part into consideration the effect of wind pressure into the ship’s superstructures and houses.

  2. Fasciola spp: Mapping of the MF6 epitope and antigenic analysis of the MF6p/HDM family of heme-binding proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Martínez-Sernández

    Full Text Available MF6p/FhHDM-1 is a small cationic heme-binding protein which is recognized by the monoclonal antibody (mAb MF6, and abundantly present in parenchymal cells and secreted antigens of Fasciola hepatica. Orthologs of this protein (MF6p/HDMs also exist in other causal agents of important foodborne trematodiasis, such as Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Paragonimus westermani. Considering that MF6p/FhHDM-1 is relevant for heme homeostasis in Fasciola and was reported to have immunomodulatory properties, this protein is expected to be a useful target for vaccination. Thus, in this study we mapped the epitope recognized by mAb MF6 and evaluated its antigenicity in sheep. The sequence of the MF6p/FhHDM-1 ortholog from F. gigantica (MF6p/FgHDM-1 was also reported. By means of ELISA inhibitions with overlapping synthetic peptides, we determined that the epitope recognized by mAb MF6 is located within the C-terminal moiety of MF6p/FhHDM-1, which is the most conserved region of MF6p/HDMs. By immunoblotting analysis of parasite extracts and ELISA inhibitions with synthetic peptides we also determined that mAb MF6 reacted with the same intensity with F. hepatica and F. gigantica, and in decreasing order of intensity with C. sinensis, O.viverrini and P. westermani orthologs. On the contrary, mAb MF6 showed no reactivity against Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Schistosoma mansoni. The study of the recognition of peptides covering different regions of MF6p/FhHDM-1 by sera from immunized sheep revealed that the C-terminal moiety is the most antigenic, thus being of potential interest for vaccination. We also demonstrated that the production of antibodies to MF6p/FhHDM-1 in sheep infected by F. hepatica occurs relatively early and follows the same pattern as those produced against L-cathepsins.

  3. Wide Dynamic Range Multiband Infrared Radiometer for In-Fire Measurements of Wildland Fire Radiant Flux Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremens, R.; Dickinson, M. B.; Hardy, C.; Skowronski, N.; Ellicott, E. A.; Schroeder, W.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a wide dynamic range (24-bit) data acquisition system for collection of radiant flux density (FRFD) data from wildland fires. The data collection subsystem was designed as an Arduino `shield' and incorporates a 24-bit analog-to-digital converter, precision voltage reference, real time clock, microSD card interface, audible annuciator and interface for various digital communication interfaces (RS232, I2C, SPI, etc.). The complete radiometer system consists of our custom-designed `shield', a commercially available Arduino MEGA computer circuit board and a thermopile sensor -amplifier daughter board. Software design and development is greatly assisted by the availability of a library of public-domain, user-implemented software. The daughter board houses a 5-band radiometer using thermopiles designed for this experiment (Dexter Research Corp., Dexter, MI) to allow determination of the total FRFD from the fire (using a wide band thermopile with a KRS-5 window, 0.1 - 30 um), the FRFD as would be received by an orbital asset like MODIS (3.95 um center wavelength (CWL) and 10.95 CWL, corresponding to MODIS bands 21/22 and 31, respectively) and wider bandpass (0.1-5.5 um and 8-14 um) corresponding to the FRFD recorded by `MWIR' and `LWIR' imaging systems. We required a very wide dynamic range system in order to be able to record the flux density from `cold' ground before the fire, through the `hot' flaming combustion stage, to the `cool' phase after passage of the fire front. The recording dynamic range required (with reasonable resolution at the lowest temperatures) is on the order of 106, which is not currently available in commercial instrumentation at a price point, size or feature set that is suitable for wildland fire investigations. The entire unit, along with rechargeable battery power supply is housed in a fireproof aluminum chassis box, which is then mounted on a mast at a height of 5 - 7 m above the fireground floor. We will report initial

  4. Analysis of self-consistency effects in range-separated density-functional theory with Møller-Plesset perturbation theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromager, Emmanuel; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2011-01-01

    Range-separated density-functional theory combines wave function theory for the long-range part of the two-electron interaction with density-functional theory for the short-range part. When describing the long-range interaction with non-variational methods, such as perturbation or coupled......-cluster theories, self-consistency effects are introduced in the density functional part, which for an exact solution requires iterations. They are generally assumed to be small but no detailed study has been performed so far. Here, the authors analyze self-consistency when using Møller-Plesset-type (MP......) perturbation theory for the long range interaction. The lowest-order self-consistency corrections to the wave function and the energy, that enter the perturbation expansions at the second and fourth order, respectively, are both expressed in terms of the one-electron reduced density matrix. The computational...

  5. Dynamic coating of mf/uf membranes for fouling mitigation

    KAUST Repository

    Tabatabai, S. Assiyeh Alizadeh

    2017-01-19

    A membrane system including an anti-fouling layer and a method of applying an anti-fouling layer to a membrane surface are provided. In an embodiment, the surface is a microfiltration (MF) or an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane surface. The anti-fouling layer can include a stimuli responsive layer and a dynamic protective layer applied over the stimuli responsive layer that can be a coating on a surface of the membrane. The stimuli responsive polymer layer can act as an adhesive prior to coating with the dynamic protective layer to aid in adhering the dynamic protective layer to the membrane surface. The dynamic protective layer can be formed by suitable nanoparticles that can prevent adhesion of foulants directly to the membrane surface. The stimuli responsive layer can be responsive to physio- chemical stimuli to cause a release of the stimuli responsive layer and the dynamic protective layer including foulants from the membrane.

  6. Demographics and practices of semi-intensive free-range farming systems in Australia with an outdoor stocking density of ≤1500 hens/hectare

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Mini; Ruhnke, Isabelle; de Koning, Carolyn; Drake, Kelly; Skerman, Alan G.; Hinch, Geoff N.; Glatz, Philip C.

    2017-01-01

    Baseline information on demographics and practices on semi-intensive free-range egg farms with an outdoor stocking density of ≤1500 hens/hectare in Australia is presented. Free-range egg production is changing the structure of the egg industry in Australia and a broad variety and tiers of free-range systems have emerged due to lack of concrete legislative standards on outdoor stocking densities in the past. Information was extracted from a pre-existing online free-range poultry survey dataset...

  7. MRI Proton Density Fat Fraction Is Robust Across the Biologically Plausible Range of Triglyceride Spectra in Adults With Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Cheng William; Mamidipalli, Adrija; Hooker, Jonathan C.; Hamilton, Gavin; Wolfson, Tanya; Chen, Dennis H.; Dehkordy, Soudabeh Fazeli; Middleton, Michael S.; Reeder, Scott B.; Loomba, Rohit; Sirlin, Claude B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Proton density fat fraction (PDFF) estimation requires spectral modeling of the hepatic triglyceride (TG) signal. Deviations in the TG spectrum may occur, leading to bias in PDFF quantification. Purpose To investigate the effects of varying six-peak TG spectral models on PDFF estimation bias. Study Type Retrospective secondary analysis of prospectively acquired clinical research data. Population Forty-four adults with biopsy-confirmed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Field Strength/Sequence Confounder-corrected chemical-shift-encoded 3T MRI (using a 2D multiecho gradient-recalled echo technique with magnitude reconstruction) and MR spectroscopy. Assessment In each patient, 61 pairs of colocalized MRI-PDFF and MRS-PDFF values were estimated: one pair used the standard six-peak spectral model, the other 60 were six-peak variants calculated by adjusting spectral model parameters over their biologically plausible ranges. MRI-PDFF values calculated using each variant model and the standard model were compared, and the agreement between MRI-PDFF and MRS-PDFF was assessed. Statistical Tests MRS-PDFF and MRI-PDFF were summarized descriptively. Bland–Altman (BA) analyses were performed between PDFF values calculated using each variant model and the standard model. Linear regressions were performed between BA biases and mean PDFF values for each variant model, and between MRI-PDFF and MRS-PDFF. Results Using the standard model, mean MRS-PDFF of the study population was 17.9±8.0% (range: 4.1–34.3%). The difference between the highest and lowest mean variant MRI-PDFF values was 1.5%. Relative to the standard model, the model with the greatest absolute BA bias overestimated PDFF by 1.2%. Bias increased with increasing PDFF (P hepatic fat content, PDFF estimation is robust across the biologically plausible range of TG spectra. Although absolute estimation bias increased with higher PDFF, its magnitude was small and unlikely to be clinically meaningful. Level of

  8. ImWalkMF: Joint matrix factorization and implicit walk integrative learning for recommendation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chuxu

    2018-01-15

    Data sparsity and cold-start problems are prevalent in recommender systems. To address such problems, both the observable explicit social information (e.g., user-user trust connections) and the inferable implicit correlations (e.g., implicit neighbors computed by similarity measurement) have been introduced to complement user-item ratings data for improving the performances of traditional model-based recommendation algorithms such as matrix factorization. Although effective, (1) the utilization of the explicit user-user social relationships suffers from the weakness of unavailability in real systems such as Netflix or the issue of sparse observable content like 0.03% trust density in Epinions, thus there is no or little explicit social information that can be employed to improve baseline model in real applications; (2) the current similarity measurement approaches focus on inferring implicit correlations between a user (item) and their direct neighbors or top-k similar neighbors based on user-item ratings bipartite network, so that they fail to comprehensively unfold the indirect potential relationships among users and items. To solve these issues regarding both explicit/implicit social recommendation algorithms, we design a joint model of matrix factorization and implicit walk integrative learning, i.e., ImWalkMF, which only uses explicit ratings information yet models both direct rating feedbacks and multiple direct/indirect implicit correlations among users and items from a random walk perspective. We further propose a combined strategy for training two independent components in the proposed model based on sampling. The experimental results on two real-world sparse datasets demonstrate that ImWalkMF outperforms the traditional regularized/probabilistic matrix factorization models as well as other competitive baselines that utilize explicit/implicit social information.

  9. Ultrasonic Reflectometry for Monitoring the Effect of Pressure on Sludge Fouling of MF Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mads Koustrup; Kujundzic, Elmira; Greenberg, Alan

    Membrane fouling remains the key limitation for the widespread use of membrane bioreactors (MBR) for wastewater treatment. This constraint has led to an increasing number of studies that examine the influence of various operational parameters and physicochemical properties on fouling layer...... formation and characteristics. In other membrane applications real-time monitoring has proven to be useful by providing a more quantitative characterization of fouling layer formation [1]. One such technique, ultrasonic reflectometry (UR), has been successfully used to detect fouling formed by a wide range...... of the effect of pressure on the fouling layer structure. The ability of UR to detect and monitor sludge fouling was studied in a series of replicated experiments of 15, 30 and 60-min duration that used commercial microfiltration (MF) membranes at a transmembrane pressure of 15 kPa. By analyzing the peak...

  10. Remote sensing of mesospheric electric fields using MF radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, C. E.; Manson, A. H.; Martynenko, S. I.; Rozumenko, V. T.; Tyrnov, O. F.

    2004-07-01

    Large mesospheric electric fields can play an essential role in middle atmospheric electrodynamics (see, e.g., Goldberg, R. A., Middle Atmospheric Electrodynamics during MAP, Adv. Space Res. 10 (10) (1990) 209). The V/m electric fields of atmospheric origin can be the possible cause of large variations in the electron collision frequency at mesospheric altitudes, and this provides a unique opportunity to take measurements of electric fields in the lower ionosphere by using remote sensing instruments employing radiowave techniques. A technique has been proposed for making estimates of large mesospheric electric field intensities on the lower edge of the ionosphere by using MF radar data and the inherent effective electron collision frequency. To do this, data collected in Canada and Ukraine were utilized. The developed technique permits the changes in mesospheric electric field intensities to be derived from MF radar data in real time. The statistical analysis of data consistent with large mesospheric electric field intensities in the 60-67km region resulted in the following inferences. There are at least two mechanisms for the generation of large mesospheric electric fields in the mesosphere. The most likely mechanism, with a probability of 60-70%, is the summation of random fields from a large number of elementary small-scale mesospheric generators, which results in a one-parameter Rayleigh distribution of the total large mesospheric electric field intensity E with a mean value of approximately 0.7-0.9V/m in the 60-67km altitude region, or in the corresponding one-parameter exponential distribution of the intensity squared E2 of large mesospheric electric fields. The second mechanism of unknown nature, with 5-15% probability, gives rise to the sporadic appearance of large mesospheric electric field intensities E>2.5V/m with a mean of 4V/m. Statistically significant seasonal differences in the averaged large mesospheric electric field parameters have not been

  11. MF Scales: Instruments of Male Chauvinism or Responsible Tools of the Psychologist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Lenore W.

    A study is made of the validity of the use of MF scales. It is pointed out that femininity is often a liability in the psychologist's office. Clients who have MF scores considered to be more appropriate for the opposite sex are threatened by them. If the clinician assumes the client has an abnormal score, the ensuing therapy usually will be…

  12. ELF-MF exposure affects the robustness of epigenetic programming during granulopoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manser, Melissa; Sater, Mohamad R. Abdul; Schmid, Christoph D.; Noreen, Faiza; Murbach, Manuel; Kuster, Niels; Schuermann, David; Schär, Primo

    2017-03-01

    Extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) have been classified as “possibly carcinogenic” to humans on the grounds of an epidemiological association of ELF-MF exposure with an increased risk of childhood leukaemia. Yet, underlying mechanisms have remained obscure. Genome instability seems an unlikely reason as the energy transmitted by ELF-MF is too low to damage DNA and induce cancer-promoting mutations. ELF-MF, however, may perturb the epigenetic code of genomes, which is well-known to be sensitive to environmental conditions and generally deranged in cancers, including leukaemia. We examined the potential of ELF-MF to influence key epigenetic modifications in leukaemic Jurkat cells and in human CD34+ haematopoietic stem cells undergoing in vitro differentiation into the neutrophilic lineage. During granulopoiesis, sensitive genome-wide profiling of multiple replicate experiments did not reveal any statistically significant, ELF-MF-dependent alterations in the patterns of active (H3K4me2) and repressive (H3K27me3) histone marks nor in DNA methylation. However, ELF-MF exposure showed consistent effects on the reproducibility of these histone and DNA modification profiles (replicate variability), which appear to be of a stochastic nature but show preferences for the genomic context. The data indicate that ELF-MF exposure stabilizes active chromatin, particularly during the transition from a repressive to an active state during cell differentiation.

  13. Enhancement of fructosyltransferase and fructooligosaccharides production by A. oryzae DIA-MF in Solid-State Fermentation using aguamiel as culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz-Márquez, Diana B; Contreras, Juan C; Rodríguez, Raúl; Mussatto, Solange I; Teixeira, José A; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to improve the production of fructosyltransferase (FTase) by Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) using aguamiel (agave sap) as culture medium and Aspergillus oryzae DIA-MF as producer strain. SSF was carried out evaluating the following parameters: inoculum rate, incubation temperature, initial pH and packing density to determine the most significant factors through Box-Hunter and Hunter design. The significant factors were then further optimized using a Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology. The maximum FTase activity (1347U/L) was obtained at 32°C, using packing density of 0.7g/cm(3). Inoculum rate and initial pH had no significant influence on the response. FOS synthesis applying the enzyme produced by A. oryzae DIA-MF was also studied using aguamiel as substrate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Demographics and practices of semi-intensive free-range farming systems in Australia with an outdoor stocking density of ≤1500 hens/hectare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mini; Ruhnke, Isabelle; de Koning, Carolyn; Drake, Kelly; Skerman, Alan G; Hinch, Geoff N; Glatz, Philip C

    2017-01-01

    Baseline information on demographics and practices on semi-intensive free-range egg farms with an outdoor stocking density of ≤1500 hens/hectare in Australia is presented. Free-range egg production is changing the structure of the egg industry in Australia and a broad variety and tiers of free-range systems have emerged due to lack of concrete legislative standards on outdoor stocking densities in the past. Information was extracted from a pre-existing online free-range poultry survey dataset, consisting of a total of 79 questions related to nutrition, pasture management, welfare and health, animal housing, environmental impact and economics. Forty-one free-range egg farms, with an outdoor stocking density of ≤1500 hens/hectare, were identified in the dataset from all major Australian states. Two types of semi-intensive free-range housing systems were documented: mobile (modified caravan/trailer) housing (56%), and fixed sheds (44%). Seventy-two percent of respondents reported >75% of the hens in the flock used the outdoor range. All respondents reported ingestion of range components by hens in the form of vegetation, insects, stones and grit. Up to 10% mortality was reported by 40% respondents with predation (34%), cannibalism (29%), heat stress (24%) and grass impaction (19.5%) as major causes. Biosecurity on farms was sub-optimal with 8 of the 10 actions implemented by free-range egg production. This study resulted in identification of current practices and key challenges on semi-intensive free-range egg farms. Applied research and communication of results to farmers is highly recommended to ensure optimum health and welfare of free-range laying hens and sustained egg production.

  15. Demographics and practices of semi-intensive free-range farming systems in Australia with an outdoor stocking density of ≤1500 hens/hectare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mini Singh

    Full Text Available Baseline information on demographics and practices on semi-intensive free-range egg farms with an outdoor stocking density of ≤1500 hens/hectare in Australia is presented. Free-range egg production is changing the structure of the egg industry in Australia and a broad variety and tiers of free-range systems have emerged due to lack of concrete legislative standards on outdoor stocking densities in the past. Information was extracted from a pre-existing online free-range poultry survey dataset, consisting of a total of 79 questions related to nutrition, pasture management, welfare and health, animal housing, environmental impact and economics. Forty-one free-range egg farms, with an outdoor stocking density of ≤1500 hens/hectare, were identified in the dataset from all major Australian states. Two types of semi-intensive free-range housing systems were documented: mobile (modified caravan/trailer housing (56%, and fixed sheds (44%. Seventy-two percent of respondents reported >75% of the hens in the flock used the outdoor range. All respondents reported ingestion of range components by hens in the form of vegetation, insects, stones and grit. Up to 10% mortality was reported by 40% respondents with predation (34%, cannibalism (29%, heat stress (24% and grass impaction (19.5% as major causes. Biosecurity on farms was sub-optimal with 8 of the 10 actions implemented by <50% respondents. Customer demand, consumer sentiment and welfare were the major factors for farmers moving into free-range egg production. This study resulted in identification of current practices and key challenges on semi-intensive free-range egg farms. Applied research and communication of results to farmers is highly recommended to ensure optimum health and welfare of free-range laying hens and sustained egg production.

  16. An Investigation of Reverse Flotation Separation of Sericite from Graphite by Using a Surfactant: MF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangshuai Qiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a surfactant, atlox4862 (formaldehyde condensate of methyl naphthalene sulfonic sodium salt (MF, was introduced as a depressant for reverse flotation separation of sericite from graphite. Natural flake graphite has a strong hydrophobic property. After interacting with MF, the graphite became moderately hydrophilic. The flotation results showed that MF had a depressing ability for both sericite and graphite and that the flotation separation of sericite from graphite was attributed to the different declining levels of recovery between graphite and sericite with increased MF concentration. For a pulp pH of 8 and a MF concentration of 250 mg/L, the recovery rates of sericite and graphite were 89.7% and 11.3%, respectively. The results of the FTIR spectra and zeta potential measurements demonstrated that the interaction of MF with graphite and sericite is mainly through electrostatic attraction. MF was preferred to adsorb on the surface of graphite, decreasing its zeta potential and improving its hydrophilicity more than that of sericite.

  17. Systematics of radiation widths and level density parameters in the mass number range region 40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.M.; Grudzevich, O.T.; Plyaskin, V.I.

    1990-01-01

    We suggest a systematics of radiation width based on a reduced radiative capture strength function for the E1-transition, which eliminates fluctuations in the analysed quantity with neutron binding energy, nuclear level density and γ-quanta energy. A smooth dependence for the fitting parameter of the radiative strength function for E1-transitions in relation to the relative atomic mass of the nucleus is obtained. 10 refs, 2 figs

  18. Fabrication and characterization of free-standing, high-line-density transmission gratings for the vacuum UV to soft X-ray range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, S.J.; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Vratzov, B.; Huang, Qiushi; Bijkerk, Frederik; Boller, Klaus J.

    2015-01-01

    We present state-of-the-art high resolution transmission gratings, applicable for spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and the soft X-ray (SRX) wavelength range, fabricated with a novel process using ultraviolet based nano imprint lithography (UV-NIL). Free-standing, high-line-density

  19. Demographics and practices of semi-intensive free-range farming systems in Australia with an outdoor stocking density of ≤1500 hens/hectare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, Isabelle; de Koning, Carolyn; Drake, Kelly; Skerman, Alan G.; Hinch, Geoff N.; Glatz, Philip C.

    2017-01-01

    Baseline information on demographics and practices on semi-intensive free-range egg farms with an outdoor stocking density of ≤1500 hens/hectare in Australia is presented. Free-range egg production is changing the structure of the egg industry in Australia and a broad variety and tiers of free-range systems have emerged due to lack of concrete legislative standards on outdoor stocking densities in the past. Information was extracted from a pre-existing online free-range poultry survey dataset, consisting of a total of 79 questions related to nutrition, pasture management, welfare and health, animal housing, environmental impact and economics. Forty-one free-range egg farms, with an outdoor stocking density of ≤1500 hens/hectare, were identified in the dataset from all major Australian states. Two types of semi-intensive free-range housing systems were documented: mobile (modified caravan/trailer) housing (56%), and fixed sheds (44%). Seventy-two percent of respondents reported >75% of the hens in the flock used the outdoor range. All respondents reported ingestion of range components by hens in the form of vegetation, insects, stones and grit. Up to 10% mortality was reported by 40% respondents with predation (34%), cannibalism (29%), heat stress (24%) and grass impaction (19.5%) as major causes. Biosecurity on farms was sub-optimal with 8 of the 10 actions implemented by farms. Applied research and communication of results to farmers is highly recommended to ensure optimum health and welfare of free-range laying hens and sustained egg production. PMID:29065169

  20. Simplified method for creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve for the low dose range from Gafchromic EBT3 film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiro Gotanda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiochromic film dosimeters have a disadvantage in comparison with an ionization chamber in that the dosimetry process is time-consuming for creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve. The purpose of this study was the development of a simplified method of creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve from radiochromic film within a short time. This simplified method was performed using Gafchromic EBT3 film with a low energy dependence and step-shaped Al filter. The simplified method was compared with the standard method. The density-absorbed dose calibration curves created using the simplified and standard methods exhibited approximately similar straight lines, and the gradients of the density-absorbed dose calibration curves were −32.336 and −33.746, respectively. The simplified method can obtain calibration curves within a much shorter time compared to the standard method. It is considered that the simplified method for EBT3 film offers a more time-efficient means of determining the density-absorbed dose calibration curve within a low absorbed dose range such as the diagnostic range.

  1. MF-CRA: Multi-Function Cognitive Radio Architecture for Space Communications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — EpiSys Science, Inc. and University of Arizona propose to develop, implement, and demonstrate Multi-Function Cognitive Radio Architecture (MF-CRA) for Space...

  2. Functional recovery after experimental RPE debridement, mfERG studies in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nina Buus; Lassota, Nathan; Kyhn, Maria Voss

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The correlation between histologically identified regeneration of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and functional outcome measured by multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) following surgical debridement is examined in a porcine model. In humans, visual acuity is reduced in diseases......, and by brushing the Bruch's membrane with a silicone catheter. Immediately following surgery (baseline) and after 2 and 6 weeks respectively, the animals were examined by mfERG, fundus photographs (FPs), fluorescein angiograms (FAs), and histopathology. RESULTS: The mfERG P1 amplitude was decreased 2 weeks (T2....... CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show that the histological regeneration of hypopigmented RPE correlates to a return of the retinal function, measured by mfERG....

  3. The history of MF59(®) adjuvant: a phoenix that arose from the ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Derek T; Ott, Gary S; Nest, Gary Van; Rappuoli, Rino; Giudice, Giuseppe Del

    2013-01-01

    The first clinical trial of an MF59(®)-adjuvanted influenza vaccine (Novartis) was conducted 20 years ago in 1992. The product that emerged (Fluad(®), Novartis) was licensed first in Italy in 1997 and is now licensed worldwide in 30 countries. US licensure is expected in the coming years. By contrast, many alternative adjuvanted vaccines have failed to progress. The key decisions that allowed MF59 to succeed in such a challenging environment are highlighted here and the lessons that were learned along the way are discussed. MF59 was connected to vaccines that did not succeed and was perceived as a 'failure' before it was a success. Importantly, it never failed for safety reasons and was always well tolerated. Even when safety issues have emerged for alternative adjuvants, careful analysis of the substantial safety database for MF59 have shown that there are no significant concerns with widespread use, even in more 'sensitive' populations.

  4. Self-consistent many-body perturbation theory in range-separated density-functional theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromager, Emmanuel; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2008-01-01

    effects adequately which, on the other hand, can be described by many-body perturbation theory MBPT. It is therefore of interest to develop a hybrid model which combines the best of both the MBPT and DFT approaches. This can be achieved by splitting the two-electron interaction into long-range and short...

  5. Physiology and growth of redwood and Douglas-fir planted after variable density retention outside redwood’s range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy Kerhoulas; Nicholas Kerhoulas; Wade Polda; John-Pascal Berrill

    2017-01-01

    Reforestation following timber harvests is an important topic throughout the coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.) range. Furthermore, as drought-induced mortality spreads across many of California’s forests, it is important to understand how physiology and stand structure influence reforestation success. Finally, as climate...

  6. Density functional study of photoabsorption in metallic clusters using an exchange-correlation potential with correct long-range behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, M.B. [Dpto. de Matematicas y Computacion, Universidad de Burgos, Burgos (Spain); Balbas, L.C. [Dpto. de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid (Spain)

    2002-06-17

    The atomic exchange-correlation (xc) potential with the correct -1/r asymptotic behaviour constructed by Parr and Ghosh (Parr R G and Ghosh S K 1995 Phys. Rev. A 51 3564) is adapted here to study, within time density functional theory, the linear response to external fields of (i) neutral and charged sodium clusters, and (ii) doped clusters of the type Na{sub n}Pb (n=4, 6, 16). The resulting photoabsorption cross sections are compared to experimental results, when available, and to results from previous calculations using local and non-local xc functionals. The calculated static polarizabilities and plasmon frequencies are closer to the experimental values than previous results. (author)

  7. Enhancement of in vitro high-density polyethylene (HDPE) degradation by physical, chemical, and biological treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, V; Natarajan, K; Rajeshkannan, V; Perumal, P

    2014-11-01

    Partially degraded high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was collected from plastic waste dump yard for biodegradation using fungi. Of various fungi screened, strain MF12 was found efficient in degrading HDPE by weight loss and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometric analysis. Strain MF12 was selected as efficient HDPE degraders for further studies, and their growth medium composition was optimized. Among those different media used, basal minimal medium (BMM) was suitable for the HDPE degradation by strain MF12. Strain MF12 was subjected to 28S rRNA sequence analysis and identified as Aspergillus terreus MF12. HDPE degradation was carried out using combinatorial physical and chemical treatments in conjunction to biological treatment. The high level of HDPE degradation was observed in ultraviolet (UV) and KMnO4/HCl with A. terreus MF12 treatment, i.e., FT10. The abiotic physical and chemical factors enhance the biodegradation of HDPE using A. terreus MF12.

  8. New insights on the rarity of the vulnerable Cinereous Warbling-finch (Aves, Emberizidae based on density, home range, and habitat selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Marques-Santos

    Full Text Available The Cinereous Warbling-finch Poospiza cinerea (Emberizidae is a Neotropical grassland bird considered rare, with population declining due to habitat loss and classified as vulnerable. However, the species conspicuously remains in several degraded areas, suggesting that it may be favored by these environments. Studies which focus on this species were inexistent until 2012, making questionable any statement about its threaten status. Here we analyzed population density, home range, and habitat selection of two groups of P. cinerea at independent sites that differ in human impact levels. Density was estimated by counting and mapping birds. Kernel density and minimum convex polygon were used to estimate home ranges. Habitat selection was inferred from use and availability of every habitat identified within the home range boundaries. One group positively selected urban tree vegetation, despite the availability of natural habitats in its home range. Based on a review on the literature and our findings, we assume that it is unlikely that P. cinerea is rare owing to habitat degradation, as previously thought. Nevertheless, this species was always recorded around native Cerrado vegetation and thus habitat modification may still threaten this species at some level. It is suggested that this species might be a woodland edge species, but future studies are necessary to confirm this assumption.

  9. Hybrid MF and membrane bioreactor process applied towards water and indigo reuse from denim textile wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Carolina Fonseca; Marques, Larissa Silva; Balmant, Janine; de Oliveira Maia, Andreza Penido; Moravia, Wagner Guadagnin; Santos Amaral, Miriam Cristina

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates the application of a microfiltration (MF)-membrane bioreactor (MBR) hybrid process for textile dyeing process wastewater reclamation. The indigo blue dye was efficiently retained by the MF membrane (100%), which allows its recovery from the concentrate stream. MF promotes 100% of colour removal, and reduces the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and conductivity by about 65% and 25%, respectively, and improves the wastewater biodegradability. MF flux decline was mostly attributed to concentration polarization and the chemical cleaning was efficient enough to recover initial hydraulic resistance. The MBR provides to be a stable process maintaining its COD and ammonia removal efficiency (73% and 100%, respectively) mostly constant throughout and producing a permeate that meets the reuse criteria for some industry activities, such as washing-off and equipment washdown. The use of an MF or ultrafiltration (UF) membrane in the MBR does not impact the MBR performance in terms of COD removal. Although the membrane of MBR-UF shows permeability lower than MBR-MF membrane, the UF membrane contributes to a more stable operation in terms of permeability.

  10. Study of Ionospheric Indexes T and MF2 related to R12 for Solar Cycles 19-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Lucia

    2013-04-01

    Modern worldwide communications are mainly based on satellite systems, remote communication networks, and advanced technologies. The most important space weather "meteorological" events produce negative effects on signal transmissions. Magnetic storm conditions that follow coronal mass ejections are particularly of great importance for radio communication at HF frequencies (3-30 MHz range), because the Ionization increase (or decrease), significantly over (or below), the Average Values. Nowadays new technologies make possible to establish Geophysical Observatories and monitor the sun almost in real time giving information about geomagnetic indices. Space Weather programs have interesting software predictions of foF2 producing maps and plots, every some minutes. The Average Values of the ionospheric parameters mainly depend on the position, hour, season and the phase of the 11-year cycle of the solar activity. Around 1990´s several ionospheric indexes were suggested to better predict the state of the foF2 monthly media, as: IF2, G, T and MF2, based on foF2 data from different latitude ionospheric observatories. They really show better seasonal changes than monthly solar indexes of solar flux F10.7 or the international sunspot numbers Ri. The main purpose of this paper is to present an analogic model for the ionospheric index MF2, to establish the average long term predictions of this index. Changes of phase from one cycle to the other of one component of the model is found to fit the data. The usefulness of this model could be the prediction of the ionospheric normal conditions for one entire solar cycle having just the prediction of the maximum of the next smooth sunspot number R12. In this presentation, comparisons of the Australian T index and and the Mikhailov MF2 index show an hysteresis variation with the solar monthly index Ri, such dependence is quite well represented by a polynomial fit of degree 6 for rising and decaying fases for solar cycles 19, 20 and

  11. Unusual features of long-range density fluctuations in glass-forming organic liquids: A Rayleigh and Rayleigh-Brillouin light scattering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patkowski, A.; Fischer, E. W.; Steffen, W.; Glaser, H.; Baumann, M.; Ruths, T.; Meier, G.

    2001-01-01

    A new feature of glass-forming liquids, i.e., long-range density fluctuations of the order of 100 nm, has been extensively characterized by means of static light scattering, photon correlation spectroscopy and Rayleigh-Brillouin spectroscopy in orthoterphenyl (OTP) and 1,1-di(4 # prime#-methoxy-5 # prime#methyl-phenyl)-cyclohexane (BMMPC). These long-range density fluctuations result in the following unusual features observed in a light scattering experiment, which are not described by the existing theories: (i) strong q-dependent isotropic excess Rayleigh intensity, (ii) additional slow component in the polarized photon correlation function, and (iii) high Landau-Placzek ratio. These unusual features are equilibrium properties of the glass-forming liquids and depend only on temperature, provided that the sample has been equilibrated long enough. The temperature-dependent equilibration times were measured for BMMPC and are about 11 orders of magnitude longer than the α process. It was found that the glass-forming liquid OTP may occur in two states: with and without long-range density fluctuations ('clusters'). We have characterized the two states by static and dynamic light scattering in the temperature range from T g to T g +200 K. The relaxation times of the α process as well as the parameters of the Brillouin line are identical in both OTP with and without clusters. The α process (density fluctuations) in OTP was characterized by measuring either the polarized (VV) or depolarized (VH) correlation function, which are practically identical and q-independent. This feature, which is commonly observed in glass-forming liquids, is not fully explained by the existing theories

  12. Transport Asymmetry of Novel Bi-Layer Hybrid Perfluorinated Membranes on the Base of MF-4SC Modified by Halloysite Nanotubes with Platinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Filippov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Three types of bi-layer hybrid nanocomposites on the base of perfluorinated cation-exchange membrane MF-4SC (Russian analogue of Nafion®-117 were synthesized and characterized. It was found that two membranes possess the noticeable asymmetry of the current–voltage curve (CVC under changing their orientation towards the applied electric field, despite the absence of asymmetry of diffusion permeability. These phenomena were explained in the frame of the “fine-porous model” expanded for bi-layer membranes. A special procedure to calculate the real values of the diffusion layers thickness and the limiting current density was proposed. Due to asymmetry effects of the current voltage curves of bi-layer hybrid membranes on the base of MF-4SC, halloysite nanotubes and platinum nanoparticles, it is prospective to assemble membrane switches (membrane relays or diodes with predictable transport properties, founded upon the theory developed here.

  13. Range-separated time-dependent density-functional theory with a frequency-dependent second-order Bethe-Salpeter correlation kernel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebolini, Elisa, E-mail: elisa.rebolini@kjemi.uio.no; Toulouse, Julien, E-mail: julien.toulouse@upmc.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2016-03-07

    We present a range-separated linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) which combines a density-functional approximation for the short-range response kernel and a frequency-dependent second-order Bethe-Salpeter approximation for the long-range response kernel. This approach goes beyond the adiabatic approximation usually used in linear-response TDDFT and aims at improving the accuracy of calculations of electronic excitation energies of molecular systems. A detailed derivation of the frequency-dependent second-order Bethe-Salpeter correlation kernel is given using many-body Green-function theory. Preliminary tests of this range-separated TDDFT method are presented for the calculation of excitation energies of the He and Be atoms and small molecules (H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}CO, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}). The results suggest that the addition of the long-range second-order Bethe-Salpeter correlation kernel overall slightly improves the excitation energies.

  14. Long-range corrected density functional theory with accelerated Hartree-Fock exchange integration using a two-Gaussian operator [LC-ωPBE(2Gau)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jong-Won; Hirao, Kimihiko

    2015-10-14

    Since the advent of hybrid functional in 1993, it has become a main quantum chemical tool for the calculation of energies and properties of molecular systems. Following the introduction of long-range corrected hybrid scheme for density functional theory a decade later, the applicability of the hybrid functional has been further amplified due to the resulting increased performance on orbital energy, excitation energy, non-linear optical property, barrier height, and so on. Nevertheless, the high cost associated with the evaluation of Hartree-Fock (HF) exchange integrals remains a bottleneck for the broader and more active applications of hybrid functionals to large molecular and periodic systems. Here, we propose a very simple yet efficient method for the computation of long-range corrected hybrid scheme. It uses a modified two-Gaussian attenuating operator instead of the error function for the long-range HF exchange integral. As a result, the two-Gaussian HF operator, which mimics the shape of the error function operator, reduces computational time dramatically (e.g., about 14 times acceleration in C diamond calculation using periodic boundary condition) and enables lower scaling with system size, while maintaining the improved features of the long-range corrected density functional theory.

  15. Ab initio molecular dynamics model for density, elastic properties and short range order of Co-Fe-Ta-B metallic glass thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostert, C; Music, D; Schneider, J M; Bednarcik, J; Keckes, J; Kapaklis, V; Hjörvarsson, B

    2011-01-01

    Density, elastic modulus and the pair distribution function of Co-Fe-Ta-B metallic glasses were obtained by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and measured for sputtered thin films using x-ray reflectivity, nanoindentation and x-ray diffraction using high energy photons. The computationally obtained density of 8.19 g cm -3 for Co 43 Fe 20 Ta 5.5 B 31.5 and 8.42 g cm -3 for Co 45.5 Fe 24 Ta 6 B 24.5 , as well as the Young’s moduli of 273 and 251 GPa, respectively, are consistent with our experiments and literature data. These data, together with the good agreement between the theoretical and the experimental pair distribution functions, indicate that the model established here is useful to describe the density, elasticity and short range order of Co-Fe-Ta-B metallic glass thin films. Irrespective of the investigated variation in chemical composition, (Co, Fe)-B cluster formation and Co-Fe interactions are identified by density-of-states analysis. Strong bonds within the structural units and between the metallic species may give rise to the comparatively large stiffness. (paper)

  16. Definition of neutral gas density according to the ''Interkosmos-4'' satellite measurements of solar radiation absorption in the 1-8A range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zonnemann, G.; Lippert, V.; Fel'ske, D.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of the flux of solar irradiation in the range of 1-8 A have been carried out using the ''Interkosmos-4'' satellite. The data obtained during sunsets are used to determine neutral gas density at the altitudes of 80-135 km. Dependence of the effective cross section of solar irradiation absorption in ionosphere on the temperature of the Sun irradiation is given. Estimation of accuracy of the technique applied is presented. It turned out that during determination of absolute value of inert gas density and with its accordance to the altitude considerable errors appear, which do not affect the general density run in the limits of one profile. The profiles have characteristic decay of density at the altitudes of 105-115 km. The data obtained are compared with the measurements carried out simultaneously in the Lsub(α) line, the results of which show excessive absorption of irradiation at the altitudes higher than 100 km, which is explained by the effect of the second absorber, H 2 O most probably

  17. Density functional theory studies on the structures and electronic communication of meso-ferrocenylporphyrins: long range orbital coupling via porphyrin core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Qi, Dongdong; Zhang, Yuexing; Bian, Yongzhong; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2011-02-01

    The molecular and electronic structures together with the electronic absorption spectra of a series of metal free meso-ferrocenylporphyrins, namely 5-ferrocenylporphyrin (1), 5,10-diferrocenylporphyrin (2), 5,15-diferrocenylporphyrin (3), 5,10,15-triferrocenylporphyrin (4), and 5,10,15,20-tetraferrocenylporphyrin (5) have been studied with the density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) methods. For the purpose of comparative studies, metal free porphyrin without any ferrocenyl group (0) and isolated ferrocene (6) were also calculated. The effects of the number and position of meso-attached ferrocenyl substituents on their molecular and electronic structures, atomic charges, molecular orbitals, and electronic absorption spectra of 1-5 were systematically investigated. The orbital coupling is investigated in detail, explaining well the long range coupling of ferrocenyl substituents connected via porphyrin core and the systematic change in the electronic absorption spectra of porphyrin compounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Safety and effectiveness of MF-59 adjuvanted influenza vaccines in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Steven

    2015-06-08

    The squalene oil-in-water emulsion MF-59 adjuvant was developed initially to enhance the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in populations such as children and adults with known suboptimal response. Developed in the 1990s, it was initially licensed in Europe for use in seasonal influenza vaccine in the elderly. Since that time, both Avian and p2009H1N1 vaccines have also been developed. Overall, more than 30,000 individuals have participated in clinical trials of MF-59 adjuvanted vaccine and more than 160 million doses of licensed vaccine have been administered. Safety and effectiveness data from clinical trials and observation studies attest to the safety of MF-59 and to its ability to enhance the effectiveness of influenza vaccines in children and the elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Majorana zero modes and long range edge correlation in interacting Kitaev chains: analytic solutions and density-matrix-renormalization-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jian-Jian; Jin, Hui-Ke; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Zhou, Yi

    2018-01-11

    We study Kitaev model in one-dimension with open boundary condition by using exact analytic methods for non-interacting system at zero chemical potential as well as in the symmetric case of Δ = t, and by using density-matrix-renormalization-group method for interacting system with nearest neighbor repulsion interaction. We suggest and examine an edge correlation function of Majorana fermions to characterize the long range order in the topological superconducting states and study the phase diagram of the interating Kitaev chain.

  20. Measurement and modeling of density and viscosity of n-octanol-kerosene-phosphoric acid solutions in a temperature range 293.15-333.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Changwen; Pei, Xiangjun; Liu, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    Densities and viscosities have been measured for the n-octanol + aviation kerosene (AK) + phosphoric acid (H3PO4) system with the mass fraction of H3PO4 in the range from w = 0 to 0.26 and in the temperature of 293.15-333.15 K. According to the experimental data, the measured viscosities were found well correlated with the temperature and mass fraction of H3PO4, which were fitted to regression equations. The result shows that the dilution effect of AK is obvious under the same temperature and mass fraction of H3PO4.

  1. The Influence of Brightness on Functional Assessment by mfERG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, A T; Kiilgaard, J F; Smith, M

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of membrane brightness on multifocal electroretinograms (mfERGs), we implanted poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) membranes in the subretinal space of 11 porcine eyes. We compared membranes with their native shiny white color with membranes that were stained with a blue dye...... (Brilliant Blue). Histological and electrophysiological evaluation of the overlying retina was carried out 6 weeks after implantation. Histologically, both white and blue membranes degraded in a spongiform manner leaving a disrupted outer retina with no preserved photoreceptor segments. Multifocal ERG...... when the adjacent photoreceptors are missing. Functional assessment with mfERG in scaffold implant studies should therefore be evaluated with care....

  2. Effective atomic numbers and electron densities of bacteriorhodopsin and its comprising amino acids in the energy range 1 keV–100 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Morteza; Lunscher, Nolan [Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology and Department of Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave., W., Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Yeow, John T.W., E-mail: jyeow@uwaterloo.ca [Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology and Department of Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave., W., Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2013-04-01

    Recently, there has been an interest in fabrication of X-ray sensors based on bacteriorhodopsin, a proton pump protein in cell membrane of Halobacterium salinarium. Therefore, a better understanding of interaction of X-ray photons with bacteriorhodopsin is required. We use WinXCom program to calculate the mass attenuation coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin and its comprising amino acids for photon energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV. These amino acids include alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, glutamic acid, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine, Asx1, Asx2, Glx1 and Glx2. We then use that data to calculate effective atomic number and electron densities for the same range of energy. We also emphasize on two ranges of energies (10–200 keV and 1–20 MeV) in which X-ray imaging and radiotherapy machines work.

  3. Safety and immunogenicity of an MF59-adjuvanted A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine in children from three to seventeen years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuf, Markus; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Rümke, Hans C; Abarca, Katia; Rivera, Luis; Lattanzi, Maria; Pedotti, Paola; Arora, Ashwani; Kieninger-Baum, Dorothee; Della Cioppa, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the optimal dose of an MF59-adjuvanted, monovalent, A/H1N1 influenza vaccine in healthy paediatric subjects. Subjects aged 3-8 years (n=194) and 9-17 years (n=160) were randomized to receive two primary doses of A/H1N1 vaccine containing either 3.75 μg antigen with half a standard dose of MF59 adjuvant, 7.5 μg antigen with a full dose of MF59, or (children 3-8 years only), a non-adjuvanted 15 μg formulation. A booster dose of MF59-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine including homologous A/H1N1 strain was given one year after priming. Immunogenicity was assessed by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization assays. Vaccine safety was assessed throughout the study (up to 18 months). A single priming dose of either MF59-adjuvanted formulation was sufficient to meet the European licensure criteria for pandemic influenza vaccines (HI titres ≥1:40>70%; seroconversion>40%; and GMR>2.5). Two non-adjuvanted vaccine doses were required to meet the same licensure criteria. After first and second doses, percentage of subjects with HI titres ≥1:40 were between 97% and 100% in the adjuvanted vaccine groups compared with 68% and 91% in the non-adjuvanted group, respectively. Postvaccination seroconversion rates ranged from 91% to 98% in adjuvanted groups and were 68% (first dose) and 98% (second dose) in the non-adjuvanted group. HI titres ≥1:330 after primary doses were achieved in 69% to 90% in adjuvanted groups compared with 41% in the non-adjuvanted group. Long-term antibody persistence after priming and a robust antibody response to booster immunization were observed in all vaccination groups. All A/H1N1 vaccine formulations were generally well tolerated. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred, and no subjects were withdrawn from the study due to an adverse event. An MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine containing 3.75 μg of A/H1N1 antigen was well tolerated and sufficiently immunogenic to meet all the

  4. Identification and expression analysis of BoMF25, a novel polygalacturonase gene involved in pollen development of Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Meiling; Liang, Ying; Yu, Youjian; Ma, Zhiming; Song, Limin; Yue, Xiaoyan; Cao, Jiashu

    2015-06-01

    BoMF25 acts on pollen wall. Polygalacturonase (PG) is a pectin-digesting enzyme involved in numerous plant developmental processes and is described to be of critical importance for pollen wall development. In the present study, a PG gene, BoMF25, was isolated from Brassica oleracea. BoMF25 is the homologous gene of At4g35670, a PG gene in Arabidopsis thaliana with a high expression level at the tricellular pollen stage. Collinear analysis revealed that the orthologous gene of BoMF25 in Brassica campestris (syn. B. rapa) genome was probably lost because of genome deletion and reshuffling. Sequence analysis indicated that BoMF25 contained four classical conserved domains (I, II, III, and IV) of PG protein. Homology and phylogenetic analyses showed that BoMF25 was clustered in Clade F. The putative promoter sequence, containing classical cis-acting elements and pollen-specific motifs, could drive green fluorescence protein expression in onion epidermal cells. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis suggested that BoMF25 was mainly expressed in the anther at the late stage of pollen development. In situ hybridization analysis also indicated that the strong and specific expression signal of BoMF25 existed in pollen grains at the mature pollen stage. Subcellular localization showed that the fluorescence signal was observed in the cell wall of onion epidermal cells, which suggested that BoMF25 may be a secreted protein localized in the pollen wall.

  5. RADISH CV. MOKHOVSKIY IS A SOURCE OF MS- AND MF-LINES AT BREEDING FOR HETEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on hybrid and inbreed population of radish cv. Mokhovskiy using CMS-ogura nine lines with 100% of male sterility and fertile maintainers were selected. Using the multiplex PCR, the presence of cytoplasm of Ogura type in ms-lines and its absence in mf-lines were confirmed.

  6. On Reduced Amalgamated Free Products of C*-algebras and the MF-Property

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Jonas A.

    We establish an isomorphism of the group von Neumann algebra of an amalgamated free product of countable Abelian discrete groups. This result is then used to give some new examples of reduced group $ C^* $-algebras which are MF. Finally, we give a characterization of the amalgamated free products...

  7. The mechanism of action of MF59 - an innately attractive adjuvant formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, D T; Ott, G S; De Gregorio, E; Seubert, A

    2012-06-19

    MF59 is a safe and effective vaccine adjuvant which was originally approved to be included in a licensed influenza vaccine to be used in the elderly in Europe in 1997. The MF59 adjuvanted influenza vaccine (Fluad™) is now licensed in more than 20 countries worldwide and more than 85 million doses have been administered. More recently the vaccine adjuvant has also been shown to be safe and effective in young children and resulted in a significant increase in influenza vaccine efficacy in a controlled clinical trial in Europe. Since the early days of its discovery we have explored the mechanism of action of MF59, using a variety of available techniques. In recent years we have explored more thoroughly the mechanism of action using new and more sophisticated techniques. It is remarkable how consistent the data has been, using a variety of different approaches both in several small animal models and also using human immune cells in vitro. Here we present a summary of all the work performed to date on the mechanism of action of MF59 and we present a unified theory based on the accumulated data of how it exerts its adjuvant effects. A key element of the mechanism of action appears to be the creation of a transient 'immunocompetent' local environment at the injection site, resulting in the recruitment of key immune cells, which are able to take up antigen and adjuvant and transport them to the local lymph nodes, where the immune response is induced. This recruitment appears to be triggered by the induction of a chemokine driven gradient by the impact of MF59 on local cells, which are activated to secrete further chemokines, which are recruitment factors for more immune cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. IAS 40 ur ett Nordenperspektiv : Jämförelse av regelverkets efterlevnad 2014 jämfört med 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Wigge, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    Börsnoterade bolag ska i sin koncernredovisning redovisa enligt IFRS och förvaltningsfastigheter skall redovisas enligt IAS 40 Förvaltningsfastigheter. Detta examensarbete undersöker hur Nordiska börsnoterade bolag tillämpar vissa punkter inom IAS 40 i 2014 års redovisning jämfört med 2009 års redovisning. Syftet med undersökningen är att undersöka skillnader mellan de granskade företagens redovisning 2014 och 2009, med utgångspunkten i en tidigare publicerad undersökning (Hedlund & Ersso...

  9. Study of the flight range and ideal density of the africanized honeybees, Apis mellifera L., 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) labelled with 32 P on an apple orchard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranhoa, B.A.J.

    1990-06-01

    The ideal density, the flight range, the choice for any flight direction, the influence of temperature and relative humidity of air about the honeybee's activity, Apis mellifera L.. 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were studied in an apple orchard, utilizing nuclear techniques. Five hives, with 35,000 bees each, were labelled with syrup (50%) content (2,5 μCi 32 P/ml) and taken one by one, every two days to the blossomed orchard. A circumference area of 100 m diameter (0,8 ha) W staked each 10 m from the center to the limit (50 m), making a cross, pointing out to North, South, East and West. The honeybees were collected on apple flowers, during 5 minutes in each stake, at 10:00 a.m. and 12:30 p.m. (author)

  10. Luminescence of high density electron-hole plasma in CdS and CdSe in a wide temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, H.; Shionoya, S.

    1983-01-01

    Time-resolved spectra of the spontaneous luminescence of the high density electron-hole plasma (EHP) in CdS and CdSe are observed in a wide range of temperature which is surely higher than the calculated critical temperature for electron-hole liquid formation, in order to carry forward discussion on dynamic nature of the EHP previously observed in 4.2 K experiments. Spectra in the late stage are analyzed, and obtained values of the reduced bandgap energy and chemical potential are compared with those theoretically calculated for higher temperatures. The aspects of the change of the spectral shape in the late stage are hard to understand. Unfortunately no clear conclusion is drawn on the nature of the EHP produced at 4.2 K. The only thing one can say is that the condensed electron-hole liquid state, which is in equilibrium with the exciton state, is not realized. (author)

  11. Effective atomic number and effective electron densities of some inorganic compounds for Compton effect in the gamma energy range 280 keV to 1115 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasannakumar, S.; Umesh, T.K.

    2014-01-01

    The effective atomic number and effective electron densities of some inorganic compounds for Compton effect in the gamma energy range 280 keV to 1115 keV by using Compton scattering cross sections which are determined on a goniometer assembly. An ORTEC model 23210 gamma-x high purity germanium detector (HpGe) has been used to record the data along with a personal computer based MCA in the angular region 50°-110°. The effective atomic numbers so obtained were found to be equal to the total number of electrons present in the sample in accordance with the chemical formula. The results so obtained are of first of their kind at these energies and are expected to be important in a variety of applications of radiation physics and chemistry. (author)

  12. PetIGA-MF: a multi-field high-performance toolbox for structure-preserving B-splines spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmiento, Adel; Cô rtes, A.M.A.; Garcia, D.A.; Dalcin, Lisandro; Collier, N.; Calo, V.M.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a high-performance solution framework for isogeometric discrete differential forms based on B-splines: PetIGA-MF. Built on top of PetIGA, an open-source library we have built and developed over the last decade, PetIGA-MF is a general

  13. Bifunctional properties of hydrothermal synthesized BaMF4 (M = Co, Ni and Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farheen N. Sayed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BaMF4 (M = Co, Ni and Zn samples having orthorhombic structure have been synthesized by a mild hydrothermal method and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD, magnetic and electrical measurements. Single phase formation of these compounds has been found to be dependent on various factors like reaction time, pH, temperature etc. All the samples showed ferroelectricity, which decreases with increase in temperature. BaMF4 (M = Co, Ni samples show 10-15 times more leakage current compared to that of BaZnF4 at higher applied field. Absence of multivalent ions in BaZnF4 can be the reason for its minimum leakage current. All the samples except, BaZnF4, exhibit weak room temperature ferromagnetism also.

  14. Chandra reveals a black hole X-ray binary within the ultraluminous supernova remnant MF 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T. P.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2003-06-01

    We present evidence, based on Chandra ACIS-S observations of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 6946, that the extraordinary X-ray luminosity of the MF 16 supernova remnant actually arises in a black hole X-ray binary. This conclusion is drawn from the point-like nature of the X-ray source, its X-ray spectrum closely resembling the spectrum of other ultraluminous X-ray sources thought to be black hole X-ray binary systems, and the detection of rapid hard X-ray variability from the source. We briefly discuss the nature of the hard X-ray variability, and the origin of the extreme radio and optical luminosity of MF 16 in light of this identification.

  15. The Kinetics of Bainitic Transformation of Roll Steel 75Kh3MF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletsova, O. A.; Krylova, S. E.; Priymak, E. Yu.; Gryzunov, V. I.; Kamantsev, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The critical points of steel 75Kh3MF and the temperature of the start of martensitic transformation are determined by a dilatometric method. The thermokinetic and isothermal diagrams of decomposition of supercooled austenite are plotted. The microstructure and microhardness of steel specimens cooled at different rates are studied. The kinetics of the occurrence of bainitic transformation in the steel is calculated using the Austin-Ricket equation.

  16. Automatic epileptic seizure detection in EEGs using MF-DFA, SVM based on cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongnan; Wen, Tingxi; Huang, Wei; Wang, Meihong; Li, Chunfeng

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic disease with transient brain dysfunction that results from the sudden abnormal discharge of neurons in the brain. Since electroencephalogram (EEG) is a harmless and noninvasive detection method, it plays an important role in the detection of neurological diseases. However, the process of analyzing EEG to detect neurological diseases is often difficult because the brain electrical signals are random, non-stationary and nonlinear. In order to overcome such difficulty, this study aims to develop a new computer-aided scheme for automatic epileptic seizure detection in EEGs based on multi-fractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) and support vector machine (SVM). New scheme first extracts features from EEG by MF-DFA during the first stage. Then, the scheme applies a genetic algorithm (GA) to calculate parameters used in SVM and classify the training data according to the selected features using SVM. Finally, the trained SVM classifier is exploited to detect neurological diseases. The algorithm utilizes MLlib from library of SPARK and runs on cloud platform. Applying to a public dataset for experiment, the study results show that the new feature extraction method and scheme can detect signals with less features and the accuracy of the classification reached up to 99%. MF-DFA is a promising approach to extract features for analyzing EEG, because of its simple algorithm procedure and less parameters. The features obtained by MF-DFA can represent samples as well as traditional wavelet transform and Lyapunov exponents. GA can always find useful parameters for SVM with enough execution time. The results illustrate that the classification model can achieve comparable accuracy, which means that it is effective in epileptic seizure detection.

  17. Cloning and expression analysis of a new anther-specific gene CaMF4 in Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xuefeng; Chen, Changming; Chen, Guoju; Cao, Bihao; Lei, Jianjun

    2017-03-01

    Our previous study on the genic male sterile-fertile line 114AB of Capsicum annuum indicated a diversity of differentially expressed cDNA fragments in fertile and sterile lines. In this study, a transcript-derived fragment (TDF), male fertile 4 (CaMF4) was chosen for further investigation to observe that this specific fragment accumulates in the flower buds of the fertile line. The full genomic DNA sequence of CaMF4 was 894 bp in length, containing two exons and one intron, and the complete coding sequence encoded a putative 11.53 kDa protein of 109 amino acids. The derived protein of CaMF4 shared similarity with the members of PGPS/D3 protein family. The expression of CaMF4 was detected in both the flower buds at stage 8 and open flowers of the male fertile line. In contrast to this observation, expression of CaMF4 was not detected in any organs of the male sterile line. Further analysis revealed that CaMF4 was expressed particularly in anthers of the fertile line. Our results suggest that CaMF4 is an anther-specific gene and might be indispensable for anther or pollen development in C. annuum.

  18. Simulation of Microdamage and Evaluation of Remaining Life of Steam Conduit Components from New-Generation Refractory Steel 10Kh9MF-Sh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladshtein, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    The effects of microdamage on the remaining life of high-temperature components of steam conduits from high-chromium steel 10Kh9MF-Sh and low-alloy steel 12Kh1M1F are compared. To simulate the microdamage, specimens with a circular notch and different relative diameters are fabricated. Specimens with a notch simulating the highest degree of microdamage and smooth specimens are tested for long-term strength. The coefficient of the remaining life of a conduit is computed for the range of relative damage presenting practical interest.

  19. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)-based evaluation of biological tissue phantoms to study multifrequency electrical impedance tomography (Mf-EIT) systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Tushar Kanti

    2016-03-18

    Abstract: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) phantoms are essential for the calibration, comparison and evaluation of the EIT systems. In EIT, the practical phantoms are typically developed based on inhomogeneities surrounded by a homogeneous background to simulate a suitable conductivity contrast. In multifrequency EIT (Mf-EIT) evaluation, the phantoms must be developed with the materials which have recognizable or distinguishable impedance variations over a wide range of frequencies. In this direction the impedance responses of the saline solution (background) and a number vegetable and fruit tissues (inhomogeneities) are studied with electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the frequency responses of bioelectrical impedance and conductivity are analyzed. A number of practical phantoms with different tissue inhomogeneities and different inhomogeneity configurations are developed and the multifrequency impedance imaging is studied with the Mf-EIT system to evaluate the phantoms. The conductivity of the vegetable inhomogeneities reconstructed from the EIT imaging is compared with the conductivity values obtained from the EIS studies. Experimental results obtained from multifrequency EIT reconstruction demonstrate that the electrical impedance of all the biological tissues inhomogenity decreases with frequency. The potato tissue phantom produces better impedance image in high frequency ranges compared to the cucumber phantom, because the cucumber impedance at high frequency becomes lesser than that of the potato at the same frequency range. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2016 The Visualization Society of Japan

  20. Effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some biologically important compounds containing H, C, N and O in the energy range 145-1330 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunathaguru, V; Umesh, T K

    2006-01-01

    A semi-empirical relation which can be used to determine the total attenuation cross sections of samples containing H, C, N and O in the energy range 145-1332 keV has been derived based on the total attenuation cross sections of several sugars, amino acids and fatty acids. The cross sections have been measured by performing transmission experiments in a narrow beam good geometry set-up by employing a high-resolution hyperpure germanium detector at seven energies of biological importance such as 145.4 keV, 279.2 keV, 514 keV, 661.6 keV, 1115.5 keV, 1173.2 keV and 1332.1 keV. The semi-empirical relation can reproduce the experimental values within 1-2%. The total attenuation cross sections of five elements carbon, aluminium, titanium, copper and zirconium measured in the same experimental set-up at the energies mentioned above have been used in a new matrix method to evaluate the effective atomic numbers and the effective electron densities of samples such as cholesterol, fatty acids, sugars and amino acids containing H, C, N and O atoms from their effective atomic cross sections. The effective atomic cross sections are the total attenuation cross sections divided by the total number of atoms of all types in a particular sample. Further, a quantity called the effective atomic weight was defined as the ratio of the molecular weight of a sample to the total number of atoms of all types in it. The variation of the effective atomic number was systematically studied with respect to the effective atomic weight and a new semi-empirical relation for Z eff has been evolved. It is felt that this relation can be very useful to determine the effective atomic number of any sample having H, C, N and O atoms in the energy range 145-1332 keV irrespective of its chemical structure

  1. Developing trading strategies based on fractal finance: An application of MF-DFA in the context of Islamic equities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewandaru, Ginanjar; Masih, Rumi; Bacha, Obiyathulla Ismath; Masih, A. Mansur. M.

    2015-11-01

    We provide a new contribution to trading strategies by using multi-fractal de-trended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA), imported from econophysics, to complement various momentum strategies. The method provides a single measure that can capture both persistency and anti-persistency in stock prices, accounting for multifractality. This study uses a sample of Islamic stocks listed in the U.S. Dow Jones Islamic market for a sample period covering 16 years starting in 1996. The findings show that the MF-DFA strategy produces monthly excess returns of 6.12%, outperforming other various momentum strategies. Even though the risk of the MF-DFA strategy may be relatively higher, it can still produce a Sharpe ratio of 0.164, which is substantially higher than that of the other strategies. When we control for the MF-DFA factor with the other factors, its pure factor return is still able to yield a monthly excess return of 1.35%. Finally, we combine the momentum and MF-DFA strategies, with the proportions of 90/10, 80/20, and 70/30 and by doing so we demonstrate that the MF-DFA measure can boost the total monthly excess returns as well as Sharpe ratio. The value added is non-linear which implies that the additional returns are associated with lower incremental risk.

  2. Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant parvovirus B19 vaccine formulated with MF59C.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, W Ripley; Reed, Jennifer L; Noble, William; Young, Neal S; Koenig, Scott

    2003-02-15

    A recombinant human parvovirus B19 vaccine (MEDI-491; MedImmune) composed of the VP1 and VP2 capsid proteins and formulated with MF59C.1 adjuvant was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, phase 1 trial. Parvovirus B19-seronegative adults (n=24) received either 2.5 or 25 microg MEDI-491 at 0, 1, and 6 months. MEDI-491 was safe and immunogenic. All volunteers developed neutralizing antibody titers that peaked after the third immunization and were sustained through study day 364.

  3. Validation of a multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography (mfEIT) system KHU Mark1: impedance spectroscopy and time-difference imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Tong In; Koo, Hwan; Lee, Kyung Heon; Kim, Sang Min; Woo, Eung Je; Lee, Jeehyun; Kim, Sung Wan; Seo, Jin Keun

    2008-01-01

    Validation and interpretation of reconstructed images using a multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography (mfEIT) requires a conductivity phantom including imaging objects with known complex conductivity (σ + iωε) spectra. We describe imaging experiments using the recently developed mfEIT system called the KHU Mark1 with the frequency range of 10 Hz to 500 kHz. Using a bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS) system, we first measured complex conductivity spectra of different imaging objects including saline, agar, polyacrylamide, TX151, animal hide gelatin, banana and cucumber. Based on an analysis of how conductivity and permittivity affect measured complex boundary voltages, we suggested a new complex version of a multi-frequency time-difference image reconstruction algorithm. Imaging experiments were conducted to produce time-difference images of the objects at multiple frequencies using the proposed algorithm. Images of a conductor (stainless steel) and an insulator (acrylic plastic) were used to set a common scale bar to display all images. Comparing reconstructed time-difference images at multiple frequencies with measured complex conductivity spectra, we found that they showed an overall similarity in terms of changes in complex conductivity values with respect to frequency. However, primarily due to the limitation of the difference imaging algorithm, we suggest that multi-frequency time-difference images must be interpreted in terms of relative contrast changes with respect to frequency. We propose further imaging studies using biological tissues of known complex conductivity spectra and using human subjects to find clinical applications of the mfEIT system

  4. Vaccine adjuvant MF59 promotes the intranodal differentiation of antigen-loaded and activated monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Cioncada

    Full Text Available MF59 is an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant approved for human influenza vaccination in European Union. The mode of action of MF59 is not fully elucidated yet, but results from several years of investigation indicate that MF59 establishes an immunocompetent environment at injection site which promotes recruitment of immune cells, including antigen presenting cells (APCs, that are facilitated to engulf antigen and transport it to draining lymph node (dLN where the antigen is accumulated. In vitro studies showed that MF59 promotes the differentiation of monocytes to dendritic cells (Mo-DCs. Since after immunization with MF59, monocytes are rapidly recruited both at the injection site and in dLN and appear to have a morphological change toward a DC-like phenotype, we asked whether MF59 could play a role in inducing differentiation of Mo-DC in vivo. To address this question we immunized mice with the auto-fluorescent protein Phycoerythrin (PE as model antigen, in presence or absence of MF59. We measured the APC phenotype and their antigen uptake within dLNs, the antigen distribution within the dLN compartments and the humoral response to PE. In addition, using Ovalbumin as model antigen, we measured the capacity of dLN APCs to induce antigen-specific CD4 T cell proliferation. Here, we show, for the first time, that MF59 promotes differentiation of Mo-DCs within dLNs from intranodal recruited monocytes and we suggest that this differentiation could take place in the medullary compartment of the LN. In addition we show that the Mo-DC subset represents the major source of antigen-loaded and activated APCs within the dLN when immunizing with MF59. Interestingly, this finding correlates with the enhanced triggering of antigen-specific CD4 T cell response induced by LN APCs. This study therefore demonstrates that MF59 is able to promote an immunocompetent environment also directly within the dLN, offering a novel insight on the mechanism of action of

  5. The Effect of Air Density on Sand Transport Structures and the Adobe Abrasion Profile: A Field Wind-Tunnel Experiment Over a Wide Range of Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingjie; Qu, Jianjun; Dong, Zhibao; Zu, Ruiping; Zhang, Kecun; Wang, Hongtao; Xie, Shengbo

    2014-02-01

    Aeolian sand transport results from interactions between the surface and the airflow above. Air density strongly constrains airflow characteristics and the resulting flow of sand, and therefore should not be neglected in sand transport models. In the present study, we quantify the influence of air density on the sand flow structure, sand transport rate, adobe abrasion profiles, and abrasion rate using a portable wind-tunnel in the field. For a given wind speed, the flow's ability to transport sand decreases at low air density, so total sand transport decreases, but the saltation height increases. Thus, the damage to human structures increases compared with what occurs at lower altitudes. The adobe abrasion rate by the cloud of blowing sand decreases exponentially with increasing height above the surface, while the wind erosion and dust emission intensity both increase with increasing air density. Long-term feedback processes between air density and wind erosion suggest that the development of low-altitude areas due to long-term deflation plays a key role in dust emission, and will have a profound significance for surface Aeolian processes and geomorphology.

  6. MF-101, an estrogen receptor beta agonist for the treatment of vasomotor symptoms in peri- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, Dale W; Pinkerton, Joann V

    2009-04-01

    During peri- and postmenopausal stages, the majority of women experience moderate-to-severe vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flashes and night sweats, that interfere with sleep and reduce quality of life. Estrogen alone or in combination with a progestagen has been the standard therapy for such vasomotor symptoms; however, this therapeutic regimen is associated with severe side effects, such as breast cancer or cardiovascular events. To provide a better treatment option for menopausal women, Bionovo Inc is developing the estrogen receptor (ER)beta-selective agonist MF-101. Selective ER agonists can stimulate either ERalpha or ERbeta and induce tissue-specific estrogen-like effects, thus providing a safer alternative to conventional hormone therapy. MF-101 is derived from 22 herbs that are traditionally used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. MF-101 did not promote the growth of breast cancer cells or stimulate uterine growth in preclinical studies and, in a phase II trial, was demonstrated to be safe and more effective in reducing the frequency and severity of hot flashes in postmenopausal women compared with placebo. To confirm the safety and efficacy of MF-101, larger phase III trials were planned for 2009. Although MF-101 appears to be a promising therapeutic, the herbal composition of the drug may be a disadvantage, because of the increased risk of causing allergic reactions in the general population. Studies with the MF-101-isolated active compounds liquiritigen and chalcone demonstrated selectivity for ERbeta, with no induction of proliferative events. If these isolates were demonstrated to be as effective and safe in clinical trials as preliminary data suggest regarding MF-101, these compounds could change the way clinicians treat menopause-associated symptoms.

  7. Lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnett, E S; Webber, C E; Coates, G

    1977-01-01

    The density of a defined volume of the human lung can be measured in vivo by a new noninvasive technique. A beam of gamma-rays is directed at the lung and, by measuring the scattered gamma-rays, lung density is calculated. The density in the lower lobe of the right lung in normal man during quiet...... breathing in the sitting position ranged from 0.25 to 0.37 g.cm-3. Subnormal values were found in patients with emphsema. In patients with pulmonary congestion and edema, lung density values ranged from 0.33 to 0.93 g.cm-3. The lung density measurement correlated well with the findings in chest radiographs...... but the lung density values were more sensitive indices. This was particularly evident in serial observations of individual patients....

  8. Adsorption studies of a water soluble dye, Reactive Red MF-3B, using sonication-surfactant-modified attapulgite clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jianhua; Liu Yuanfa; Jin Qingzhe; Wang Xingguo; Yang Jun

    2007-01-01

    The removal of water-soluble Reactive Red MF-3B from aqueous media by sonication-surfactant-modified attapulgite clay was studied in a batch system. The surfactant used was octodecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (OTMAC). Adsorbent characterizations were investigated using X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and surface area analysis. The effects of pH, contact time, initial solute concentration, adsorbent dose, and temperature on the adsorption of Reactive Red MF-3B onto modified clay were investigated. On the basis of kinetic studies, specific rate constants involved in the processes were calculated and second-order adsorption kinetics was observed in the case. Film diffusion was found to be the rate-limiting step. Reactive Red MF-3B adsorption was found to increase with increase temperature. The Reactive Red MF-3B equilibrium adsorption data were fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models, the former being found to provide the better fit of the experimental data. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated. From the results it can be concluded that the surfactant-modified clay could be a good adsorbent for treating Reactive Red MF-3B-contaminated waters

  9. On the universality of the long-/short-range separation in multiconfigurational density-functional theory. II. Investigating f0 actinide species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromager, Emmanuel; Réal, Florent; Wåhlin, Pernilla

    2009-01-01

    In a previous paper [Fromager , J. Chem. Phys. 126, 074111 (2007)], some of the authors proposed a recipe for choosing the optimal value of the mu parameter that controls the long-range/short-range separation of the two-electron interaction in hybrid multiconfigurational self-consistent field sho...

  10. Performance study of mullite and mullite-alumina ceramic MF membranes for oily wastewaters treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasi, Mohsen; Mirfendereski, Mojtaba; Fini, Mahdi Nikbakht

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, results of an experimental study on separation of oil from actual and synthetic oily wastewaters with mullite and mullite-alumina tubular ceramic membranes are presented. Mullite and mullite-alumina microfiltration (MF) symmetric membranes were synthesized from kaolin clay and α......-alumina membranes for treatment of synthetic wastewaters were investigated. In order to determine the best operating conditions, 250-3000ppm condensate gas in water emulsions was employed as synthetic oily wastewaters using mullite membrane. At the best operating conditions (3bar pressure, 1.5m/s cross flow...... velocity and 35°C temperature), performance of mullite and mullite-alumina membranes for treatment of real and synthetic wastewaters were also compared. The results for treatment of emulsions showed that the mullite ceramic membrane has the highest R (93.8%) and the lowest FR (28.97%). Also, the mullite...

  11. Investigation of 12Kh1MF steel resistance to brittle fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologov, G.A.; Rushchits, T.Yu.

    1977-01-01

    The metal of hot-rolled steam pipe made of 12Kh1MF steel, which has been subjected to thermal treatment under laboratory conditions, and metal samples from acting steam pipes after different exploitation periods at 510-565 deg C have been investigated. The dependence of impact viscosity and its constituents on conditions of thermal treatment has been established. The energy consumed by the developing crack has been used as an impact viscosity criterion. Appropriate thermal treatment is capable of rehabilitating the impact viscosity of embrittled metal. Cold plastic deformation increases crack propagation rate in the initial metal and promotes embrittlement during exploitation. Ageing of the working metal reduces its capacity of stopping the developing crack and shifts the temperature threshold of brittleness towards positive temperature

  12. Corrosion failure of a bolt made of the 25Kh1MF material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, V.; Cechova, D.; Velkoborsky, J.

    1989-01-01

    M36x4 bolts, of which there are 222 at each nuclear power plant unit, are made of the 25Kh1MF or 38KhN3MFA steel. They are located in an environment with elevated temperature, with damp air and with boric acid. Corrosion of these bolts is due to the rather poor metallurgical quality of the steel. No inadmissible inhomogeneities of the type of lines of inclusions occur in the bolt material produced by cold rolling but defects of the type of laps were found on the threads. It is suggested that if the cold rolling technology were obviated, corrosion failure of the bolts might not occur. (M.D.). 7 figs., 3 refs

  13. Implementation of Anti-Collision System on M/F ‘Wawel’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wołejsza Piotr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The known navigational systems in use and methods of navigational decision support perform information functions and as such are helpful in the process of safe conduct of a vessel. However, none of these known systems provides a navigator with ready solutions of collision situations taking account of all the vessels in the proximity of own ship, where the Collision Regulations apply. This paper presents verification results of NAVDEC — new Navigational Decision Supporting System created by research team from Szczecin Maritime University both for ocean going ships and pleasure crafts. Verification was carried out in real condition on board Motor Ferry ‘Wawel’ (m/f ‘Wawel’, which belongs to shipowner Polferries (PŻB. During the journey to/from Nynashamn system was tested from customer perspective. Few suggestions for improvements were issued, which were discussed in this article.

  14. Characterization of newly isolated Lactobacillus delbrueckii-like strain MF-07 isolated from chicken and its role in isoflavone biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Farooq; Zhu, Wei-Yun

    2009-02-01

    Cecal microbiota of chicken was screened for bacteria involved in the biotransformation of isoflavones. A new facultative anaerobic bacterium, capable of deglycosylation of the isoflavone genistin, was isolated and identified as a Lactobacillus delbrueckii-like strain. The isolate MF-07 was Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, catalase negative, non-spore-forming, nonmotile and a straight rod. The polyphasic taxonomic data, along with 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison, demonstrated that the isolate MF-07 was most closely related to L. delbrueckii group of the Lactobacillus genus. Considerable amounts of genistein were accumulated with genistin as a substrate within the first 12 h of fermentation. Formononetin and daidzein were not metabolized. The influence of several carbon sources on the growth of the isolate MF-07 and biotransformation of genistin was also investigated. This is the first study in which an anaerobic Lactobacillus bacterium from the chicken intestinal tract that metabolizes genistin to produce its bioactive metabolite was identified and characterized.

  15. Asymmetric MF-DCCA method based on risk conduction and its application in the Chinese and foreign stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guangxi; Han, Yan; Li, Qingchen; Xu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    The acceleration of economic globalization gradually shows the linkage of the stock markets in various counties and produces a risk conduction effect. An asymmetric MF-DCCA method is conducted based on the different directions of risk conduction (DMF-ADCCA) and by using the traditional MF-DCCA. To ensure that the empirical results are more objective and robust, this study selects the stock index data of China, the US, Germany, India, and Brazil from January 2011 to September 2014 using the asymmetric MF-DCCA method based on different risk conduction effects and nonlinear Granger causality tests to study the asymmetric cross-correlation between domestic and foreign stock markets. Empirical results indicate the existence of a bidirectional conduction effect between domestic and foreign stock markets, and the greater influence degree from foreign countries to domestic market compared with that from the domestic market to foreign countries.

  16. Ionization Energies, Electron Affinities, and Polarization Energies of Organic Molecular Crystals: Quantitative Estimations from a Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM)–Tuned Range-Separated Density Functional Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Haitao; Ryno, Sean; Zhong, Cheng; Ravva, Mahesh Kumar; Sun, Zhenrong; Kö rzdö rfer, Thomas; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new methodology for the first-principles description of the electronic properties relevant for charge transport in organic molecular crystals. This methodology, which is based on the combination of a non-empirical, optimally tuned range

  17. PetIGA-MF: a multi-field high-performance toolbox for structure-preserving B-splines spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmiento, Adel

    2016-10-01

    We describe a high-performance solution framework for isogeometric discrete differential forms based on B-splines: PetIGA-MF. Built on top of PetIGA, an open-source library we have built and developed over the last decade, PetIGA-MF is a general multi-field discretization tool. To test the capabilities of our implementation, we solve different viscous flow problems such as Darcy, Stokes, Brinkman, and Navier-Stokes equations. Several convergence benchmarks based on manufactured solutions are presented assuring optimal convergence rates of the approximations, showing the accuracy and robustness of our solver.

  18. Hydrogen degradation of the 26H2MF alloy steel in H2SO4 and hydrocarbon environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, A.; Swieczko-Zurek, B.; Michaliak, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Polish 26H2M alloy steel has been subjected to different heat treatment resulting in different microstructure and fracture appearance. The slow strain rate tests have been made on smooth round specimens in diluted sulphuric acid, boiler fuel and used mineral machine oil. The 26H2MF steel has become relatively immune in neutral boiler fuel and mineral oil and been heavily suffered from hydrogen degradation in acidic environment. The results demonstrate that the 26H2MF steel is highly susceptible to hydrogen degradation but in absence of stress raisers the increased hydrogen absorption in hydrocarbons can cause only small loss of its plasticity. (author) >>>

  19. Geothermal properties of Swiss Molasse Basin (depth range 0-500 m) - 2006 upgrade of the thermal conductivity, heat capacity, rock density and porosity data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leu, W.; Megel, T.; Schaerli, U.

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this project is the preparation of a specific data base of geothermal properties for typical rocks of the Swiss Molasse Basin (depth interval 0-500 m). The project includes the development of a new laboratory tool for efficient heat capacity measurements on rock samples, numerous new measurements of geothermal rock properties in the laboratory and calculation of such data from geophysical borehole logs. In the geographical area under review, 282 rock samples, mainly from deep boreholes, were analyzed with the successfully calibrated new heat capacity device and conventional thermal conductivity measuring techniques (cuttings and cores). Based on sonic and density log data from exploration wells, 374 additional data points were generated. This new data base characterizes in detail the six main lithological rock types in the three Molasse groups OSM, OMM and USM within the Swiss Plateau Molasse. The statistical evaluation of all data illustrates the regional variation of the petrophysical and geothermal parameters. For most data groups bulk rock density and thermal conductivity increase, whereas heat capacity decreases in the direction towards the Alpine front. Thermal conductivity shows a distinct increase with depth. Based on this new information and with the aid of the evaluation software tool SwEWS, the costs of planned geothermal installations can be optimized thanks to more precise heat extraction simulations with existing software packages like COSOND, TRNSYS, EWS or WPcalc. (author)

  20. Studies on effective atomic numbers and electron densities in amino acids and sugars in the energy range 30-1333 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowda, Shivalinge; Krishnaveni, S.; Gowda, Ramakrishna

    2005-01-01

    The effective atomic numbers and electron densities of the amino acids glycine, alanine, serine, valine, threonine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartic acid, lysine, glutamic acid, histidine, phenylalanine, arginine, tyrosine, tryptophane and the sugars arabinose, ribose, glucose, galactose, mannose, fructose, rhamnose, maltose, melibiose, melezitose and raffinose at the energies 30.8, 35.0, 81.0, 145, 276.4, 302.9, 356, 383.9, 661.6, 1173 and 1332.5 keV were calculated by using the measured total attenuation cross-sections. The interpolations of total attenuation cross-sections for photons of energy E in elements of atomic number Z was performed using the logarithmic regression analysis of the XCOM data in the photon energy region 30-1500 keV. The best-fit coefficients obtained by a piece wise interpolation method were used to find the effective atomic number and electron density of the compounds. These values are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated based on XCOM data

  1. Studies on effective atomic numbers and electron densities in amino acids and sugars in the energy range 30-1333 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowda, Shivalinge [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006 (India); Krishnaveni, S. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006 (India); Gowda, Ramakrishna [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006 (India)]. E-mail: ramakrishnagowda@yahoo.com

    2005-10-15

    The effective atomic numbers and electron densities of the amino acids glycine, alanine, serine, valine, threonine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartic acid, lysine, glutamic acid, histidine, phenylalanine, arginine, tyrosine, tryptophane and the sugars arabinose, ribose, glucose, galactose, mannose, fructose, rhamnose, maltose, melibiose, melezitose and raffinose at the energies 30.8, 35.0, 81.0, 145, 276.4, 302.9, 356, 383.9, 661.6, 1173 and 1332.5 keV were calculated by using the measured total attenuation cross-sections. The interpolations of total attenuation cross-sections for photons of energy E in elements of atomic number Z was performed using the logarithmic regression analysis of the XCOM data in the photon energy region 30-1500 keV. The best-fit coefficients obtained by a piece wise interpolation method were used to find the effective atomic number and electron density of the compounds. These values are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated based on XCOM data.

  2. Seroprevalence of Selected Infectious Agents in a Free-Ranging, Low-Density Lion Population in the Central Kalahari Game Reserves in Botswana▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsauer, Sandra; Bay, Gert; Meli, Marina; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-one free-ranging Central Kalahari lions (Panthera leo) exhibited a high prevalence rate of feline herpesvirus (100%) and feline immunodeficiency virus (71.4%). Canine distemper virus and feline calicivirus occurred with a low prevalence. All individuals tested negative for feline coronavirus, feline parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

  3. Seroprevalence of selected infectious agents in a free-ranging, low-density lion population in the Central Kalahari Game Reserves in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsauer, Sandra; Bay, Gert; Meli, Marina; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2007-06-01

    Twenty-one free-ranging Central Kalahari lions (Panthera leo) exhibited a high prevalence rate of feline herpesvirus (100%) and feline immunodeficiency virus (71.4%). Canine distemper virus and feline calicivirus occurred with a low prevalence. All individuals tested negative for feline coronavirus, feline parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

  4. Studies on effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption and electron density of some narcotic drugs in the energy range 1 keV-20 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounhalli, Shivraj G.; Shantappa, Anil; Hanagodimath, S. M.

    2013-04-01

    Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption ZPEA,eff, photon interaction ZPI,eff and for electron density Nel, have been calculated by a direct method in the photon-energy region from 1 keV to 20 MeV for narcotic drugs, such as Heroin (H), Cocaine (CO), Caffeine (CA), Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabinol (CBD), Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). The ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel values have been found to change with energy and composition of the narcotic drugs. The energy dependence ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel is shown graphically. The maximum difference between the values of ZPEA,eff, and ZPI,eff occurs at 30 keV and the significant difference of 2 to 33% for the energy region 5-100 keV for all drugs. The reason for these differences is discussed.

  5. Predator Presence and Vegetation Density Affect Capture Rates and Detectability of Litoria aurea Tadpoles: Wide-Ranging Implications for a Common Survey Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine R Sanders

    Full Text Available Trapping is a common sampling technique used to estimate fundamental population metrics of animal species such as abundance, survival and distribution. However, capture success for any trapping method can be heavily influenced by individuals' behavioural plasticity, which in turn affects the accuracy of any population estimates derived from the data. Funnel trapping is one of the most common methods for sampling aquatic vertebrates, although, apart from fish studies, almost nothing is known about the effects of behavioural plasticity on trapping success. We used a full factorial experiment to investigate the effects that two common environmental parameters (predator presence and vegetation density have on the trapping success of tadpoles. We estimated that the odds of tadpoles being captured in traps was 4.3 times higher when predators were absent compared to present and 2.1 times higher when vegetation density was high compared to low, using odds ratios based on fitted model means. The odds of tadpoles being detected in traps were also 2.9 times higher in predator-free environments. These results indicate that common environmental factors can trigger behavioural plasticity in tadpoles that biases trapping success. We issue a warning to researchers and surveyors that trapping biases may be commonplace when conducting surveys such as these, and urge caution in interpreting data without consideration of important environmental factors present in the study system. Left unconsidered, trapping biases in capture success have the potential to lead to incorrect interpretations of data sets, and misdirection of limited resources for managing species.

  6. Assessing the role of Hartree-Fock exchange, correlation energy and long range corrections in evaluating ionization potential, and electron affinity in density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikramaditya, Talapunur; Lin, Shiang-Tai

    2017-06-05

    Accurate determination of ionization potentials (IPs), electron affinities (EAs), fundamental gaps (FGs), and HOMO, LUMO energy levels of organic molecules play an important role in modeling and predicting the efficiencies of organic photovoltaics, OLEDs etc. In this work, we investigate the effects of Hartree Fock (HF) Exchange, correlation energy, and long range corrections in predicting IP and EA in Hybrid Functionals. We observe increase in percentage of HF exchange results in increase of IPs and decrease in EAs. Contrary to the general expectations inclusion of both HF exchange and correlation energy (from the second order perturbation theory MP2) leads to poor prediction. Range separated Hybrid Functionals are found to be more reliable among various DFT Functionals investigated. DFT Functionals predict accurate IPs whereas post HF methods predict accurate EAs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. MF/UF rejection and fouling potential of algal organic matter from bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.; Ekowati, Yuli; Winters, Harvey; Amy, Gary L.; Schippers, Jan Cornelis; Kennedy, Maria Dolores

    2015-01-01

    the latter were poorly rejected. MF (0.4μm and 0.1μm pore size) rejected 14%-56% of biopolymers while conventional UF (100kDa) and tight UF (10kDa) rejected up to 83% and 97%, respectively. The retention of AOM resulted in a rapid increase in trans

  8. MF/UF rejection and fouling potential of algal organic matter from bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2015-07-01

    Pretreatment with microfiltration (MF) or ultrafiltration (UF) membranes has been proposed for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants to address operational issues associated with algal blooms. Here, we investigated the MF/UF rejection and fouling potential of algal organic matter (AOM) released by common species of bloom-forming marine (Alexandrium tamarense and Chaetoceros affinis) and freshwater (Microcystis sp.) algae. Batch culture monitoring of the three algal species illustrated varying growth pattern, cell concentration, AOM released and membrane fouling potential. The high membrane fouling potential of the cultures can be directly associated (R2>0.85) with AOM such as transparent exopolymer particle (TEP) while no apparent relationship with algal cell concentration was observed. The AOM comprised mainly biopolymers (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins) and low molecular weight organic compounds (e.g., humic-like substances). The former were largely rejected by MF/UF membranes while the latter were poorly rejected. MF (0.4μm and 0.1μm pore size) rejected 14%-56% of biopolymers while conventional UF (100kDa) and tight UF (10kDa) rejected up to 83% and 97%, respectively. The retention of AOM resulted in a rapid increase in trans-membrane pressure (δP) over time, characterised by pore blocking followed by cake filtration with enhanced compression as illustrated by an exponential progression of δP. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  9. [Assessment of the MF59-adjuvanted pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine. Systematic review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aragón, J; Grande Tejada, A M; Márquez-Peláez, S; Molina Linde, J M; Yang, R

    2013-10-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of MF59-adjuvanted pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine in children. A systematic review of the literature was performed after searching the MedLine and Embase electronic databases, and manual search in specialties journals, with MeSH terms and and free terms. Inclusion criteria were clinical trials with children vaccinated with MF59-adjuvanted influenza A/H1N1 vaccine, compared with other vaccines doses with/without MF59-adjuvanted. The immunogenicity and safety of the vaccine was recorded. The quality of the studies included was assessed by CASPe checklist. Four clinical trials with moderate quality were selected. The local and systemic adverse effects were rare and mild, with no differences between groups. Seroconversion and seroprotection levels were higher with MF59-adjuvanted vaccines. Antibody titres were also higher with the adjuvant vaccines. The adjuvant vaccine has a good efficacy and safety profile. The adverse effects that may occur are common and appear similarly in both vaccination groups. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Lowest excited states and optical absorption spectra of donor–acceptor copolymers for organic photovoltaics: a new picture emerging from tuned long-range corrected density functionals

    KAUST Repository

    Pandey, Laxman; Doiron, Curtis; Sears, John S.; Bré das, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Polymers with low optical gaps are of importance to the organic photovoltaics community due to their potential for harnessing a large portion of the solar energy spectrum. The combination along their backbones of electron-rich and electron-deficient fragments contributes to the presence of low-lying excited states that are expected to display significant charge-transfer character. While conventional hybrid functionals are known to provide unsatisfactory results for charge-transfer excitations at the time-dependent DFT level, long-range corrected (LRC) functionals have been reported to give improved descriptions in a number of systems. Here, we use such LRC functionals, considering both tuned and default range-separation parameters, to characterize the absorption spectra of low-optical-gap systems of interest. Our results indicate that tuned LRC functionals lead to simulated optical-absorption properties in good agreement with experimental data. Importantly, the lowest-lying excited states (excitons) are shown to present a much more localized nature than initially anticipated. © 2012 the Owner Societies.

  11. Exploiting LF/MF signals of opportunity for lower ionospheric remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson-Rollins, Marc A.; Cohen, Morris B.

    2017-08-01

    We introduce a method to diagnose and track the D region ionosphere (60-100 km). This region is important for long-distance terrestrial communication and is impacted by a variety of geophysical phenomena, but it is traditionally very difficult to detect. Modern remote sensing methods used to study the D region are predominately near the very low frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) band, with some work also done in the high-frequency and very high frequency bands (HF/VHF, 3-300 MHz). However, the frequency band between VLF and HF has been largely ignored as a diagnostic tool for the ionosphere. In this paper, we evaluate the use of 300 kHz radio reflections as a diagnostic tool for characterizing the D region of the ionosphere. We present radio receiver data, analyze diurnal trends in the signal from these transmitters, and identify ionospheric disturbances impacting LF/MF propagation. We find that 300 kHz remote sensing may allow a unique method for D region diagnostics compared to both the VLF and HF/VHF frequency bands, due to a more direct ionospheric reflection coefficient calculation method with high temporal resolution without the use of forward modeling.

  12. Bimetallic MOFs (H3O)x[Cu(MF6)(pyrazine)2]·(4 - x)H2O (M = V4+, x = 0; M = Ga3+, x = 1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manson, Jamie L.; Schlueter, John A.; Garrett, Kerry E.

    2016-01-01

    The title compounds are bimetallic MOFs containing [Cu(pyz)2]2+ square lattices linked by MF6 n- octahedra. In each, only the Cu2+ spins exhibit long-range magnetic order below 3.5 K (M = V4+) and 2.6 K (M = Ga3+). The V4+ spins remain disordered down to 0.5 K....

  13. Ionization Energies, Electron Affinities, and Polarization Energies of Organic Molecular Crystals: Quantitative Estimations from a Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM)–Tuned Range-Separated Density Functional Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Haitao

    2016-05-16

    We propose a new methodology for the first-principles description of the electronic properties relevant for charge transport in organic molecular crystals. This methodology, which is based on the combination of a non-empirical, optimally tuned range-separated hybrid functional with the polarizable continuum model, is applied to a series of eight representative molecular semiconductor crystals. We show that it provides ionization energies, electron affinities, and transport gaps in very good agreement with experimental values as well as with the results of many-body perturbation theory within the GW approximation at a fraction of the computational costs. Hence, this approach represents an easily applicable and computationally efficient tool to estimate the gas-to-crystal-phase shifts of the frontier-orbital quasiparticle energies in organic electronic materials.

  14. Applications of the KKR-DCA: A Finite-Temperature Density Functional Theory to Predict Chemical Short-Range Order Effects in Disordered Metallic Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biava, D. A.; Johnson, D. D.

    2009-03-01

    Short-range order (SRO) is ubiquitous in metallic alloys, affecting changes in their electronic, thermodynamic, mechanical, magnetic, and structural properties. For example, SRO is responsible for the yield-strength anomalies observed in Cu-Al at high temperatures, i.e., the materials is more resistant to dislocation motion at high temperature than it is at room temperature. Within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostorker (KKR) electronic-structure method, we present results using the dynamical cluster approximations (DCA) to obtain the temperature-dependent SRO in disordered alloys. We obtain the KKR-DCA SRO energetics versus local neighbor SRO parameters and minimize it at fixed temperature to predict the SRO. We show that the calculated SRO at fixed temperature compares well with available experimental results, and then correlate the results to the electronic structure. We discuss how an accurate analytic estimate can be made for the SRO in most metals due to the dependence of the grand potential on SRO.

  15. Description of plasmon-like band in silver clusters: the importance of the long-range Hartree-Fock exchange in time-dependent density-functional theory simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabilloud, Franck

    2014-10-14

    Absorption spectra of Ag20 and Ag55(q) (q = +1, -3) nanoclusters are investigated in the framework of the time-dependent density functional theory in order to analyse the role of the d electrons in plasmon-like band of silver clusters. The description of the plasmon-like band from calculations using density functionals containing an amount of Hartree-Fock exchange at long range, namely, hybrid and range-separated hybrid (RSH) density functionals, is in good agreement with the classical interpretation of the plasmon-like structure as a collective excitation of valence s-electrons. In contrast, using local or semi-local exchange functionals (generalized gradient approximations (GGAs) or meta-GGAs) leads to a strong overestimation of the role of d electrons in the plasmon-like band. The semi-local asymptotically corrected model potentials also describe the plasmon as mainly associated to d electrons, though calculated spectra are in fairly good agreement with those calculated using the RSH scheme. Our analysis shows that a portion of non-local exchange modifies the description of the plasmon-like band.

  16. Comparison of simulations of land-use specific water demand and irrigation water supply by MF-FMP and IWFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Wolfgang; Dogural, Emin; Hanson, Randall T.; Kadir, Tariq; Chung, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Two hydrologic models, MODFLOW with the Farm Process (MF-FMP) and the Integrated Water Flow Model (IWFM), are compared with respect to each model’s capabilities of simulating land-use hydrologic processes, surface-water routing, and groundwater flow. Of major concern among the land-use processes was the consumption of water through evaporation and transpiration by plants. The comparison of MF-FMP and IWFM was conducted and completed using a realistic hypothetical case study. Both models simulate the water demand for water-accounting units resulting from evapotranspiration and inefficiency losses and, for irrigated units, the supply from surface-water deliveries and groundwater pumpage. The MF-FMP simulates reductions in evapotranspiration owing to anoxia and wilting, and separately considers land-use-related evaporation and transpiration; IWFM simulates reductions in evapotranspiration related to the depletion of soil moisture. The models simulate inefficiency losses from precipitation and irrigation water applications to runoff and deep percolation differently. MF-FMP calculates the crop irrigation requirement and total farm delivery requirement, and then subtracts inefficiency losses from runoff and deep percolation. In IWFM, inefficiency losses to surface runoff from irrigation and precipitation are computed and subtracted from the total irrigation and precipitation before the crop irrigation requirement is estimated. Inefficiency losses in terms of deep percolation are computed simultaneously with the crop irrigation requirement. The seepage from streamflow routing also is computed differently and can affect certain hydrologic settings and magnitudes ofstreamflow infiltration. MF-FMP assumes steady-state conditions in the root zone; therefore, changes in soil moisture within the root zone are not calculated. IWFM simulates changes in the root zone in both irrigated and non-irrigated natural vegetation. Changes in soil moisture are more significant for non

  17. Increased immunogenicity of the MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine compared to a conventional subunit vaccine in elderly subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparini, R.; Pozzi, T.; Montomoli, E.; Fragapane, E.; Senatore, F.; Minutello, M.; Podda, A.

    2001-01-01

    Three-hundred and eight outpatient elderly subjects (≥ 65 years) were randomly assigned to receive the MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine (FLUAD; n = 204) or a conventional subunit influenza vaccine (AGRIPPAL S1; n = 104) in order to compare the safety and immunogenicity of the two vaccines. Although mild pain at the injection site was reported more frequently by subjects immunised with the adjuvanted vaccine, both vaccines were shown to be safe and well tolerated. The adjuvanted vaccine was more immunogenic as indicated by higher post-immunisation geometric mean titres (GMTs) and by higher proportions of subjects with post-immunisation ≥ four fold increases of antibody titres or subjects with ≥ 1/160 post-immunisation HI titres. These differences, statistically significant for all three strains after immunisation, indicated that, by addition of the MF59 adjuvant emulsion, conventional subunit influenza antigens acquire an enhanced immunogenicity without any clinically significant increase of their reactogenicity

  18. Determination of carbohydrates in medicinal plants--comparison between TLC, mf-MELDI-MS and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Sultana, Tahira; Abel, Gudrun; Popp, Michael; Bonn, Guenther K

    2011-01-01

    Quality control in the pharmaceutical and phytopharmaceutical industries requires fast and reliable methods for the analysis of raw materials and final products. This study evaluates different analytical approaches in order to recognise the most suitable technique for the analysis of carbohydrates in herbal drug preparations. The specific focus of the study is on thin-layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC), and a newly developed mass spectrometric method, i.e. matrix free material enhanced laser desorption/ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (mf-MELDI-MS). Samples employed in the study were standards and microwave-assisted water extracts from Quercus. TLC analysis proved the presence of mono-, di- and trisaccharides within the biological sample and hinted at the existence of an unknown carbohydrate of higher oligomerisation degree. After evaluation of different derivatisation techniques, GC-MS confirmed data obtained via TLC for mono- to trisaccharides, delivering additionally quantified values under a considerable amount of time. A carbohydrate of higher oligomerisation degree could not be found. The application of mf-MELDI-MS further confirmed the presence of carbohydrates up to trisaccharides, also hinting at the presence of a form of tetrasaccharide. Besides this information, mf-MELDI-MS delivered further data about other substances present in the extract. Quantitative determination resulted in 1.750, 1.736 and 0.336 mg/mL for glucose, sucrose and raffinose respectively. Evaluation of all three techniques employed, clearly proved the heightened performance of mf-MELDI-MS for the qualitative analysis of complex mixtures, as targets do not need modification and analysis requires only a few minutes. In addition, GC-MS is suitable for quantitative analysis. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Centrality evolution of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density over a broad pseudorapidity range in Pb–Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The centrality dependence of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density measured with ALICE in Pb–Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV over a broad pseudorapidity range is presented. This Letter extends the previous results reported by ALICE to more peripheral collisions. No strong change of the overall shape of charged-particle pseudorapidity density distributions with centrality is observed, and when normalised to the number of participating nucleons in the collisions, the evolution over pseudorapidity with centrality is likewise small. The broad pseudorapidity range (−3.5<η<5 allows precise estimates of the total number of produced charged particles which we find to range from 162±22(syst. to 17170±770(syst. in 80–90% and 0–5% central collisions, respectively. The total charged-particle multiplicity is seen to approximately scale with the number of participating nucleons in the collision. This suggests that hard contributions to the charged-particle multiplicity are limited. The results are compared to models which describe dNch/dη at mid-rapidity in the most central Pb–Pb collisions and it is found that these models do not capture all features of the distributions.

  20. Centrality evolution of the charged–particle pseudorapidity density over a broad pseudorapidity range in Pb–Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Millan Almaraz, Jesus Roberto; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; 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Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Bourjau, Christian; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Cerkala, Jakub; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; 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De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Conti, Camila; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; Deplano, Caterina; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Drozhzhova, Tatiana; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdemir, Irem; Erhardt, Filip; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Fleck, Martin Gabriel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gauger, Erin Frances; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez, Victor; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; 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Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Inaba, Motoi; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jadlovsky, Jan; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jakubowska, Monika Joanna; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobayashi, Taiyo; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kopcik, Michal; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Lokesh, Kumar; Kumar, Shyam; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; 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Sozzi, Federica; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Suljic, Miljenko; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Szabo, Alexander; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Tabassam, Uzma; Takahashi, Jun; Tambave, Ganesh Jagannath; Tanaka, Naoto; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trombetta, Giuseppe; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yasar, Cigdem; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Chunhui, Zhang; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2016-03-10

    The centrality dependence of the charged–particle pseudorapidity density measured with ALICE in Pb–Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV over a broad pseudorapidity range is presented. This Letter extends to more peripheral collisions the previous results reported by ALICE. No strong evolution of the charged–particle pseudorapidity density distributions with centrality is observed, and when the results are normalized to the number of participating nucleons in the collisions, the centrality evolution is likewise small. This suggests that hard contributions to the charged–particle multiplicity are limited. The broad pseudorapidity range allows precise estimates of the total number of produced charged particles which we find to range from $162\\pm 22$(syst.) to $17170\\pm 770$(syst.) in 80–90% and 0–5% central collisions, respectively. The results are compared to models which describe ${\\rm d}N_{\\rm ch}/{\\rm d}\\eta$ at mid–rapidity in the most central Pb–Pb collisions and it is found that t...

  1. Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients of Rhizophora spp. binderless particleboards in the 16.59-25.26 keV photon energy range and their density profile using x-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marashdeh, M.W., E-mail: mwmarashdeh@yahoo.com [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Bauk, S. [Physics Section, P.P.P. Jarak Jauh, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Tajuddin, A.A. [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Hashim, R. [Division of Bio-resource, Paper and Coatings Technology, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2012-04-15

    The mass attenuation coefficients of Rhizophora spp. binderless particleboard with four different particle sizes (samples A, B, C and D) and natural raw Rhizophora spp. wood (sample E) were determined using single-beam photon transmission in the energy range between 16.59 and 25.26 keV. This was done by determining the attenuation of K{sub {alpha}1} X-ray fluorescent (XRF) photons from niobium, molybdenum, palladium, silver and tin targets. The results were compared with theoretical values of young-age breast (Breast 1) and water calculated using a XCOM computer program. It was found that the mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. binderless particleboards to be close to the calculated XCOM values in water than natural Rhizophora spp. wood. Computed tomography (CT) scans were then used to determine the density profile of the samples. The CT scan results showed that the Rhizophora spp. binderless particleboard has uniform density compared to natural Rhizophora spp. wood. In general, the differences in the variability of the profile density decrease as the particle size of the pellet samples decreases. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mass attenuation coefficients were determined by X-ray fluorescent photons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sample with smaller particle size found very close to calculated water XCOM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray computed tomography scanner was used to investigate the density distribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The density distribution profile is improved with the decrease in the particle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rhizophora spp. binderless particleboard could be used as phantom material.

  2. POPULATION DENSITIES AND THE RANGE-CARRYING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    George H. Petrides assisted in the collection of field data. ... Overgrazing is induced ... ment, exploding firecrackers were thrown near observed bushbuck and the animals ... -counts would be made repeatedly until a maximum number of individual heads (or eyes) ...... Applying the earlier assumption that 20 pounds of forage.

  3. When Anatase Nanoparticles Become Bulklike: Properties of Realistic TiO2 Nanoparticles in the 1-6 nm Size Range from All Electron Relativistic Density Functional Theory Based Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamiel-Garcia, Oriol; Ko, Kyoung Chul; Lee, Jin Yong; Bromley, Stefan T; Illas, Francesc

    2017-04-11

    All electron relativistic density functional theory (DFT) based calculations using numerical atom-centered orbitals have been carried out to explore the relative stability, atomic, and electronic structure of a series of stoichiometric TiO 2 anatase nanoparticles explicitly containing up to 1365 atoms as a function of size and morphology. The nanoparticles under scrutiny exhibit octahedral or truncated octahedral structures and span the 1-6 nm diameter size range. Initial structures were obtained using the Wulff construction, thus exhibiting the most stable (101) and (001) anatase surfaces. Final structures were obtained from geometry optimization with full relaxation of all structural parameters using both generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and hybrid density functionals. Results show that, for nanoparticles of a similar size, octahedral and truncated octahedral morphologies have comparable energetic stabilities. The electronic structure properties exhibit a clear trend converging to the bulk values as the size of the nanoparticles increases but with a marked influence of the density functional employed. Our results suggest that electronic structure properties, and hence reactivity, for the largest anatase nanoparticles considered in this study will be similar to those exhibited by even larger mesoscale particles or by bulk systems. Finally, we present compelling evidence that anatase nanoparticles become effectively bulklike when reaching a size of ∼20 nm diameter.

  4. Densities and volume properties of (water + tert-butanol) over the temperature range of (274.15 to 348.15) K at pressure of 0.1 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Gennadiy I.; Makarov, Dmitriy M.

    2011-01-01

    The densities of {water (1) + tert-butanol (2)} binary mixture were measured over the temperature range (274.15 to 348.15) K at atmospheric pressure using 'Anton Paar' digital vibrating-tube densimeter. Density measurements were carried out over the whole concentration range at (308.15 to 348.15) K. The following volume parameters were calculated: excess molar volumes and thermal isobaric expansivities of the mixture, partial molar volumes and partial molar thermal isobaric expansivities of the components. Concentration dependences of excess molar volumes were fitted with Redlich-Kister equation. The results of partial molar volume calculations using four equations were compared. It was established that for low alcohol concentrations at T ≤ 208 K the inflection points at x 2 ∼ 0.02 were observed at concentration dependences of specific volume. The concentration dependences of partial molar volumes of both water and tert-butanol had extremes at low alcohol content. The temperature dependence of partial molar volumes of water had some inversion at x 2 ∼ 0.65. The temperature dependence of partial molar volumes of tert-butanol at infinite dilution had minimum at ∼288 K. It was discovered that concentration dependences of thermal isobaric expansivities of the mixture at small alcohol content and low temperatures passed through minimum.

  5. Investigating the engine vibration in MF285 tractor effected by different blends of biodiesel fuel using statistical methods and ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Safrangian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vibrations include a wide range of engineering sciences and discuss from different aspects. One of the aspects is related to various types of engines vibrations, which are often used as power sources in agriculture. The created vibrations can cause lack of comfort and reduce effective work and have bad influence on the health and safety. One of the important parameters of the diesel engine that has the ability to create vibration and knocking is the type of fuel. In this study, the effects of different blends of biodiesel, bioethanol and diesel on the engine vibration were investigated. As a result, a blend of fuels such as synthetic fuel that creates less vibration engine can be identified and introduced. Materials and Methods In this study, canola oil and methanol alcohol with purity of 99.99% and the molar ratio of 6:1 and sodium hydroxide catalyst with 1% by weight of oil were used for biodiesel production. Reactor configurations include: maintaining the temperature at 50 ° C, the reaction time of 5 minutes and the intensity of mixing (8000 rpm, and pump flow, 0.83 liters per minute. A Massey Ferguson (MF 285 tractor with single differential (2WD, built in 2012 at Tractor factory of Iran was used for the experiment. To measure the engine vibration signals, an oscillator with model of VM120 British MONITRAN was used. Vibration signals were measured at three levels of engine speed (2000, 1600, 1000 rpm in three directions (X, Y, Z. The analysis performed by two methods in this study: statistical data analysis and data analysis using Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS. Statistical analysis of data: a factorial experiment of 10×3 based on completely randomized design with three replications was used in each direction of X, Y and Z that conducted separately. Data were compiled and analyzed by SPSS 19 software. Ten levels of fuel were including of biodiesel (5, 15 and 25% and bioethanol (2, 4 and 6%, and diesel fuel. Data

  6. Immunogenicity and safety of cell-derived MF59®-adjuvanted A/H1N1 influenza vaccine for children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuf, Markus; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Rümke, Hans; Rivera, Luis; Pedotti, Paola; Arora, Ashwani Kumar; Lattanzi, Maria; Kieninger, Dorothee; Cioppa, Giovanni Della

    2015-01-01

    Mass immunization of children has the potential to decrease infection rates and prevent the transmission of influenza. We evaluated the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of different formulations of cell-derived MF59-adjuvanted and nonadjuvanted A/H1N1 influenza vaccine in children and adolescents. This was a randomized, single-blind, multicenter study with a total of 666 healthy subjects aged 6 months–17 y in one of 3 vaccination groups, each receiving formulations containing different amounts of influenza A/H1N1 antigen with or without MF59. A booster trivalent seasonal MF59 vaccine was administered one year after primary vaccinations. Antibody titers were assessed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization assays obtained on days 1, 22, 43, 366, and 387 (3 weeks post booster). Safety was monitored throughout the study. One vaccination with 3.75 μg of A/H1N1 antigen formulated with 50% MF59 (3.75_halfMF59) or 7.5 μg of A/H1N1 antigen formulated with 100% MF59 (7.5_fullMF59) induced an HI titer ≥1:40 in >70% of children in the 1–vaccinations with nonadjuvanted 15 μg A/H1N1 antigen were needed to achieve this response in the 1–children aged 6–11 months, 1 dose of 7.5_fullMF59 resulted in an HI titer ≥1:40 in >70% while 2 doses of 3.75_halfMF59 were required to achieve this result. All vaccines were well tolerated. Our findings support the immunogenicity and safety of the 3.75_halfMF59 (2 doses for children vaccine formulations for use in children and adolescents aged 6 months to 17 y The use of the 3.75_halfMF59 could have the benefit of antigen and adjuvant sparing, increasing the available vaccine doses allowing vaccination of more people. PMID:25621884

  7. Global financial crisis and weak-form efficiency of Islamic sectoral stock markets: An MF-DFA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensi, Walid; Tiwari, Aviral Kumar; Yoon, Seong-Min

    2017-04-01

    This paper estimates the weak-form efficiency of Islamic stock markets using 10 sectoral stock indices (basic materials, consumer services, consumer goods, energy, financials, health care, industrials, technology, telecommunication, and utilities). The results based on the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) approach show time-varying efficiency for the sectoral stock markets. Moreover, we find that they tend to show high efficiency in the long term but moderate efficiency in the short term, and that these markets become less efficient after the onset of the global financial crisis. These results have several significant implications in terms of asset allocation for investors dealing with Islamic markets.

  8. Effect of melting technique on grain size and heat resistance of the 12Kh1MF steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanskaya, K.A.; Kulikova, L.V.; Butneva, N.I.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated are the 12Kh1MF steel melted in open-hearth and arc furnaces (deoxidation by aluminium in 1.0 kg/t quantity) and then subjected to electroslag melting. The size of an austenitic grain depends on the residual contents of nitrogen and aluminium in steel. The open-hearth metal subjected to electroslag melting and containing a small quantity of nitrogen (0.006%) and aluminium (0.013%) has coarse austenitic grains and higher heat resistance compared to the steel melted in an arc furnace and also sub ected to electroslag melting. The nitride analysis of steel is carried out

  9. Study of compoisiton of saturated vapor of MF-CuF2 systems, where M=K, Rb, Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, I.V.; Korenev, Yu.M.

    1993-01-01

    Investigation into composition of saturated vapor of MF-CuF 2 systems where M=K, Rb, Cs is conducted using high-temperature mass-spectrometry. Existence of MCuF 3 molecules in gas phase is determined. MCuF 3(r) dissociation enthalpies are calculated using the first law-of thermodynamics and are compared with theoretically determined values. Value Δ D G 0 944 (CsCuF 3(r) =105.6±6.3 kj/mol is determined

  10. Effect of thickness on structural, corrosion and mechanical properties of a thin ZrN film deposited by medium frequency (MF) reactive sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavitha, Ayyalu; Kannan, Raman [Anna Univ., Dindigul (India). Dept. of Physics; Loganathan, Subramani [Titan Industries, Hosur, Tamilnadu (India). Ion Plating Dept.

    2016-07-01

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) thin films were prepared on stainless steel (SS) substrates by medium frequency (MF) reactive sputtering with gas ion source (GIS) by varying the deposition time and obtained thickness (t{sub ZrN}) in the range of 1.25 to 3.24 μm. The effect of thickness on the structural and microstructural properties was studied using XRD and AFM. XRD characterization revealed that the texture of the ZrN thin films changes as a function of thickness. Both, the (111) and (200) peak, appear initially and (111) becomes more intense with increasing t{sub ZrN}. AFM imaging revealed that the ZrN thin film coated with t{sub ZrN} ∼ 3.24 μm shows larger grains that are uniformly distributed over the surface. An average hardness value of 19.79 GPa was observed for ZrN thin films having t{sub ZrN} ∼ 3.24 μm. The ZrN thin films having t{sub ZrN} ∼ 3.24 μm exhibits better adhesion strength up to 20 N. The electrochemical polarization studies indicated that the ZrN thin film having larger thickness shows improved corrosion resistance compared to SS in 3.5 % NaCl solution.

  11. Factors causing PAC cake fouling in PAC-MF (powdered activated carbon-microfiltration) water treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P; Takizawa, S; Katayama, H; Ohgaki, S

    2005-01-01

    Two pilot-scale powdered activated carbon-microfiltration (PAC-MF) reactors were operated using river water pretreated by a biofilter. A high permeate flux (4 m/d) was maintained in two reactors with different particle sizes of PAC. High concentration (20 g/L) in the PAC adsorption zone demonstrated 60-80% of organic removal rates. Analysis on the PAC cake fouling demonstrated that attached metal ions play more important role than organic matter attached on PAC to the increase of PAC cake resistance. Effects of factors which may cause PAC cake fouling in PAC-MF process were investigated and evaluated by batch experiments, further revealing that small particulates and metal ions in raw water impose prominent influence on the PAC cake layer formation. Fe (II) precipitates after being oxidized to Fe (III) during PAC adsorption and thus Fe(ll) colloids display more significant effect than other metal ions. At a high flux, PAC cake layer demonstrated a higher resistance with larger PAC due to association among colloids, metals and PAC particles, and easy migration of small particles in raw water into the void space in the PAC cake layer. Larger PAC possesses much more non-uniform particle size distribution and larger void space, making it easier for small colloids to migrate into the voids and for metal ions to associate with PAC particles by bridge effect, hence speeding up and intensifying the of PAC cake fouling on membrane surface.

  12. Short range structural models of the glass transition temperatures and densities of 0.5Na2S + 0.5[xGeS2 + (1 - x)PS5/2] mixed glass former glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Christian; Schuller, Katherine; Martin, Steve W

    2014-04-03

    The 0.5Na2S + 0.5[xGeS2 + (1 - x)PS5/2] mixed glass former (MGF) glass system exhibits a nonlinear and nonadditive negative change in the Na(+) ion conductivity as one glass former, PS5/2, is exchanged for the other, GeS2. This behavior, known as the mixed glass former effect (MGFE), is also manifest in a negative deviation from the linear interpolation of the glass transition temperatures (T(g)) of the binary end-member glasses, x = 0 and x = 1. Interestingly, the composition dependence of the densities of these ternary MGF glasses reveals a slightly positive MGFE deviation from a linear interpolation of the densities of the binary end-member glasses, x = 0 and x = 1. From our previous studies of the structures of these glasses using IR, Raman, and NMR spectroscopies, we find that a disproportionation reaction occurs between PS7/2(4-) and GeS3(2-) units into PS4(3-) and GeS5/2(1-) units. This disproportionation combined with the formation of Ge4S10(4-) anions from GeS5/2(1-) groups leads to the negative MGFE in T(g). A best-fit model of the T(g)s of these glasses was developed to quantify the amount of GeS5/2(1-) units that form Ge4S10(4-) molecular anions in the ternary glasses (∼ 5-10%). This refined structural model was used to develop a short-range structural model of the molar volumes, which shows that the slight densification of the ternary glasses is due to the improved packing efficiency of the germanium sulfide species.

  13. Model construction and superconductivity analysis of organic conductors β-(BDA-TTP)2MF6 (M = P, As, Sb and Ta) based on first-principles band calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, H.; Kuroki, K.; Yasuzuka, S.; Yamada, J.

    2012-11-01

    We perform a first-principles band calculation for a group of quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors β-(BDA-TTP)2MF6 (M = P, As, Sb and Ta). The ab-initio calculation shows that the density of states is correlated with the bandwidth of the singly occupied (highest) molecular orbital, while it is not necessarily correlated with the unit-cell volume. The direction of the major axis of the cross section of the Fermi surface lies in the Γ-B-direction, which differs from that obtained by the extended Hückel calculation. Then, we construct a tight-binding model which accurately reproduces the ab-initio band structure. The obtained transfer energies give a smaller dimerization than in the extended Hückel band. As to the difference in the anisotropy of the Fermi surface, the transfer energies along the inter-stacking direction are smaller than those obtained in the extended Hückel calculation. Assuming spin-fluctuation-mediated superconductivity, we apply random phase approximation to a two-band Hubbard model. This two-band Hubbard model is composed of the tight-binding model derived from the first-principles band structure and an on-site (intra-molecule) repulsive interaction taken as a variable parameter. The obtained superconducting gap changes sign four times along the Fermi surface like in a d-wave gap, and the nodal direction is different from that obtained in the extended Hückel model. Anion dependence of Tc is qualitatively consistent with the experimental observation.

  14. Model construction and superconductivity analysis of organic conductors β-(BDA-TTP)2MF6 (M = P, As, Sb and Ta) based on first-principles band calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, H; Kuroki, K; Yasuzuka, S; Yamada, J

    2012-01-01

    We perform a first-principles band calculation for a group of quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors β-(BDA-TTP) 2 MF 6 (M = P, As, Sb and Ta). The ab-initio calculation shows that the density of states is correlated with the bandwidth of the singly occupied (highest) molecular orbital, while it is not necessarily correlated with the unit-cell volume. The direction of the major axis of the cross section of the Fermi surface lies in the Γ–B-direction, which differs from that obtained by the extended Hückel calculation. Then, we construct a tight-binding model which accurately reproduces the ab-initio band structure. The obtained transfer energies give a smaller dimerization than in the extended Hückel band. As to the difference in the anisotropy of the Fermi surface, the transfer energies along the inter-stacking direction are smaller than those obtained in the extended Hückel calculation. Assuming spin-fluctuation-mediated superconductivity, we apply random phase approximation to a two-band Hubbard model. This two-band Hubbard model is composed of the tight-binding model derived from the first-principles band structure and an on-site (intra-molecule) repulsive interaction taken as a variable parameter. The obtained superconducting gap changes sign four times along the Fermi surface like in a d-wave gap, and the nodal direction is different from that obtained in the extended Hückel model. Anion dependence of T c is qualitatively consistent with the experimental observation. (paper)

  15. 糖尿病视网膜1期病变多焦视网膜图变化分析%A Study in the Changes of mfERG in Stage 1 Diabetic Retinopathyn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张聪; 刘哲丽; 徐丽; 郭敬斌

    2009-01-01

    目的 通过检测糖尿病视网膜1期病变患者多焦视网膜电图(multifocal electroretino-gram,mfERG),评价1期糖尿病视网膜病变患者早期视功能的变化.方法 检测正常对照组31只眼,1期糖尿病视网膜病变组46只眼的mtERG在视野30°的测试范围内6个不同离心度的环形区N1、P1波潜伏期、P1波反应密度改变.结果 在视野30°的测试范围内6个不同离心度的环形区,1期糖尿病视网膜病变组(DR组)与正常对照组之间比较N1、P1波潜伏期显著延长;环1、2区DR组与正常对照组之间比较P1波反应密度显著降低.结论 尚未出现肉眼可见眼底改变的1期糖尿病视网膜病变即可出现视功能的异常,mfERG能够定量的检测1期糖尿病视网膜病变的局部视功能变化,为糖尿病视网膜病变的早期诊断提供有效方法.%Objective To investigate the changes of retinal function in stage 1 of diabetic retinopathy detected by multifoeal electroretinogram (mfERG).Methods The responses of mfERG were recorded and analyzed from eyes of 31 normal control subjects and 46 diabetic patients with stage 1 of diabetic retinopathy. Results In eyes of diabetic patients with stage 1 of diabetic retinopathy (DR), the lateneies of N1, P1 were delayed obviously compared to normal control subjects, in the field of about 30 degrees of six rings with different eccentricities; the response densities of the P1 ring1, 2 was significantly decreased in diabetic patients with stagel of diabetic retinopathy compared to normal control subjects.Conclusions The abnormalities of retinal function may occur in stagel of diabetic retinopathy, when there is no abnormality of ocular fundus.As a new objective and quantitative examination for visual function, mfERG may be valuable in early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy.

  16. Achieving maximum baryon densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1984-01-01

    In continuing work on nuclear stopping power in the energy range E/sub lab/ approx. 10 GeV/nucleon, calculations were made of the energy and baryon densities that could be achieved in uranium-uranium collisions. Results are shown. The energy density reached could exceed 2 GeV/fm 3 and baryon densities could reach as high as ten times normal nuclear densities

  17. Rupture of the steel-12KH1MF under creep at temperatures close to 0,5 Tsub(melt)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezina, T.G.; Ashikhmina, L.A.; Karasev, V.V.

    1976-01-01

    Optical and transmission microscopy and fractography techniques have been employed in studying the peculiarities of nucleation and growth of micropores in steel 12Kh1MF at creep. The nucleation of micropores occurs at the initial stages of creep at stress concentration points, predominantly following the retarded shear mechanism. Micropores grow by the way of diffusion, as well as following the deslocation mechanism. An important role in the process of micropore growth is played by pore opening through grain-boundary slip. Pores of 1 to 5 microns in size can be formed along grain boundaries both due to the growth of individual micropores and by coalescence of micropores at points of their concentration. Transition of the creep to the critical phase coincides with the process of the pores blending together to

  18. Patientstråldosjämförelse vid konventionell urografi och lågdos CT-urografi

    OpenAIRE

    Gohil, Jignasa; Bertell, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Röntgensjuksköterskans huvudområde är radiografi som innefattar bland annat användning av joniserande strålning. CT undersökningar av urinvägssystemen och dess funktion ökar. CT ger en högre stråldos till patienter, jämfört med konventionell röntgen, vilket kan medföra olika sorters skador hos den som bestrålats. ALARAprincipen skall användas för att minska joniserande strålning så mycket som möjligt. Studien är utförd på Höglandsjukhuset i Eksjö där de har implementerat lågdosprotokoll på CT...

  19. Reaction of xenon difluoride with certain rare earth fluorocomplexes of Cs/sub 3/MF/sub 6/ composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, Yu.M.; Goryachenkov, S.A.; Martynenko, L.I. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1983-05-01

    By thermographic method in a specially manufactured nickel cell for thermal analysis the reaction of XeF/sub 2/ with Cs/sub 3/M/sup 3/F/sub 6/ (M=Ce, Pr, Tb, Nd, Dy, Er) is studied. Temperatures of thermal effects (Ts) corresponding to Cs/sub 3/M/sup 4/F/sub 7/ formation regularly increase in the series Ce-Tb-Pr-Dy-Nd (115-382 deg C). Cs/sub 3/M/sup 4/F/sub 7/ compounds are characterized by the methods of chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and oscillating spectroscopy (IR and CS spectroscopy). Experimental data are best of all interpreted on assumption of the presence in Cs/sub 3/M/sup 4/F/sub 7/ crystals statistically oriented MF/sub 7/ fragments of the Dsub(5h) symmetry.

  20. Multifractal property of Chinese stock market in the CSI 800 index based on MF-DFA approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huijian; Zhang, Weiguo

    2018-01-01

    CSI 800 index consists of CSI 500 index and CSI 300 index, aiming to reflect the performance of stocks with large, mid and small size of China A share market. In this paper we analyze the multifractal structure of Chinese stock market in the CSI 800 index based on the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) method. We find that the fluctuation of the closing logarithmic returns have multifractal properties, the shape and width of multifractal spectrum are depended on the weighing order q. More interestingly, we observe a bigger market crash in June-August 2015 than the one in 2008 based on the local Hurst exponents. The result provides important information for further study on dynamic mechanism of return fluctuation and whether it would trigger a new financial crisis.

  1. Reliability and durability of the 12Kh1MF steel tubes of electroslag remelting and their welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanskaya, K.A.; Kulikova, L.V.; Mazel', R.E.; Khromchenko, F.A.; Strizhenova, V.F.

    1978-01-01

    Results of investigating the positive effect of electrolag remelting (ESR) on the properties of the base metal and welded joint of the 12Kh1MF steel steam pipes with the aim of increasing their durability up to 20,000 hrs, are presented. To estimate the quality and properties of tube billet metal, microstructure, content and nature of nonmetallic inclusions, content of gases, austenite grain size, austenite transformations during continuous cooling, metal ductility, mechanical properties at different temperatures and heat resisting properties, have been investigated. It is established, that the base metal in tubes of electroslag remelting possess higher heat resistance, while welded joints besides, have high deformability and resistance to brittle fracture

  2. Politisk TV-reklam : En jämförelse mellan partiernas valfilmer inför riksdagsvalet 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Ålbrink, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Politisk TV-reklam är ett relativt nytt fenomen i Sverige. Mot bakgrund av att partierna i reklamen helt kan styra över meddelandet och att det finns en begränsad mängd svensk forskning på området, är det intressant att undersöka vilka strategier som används. Syftet med uppsatsen är att jämföra partiernas valfilmer inför riksdagsvalet 2014 och ta reda på vilka strategier som används för att övertyga väljarna i bild och text. Vilka är de centrala budskapen och använder partierna liknande eller...

  3. Diurnal, monthly and seasonal variation of mean winds in the MLT region observed over Kolhapur using MF radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A. K.; Gaikwad, H. P.; Ratnam, M. Venkat; Gurav, O. B.; Ramanjaneyulu, L.; Chavan, G. A.; Sathishkumar, S.

    2018-04-01

    Medium Frequency (MF) radar located at Kolhapur (16.8°N, 74.2°E) has been upgraded in August 2013. Since then continuous measurements of zonal and meridional winds are obtained covering larger altitudes from the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region. Diurnal, monthly and seasonal variation of these mean winds is presented in this study using four years (2013-2017) of observations. The percentage occurrence of radar echoes show maximum between 80 and 105 km. The mean meridional wind shows Annual Oscillation (AO) between 80 and 90 km altitudes with pole-ward motion during December solstice and equatorial motion during June solstice. Quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) with weaker amplitudes are also observed between 90 and 104 km. Zonal winds show semi-annual oscillation (SAO) with westward winds during equinoxes and eastward winds during solstices between 80 and 90 km. AO with eastward winds during December solstice and westward wind in the June solstice is also observed in the mean zonal wind between 100 and 110 km. These results match well with that reported from other latitudes within Indian region between 80 and 90 km. However, above 90 km the results presented here provide true mean background winds for the first time over Indian low latitude region as the present station is away from equatorial electro-jet and are not contaminated by ionospheric processes. Further, the results presented earlier with an old version of this radar are found contaminated due to unknown reasons and are corrected in the present work. This upgraded MF radar together with other MLT radars in the Indian region forms unique network to investigate the vertical and lateral coupling.

  4. Evaluation of the MF/UF Performance for the Reuse of Sand Filter Backwash Water from Drinking Water Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Shirzadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the application of micro-filtration and ultra-filtration membrane systems in order to improve the physical and microbial quality and the reuse of backwash water from the sand filter units in water treatment plants. The backwash water from filters makes up for 3 to 5 percent of the total water treated, which is disposed in most WTPs. However, the treatment and reuse of the backwash water is more admissible from technical and economic viewpoints, especially in view of the present water scarcity. For the purposes of this study, use was made of membrane modules of micro- and ultra-filters on a pilot scale. The micro-filter employed consisted of a polypropylene membrane module with a porosity of 1 micron in size and a fiberglass module with a porosity of 5 microns. The ultra-filter was made of PVC hollow fiber with a molecular weight of 100,000 Dalton. In order to feed the two pilots, backwash water from a sand filter was collected from one of the WTPs in Tehran. After samples were taken from the backwash water, the physical and microbial removal efficiency was periodically evaluated based on the standard method and the micro-filtration, ultra-filtration, and combined MF/UF processes were compared with respect to their performance. The results indicate that the combined MF/UF process is able to decrease turbidity, MPN, COD, TSS, and Fe with efficiency values of 99.9, 100, 61.5, 99.9 and 98.8 percent, respectively. Overall, the findings confirmed the technical capabilities of this method for the recovery and reuse of the effluent produced in the backwashing mechanism of sand filters in WTPs.

  5. IFRS: Kokbok eller principer : -en studie om utvecklingen av jämförbarhet mellan företags koncernredovisning i enlighet med IFRS

    OpenAIRE

    Kristoffers, Linda; Sjökvist, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    Sedan år 2005 är noterade företag skyldiga att följa internationella redovisningsstandarder, IFRS. IFRS är ett principbaserat system vilket medför att standarderna tillämpas olika. Därmed försvåras jämförbarheten mellan företags koncernredovisning. Jämförbarhet är en av de kvalitativa egenskaper som redovisningen bör uppfylla enligt IASB, organisationen som tar fram IFRS. Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att utreda vilka förväntningar redovisningsexperter har på utvecklingen av jämförbarheten ...

  6. The Role of mf-ERG in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Electrophysiological Features of AMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschos, Marilita M; Nitoda, Eirini

    2018-01-01

    Age-related macular cegeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of visual dysfunction worldwide, affecting 9-25% of individuals between 65 and 75 years old. We have reviewed the published articles investigating the role of multifocal electroretinogram (mf-ERG) in the diagnosis and treatment of AMD. Visual evoked potentials have revealed decreased amplitudes and higher latencies in patients with AMD, while the degeneration of photoreceptors and abnormalities of retinal pigment epithelium can be identified by electro-oculogram recordings. Moreover, ERG can detect the functional abnormalities observed in AMD and evaluate each therapeutic approach. The record of local electrophysiological responses coming from different retinal areas can be accurately performed by mfERG. The accuracy of mfERG in detecting the degeneration of photoreceptors, as well the disturbances of macular function, could be useful both in the early diagnosis of AMD and the assessment of treatment efficacy.

  7. Effects of mometasone, fluticasone, and montelukast on bone mineral density in adults with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maspero, Jorge; Backer, Vibeke; Yao, Ruji

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Associations of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) with bone mineral density (BMD) loss have not been characterized consistently. OBJECTIVE: This randomized, double-blind study assessed effects of mometasone furoate (MF) administered via dry powder inhaler on BMD of patients with persisten...

  8. Electrical properties and structure of glasses in the Ba(PO3)2-MF2 systems, where M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, I.A.; Tarlakov, Yu.P.; Murin, I.V.; Pronkin, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Using the methods of conductometry and IR spectroscopy the concentrational dependences of electric conductivity are studied, the nature of current carriers is determined, the concentrational dependence of transfer numbers is ascertained and structural changes in glasses of the system Ba(PO 3 ) 2 -MF 2 (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba), depending on MF 2 content, are considered. It is shown that F - ions take part in electric current transfer. Influence of crystallochemical nature of alkaline-earth cations on physicochemical properties and structure of the glasses studied is analyzed [ru

  9. Overexpression of MfPIP2-7 from Medicago falcata promotes cold tolerance and growth under NO3 (-) deficiency in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Chunliu; Wang, Ting; Guo, Zhenfei; Lu, Shaoyun

    2016-06-14

    Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), which belong to aquaporins (AQPs) superfamily, are subdivided into two groups, PIP1 and PIP2, based on sequence similarity. Several PIP2s function as water channels, while PIP1s have low or no water channel activity, but have a role in water permeability through interacting with PIP2. A cold responsive PIP2 named as MfPIP2-7 was isolated from Medicago falcata (hereafter falcata), a forage legume with great cold tolerance, and transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing MfPIP2-7 were analyzed in tolerance to multiple stresses including freezing, chilling, and nitrate reduction in this study. MfPIP2-7 transcript was induced by 4 to 12 h of cold treatment and 2 h of abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Pretreatment with inhibitor of ABA synthesis blocked the cold induced MfPIP2-7 transcript, indicating that ABA was involved in cold induced transcription of MfPIP2-7 in falcata. Overexpression of MfPIP2-7 resulted in enhanced tolerance to freezing, chilling and NO3 (-) deficiency in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants as compared with the wild type. Moreover, MfPIP2-7 was demonstrated to facilitate H2O2 diffusion in yeast. Higher transcript levels of several stress responsive genes, such as NtERD10B, NtERD10C, NtDREB1, and 2, and nitrate reductase (NR) encoding genes (NtNIA1, and NtNIA2) were observed in transgenic plants as compared with the wild type with dependence upon H2O2. In addition, NR activity was increased in transgenic plants, which led to alterations in free amino acid components and concentrations. The results suggest that MfPIP2-7 plays an important role in plant tolerance to freezing, chilling, and NO3 (-) deficiency by promoted H2O2 diffusion that in turn up-regulates expression of NIAs and multiple stress responsive genes.

  10. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  11. High performance a-IGZO thin-film transistors with mf-PVD SiO2 as an etch-stop-layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nag, M.; Steudel, S.; Bhoolokam, A.; Chasin, A.; Rockele, M.; Myny, K.; Maas, J.; Fritz, T.; Trube, J.; Groeseneken, G.; Heremans, P.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report on high-performance bottom-gate top-contact (BGTC) amorphous-Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) with SiO2 as an etch-stop-layer (ESL) deposited by medium frequency physical vapor deposition (mf-PVD). The TFTs show field-effect mobility (μFE) of

  12. Functional and Morphological Evaluation of Traumatized Eyes With Berlin's Edema Affecting the Macula Using mfERG, Microperimetry, and SD-OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Joseph Daniel; Tosi, Joaquin; Glybina, Inna; Tewari, Asheesh; Abrams, Gary W

    2017-02-01

    To describe the structural and functional changes that occur in traumatic Berlin's edema involving the macula through assessment with multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG), microperimetry, fundus photography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Retrospective case series of five eyes from four patients with macular traumatic Berlin's edema. Patients underwent baseline mfERG (three eyes), MP1 microperimetry (three eyes), fundus photography (five eyes), and SD-OCT (five eyes). All eyes with Berlin's edema showed abnormal findings on baseline SD-OCT, including disruption and fragmentation of the inner segment/ outer segment layer. In two patients with unilateral blunt ocular trauma who underwent mfERG, there was complete loss of the foveal peak in affected eyes. All three eyes that underwent microperimetry showed depressed retinal sensitivity in the area of Berlin's edema. SD-OCT, microperimetry, and mfERG can be used to help diagnose, stratify traumatic severity, and follow structural and functional progression over time in patients with Berlin's edema. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:114-121.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Separation Properties of Wastewater Containing O/W Emulsion Using Ceramic Microfiltration/Ultrafiltration (MF/UF Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanji Matsumoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Washing systems using water soluble detergent are used in electrical and mechanical industries and the wastewater containing O/W emulsion are discharged from these systems. Membrane filtration has large potential for the efficient separation of O/W emulsion for reuses of treated water and detergent. The separation properties of O/W emulsions by cross-flow microfiltration and ultrafiltration were studied with ceramic MF and UF membranes. The effects of pore size; applied pressure; cross-flow velocity; and detergent concentration on rejection of O/W emulsion and flux were systematically studied. At the condition achieving complete separation of O/W emulsion the pressure-independent flux was observed and this flux behavior was explained by gel-polarization model. The O/W emulsion tended to permeate through the membrane at the conditions of larger pore size; higher emulsion concentration; and higher pressure. The O/W emulsion could permeate the membrane pore structure by destruction or deformation. These results imply the stability of O/W emulsion in the gel-layer formed on membrane surface play an important role in the separation properties. The O/W emulsion was concentrated by batch cross-flow concentration filtration and the flux decline during the concentration filtration was explained by the gel- polarization model.

  14. Separation Properties of Wastewater Containing O/W Emulsion Using Ceramic Microfiltration/Ultrafiltration (MF/UF) Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazuho; Matsumoto, Kanji

    2013-01-01

    Washing systems using water soluble detergent are used in electrical and mechanical industries and the wastewater containing O/W emulsion are discharged from these systems. Membrane filtration has large potential for the efficient separation of O/W emulsion for reuses of treated water and detergent. The separation properties of O/W emulsions by cross-flow microfiltration and ultrafiltration were studied with ceramic MF and UF membranes. The effects of pore size; applied pressure; cross-flow velocity; and detergent concentration on rejection of O/W emulsion and flux were systematically studied. At the condition achieving complete separation of O/W emulsion the pressure-independent flux was observed and this flux behavior was explained by gel-polarization model. The O/W emulsion tended to permeate through the membrane at the conditions of larger pore size; higher emulsion concentration; and higher pressure. The O/W emulsion could permeate the membrane pore structure by destruction or deformation. These results imply the stability of O/W emulsion in the gel-layer formed on membrane surface play an important role in the separation properties. The O/W emulsion was concentrated by batch cross-flow concentration filtration and the flux decline during the concentration filtration was explained by the gel- polarization model. PMID:24958621

  15. Hydraulically irreversible fouling on ceramic MF/UF membranes: comparison of fouling indices, foulant composition and irreversible pore narrowing

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Ran

    2015-05-06

    The application of ceramic membranes in water treatment is becoming increasing attractive because of their long life time and excellent chemical, mechanical and thermal stability. However, fouling of ceramic membranes, especially hydraulically irreversible fouling, is still a critical aspect affecting the operational cost and energy consumption in water treatment plants. In this study, four ceramic membranes with pore sizes or molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 0.20 μm, 0.14 μm, 300 kDa and 50 kDa were compared during natural surface water filtration with respect to hydraulically irreversible fouling index (HIFI), foulant composition and narrowing of pore size due to the irreversible fouling. Our results showed that the hydraulically irreversible fouling index (HIFI) was proportional to the membrane pore size (r2=0.89) when the same feed water was filtrated. The UF membranes showed lower HIFI values than the MF membranes. Pore narrowing (internal fouling) was found to be a main fouling pattern of the hydraulically irreversible fouling. The internal fouling was caused by monolayer adsorption of foulants with different sizes that is dependent on the size of the membrane pore.

  16. Hydraulically irreversible fouling on ceramic MF/UF membranes: comparison of fouling indices, foulant composition and irreversible pore narrowing

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Ran; Vuong, Francois; Hu, Jingyi; Li, Sheng; Kemperman, Antoine J.B.; Nijmeijer, Kitty; Cornelissen, Emile R.; Heijman, Sebastiaan G.J.; Rietveld, Luuk C.

    2015-01-01

    The application of ceramic membranes in water treatment is becoming increasing attractive because of their long life time and excellent chemical, mechanical and thermal stability. However, fouling of ceramic membranes, especially hydraulically irreversible fouling, is still a critical aspect affecting the operational cost and energy consumption in water treatment plants. In this study, four ceramic membranes with pore sizes or molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 0.20 μm, 0.14 μm, 300 kDa and 50 kDa were compared during natural surface water filtration with respect to hydraulically irreversible fouling index (HIFI), foulant composition and narrowing of pore size due to the irreversible fouling. Our results showed that the hydraulically irreversible fouling index (HIFI) was proportional to the membrane pore size (r2=0.89) when the same feed water was filtrated. The UF membranes showed lower HIFI values than the MF membranes. Pore narrowing (internal fouling) was found to be a main fouling pattern of the hydraulically irreversible fouling. The internal fouling was caused by monolayer adsorption of foulants with different sizes that is dependent on the size of the membrane pore.

  17. Characterization, production, and purification of leucocin H, a two-peptide bacteriocin from Leuconostoc MF215B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, H; Katla, T; Holck, A; Sletten, K; Axelsson, L; Holo, H

    1999-07-01

    Leuconostoc MF215B was found to produce a two-peptide bacteriocin referred to as leucocin H. The two peptides were termed leucocin Halpha and leucocin Hbeta. When acting together, they inhibit, among others, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and Clostridium perfringens. Production of leucocin H in growth medium takes place at temperatures down to 6 degrees C and at pH below 7. The highest activity of leucocin H in growth medium was demonstrated in the late exponential growth phase. The bacteriocin was purified by precipitation with ammonium sulfate, ion-exchange (SP Sepharose) and reverse phase chromatography. Upon purification, specific activity increased 10(5)-fold, and the final specific activity was 2 x 10(7) BU/OD280. Amino acid composition analyses of leucocin Halpha and leucocin Hbeta indicated that both peptides consisted of around 40 amino acid residues. Their N-termini were blocked for Edman degradation, and the methionin residues of leucocin Hbeta did not respond to Cyanogen Bromide (CNBr) cleavage. Absorbance at 280 nm indicated the presence of tryptophan residues and tryptophan-fracturing opened for partial sequencing by Edman degradation. From leucocin Halpha, the sequence of 20 amino acids was obtained; from leucocin Hbeta the sequence of 28 amino acid residues was obtained. No sequence homology to other known bacteriocins could be demonstrated. It also appeared that the two peptides themselves shared little or no sequence homology. The presence of soy oil did not affect the activity of leucocin H in agar.

  18. Dynamic relationship between Japanese Yen exchange rates and market anxiety: A new perspective based on MF-DCCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinsheng; Sun, Xinxin; Ge, Jintian

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic relationship between Japanese Yen exchange rates and market anxiety during the period from January 5, 1998 to April 18, 2016. A quantitative technique of multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) is used to explore the multifractal features of the cross-correlations between USD/JPY, AUD/JPY exchange rates and the market anxiety gauge VIX. The investigation shows that the causal relationship between Japanese Yen exchange rates and VIX are bidirectional in general, and the cross-correlations between the two sets of time series are multifractal. Strong evidence suggests that the cross-correlation exponents tend to exhibit different volatility patterns in response to diverse external shocks such as financial distress and widening in interest rate spread, suggesting that the cross-correlated behavior between Japanese Yen exchange rates and VIX are susceptible to economic uncertainties and risks. In addition, the performances of two market anxiety gauges, the VIX and the TED spread, are compared and the sources of multifractality are also traced. Thus, this paper contributes to the literature by shedding light on the unique driving forces of the Yen exchange rate fluctuations in the international foreign exchange market.

  19. Control of Chiral Magnetism Through Electric Fields in Multiferroic Compounds above the Long-Range Multiferroic Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, J; Baum, M; Holbein, S; Finger, T; Cronert, T; Tölzer, C; Fröhlich, T; Biesenkamp, S; Schmalzl, K; Steffens, P; Lee, C H; Braden, M

    2017-10-27

    Polarized neutron scattering experiments reveal that type-II multiferroics allow for controlling the spin chirality by external electric fields even in the absence of long-range multiferroic order. In the two prototype compounds TbMnO_{3} and MnWO_{4}, chiral magnetism associated with soft overdamped electromagnons can be observed above the long-range multiferroic transition temperature T_{MF}, and it is possible to control it through an electric field. While MnWO_{4} exhibits chiral correlations only in a tiny temperature interval above T_{MF}, in TbMnO_{3} chiral magnetism can be observed over several kelvin up to the lock-in transition, which is well separated from T_{MF}.

  20. Road density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  1. Liquid Densities and Excess Molar Volumes for Water + Diethylene Glycolamine, and Water, Methanol, Ethanol, 1-Propanol + Triethylene Glycol Binary Systems at Atmospheric Pressure and Temperatures in the Range of 283.15ů363.15 K

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valtz, A.; Teodorescu, M.; Wichterle, Ivan; Richon, D.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 215, č. 2 (2004), s. 129-142 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/03/1555 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : excess molar volume * density * triethylene glycol Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.356, year: 2004

  2. Wave Activity (Planetary, Tidal) throughout the Middle Atmoshere (25-100 km) over the CUJO Network: Satellite and Medium Frequency (MF) Radar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, A.; Meek, C.; Chshyolkova, T.; Avery, S.; Thorsen, D.; MacDougall, J.; Hocking, W.; Murayama, Y.; Igarashi, K.

    Planetary and tidal wave activity in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT), and assessment of wave activity sources in the lower atmosphere, are studied using combinations of ground based (GB) and satellite instruments (2000-2002). CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity) comprises MF radar (MFR) systems at London (43°N, 81°W), Platteville (40°N, 105°W), Saskatoon (52°N, 107°W), Wakkanai (45°N, 142°E) and Yamagawa (31°N, 131°E). It offers a significant mid-latitude 7,000 km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14°) at two longitudes. CUJO provides winds and tides 70-100km. Satellite data include the daily values of the total ozone column measured by the Earth Probe (EP) TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and provides a measure of tropopause-lower stratospheric planetary wave activity as well as ozone variability. The so-called UKMO data (an assimilation system) are used for correlative purposes with the TOMS data. Climatologies of ozone and winds/tides involving frequency versus time (wavelet) contour plots for periods from 2-d to 30-d and the interval from mid 2000 to 2002, show that the changes with altitude, longitude and latitude are very significant and distinctive. Geometric-mean wavelets for the region of the 40°N MFRs demonstrate occasions during the autumn, winter and spring months when there are similarities in the spectral features of the lower atmosphere and at mesopause (85km) heights. Both direct planetary wave (PW) propagation into the MLT, non-linear PW-tide interactions, and disturbances in MLT tides associated with fluctuations in the ozone forcing are considered to be possible coupling processes. The complex horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in frequency contour plots for the TOMS and UKMO data to demonstrate the differences between lower atmospheric and MLT wave motions and their directions of propagation.

  3. The analysis of ion nitriding and nitrogen ion implantation on tribological properties of steels 33H3MF and 36H3M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zandecki, R.

    1993-01-01

    Surface properties of two kinds of steel 33H3MF and 36H3M have been investigated. Three different methods of steel surface treatment have been used: ion nitriding, nitrogen ion implantation and mixing method being the sum of the first and second ones. The microstructure, microhardness distribution, fatigue strength, friction coefficient and other tribological properties have been measured and compared. 60 refs, 74 figs, 19 tabs

  4. Rational construction of a 3D hierarchical NiCo2O4/PANI/MF composite foam as a high-performance electrode for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fen; Huang, Yunpeng; Xu, Le; Zhao, Yan; Lian, Jiabiao; Bao, Jian; Li, Huaming

    2018-04-19

    A 3D hierarchical NiCo2O4/PANI/MF composite foam with a macroporous 3D skeleton, a conductive PANI coating and highly electrochemically active NiCo2O4 nanosheets is synthesized as a lightweight and low-cost electrode material. Due to the collaborative contribution of all the components, the prepared composite foam exhibits excellent capacitive performances when incorporated into an asymmetric supercapacitor.

  5. 杉木地板基材表面的浸渍抗菌%Antibacterial Treatment on Surface of China Fir Floor Substrate with MF Impregnation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔举庆; 张洋; 贾翀; 韩书广; 张岩; 曹轩

    2013-01-01

    研究了杉木地板基材表面经过三聚氰胺抗菌树脂浸渍处理后抗菌性能.结果表明:未经处理杉木基材不具备抗菌性能,经过三聚氰胺浸渍处理后具备一定的抗菌性能,可能因为甲醛释放或三聚氰胺自身对细菌起到抑制作用;添加载银抗菌剂后,杉木表面的抗菌性能不断增强,当三聚氰胺中抗菌剂质量分数达1%时,抗菌率达99.9%,符合抗菌产品的要求,但抗菌剂的加入对浸渍树脂的渗透性有一定的延迟作用.%China fir floor substrate impregnated with antibacterial MF resin was investigated. The results demonstrated that China fir has no antibacterial performance, while the one impregnated with pristine MF resin could kill some bacterium on its surface because of the formaldehyde emission or MF resin. The antibacterial performance can be continually improved with the increase of antibacterial agent. It will meet the requirements of antibacterial products, when the antibacterial rate is 99.9% with 1% of silver antimicrobial agent. However, the permeability of MF resin will be retarded in the presence of antimicrobial agent.

  6. A caprine herpesvirus 1 vaccine adjuvanted with MF59™ protects against vaginal infection and interferes with the establishment of latency in goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariarosaria Marinaro

    Full Text Available The immunogenicity and the efficacy of a beta-propiolactone-inactivated caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1 vaccine adjuvanted with MF59™ were tested in goats. Following two subcutaneous immunizations, goats developed high titers of CpHV-1-specific serum and vaginal IgG and high serum virus neutralization (VN titers. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC stimulated in vitro with inactivated CpHV-1 produced high levels of soluble IFN-gamma and exhibited high frequencies of IFN-gamma producing cells while soluble IL-4 was undetectable. On the other hand, control goats receiving the inactivated CpHV-1 vaccine without adjuvant produced only low serum antibody responses. A vaginal challenge with virulent CpHV-1 was performed in all vaccinated goats and in naïve goats to assess the efficacy of the two vaccines. Vaginal disease was not detected in goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ and these animals had undetectable levels of infectious challenge virus in their vaginal washes. Goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 in the absence of adjuvant exhibited a less severe disease when compared to naïve goats but shed titers of challenge virus that were similar to those of naïve goats. Detection and quantitation of latent CpHV-1 DNA in sacral ganglia in challenged goats revealed that the inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ vaccine was able to significantly reduce the latent viral load when compared either to the naïve goats or to the goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 in the absence of adjuvant. Thus, a vaccine composed of inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ as adjuvant was strongly immunogenic and induced effective immunity against vaginal CpHV-1 infection in goats.

  7. A Caprine Herpesvirus 1 Vaccine Adjuvanted with MF59™ Protects against Vaginal Infection and Interferes with the Establishment of Latency in Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaro, Mariarosaria; Rezza, Giovanni; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Colao, Valeriana; Tarsitano, Elvira; Camero, Michele; Losurdo, Michele; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The immunogenicity and the efficacy of a beta-propiolactone-inactivated caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) vaccine adjuvanted with MF59™ were tested in goats. Following two subcutaneous immunizations, goats developed high titers of CpHV-1-specific serum and vaginal IgG and high serum virus neutralization (VN) titers. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated in vitro with inactivated CpHV-1 produced high levels of soluble IFN-gamma and exhibited high frequencies of IFN-gamma producing cells while soluble IL-4 was undetectable. On the other hand, control goats receiving the inactivated CpHV-1 vaccine without adjuvant produced only low serum antibody responses. A vaginal challenge with virulent CpHV-1 was performed in all vaccinated goats and in naïve goats to assess the efficacy of the two vaccines. Vaginal disease was not detected in goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ and these animals had undetectable levels of infectious challenge virus in their vaginal washes. Goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 in the absence of adjuvant exhibited a less severe disease when compared to naïve goats but shed titers of challenge virus that were similar to those of naïve goats. Detection and quantitation of latent CpHV-1 DNA in sacral ganglia in challenged goats revealed that the inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ vaccine was able to significantly reduce the latent viral load when compared either to the naïve goats or to the goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 in the absence of adjuvant. Thus, a vaccine composed of inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ as adjuvant was strongly immunogenic and induced effective immunity against vaginal CpHV-1 infection in goats. PMID:22511971

  8. The Influence of Brightness on Functional Assessment by mfERG: A Study on Scaffolds Used in Retinal Cell Transplantation in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Christiansen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of membrane brightness on multifocal electroretinograms (mfERGs, we implanted poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA membranes in the subretinal space of 11 porcine eyes. We compared membranes with their native shiny white color with membranes that were stained with a blue dye (Brilliant Blue. Histological and electrophysiological evaluation of the overlying retina was carried out 6 weeks after implantation. Histologically, both white and blue membranes degraded in a spongiform manner leaving a disrupted outer retina with no preserved photoreceptor segments. Multifocal ERG revealed the white membranes to have a significantly higher P1-amplitude ratio than the blue (P=0.027, and a correlation between brightness ratio and P1-amplitude ratio was found (r=0.762. Based on our findings, we conclude that bright subretinal objects can produce normal mfERG amplitude ratios even when the adjacent photoreceptors are missing. Functional assessment with mfERG in scaffold implant studies should therefore be evaluated with care.

  9. Role of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein in α1-adrenergic receptor-mediated Ca2+ mobilization in DDT1 MF-2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornett, L.E.; Norris, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    In this study the mechanisms involved in α 1 -adrenergic receptor-mediated Ca 2+ mobilization at the level of the plasma membrane were investigated. Stimulation of 45 Ca 2+ efflux from saponin-permeabilized DDT 1 MF-2 cells was observed with the addition of either the α 1 -adrenergic agonist phenylephrine and guanosine-5'-triphosphate or the nonhydrolyzable guanine nucleotide guanylyl-imidodiphosphate. In the presence of [ 32 P] NAD, pertussis toxin was found to catalyze ADP-ribosylation of a M/sub r/ = 40,500 (n = 8) peptide in membranes prepared from DDT 1 , MF-2 cells, possibly the α-subunit of N/sub i/. However, stimulation of unidirectional 45 Ca 2+ efflux by phenylephrine was not affected by previous treatment of cells with 100 ng/ml pertussis toxin. These data suggest that the putative guanine nucleotide-binding protein which couples the α 1 -adrenergic receptor to Ca 2+ mobilization in DDT 1 MF-2 cells is not a pertussis toxin substrate and may possibly be an additional member of guanine nucleotide binding protein family

  10. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  11. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  12. Selective One-Pot Production of High-Grade Diesel-Range Alkanes from Furfural and 2-Methylfuran over Pd/NbOPO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qineng; Xia, Yinjiang; Xi, Jinxu; Liu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yongguang; Guo, Yong; Wang, Yanqin

    2017-02-22

    A one-pot method for the selective production of high-grade diesel-range alkanes from biomass-derived furfural and 2-methylfuran (2-MF) was developed by combining the hydroxyalkylation/alkylation (HAA) condensation of furfural with 2-MF and the subsequent hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) over a multifunctional Pd/NbOPO 4 catalyst. The effects of various reaction conditions as well as a variety of solid-acid catalysts and metal-loaded NbOPO 4 catalysts were systematically investigated to optimize the reaction conditions for both reactions. Under the optimal reaction conditions up to 89.1 % total yield of diesel-range alkanes was obtained from furfural and 2-MF by this one-pot method. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Level densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatyuk, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    For any applications of the statistical theory of nuclear reactions it is very important to obtain the parameters of the level density description from the reliable experimental data. The cumulative numbers of low-lying levels and the average spacings between neutron resonances are usually used as such data. The level density parameters fitted to such data are compiled in the RIPL Starter File for the tree models most frequently used in practical calculations: i) For the Gilber-Cameron model the parameters of the Beijing group, based on a rather recent compilations of the neutron resonance and low-lying level densities and included into the beijing-gc.dat file, are chosen as recommended. As alternative versions the parameters provided by other groups are given into the files: jaeri-gc.dat, bombay-gc.dat, obninsk-gc.dat. Additionally the iljinov-gc.dat, and mengoni-gc.dat files include sets of the level density parameters that take into account the damping of shell effects at high energies. ii) For the backed-shifted Fermi gas model the beijing-bs.dat file is selected as the recommended one. Alternative parameters of the Obninsk group are given in the obninsk-bs.dat file and those of Bombay in bombay-bs.dat. iii) For the generalized superfluid model the Obninsk group parameters included into the obninsk-bcs.dat file are chosen as recommended ones and the beijing-bcs.dat file is included as an alternative set of parameters. iv) For the microscopic approach to the level densities the files are: obninsk-micro.for -FORTRAN 77 source for the microscopical statistical level density code developed in Obninsk by Ignatyuk and coworkers, moller-levels.gz - Moeller single-particle level and ground state deformation data base, moller-levels.for -retrieval code for Moeller single-particle level scheme. (author)

  14. Analysis of the influence of the plasma thermodynamic regime in the spectrally resolved and mean radiative opacity calculations of carbon plasmas in a wide range of density and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Martel, P.; Florido, R.; Rubiano, J.G.; Mendoza, M.A.; Minguez, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the spectrally resolved, multigroup and mean radiative opacities of carbon plasmas are calculated for a wide range of plasma conditions which cover situations where corona, local thermodynamic and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium regimes are found. An analysis of the influence of the thermodynamic regime on these magnitudes is also carried out by means of comparisons of the results obtained from collisional-radiative, corona or Saha–Boltzmann equations. All the calculations presented in this work were performed using ABAKO/RAPCAL code. -- Highlights: ► Spectrally resolved, multigroup and mean radiative opacities of carbon plasmas are calculated. ► Corona, local thermodynamic and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium regimes are analyzed. ► Simulations performed using the computational package ABAKO/RAPCAL. ► A criterion for the establishment of the thermodynamic regime is proposed.

  15. Immunohistochemical evaluation of myofibroblast density in odontogenic cysts and tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Halimi, Monireh; Jabbari, Golchin

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to investigate myofibroblast (MF) density in a broad spectrum of odontogenic cysts and tumors and the relation between the density of MFs and the clinical behavior of these lesions. Methods. A total of 105 cases of odontogenic lesions, including unicystic ameloblastoma (UAM), solid ameloblastoma (SA), odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), dentigerous cyst (DC), radicular cyst (RC) (15 for each category), and odontogenic myxoma (OM), adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) (10 for each category), were immunohistochemically stained with anti-α-smooth muscle actin antibody. The mean percentage of positive cells in 10 high-power fields was considered as MF density for each case. Results. A statistically significant difference was observed in the mean scores between the study groups (P 0.05). The number of MFs was significantly higher in OKC and lower in COC compared to other odontogenic cysts (P = 0.007 and P = 0.045, respectively). Conclusion. The results of the present study suggest a role for MFs in the aggressive behavior of odontogenic lesions. MFs may represent an important target of therapy, especially for aggressive odontogenic lesions. Our findings support the classification of OKC in the category of odontogenic tumors.

  16. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of cartilage repair after microfracture (MF) treatment for adult unstable osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) in the ankle: correlations with clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Hongyue; Lu, Rong; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Shuang; Shang, Xiliang; Li, Hong; Hua, Yinghui

    2014-01-01

    To quantitatively evaluate cartilage repair after microfracture (MF) for ankle osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) using MRI and analyse correlations between MRI and clinical outcome. Forty-eight patients were recruited and underwent MR imaging, including 3D-DESS, T2-mapping and T2-STIR sequences, and completed American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scoring. Thickness index, T2 index of repair tissue (RT) and volume of subchondral bone marrow oedema (BME) were calculated. Subjects were divided into two groups: group A (3-12 months post-op), and group B (12-24 months post-op). Student's t test was used to compare the MRI and AOFAS score between two groups and Pearson's correlation coefficient to analyse correlations between them. Thickness index and AOFAS score of group B were higher than group A (P < 0.001, P < 0.001). T2 index and BME of group B were lower than group A (P < 0.001, P = 0.012). Thickness index, T2 index and BME were all correlated with AOFAS score (r = 0.416, r = -0.475, r = -0.353), but BME was correlated with neither thickness index nor T2 index. Significant improvement from MF can be expected on the basis of the outcomes of quantitative MRI and AOFAS score. MRI was correlated with AOFAS score. BME is insufficient as an independent predictor to evaluate repair quality, but reduction of BME can improve the patient's clinical outcome. (orig.)

  17. A phase I feasibility study of multi-modality imaging assessing rapid expansion of marrow fat and decreased bone mineral density in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Susanta K; Arentsen, Luke; Sueblinvong, Thanasak; Brown, Keenan; Bolan, Pat; Ghebre, Rahel G; Downs, Levi; Shanley, Ryan; Hansen, Karen E; Minenko, Anne G; Takhashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Zhang, Yan; Geller, Melissa; Reynolds, Margaret; Lee, Chung K; Blaes, Anne H; Allen, Sharon; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte; Le, Chap; Froelich, Jerry; Rosen, Clifford; Yee, Douglas

    2015-04-01

    Cancer survivors are at an increased risk for fractures, but lack of effective and economical biomarkers limits quantitative assessments of marrow fat (MF), bone mineral density (BMD) and their relation in response to cytotoxic cancer treatment. We report dual energy CT (DECT) imaging, commonly used for cancer diagnosis, treatment and surveillance, as a novel biomarker of MF and BMD. We validated DECT in pre-clinical and phase I clinical trials and verified with water-fat MRI (WF-MRI), quantitative CT (QCT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Basis material composition framework was validated using water and small-chain alcohols simulating different components of bone marrow. Histologic validation was achieved by measuring percent adipocyte in the cadaver vertebrae and compared with DECT and WF-MRI. For a phase I trial, sixteen patients with gynecologic malignancies (treated with oophorectomy, radiotherapy or chemotherapy) underwent DECT, QCT, WF-MRI and DXA before and 12months after treatment. BMD and MF percent and distribution were quantified in the lumbar vertebrae and the right femoral neck. Measured precision (3mg/cm(3)) was sufficient to distinguish test solutions. Adiposity in cadaver bone histology was highly correlated with MF measured using DECT and WF-MRI (r=0.80 and 0.77, respectively). In the clinical trial, DECT showed high overall correlation (r=0.77, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.83) with WF-MRI. MF increased significantly after treatment (p<0.002). Chemotherapy and radiation caused greater increases in MF than oophorectomy (p<0.032). L4 BMD decreased 14% by DECT, 20% by QCT, but only 5% by DXA (p<0.002 for all). At baseline, we observed a statistically significant inverse association between MF and BMD which was dramatically attenuated after treatment. Our study demonstrated that DECT, similar to WF-MRI, can accurately measure marrow adiposity. Both imaging modalities show rapid increase in MF following cancer treatment. Our results suggest that MF and

  18. Study of fluorine ion structural role in Al(PO3)3-MF glass by the 19F nuclear magnetic resonance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurova, N.N.; Vopilov, V.A.; Buznik, V.M.; Urusovskaya, L.N.

    1989-01-01

    Results of investigation into Al(PO 3 ) 3 -xMF glasses (M=Li, Na, K) by the 19 F NMR method are presented. Investigation supported the structural identity of glasses, containing NaF and KF. One structural position, related to fluorine atoms, coordinating lithium and aluminium ions, is observed in glasses, containing lithium fluoride. The highest mobility of fluorine atoms was revealed in glasses with lithium fluoride. Mobility of fluorine atoms is lower in glasses, containing potassium and sodium fluoride modifications. Dynamic heterogeneity in these glasses is conditioned both by distribution of frequencies of atom motion in the glass and by structural nonequivalence of positions. Fluorine atoms, coordinating cations of alkaline metals, appear to be more mobile

  19. ADO.NET och Entity Framework : En jämförelse av prestanda mellan en objektorienterad databas och en relationsdatabas

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Emelie; Andreasen, Ulrika

    2012-01-01

    Denna uppsats mäter och jämför prestanda mellan en objektorienterad databas och en relationsdatabas. Uppsatsen bygger på en utredande karaktär utifrån vår hypotes och vårt intresse att testa den.Hypotesen bygger på problematiken omkring mängden kod utvecklaren måste skriva för att kunna koppla ihop applikation med databas. En större mängd skriven kod som utvecklaren måste skriva borde göra att prestanda och svarstider blir långsammare. Därför ville vi undersöka om verktyg som medför en mindre...

  20. Intranasal Immunization Using Mannatide as a Novel Adjuvant for an Inactivated Influenza Vaccine and Its Adjuvant Effect Compared with MF59.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ting Ren

    Full Text Available Intranasal vaccination is more potent than parenteral injection for the prevention of influenza. However, because the poor efficiency of antigen uptake across the nasal mucosa is a key issue, immunostimulatory adjuvants are essential for intranasal vaccines. The immunomodulator mannatide or polyactin (PA has been used for the clinical treatment of impaired immunity in China, but its adjuvant effect on an inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (ITIV via intranasal vaccination is unclear. To explore the adjuvant effect of PA, an inactivated trivalent influenza virus with or without PA or MF59 was instilled intranasally once a week in BALB/c mice. Humoral immunity was assessed by both the ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI methods using antigen-specific antibodies. Splenic lymphocyte proliferation and the IFN-γ level were measured to evaluate cell-mediated immunity. The post-vaccination serum HI antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs for the H1N1 and H3N2 strains, antigen-specific serum IgG and IgA GMTs, mucosal SIgA GMT, splenic lymphocyte proliferation, and IFN-γ were significantly increased in the high-dose PA-adjuvanted vaccine group. The seroconversion rate and the mucosal response for the H3N2 strain were significantly elevated after high-dose PA administration. These adjuvant effects of high-dose PA for the influenza vaccine were comparable with those of the MF59 adjuvant, and abnormal signs or pathological changes were not found in the evaluated organs. In conclusion, PA is a novel mucosal adjuvant for intranasal vaccination with the ITIV that has safe and effective mucosal adjuvanticity in mice and successfully induces both serum and mucosal antibody responses and a cell-mediated response.

  1. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of cartilage repair after microfracture (MF) treatment for adult unstable osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) in the ankle: correlations with clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Hongyue; Lu, Rong; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Shuang [Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Shang, Xiliang; Li, Hong; Hua, Yinghui [Fudan University, Department of Sports Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China)

    2014-08-15

    To quantitatively evaluate cartilage repair after microfracture (MF) for ankle osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) using MRI and analyse correlations between MRI and clinical outcome. Forty-eight patients were recruited and underwent MR imaging, including 3D-DESS, T2-mapping and T2-STIR sequences, and completed American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scoring. Thickness index, T2 index of repair tissue (RT) and volume of subchondral bone marrow oedema (BME) were calculated. Subjects were divided into two groups: group A (3-12 months post-op), and group B (12-24 months post-op). Student's t test was used to compare the MRI and AOFAS score between two groups and Pearson's correlation coefficient to analyse correlations between them. Thickness index and AOFAS score of group B were higher than group A (P < 0.001, P < 0.001). T2 index and BME of group B were lower than group A (P < 0.001, P = 0.012). Thickness index, T2 index and BME were all correlated with AOFAS score (r = 0.416, r = -0.475, r = -0.353), but BME was correlated with neither thickness index nor T2 index. Significant improvement from MF can be expected on the basis of the outcomes of quantitative MRI and AOFAS score. MRI was correlated with AOFAS score. BME is insufficient as an independent predictor to evaluate repair quality, but reduction of BME can improve the patient's clinical outcome. (orig.)

  2. Range-separated density functional theory: A 4-component relativistic study of the rare gas dimers He{sub 2}, Ne{sub 2}, Ar{sub 2}, Kr{sub 2}, Xe{sub 2}, Rn{sub 2} and Uuo{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullie, Ossama [Institute de Chimie de Strasbourg, CNRS et Universite de Strasbourg, Laboratoire de Chimie Quantique, 4 rue Blaise Pascal, 67070 Strasbourg (France); Saue, Trond, E-mail: trond.saue@isamc.ups-tlse.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique Quantique (UMR 5626), CNRS/Universite de Toulouse 3 (Paul Sabatier), 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France)

    2012-02-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First implementation of 4-component relativistic long-range MP2/short-range DFT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First complete study of spectroscopic constants of the rare gas dimers He{sub 2}-Uuo{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MP2-srLDA has a performance similar to pure MP2, but the overbinding of MP2 can be tuned by the range-separation parameter. - Abstract: We report the implementation of long-range second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory coupled with short-range density functional theory (MP2-srDFT) based on the 4-component relativistic Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian. The range separation of the two-electron interaction is based on the error function, such that the long-range interaction, to be handled by wave function theory, corresponds to the potential of finite electrons with a Gaussian charge distribution. We argue that the interelectronic distance associated with the range-separation parameter should accordingly be determined from a Gaussian rather than a hard-sphere model. As a first application of our relativistic MP2-srDFT implementation we calculate spectroscopic constants of the complete series of homoatomic rare gas dimers, from helium to the superheavy element 118 and with bonding dominated by dispersion forces. We find that the MP2-srDFT method is less sensitive to the basis set quality than pure MP2, but for the heavier rare gas dimers the computational cost is approximately the same as for pure MP2 if one seeks convergence with respect to both basis set and number of correlated electrons. The inclusion of a short-range DFT contribution allows to dampen the tendency of pure MP2 to overbind the heavier dimers, but it is difficult to find an optimal range-separation parameter for the whole series of diatomics. Interestingly, MP2-srLDA shows better performance than MP2-srPBE for the selected molecules.

  3. Air sampler performance at Ford's farm range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Johnston, J.W.

    1984-07-01

    An air-sampling system for a large-caliber depleted uranium (DU) penetrator firing range was tested. The objectives of the test were: to determine the bias between the monitoring readings and DU concentrations; and to determine if the target bay real-time monitor (RTM) tracks the decaying dust concentration. The test procedure was to operate total and respirable airborne particle samplers adjacent to the target bay monitors. A series of air samples was also taken after the test firings adjacent to the target bay RTM. Exhaust particle samples were analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta and uranium content. The target bay RTM correlated well (0.977) with the sequential samples. Average concentration from the RTM did not correlate with either the long-term total or respirable sampler DU concentrations. The monitor used to confirm a low dust concentration when the door is open correlated well (0.810) with the RTM; the other bay monitor did not. In the ventilation discharge, the long-term average monitor readings did not correlate with DU concentrations, probably due to levels near lower detection limits. Smearable surface-contamination samples showed highest contamination on the equipment, gravel floor and exhaust intake. The location air-intake contamination increased over the first 3 rounds. Contamination was reduced by a low-pressure water spray washdown to about the same concentration as often the second round, then remained at about twice the level. 2 references, 18 figures, 16 tables. (MF)

  4. Boreal coniferous forest density leads to significant variations in soil physical and geochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bastianelli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available At the northernmost extent of the managed forest in Quebec, Canada, the boreal forest is currently undergoing an ecological transition between two forest ecosystems. Open lichen woodlands (LW are spreading southward at the expense of more productive closed-canopy black spruce–moss forests (MF. The objective of this study was to investigate whether soil properties could distinguish MF from LW in the transition zone where both ecosystem types coexist. This study brings out clear evidence that differences in vegetation cover can lead to significant variations in soil physical and geochemical properties.Here, we showed that soil carbon, exchangeable cations, and iron and aluminium crystallinity vary between boreal closed-canopy forests and open lichen woodlands, likely attributed to variations in soil microclimatic conditions. All the soils studied were typical podzolic soil profiles evolved from glacial till deposits that shared a similar texture of the C layer. However, soil humus and the B layer varied in thickness and chemistry between the two forest ecosystems at the pedon scale. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to evaluate how soil properties could help distinguish the two types at the site scale. MF humus (FH horizons horizons composing the O layer showed significantly higher concentrations of organic carbon and nitrogen and of the main exchangeable base cations (Ca, Mg than LW soils. The B horizon of LW sites held higher concentrations of total Al and Fe oxides and particularly greater concentrations of inorganic amorphous Fe oxides than MF mineral soils, while showing a thinner B layer. Overall, our results show that MF store three times more organic carbon in their soils (B+FH horizons, roots apart than LW. We suggest that variations in soil properties between MF and LW are linked to a cascade of events involving the impacts of natural disturbances such as wildfires on forest regeneration that determines the vegetation

  5. Boreal coniferous forest density leads to significant variations in soil physical and geochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianelli, Carole; Ali, Adam A.; Beguin, Julien; Bergeron, Yves; Grondin, Pierre; Hély, Christelle; Paré, David

    2017-07-01

    At the northernmost extent of the managed forest in Quebec, Canada, the boreal forest is currently undergoing an ecological transition between two forest ecosystems. Open lichen woodlands (LW) are spreading southward at the expense of more productive closed-canopy black spruce-moss forests (MF). The objective of this study was to investigate whether soil properties could distinguish MF from LW in the transition zone where both ecosystem types coexist. This study brings out clear evidence that differences in vegetation cover can lead to significant variations in soil physical and geochemical properties.Here, we showed that soil carbon, exchangeable cations, and iron and aluminium crystallinity vary between boreal closed-canopy forests and open lichen woodlands, likely attributed to variations in soil microclimatic conditions. All the soils studied were typical podzolic soil profiles evolved from glacial till deposits that shared a similar texture of the C layer. However, soil humus and the B layer varied in thickness and chemistry between the two forest ecosystems at the pedon scale. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to evaluate how soil properties could help distinguish the two types at the site scale. MF humus (FH horizons horizons composing the O layer) showed significantly higher concentrations of organic carbon and nitrogen and of the main exchangeable base cations (Ca, Mg) than LW soils. The B horizon of LW sites held higher concentrations of total Al and Fe oxides and particularly greater concentrations of inorganic amorphous Fe oxides than MF mineral soils, while showing a thinner B layer. Overall, our results show that MF store three times more organic carbon in their soils (B+FH horizons, roots apart) than LW. We suggest that variations in soil properties between MF and LW are linked to a cascade of events involving the impacts of natural disturbances such as wildfires on forest regeneration that determines the vegetation structure (stand density

  6. Investigation of the structural, electronic and optical properties of the cubic RbMF{sub 3} perovskites (M = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) using modified Becke-Johnson exchange potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandeep, E-mail: sndp.chettri@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mizoram University, Aizawl, 796004 (India); Rai, D.P. [Department of Physics, Pachhunga University College, Mizoram University, 796001 (India); Shankar, A. [Department of Physics, University of North Bengal, Darjeeling, 734013 (India); Ghimire, M.P. [Condensed Matter Physics Research Center, Butwal-13, Rupandehi, Lumbini (Nepal); IFW-Dresden, Helmholtzstraße 20, D-01069, Dresden (Germany); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique de la Mati´ere et de Modélisation Mathématique LPQ3M, Université de Mascara, Mascara, 29000 (Algeria); Bin Omran, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2455, Riyadh, 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Syrotyuk, S.V. [Semiconductor Electronics Department, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, 79013 (Ukraine); Thapa, R.K. [Department of Physics, Mizoram University, Aizawl, 796004 (India)

    2017-05-01

    The structural, electronic and optical properties of the cubic RbMF{sub 3} perovskites (M = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) have been investigated using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The exchange and correlation potential was applied using the generalized gradient approximation for calculating the structural properties In addition, the modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential was used for calculating the electronic and optical properties. It was found that the lattice constant increases while the bulk modulus decreases with the change of cation (M) in going from Be to Ba in the RbMF{sub 3} perovskites (M = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba). The reflectivity and absorption properties were also studied using the mBJ method to understand the inter-band transitions and their possible applications in absorption devices in the UV-region. - Highlights: • Closer estimate of the band-gaps of RbMF{sub 3} with experimental results using GGA and mBJ results predicting them to be absorption devices and substrates for thin film growth. • The RbMF{sub 3} were also found to be potential candidate for in absorption devices in UV-region which were correlated to their calculated optical properties. • The materials are transparent, so may be used as substrates for thin film growth, for the optoelectric applications.

  7. Study of the flight range and ideal density of the africanized honeybees, Apis mellifera L., 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) labelled with {sup 32} P on an apple orchard; Estudo do raio de acao e densidade ideal de abelhas africanizadas, Apis mellifera L., 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) marcadas com {sup 32} P em pomar de maca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhoa, B A.J.

    1990-06-01

    The ideal density, the flight range, the choice for any flight direction, the influence of temperature and relative humidity of air about the honeybee`s activity, Apis mellifera L.. 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were studied in an apple orchard, utilizing nuclear techniques. Five hives, with 35,000 bees each, were labelled with syrup (50%) content (2,5 {mu}Ci {sup 32} P/ml) and taken one by one, every two days to the blossomed orchard. A circumference area of 100 m diameter (0,8 ha) W staked each 10 m from the center to the limit (50 m), making a cross, pointing out to North, South, East and West. The honeybees were collected on apple flowers, during 5 minutes in each stake, at 10:00 a.m. and 12:30 p.m. (author).

  8. Density limit experiments on FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucella, G.; Tudisco, O.; Apicella, M.L.; Apruzzese, G.; Artaserse, G.; Belli, F.; Boncagni, L.; Botrugno, A.; Buratti, P.; Calabrò, G.; Castaldo, C.; Cianfarani, C.; Cocilovo, V.; Dimatteo, L.; Esposito, B.; Frigione, D.; Gabellieri, L.; Giovannozzi, E.; Bin, W.; Granucci, G.

    2013-01-01

    One of the main problems in tokamak fusion devices concerns the capability to operate at a high plasma density, which is observed to be limited by the appearance of catastrophic events causing loss of plasma confinement. The commonly used empirical scaling law for the density limit is the Greenwald limit, predicting that the maximum achievable line-averaged density along a central chord depends only on the average plasma current density. However, the Greenwald density limit has been exceeded in tokamak experiments in the case of peaked density profiles, indicating that the edge density is the real parameter responsible for the density limit. Recently, it has been shown on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) that the Greenwald density limit is exceeded in gas-fuelled discharges with a high value of the edge safety factor. In order to understand this behaviour, dedicated density limit experiments were performed on FTU, in which the high density domain was explored in a wide range of values of plasma current (I p = 500–900 kA) and toroidal magnetic field (B T = 4–8 T). These experiments confirm the edge nature of the density limit, as a Greenwald-like scaling holds for the maximum achievable line-averaged density along a peripheral chord passing at r/a ≃ 4/5. On the other hand, the maximum achievable line-averaged density along a central chord does not depend on the average plasma current density and essentially depends on the toroidal magnetic field only. This behaviour is explained in terms of density profile peaking in the high density domain, with a peaking factor at the disruption depending on the edge safety factor. The possibility that the MARFE (multifaced asymmetric radiation from the edge) phenomenon is the cause of the peaking has been considered, with the MARFE believed to form a channel for the penetration of the neutral particles into deeper layers of the plasma. Finally, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) analysis has shown that also the central line

  9. Temperature-controlled down-conversion luminescence behavior of Eu3+ -doped transparent MF2 (M = Ba, Ca, Sr) glass ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, B; E, C Q; Bu, Y Y; Meng, L; Yan, X H; Wang, X F

    2017-03-01

    Eu 3 + -doped transparent glass ceramics containing MF 2 (M = Ba, Ca, Sr) nanocrystals were fabricated using a melt-quenching method, and the resulting structures were studied using X-ray diffraction. Levels 5 D 1 and 5 D 0 of Eu 3 + ions were verified as thermally coupled levels using the fluorescence intensity ratio method. The fluorescence intensity ratios, optical temperature sensitivity and thermal quenching ratios of the transparent glass ceramics were studied as a function of temperature. With an increase in temperature, the relative sensitivity (S R ) decreased sharply at first, then slowly increased, before finally decreasing. The minimum S R values of GCBaF 2 (GCB), GCCaF 2 (GCC) and GCSrF 2 (GCS) were 2.8 × 10 -4 , 0.8 × 10 -4 and 1.9 × 10 - 4  K -1 at 360, 269 and 319 K, respectively. Glass ceramics with an intense emission intensity can be used to convert the measured spectrum into temperature and may have an important role in temperature detectors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Analyzing the Cross-Correlation Between Onshore and Offshore RMB Exchange Rates Based on Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (MF-DCCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chi; Zhou, Yingying; Wang, Gangjin; Yan, Xinguo

    We use the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) method to explore the multifractal behavior of the cross-correlation between exchange rates of onshore RMB (CNY) and offshore RMB (CNH) against US dollar (USD). The empirical data are daily prices of CNY/USD and CNH/USD from May 1, 2012 to February 29, 2016. The results demonstrate that: (i) the cross-correlation between CNY/USD and CNH/USD is persistent and its fluctuation is smaller when the order of fluctuation function is negative than that when the order is positive; (ii) the multifractal behavior of the cross-correlation between CNY/USD and CNH/USD is significant during the sample period; (iii) the dynamic Hurst exponents obtained by the rolling windows analysis show that the cross-correlation is stable when the global economic situation is good and volatile in bad situation; and (iv) the non-normal distribution of original data has a greater effect on the multifractality of the cross-correlation between CNY/USD and CNH/USD than the temporary correlation.

  11. Effect of explosion hardening on the properties of the near-surface layer of glow-discharged nitrided 33H3MF steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnicki, J.; Fleszar, A.; Wierzchon, T.; Maranda, A.; Nowaczewski, J.

    1999-01-01

    The study was concerned with the effect of explosion hardening of 33H3MF steel, realized by the impact of the detonation products of a metallic plate driven by the detonation of an explosive plastic material, upon the microhardness and thickness of the nitrided layers forming during the glow discharge assisted nitridation process. Nitrided layers containing a compound zone, diffusion layers and layers with braunite content were formed on explosion-hardened steel surfaces. The corrosion resistance of the nitrided layers thus obtained was compared with that of the layers formed on non-hardened surfaces and on non-hardened and nitrided surfaces. The layers examined have a higher corrosion resistance than the starting material, but lower than the nitrided layers formed without the explosive load. The impact strength of the steel samples was examined before and after the explosion hardening and also after glow discharge assisted nitriding. It has been found that the explosion hardening followed by nitriding increases the impact strength, which is an advantageous effect. This also gives evidence that the changes in the hardness and structure of the samples examined, which are only observed in the layers whose thickness falls between 0.1 and 1.5 mm do not affect the notch present on the sample surface and thus have no influence upon the character of the sample fracture. (author)

  12. Empirical mode decomposition and long-range correlation analysis of sunspot time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yu; Leung, Yee

    2010-01-01

    Sunspots, which are the best known and most variable features of the solar surface, affect our planet in many ways. The number of sunspots during a period of time is highly variable and arouses strong research interest. When multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) is employed to study the fractal properties and long-range correlation of the sunspot series, some spurious crossover points might appear because of the periodic and quasi-periodic trends in the series. However many cycles of solar activities can be reflected by the sunspot time series. The 11-year cycle is perhaps the most famous cycle of the sunspot activity. These cycles pose problems for the investigation of the scaling behavior of sunspot time series. Using different methods to handle the 11-year cycle generally creates totally different results. Using MF-DFA, Movahed and co-workers employed Fourier truncation to deal with the 11-year cycle and found that the series is long-range anti-correlated with a Hurst exponent, H, of about 0.12. However, Hu and co-workers proposed an adaptive detrending method for the MF-DFA and discovered long-range correlation characterized by H≈0.74. In an attempt to get to the bottom of the problem in the present paper, empirical mode decomposition (EMD), a data-driven adaptive method, is applied to first extract the components with different dominant frequencies. MF-DFA is then employed to study the long-range correlation of the sunspot time series under the influence of these components. On removing the effects of these periods, the natural long-range correlation of the sunspot time series can be revealed. With the removal of the 11-year cycle, a crossover point located at around 60 months is discovered to be a reasonable point separating two different time scale ranges, H≈0.72 and H≈1.49. And on removing all cycles longer than 11 years, we have H≈0.69 and H≈0.28. The three cycle-removing methods—Fourier truncation, adaptive detrending and the

  13. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  14. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-04-26

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  15. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Ikenna Chielo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources. These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments; enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided; and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture. Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range

  16. Effect of distribution, interface property and density of hydrogel-embedded vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on the properties of a flexible solid state supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qi; Yuan, Xietao; Zhu, Yihao; Ni, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Xiaohua; Yang, Zhaohui

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we fabricate a robust flexible solid-state supercapacitor (FSC) device by embedding a conductive poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel into aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays. We carefully investigate the effect of distribution, interface properties and densification of CNTs in the gel matrix on the electrochemical properties of an FSC. The total electrochemical capacitance of the device is measured to be 227 mF cm‑3 with a maximum energy density of 0.02 mWh cm‑3, which is dramatically enhanced compared with a similar device composed of non-parallel CNTs. Additionally, controllable in situ electrochemical oxidation greatly improved the compatibility between the hydrophobic CNTs and the hydrophilic hydrogel, which decreased the resistance of the device and introduced extra pseudocapacitance. After such oxidation treatment the energy storage ability further doubled to 430 mF cm‑3 with a maximum energy density of 0.04 mWh cm‑3 . The FSCs based on densified CNT arrays exhibited a much higher volumetric capacitance of 1140 mF cm‑3 and a larger energy density of 0.1 mWh cm‑3, with a large power density of 14 mW cm‑3. All devices show excellent stability of capacitance after at least 10 000 charge–discharge cycles with a loss of less than 2%. These easy-to-assemble hybrid arrays thus potentially provide a new method for manufacturing wearable devices and implantable medical devices.

  17. 54 relative density and distribution of tantalus monkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    RANGES OF SAMBISA GAME RESERVE. M. Modu*, A. A. ... density and he found a negative relationship with minimum density. .... analysis. A comprehensive computer software .... a large effect on the abundance and ranging ecology of ...

  18. Tonopah Test Range - Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capabilities Test Operations Center Test Director Range Control Track Control Communications Tracking Radars Photos Header Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Tonopah Test Range Top TTR_TOC Tonopah is the testing range of choice for all national security missions. Tonopah Test Range (TTR) provides research and

  19. Measuring single-cell density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, William H; Bryan, Andrea K; Diez-Silva, Monica; Suresh, Subra; Higgins, John M; Manalis, Scott R

    2011-07-05

    We have used a microfluidic mass sensor to measure the density of single living cells. By weighing each cell in two fluids of different densities, our technique measures the single-cell mass, volume, and density of approximately 500 cells per hour with a density precision of 0.001 g mL(-1). We observe that the intrinsic cell-to-cell variation in density is nearly 100-fold smaller than the mass or volume variation. As a result, we can measure changes in cell density indicative of cellular processes that would be otherwise undetectable by mass or volume measurements. Here, we demonstrate this with four examples: identifying Plasmodium falciparum malaria-infected erythrocytes in a culture, distinguishing transfused blood cells from a patient's own blood, identifying irreversibly sickled cells in a sickle cell patient, and identifying leukemia cells in the early stages of responding to a drug treatment. These demonstrations suggest that the ability to measure single-cell density will provide valuable insights into cell state for a wide range of biological processes.

  20. Long Range Polymer Chain Dynamics of Highly Flexible Polysiloxane in Solution Probed by Pyrene Excimer Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine L. Thoma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A poly(dimethylsiloxane-co-(3-aminopropylmethylsiloxane polymer (PDMS with 20.3 mol % of (3-aminopropylmethyl siloxane monomer has been labeled randomly with 1-pyreneacetyl groups to generate a series of polysiloxanes (Py-PDMS with pyrenyl contents ranging from 0.7 mol % to 5.2 mol % of the total number of structural units. The remainder of the amino groups were acetylated to avoid intra-chain quenching of the excited singlet states of pyrene via exciplex formation with free amino groups while allowing the formation of excimers to proceed. The fluorescence spectra and temporal decays of the Py-PDMS samples were acquired in tetrahydrofuran (THF, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF, and dioxane. MF>blob, the average rate constant for intra-chain pyrene excimer formation, was determined from the analysis of the fluorescence decays. MF>blob was found to equal 1.16 (±0.13 × 109, 1.14 (±0.12 × 109, and 0.99 (±0.10 × 109 s−1 in THF, DMF, and dioxane, respectively, at room temperature. They are the largest values found to date for any polymeric backbone in these solvents. The qualitative relationship found here between MF>blob and the chemical structures of the polymers indicates that the luminescence characteristics of randomly labeled polymers is a very useful method to probe the long range dynamics of chains of almost any polymer that is amenable to substitution by a lumophore.

  1. Compressive laser ranging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Wm Randall; Barber, Zeb W; Renner, Christoffer

    2011-12-15

    Compressive sampling has been previously proposed as a technique for sampling radar returns and determining sparse range profiles with a reduced number of measurements compared to conventional techniques. By employing modulation on both transmission and reception, compressive sensing in ranging is extended to the direct measurement of range profiles without intermediate measurement of the return waveform. This compressive ranging approach enables the use of pseudorandom binary transmit waveforms and return modulation, along with low-bandwidth optical detectors to yield high-resolution ranging information. A proof-of-concept experiment is presented. With currently available compact, off-the-shelf electronics and photonics, such as high data rate binary pattern generators and high-bandwidth digital optical modulators, compressive laser ranging can readily achieve subcentimeter resolution in a compact, lightweight package.

  2. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  3. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  4. Laboratory Density Functionals

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, B. G.

    2007-01-01

    We compare several definitions of the density of a self-bound system, such as a nucleus, in relation with its center-of-mass zero-point motion. A trivial deconvolution relates the internal density to the density defined in the laboratory frame. This result is useful for the practical definition of density functionals.

  5. Density Functional Study of Structures and Electron Affinities of BrO4F/BrO4F-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The structures, electron affinities and bond dissociation energies of BrO4F/BrO4F− species have been investigated with five density functional theory (DFT methods with DZP++ basis sets. The planar F-Br…O2…O2 complexes possess 3A' electronic state for neutral molecule and 4A' state for the corresponding anion. Three types of the neutral-anion energy separations are the adiabatic electron affinity (EAad, the vertical electron affinity (EAvert, and the vertical detachment energy (VDE. The EAad value predicted by B3LYP method is 4.52 eV. The bond dissociation energies De (BrO4F → BrO4-mF + Om (m = 1-4 and De- (BrO4F- → BrO4-mF- + Om and BrO4F- → BrO4-mF + Om- are predicted. The adiabatic electron affinities (EAad were predicted to be 4.52 eV for F-Br…O2…O2 (3A'← 4A' (B3LYP method.

  6. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  7. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  8. Autonomous Target Ranging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz

    2003-01-01

    of this telescope, a fast determination of the range to and the motion of the detected targets are important. This is needed in order to prepare the future observation strategy for each target, i.e. when is the closest approach where imaging will be optimal. In order to quickly obtain such a determination two...... ranging strategies are presented. One is an improved laser ranger with an effective range with non-cooperative targets of at least 10,000 km, demonstrated in ground tests. The accuracy of the laser ranging will be approximately 1 m. The laser ranger may furthermore be used for trajectory determination...... of nano-gravity probes, which will perform direct mass measurements of selected targets. The other is triangulation from two spacecraft. For this method it is important to distinguish between detection and tracking range, which will be different for Bering since different instruments are used...

  9. Soliton microcomb range measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2018-02-01

    Laser-based range measurement systems are important in many application areas, including autonomous vehicles, robotics, manufacturing, formation flying of satellites, and basic science. Coherent laser ranging systems using dual-frequency combs provide an unprecedented combination of long range, high precision, and fast update rate. We report dual-comb distance measurement using chip-based soliton microcombs. A single pump laser was used to generate dual-frequency combs within a single microresonator as counterpropagating solitons. We demonstrated time-of-flight measurement with 200-nanometer precision at an averaging time of 500 milliseconds within a range ambiguity of 16 millimeters. Measurements at distances up to 25 meters with much lower precision were also performed. Our chip-based source is an important step toward miniature dual-comb laser ranging systems that are suitable for photonic integration.

  10. Simulating QCD at finite density

    CERN Document Server

    de Forcrand, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In this review, I recall the nature and the inevitability of the "sign problem" which plagues attempts to simulate lattice QCD at finite baryon density. I present the main approaches used to circumvent the sign problem at small chemical potential. I sketch how one can predict analytically the severity of the sign problem, as well as the numerically accessible range of baryon densities. I review progress towards the determination of the pseudo-critical temperature T_c(mu), and towards the identification of a possible QCD critical point. Some promising advances with non-standard approaches are reviewed.

  11. Prediction ranges. Annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, J.C.; Tharp, W.H.; Spiro, P.S.; Keng, K.; Angastiniotis, M.; Hachey, L.T.

    1988-01-01

    Prediction ranges equip the planner with one more tool for improved assessment of the outcome of a course of action. One of their major uses is in financial evaluations, where corporate policy requires the performance of uncertainty analysis for large projects. This report gives an overview of the uses of prediction ranges, with examples; and risks and uncertainties in growth, inflation, and interest and exchange rates. Prediction ranges and standard deviations of 80% and 50% probability are given for various economic indicators in Ontario, Canada, and the USA, as well as for foreign exchange rates and Ontario Hydro interest rates. An explanatory note on probability is also included. 23 tabs.

  12. ITER Experts' meeting on density limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrass, K.; Igitkhanov, Y.L.; Uckan, N.A.

    1989-12-01

    The necessity of achieving a prescribed wall load or fusion power essentially determines the plasma pressure in a device like ITER. The range of operation densities and temperatures compatible with this condition is constrained by the problems of power exhaust and the disruptive density limit. The maximum allowable heat loads on the divertor plates and the maximum allowable sheath edge temperature practically impose a lower limit on the operating densities, whereas the disruptive density limit imposes an upper limit. For most of the density limit scalings proposed in the past an overlap of the two constraints or at best a very narrow accessible density range is predicted for ITER. Improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms is therefore a crucial issue in order to provide a more reliable basis for extrapolation to ITER and to identify possible ways of alleviating the problem

  13. Densities of carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, J.O. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The densities of arc-evaporated carbon target foils have been measured by several methods. The density depends upon the method used to measure it; for the same surface density, values obtained by different measurement techniques may differ by fifty percent or more. The most reliable density measurements are by flotation, yielding a density of 2.01±0.03 g cm -3 , and interferometric step height with the surface density known from auxiliary measurements, yielding a density of 2.61±0.4 g cm -3 . The difference between these density values mayy be due in part to the compressive stresses that carbon films have while still on their substrates, uncertainties in the optical calibration of surface densities of carbon foils, and systematic errors in step-height measurements. Mechanical thickness measurements by micrometer caliper are unreliable due to nonplanarity of these foils. (orig.)

  14. Antenna Pattern Range (APR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TheAntenna Pattern Range (APR)features a non-metallic arch with a trolley to move the transmit antenna from the horizon to zenith. At the center of the ground plane,...

  15. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  16. EV range sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostafew, C. [Azure Dynamics Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation included a sensitivity analysis of electric vehicle components on overall efficiency. The presentation provided an overview of drive cycles and discussed the major contributors to range in terms of rolling resistance; aerodynamic drag; motor efficiency; and vehicle mass. Drive cycles that were presented included: New York City Cycle (NYCC); urban dynamometer drive cycle; and US06. A summary of the findings were presented for each of the major contributors. Rolling resistance was found to have a balanced effect on each drive cycle and proportional to range. In terms of aerodynamic drive, there was a large effect on US06 range. A large effect was also found on NYCC range in terms of motor efficiency and vehicle mass. figs.

  17. PROBABILISTIC MODEL OF LASER RANGE FINDER FOR THREE DIMENSIONAL GRID CELL IN CLOSE RANGE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz b Iman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The probabilistic model of a laser scanner presents an important aspect for simultaneous localization and map-building (SLAM. However, the characteristic of the beam of the laser range finder under extreme incident angles approaching 900 has not been thoroughly investigated. This research paper reports the characteristic of the density of the range value coming from a laser range finder under close range circumstances where the laser is imposed with a high incident angle. The laser was placed in a controlled environment consisting of walls at a close range and 1000 iteration of scans was collected. The assumption of normal density of the metrical data collapses when the beam traverses across sharp edges in this environment. The data collected also shows multimodal density at instances where the range has discontinuity. The standard deviation of the laser range finder is reported to average at 10.54 mm, with 0.96 of accuracy. This significance suggests that under extreme incident angles, a laser range finder reading behaves differently compared to normal distribution. The use of this information is crucial for SLAM activity in enclosed environments such as inside piping grid or other cluttered environments.KEYWORDS:   Hokuyo UTM-30LX; kernel density estimation; probabilistic model  

  18. Current interruption by density depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.S.; Tajima, T.; Akasofu, S.I.

    1985-04-01

    Using a one-dimensional electrostatic particle code, we examine processes associated with current interruption in a collisionless plasma when a density depression is present along the current channel. Current interruption due to double layers was suggested by Alfven and Carlqvist (1967) as a cause of solar flares. At a local density depression, plasma instabilities caused by an electron current flow are accentuated, leading to current disruption. Our simulation study encompasses a wide range of the parameters in such a way that under appropriate conditions, both the Alfven and Carlqvist (1967) regime and the Smith and Priest (1972) regime take place. In the latter regime the density depression decays into a stationary structure (''ion-acoustic layer'') which spawns a series of ion-acoustic ''solitons'' and ion phase space holes travelling upstream. A large inductance of the current circuit tends to enhance the plasma instabilities

  19. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    and several natural special cases thereof. The rst special case is known as range median, which arises when k is xed to b(j 􀀀 i + 1)=2c. The second case, denoted prex selection, arises when i is xed to 0. Finally, we also consider the bounded rank prex selection problem and the xed rank range......Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection...... selection problem. In the former, data structures must support prex selection queries under the assumption that k for some value n given at construction time, while in the latter, data structures must support range selection queries where k is xed beforehand for all queries. We prove cell probe lower bounds...

  20. Densities, Viscosities and Related Properties for Binary Mixtures of Sulfolane + p-Xylene, Sulfolane + Ethylbenzene in the Temperature Range from 303.15 K to 353.15 K%二元混合物环丁酚和对二甲苯、乙苯在温度范围为303.15-353.15K下的密度、黏度及其相关性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨长生; 马沛生; 周清

    2004-01-01

    Densities and viscosities of the binary systems of sulfolane + ethylbenzene, sulfolane + p-xylene have been experimentally determined in temperature interval 303.15-353.15 K and at atmospheric pressure for the whole composition range. The excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations were computed. The computed quantities have been fitted to Redlich-Kister equation. Excess molar volumes and viscosity deviation show a systematic change with increasing temperature. Two mixtures exhibit negative excess volumes with a minimum which occurs approximately at x = 0.5. The effect of the size, shape and interaction of components on excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations is discussed.

  1. Future Road Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  2. MF59- and Al(OH3-adjuvanted Staphylococcus aureus (4C-Staph vaccines induce sustained protective humoral and cellular immune responses, with a critical role for effector CD4 T cells at low antibody titers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eMonaci

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is an important opportunistic pathogen that may cause invasive life-threatening infections like sepsis and pneumonia. Due to increasing antibiotic-resistance, the development of an effective vaccine against S. aureus is needed. Although a correlate of protection against staphylococcal diseases is not yet established, several findings suggest that both antibodies and CD4 T cells might contribute to optimal immunity. In this study, we show that adjuvanting a multivalent vaccine (4C-Staph with MF59, an oil-in-water emulsion licensed in human vaccines, further potentiated antigen-specific IgG titers and CD4 T cell responses compared to alum and conferred protection in the peritonitis model of S. aureus infection. Moreover, we showed that MF59- and alum-adjuvanted 4C-Staph vaccines induced persistent antigen-specific humoral and T cell responses, and protected mice from infection up to 4 months after immunization. Furthermore, 4C-Staph formulated with MF59 was used to investigate which immune compartment is involved in vaccine-induced protection. Using CD4 T cell-depleted mice or B cell deficient mice, we demonstrated that both T and B cell responses contributed to 4C-Staph vaccine-mediated protective immunity. However, the role of CD4 T cells seemed more evident in the presence of low antibody responses. This study provides preclinical data further supporting the use of the adjuvanted 4C-Staph vaccines against S. aureus diseases, and provides critical insights on the correlates of protective immunity necessary to combat this pathogen.

  3. Crowding and Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Design and Environment, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Three-part report pinpointing problems and uncovering solutions for the dual concepts of density (ratio of people to space) and crowding (psychological response to density). Section one, A Primer on Crowding,'' reviews new psychological and social findings; section two, Density in the Suburbs,'' shows conflict between status quo and increased…

  4. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark

    2009-01-01

    is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  5. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  6. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  7. Range-clustering queries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamsen, M.; de Berg, M.T.; Buchin, K.A.; Mehr, M.; Mehrabi, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    In a geometric k -clustering problem the goal is to partition a set of points in R d into k subsets such that a certain cost function of the clustering is minimized. We present data structures for orthogonal range-clustering queries on a point set S : given a query box Q and an integer k>2 , compute

  8. High density hydrogen research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    The interest in the properties of very dense hydrogen is prompted by its abundance in Saturn and Jupiter and its importance in laser fusion studies. Furthermore, it has been proposed that the metallic form of hydrogen may be a superconductor at relatively high temperatures and/or exist in a metastable phase at ambient pressure. For ten years or more, laboratories have been developing the techniques to study hydrogen in the megabar region (1 megabar = 100 GPa). Three major approaches to study dense hydrogen experimentally have been used, static presses, shockwave compression, and magnetic compression. Static tchniques have crossed the megabar threshold in stiff materials but have not yet been convincingly successful in very compressible hydrogen. Single and double shockwave techniques have improved the precision of the pressure, volume, temperature Equation of State (EOS) of molecular hydrogen (deuterium) up to near 1 Mbar. Multiple shockwave and magnetic techniques have compressed hydrogen to several megabars and densities in the range of the metallic phase. The net result is that hydrogen becomes conducting at a pressure between 2 and 4 megabars. Hence, the possibility of making a significant amount of hydrogen into a metal in a static press remains a formidable challenge. The success of such experiments will hopefully answer the questions about hydrogen's metallic vs. conducting molecular phase, superconductivity, and metastability. 4 figures, 15 references

  9. Extended Range Intercept Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    1988). Desert bighorn ewes with lambs show a stronger response than do groups of only rams, only ewes, or mixed groups of adults (Miller and Smith...1985). While all startle events may affect desert bighorns, those occurring during the lambing period (February-April) would represent the highest...35807 U.S. Army Pueblo Depot Activity SDSTE-PU-EE Pueblo, CO 81001-5000 U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range STEWS -EL-N White Sands, NM 88002-5076

  10. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Chaturvedi Dev

    2012-01-01

    No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis) is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal proper...

  11. Probability densities and Lévy densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler

    For positive Lévy processes (i.e. subordinators) formulae are derived that express the probability density or the distribution function in terms of power series in time t. The applicability of the results to finance and to turbulence is briefly indicated.......For positive Lévy processes (i.e. subordinators) formulae are derived that express the probability density or the distribution function in terms of power series in time t. The applicability of the results to finance and to turbulence is briefly indicated....

  12. Genetic algorithm based on optimization of neural network structure for fault diagnosis of the clutch retainer mechanism of MF 285 tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F Mousavi

    2016-09-01

    and error procedure was used to minimize the mean square error of the network output and the desired amount of training step. During the training step, four neural networks including Db4, Db30, Db35 and Db40 achieved a gradient descent weight in the learning bias and four neural networks including Db9, Db15, Db20 and Db25 achieved a gradient descent with momentum weight in the learning bias. The two of the achieved neural networks including Db4, Db20 have circular logarithm function and the remaining networks have annular hyperbolic tangent transfer function. The most appropriate networks configuration was acquired when the network exhibited the minimal error with the training and testing data sets. The results show that the highest accuracy of the GA-ANN Artificial neural networks for all rotational speeds (1000, 1500 and 2000 rpm, and working conditions (intact gear and shaft, damaged bearing and worn shaft observed for the network family of Db4. The highest error observed for the family of Db20 with MSE of 0.011. Conclusions Artificial neural networks can somewhat think and make decisions similar to an expert person. In this project in order to predict the occurrence of a failure of the clutch mechanism of MF 285 tractor, the experimental data were obtained using some sensors, and the data were transferred to a computer by means of a data analytical. By training of the neural networks, the errors were identified separately. The output data from the combined Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm shows that the performance of the prediction model is enhanced. Based on the experiments and calculations, the best data set belongs to the family of Db4 network with the least MSE equal to 4.09E-07 and r equal to 0.99999, indicating that the model could precisely detect the faulty bearings or shafts.

  13. Fatores técnicos intervenientes na realização do exame de eletrorretinograma multifocal (ERGmf Technical factors that influence multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kiyoko Oyamada

    2007-08-01

    adequada da amplitude e do tempo implícito dos picos N1 e P1, fundamentais para a corroboração diagnóstica de lesões ou afecções retinianas.PURPOSE: To describe the main intervening factors observed during the acquisition and analysis of multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG, that could affect the recorded signal, the obtained responses and their analysis. METHODS: The error factors observed during the acquisition of 100 sequential multifocal electroretinogram tests, in the period of May to July, 2005 were analyzed. The examinations of multifocal electroretinogram were carried out in agreement with international guideline recommendations, taking into account the established parameters of equipment, with 61 elements, and visual angle of 30º. All patients had been submitted to complete ophthalmologic examination, excluding those with inadequate transparency of ways, flat corneas and those incapable to visualize a central fixation target. RESULTS: The intervening factors, that could cause artifacts and errors in the interpretation of the obtained results, observed and corrected during the acquisition of multifocal electroretinogram were: eccentric or poor fixation, eye movements, orbicular contraction, cervical muscle contraction, inadequate transparency of the corneal electrode, electrode displacement, lens support decentralization, inadequate viewing distance in patients with high refractive errors, eye height inadequacy in relation to the center of the screen, electrical noise in 60 HZ frequency and electromagnetic field and high impedances. Excessive use of filters in wave processing for noise and artifact removal can interfere with the analysis of the obtained results. CONCLUSION: Simple observational cares during signal acquisition are of significant importance to ensure accuracy of the topographical electroretinogram information, good waveform morphology and low noise level register. Through their ready correction, the correct and adjusted analysis of the

  14. Range Flight Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Charles E.; Hudson, Sandra M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Technical Standard is to provide the technical requirements for the NPR 8715.5, Range Flight Safety Program, in regards to protection of the public, the NASA workforce, and property as it pertains to risk analysis, Flight Safety Systems (FSS), and range flight operations. This standard is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and NASA Centers, including Component Facilities and Technical and Service Support Centers, and may be cited in contract, program, and other Agency documents as a technical requirement. This standard may also apply to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory or to other contractors, grant recipients, or parties to agreements to the extent specified or referenced in their contracts, grants, or agreements, when these organizations conduct or participate in missions that involve range flight operations as defined by NPR 8715.5.1.2.2 In this standard, all mandatory actions (i.e., requirements) are denoted by statements containing the term “shall.”1.3 TailoringTailoring of this standard for application to a specific program or project shall be formally documented as part of program or project requirements and approved by the responsible Technical Authority in accordance with NPR 8715.3, NASA General Safety Program Requirements.

  15. Use of Phytone Peptone to Optimize Growth and Cell Density of Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, Olabiyi A; Gyawali, Rabin; Aljaloud, Sulaiman O; Ibrahim, Salam A

    2015-08-10

    The objective of this study was to determine the use of phytone peptone to optimize the growth and cell density of Lactobacillus reuteri. Four strains of L. reuteri (DSM 20016, SD 2112, CF 2-7F, and MF 2-3,) were used in this study. An overnight culture of individual strains was inoculated into fresh basal media with various protein sources (peptone, tryptone, proteose peptone #3, phytone peptone, tryptic soy broth, yeast extract, and beef extract). Samples were then mixed well and incubated at 37 °C for 15 h. Bacterial growth was monitored by measuring turbidity (optical density 610 nm) at different time intervals during the incubation period. At the end of incubation, samples were plated on de-Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar to determine the bacterial population. Our results showed that phytone peptone promoted the growth of L. reuteri ( p reuteri .

  16. Investigation of Electron Density Profile in the ionospheric D and E region by Kagoshima rocket experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashihara, Y.; Ishisaka, K.; Miyake, T.; Okada, T.; Nagano, I.; Abe, T.; Ono, T.

    2007-12-01

    The radio wave propagation characteristic in the lower ionosphere is important because of its effect on commercial radio communication, navigation, and broadcast services. The electron density is of primary interest in this region because the high ion-neutral collision frequencies result in radio wave absorption. In order to investigate the ionization structure in the ionospheric D and E region by using the propagation characteristics of MF-band and LF-band radio waves, S-310-37 and S-520-23 sounding rocket experiments have been carried out at Uchinoura Space Center (USC). S-310-37 sounding rocket was launched at 11:20 LT on January 16, 2007. The apex of rocket trajectory was about 138 km. Then S-520-23 sounding rocket was launched at 19:20 LT on September 2, 2007. The apex was about 279 km. As a common measurement, these sounding rockets measure the fields intensities and the waveform of radio waves from NHK Kumamoto broadcasting station (873kHz, 500kW) and JJY signals from Haganeyama LF radio station (60kHz, 50kW). The approximate electron density profile can be determined from the comparison between these experimental results and propagation characteristics calculated by the full wave method. We will get the most probable electron density profile in the ionosphere. In presentation, we will show the propagation characteristic of LF/MF radio waves measured by two sounding rocket experiments. Then we will discuss the analysis method and the estimated electron density profile in the ionosphere.

  17. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  18. Long-range antigravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession. (orig.)

  19. Statistical density modification using local pattern matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    Statistical density modification can make use of local patterns of density found in protein structures to improve crystallographic phases. A method for improving crystallographic phases is presented that is based on the preferential occurrence of certain local patterns of electron density in macromolecular electron-density maps. The method focuses on the relationship between the value of electron density at a point in the map and the pattern of density surrounding this point. Patterns of density that can be superimposed by rotation about the central point are considered equivalent. Standard templates are created from experimental or model electron-density maps by clustering and averaging local patterns of electron density. The clustering is based on correlation coefficients after rotation to maximize the correlation. Experimental or model maps are also used to create histograms relating the value of electron density at the central point to the correlation coefficient of the density surrounding this point with each member of the set of standard patterns. These histograms are then used to estimate the electron density at each point in a new experimental electron-density map using the pattern of electron density at points surrounding that point and the correlation coefficient of this density to each of the set of standard templates, again after rotation to maximize the correlation. The method is strengthened by excluding any information from the point in question from both the templates and the local pattern of density in the calculation. A function based on the origin of the Patterson function is used to remove information about the electron density at the point in question from nearby electron density. This allows an estimation of the electron density at each point in a map, using only information from other points in the process. The resulting estimates of electron density are shown to have errors that are nearly independent of the errors in the original map using

  20. Why Density Dependent Propulsion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 Khoury and Weltman produced a density dependent cosmology theory they call the Chameleon, as at its nature, it is hidden within known physics. The Chameleon theory has implications to dark matter/energy with universe acceleration properties, which implies a new force mechanism with ties to the far and local density environment. In this paper, the Chameleon Density Model is discussed in terms of propulsion toward new propellant-less engineering methods.

  1. Density limits in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendler, M.

    1984-06-01

    The energy loss from a tokamak plasma due to neutral hydrogen radiation and recycling is of great importance for the energy balance at the periphery. It is shown that the requirement for thermal equilibrium implies a constraint on the maximum attainable edge density. The relation to other density limits is discussed. The average plasma density is shown to be a strong function of the refuelling deposition profile. (author)

  2. Nuclear Level Densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research in the area of nuclear level densities is reviewed. The current interest in nuclear astrophysics and in structure of nuclei off of the line of stability has led to the development of radioactive beam facilities with larger machines currently being planned. Nuclear level densities for the systems used to produce the radioactive beams influence substantially the production rates of these beams. The modification of level-density parameters near the drip lines would also affect nucleosynthesis rates and abundances

  3. Range Process Simulation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

  4. Measurement of true density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr-Brion, K.G.; Keen, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    System for determining the true density of a fluent mixture such as a liquid slurry, containing entrained gas, such as air comprises a restriction in pipe through which at least a part of the mixture is passed. Density measuring means such as gamma-ray detectors and source measure the apparent density of the mixture before and after its passage through the restriction. Solid-state pressure measuring devices are arranged to measure the pressure in the mixture before and after its passage through the restriction. Calculating means, such as a programmed microprocessor, determine the true density from these measurements using relationships given in the description. (author)

  5. Controlling of density uniformity of polyacrylate foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Wenwen; Yuan Baohe; Wang Yanhong; Xu Jiayun; Zhang Lin

    2010-01-01

    The density non-uniformity existing in most low-density foams will affect performance of the foams. The trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTA) foam targets were prepared and controlling methods of the foams, density uniformity were explored together with its forming mechanism. It has been found that the UV-light with high intensity can improve the distribution uniformity of the free radicals induced by UV photons in the solvents, thus improve the density uniformity of the foams. In addition, container wall would influence the concentration distribution of the solution, which affects the density uniformity of the foams. Thus, the UV-light with high intensity was chosen together with polytetrafluoroethylene molds instead of glass molds to prepare the foams with the density non-uniformity less than 10%. β-ray detection technology was used to measure the density uniformity of the TMPTA foams with the density in the range of 10 to 100 mg · cm -3 , and the results show that the lower the foam density is, the worse the density uniformity is. (authors)

  6. Level densities in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckerman, M.

    1978-01-01

    In the independent-particle model nucleons move independently in a central potential. There is a well-defined set of single- particle orbitals, each nucleon occupies one of these orbitals subject to Fermi statistics, and the total energy of the nucleus is equal to the sum of the energies of the individual nucleons. The basic question is the range of validity of this Fermi gas description and, in particular, the roles of the residual interactions and collective modes. A detailed examination of experimental level densities in light-mass system is given to provide some insight into these questions. Level densities over the first 10 MeV or so in excitation energy as deduced from neutron and proton resonances data and from spectra of low-lying bound levels are discussed. To exhibit some of the salient features of these data comparisons to independent-particle (shell) model calculations are presented. Shell structure is predicted to manifest itself through discontinuities in the single-particle level density at the Fermi energy and through variatons in the occupancy of the valence orbitals. These predictions are examined through combinatorial calculations performed with the Grover [Phys. Rev., 157, 832(1967), 185 1303(1969)] odometer method. Before the discussion of the experimenta results, statistical mechanical level densities for spherical nuclei are reviewed. After consideration of deformed nuclei, the conclusions resulting from this work are drawn. 7 figures, 3 tables

  7. Aerosol transport from Chiang Mai, Thailand to Mt. Lulin, Taiwan - Implication of aerosol aging during long-range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ming-Tung; Lee, Chung-Te; Chou, Charles C.-K.; Engling, Guenter; Chang, Shih-Yu; Chang, Shuenn-Chin; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; Chang, You-Jia; Hong, Guo-Jun

    2016-07-01

    The transport of biomass burning (BB) aerosol from Indochina may cause a potential effect on climate change in Southeast Asia, East Asia, and the Western Pacific. Up to now, the understanding of BB aerosol composition modification during long-range transport (LRT) is still very limited due to the lack of observational data. In this study, atmospheric aerosols were collected at the Suthep/Doi Ang Khang (DAK) mountain sites in Chiang Mai, Thailand and the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (Mt. Lulin) in central Taiwan from March to April 2010 and from February to April 2013, respectively. During the study period, an upwind and downwind relationship between the Suthep/DAK and Lulin sites (2400 km apart) was validated by backward trajectories. Comprehensive aerosol properties were resolved for PM2.5 water-soluble inorganic ions, carbonaceous content, water-soluble/insoluble organic carbon (WSOC/WIOC), dicarboxylic acids and their salts (DCAS), and anhydrosugars. A Modification Factor (MF) is proposed by employing non-sea-salt potassium ion (nss-K+) or fractionalized elemental carbon evolved at 580 °C after pyrolized OC correction (EC1-OP) as a BB aerosol tracer to evaluate the mass fraction changes of aerosol components from source to receptor regions during LRT. The MF values of nss-SO42-, NH4+, NO3-, OC1 (fractionalized organic carbon evolved from room temperature to 140 °C), OP (pyrolized OC fraction), DCAS, and WSOC were above unity, which indicated that these aerosol components were enhanced during LRT as compared with those in the near-source region. In contrast, the MF values of anhydrosugars ranged from 0.1 to 0.3, indicating anhydrosugars have degraded during LRT.

  8. Calculation of projected ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, J.P.

    1980-09-01

    The concept of multiple scattering is reconsidered for obtaining the directional spreading of ion motion as a function of energy loss. From this the mean projection of each pathlength element of the ion trajectory is derived which - upon summation or integration - leads to the desired mean projected range. In special cases, the calculation can be carried out analytically, otherwise a simple general algorithm is derived which is suitable even for the smallest programmable calculators. Necessary input for the present treatment consists only of generally accessable stopping power and straggling formulas. The procedure does not rely on scattering cross sections, e.g. power potential or f(t 1 sup(/) 2 ) approximations. The present approach lends itself easily to include electronic straggling or to treat composed target materials, or even to account for the so-called time integral. (orig.)

  9. Characterizing short-range vs. long-range spatial correlations in dislocation distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevy, Juliette, E-mail: juliette.chevy@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement-CNRS, 54 rue Moliere, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres (France)] [Laboratoire Science et Ingenierie des Materiaux et Procedes, Grenoble INP-CNRS-UJF, BP 75, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Fressengeas, Claude; Lebyodkin, Mikhail; Taupin, Vincent [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz/CNRS, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex (France); Bastie, Pierre [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, BP 87, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)] [Institut Laue Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Duval, Paul [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement-CNRS, 54 rue Moliere, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres (France)

    2010-03-15

    Hard X-ray diffraction experiments have provided evidence of a strongly heterogeneous distribution of dislocation densities along the axis of cylindrical ice single crystals oriented for basal slip in torsion creep. The dislocation arrangements showed a complex scale-invariant character, which was analyzed by means of statistical and multifractal techniques. A trend to decreasing autocorrelation of the dislocation distribution was observed as deformation proceeds. At low strain levels, long-range spatial correlations control the distribution, but short-range correlations in relation with cross-slip progressively prevail when strain increases. This trend was reproduced by a model based on field dislocation dynamics, a theory accounting for both long-range elastic interactions and short-range interactions through transport of dislocation densities.

  10. Characterizing short-range vs. long-range spatial correlations in dislocation distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevy, Juliette; Fressengeas, Claude; Lebyodkin, Mikhail; Taupin, Vincent; Bastie, Pierre; Duval, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Hard X-ray diffraction experiments have provided evidence of a strongly heterogeneous distribution of dislocation densities along the axis of cylindrical ice single crystals oriented for basal slip in torsion creep. The dislocation arrangements showed a complex scale-invariant character, which was analyzed by means of statistical and multifractal techniques. A trend to decreasing autocorrelation of the dislocation distribution was observed as deformation proceeds. At low strain levels, long-range spatial correlations control the distribution, but short-range correlations in relation with cross-slip progressively prevail when strain increases. This trend was reproduced by a model based on field dislocation dynamics, a theory accounting for both long-range elastic interactions and short-range interactions through transport of dislocation densities.

  11. Generalized Expression for Polarization Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lu; Hahm, T.S.

    2009-01-01

    A general polarization density which consists of classical and neoclassical parts is systematically derived via modern gyrokinetics and bounce-kinetics by employing a phase-space Lagrangian Lie-transform perturbation method. The origins of polarization density are further elucidated. Extending the work on neoclassical polarization for long wavelength compared to ion banana width [M. N. Rosenbluth and F. L. Hinton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 724 (1998)], an analytical formula for the generalized neoclassical polarization including both finite-banana-width (FBW) and finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) effects for arbitrary radial wavelength in comparison to banana width and gyroradius is derived. In additional to the contribution from trapped particles, the contribution of passing particles to the neoclassical polarization is also explicitly calculated. Our analytic expression agrees very well with the previous numerical results for a wide range of radial wavelength.

  12. High density energy storage capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitham, K.; Howland, M.M.; Hutzler, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The Nova laser system will use 130 MJ of capacitive energy storage and have a peak power capability of 250,000 MW. This capacitor bank is a significant portion of the laser cost and requires a large portion of the physical facilities. In order to reduce the cost and volume required by the bank, the Laser Fusion Program funded contracts with three energy storage capacitor producers: Aerovox, G.E., and Maxwell Laboratories, to develop higher energy density, lower cost energy storage capacitors. This paper describes the designs which resulted from the Aerovox development contract, and specifically addresses the design and initial life testing of a 12.5 kJ, 22 kV capacitor with a density of 4.2 J/in 3 and a projected cost in the range of 5 cents per joule

  13. On density forecast evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diks, C.

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, probability integral transforms (PITs) have been popular means for evaluating density forecasts. For an ideal density forecast, the PITs should be uniformly distributed on the unit interval and independent. However, this is only a necessary condition, and not a sufficient one, as

  14. A SURVEY OF CORONAL CAVITY DENSITY PROFILES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.; Gibson, S. E.

    2009-01-01

    Coronal cavities are common features of the solar corona that appear as darkened regions at the base of coronal helmet streamers in coronagraph images. Their darkened appearance indicates that they are regions of lowered density embedded within the comparatively higher density helmet streamer. Despite interfering projection effects of the surrounding helmet streamer (which we refer to as the cavity rim), Fuller et al. have shown that under certain conditions it is possible to use a Van de Hulst inversion of white-light polarized brightness (pB) data to calculate the electron density of both the cavity and cavity rim plasma. In this article, we apply minor modifications to the methods of Fuller et al. in order to improve the accuracy and versatility of the inversion process, and use the new methods to calculate density profiles for both the cavity and cavity rim in 24 cavity systems. We also examine trends in cavity morphology and how departures from the model geometry affect our density calculations. The density calculations reveal that in all 24 cases the cavity plasma has a flatter density profile than the plasma of the cavity rim, meaning that the cavity has a larger density depletion at low altitudes than it does at high altitudes. We find that the mean cavity density is over four times greater than that of a coronal hole at an altitude of 1.2 R sun and that every cavity in the sample is over twice as dense as a coronal hole at this altitude. Furthermore, we find that different cavity systems near solar maximum span a greater range in density at 1.2 R sun than do cavity systems near solar minimum, with a slight trend toward higher densities for systems nearer to solar maximum. Finally, we found no significant correlation of cavity density properties with cavity height-indeed, cavities show remarkably similar density depletions-except for the two smallest cavities that show significantly greater depletion.

  15. Electron density and gas density measurements in a millimeter-wave discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaub, S. C., E-mail: sschaub@mit.edu; Hummelt, J. S.; Guss, W. C.; Shapiro, M. A.; Temkin, R. J. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 167 Albany St., Bldg. NW16, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Electron density and neutral gas density have been measured in a non-equilibrium air breakdown plasma using optical emission spectroscopy and two-dimensional laser interferometry, respectively. A plasma was created with a focused high frequency microwave beam in air. Experiments were run with 110 GHz and 124.5 GHz microwaves at powers up to 1.2 MW. Microwave pulses were 3 μs long at 110 GHz and 2.2 μs long at 124.5 GHz. Electron density was measured over a pressure range of 25 to 700 Torr as the input microwave power was varied. Electron density was found to be close to the critical density, where the collisional plasma frequency is equal to the microwave frequency, over the pressure range studied and to vary weakly with input power. Neutral gas density was measured over a pressure range from 150 to 750 Torr at power levels high above the threshold for initiating breakdown. The two-dimensional structure of the neutral gas density was resolved. Intense, localized heating was found to occur hundreds of nanoseconds after visible plasma formed. This heating led to neutral gas density reductions of greater than 80% where peak plasma densities occurred. Spatial structure and temporal dynamics of gas heating at atmospheric pressure were found to agree well with published numerical simulations.

  16. Electron density and gas density measurements in a millimeter-wave discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaub, S. C.; Hummelt, J. S.; Guss, W. C.; Shapiro, M. A.; Temkin, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Electron density and neutral gas density have been measured in a non-equilibrium air breakdown plasma using optical emission spectroscopy and two-dimensional laser interferometry, respectively. A plasma was created with a focused high frequency microwave beam in air. Experiments were run with 110 GHz and 124.5 GHz microwaves at powers up to 1.2 MW. Microwave pulses were 3 μs long at 110 GHz and 2.2 μs long at 124.5 GHz. Electron density was measured over a pressure range of 25 to 700 Torr as the input microwave power was varied. Electron density was found to be close to the critical density, where the collisional plasma frequency is equal to the microwave frequency, over the pressure range studied and to vary weakly with input power. Neutral gas density was measured over a pressure range from 150 to 750 Torr at power levels high above the threshold for initiating breakdown. The two-dimensional structure of the neutral gas density was resolved. Intense, localized heating was found to occur hundreds of nanoseconds after visible plasma formed. This heating led to neutral gas density reductions of greater than 80% where peak plasma densities occurred. Spatial structure and temporal dynamics of gas heating at atmospheric pressure were found to agree well with published numerical simulations.

  17. Learning Grasp Affordance Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Kroemer, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    and relies on kernel density estimation to provide a continuous model. Grasp densities are learned and refined from exploration, by letting a robot “play” with an object in a sequence of graspand-drop actions: The robot uses visual cues to generate a set of grasp hypotheses; it then executes......We address the issue of learning and representing object grasp affordance models. We model grasp affordances with continuous probability density functions (grasp densities) which link object-relative grasp poses to their success probability. The underlying function representation is nonparametric...... these and records their outcomes. When a satisfactory number of grasp data is available, an importance-sampling algorithm turns these into a grasp density. We evaluate our method in a largely autonomous learning experiment run on three objects of distinct shapes. The experiment shows how learning increases success...

  18. Density dependence of the nuclear energy-density functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Panagiota; Park, Tae-Sun; Lim, Yeunhwan; Hyun, Chang Ho

    2018-01-01

    Background: The explicit density dependence in the coupling coefficients entering the nonrelativistic nuclear energy-density functional (EDF) is understood to encode effects of three-nucleon forces and dynamical correlations. The necessity for the density-dependent coupling coefficients to assume the form of a preferably small fractional power of the density ρ is empirical and the power is often chosen arbitrarily. Consequently, precision-oriented parametrizations risk overfitting in the regime of saturation and extrapolations in dilute or dense matter may lose predictive power. Purpose: Beginning with the observation that the Fermi momentum kF, i.e., the cubic root of the density, is a key variable in the description of Fermi systems, we first wish to examine if a power hierarchy in a kF expansion can be inferred from the properties of homogeneous matter in a domain of densities, which is relevant for nuclear structure and neutron stars. For subsequent applications we want to determine a functional that is of good quality but not overtrained. Method: For the EDF, we fit systematically polynomial and other functions of ρ1 /3 to existing microscopic, variational calculations of the energy of symmetric and pure neutron matter (pseudodata) and analyze the behavior of the fits. We select a form and a set of parameters, which we found robust, and examine the parameters' naturalness and the quality of resulting extrapolations. Results: A statistical analysis confirms that low-order terms such as ρ1 /3 and ρ2 /3 are the most relevant ones in the nuclear EDF beyond lowest order. It also hints at a different power hierarchy for symmetric vs. pure neutron matter, supporting the need for more than one density-dependent term in nonrelativistic EDFs. The functional we propose easily accommodates known or adopted properties of nuclear matter near saturation. More importantly, upon extrapolation to dilute or asymmetric matter, it reproduces a range of existing microscopic

  19. Long range correlations, event simulation and parton percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, C.

    2011-01-01

    We study the RHIC data on long range rapidity correlations, comparing their main trends with different string model simulations. Particular attention is paid to color percolation model and its similarities with color glass condensate. As both approaches corresponds, at high density, to a similar physical picture, both of them give rise to a similar behavior on the energy and the centrality of the main observables. Color percolation explains the transition from low density to high density.

  20. Current density tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeretti, Paolo

    2018-04-01

    It is shown that nonsymmetric second-rank current density tensors, related to the current densities induced by magnetic fields and nuclear magnetic dipole moments, are fundamental properties of a molecule. Together with magnetizability, nuclear magnetic shielding, and nuclear spin-spin coupling, they completely characterize its response to magnetic perturbations. Gauge invariance, resolution into isotropic, deviatoric, and antisymmetric parts, and contributions of current density tensors to magnetic properties are discussed. The components of the second-rank tensor properties are rationalized via relationships explicitly connecting them to the direction of the induced current density vectors and to the components of the current density tensors. The contribution of the deviatoric part to the average value of magnetizability, nuclear shielding, and nuclear spin-spin coupling, uniquely determined by the antisymmetric part of current density tensors, vanishes identically. The physical meaning of isotropic and anisotropic invariants of current density tensors has been investigated, and the connection between anisotropy magnitude and electron delocalization has been discussed.

  1. Long range trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P. W.; Jessup, E. A.; White, R. E. [Air Resources Field Research Office, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A single air molecule can have a trajectory that can be described with a line, but most meteorologists use single lines to represent the trajectories of air parcels. A single line trajectory has the disadvantage that it is a categorical description of position. Like categorized forecasts it provides no qualification, and no provision for dispersion in case the parcel contains two or more molecules which may take vastly different paths. Diffusion technology has amply demonstrated that an initial aerosol cloud or volume of gas in the atmosphere not only grows larger, but sometimes divides into puffs, each having a different path or swath. Yet, the average meteorologist, faced with the problem of predicting the future motion of a cloud, usually falls back on the line trajectory approach with the explanation that he had no better tool for long range application. In his more rational moments, he may use some arbitrary device to spread his cloud with distance. One such technique has been to separate the trajectory into two or more trajectories, spaced about the endpoint of the original trajectory after a short period of travel, repeating this every so often like a chain reaction. This has the obvious disadvantage of involving a large amount of labor without much assurance of improved accuracy. Another approach is to draw a circle about the trajectory endpoint, to represent either diffusion or error. The problem then is to know what radius to give the circle and also whether to call it diffusion or error. Meteorologists at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are asked frequently to provide advice which involves trajectory technology, such as prediction of an aerosol cloud path, reconstruction of the motion of a volume of air, indication of the dilution, and the possible trajectory prediction error over great distances. Therefore, we set out, nearly three years ago, to provide some statistical knowledge about the status of our trajectory technology. This report contains some of the

  2. Epidemiologic Studies of Isoflavones & Mammographic Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Verheus, Martijn; Tice, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Isoflavones, phytoestrogens in soy beans with estrogen-like properties, have been examined for their cancer protective effects. Mammographic density is a strong predictor of breast cancer. This review summarizes studies that have examined the association between isoflavones and breast density. Observational investigations in Hawaii and Singapore suggest slightly lower breast density among women of Asian descent with regular soy intake, but two larger studies from Japan and Singapore did not observe a protective effect. The findings from seven randomized trials with primarily Caucasian women indicate that soy or isoflavones do not modify mammographic density. Soy foods and isoflavone supplements within a nutritional range do not appear to modify breast cancer risk as assessed by mammographic density. PMID:22253990

  3. Epidemiologic Studies of Isoflavones & Mammographic Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Tice

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones, phytoestrogens in soy beans with estrogen-like properties, have been examined for their cancer protective effects. Mammographic density is a strong predictor of breast cancer. This review summarizes studies that have examined the association between isoflavones and breast density. Observational investigations in Hawaii and Singapore suggest slightly lower breast density among women of Asian descent with regular soy intake, but two larger studies from Japan and Singapore did not observe a protective effect. The findings from seven randomized trials with primarily Caucasian women indicate that soy or isoflavones do not modify mammographic density. Soy foods and isoflavone supplements within a nutritional range do not appear to modify breast cancer risk as assessed by mammographic density.

  4. Method of measuring density of gas in a vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shono, Kosuke.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To accurately measure the density of a gas in a vessel even at a loss-of-coolant accident in a BWR type reactor. Method: When at least one of the pressure or the temperature of gas in a vessel exceeds the usable range of a gas density measuring instrument due to a loss-of-coolant accident, the gas in the vessel is sampled, and the pressure or the temperature of the sampled gas are measured by matching them to the usable conditions of the gas density measuring instrument. Hydrogen gas and oxygen gas densities exceeding the usable range of the gas density measuring instrument are calculated by the following formulae based on the measured values. C'sub(O) = P sub(T).C sub(O)/P sub(T), C'sub(H) = C''sub(H).C'sub(O)/C''sub(O), where C sub(O), P sub(T), C'sub(H) represent the oxygen density, the total pressure and the hydrogen density of the internal pressure gas of the vessel after the respective gas density measuring instruments exceed the usable ranges; C sub(O), P sub(T) represent the oxygen density and the total pressure of the gas in the vessel before the gas density measuring instruments exceeded the usable range, and C''sub(H), C''sub(O) represent the hydrogen density and oxygen density of the respective sampled gases. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Density-dependent electron scattering in photoexcited GaAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mics, Zoltán; D'’Angio, Andrea; Jensen, Søren A.

    2013-01-01

    —In a series of systematic optical pump - terahertz probe experiments we study the density-dependent electron scattering rate in photoexcited GaAs in a large range of carrier densities. The electron scattering time decreases by as much as a factor of 4, from 320 to 60 fs, as the electron density...

  6. Western gulf culture-density study-early results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd S. Rahman; Michael G. Messina; Richard F. Fisher; Alan B. Wilson; Nick Chappell; Conner Fristoe; Larry Anderson

    2006-01-01

    The Western Gulf Culture-Density Study is a collaborative research effort between Texas A&M University and five forest products companies to examine the effects of early silvicultural treatment intensity and a wide range of both densities and soil types on performance of loblolly pine. The study tests 2 silvicultural intensities, 5 planting densities (200 to 1,200...

  7. Initial results from SKiYMET meteor radar at Thumba (8.5°N, 77°E): 1. Comparison of wind measurements with MF spaced antenna radar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Karanam Kishore; Ramkumar, Geetha; Shelbi, S. T.

    2007-12-01

    In the present communication, initial results from the allSKy interferometric METeor (SKiYMET) radar installed at Thumba (8.5°N, 77°E) are presented. The meteor radar system provides hourly zonal and meridional winds in the mesosphere lower thermosphere (MLT) region. The meteor radar measured zonal and meridional winds are compared with nearby MF radar at Tirunalveli (8.7°N, 77.8°E). The present study provided an opportunity to compare the winds measured by the two different techniques, namely, interferometry and spaced antenna drift methods. Simultaneous wind measurements for a total number of 273 days during September 2004 to May 2005 are compared. The comparison showed a very good agreement between these two techniques in the height region 82-90 km and poor agreement above this height region. In general, the zonal winds compare very well as compared to the meridional winds. The observed discrepancies in the wind comparison above 90 km are discussed in the light of existing limitations of both the radars. The detailed analysis revealed the consistency of the measured winds by both the techniques. However, the discrepancies are observed at higher altitudes and are attributed to the contamination of MF radar neutral wind measurements with Equatorial Electro Jet (EEJ) induced inospheric drifts rather than the limitations of the spaced antenna technique. The comparison of diurnal variation of zonal winds above 90 km measured by both the radars is in reasonably good agreement in the absence of EEJ (during local nighttime). It is also been noted that the difference in the zonal wind measurements by both the radars is directly related to the strength of EEJ, which is a noteworthy result from the present study.

  8. Towards predicting wading bird densities from predicted prey densities in a post-barrage Severn estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goss-Custard, J.D.; McGrorty, S.; Clarke, R.T.; Pearson, B.; Rispin, W.E.; Durell, S.E.A. le V. dit; Rose, R.J.; Warwick, R.M.; Kirby, R.

    1991-01-01

    A winter survey of seven species of wading birds in six estuaries in south-west England was made to develop a method for predicting bird densities should a tidal power barrage be built on the Severn estuary. Within most estuaries, bird densities correlated with the densities of widely taken prey species. A barrage would substantially reduce the area of intertidal flats available at low water for the birds to feed but the invertebrate density could increase in the generally more benign post-barrage environmental conditions. Wader densities would have to increase approximately twofold to allow the same overall numbers of birds to remain post-barrage as occur on the Severn at present. Provisional estimates are given of the increases in prey density required to allow bird densities to increase by this amount. With the exception of the prey of dunlin, these fall well within the ranges of densities found in other estuaries, and so could in principle be attained in the post-barrage Severn. An attempt was made to derive equations with which to predict post-barrage densities of invertebrates from easily measured, static environmental variables. The fact that a site was in the Severn had a significant additional effect on invertebrate density in seven cases. This suggests that there is a special feature of the Severn, probably one associated with its highly dynamic nature. This factor must be identified if the post-barrage densities of invertebrates are to be successful predicted. (author)

  9. Fluid Density and Impact Cavity Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga-Chun Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of the impact cavity formed when a steel ball is dropped into aqueous solutions of densities ranging from 0.98 g·cm-3 to 1.63 g·cm-3 were investigated. A high-speed camera was used to record the formation and collapse of the cavity. The results showed cavity diameter, volume, and pinch-off time are independent of fluid density, on average. There was an unexplained reduction in cavity formation for densities of 1.34 g·cm-3 and 1.45 g·cm-3.

  10. Intrinsic-density functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Hohenberg-Kohn theorem and Kohn-Sham procedure are extended to functionals of the localized intrinsic density of a self-bound system such as a nucleus. After defining the intrinsic-density functional, we modify the usual Kohn-Sham procedure slightly to evaluate the mean-field approximation to the functional, and carefully describe the construction of the leading corrections for a system of fermions in one dimension with a spin-degeneracy equal to the number of particles N. Despite the fact that the corrections are complicated and nonlocal, we are able to construct a local Skyrme-like intrinsic-density functional that, while different from the exact functional, shares with it a minimum value equal to the exact ground-state energy at the exact ground-state intrinsic density, to next-to-leading order in 1/N. We briefly discuss implications for real Skyrme functionals

  11. Density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.P.

    1984-07-01

    The state of the art of the density functional formalism (DFT) is reviewed. The theory is quantum statistical in nature; its simplest version is the well-known Thomas-Fermi theory. The DFT is a powerful formalism in which one can treat the effect of interactions in inhomogeneous systems. After some introductory material, the DFT is outlined from the two basic theorems, and various generalizations of the theorems appropriate to several physical situations are pointed out. Next, various approximations to the density functionals are presented and some practical schemes, discussed; the approximations include an electron gas of almost constant density and an electron gas of slowly varying density. Then applications of DFT in various diverse areas of physics (atomic systems, plasmas, liquids, nuclear matter) are mentioned, and its strengths and weaknesses are pointed out. In conclusion, more recent developments of DFT are indicated

  12. Low Density Supersonic Decelerators

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator project will demonstrate the use of inflatable structures and advanced parachutes that operate at supersonic speeds to more...

  13. density functional theory approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YOGESH ERANDE

    2017-07-27

    Jul 27, 2017 ... a key role in all optical switching devices, since their optical properties can be .... optimized in the gas phase using Density Functional Theory. (DFT).39 The ...... The Mediation of Electrostatic Effects by Sol- vents J. Am. Chem.

  14. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...

  15. Density scaling for multiplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, A

    2011-01-01

    Generalized Kohn-Sham equations are presented for lowest-lying multiplets. The way of treating non-integer particle numbers is coupled with an earlier method of the author. The fundamental quantity of the theory is the subspace density. The Kohn-Sham equations are similar to the conventional Kohn-Sham equations. The difference is that the subspace density is used instead of the density and the Kohn-Sham potential is different for different subspaces. The exchange-correlation functional is studied using density scaling. It is shown that there exists a value of the scaling factor ζ for which the correlation energy disappears. Generalized OPM and Krieger-Li-Iafrate (KLI) methods incorporating correlation are presented. The ζKLI method, being as simple as the original KLI method, is proposed for multiplets.

  16. Geothermal properties of Swiss Molasse Basin (depth range 0-500 m) - 2006 upgrade of the thermal conductivity, heat capacity, rock density and porosity data base; Geothermische Eigenschaften der Schweizer Molasse (Tiefenbereich 0-500 m). Datenbank fuer Waermeleitfaehigkeit, spezifische Waermekapazitaet, Gesteinsdichte und Porositaet. Ueberarbeitung 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leu, W. [Geoform AG, Minusio (Switzerland); Megel, T. [Geowatt, Zuerich (Switzerland); Schaerli, U. [Geologie und Geophysik, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    The main aim of this project is the preparation of a specific data base of geothermal properties for typical rocks of the Swiss Molasse Basin (depth interval 0-500 m). The project includes the development of a new laboratory tool for efficient heat capacity measurements on rock samples, numerous new measurements of geothermal rock properties in the laboratory and calculation of such data from geophysical borehole logs. In the geographical area under review, 282 rock samples, mainly from deep boreholes, were analyzed with the successfully calibrated new heat capacity device and conventional thermal conductivity measuring techniques (cuttings and cores). Based on sonic and density log data from exploration wells, 374 additional data points were generated. This new data base characterizes in detail the six main lithological rock types in the three Molasse groups OSM, OMM and USM within the Swiss Plateau Molasse. The statistical evaluation of all data illustrates the regional variation of the petrophysical and geothermal parameters. For most data groups bulk rock density and thermal conductivity increase, whereas heat capacity decreases in the direction towards the Alpine front. Thermal conductivity shows a distinct increase with depth. Based on this new information and with the aid of the evaluation software tool SwEWS, the costs of planned geothermal installations can be optimized thanks to more precise heat extraction simulations with existing software packages like COSOND, TRNSYS, EWS or WPcalc. (author)

  17. Fission level densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, V.M.

    1998-01-01

    Fission level densities (or fissioning nucleus level densities at fission saddle deformations) are required for statistical model calculations of actinide fission cross sections. Back-shifted Fermi-Gas Model, Constant Temperature Model and Generalized Superfluid Model (GSM) are widely used for the description of level densities at stable deformations. These models provide approximately identical level density description at excitations close to the neutron binding energy. It is at low excitation energies that they are discrepant, while this energy region is crucial for fission cross section calculations. A drawback of back-shifted Fermi gas model and traditional constant temperature model approaches is that it is difficult to include in a consistent way pair correlations, collective effects and shell effects. Pair, shell and collective properties of nucleus do not reduce just to the renormalization of level density parameter a, but influence the energy dependence of level densities. These effects turn out to be important because they seem to depend upon deformation of either equilibrium or saddle-point. These effects are easily introduced within GSM approach. Fission barriers are another key ingredients involved in the fission cross section calculations. Fission level density and barrier parameters are strongly interdependent. This is the reason for including fission barrier parameters along with the fission level densities in the Starter File. The recommended file is maslov.dat - fission barrier parameters. Recent version of actinide fission barrier data obtained in Obninsk (obninsk.dat) should only be considered as a guide for selection of initial parameters. These data are included in the Starter File, together with the fission barrier parameters recommended by CNDC (beijing.dat), for completeness. (author)

  18. Density-wave oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belblidia, L.A.; Bratianu, C.

    1979-01-01

    Boiling flow in a steam generator, a water-cooled reactor, and other multiphase processes can be subject to instabilities. It appears that the most predominant instabilities are the so-called density-wave oscillations. They can cause difficulties for three main reasons; they may induce burnout; they may cause mechanical vibrations of components; and they create system control problems. A comprehensive review is presented of experimental and theoretical studies concerning density-wave oscillations. (author)

  19. Density of liquid Ytterbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankus, S.V.; Basin, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented for measurements of the density of metallic ytterbium in the liquid state and at the liquid-solid phase transition. Based on the numerical data obtained, the coefficient of thermal expansion βZ of the liquid and the density discontinuity on melting deltarho/sub m/ are calculated. The magnitudes of βZ and deltarho/sub m/ for the heavy lanthanides are compared

  20. An evaluation of the transition temperature range of super-elastic orthodontic NiTi springs using differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwart, O; Rollinger, J M; Burger, A

    1999-10-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine the transition temperature ranges (TTR) of four types of super-elastic orthodontic nickel-titanium coil springs (Sentalloy). A knowledge of the TTR provides information on the temperature at which a NiTi wire or spring can assume superelastic properties and when this quality disappears. The spring types in this study can be distinguished from each other by their characteristic TTR during cooling and heating. For each tested spring type a characteristic TTR during heating (austenite transformation) and cooling (martensite transformation) was evaluated. The hysteresis of the transition temperature, found between cooling and heating, was 3.4-5.2 K. Depending on the spring type the austenite transformation started (As) at 9.7-17.1 degrees C and finished (Af) at 29.2-37 degrees C. The martensite transformation starting temperature (Ms) was evaluated at 32.6-25.4 degrees C, while Mf (martensite transformation finishing temperature) was 12.7-6.5 degrees C. The results show that the springs become super-elastic when the temperature increases and As is reached. They undergo a loss of super-elastic properties and a rapid decrease in force delivery when they are cooled to Mf. For the tested springs, Mf and As were found to be below room temperature. Thus, at room temperature and some degrees lower, all the tested springs exert super-elastic properties. For orthodontic treatment this means the maintenance of super-elastic behaviour, even when mouth temperature decreases to about room temperature as can occur, for example, during meals.

  1. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-01-01

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas

  2. Density functional theory of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasaki, Jun

    2008-01-01

    The density functional theory of nuclei has come to draw attention of scientists in the field of nuclear structure because the theory is expected to provide reliable numerical data in wide range on the nuclear chart. This article is organized to present an overview of the theory to the people engaged in the theory of other fields as well as those people in the nuclear physics experiments. At first, the outline of the density functional theory widely used in the electronic systems (condensed matter, atoms, and molecules) was described starting from the Kohn-Sham equation derived on the variational principle. Then the theory used in the field of nuclear physics was presented. Hartree-Fock and Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov approximation by using Skyrme interaction was explained. Comparison of the results of calculations and experiments of binding energies and ground state mean square charge radii of some magic number nuclei were shown. The similarity and dissimilarity between the two streams were summarized. Finally the activities of the international project of Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional (UNEDF) which was started recently lead by US scientist was reported. This project is programmed for five years. One of the applications of the project is the calculation of the neutron capture cross section of nuclei on the r-process, which is absolutely necessary for the nucleosynthesis research. (S. Funahashi)

  3. Pion condensation and density isomerism in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecking, P.; Weise, W.

    1979-01-01

    The possible existence of density isomers in nuclear matter, induced by pion condensation, is discussed; the nuclear equation of state is treated within the framework of the sigma model. Repulsive short-range baryon-baryon correlations, the admixture of Δ (1232) isobars and finite-range pion-baryon vertex form factors are taken into account. The strong dependence of density isomerism on the high density extrapolation of the equation of state for normal nuclear matter is also investigated. We find that, once finite range pion-baryon vertices are introduced, the appearance of density isomers becomes unlikely

  4. Characterization of Phase Transition in Heisenberg Fluids from Density Functional Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liangsheng; Li Li; Chen Xiaosong

    2009-01-01

    The phase transition of Heisenberg fluid has been investigated with the density functional theory in mean-field approximation (MF). The matrix of the second derivatives of the grand canonical potential Ω with respect to the particle density fluctuations and the magnetization fluctuations has been investigated and diagonalized. The smallest eigenvalue being 0 signalizes the phase instability and the related eigenvector characterizes this phase transition. We find a Curie line where the order parameter is pure magnetization and a spinodal where the order parameter is a mixture of particle density and magnetization. Along the spinodal, the character of phase instability changes continuously from predominant condensation to predominant ferromagnetic phase transition with the decrease of total density. The spinodal meets the Curie line at the critical endpoint with the reduced density ρ* = ρσ 3 = 0.224 and the reduced temperature T* = kT/ element of = 1.87 (σ is the diameter of Heisenberg hard sphere and element of is the coupling constant).

  5. The density limit in JET diverted plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D J; Clement, S; Gottardi, N; Gowers, C; Harbour, P; Loarte, A; Horton, L; Lingertat, J; Lowry, C G; Saibene, G; Stamp, M; Stork, D [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Monk, R [Royal Holloway Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1994-07-01

    In JET limiter plasmas the density limit is associated with radiated power fractions of 100% and, in plasmas with carbon limiters, it is invariably disruptive. However, in discharges with solid beryllium limiters the limit is identified with the formation of a MARFE and disruptions are less frequent. In addition, the improved conditioning of the vessel arising from the use of beryllium has significantly improved the density limit scaling, so that the maximum density rises with the square root of the input power. In diverted plasmas several confinement regimes exist, making the characterization of the density limit more complex. While the density limit in L-mode plasmas is generally disruptive, the limit in ELMy and ELM-free H-modes generally prompts a return to the L-mode and a disruption is not inevitable. The density limit does rise with the increasing power, but the L-to-H transition complicates the analysis. Nevertheless, at low plasma currents (<2 MA), densities significantly above the Greenwald limit can be achieved, while at higher currents power handling limitations have constrained the range of density which can be achieved. (authors). 7 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Absolute density measurements in the middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years a total of 25 sounding rockets employing ionization gauges have been launched at high latitudes ( ~ 70° N to measure total atmospheric density and its small scale fluctuations in an altitude range between 70 and 110 km. While the determination of small scale fluctuations is unambiguous, the total density analysis has been complicated in the past by aerodynamical disturbances leading to densities inside the sensor which are enhanced compared to atmospheric values. Here, we present the results of both Monte Carlo simulations and wind tunnel measurements to quantify this aerodynamical effect. The comparison of the resulting ‘ram-factor’ profiles with empirically determined density ratios of ionization gauge measurements and falling sphere measurements provides excellent agreement. This demonstrates both the need, but also the possibility, to correct aerodynamical influences on measurements from sounding rockets. We have determined a total of 20 density profiles of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT region. Grouping these profiles according to season, a listing of mean density profiles is included in the paper. A comparison with density profiles taken from the reference atmospheres CIRA86 and MSIS90 results in differences of up to 40%. This reflects that current reference atmospheres are a significant potential error source for the determination of mixing ratios of, for example, trace gas constituents in the MLT region.Key words. Middle atmosphere (composition and chemistry; pressure, density, and temperature; instruments and techniques

  7. Absolute density measurements in the middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    Full Text Available In the last ten years a total of 25 sounding rockets employing ionization gauges have been launched at high latitudes ( ~ 70° N to measure total atmospheric density and its small scale fluctuations in an altitude range between 70 and 110 km. While the determination of small scale fluctuations is unambiguous, the total density analysis has been complicated in the past by aerodynamical disturbances leading to densities inside the sensor which are enhanced compared to atmospheric values. Here, we present the results of both Monte Carlo simulations and wind tunnel measurements to quantify this aerodynamical effect. The comparison of the resulting ‘ram-factor’ profiles with empirically determined density ratios of ionization gauge measurements and falling sphere measurements provides excellent agreement. This demonstrates both the need, but also the possibility, to correct aerodynamical influences on measurements from sounding rockets. We have determined a total of 20 density profiles of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT region. Grouping these profiles according to season, a listing of mean density profiles is included in the paper. A comparison with density profiles taken from the reference atmospheres CIRA86 and MSIS90 results in differences of up to 40%. This reflects that current reference atmospheres are a significant potential error source for the determination of mixing ratios of, for example, trace gas constituents in the MLT region.

    Key words. Middle atmosphere (composition and chemistry; pressure, density, and temperature; instruments and techniques

  8. Volume generation of negative ions in high density hydrogen discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.; Karo, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    A parametric survey is made of a high-density tandem two-chamber hydrogen negative ion system. The optimum extracted negative ion current densities are sensitive to the atom concentration in the discharge and to the system scale length. For scale lengths ranging from 10 cm to 0.1 cm optimum current densities range from of order 1 to 100 mA cm -2 , respectively

  9. CRISS power spectral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, W.

    1979-04-01

    The correlation of signal components at different frequencies like higher harmonics cannot be detected by a normal power spectral density measurement, since this technique correlates only components at the same frequency. This paper describes a special method for measuring the correlation of two signal components at different frequencies: the CRISS power spectral density. From this new function in frequency analysis, the correlation of two components can be determined quantitatively either they stem from one signal or from two diverse signals. The principle of the method, suitable for the higher harmonics of a signal as well as for any other frequency combinations is shown for the digital frequency analysis technique. Two examples of CRISS power spectral densities demonstrates the operation of the new method. (orig.) [de

  10. High density dispersion fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    A fuel development campaign that results in an aluminum plate-type fuel of unlimited LEU burnup capability with an uranium loading of 9 grams per cm 3 of meat should be considered an unqualified success. The current worldwide approved and accepted highest loading is 4.8 g cm -3 with U 3 Si 2 as fuel. High-density uranium compounds offer no real density advantage over U 3 Si 2 and have less desirable fabrication and performance characteristics as well. Of the higher-density compounds, U 3 Si has approximately a 30% higher uranium density but the density of the U 6 X compounds would yield the factor 1.5 needed to achieve 9 g cm -3 uranium loading. Unfortunately, irradiation tests proved these peritectic compounds have poor swelling behavior. It is for this reason that the authors are turning to uranium alloys. The reason pure uranium was not seriously considered as a dispersion fuel is mainly due to its high rate of growth and swelling at low temperatures. This problem was solved at least for relatively low burnup application in non-dispersion fuel elements with small additions of Si, Fe, and Al. This so called adjusted uranium has nearly the same density as pure α-uranium and it seems prudent to reconsider this alloy as a dispersant. Further modifications of uranium metal to achieve higher burnup swelling stability involve stabilization of the cubic γ phase at low temperatures where normally α phase exists. Several low neutron capture cross section elements such as Zr, Nb, Ti and Mo accomplish this in various degrees. The challenge is to produce a suitable form of fuel powder and develop a plate fabrication procedure, as well as obtain high burnup capability through irradiation testing

  11. Gap and density theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Levinson, N

    1940-01-01

    A typical gap theorem of the type discussed in the book deals with a set of exponential functions { \\{e^{{{i\\lambda}_n} x}\\} } on an interval of the real line and explores the conditions under which this set generates the entire L_2 space on this interval. A typical gap theorem deals with functions f on the real line such that many Fourier coefficients of f vanish. The main goal of this book is to investigate relations between density and gap theorems and to study various cases where these theorems hold. The author also shows that density- and gap-type theorems are related to various propertie

  12. Nuclear level density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso Junior, J.L.

    1982-10-01

    Experimental data show that the number of nuclear states increases rapidly with increasing excitation energy. The properties of highly excited nuclei are important for many nuclear reactions, mainly those that go via processes of the compound nucleus type. In this case, it is sufficient to know the statistical properties of the nuclear levels. First of them is the function of nuclear levels density. Several theoretical models which describe the level density are presented. The statistical mechanics and a quantum mechanics formalisms as well as semi-empirical results are analysed and discussed. (Author) [pt

  13. Polarizable Density Embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Steinmann, Casper; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    We present a new QM/QM/MM-based model for calculating molecular properties and excited states of solute-solvent systems. We denote this new approach the polarizable density embedding (PDE) model and it represents an extension of our previously developed polarizable embedding (PE) strategy. The PDE...... model is a focused computational approach in which a core region of the system studied is represented by a quantum-chemical method, whereas the environment is divided into two other regions: an inner and an outer region. Molecules belonging to the inner region are described by their exact densities...

  14. Holographic magnetisation density waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, Aristomenis [Centre for Particle Theory and Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,Stockton Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Pantelidou, Christiana [Departament de Fisica Quantica i Astrofisica & Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC),Universitat de Barcelona,Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-10-10

    We numerically construct asymptotically AdS black brane solutions of D=4 Einstein theory coupled to a scalar and two U(1) gauge fields. The solutions are holographically dual to d=3 CFTs in a constant external magnetic field along one of the U(1)’s. Below a critical temperature the system’s magnetisation density becomes inhomogeneous, leading to spontaneous formation of current density waves. We find that the transition can be of second order and that the solutions which minimise the free energy locally in the parameter space of solutions have averaged stressed tensor of a perfect fluid.

  15. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Junyi

    2015-02-01

    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, &epsi:(D) &prop: ?D ?3 ?O(D?4), is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form ε(D) &prop: ?D?4. © EPLA, 2015.

  16. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Junyi; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2015-01-01

    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, &epsi:(D) &prop: ?D ?3 ?O(D?4), is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form ε(D) &prop: ?D?4. © EPLA, 2015.

  17. Path-integral computation of superfluid densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, E.L.; Ceperley, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    The normal and superfluid densities are defined by the response of a liquid to sample boundary motion. The free-energy change due to uniform boundary motion can be calculated by path-integral methods from the distribution of the winding number of the paths around a periodic cell. This provides a conceptually and computationally simple way of calculating the superfluid density for any Bose system. The linear-response formulation relates the superfluid density to the momentum-density correlation function, which has a short-ranged part related to the normal density and, in the case of a superfluid, a long-ranged part whose strength is proportional to the superfluid density. These facts are discussed in the context of path-integral computations and demonstrated for liquid 4 He along the saturated vapor-pressure curve. Below the experimental superfluid transition temperature the computed superfluid fractions agree with the experimental values to within the statistical uncertainties of a few percent in the computations. The computed transition is broadened by finite-sample-size effects

  18. Negative density-distribution relationship in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Päivinen, Jussi; Grapputo, Alessandro; Kaitala, Veijo; Komonen, Atte; Kotiaho, Janne S; Saarinen, Kimmo; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2005-03-01

    Because "laws of nature" do not exist in ecology, much of the foundations of community ecology rely on broad statistical generalisations. One of the strongest generalisations is the positive relationship between density and distribution within a given taxonomic assemblage; that is, locally abundant species are more widespread than locally sparse species. Several mechanisms have been proposed to create this positive relationship, and the testing of these mechanisms is attracting increasing attention. We report a strong, but counterintuitive, negative relationship between density and distribution in the butterfly fauna of Finland. With an exceptionally comprehensive data set (data includes all 95 resident species in Finland and over 1.5 million individuals), we have been able to submit several of the mechanisms to powerful direct empirical testing. Without exception, we failed to find evidence for the proposed mechanisms creating a positive density-distribution relationship. On the contrary, we found that many of the mechanisms are equally able to generate a negative relationship. We suggest that one important determinant of density-distribution relationships is the geographical location of the study: on the edge of a distribution range, suitable habitat patches are likely to be more isolated than in the core of the range. In such a situation, only the largest and best quality patches are likely to be occupied, and these by definition can support a relatively dense population leading to a negative density-distribution relationship. Finally, we conclude that generalizations about the positive density-distribution relationship should be made more cautiously.

  19. Super-ranging. A new ranging strategy in European badgers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoibheann Gaughran

    Full Text Available We monitored the ranging of a wild European badger (Meles meles population over 7 years using GPS tracking collars. Badger range sizes varied seasonally and reached their maximum in June, July and August. We analysed the summer ranging behaviour, using 83 home range estimates from 48 individuals over 6974 collar-nights. We found that while most adult badgers (males and females remained within their own traditional social group boundaries, several male badgers (on average 22% regularly ranged beyond these traditional boundaries. These adult males frequently ranged throughout two (or more social group's traditional territories and had extremely large home ranges. We therefore refer to them as super-rangers. While ranging across traditional boundaries has been recorded over short periods of time for extraterritorial mating and foraging forays, or for pre-dispersal exploration, the animals in this study maintained their super-ranges from 2 to 36 months. This study represents the first time such long-term extra-territorial ranging has been described for European badgers. Holding a super-range may confer an advantage in access to breeding females, but could also affect local interaction networks. In Ireland & the UK, badgers act as a wildlife reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (TB. Super-ranging may facilitate the spread of disease by increasing both direct interactions between conspecifics, particularly across social groups, and indirect interactions with cattle in their shared environment. Understanding super-ranging behaviour may both improve our understanding of tuberculosis epidemiology and inform future control strategies.

  20. Long-range interactions in dilute granular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, M.K

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, on purpose, we focussed on the most challenging, longest ranging potentials. We analyzed granular media of low densities obeying 1/r long-range interaction potentials between the granules. Such systems are termed granular gases and differ in their behavior from ordinary gases by

  1. A Tryst With Density

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    best known for developing the density functional theory (DFT). This is an extremely ... lem that has become famous in popular culture is that of the planet. Tatooine. Fans of ... the Schrödinger equation (or, if relativistic effects are important, the Dirac .... it supplies a moral justification for one's subsequent endeav- ours along ...

  2. Density in Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesin, Gert; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a fourth-grade unit on density which introduces a concept useful in the study of chemistry and procedures appropriate to the chemistry laboratory. The hands-on activities, which use simple equipment and household substances, are at the level of thinking Piaget describes as concrete operational. (BC)

  3. Destiny from density

    OpenAIRE

    Seewaldt, Victoria L.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of a signalling protein that regulates the accumulation of fat and connective tissue in breasts may help to explain why high mammographic density is linked to breast-cancer risk and may provide a marker for predicting this risk.

  4. Polarizable Density Embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Peter; Kongsted, Jacob; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the performance of the polarizable density embedding (PDE) model-a new multiscale computational approach designed for prediction and rationalization of general molecular properties of large and complex systems. We showcase how the PDE model very effectively handles the use of large...

  5. Rock glaciers, Zailiysiky Range, Kungei Ranges, Tienshan, Kazakhstan, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Zailiyskiy Alatau is the northernmost parallel latitudinal ranges of the Northern Tien Shan. The highest point of this range is the Talgar peak (4973 m a.s.l.)....

  6. Current density fluctuations and ambipolarity of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, W.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C.

    1991-10-01

    The fluctuation in the plasma current density is measured in the MIST reversed field pinch experiment. Such fluctuations, and the measured radial profile of the k spectrum of magnetic fluctuations, supports the view and that low frequency fluctuations (f r >) demonstrates that radial particle transport from particle motion parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field is ambipolar over the full frequency range

  7. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Bone Mineral Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nicolien A; Noordam, Raymond; van Klinken, Jan B

    2018-01-01

    With population aging, prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and associated fracture risk are increased. To determine whether low circulating thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels within the normal range are causally related to BMD, we conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR...

  8. Wave activity (planetary, tidal throughout the middle atmosphere (20-100km over the CUJO network: Satellite (TOMS and Medium Frequency (MF radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Planetary and tidal wave activity in the tropopause-lower stratosphere and mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT is studied using combinations of ground-based (GB and satellite instruments (2000-2002. The relatively new MFR (medium frequency radar at Platteville (40° N, 105° W has provided the opportunity to create an operational network of middle-latitude MFRs, stretching from 81° W-142° E, which provides winds and tides 70-100km. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity comprises systems at London (43° N, 81° W, Platteville (40° N, 105° W, Saskatoon (52° N, 107° W, Wakkanai (45° N, 142° E and Yamagawa (31° N, 131° E. It offers a significant 7000-km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14° at two longitudes. Satellite data mainly involve the daily values of the total ozone column measured by the Earth Probe (EP TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and provide a measure of tropopause-lower stratospheric planetary wave activity, as well as ozone variability. Climatologies of ozone and winds/tides involving frequency versus time (wavelet contour plots for periods from 2-d to 30-d and the interval from mid 2000 to 2002, show that the changes with altitude, longitude and latitude are very significant and distinctive. Geometric-mean wavelets for the region of the 40° N MFRs demonstrate occasions during the autumn, winter and spring months when there are similarities in the spectral features of the lower atmosphere and at mesopause (85km heights. Both direct planetary wave (PW propagation into the MLT, nonlinear PW-tide interactions, and disturbances in MLT tides associated with fluctuations in the ozone forcing are considered to be possible coupling processes. The complex horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in frequency contour plots for the TOMS satellite data to demonstrate the differences between lower atmospheric and MLT wave motions and their

  9. Wave activity (planetary, tidal) throughout the middle atmosphere (20-100km) over the CUJO network: Satellite (TOMS) and Medium Frequency (MF) radar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.; Chshyolkova, T.; Avery, S. K.; Thorsen, D.; MacDougall, J. W.; Hocking, W.; Murayama, Y.; Igarashi, K.

    2005-02-01

    Planetary and tidal wave activity in the tropopause-lower stratosphere and mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) is studied using combinations of ground-based (GB) and satellite instruments (2000-2002). The relatively new MFR (medium frequency radar) at Platteville (40° N, 105° W) has provided the opportunity to create an operational network of middle-latitude MFRs, stretching from 81° W-142° E, which provides winds and tides 70-100km. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity) comprises systems at London (43° N, 81° W), Platteville (40° N, 105° W), Saskatoon (52° N, 107° W), Wakkanai (45° N, 142° E) and Yamagawa (31° N, 131° E). It offers a significant 7000-km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14°) at two longitudes. Satellite data mainly involve the daily values of the total ozone column measured by the Earth Probe (EP) TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and provide a measure of tropopause-lower stratospheric planetary wave activity, as well as ozone variability. Climatologies of ozone and winds/tides involving frequency versus time (wavelet) contour plots for periods from 2-d to 30-d and the interval from mid 2000 to 2002, show that the changes with altitude, longitude and latitude are very significant and distinctive. Geometric-mean wavelets for the region of the 40° N MFRs demonstrate occasions during the autumn, winter and spring months when there are similarities in the spectral features of the lower atmosphere and at mesopause (85km) heights. Both direct planetary wave (PW) propagation into the MLT, nonlinear PW-tide interactions, and disturbances in MLT tides associated with fluctuations in the ozone forcing are considered to be possible coupling processes. The complex horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in frequency contour plots for the TOMS satellite data to demonstrate the differences between lower atmospheric and MLT wave motions and their

  10. Wave activity (planetary, tidal throughout the middle atmosphere (20-100km over the CUJO network: Satellite (TOMS and Medium Frequency (MF radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Planetary and tidal wave activity in the tropopause-lower stratosphere and mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT is studied using combinations of ground-based (GB and satellite instruments (2000-2002. The relatively new MFR (medium frequency radar at Platteville (40° N, 105° W has provided the opportunity to create an operational network of middle-latitude MFRs, stretching from 81° W-142° E, which provides winds and tides 70-100km. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity comprises systems at London (43° N, 81° W, Platteville (40° N, 105° W, Saskatoon (52° N, 107° W, Wakkanai (45° N, 142° E and Yamagawa (31° N, 131° E. It offers a significant 7000-km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14° at two longitudes. Satellite data mainly involve the daily values of the total ozone column measured by the Earth Probe (EP TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and provide a measure of tropopause-lower stratospheric planetary wave activity, as well as ozone variability.

    Climatologies of ozone and winds/tides involving frequency versus time (wavelet contour plots for periods from 2-d to 30-d and the interval from mid 2000 to 2002, show that the changes with altitude, longitude and latitude are very significant and distinctive. Geometric-mean wavelets for the region of the 40° N MFRs demonstrate occasions during the autumn, winter and spring months when there are similarities in the spectral features of the lower atmosphere and at mesopause (85km heights. Both direct planetary wave (PW propagation into the MLT, nonlinear PW-tide interactions, and disturbances in MLT tides associated with fluctuations in the ozone forcing are considered to be possible coupling processes. The complex horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in frequency contour plots for the TOMS satellite data to demonstrate the differences between lower atmospheric

  11. Optimization of O3 as Pre-Treatment and Chemical Enhanced Backwashing in UF and MF Ceramic Membranes for the Treatment of Secondary Wastewater Effluent and Red Sea Water

    KAUST Repository

    Herrera, Catalina

    2011-12-12

    Ceramic membranes have proven to have many advantages over polymeric membranes. Some of these advantages are: resistance against extreme pH, higher permeate flux, less frequent chemical cleaning, excellent backwash efficiency and longer lifetime. Other main advantage is the use of strong chemical agent such as Ozone (O3), to perform membrane cleaning. Ozone has proven to be a good disinfection agent, deactivating bacteria and viruses. Ozone has high oxidation potential and high reactivity with natural organic matter (NOM). Several studies have shown that combining ozone to MF/UF systems could minimize membrane fouling and getting higher operational fluxes. This work focused on ozone – ceramic membrane filtration for treating wastewater effluent and seawater. Effects of ozone as a pre – treatment or chemical cleaning with ceramic membrane filtration were identified in terms of permeate flux and organic fouling. Ozonation tests were done by adjusting O3 dose with source water, monitoring flux decline and membrane fouling. Backwashing availability and membrane recovery rate were also analyzed. Two types of MF/UF ceramics membranes (AAO and TAMI) were used for this study. When ozone dosage was higher in the source water, membrane filtration improved in performance, resulting in a reduced flux decline. In secondary wastewater effluent, raw source water declined up to 77% of normalized flux, while with O3 as pre – treatment, source water at its higher O3 dose, flux decreased only 33% of normalized flux. For seawater, membrane performance increase from declining to 37% of its final normalized flux to 21%, when O3 as a pre – treatment was used. Membrane recovery rate also improved even with low O3 dose, as an example, with 8 mg/L irreversible fouling decreases from 58% with no ozone addition to 29% for secondary wastewater effluent treatment. For seawater treatment, irreversible fouling decreased from 37% with no ozone addition to 21% at 8 mg/L, proving ozone is a

  12. Combining Step Gradients and Linear Gradients in Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok A; Walz, Jenna A; Gonidec, Mathieu; Mace, Charles R; Whitesides, George M

    2015-06-16

    Combining aqueous multiphase systems (AMPS) and magnetic levitation (MagLev) provides a method to produce hybrid gradients in apparent density. AMPS—solutions of different polymers, salts, or surfactants that spontaneously separate into immiscible but predominantly aqueous phases—offer thermodynamically stable steps in density that can be tuned by the concentration of solutes. MagLev—the levitation of diamagnetic objects in a paramagnetic fluid within a magnetic field gradient—can be arranged to provide a near-linear gradient in effective density where the height of a levitating object above the surface of the magnet corresponds to its density; the strength of the gradient in effective density can be tuned by the choice of paramagnetic salt and its concentrations and by the strength and gradient in the magnetic field. Including paramagnetic salts (e.g., MnSO4 or MnCl2) in AMPS, and placing them in a magnetic field gradient, enables their use as media for MagLev. The potential to create large steps in density with AMPS allows separations of objects across a range of densities. The gradients produced by MagLev provide resolution over a continuous range of densities. By combining these approaches, mixtures of objects with large differences in density can be separated and analyzed simultaneously. Using MagLev to add an effective gradient in density also enables tuning the range of densities captured at an interface of an AMPS by simply changing the position of the container in the magnetic field. Further, by creating AMPS in which phases have different concentrations of paramagnetic ions, the phases can provide different resolutions in density. These results suggest that combining steps in density with gradients in density can enable new classes of separations based on density.

  13. Quantal density functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sahni, Viraht

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with quantal density functional theory (QDFT) which is a time-dependent local effective potential theory of the electronic structure of matter. The treated time-independent QDFT constitutes a special case. In the 2nd edition, the theory is extended to include the presence of external magnetostatic fields. The theory is a description of matter based on the ‘quantal Newtonian’ first and second laws which is in terms of “classical” fields that pervade all space, and their quantal sources. The fields, which are explicitly defined, are separately representative of electron correlations due to the Pauli exclusion principle, Coulomb repulsion, correlation-kinetic, correlation-current-density, and correlation-magnetic effects. The book further describes Schrödinger theory from the new physical perspective of fields and quantal sources. It also describes traditional Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham DFT, and explains via QDFT the physics underlying the various energy functionals and functional derivatives o...

  14. Discrete density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Alhun; Sisman, Altug

    2016-01-01

    By considering the quantum-mechanically minimum allowable energy interval, we exactly count number of states (NOS) and introduce discrete density of states (DOS) concept for a particle in a box for various dimensions. Expressions for bounded and unbounded continua are analytically recovered from discrete ones. Even though substantial fluctuations prevail in discrete DOS, they're almost completely flattened out after summation or integration operation. It's seen that relative errors of analytical expressions of bounded/unbounded continua rapidly decrease for high NOS values (weak confinement or high energy conditions), while the proposed analytical expressions based on Weyl's conjecture always preserve their lower error characteristic. - Highlights: • Discrete density of states considering minimum energy difference is proposed. • Analytical DOS and NOS formulas based on Weyl conjecture are given. • Discrete DOS and NOS functions are examined for various dimensions. • Relative errors of analytical formulas are much better than the conventional ones.

  15. Discrete density of states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Alhun; Sisman, Altug, E-mail: sismanal@itu.edu.tr

    2016-03-22

    By considering the quantum-mechanically minimum allowable energy interval, we exactly count number of states (NOS) and introduce discrete density of states (DOS) concept for a particle in a box for various dimensions. Expressions for bounded and unbounded continua are analytically recovered from discrete ones. Even though substantial fluctuations prevail in discrete DOS, they're almost completely flattened out after summation or integration operation. It's seen that relative errors of analytical expressions of bounded/unbounded continua rapidly decrease for high NOS values (weak confinement or high energy conditions), while the proposed analytical expressions based on Weyl's conjecture always preserve their lower error characteristic. - Highlights: • Discrete density of states considering minimum energy difference is proposed. • Analytical DOS and NOS formulas based on Weyl conjecture are given. • Discrete DOS and NOS functions are examined for various dimensions. • Relative errors of analytical formulas are much better than the conventional ones.

  16. Density dependent effective interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dortmans, P.J.; Amos, K.

    1994-01-01

    An effective nucleon-nucleon interaction is defined by an optimal fit to select on-and half-off-of-the-energy shell t-and g-matrices determined by solutions of the Lippmann-Schwinger and Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone equations with the Paris nucleon-nucleon interaction as input. As such, it is seen to better reproduce the interaction on which it is based than other commonly used density dependent effective interactions. The new (medium modified) effective interaction when folded with appropriate density matrices, has been used to define proton- 12 C and proton- 16 O optical potentials. With them elastic scattering data are well fit and the medium effects identifiable. 23 refs., 8 figs

  17. Variable Kernel Density Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Terrell, George R.; Scott, David W.

    1992-01-01

    We investigate some of the possibilities for improvement of univariate and multivariate kernel density estimates by varying the window over the domain of estimation, pointwise and globally. Two general approaches are to vary the window width by the point of estimation and by point of the sample observation. The first possibility is shown to be of little efficacy in one variable. In particular, nearest-neighbor estimators in all versions perform poorly in one and two dimensions, but begin to b...

  18. Density oscillations within hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.; Barshay, S.

    1976-01-01

    In models of extended hadrons, in which small bits of matter carrying charge and effective mass exist confined within a medium, oscillations in the matter density may occur. A way of investigating this possibility experimentally in high-energy hadron-hadron elastic diffraction scattering is suggested, and the effect is illustrated by examining some existing data which might be relevant to the question [fr

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Range Image Patches by NEB Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze sampled high dimensional data with the NEB method from a range image database. Select a large random sample of log-valued, high contrast, normalized, 8×8 range image patches from the Brown database. We make a density estimator and we establish 1-dimensional cell complexes from the range image patch data. We find topological properties of 8×8 range image patches, prove that there exist two types of subsets of 8×8 range image patches modelled as a circle.

  20. Toward a Redefinition of Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Amos

    1975-01-01

    This paper suggests that in addition to the recent work indicating that crowding is a subjective phenomenon, an adequate definition of density must also include a subjective component since density is a complex phenomenon in itself. Included is a discussion of both physical density and perceived density. (Author/MA)

  1. Density measures and additive property

    OpenAIRE

    Kunisada, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    We deal with finitely additive measures defined on all subsets of natural numbers which extend the asymptotic density (density measures). We consider a class of density measures which are constructed from free ultrafilters on natural numbers and study a certain additivity property of such density measures.

  2. Number density structures in the inner heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansby, D.; Horbury, T. S.

    2018-06-01

    Aims: The origins and generation mechanisms of the slow solar wind are still unclear. Part of the slow solar wind is populated by number density structures, discrete patches of increased number density that are frozen in to and move with the bulk solar wind. In this paper we aimed to provide the first in-situ statistical study of number density structures in the inner heliosphere. Methods: We reprocessed in-situ ion distribution functions measured by Helios in the inner heliosphere to provide a new reliable set of proton plasma moments for the entire mission. From this new data set we looked for number density structures measured within 0.5 AU of the Sun and studied their properties. Results: We identified 140 discrete areas of enhanced number density. The structures occurred exclusively in the slow solar wind and spanned a wide range of length scales from 50 Mm to 2000 Mm, which includes smaller scales than have been previously observed. They were also consistently denser and hotter that the surrounding plasma, but had lower magnetic field strengths, and therefore remained in pressure balance. Conclusions: Our observations show that these structures are present in the slow solar wind at a wide range of scales, some of which are too small to be detected by remote sensing instruments. These structures are rare, accounting for only 1% of the slow solar wind measured by Helios, and are not a significant contribution to the mass flux of the solar wind.

  3. Tables of nuclear level density parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Ghosh, S.K.; Majumdar, H.

    1976-03-01

    The Renormalized Gas Model (RGM) has been used to calculate single particle level density parameters for more than 2000 nucleides over the range 9<=Z<=126 (15<=A<=338). Three separate tables present the elements on or near the valley of beta stability, neutron-rich fission fragment nucleides, and transitional nuclei, actinides and light-mass super heavy elements. Each table identifies the nucleus in terms of Z and N and presents the RGM deformation energy of binding, the total RGM structural energy correction over the free gas Fermi surface, and the level density parameter

  4. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Dupont

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s430201.html . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at http://www.jstatsoft.org/index.php?vol=8 .

  5. Exchange functional by a range-separated exchange hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Masayuki; Ozaki, Taisuke

    2011-01-01

    An approximation to the exchange-hole density is proposed for the evaluation of the exact exchange energy in electronic structure calculations within the density-functional theory and the Kohn-Sham scheme. Based on the localized nature of density matrix, the exchange hole is divided into the short-range (SR) and long-range (LR) parts by using an adequate filter function, where the LR part is deduced by matching of moments with the exactly calculated SR counterpart, ensuring the correct asymptotic -1/r behavior of the exchange potential. With this division, the time-consuming integration is truncated at a certain interaction range, largely reducing the computation cost. The total energies, exchange energies, exchange potentials, and eigenvalues of the highest-occupied orbitals are calculated for the noble-gas atoms. The close agreement of the results with the exact values suggests the validity of the approximation.

  6. Air shower density spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, M.R.; Foster, J.M.; Hodson, A.L.; Hazen, W.E.; Hendel, A.Z.; Bull, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of the differential local density spectrum have been made using a 1 m 2 discharge chamber mounted in the Leeds discharge chamber array. The results are fitted to a power law of the form h(δ)dδ = kδsup(-ν)dδ, where ν=2.47+-0.04; k=0.21 s - 1 , for 7 m - 2 - 2 ; ν=2.90+-0.22; k=2.18 s - 1 , for δ > 200 m - 2 . Details of the measurement techniques are given with particular reference to the treatment of closely-spaced discharges. A comparison of these results with previous experiments using different techniques is made

  7. Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2012-01-01

    by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...... and Rosenberg's theorem), are also hard for dynamic range searching in the group model. This theorem allows us to reuse decades of research on range reporting lower bounds to immediately obtain a range of new group model lower bounds. Amongst others, this includes an improved lower bound for the fundamental...

  8. Short-range fundamental forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Baessler, S.; Buchner, M.; Fedorov, V.V.; Hoedl, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Pignol, G.; Protasov, K.V.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.; Sobolev, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces; 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Different experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experiments. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments

  9. Condensation energy density in Bi-2212 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Teruo; Kiuchi, Masaru; Haraguchi, Teruhisa; Imada, Takeki; Okamura, Kazunori; Okayasu, Satoru; Uchida, Satoshi; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Kishio, Kohji

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between the condensation energy density and the anisotropy parameter, γ a , has been derived for Bi-2212 superconductors in various anisotropic states by analysing the critical current density due to columnar defects introduced by heavy ion irradiation. The critical current density depended on the size of the defects, determined by the kind and irradiation energy of the ions. A significantly large critical current density of 17.0 MA cm -2 was obtained at 5 K and 0.1 T even for the defect density of a matching field of 1 T in a specimen irradiated with iodine ions. The dependence of the critical current density on the size of the defects agreed well with the prediction from the summation theory of pinning forces, and the condensation energy density could be obtained consistently from specimens irradiated with different ions. The condensation energy density obtained increased with decreasing γ a over the entire range of measurement temperature, and reached about 60% of the value for the most three-dimensional Y-123 observed by Civale et al at 5 K. This gives the reason for the very strong pinning in Bi-2212 superconductors at low temperatures. The thermodynamic critical field obtained decreased linearly with increasing temperature and extrapolated to zero at a certain characteristic temperature, T * , lower than the critical temperature, T c . T * , which seems to be associated with the superconductivity in the block layers, was highest for the optimally doped specimen. This shows that the superconductivity becomes more inhomogeneous as the doped state of a superconductor deviates from the optimum condition

  10. Measurement of loose powder density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, S.; Ali, A.; Haider, A.; Farooque, M.

    2011-01-01

    Powder metallurgy is a conventional technique for making engineering articles from powders. Main objective is to produce final products with the highest possible uniform density, which depends on the initial loose powder characteristics. Producing, handling, characterizing and compacting materials in loose powder form are part of the manufacturing processes. Density of loose metallic or ceramic powder is an important parameter for die design. Loose powder density is required for calculating the exact mass of powder to fill the die cavity for producing intended green density of the powder compact. To fulfill this requirement of powder metallurgical processing, a loose powder density meter as per ASTM standards is designed and fabricated for measurement of density. The density of free flowing metallic powders can be determined using Hall flow meter funnel and density cup of 25 cm/sup 3/ volume. Density of metal powders like cobalt, manganese, spherical bronze and pure iron is measured and results are obtained with 99.9% accuracy. (author)

  11. The United States Air Force Eastern Test Range. Range Instrumentation Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    Officer IRV GBI Grand Bahama Island IT&T GBR timing standard ( Rugby , England) K GDOP geometric dilution of precision GEOS-C geodetic...A n IDIIOM II LOGIC & DISPLAY GEN A PT ROR KSR. 35 •- s KB At KB A2 KB B1 KB 82 RSOS CENTRAL CONSOLE MfU I ROC/ RSOS B T...CONSOLE HMLCRT At’ KB Al (LEFT BAY) -«-<CRT B2) KBB2 ■••^jRTBH KB B1 (RIGHT BAY) <XRTA21 «KB A3 Flgiirt 4-18. Renp S#tty Oisptay SyitMn

  12. Gluon density in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    In this talk we present our detailed study (theory and numbers) on the shadowing corrections to the gluon structure functions for nuclei. Starting from rather controversial information on the nucleon structure function which is originated by the recent HERA data, we develop the Glauber approach for the gluon density in a nucleus based on Mueller formula and estimate the value of the shadowing corrections in this case. Then we calculate the first corrections to the Glauber approach and show that these corrections are big. Based on this practical observation we suggest the new evolution equation which takes into account the shadowing corrections and solve it. We hope to convince you that the new evolution equation gives a good theoretical tool to treat the shadowing corrections for the gluons density in a nucleus and, therefore, it is able to provide the theoretically reliable initial conditions for the time evolution of the nucleus-nucleus cascade. The initial conditions should be fixed both theoretically and phenomenologically before to attack such complicated problems as the mixture of hard and soft processes in nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energy or the theoretically reliable approach to hadron or/and parton cascades for high energy nucleus-nucleus interaction. 35 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab

  13. Density and Structure Analysis of Molten Ni-W Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng XIAO; Liang FANG

    2004-01-01

    Density of molten Ni and Ni-W alloys was measured in the temperature range of 1773~1873 K with a sessile drop method.The density of molten Ni and Ni-W alloys trends to decrease with increasing temperature. The density and molar volume of the alloys trend to increase with increasing W concentration in the alloys. The calculation result shows an ideal mixing of Ni-W alloys.

  14. Use of Phytone Peptone to Optimize Growth and Cell Density of Lactobacillus reuteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olabiyi A. Atilola

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the use of phytone peptone to optimize the growth and cell density of Lactobacillus reuteri. Four strains of L. reuteri (DSM 20016, SD 2112, CF 2-7F, and MF 2-3, were used in this study. An overnight culture of individual strains was inoculated into fresh basal media with various protein sources (peptone, tryptone, proteose peptone #3, phytone peptone, tryptic soy broth, yeast extract, and beef extract. Samples were then mixed well and incubated at 37 °C for 15 h. Bacterial growth was monitored by measuring turbidity (optical density 610 nm at different time intervals during the incubation period. At the end of incubation, samples were plated on de-Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS agar to determine the bacterial population. Our results showed that phytone peptone promoted the growth of L. reuteri (p < 0.05 by 1.4 log CFU/mL on average compared to the control samples. Therefore, phytone peptone could be included in laboratory media to enhance growth and increase the cell density of L. reuteri.

  15. Dynamic range majority data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; He, Meng; Munro, J. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Given a set P of n coloured points on the real line, we study the problem of answering range α-majority (or "heavy hitter") queries on P. More specifically, for a query range Q, we want to return each colour that is assigned to more than an α-fraction of the points contained in Q. We present a ne...

  16. Range Compressed Holographic Aperture Ladar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    entropy saturation behavior of the estimator is analytically described. Simultaneous range-compression and aperture synthesis is experimentally...4 2.1 Circular and Inverse -Circular HAL...2.3 Single Aperture, Multi-λ Imaging ...................................................................................... 14 2.4 Simultaneous Range

  17. Precise Range Determination Using Laser Ranging Data of LAGEOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ryul Kim

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Satellite laser ranging observation of LAGEOS ¥± has been performed using the SLR System at Sheshan Laser Ranging Station, Shanghai Observatory. And we obtained 1,838 observational points The observed range data is corrected by means of system delay correction using ground target observation, atmospheric refraction delay correction, offset correction, general relativistic correction and tide correction including solid tide, polar tide and ocean tide. As a result, the determined range delay mean value is 19.12m and the mean internal accuracy by means of polynomial fitting and least square method is ¡¾7cm. Corrected observational points are 1,340 and noise ratio to total observational points is 27.1%

  18. Systematics of the level density parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatyuk, A.V.; Istekov, K.K.; Smirenkin, G.N.

    1977-01-01

    The excitation energy dependence of nucleus energy-level density is phenomenologically systematized in terms of the Fermi gas model. The analysis has been conducted in the atomic mass number range of A(>=)150, where the collective effects are mostly pronounced. The density parameter a(U) is obtained using data on neutron resonances. To depict energy spectra of nuclear states in the Fermi gas model (1) the contributions from collective rotational and vibrational modes (2), as well as from pair correlations (3) are also taken into account. It is shown, that at excitation energies close to the neutron binding energy all three systematics of a(U) yield practically the same energy-level densities. At high energies only the (2) and (3) systematics are valid, and at energies lower than the neutron binding energy only the last systematics will be adequate

  19. Baryon density in alternative BBN models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilova, D.

    2002-10-01

    We present recent determinations of the cosmological baryon density ρ b , extracted from different kinds of observational data. The baryon density range is not very wide and is usually interpreted as an indication for consistency. It is interesting to note that all other determinations give higher baryon density than the standard big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) model. The differences of the ρ b values from the BBN predicted one (the most precise today) may be due to the statistical and systematic errors in observations. However, they may be an indication of new physics. Hence, it is interesting to study alternative BBN models, and the possibility to resolve the discrepancies. We discuss alternative cosmological scenarios: a BBN model with decaying particles (m ∼ MeV, τ ∼ sec) and BBN with electron-sterile neutrino oscillations, which permit to relax BBN constraints on the baryon content of the Universe. (author)

  20. Density and polarizability of liquid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempin'ski, V.; Zhuk, T.; Stankovski, Ya.; Sitarzh, S.

    1988-01-01

    The temperature changes in the density of liquid helium are measured in the temperature range of 1.63 to 4.2 K.; Unlike the conventional pycnometric technique, the changes in the hydrostatic displacement of the liquid were determined. The cirrectness of the method chosen and the appropriate equipment for its realization are substantiated. The results obtained are in good agreement with those of other authors. On the basis of temperature measurements of the dependence of density ρ and permittivity ε, the dependence of polarizability A of liquid 4 He on temperature and density was calculated. The results obtained show an alternating character of the dependences A(T) and A(ρ). These dependences are found to correlate

  1. Gamma irradiation effects in low density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Lilian S.; Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elisabeth E.L.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2011-01-01

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE) is obtained from ethylene gas polymerization, being one of the most commercialized polymers due to its versatility and low cost. It's a semi-crystalline polymer, usually inactive at room temperature, capable to attain temperatures within a 80 deg C - 100 deg C range, without changing its physical-chemical properties. LDPE has more resistance when compared to its equivalent High Density Polyethylene (HDPE). LDPE most common applications consist in manufacturing of laboratory materials, general containers, pipes, plastic bags, etc. Gamma radiation is used on polymers in order to modify mechanical and physical-chemical features according to utility purposes. This work aims to the study of gamma (γ) radiation interaction with low density polyethylene to evaluate changes in its physical-chemical properties. Polymer samples were exposed to 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30kGy doses, at room temperature. Samples characterization employed Thermal Analysis, Melt Flow Index, Infrared Spectroscopy and Swelling tests. (author)

  2. Residual Defect Density in Random Disks Deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topic, Nikola; Pöschel, Thorsten; Gallas, Jason A C

    2015-08-03

    We investigate the residual distribution of structural defects in very tall packings of disks deposited randomly in large channels. By performing simulations involving the sedimentation of up to 50 × 10(9) particles we find all deposits to consistently show a non-zero residual density of defects obeying a characteristic power-law as a function of the channel width. This remarkable finding corrects the widespread belief that the density of defects should vanish algebraically with growing height. A non-zero residual density of defects implies a type of long-range spatial order in the packing, as opposed to only local ordering. In addition, we find deposits of particles to involve considerably less randomness than generally presumed.

  3. Hounsfield unit density accurately predicts ESWL success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, William J; Tomera, Kevin M; Lance, Raymond S

    2005-01-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a commonly used non-invasive treatment for urolithiasis. Helical CT scans provide much better and detailed imaging of the patient with urolithiasis including the ability to measure density of urinary stones. In this study we tested the hypothesis that density of urinary calculi as measured by CT can predict successful ESWL treatment. 198 patients were treated at Alaska Urological Associates with ESWL between January 2002 and April 2004. Of these 101 met study inclusion with accessible CT scans and stones ranging from 5-15 mm. Follow-up imaging demonstrated stone freedom in 74.2%. The overall mean Houndsfield density value for stone-free compared to residual stone groups were significantly different ( 93.61 vs 122.80 p ESWL for upper tract calculi between 5-15mm.

  4. Effect of current density on the anodization of zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar Reddy, P.; Panasa Reddy, A.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of current density on the kinetics of anodization of Zircaloy-2 in 0.1 M potassium tartarate have been studied at various constant current densities ranging from 2 to 10 mA.cm -2 and at room temperature to investigate the exponential dependence of ionic current density on the field across the oxide. The rate of anodic film formation (dV/dt), the current efficiency the differential field of formation (F) and the ionic current density (i i ) were calculated. It was found that all these parameters were increased with increase of current density. The induction period was decreased with the increase of current density. It was also found that the plot of log (ionic current density) vs differential field gave fairly a linear relationship. The kinetic parameters, half jump distance (a) and height of the energy barrier (W) were calculated. (author)

  5. Pneumococcal Serotypes Colonise the Nasopharynx in Children at Different Densities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Prevalence of pneumococcal serotypes in carriage and disease has been described but absolute serotype colonisation densities have not been reported. 515 paediatric nasal swab DNA extracts were subjected to lytA qPCR and molecular serotyping by microarray. Absolute serotype densities were derived from total pneumococcal density (qPCR cycle threshold and standard curve and relative abundance (microarray and varied widely. Compared to all serotype densities observed, the strongest evidence of differences was seen for serotypes 21 and 35B (higher and 3, 38 and non-typeables (lower (p<0.05 with a similar hierarchy when only a single serotype carriage was assessed. There was no evidence of any overall density differences between children with single or multiple serotypes detected but serotypes with mid-range densities were more prevalent. The hierarchy of distinct pneumococcal serotype carriage densities described here for the first time, may help explain the dynamics of transmission between children.

  6. Sensitivity of orthopositronium annihilation to density fluctuations in ethane gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftekhari, A.

    1982-01-01

    The annihilation rates of orthopositronium (o-Ps) and free positrons and positronium formation fractions have been measured in gaseous ethane at seven temperatures between 295 and 377 K for densities in the range 1.2-286 amagat. The pick off quenching rate of o-Ps is observed to vary with temperature at low densities of ethane. The observed behavior of the o-Ps annihilation rates with density and temperature is interpreted in terms of density fluctuations in ethane gas. A simple theoretical model is developed which explains the observed annihilation behavior reasonably well at those temperatures and densities where density fluctuations are small. The annihilation rates of flow-energy positrons indicate the formation of positron-ethane collision complexes and self-trapping of positrons in clusters of ethane molecules. The o-Ps yields appear to be independent of temperature and show a strong dependence on the density of the gas

  7. Improved GAMMA 10 tandem mirror confinement in high density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsu, K.; Cho, T.; Higaki, H.; Hirata, M.; Hojo, H.; Ichimura, M.; Ishii, K.; Ishimoto, Y.; Itakura, A.; Katanuma, I.; Kohagura, J.; Minami, R.; Nakashima, Y.; Numakura, T.; Saito, T.; Saosaki, S.; Takemura, Y.; Tatematsu, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshikawa, M.

    2003-01-01

    GAMMA 10 experiments have advanced in high density experiments after the last IAEA fusion energy conference in 2000 where we reported the production of the high density plasma through use of ion cyclotron range of frequency heating at a high harmonic frequency and neutral beam injection in the anchor cells. However, the diamagnetic signal of the plasma decreased when electron cyclotron resonance heating was applied for the potential formation. Recently a high density plasma has been obtained without degradation of the diamagnetic signal and with much improved reproducibility than before. The high density plasma was attained through adjustment of the spacing of the conducting plates installed in the anchor transition regions. The potential confinement of the plasma has been extensively studied. Dependences of the ion confinement time, ion-energy confinement time and plasma confining potential on plasma density were obtained for the first time in the high density region up to a density of 4x10 18 m -3 . (author)

  8. Oscillations of the static meson fields at finite baryon density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florkowski, W.; Friman, B.; Technische Hochschule Darmstadt

    1996-04-01

    The spatial dependence of static meson correlation functions at finite baryon density is studied in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. In contrast to the finite temperature case, we find that the correlation functions at finite density are not screened but exhibit long-range oscillations. The observed phenomenon is analogous to the Friedel oscillations in a degenerate electron gas. (orig.)

  9. Alpha radiation gauge for the measurement of gas density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lech, M.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha gauge for the measurement of gas density with thick alfa source, has been developed. The gauge is based on radiation transmission through a space filled with gas and total-count principle. Air density can be measured in the range 1,2 - 1,27 kg m -3 with a maximum standard deviation of 2 x 10 -3 kg m -3 . (author)

  10. Ambient RF energy scavenging: GSM and WLAN power density measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Reniers, A.C.F.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of ambient RF energy scavenging, a survey of expected power density levels distant from GSM-900 and GSM-1800 base stations has been conducted and power density measurements have been performed in a WLAN environment. It appears that for distances ranging from 25 m to 100 m

  11. PTFE-ALUMINUM films serve as neutral density filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, H. D.

    1966-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene /PTFE/ films coated with aluminum films act as neutral density filters in the wavelength range 0.3 to 2.1 microns. These filters are effective in the calibration of photometric systems.

  12. All-Nitrogen Compounds as High Energy Density Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baum, Kurt; Willer, Rodney L; Bottaro, Jeffrey; Petrie, Mark; Penwell, Paul; Dodge, Allen; Malhotra, Ripu

    2005-01-01

    .... Enhanced dissolving power, density and compatibilities with a wide range of propellant ingredients make ionic liquids a very attractive class of materials for advanced state-of-the-art propulsion systems...

  13. Anomalous evolution of Ar metastable density with electron density in high density Ar discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Min; Chang, Hong-Young; You, Shin-Jae; Kim, Jung-Hyung; Shin, Yong-Hyeon

    2011-01-01

    Recently, an anomalous evolution of argon metastable density with plasma discharge power (electron density) was reported [A. M. Daltrini, S. A. Moshkalev, T. J. Morgan, R. B. Piejak, and W. G. Graham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061504 (2008)]. Although the importance of the metastable atom and its density has been reported in a lot of literature, however, a basic physics behind the anomalous evolution of metastable density has not been clearly understood yet. In this study, we investigated a simple global model to elucidate the underlying physics of the anomalous evolution of argon metastable density with the electron density. On the basis of the proposed simple model, we reproduced the anomalous evolution of the metastable density and disclosed the detailed physics for the anomalous result. Drastic changes of dominant mechanisms for the population and depopulation processes of Ar metastable atoms with electron density, which take place even in relatively low electron density regime, is the clue to understand the result.

  14. Negative density-distribution relationship in butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotiaho Janne S

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because "laws of nature" do not exist in ecology, much of the foundations of community ecology rely on broad statistical generalisations. One of the strongest generalisations is the positive relationship between density and distribution within a given taxonomic assemblage; that is, locally abundant species are more widespread than locally sparse species. Several mechanisms have been proposed to create this positive relationship, and the testing of these mechanisms is attracting increasing attention. Results We report a strong, but counterintuitive, negative relationship between density and distribution in the butterfly fauna of Finland. With an exceptionally comprehensive data set (data includes all 95 resident species in Finland and over 1.5 million individuals, we have been able to submit several of the mechanisms to powerful direct empirical testing. Without exception, we failed to find evidence for the proposed mechanisms creating a positive density-distribution relationship. On the contrary, we found that many of the mechanisms are equally able to generate a negative relationship. Conclusion We suggest that one important determinant of density-distribution relationships is the geographical location of the study: on the edge of a distribution range, suitable habitat patches are likely to be more isolated than in the core of the range. In such a situation, only the largest and best quality patches are likely to be occupied, and these by definition can support a relatively dense population leading to a negative density-distribution relationship. Finally, we conclude that generalizations about the positive density-distribution relationship should be made more cautiously.

  15. Effectiveness of a MF-59™-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine to prevent 2009 A/H1N1 influenza-related hospitalisation; a matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Sande Marianne AB

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic, adjuvanted influenza vaccines were used for the first time on a large scale. Results on the effectiveness of the vaccines in preventing 2009 influenza A/H1N1-related hospitalisation are scanty and varying. Methods We conducted a matched case-control study in individuals with an indication for vaccination due to underlying medical conditions and/or age ≥ 60 years in the Netherlands. Cases were patients hospitalised with laboratory-confirmed 2009 A/H1N1 influenza infection between November 16, 2009 and January 15, 2010. Controls were matched to cases on age, sex and type of underlying medical condition(s and drawn from an extensive general practitioner network. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the vaccine effectiveness (VE = 1 - OR. Different sensitivity analyses were used to assess confounding by severity of underlying medical condition(s and the effect of different assumptions for missing dates of vaccination. Results 149 cases and 28,238 matched controls were included. It was estimated that 22% of the cases and 28% of the controls received vaccination more than 7 days before the date of onset of symptoms in cases. A significant number of breakthrough infections were observed. The VE was estimated at 19% (95%CI -28-49. After restricting the analysis to cases with controls suffering from severe underlying medical conditions, the VE was 49% (95%CI 16-69. Conclusions The number of breakthrough infections, resulting in modest VE estimates, suggests that the MF-59™ adjuvanted vaccine may have had only a limited impact on preventing 2009 influenza A/H1N1-related hospitalisation in this setting. As the main aim of influenza vaccination programmes is to reduce severe influenza-related morbidity and mortality from influenza in persons at high risk of complications, a more effective vaccine, or additional preventive measures, are needed.

  16. Density-Functional formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szasz, L.; Berrios-Pagan, I.; McGinn, G.

    1975-01-01

    A new Density-Functional formula is constructed for atoms. The kinetic energy of the electron is divided into two parts: the kinetic self-energy and the orthogonalization energy. Calculations were made for the total energies of neutral atoms, positive ions and for the He isoelectronic series. For neutral atoms the results match the Hartree-Fock energies within 1% for atoms with N 36 the results generally match the HF energies within 0.1%. For positive ions the results are fair; for the molecular applications a simplified model is developed in which the kinetic energy consists of the Weizsaecker term plus the Fermi energy reduced by a continuous function. (orig.) [de

  17. Density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyss, M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter gives an introduction to first-principles electronic structure calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT). Electronic structure calculations have a crucial importance in the multi-scale modelling scheme of materials: not only do they enable one to accurately determine physical and chemical properties of materials, they also provide data for the adjustment of parameters (or potentials) in higher-scale methods such as classical molecular dynamics, kinetic Monte Carlo, cluster dynamics, etc. Most of the properties of a solid depend on the behaviour of its electrons, and in order to model or predict them it is necessary to have an accurate method to compute the electronic structure. DFT is based on quantum theory and does not make use of any adjustable or empirical parameter: the only input data are the atomic number of the constituent atoms and some initial structural information. The complicated many-body problem of interacting electrons is replaced by an equivalent single electron problem, in which each electron is moving in an effective potential. DFT has been successfully applied to the determination of structural or dynamical properties (lattice structure, charge density, magnetisation, phonon spectra, etc.) of a wide variety of solids. Its efficiency was acknowledged by the attribution of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1998 to one of its authors, Walter Kohn. A particular attention is given in this chapter to the ability of DFT to model the physical properties of nuclear materials such as actinide compounds. The specificities of the 5f electrons of actinides will be presented, i.e., their more or less high degree of localisation around the nuclei and correlations. The limitations of the DFT to treat the strong 5f correlations are one of the main issues for the DFT modelling of nuclear fuels. Various methods that exist to better treat strongly correlated materials will finally be presented. (author)

  18. Hormonal Determinants of Mammographic Density

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Jennifer K; Modugno, Francemary; Weissfeld, Joel L; Kuller, Lewis; Vogel, Victor; Constantino, Joseph P

    2005-01-01

    .... However, not all women on HRT will experience an increase in breast density. We propose a novel hypothesis to explain in part the individual variability in breast density seen among women on HRT...

  19. On inertial range scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.C.

    1994-12-01

    Inertial-range scaling laws for two- and three-dimensional turbulence are re-examined within a unified framework. A new correction to Kolmogorov's k -5/3 scaling is derived for the energy inertial range. A related modification is found to Kraichnan's logarithmically corrected two-dimensional enstrophy cascade law that removes its unexpected divergence at the injection wavenumber. The significance of these corrections is illustrated with steady-state energy spectra from recent high-resolution closure computations. The results also underscore the asymptotic nature of inertial-range scaling laws. Implications for conventional numerical simulations are discussed

  20. GPS test range mission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Iris P.; Hancock, Thomas P.

    The principal features of the Test Range User Mission Planner (TRUMP), a PC-resident tool designed to aid in deploying and utilizing GPS-based test range assets, are reviewed. TRUMP features time history plots of time-space-position information (TSPI); performance based on a dynamic GPS/inertial system simulation; time history plots of TSPI data link connectivity; digital terrain elevation data maps with user-defined cultural features; and two-dimensional coverage plots of ground-based test range assets. Some functions to be added during the next development phase are discussed.

  1. A low-cost density reference phantom for computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Zachary H.; Li, Mingdong; Reeves, Anthony P.; Yankelevitz, David F.; Chen, Joseph J.; Siegel, Eliot L.; Peskin, Adele; Zeiger, Diana N.

    2009-01-01

    The authors characterized a commercially available foam composed of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate which is marketed for modeling parts in the aircraft, automotive, and related industries. The authors found that the foam may be suitable for use as a density reference standard in the range below −400 Hounsfield units. This range is coincident with the density of lung tissue. The foam may be helpful in making the diagnosis of lung disease more systematic.

  2. A low-cost density reference phantom for computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Zachary H; Li, Mingdong; Reeves, Anthony P; Yankelevitz, David F; Chen, Joseph J; Siegel, Eliot L; Peskin, Adele; Zeiger, Diana N

    2009-02-01

    The authors characterized a commercially available foam composed of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate which is marketed for modeling parts in the aircraft, automotive, and related industries. The authors found that the foam may be suitable for use as a density reference standard in the range below -400 Hounsfield units. This range is coincident with the density of lung tissue. The foam may be helpful in making the diagnosis of lung disease more systematic.

  3. Imaging using long range dipolar field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutteridge, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    The work in this thesis has been undertaken by the author, except where indicated in reference, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre, at the University of Nottingham during the period from October 1998 to March 2001. This thesis details the different characteristics of the long range dipolar field and its application to magnetic resonance imaging. The long range dipolar field is usually neglected in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, as molecular tumbling decouples its effect at short distances. However, in highly polarised samples residual long range components have a significant effect on the evolution of the magnetisation, giving rise to multiple spin echoes and unexpected quantum coherences. Three applications utilising these dipolar field effects are documented in this thesis. The first demonstrates the spatial sensitivity of the signal generated via dipolar field effects in structured liquid state samples. The second utilises the signal produced by the dipolar field to create proton spin density maps. These maps directly yield an absolute value for the water content of the sample that is unaffected by relaxation and any RF inhomogeneity or calibration errors in the radio frequency pulses applied. It has also been suggested that the signal generated by dipolar field effects may provide novel contrast in functional magnetic resonance imaging. In the third application, the effects of microscopic susceptibility variation on the signal are studied and the relaxation rate of the signal is compared to that of a conventional spin echo. (author)

  4. Density limit in ASDEX discharges with peaked density profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, A.; Niedermeyer, H.; Loch, R.; Mertens, V.; Mueller, E.R.; Soeldner, F.X.; Wagner, F.

    1989-01-01

    Results concerning the density limit in OH and NI-heated ASDEX discharges with the usually observed broad density profiles have been reported earlier: In ohmic discharges with high q a (q-cylindrical is used throughout this paper) the Murakami parameter (n e R/B t ) is a good scaling parameter. At the high densities edge cooling is observed causing the plasma to shrink until an m=2-instability terminates the discharge. When approaching q a =2 the density limit is no longer proportional to I p ; a minimum exists in n e,max (q a ) at q a ∼2.15. With NI-heating the density limit increases less than proportional to the heating power; the behaviour during the pre-disruptive phase is rather similar to the one of OH discharges. There are specific operating regimes on ASDEX leading to discharges with strongly peaked density profiles: the improved ohmic confinement regime, counter neutral injection, and multipellet injection. These regimes are characterized by enhanced energy and particle confinement. The operational limit in density for these discharges is, therefore, of great interest having furthermore in mind that high central densities are favourable in achieving high fusion yields. In addition, further insight into the mechanisms of the density limit observed in tokamaks may be obtained by comparing plasmas with rather different density profiles at their maximum attainable densities. 7 refs., 2 figs

  5. Density functional theory: Foundations reviewed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryachko, Eugene S., E-mail: eugene.kryachko@ulg.ac.be [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev, 03680 (Ukraine); Ludeña, Eduardo V., E-mail: popluabe@yahoo.es [Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, IVIC, Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Prometheus Program, Senescyt (Ecuador); Grupo Ecuatoriano para el Estudio Experimental y Teórico de Nanosistemas, GETNano, USFQ, N104-E, Quito (Ecuador); Escuela Politécnica Superior del Litoral, ESPOL, Guayaquil (Ecuador)

    2014-11-10

    Guided by the above motto (quotation), we review a broad range of issues lying at the foundations of Density Functional Theory, DFT, a theory which is currently omnipresent in our everyday computational study of atoms and molecules, solids and nano-materials, and which lies at the heart of modern many-body computational technologies. The key goal is to demonstrate that there are definitely the ways to improve DFT. We start by considering DFT in the larger context provided by reduced density matrix theory (RDMT) and natural orbital functional theory (NOFT), and examine the implications that N-representability conditions on the second-order reduced density matrix (2-RDM) have not only on RDMT and NOFT but, also, by extension, on the functionals of DFT. This examination is timely in view of the fact that necessary and sufficient N-representability conditions on the 2-RDM have recently been attained. In the second place, we review some problems appearing in the original formulation of the first Hohenberg–Kohn theorem which is still a subject of some controversy. In this vein we recall Lieb’s comment on this proof and the extension to this proof given by Pino et al. (2009), and in this context examine the conditions that must be met in order that the one-to-one correspondence between ground-state densities and external potentials remains valid for finite subspaces (namely, the subspaces where all Kohn–Sham solutions are obtained in practical applications). We also consider the issue of whether the Kohn–Sham equations can be derived from basic principles or whether they are postulated. We examine this problem in relation to ab initio DFT. The possibility of postulating arbitrary Kohn–Sham-type equations, where the effective potential is by definition some arbitrary mixture of local and non-local terms, is discussed. We also deal with the issue of whether there exists a universal functional, or whether one should advocate instead the construction of problem

  6. Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico

    2015-04-01

    A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges.

  7. Intentionally Short Range Communications (ISRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    molecular oxygen in the atmosphere at 60 GHz (figure 9 LIppolito, 1981]). The MMW range is similar to that of the UV links. 3.3.1 Variable Range Similar to...option also requires that the signal be strong enough to overcome the noise from the solar and background sources, although the molecular oxygen and... emisions . Lasing will occur only within the cavity when the alignment is correct and not lasing othem ise. Such a cavity is dcteclable only when an observer

  8. The car parking problem at high densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, E.; Bonadeo, H.

    1989-04-01

    The radial distribution functions of random 1-D systems of sequential hard rods have been studied in the range of very high densities. It is found that as the number of samples rejected before completion increases, anomalies in the pairwise distribution functions arise. These are discussed using analytical solutions for systems of three rods and numerical simulations with twelve rods. The probabilities of different spatial orderings with respect to the sequential order are examined.

  9. Avifauna associated with early growth vegetation on clearcuts in the Oregon coast ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael L. Morrison; E. Charles. Meslow

    1983-01-01

    This paper provides estimates of bird density, diversity, and evenness on 13 clearcut units of the Siuslaw National Forest in the Coast Ranges of Oregon, sampled during 1979,1980, and 1981. Total density of nesting birds ranged from 322 to 588 per 40.5 hectares (100 acres); there were 15 to 19 species nesting on each site.

  10. Properties of matter at ultra-high densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, B.; Chitre, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    The recent discovery of pulsars and their subsequent identification with neutron stars has given a great impetus to the study of the behaviour of matter at ultra high densities. The object of these studies is to calculate the equation of state as a function of density. In this paper, the properties of electrically neutral, cold (T=0) matter at unusually high densities has been reviewed. The physics of the equation of state of such matter divides quite naturally in four density ranges. (i) At the very lowest densities the state of minimum energy is a lattice of 56 Fe atoms. This state persists upto 10 7 g/cm 3 . (ii) In the next density region the nuclei at the lattice sites become neutron rich because the high electron Fermi energy makes inverse beta decay possible. (iii) At a density 4.3 x 10 11 the nuclei become so neutron rich that the neutrons start 'dripping' out of the nuclei and form a gas. This density range is characterised by large, neutron-rich nuclei immersed in a neutron gas. (iv) At a density 2.4 x 10 14 g/cm 3 , the nuclei disappear and a fluid of uniform neutron matter with a small percentage of protons and electrons results. The above four density ranges have been discussed in detail as the equation of state is now well established upto the nuclear density 3 x 10 14 g/cm 3 . The problems of extending the equation of state beyond this density are also touched upon. (author)

  11. Comparative hydraulic architecture of tropical tree species representing a range of successional stages and wood density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine A. McCulloh; Frederick C. Meinzer; John S. Sperry; Barbara Lachenbruch; Steven L. Voelker; David R. Woodruff; Jean-Christophe Domec

    2011-01-01

    Plant hydraulic architecture (PHA) has been linked to water transport sufficiency, photosynthetic rates, growth form and attendant carbon allocation. Despite its influence on traits central to conferring an overall competitive advantage in a given environment, few studies have examined whether key aspects of PHA are indicative of successional stage, especially within...

  12. Non-native Gobiid species in the lower River Rhine (Germany): recent range extensions and densities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borcherding, J.; Staas, S.; Krüger, S.; Ondračková, Markéta; Šlapanský, Luděk; Jurajda, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2011), s. 153-155 ISSN 0175-8659 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : the lower River Rhine Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.869, year: 2011

  13. Testing and Validation of High Density Resequencing Microarray for Broad Range Biothreat Agents Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-11

    concentration of the virus was expressed in plaque forming units (pfu). For synthetic DNA templates, the DNA concentration was used to calculate the...cells ATCC Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43985 (CDC EDL933) Nucleic acid ATCC Francisella tularensis SHU4 Nucleic acid AFIP Leptospira interrogans ATCC...2% on the nucleotide level and 0.6% on the protein level. Similar strain discrimination was obtained in case of Machupo virus strains Carvallo and

  14. Diversity and Density: Lexically Determined Evaluative and Informational Consequences of Linguistic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradac, James J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Defines lexical diversity as manifest vocabulary range and lexical density as the ratio of lexical to gramatical items in a unit of discourse. Examines the effects of lexical diversity and density on listeners' evaluative judgments. (MH)

  15. Smoothing densities under shape constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Paul Laurie; Meise, Monika

    2009-01-01

    In Davies and Kovac (2004) the taut string method was proposed for calculating a density which is consistent with the data and has the minimum number of peaks. The main disadvantage of the taut string density is that it is piecewise constant. In this paper a procedure is presented which gives a smoother density by minimizing the total variation of a derivative of the density subject to the number, positions and heights of the local extreme values obtained from the taut string density. 2...

  16. Irreversible mean-field model of the critical behavior of charge-density waves below the threshold for sliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, Didier

    1993-05-01

    A mean-field (MF) model of the critical behavior of charge-density waves below the threshold for sliding is proposed, which replaces the combined effect of the pinning force and of the forces exerted by the neighbors on a given particle n by an effective force threshold Xn. It allows one to rationalize the numerical results of Middleton and Fisher [Phys. Rev. Lett. 66 (1991) 92] on the divergence of the polarization and of the largest correlation length and of Pla and Nori [Phys. Rev. Lett. 67 (1991) 919] on the distribution D( d) of sliding bursts of size d, measured in narrow intervals of driving fields E at a finite distance below the threshold Ec.

  17. Impact of sequential proton density fat fraction for quantification of hepatic steatosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idilman, Ilkay S; Keskin, Onur; Elhan, Atilla Halil; Idilman, Ramazan; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay

    2014-05-01

    To determine the utility of sequential MRI-estimated proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) for quantification of the longitudinal changes in liver fat content in individuals with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A total of 18 consecutive individuals (M/F: 10/8, mean age: 47.7±9.8 years) diagnosed with NAFLD, who underwent sequential PDFF calculations for the quantification of hepatic steatosis at two different time points, were included in the study. All patients underwent T1-independent volumetric multi-echo gradient-echo imaging with T2* correction and spectral fat modeling. A close correlation for quantification of hepatic steatosis between the initial MRI-PDFF and liver biopsy was observed (rs=0.758, phepatic steatosis. The changes in serum ALT levels significantly reflected changes in MRI-PDFF in patients with NAFLD.

  18. Short, intermediate and long range order in amorphous ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Fausto; Torquato, Salvatore; Giovanbattista, Nicolas; Car, Roberto

    Water exhibits polyamorphism, i.e., it exists in more than one amorphous state. The most common forms of glassy water are the low-density amorphous (LDA) and the high-density amorphous (HDA) ices. LDA, the most abundant form of ice in the Universe, transforms into HDA upon isothermal compression. We model the transformation of LDA into HDA under isothermal compression with classical molecular dynamics simulations. We analyze the molecular structures with a recently introduced scalar order metric to measure short and intermediate range order. In addition, we rank the structures by their degree of hyperuniformity, i.e.,the extent to which long range density fluctuations are suppressed. F.M. and R.C. acknowledge support from the Department of Energy (DOE) under Grant No. DE-SC0008626.

  19. A note on the accuracy of KS-DFT densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Duminda S.; Perera, Ajith; Bartlett, Rodney J.

    2017-11-01

    The accuracy of the density of wave function methods and Kohn-Sham (KS) density functionals is studied using moments of the density, ⟨rn ⟩ =∫ ρ (r )rnd τ =∫0∞4 π r2ρ (r ) rnd r ,where n =-1 ,-2,0,1,2 ,and 3 provides information about the short- and long-range behavior of the density. Coupled cluster (CC) singles, doubles, and perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) is considered as the reference density. Three test sets are considered: boron through neon neutral atoms, two and four electron cations, and 3d transition metals. The total density and valence only density are distinguished by dropping appropriate core orbitals. Among density functionals tested, CAMQTP00 and ωB97x show the least deviation for boron through neon neutral atoms. They also show accurate eigenvalues for the HOMO indicating that they should have a more correct long-range behavior for the density. For transition metals, some density functional approximations outperform some wave function methods, suggesting that the KS determinant could be a better starting point for some kinds of correlated calculations. By using generalized many-body perturbation theory (MBPT), the convergence of second-, third-, and fourth-order KS-MBPT for the density is addressed as it converges to the infinite-order coupled cluster result. For the transition metal test set, the deviations in the KS density functional theory methods depend on the amount of exact exchange the functional uses. Functionals with exact exchange close to 25% show smaller deviations from the CCSD(T) density.

  20. Eye safe laser range finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snir, M.; Margaliot, M.; Amitzi, A.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1970's, Ruby (Q switched) laser based range finders with a wavelength of 694nm were first used. These lasers operated in a pulse mode within the visible light range and produced a risk for the eye retina. The laser beam striking the macula could damage the eye and might cause blindness. Over the years, Nd:YAG (Q switched) lasers were developed (operating at 1064nm) for range finding and designation uses. The wavelength of these lasers, operating in the near Infra-Red range (invisible), is also focused tightly on the retina. The human eye does not respond to the invisible light so there is no natural protection (eye blink reflex) as in the visible light. The operation of these lasers worldwide, especially when the laser beam is exposed, causes occasional eye accidents. Another risk is stemming from the use of observation systems with a high optical gain, in the laser operation areas, which enlarge the range of risk quite significantly. Therefore, research and development efforts were invested in order to introduce eye safe lasers. One of the solutions for this problem is presented in following document

  1. Determination of Jupiter's electron density profile from plasma wave observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurnett, D.A.; Scarf, F.L.; Kurth, W.S.; Shaw, R.R.; Poynter, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes the electron density measurements obtained in the Jovian magnetosphere from the plasma wave instruments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. Three basic techniques are discussed for determining the electron density: (1) local measurements from the low-frequency cutoff of continuum radiation, (2) local measurements from the frequency of upper hybrid resonance emissions, and (3) integral measurements from the dispersion of whistlers. The limitations and advantages of each technique are critically reviewed. In all cases the electron densities are unaffected by spacecraft charging or sheath effects, which makes these measurements of particular importance for verifying in situ plasma and low-energy charged particle measurments. In the outer regions of the dayside magnetosphere, beyond about 40 R/sub J/, the electron densities range from about 3 x 10 -3 to 3 x 10 -2 cm -3 . On Voyager 2, several brief excursions apparently occurred into the low-density region north of the plasma sheet with densities less than 10 -3 cm -3 . Approaching the planet the electron density gradually increases, with the plasma frequency extending above the frequency range of the plasma wave instrument (56 kHz, or about 38 electrons cm -3 ) inside of about 8 R/sub J/. Within the high-density region of the Io plasma torus, whistlers provide measurements of the north-south scale height of the plasma torus, with scale heights ranging from about 0.9 to 2.5 R/sub J/

  2. A predictive model for the tokamak density limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Q.; Brennan, D. P.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Gates, D. A.; Swerdlow, J.; White, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    We reproduce the Greenwald density limit, in all tokamak experiments by using a phenomenologically correct model with parameters in the range of experiments. A simple model of equilibrium evolution and local power balance inside the island has been implemented to calculate the radiation-driven thermo-resistive tearing mode growth and explain the density limit. Strong destabilization of the tearing mode due to an imbalance of local Ohmic heating and radiative cooling in the island predicts the density limit within a few percent. Furthermore, we found the density limit and it is a local edge limit and weakly dependent on impurity densities. Our results are robust to a substantial variation in model parameters within the range of experiments.

  3. Densities and apparent molar volumes of atmospherically important electrolyte solutions. 2. The systems H(+)-HSO4(-)-SO4(2-)-H2O from 0 to 3 mol kg(-1) as a function of temperature and H(+)-NH4(+)-HSO4(-)-SO4)2-)-H2O from 0 to 6 mol kg(-1) at 25 °C using a Pitzer ion interaction model, and NH4HSO4-H2O and (NH4)3H(SO4)2-H2O over the entire concentration range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, S L; Wexler, A S

    2011-04-21

    A Pitzer ion interaction model has been applied to the systems H(2)SO(4)-H(2)O (0-3 mol kg(-1), 0-55 °C) and H(2)SO(4)-(NH(4))(2)SO(4)-H(2)O (0-6 mol kg(-1), 25 °C) for the calculation of apparent molar volume and density. The dissociation reaction HSO(4)(-)((aq)) ↔ H(+)((aq)) + SO(4)(2-)((aq)) is treated explicitly. Apparent molar volumes of the SO(4)(2-) ion at infinite dilution were obtained from part 1 of this work, (1) and the value for the bisulfate ion was determined in this study from 0 to 55 °C. In dilute solutions of both systems, the change in the degree of dissociation of the HSO(4)(-) ion with concentration results in much larger variations of the apparent molar volumes of the solutes than for conventional strong (fully dissociated) electrolytes. Densities and apparent molar volumes are tabulated. Apparent molar volumes calculated using the model are combined with other data for the solutes NH(4)HSO(4) and (NH(4))(3)H(SO(4))(2) at 25 °C to obtain apparent molar volumes and densities over the entire concentration range (including solutions supersaturated with respect to the salts).

  4. Influence of the genotype and density of inoculation on the differentiation of somatic embryos of Coffea arabica L. cv. Red Caturra and Coffea canephora cv. Robusta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Barbón

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The conditions were established for the differentiation of somatic embryos from cell suspensions in the genotype Caturra rojo (Coffea arabica and Robusta (Coffea canephora. Cell suspensions with high embryogenic potentials and stable coefficients of multiplication were used. While studying the density of inoculation, for the phase of differentiation for both varieties, differences appeared in the embryogenic capacity among them, being reached a whole of 556 500 ES.l-1 for the variety Caturra rojo and 298 670 SE.l-1 for the variety Robusta. The biggest number of embryos in torpedo state, were obtained with a density of inoculation of 0.5 gFW.l-1 for the variety Caturra rojo and 5.0 gMF.l-1 for the variety Robusta. Key Words: cell suspensions, embryogenic potential, somatic Embryogenesis, embryogenic cells

  5. GEA CRDA Range Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-28

    E1, July-August 1998 18 3.3. Example 3: SatMex, Solidaridad 2, May-June 1998 27 3.4. Example 4: PanAmSat, Galaxy IV, May-June 1998 33 3.5...17 Millstone measurements residuals for Telstar 401 on Days 181-263. 26 3-18 Millstone measurement residuals for Solidaridad 1 on Days 141-153...with 29 SatMex range data. 3-19 Hermosillo B-- Solidaridad 1 range residuals through Days 135-144 with bias 30 removed. 3-20 Iztapalapa D

  6. The effect of laterite density on radon diffusion behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongmei; Tan, Wanyu; Tan, Kaixuan; Liu, Zehua; Fang, Qi; Lv, Junwen; Duan, Xianzhe; Liu, Zhenzhong; Guo, Yueyue

    2018-02-01

    Radon generated in porous media such as soils and rocks migrates into indoor and outdoor air mainly by diffusion, possessing significant hazards to human health. In order to reduce these hazards of radon, it is of great importance to study the diffusion behavior of radon. In this study, we systematically measured the radon diffusion coefficient of laterite with the density ranging from 0.917gcm -3 to 2.238gcm -3 , and studied the effect of laterite density on the radon diffusion. The results show that the radon diffusion coefficient of the laterite generally decreases with the increasing laterite density. In addition, three possible relationships between the radon diffusion coefficient and the laterite density are found out as follows: (1) the linear correlation with a slope of -4.48 × 10 -6 for laterite with density ranging from 0.917 to 1.095gcm -3 , (2) the exponential correlation for laterite with density from 1.095 to 1.63gcm -3 , (3) linear correlation with a slope of -3.1 × 10 -7 for laterite with density from 1.63 to 2.238gcm -3 . The complex relationship between the radon diffusion coefficient and density is caused by the change of porosity and tortuosity of the laterite. Therefore, we suggest that a suitable density should be adopted while using the laterite to effectively cover uranium tailings or economically produce building materials that can curb the radon exhalation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Resolvability of regional density structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonka, A.; Fichtner, A.

    2016-12-01

    Lateral density variations are the source of mass transport in the Earth at all scales, acting as drivers of convectivemotion. However, the density structure of the Earth remains largely unknown since classic seismic observables and gravityprovide only weak constraints with strong trade-offs. Current density models are therefore often based on velocity scaling,making strong assumptions on the origin of structural heterogeneities, which may not necessarily be correct. Our goal is to assessif 3D density structure may be resolvable with emerging full-waveform inversion techniques. We have previously quantified the impact of regional-scale crustal density structure on seismic waveforms with the conclusion that reasonably sized density variations within thecrust can leave a strong imprint on both travel times and amplitudes, and, while this can produce significant biases in velocity and Q estimates, the seismic waveform inversion for density may become feasible. In this study we performprincipal component analyses of sensitivity kernels for P velocity, S velocity, and density. This is intended to establish theextent to which these kernels are linearly independent, i.e. the extent to which the different parameters may be constrainedindependently. Since the density imprint we observe is not exclusively linked to travel times and amplitudes of specific phases,we consider waveform differences between complete seismograms. We test the method using a known smooth model of the crust and seismograms with clear Love and Rayleigh waves, showing that - as expected - the first principal kernel maximizes sensitivity to SH and SV velocity structure, respectively, and that the leakage between S velocity, P velocity and density parameter spaces is minimal in the chosen setup. Next, we apply the method to data from 81 events around the Iberian Penninsula, registered in total by 492 stations. The objective is to find a principal kernel which would maximize the sensitivity to density

  8. Wide range neutron monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okido, Fumiyasu; Arita, Setsuo; Ishii, Kazuhiko; Matsumiya, Shoichi; Furusato, Ken-ichiro; Nishida, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention has a function of reliably switching measuring values between a pulse method and a Cambel method even if noise level and saturated level are fluctuated. That is, a proportional range judging means always monitors neutron flux measuring values in a start-up region and neutron flux measuring values in an intermediate power region, so that the proportional range is detected depending on whether the difference or a variation coefficient of both of the measured values is constant or not. A switching value determining means determines a switching value by the result of judgement of the proportional range judging means. A selection/output means selects and outputs measuring signals at a neutron flux level in the start-up region or the intermediate power region by the output of the switching value determining means. With such procedures, since the measuring value is switched after confirming that arrival at the proportional range where the difference or a variation coefficient of the measured value between the pulse processing method and the measured value by the Cambel method is constant, an accurate neutron flux level containing neither noise level nor saturated level can be outputted. (I.S.)

  9. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare...

  10. Heteronuclear Long-Range Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole W.

    The lecture will cover heteronuclear long-range correlation techniques like HMBC, H2BC, and HAT HMBC with the emphasis on determining the number of covalent bonds between two spins being correlated. H2BC and HMBC spectra are quite complementary as a peak can be strong in one of the two spectra...

  11. Magnetic short range order and the exchange coupling in magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antropov, V.P.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss our recent results of time-dependent density functional simulations of magnetic properties of Fe and Ni at finite temperatures. These results indicated that a strong magnetic short range order is responsible for the magnetic properties of elementary Ni and any itinerant magnet in general. We demonstrated that one can use the value of the magnetic short range order parameter to produce new quantitative classification of magnets. We also discuss the nature of the exchange coupling and its connection with the short range order. The spin-wave like propagating and diffusive excitations in paramagnetic localized systems with small short range order have been predicted while in the itinerant systems the short range order is more complicated. The possible smallness of the quantum factor in the itinerant magnets with short range order is discussed

  12. Solvent density inhomogeneities and solvation free energies in supercritical diatomic fluids: a density functional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husowitz, B; Talanquer, V

    2007-02-07

    Density functional theory is used to explore the solvation properties of a spherical solute immersed in a supercritical diatomic fluid. The solute is modeled as a hard core Yukawa particle surrounded by a diatomic Lennard-Jones fluid represented by two fused tangent spheres using an interaction site approximation. The authors' approach is particularly suitable for thoroughly exploring the effect of different interaction parameters, such as solute-solvent interaction strength and range, solvent-solvent long-range interactions, and particle size, on the local solvent structure and the solvation free energy under supercritical conditions. Their results indicate that the behavior of the local coordination number in homonuclear diatomic fluids follows trends similar to those reported in previous studies for monatomic fluids. The local density augmentation is particularly sensitive to changes in solute size and is affected to a lesser degree by variations in the solute-solvent interaction strength and range. The associated solvation free energies exhibit a nonmonotonous behavior as a function of density for systems with weak solute-solvent interactions. The authors' results suggest that solute-solvent interaction anisotropies have a major influence on the nature and extent of local solvent density inhomogeneities and on the value of the solvation free energies in supercritical solutions of heteronuclear molecules.

  13. Spatial correlation between weed species densities and soil properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Mette; Christensen, Svend; Simmelsgaard, Svend Erik

    2002-01-01

    The spatial cross-correlation between weed species densities and six soil properties within fields was analysed using cross-semivariograms. The survey was carried out in three successive years in two fields. The most consistent relationship between weed species density (numbers m−2) and soil...... properties was negative cross-correlation between the density of Viola arvensis Murray and clay content. This correlation was found in both fields; however, the range of spatial dependence varied between fields. In one of the fields, the density of Lamium purpureum L. was positively cross......-correlated with the phosphorus content in the soil in all years. The density of Veronica spp. and Poa annua L. was negatively cross-correlated with pH in all three years. Other spatial cross-correlations that were found in this study were inconsistent over time or field site. The densities of some of the weed species were...

  14. Medium-range dielectric order in systems with collectivized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismagilov, A.M.; Kopaev, Yu.V.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of formation of a medium-range dielectric order (on a scale much larger than the interatomic one) due to electron-electron correlations and to scattering by an impurity in a system near a phase transition into a long-range order state is solved by a microscopic approach. It is shown that for a weak impurity potential the effect of medium-range order formation is stronger than the effect of long-range order suppression related to scattering by an impurity. The influence of medium-range order on the one-particle excitation spectrum and on the density of states is considered. It is found that since the medium-range order in a system is due to correlations of electron and hole states open-quotes coupledclose quotes by a continuous set of inhomogeneity vectors (in contrast to the long-range order formed on a discrete set of such vectors), the density of states varies on an energy scale determined by the mean absolute value of these vectors. Therefore in a system undergoing phase transition into an inhomogeneous state with the modulus q 0 of inhomogeneity vectors the medium-range order forms in the density of states a pseudogap of scale length v F q 0 (v F is the Fermi velocity). This distinguishes such a system substantially from one, which tends to a phase transition into a homogeneous state (q 0 ≡0), where the medium-range order forms a pseudogap of scale length v F /ξ much-lt v F q 0 (ξ is the correlation length). The possible role of medium dielectric order effects in high-T c superconductors is discussed. 30 refs., 6 figs

  15. Range-Image Acquisition for Discriminated Objects in a Range-gated Robot Vision System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Yong-Jin; Park, Nak-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The imaging capability of a surveillance vision system from harsh low-visibility environments such as in fire and detonation areas is a key function to monitor the safety of the facilities. 2D and range image data acquired from low-visibility environment are important data to assess the safety and prepare appropriate countermeasures. Passive vision systems, such as conventional camera and binocular stereo vision systems usually cannot acquire image information when the reflected light is highly scattered and absorbed by airborne particles such as fog. In addition, the image resolution captured through low-density airborne particles is decreased because the image is blurred and dimmed by the scattering, emission and absorption. Active vision systems, such as structured light vision and projected stereo vision are usually more robust for harsh environment than passive vision systems. However, the performance is considerably decreased in proportion to the density of the particles. The RGI system provides 2D and range image data from several RGI images and it moreover provides clear images from low-visibility fog and smoke environment by using the sum of time-sliced images. Nowadays, the Range-gated (RG) imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security applications, especially in the visualization of invisible night and fog environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is, nowadays becoming more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies. Especially, this system can be adopted in robot-vision system by virtue of its compact portable configuration. In contrast to passive vision systems, this technology enables operation even in harsh environments like fog and smoke. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been

  16. Range-Image Acquisition for Discriminated Objects in a Range-gated Robot Vision System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Yong-Jin; Park, Nak-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    The imaging capability of a surveillance vision system from harsh low-visibility environments such as in fire and detonation areas is a key function to monitor the safety of the facilities. 2D and range image data acquired from low-visibility environment are important data to assess the safety and prepare appropriate countermeasures. Passive vision systems, such as conventional camera and binocular stereo vision systems usually cannot acquire image information when the reflected light is highly scattered and absorbed by airborne particles such as fog. In addition, the image resolution captured through low-density airborne particles is decreased because the image is blurred and dimmed by the scattering, emission and absorption. Active vision systems, such as structured light vision and projected stereo vision are usually more robust for harsh environment than passive vision systems. However, the performance is considerably decreased in proportion to the density of the particles. The RGI system provides 2D and range image data from several RGI images and it moreover provides clear images from low-visibility fog and smoke environment by using the sum of time-sliced images. Nowadays, the Range-gated (RG) imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security applications, especially in the visualization of invisible night and fog environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is, nowadays becoming more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies. Especially, this system can be adopted in robot-vision system by virtue of its compact portable configuration. In contrast to passive vision systems, this technology enables operation even in harsh environments like fog and smoke. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been

  17. Super liquid density target designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Y.L.; Bailey, D.S.

    1976-01-01

    The success of laser fusion depends on obtaining near isentropic compression of fuel to very high densities and igniting this fuel. To date, the results of laser fusion experiments have been based mainly on the exploding pusher implosion of fusion capsules consisting of thin glass microballoons (wall thickness of less than 1 micron) filled with low density DT gas (initial density of a few mg/cc). Maximum DT densities of a few tenths of g/cc and temperatures of a few keV have been achieved in these experiments. We will discuss the results of LASNEX target design calculations for targets which: (a) can compress fuel to much higher densities using the capabilities of existing Nd-glass systems at LLL; (b) allow experimental measurement of the peak fuel density achieved

  18. Gamma densitometer for measuring Pu density in fuel tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, W.G.

    1982-01-01

    A fuel-gamma-densitometer (FGD) has been developed to examine nondestructively the uniformity of plutonium in aluminum-clad fuel tubes at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The monitoring technique is γ-ray spectroscopy with a lead-collimated Ge(Li) detector. Plutonium density is correlated with the measured intensity of the 208 keV γ-ray from 237 U (7d) of the 241 Pu (15y) decay chain. The FGD measures the plutonium density within 0.125- or 0.25-inch-diameter areas of the 0.133- to 0.183-inch-thick tube walls. Each measurement yields a density ratio that relates the plutonium density of the measured area to the plutonium density in normal regions of the tube. The technique was used to appraise a series of fuel tubes to be irradated in an SRP reactor. High-density plutonium areas were initially identified by x-ray methods and then examined quantitatively with the FGD. The FGD reliably tested fuel tubes and yielded density ratios over a range of 0.0 to 2.5. FGD measurements examined (1) nonuniform plutonium densities or hot spots, (2) uniform high-density patches, and (3) plutonium density distribution in thin cladding regions. Measurements for tubes with known plutonium density agreed with predictions to within 2%. Attenuation measurements of the 208-keV γ-ray passage through the tube walls agreed to within 2 to 3% of calculated predictions. Collimator leakage measurements agreed with model calculations that predicted less than a 1.5% effect on plutonium density ratios. Finally, FGD measurements correlated well with x-ray transmission and fluoroscopic measurements. The data analysis for density ratios involved a small correction of about 10% for γ-shielding within the fuel tube. For hot spot examinations, limited information for this correction dictated a density ratio uncertainty of 3 to 5%

  19. High energy density asymmetric supercapacitors with a nickel oxide nanoflake cathode and a 3D reduced graphene oxide anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Feng; Wang, Gongming; Ling, Yichuan; Lu, Xihong; Wang, Hanyu; Tong, Yexiang; Liu, Xiao-Xia; Li, Yat

    2013-08-01

    Here we demonstrate a high energy density asymmetric supercapacitor with nickel oxide nanoflake arrays as the cathode and reduced graphene oxide as the anode. Nickel oxide nanoflake arrays were synthesized on a flexible carbon cloth substrate using a seed-mediated hydrothermal method. The reduced graphene oxide sheets were deposited on three-dimensional (3D) nickel foam by hydrothermal treatment of nickel foam in graphene oxide solution. The nanostructured electrodes provide a large effective surface area. The asymmetric supercapacitor device operates with a voltage of 1.7 V and achieved a remarkable areal capacitance of 248 mF cm-2 (specific capacitance of 50 F g-1) at a charge/discharge current density of 1 mA cm-2 and a maximum energy density of 39.9 W h kg-1 (based on the total mass of active materials of 5.0 mg). Furthermore, the device showed an excellent charge/discharge cycling performance in 1.0 M KOH electrolyte at a current density of 5 mA cm-2, with a capacitance retention of 95% after 3000 cycles.

  20. High energy density asymmetric supercapacitors with a nickel oxide nanoflake cathode and a 3D reduced graphene oxide anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Feng; Wang, Gongming; Ling, Yichuan; Lu, Xihong; Wang, Hanyu; Tong, Yexiang; Liu, Xiao-Xia; Li, Yat

    2013-09-07

    Here we demonstrate a high energy density asymmetric supercapacitor with nickel oxide nanoflake arrays as the cathode and reduced graphene oxide as the anode. Nickel oxide nanoflake arrays were synthesized on a flexible carbon cloth substrate using a seed-mediated hydrothermal method. The reduced graphene oxide sheets were deposited on three-dimensional (3D) nickel foam by hydrothermal treatment of nickel foam in graphene oxide solution. The nanostructured electrodes provide a large effective surface area. The asymmetric supercapacitor device operates with a voltage of 1.7 V and achieved a remarkable areal capacitance of 248 mF cm(-2) (specific capacitance of 50 F g(-1)) at a charge/discharge current density of 1 mA cm(-2) and a maximum energy density of 39.9 W h kg(-1) (based on the total mass of active materials of 5.0 mg). Furthermore, the device showed an excellent charge/discharge cycling performance in 1.0 M KOH electrolyte at a current density of 5 mA cm(-2), with a capacitance retention of 95% after 3000 cycles.

  1. High Power Density Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing concerns of global warming, the need for pollution-free vehicles is ever increasing. Pollution-free flight is one of NASA's goals for the 21" Century. , One method of approaching that goal is hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbo- generators to develop electric power that can drive electric motors that turn the aircraft's propulsive fans or propellers. Hydrogen fuel would likely be carried as a liquid, stored in tanks at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are far too heavy (for a given horsepower) to use on aircraft. Fortunately the liquid hydrogen fuel can provide essentially free refrigeration that can be used to cool the windings of motors before the hydrogen is used for fuel. Either High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) or high purity metals such as copper or aluminum may be used in the motor windings. Superconductors have essentially zero electrical resistance to steady current. The electrical resistance of high purity aluminum or copper near liquid hydrogen temperature can be l/lOO* or less of the room temperature resistance. These conductors could provide higher motor efficiency than normal room-temperature motors achieve. But much more importantly, these conductors can carry ten to a hundred times more current than copper conductors do in normal motors operating at room temperature. This is a consequence of the low electrical resistance and of good heat transfer coefficients in boiling LH2. Thus the conductors can produce higher magnetic field strengths and consequently higher motor torque and power. Designs, analysis and actual cryogenic motor tests show that such cryogenic motors could produce three or more times as much power per unit weight as turbine engines can, whereas conventional motors produce only 1/5 as much power per weight as turbine engines. This summer work has been done with Litz wire to maximize the current density. The current is limited by the amount of heat it

  2. KERNELHR: A program for estimating animal home ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, D.E.; Griffith, B.; Powell, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Kernel methods are state of the art for estimating animal home-range area and utilization distribution (UD). The KERNELHR program was developed to provide researchers and managers a tool to implement this extremely flexible set of methods with many variants. KERNELHR runs interactively or from the command line on any personal computer (PC) running DOS. KERNELHR provides output of fixed and adaptive kernel home-range estimates, as well as density values in a format suitable for in-depth statistical and spatial analyses. An additional package of programs creates contour files for plotting in geographic information systems (GIS) and estimates core areas of ranges.

  3. Chronic subdural hematoma fluid and its computerized tomographic density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuzawa, Hideaki; Sato, Jinichi; Kamitani, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Midori

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory and in vivo CT analysis were performed on 19 chronic subdural hematomas and five subdural hygromas. In these 25 hematoma samples, red blood cells (RBC), hematocrit, and hemoglobin (Hgb) varied greatly, though, these values correlated well with the CT densities. Plasma protein content was fairly constant with an average of 7.1+-0.8g/dl. There were four hematoma samples with RBC of less than 20x10 4 μl or Hgb of less than 2.0g/dl. Their CT values ranged between 18 and 23 H.U., which were considered close to the in vivo serum level CT density. Five hygroma fluid showed no RBC and very little protein content of less than 0.4g/dl. CT density ranged between -2 and 13 H.U. The edge effect of the skull was experimentally studied using a phantom skull filled with water. This revealed a remarkable overshoot of the CT values within ten pixels from the inner wall of the skull. Visual observation of the original CT pictures revealed four low density hematomas and seven mixed density ones. When compared to the density of the ventricular cavity, all of the low density hematomas and the supernatant part of the mixed density ones were clearly higher in density. All five hygromas appeared CSF dense or lower. In conclusion, because of the edge effect by the skull, thin subdural fluids could not be diagnosed by CT alone. Thick subdural fluids could be differentiated as either hematoma or hygroma by their CT densities. Subdural hematomas had in vivo CT densities of at least serum level or approximately 20 H.U., while subdural hygromas had densities close to CSF. These characteristics were best appreciated by visual observation of the CT scan films. (J.P.N.)

  4. Microfabricated pseudocapacitors using Ni(OH)2 electrodes exhibit remarkable volumetric capacitance and energy density

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2014-09-10

    Metal hydroxide based microfabricated pseudocapacitors with impressive volumetric stack capacitance and energy density are demonstrated. A combination of top-down photolithographic process and bottom-up chemical synthesis is employed to fabricate the micro-pseudocapacitors (μ-pseudocapacitors). The resulting Ni(OH)2-based devices show several excellent characteristics including high-rate redox activity up to 500 V s-1 and an areal cell capacitance of 16 mF cm-2 corresponding to a volumetric stack capacitance of 325 F cm-3. This volumetric capacitance is two-fold higher than carbon and metal oxide based μ-supercapacitors with interdigitated electrode architecture. Furthermore, these μ-pseudocapacitors show a maximum energy density of 21 mWh cm-3, which is superior to the Li-based thin film batteries. The heterogeneous growth of Ni(OH)2 over the Ni surface during the chemical bath deposition is found to be the key parameter in the formation of uniform monolithic Ni(OH)2 mesoporous nanosheets with vertical orientation, responsible for the remarkable properties of the fabricated devices. Additionally, functional tandem configurations of the μ-pseudocapacitors are shown to be capable of powering a light-emitting diode.

  5. Density functionals from deep learning

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Density-functional theory is a formally exact description of a many-body quantum system in terms of its density; in practice, however, approximations to the universal density functional are required. In this work, a model based on deep learning is developed to approximate this functional. Deep learning allows computational models that are capable of naturally discovering intricate structure in large and/or high-dimensional data sets, with multiple levels of abstraction. As no assumptions are ...

  6. Transition densities with electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisenberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the ground state and transition charge densities in nuclei via electron scattering. Using electrons as a spectroscopic tool in nuclear physics, these transition densities can be determined with high precision, also in the nuclear interior. These densities generally ask for a microscopic interpretation in terms of contributions from individual nucleons. The results for single particle transitions confirm the picture of particle-phonon coupling. (Auth.)

  7. Sets with Prescribed Arithmetic Densities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luca, F.; Pomerance, C.; Porubský, Štefan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 2 (2008), s. 67-80 ISSN 1336-913X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/07/0191 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : generalized arithmetic density * generalized asymptotic density * generalized logarithmic density * arithmetical semigroup * weighted arithmetic mean * ratio set * R-dense set * Axiom A * delta-regularly varying function Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  8. Precision Orbit Derived Atmospheric Density: Development and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, C.; Hiatt, A.; Lechtenberg, T.; Fattig, E.; Mehta, P.

    2012-09-01

    Precision orbit ephemerides (POE) are used to estimate atmospheric density along the orbits of CHAMP (Challenging Minisatellite Payload) and GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment). The densities are calibrated against accelerometer derived densities and considering ballistic coefficient estimation results. The 14-hour density solutions are stitched together using a linear weighted blending technique to obtain continuous solutions over the entire mission life of CHAMP and through 2011 for GRACE. POE derived densities outperform the High Accuracy Satellite Drag Model (HASDM), Jacchia 71 model, and NRLMSISE-2000 model densities when comparing cross correlation and RMS with accelerometer derived densities. Drag is the largest error source for estimating and predicting orbits for low Earth orbit satellites. This is one of the major areas that should be addressed to improve overall space surveillance capabilities; in particular, catalog maintenance. Generally, density is the largest error source in satellite drag calculations and current empirical density models such as Jacchia 71 and NRLMSISE-2000 have significant errors. Dynamic calibration of the atmosphere (DCA) has provided measurable improvements to the empirical density models and accelerometer derived densities of extremely high precision are available for a few satellites. However, DCA generally relies on observations of limited accuracy and accelerometer derived densities are extremely limited in terms of measurement coverage at any given time. The goal of this research is to provide an additional data source using satellites that have precision orbits available using Global Positioning System measurements and/or satellite laser ranging. These measurements strike a balance between the global coverage provided by DCA and the precise measurements of accelerometers. The temporal resolution of the POE derived density estimates is around 20-30 minutes, which is significantly worse than that of accelerometer

  9. Thermospheric density and satellite drag modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Piyush Mukesh

    GRACE satellites. Moving toward accurate atmospheric models and absolute densities requires physics based models for CD. Closed-form solutions of CD have been developed and exist for a handful of simple geometries (flat plate, sphere, and cylinder). However, for complex geometries, the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is an important tool for developing CD models. DSMC is computationally intensive and real-time simulations for CD are not feasible. Therefore, parameterized models for CD are required. Modeling CD for an RSO requires knowledge of the gas-surface interaction (GSI) that defines the manner in which the atmospheric particles exchange momentum and energy with the surface. The momentum and energy exchange is further influenced by likely adsorption of atomic oxygen that may partially or completely cover the surface. An important parameter that characterizes the GSI is the energy accommodation coefficient, α. An innovative and state-of-the-art technique of developing parameterized drag coefficient models is presented and validated using the GRACE satellite. The effect of gas-surface interactions on physical drag coefficients is examined. An attempt to reveal the nature of gas-surface interactions at altitudes above 500 km is made using the STELLA satellite. A model that can accurately estimate CD has the potential to: (i) reduce the sources of uncertainty in the drag model, (ii) improve density estimates by resolving time-varying biases and moving toward absolute densities, and (iii) increase data sources for density estimation by allowing for the use of a wide range of RSOs as information sources. Results from this work have the potential to significantly improve the accuracy of conjunction analysis and SSA.

  10. Histogram Estimators of Bivariate Densities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Husemann, Joyce A

    1986-01-01

    One-dimensional fixed-interval histogram estimators of univariate probability density functions are less efficient than the analogous variable-interval estimators which are constructed from intervals...

  11. Importing low-density ideas to high-density revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnholtz, Jens; Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Ibsen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Why did union officials from a high-union-density country like Denmark choose to import an organising strategy from low-density countries such as the US and the UK? Drawing on in-depth interviews with key union officials and internal documents, the authors of this article argue two key points. Fi...

  12. Wide range neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Yorimasa; Fukushima, Toshiki.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a wide range neutron-flux monitor adapted such that the flux monitoring function and alarming function can automatically by shifted from pulse counting system to cambel method system. Constitution: A wide range neutron-flux monitor comprises (la) pulse counting system and (lb) cambel-method system for inputting detection signals from neutron detectors and separating them into signals for the pulse measuring system and the cambel measuring system, (2) overlap detection and calculation circuit for detecting the existence of the overlap of two output signals from the (la) and (lb) systems, and (3) trip circuit for judging the abnormal state of neutron detectors upon input of the detection signals. (Seki, T.)

  13. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-01-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC. PMID:22467369

  14. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC.

  15. Density separation of boron particles. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.

    1980-04-01

    A density distribution much broader than expected was observed in lots of natural boron powder supplied by two different sources. The material in both lots was found to have a rhombohedral crystal structure, and the only other parameters which seemed to account for such a distribution were impurities within the crystal structure and varying isotopic ratios. A separation technique was established to isolate boron particles in narrow densty ranges. The isolated fractions were subsequently analyzed for B 10 and total boron content in an effort to determine whether selective isotopic enrichment and nonhomogeneous impurity distribution were the causes for the broad density distribution of the boron powders. It was found that although the B 10 content remained nearly constant around 18%, the total boron content varied from 37.5 to 98.7%. One of the lots also was found to contain an apparently high level of alpha rhombohedral boron which broadened the density distribution considerably. During this work, a capability for removing boron particles containing gross amounts of impurities and, thereby, improving the overall purity of the remaining material was developed. In addition, the separation technique used in this study apparently isolated particles with alpha and beta rhombohedral crystal structures, although the only supporting evidence is density data

  16. On the density limit of Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1982-12-01

    Under the conditions of so far performed quasi-steady tokamak experiments near the density limit, the plasma pressure gradient in the outer layers of the plasma body becomes mainly determined by the plasma-neutral gas balance. An earlier analysis of ballooning instabilities driven by this gradient in regions of bad curvature has been extended to deduce an explicit stability criterion which determines the density limit. This criterion is closely related to the empirical Murakami limit. At relevant tokamak data, the deduced limit becomes proportional to J(sub)zR(sup)1/2 where J(sub)z is the average current density and R the major plasma radius. It is further found to be independent of the toroidal magnetic field strength and anomalous transport, as well as to be a slow function of the outer layer temperature and the mass number. The deduced stability criterion is consistent with so far performed experiments. Provided that the present analysis can be extrapolated to a wider range of parameter data and be combined with Alcator scaling, conditions near ignition appear to become realizable in small tokamaks by ohmic heating alone. These conditions can be satisfied at relevant magnetic field strengths and plasma currents, by imposing a high plasma current density. (author)

  17. Laser fusion and high energy density science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Ryosuke

    2005-01-01

    High-power laser technology is now opening a variety of new fields of science and technology using laser-produced plasmas. The laser plasma is now recognized as one of the important tools for the investigation and application of matter under extreme conditions, which is called high energy density science. This chapter shows a variety of applications of laser-produced plasmas as high energy density science. One of the more attractive industrial and science applications is the generation of intense pulse-radiation sources, such as the generation of electro-magnetic waves in the ranges of EUV (Extreme Ultra Violet) to gamma rays and laser acceleration of charged particles. The laser plasma is used as an energy converter in this regime. The fundamental science applications of high energy density physics are shown by introducing laboratory astrophysics, the equation of state of high pressure matter, including warm dense matter and nuclear science. Other applications are also presented, such as femto-second laser propulsion and light guiding. Finally, a new systematization is proposed to explore the possibility of the high energy density plasma application, which is called high energy plasma photonics''. This is also exploration of the boundary regions between laser technology and beam optics based on plasma physics. (author)

  18. Short-range communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  19. Wide range neutron detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todt, W.H. Sr.

    1978-01-01

    A neutron detection system for reactor control is described which is operable over a wide range of neutron flux levels. The system includes a fission type ionization chamber neutron detector, means for gamma and alpha signal compensation, and means for operating the neutron detector in the pulse counting mode for low neutron flux levels, and in the direct current mode for high neutron flux levels

  20. Long Range Aircraft Trajectory Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Magister, Tone

    2009-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the improvement of the aircraft future trajectory prediction accuracy for long-range airborne separation assurance. The strategic planning of safe aircraft flights and effective conflict avoidance tactics demand timely and accurate conflict detection based upon future four–dimensional airborne traffic situation prediction which is as accurate as each aircraft flight trajectory prediction. The improved kinematics model of aircraft relative flight considering flight ...