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Sample records for mexico production delay

  1. Delays in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in Coahuila, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, J; Calvillo, S; Caylà, J; Nedel, F B; Martín, M; Navarro, A

    2012-09-01

    To determine diagnostic delay in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases and analyse associated factors. New PTB cases were studied in Coahuila, Northern Mexico, between 2008 and 2009. We obtained census data and data on residential address, symptoms and diagnosis from the national patient database; sociodemographic variables were obtained during home visits. Bivariate analyses used the Kaplan-Meier method; multivariate analysis consisted of modelling survival. We studied 458 subjects (median age 48 years), who were predominantly males (56.1%); the median years of schooling was 6.0 years, 83.4% were urban residents, 50.3% were unemployed, and 87.7% suffered from food poverty. The median delay between the onset of symptoms and the first medical consultation was 53.5 days. Lack of formal education (P = 0.050) and living ≥5 km from a health unit (P = 0.034) were associated with longer delays and consequently with severe symptoms (cough ≥2 weeks, P = 0.001; chest pain, P = 0.032; malnutrition, P = 0.003). Mean health system delay (between first consultation and smear test result) was 18.5 days, and was significantly longer when the first consultation was with a private physician (P < 0.001) and when patient age was ≥46 years (P = 0.001). In Coahuila, lack of formal education, living ≥5 km from a health unit, first consultation with a private physician, and being aged ≥46 years contributed to delays in PTB diagnosis.

  2. Sustainability analysis of agave production in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibarrola Rivas, Maria Jose

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide food production is done in different types of agricultural production systems. The main difference is whether it is an intensive or extensive system. The agave production in Mexico has been developed in these two different ways. Firstly, agave f

  3. Renewable energy for productive uses in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanley, C.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a USAID/USDOE sponsored program to implement renewable energy in Mexico for productive uses. The objectives are to expand markets for US and Mexican industries, and to combat global climate change - primarily greenhouse gas emissions. The focus is on off-grid applications, with an emphasis on developing the institution structure to support the development of these industries within the country. Agricultural development is an example of the type of industry approached, where photovoltaic and wind power can be used for water pumping. There are hundreds of projects under review, and this interest has put renewables as a line item in Mexico`s rural development budget. Village power projects are being considered in the form of utility partnerships.

  4. Gulf of Mexico production still recovering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the extent of damage caused by Hurricane Andrew to Gulf of Mexico oil and gas installations continues coming into focus. A preliminary tally by Minerals Management Service offers a reasonably complete summary of gulf production and pipeline systems damage detectable at the surface. MMS requires Outer Continental Shelf operators to inspect for underwater damage all platforms, pipelines, risers, and other structures within an 85 mile corridor along the path of Andrew's eye as it churned through the gulf. OCS operators have until Oct. 16 to submit plans for the Level II surveys

  5. Energy scenarios for hydrogen production in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega V, E.; Francois L, J. L.

    2009-10-01

    The hydrogen is a clean and very efficient fuel, its combustion does not produce gases of greenhouse effect, ozone precursors and residual acids. Also the hydrogen produced by friendly energy sources with the environment like nuclear energy could help to solve the global problems that it confronts the energy at present time. Presently work fuel cycles of hydrogen production technologies in Mexico are judged, by means of a structured methodology in the concept of sustainable development in its social, economic and environmental dimensions. The methodology is divided in three scenarios: base, Outlook 2030 and capture of CO 2 . The first scenario makes reference to cycles analysis in a current context for Mexico, the second taking in account the demand projections reported by the IAEA in its report Outlook and the third scenario, capture of CO 2 , the technologies are analyzed supposing a reduction in capture costs of 75%. Each scenario also has four cases (base, social, environmental and economic) by means of which the cycles are analyzed in the dimensions of sustainable development. For scenarios base and capture, results show that combination nuclear energy- reformed of gas it is the best alternative for cases base and economic. For social case, the evaluated better technology is the hydraulics, and for environmental case, the best option is represented by the regenerative thermochemistry cycles. The scenario Outlook 2030 show a favorable tendency of growth of renewable sources, being the aeolian energy the best technology evaluated in the cases base and environmental, the hydraulics technology in the social case and in the economic case the reformed of natural gas that uses nuclear heat. (Author)

  6. Determining the Feasibility of Yellow Corn Production in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia, Maria; Peel, Derrell S.

    2009-01-01

    Mexico produces large quantities of white corn for human consumption. Yellow corn production, mostly used for feed, has increased lately. Driving factors include higher domestic demand (growing livestock industry) and greater international demand (ethanol industry). This study uses enterprise budgeting to determine the feasibility of producing yellow corn in Mexico.

  7. Gendered histories: garment production and migration in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    F Wilson

    1999-01-01

    The author's impetus to write this paper stems from reflections on the history of clothing production in a mosaic of localities in western-central Mexico. In the 1990s, in addition to generating the largest flows of, mostly male, transnational migrants, these areas have become the most important garment producers in Mexico. Exploring the interconnectedness of industrial change, gendered patterns of migration, and gendered relations of production, the author provides a short history of garment...

  8. Modelling the Costs and Benefits of Delayed Product Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hau L. Lee; Christopher S. Tang

    1997-01-01

    Expanding product variety and high customer service provision are both major challenges for manufacturers to compete in the global market. In addition to many ongoing programs, such as lead-time reduction, redesigning products and processes so as to delay the point of product differentiation is becoming an emerging means to address these challenges. Such a strategy calls for redesigning products and processes so that the stages of the production process in which a common process is used are p...

  9. Scheduling Production Orders, Taking into Account Delays and Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylewski Robert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the problem of determining the sequence of entering orders for production in a flexible manufacturing system implementing technological operations of cutting sheet metal. Adopting a specific ranking of production orders gives rise to the vector of delays and waste in the form of incompletely used sheets. A new method was postulated for determining the optimal sequence of orders in terms of two criteria: the total cost of delays and the amount of production waste. The examples illustrate the advantages of the proposed method compared with the popular heuristic principles.

  10. A scheme to expand the delay-bandwidth product in the resonator-based delay lines by optical OFDM technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiangbo; Tao, Li; Zhang, Ziran

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme to expand the inherent limit in the product of the optical delay and the transmission bandwidth in resonator-based delay lines, with the optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OOFDM) technique. The optical group delay properties of a single ring resonator we...

  11. Misidentification of Yersinia pestis by automated systems, resulting in delayed diagnoses of human plague infections--Oregon and New Mexico, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourdjman, Mathieu; Ibraheem, Mam; Brett, Meghan; Debess, Emilio; Progulske, Barbara; Ettestad, Paul; McGivern, Teresa; Petersen, Jeannine; Mead, Paul

    2012-10-01

    One human plague case was reported in Oregon in September 2010 and another in New Mexico in May 2011. Misidentification of Yersinia pestis by automated identification systems contributed to delayed diagnoses for both cases.

  12. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Leslie

    The text explores Mexico's history, geography, art, religion, and lifestyles in the context of its complex economy. The text focuses on Mexico's economy and reasons for its current situation. Part I of this teaching unit includes: Teacher Overview, Why Study Mexico, Mexico Fact Sheet, Map of Mexico, the Land and Climate, History, Government,…

  13. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US. The 1992 population is estimated at 89 million of which 60% are mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% are American Indian, 9% are Caucasian, and 1% are other. 90% are Roman Catholic. There are 8 years of compulsory education. Infant mortality is 30/1000 live births. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females. The labor force is comprised of 30% in services, 24% in agriculture and fishing, 19% in manufacturing, 13% in commerce, 7% in construction, 4% in transportation and communication, and .4% in mining. There are 31 states and a federal district. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $3200 in 1991. Military expenditures were .5% of GDP in 1991. The average inflation rate is 19%. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3.6% in 1991 from 2% in 1987. Dependence on oil exports has decreased. There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of .8% in 1992. Mexico's foreign debt has been reduced from its high in 1987 of $107 billion. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly. Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations.

  14. Delayed nonlinear cournot and bertrand dynamics with product differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Akio; Szidarovszky, Ferenc

    2007-07-01

    Dynamic duopolies will be examined with product differentiation and isoelastic price functions. We will first prove that under realistic conditions the equilibrium is always locally asymptotically stable. The stability can however be lost if the firms use delayed information in forming their best responses. Stability conditions are derived in special cases, and simulation results illustrate the complexity of the dynamism of the systems. Both price and quantity adjusting models are discussed.

  15. Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes the key energy data for Mexico: 1 - energy organizations and policy: Ministry of energy (SENER), Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE), Ministry of Finances, Ministry of trade and industrial development (SECOFI), national commission for energy savings (CONAE); 2 - companies: federal commission of electricity (CFE), Minera Carbonifera Rio Escondido (MICARE - coal), Pemex (petroleum); 3 - energy production: resources, electric power, petroleum, natural gas; 4 - energy consumption; 5 - stakes and perspectives. Some economic and energy indicators are summarized in a series of tables: general indicators, supply indicators (reserves, refining and electric capacity, energy production, foreign trade), demand indicators (consumption trends, end use, energy independence, energy efficiency, CO 2 emissions), energy status per year and per energy source. (J.S.)

  16. Hydrogen production through nuclear energy, a sustainable scenario in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega V, E.; Francois L, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    The energy is a key point in the social and economic development of a country, for such motive to assure the energy supply in Mexico it is of vital importance. The hydrogen it is without a doubt some one of the alternating promising fuels before the visible one necessity to decentralize the energy production based on hydrocarbons. The versatility of their applications, it high heating power and having with the more clean fuel cycle of the energy basket with which count at the moment, they are only some examples of their development potential. However the more abundant element of the universe it is not in their elementary form in our planet, it forms molecules like in the hydrocarbons or water and it stops their use it should be extracted. At the present time different methods are known for the extraction of hydrogen, there is thermal, electric, chemical, photovoltaic among others. The election of the extraction method and the primary energy source to carry out it are decisive to judge the sustainability of the hydrogen production. The sustainable development is defined as development that covers the present necessities without committing the necessity to cover the necessities of the future generations, and in the mark of this definition four indicators of the sustainable development of the different cycles of fuel were evaluated in the hydrogen production in Mexico. These indicators take in consideration the emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (environment), the readiness of the energy resources (technology), the impacts in the floor use (social) and the production costs of the cycles (economy). In this work the processes were studied at the moment available for the generation of hydrogen, those that use coal, natural gas, hydraulic, eolic energy, biomass and nuclear, as primary energy sources. These processes were evaluated with energy references of Mexico to obtain the best alternative for hydrogen production. (Author)

  17. Barriers and Explanatory Mechanisms of Delays in the Patient and Diagnosis Intervals of Care for Breast Cancer in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Ventosa-Santaulària, Daniel; Miranda, Alfonso; Verduzco-Bustos, Guillermo

    2018-04-01

    Most breast cancer patients in low- and middle-income settings are diagnosed at advanced stages due to lengthy intervals of care. This study aimed to understand the mechanisms through which delays occur in the patient interval and diagnosis interval of care. We conducted a cross-sectional survey including 886 patients referred to four major public cancer hospitals in Mexico City. Based in a conceptual model of help-seeking behavior, a path analysis strategy was used to identify the relationships between explanatory factors of patient delay and diagnosis delay. The patient and the diagnosis intervals were greater than 3 months in 20% and 65% of participants, respectively. We present explanatory models for each interval and the interrelationship between the associated factors. The patient interval was longer among women who were single, interpreted their symptoms as not worrisome, concealed symptoms, and perceived a lack of financial resources and the difficulty of missing a day of work as barriers to seek care. These barriers were more commonly perceived among patients who were younger, had lower socioeconomic status, and lived outside of Mexico City. The diagnosis interval was longer among those who used several different health services prior to the cancer hospital and perceived medical errors in these services. More health services were used among those who perceived errors and long waiting times for appointments, and who first consulted private services. Our findings support the relevance of strengthening early cancer diagnosis strategies, especially the improvement of quality of primary care and expedited referral routes to cancer services. This study's findings suggest that policy in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) should be directed toward reducing delays in diagnosis, before the implementation of mammography screening programs. The results suggest several factors susceptible to early diagnosis interventions. To reduce patient delays, the usually

  18. Real-Time Tropospheric Delay Estimation using IGS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürze, Andrea; Liu, Sha; Söhne, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    The Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) routinely provides zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) parameter for the assimilation in numerical weather models since more than 10 years. Up to now the results flowing into the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) or E-GVAP (EUMETNET EIG GNSS water vapour programme) analysis are based on batch processing of GPS+GLONASS observations in differential network mode. For the recently started COST Action ES1206 about "Advanced Global Navigation Satellite Systems tropospheric products for monitoring severe weather events and climate" (GNSS4SWEC), however, rapid updates in the analysis of the atmospheric state for nowcasting applications require changing the processing strategy towards real-time. In the RTCM SC104 (Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services, Special Committee 104) a format combining the advantages of Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) is under development. The so-called State Space Representation approach is defining corrections, which will be transferred in real-time to the user e.g. via NTRIP (Network Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol). Meanwhile messages for precise orbits, satellite clocks and code biases compatible to the basic PPP mode using IGS products are defined. Consequently, the IGS Real-Time Service (RTS) was launched in 2013 in order to extend the well-known precise orbit and clock products by a real-time component. Further messages e.g. with respect to ionosphere or phase biases are foreseen. Depending on the level of refinement, so different accuracies up to the RTK level shall be reachable. In co-operation of BKG and the Technical University of Darmstadt the real-time software GEMon (GREF EUREF Monitoring) is under development. GEMon is able to process GPS and GLONASS observation and RTS product data streams in PPP mode. Furthermore, several state-of-the-art troposphere models, for example based on numerical weather prediction data, are implemented. Hence, it

  19. Petroleum drilling and production operations in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    Decades of offshore and inland petroleum drilling and production in the Gulf of Mexico and on the Gulf Coast have provided the much needed energy and chemical feedstocks to the nation, and also have made an impact on the environment in the area. Our study showed deposits of contaminated sediment on the ocean floor around offshore platforms, old reserve pits, and dump sites next to many surface facilities and compressor stations. The substances found on the ocean floor and in dump sites are simple or emulsified mixtures of silt, hydrocarbons, and water. The cleaning of the ocean floor and pits is an economic and technical challenge. Hydrocarbons are from crude oil and chemical additions fro various operational necessities, including additions of biocides, corrosion inhibitors, antifreezes, and coagulants. When the new government regulations lower the allowable maximum total organic carbon level to the 50 ppm range, these hydrocarbons can no longer be ignored by drilling and production operators

  20. Energy scenarios for hydrogen production in Mexico; Escenarios energeticos para la produccion de hidrogeno en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega V, E.; Francois L, J. L. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)], e-mail: iqoren@gmail.com

    2009-10-15

    The hydrogen is a clean and very efficient fuel, its combustion does not produce gases of greenhouse effect, ozone precursors and residual acids. Also the hydrogen produced by friendly energy sources with the environment like nuclear energy could help to solve the global problems that it confronts the energy at present time. Presently work fuel cycles of hydrogen production technologies in Mexico are judged, by means of a structured methodology in the concept of sustainable development in its social, economic and environmental dimensions. The methodology is divided in three scenarios: base, Outlook 2030 and capture of CO{sub 2}. The first scenario makes reference to cycles analysis in a current context for Mexico, the second taking in account the demand projections reported by the IAEA in its report Outlook and the third scenario, capture of CO{sub 2}, the technologies are analyzed supposing a reduction in capture costs of 75%. Each scenario also has four cases (base, social, environmental and economic) by means of which the cycles are analyzed in the dimensions of sustainable development. For scenarios base and capture, results show that combination nuclear energy- reformed of gas it is the best alternative for cases base and economic. For social case, the evaluated better technology is the hydraulics, and for environmental case, the best option is represented by the regenerative thermochemistry cycles. The scenario Outlook 2030 show a favorable tendency of growth of renewable sources, being the aeolian energy the best technology evaluated in the cases base and environmental, the hydraulics technology in the social case and in the economic case the reformed of natural gas that uses nuclear heat. (Author)

  1. Modeling methane emissions by cattle production systems in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelan-Ortega, O. A.; Ku Vera, J.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-12-01

    Methane emissions from livestock is one of the largest sources of methane in Mexico. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a realistic estimate of the national inventory of methane produced by the enteric fermentation of cattle, based on an integrated simulation model, and to provide estimates of CH4 produced by cattle fed typical diets from the tropical and temperate climates of Mexico. The Mexican cattle population of 23.3 million heads was divided in two groups. The first group (7.8 million heads), represents cattle of the tropical climate regions. The second group (15.5 million heads), are the cattle in the temperate climate regions. This approach allows incorporating the effect of diet on CH4 production into the analysis because the quality of forages is lower in the tropics than in temperate regions. Cattle population in every group was subdivided into two categories: cows (COW) and other type of cattle (OTHE), which included calves, heifers, steers and bulls. The daily CH4 production by each category of animal along an average production cycle of 365 days was simulated, instead of using a default emission factor as in Tier 1 approach. Daily milk yield, live weight changes associated with the lactation, and dry matter intake, were simulated for the entire production cycle. The Moe and Tyrrell (1979) model was used to simulate CH4 production for the COW category, the linear model of Mills et al. (2003) for the OTHE category in temperate regions and the Kurihara et al. (1999) model for the OTHE category in the tropical regions as it has been developed for cattle fed tropical diets. All models were integrated with a cow submodel to form an Integrated Simulation Model (ISM). The AFRC (1993) equations and the lactation curve model of Morant and Gnanasakthy (1989) were used to construct the cow submodel. The ISM simulates on a daily basis the CH4 production, milk yield, live weight changes associated with lactation and dry matter intake. The total daily CH

  2. Time delays between core power production and external detector response from Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    One primary concern for design of safety systems for reactors is the time response of external detectors to changes in the core. This paper describes a way to estimate the time delay between the core power production and the external detector response using Monte Carlo calculations and suggests a technique to measure the time delay. The Monte Carlo code KENO-NR was used to determine the time delay between the core power production and the external detector response for a conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor. The Monte Carlo estimated time delay was determined to be about 10 ms for this conceptual design of the ANS reactor

  3. Measurement of delayed neutron-emitting fission products in nuclear reactor coolant water during reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The method covers the detection and measurement of delayed neutron-emitting fission products contained in nuclear reactor coolant water while the reactor is operating. The method is limited to the measurement of the delayed neutron-emitting bromine isotope of mass 87 and the delayed neutron-emitting iodine isotope of mass 137. The other delayed neutron-emitting fission products cannot be accurately distinguished from nitrogen 17, which is formed under some reactor conditions by neutron irradiation of the coolant water molecules. The method includes a description of significance, measurement variables, interferences, apparatus, sampling, calibration, standardization, sample measurement procedures, system efficiency determination, calculations, and precision

  4. Modeling the cost of shut-in production and the value of information in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Pulsipher, Allan G.

    2006-01-01

    Weather delay is a common risk in offshore energy production, and in the Gulf of Mexico, the occurrence of tropical storms and hurricanes regularly force operators to shut-down production, cease drilling and construction activities, and evacuate personnel. In physical terms, shutting-in a well will usually not cause a loss of the hydrocarbon resource, but in financial terms, the impact of deferred production can have a significant economic effect. Improved ocean observation systems in the Gulf of Mexico are expected to enhance the reliability and accuracy of hurricane forecasting, lowering the probabilities of false positives, and positively impacting the economic and human life consequences. Improved information reduces risk, and to the extent that operators are risk averse, enhanced information increases welfare. The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodological framework to estimate the cost of shut-in production due to extreme weather, and to provide a first-order lower-bound estimate of the market value of improved weather forecasting. Shut-in production is modeled using various recovery scenarios and valued in terms of the cash flow analysis over the life of the asset. A description of the valuation model and the nature of production recovery is outlined and illustrated through stylized examples. (author)

  5. Lessons Learned from Delayed Versus Immediate Microsurgical Reconstruction of Complex Maxillectomy and Midfacial Defects: Experience in a Tertiary Center in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Eric; de la Concha, Erika

    2016-10-01

    Microsurgical reconstruction of complex midfacial and maxillectomy defects is among the most challenging procedures in plastic surgery, and it often requires composite flaps to improve functional and aesthetic results. Various factors have been identified as having influence in the outcome of microsurgical reconstruction. In this article, the authors present their experience with immediate and delayed reconstruction of complex maxillectomy defects in a tertiary center in Mexico. The authors present a total of 37 patients with microsurgical reconstruction of a complex maxillectomy defect; 13 patients had immediate and 24 had delayed reconstructions. The authors recommend doing immediate reconstruction when feasible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. BLM/OCS Ecological Investigations of Petroleum Production Platforms in the Central Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecological Investigations of Petroleum Production Platforms in the Central Gulf of Mexico Project was conducted by Texas A and M University under contract to...

  7. A polarization independent electromagnetically induced transparency-like metamaterial with large group delay and delay-bandwidth product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagci, Fulya; Akaoglu, Baris

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) that is completely independent of the polarization direction of the incident waves is numerically and experimentally demonstrated. The unit cell of the employed planar symmetric metamaterial structure consists of one square ring resonator and four split ring resonators (SRRs). Two different designs are implemented in order to achieve a narrow-band and wide-band EIT-like response. In the unit cell design, a square ring resonator is shown to serve as a bright resonator, whereas the SRRs behave as a quasi-dark resonator, for the narrow-band (0.55 GHz full-width at half-maximum bandwidth around 5 GHz) and wide-band (1.35 GHz full-width at half-maximum bandwidth around 5.7 GHz) EIT-like metamaterials. The observed EIT-like transmission phenomenon is theoretically explained by a coupled-oscillator model. Within the transmission window, steep changes of the phase result in high group delays and the delay-bandwidth products reach 0.45 for the wide-band EIT-like metamaterial. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the bandwidth and group delay of the EIT-like band can be controlled by changing the incidence angle of electromagnetic waves. These features enable the proposed metamaterials to achieve potential applications in filtering, switching, data storing, and sensing.

  8. Anomalous delayed loss of trapped D-D fusion products in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Mynick, H.E.

    1993-02-01

    A new anomalous delayed loss of D-D fusion products has been measured at the bottom of the TFRR vessel. This loss is delayed by ∼ 0.2 sec with respect to the usual prompt first-orbit loss, and has a correspondingly lower energy, i.e. about half the fusion product birth energy. This loss process dominates the total fusion product loss measured 90 degrees below the midplane for plasma currents. I≥ 1.8 MA and major radii near R=2.45 m, e.g. for recent TFTR supershots. This delayed feature can occur without large coherent MED activity, although it can be strongly modulated by such activity. Several possible causes for this phenomenon are discussed, but no clear explanation for this delayed loss has yet been found

  9. Impact of antiviral treatment and hospital admission delay on risk of death associated with 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic influenza in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowell Gerardo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing our understanding of the factors affecting the severity of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in different regions of the world could lead to improved clinical practice and mitigation strategies for future influenza pandemics. Even though a number of studies have shed light into the risk factors associated with severe outcomes of 2009 A/H1N1 influenza infections in different populations (e.g., [1-5], analyses of the determinants of mortality risk spanning multiple pandemic waves and geographic regions are scarce. Between-country differences in the mortality burden of the 2009 pandemic could be linked to differences in influenza case management, underlying population health, or intrinsic differences in disease transmission [6]. Additional studies elucidating the determinants of disease severity globally are warranted to guide prevention efforts in future influenza pandemics. In Mexico, the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic was characterized by a three-wave pattern occurring in the spring, summer, and fall of 2009 with substantial geographical heterogeneity [7]. A recent study suggests that Mexico experienced high excess mortality burden during the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic relative to other countries [6]. However, an assessment of potential factors that contributed to the relatively high pandemic death toll in Mexico are lacking. Here, we fill this gap by analyzing a large series of laboratory-confirmed A/H1N1 influenza cases, hospitalizations, and deaths monitored by the Mexican Social Security medical system during April 1 through December 31, 2009 in Mexico. In particular, we quantify the association between disease severity, hospital admission delays, and neuraminidase inhibitor use by demographic characteristics, pandemic wave, and geographic regions of Mexico. Methods We analyzed a large series of laboratory-confirmed pandemic A/H1N1 influenza cases from a prospective surveillance system maintained by the

  10. The universal library of fission products and delayed neutron group yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koldobskiy, A.B.; Zhivun, V.M.

    1997-01-01

    A new fission product yield library based on the Semiempirical method for the estimation of their mass and charge distribution is described. Contrary to other compilations, this library can be used with all possible excitation energies of fissionable actinides. The library of delayed neutron group yields, based on the fission product yield compilation, is described as well. (author). 15 refs, 4 tabs

  11. Evaluation of a New Strategy for Attending Takeoffs and Landings to Reduce Aircraft Operating Costs and Passenger Delays at the Mexico City International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera-García Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate a strategy for attending the takeoffs and landings at a congested airport, in order to reduce aircraft operating costs and passenger delay times. The continuous growth of air transport activity has created congestion at major airports worldwide, this situation produces increases in the aircraft operating costs and passenger discomfort. In the strategy evaluated the traditional rule for attending to aircraft, on a first-come-first-served basis, was substituted with a sequence that reduces operating costs and passenger delays. In order to perform this evaluation a discrete-event simulation model was developed for the Mexico City International Airport. Results showed that it is possible to obtain significant benefits if the proposed strategy is applied, an annual benefit of around 28.6 million pesos could be achieved.

  12. Delay times between harvesting or collection of food products and consumption for use in radiological assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A L; Sherwood, J C

    2009-01-01

    From a radiological protection point of view, the inclusion of delay times when carrying out assessments of dose from consumption of foods should be considered. A review of delay times has been carried out to update a report published in 1983, to take account of changes and modernisations in industrial food processes, together with changes in diet and popularity of different foods in the United Kingdom. The new review considered more foods and data for existing foods have been reconsidered to check whether manufacturing processes or procedures have changed the shelf-life of any products. For some foods there have been changes made to the recommended delay times because of changes in manufacture or handling of the fresh foodstuff. A discussion is also included on the appropriate use of delay times in dose assessments.

  13. Residual pyrethroids in fresh horticultural products in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana-Madrid, Maria L; Valenzuela-Quintanar, Ana I; Silveira-Gramont, Maria I; Rodríguez-Olibarría, Guillermo; Grajeda-Cota, Patricia; Zuno-Floriano, Fabiola G; Miller, Marion G

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the presence of cyhialothrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, and deltamethrin in vegetables produced and consumed in Sonora, Mexico. A total of 345 samples were collected from cluster sampling of markets and fields. Approximately 9% of the samples tested positive for pyrethroids (residue range 0.004-0.573 mg kg(-1)). Based on the results, the potential toxicological risk of human exposure to the pyrethroid insecticides measured in vegetables appears to be minimal, with the estimated exposure being 1,000 times lower than admissible levels. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  14. The impact of weather and ocean forecasting on hydrocarbon production and pollution management in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Pulsipher, Allan G.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past 2 years, the vulnerability of offshore production in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has been brought to light by extensive damage to oil and gas facilities and pipelines resulting from Hurricanes Ivan, Katrina, and Rita. The occurrences of extreme weather regularly force operators to shut-down production, cease drilling and construction activities, and evacuate personnel. Loop currents and eddies can also impact offshore operations and delay installation and drilling activities and reduce the effectiveness of oil spill response strategies. The purpose of this paper is to describe how weather and ocean forecasting impact production activities and pollution management in the GOM. Physical outcome and decision models in support of production and development activities and oil spill response management are presented, and the expected economic benefits that may result from the implementation of an integrated ocean observation network in the region are summarized. Improved ocean observation systems are expected to reduce the uncertainty of forecasting and to enhance the value of ocean/weather information throughout the Gulf region. The source of benefits and the size of activity from which improved ocean observation benefits may be derived are estimated for energy development and production activities and oil spill response management

  15. Modelling maintenance practice of production plant using the delay-time concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christer, A.H.; Wang, Wenbin; Baker, R.D.; Sharp, J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present a study carried out for a copper products manufacturing company, developing and applying the delay-time modelling technique to model and thus optimize preventive maintenance (PM) of the plant. A key machine in the plant is used to illustrate the modelling process and

  16. Water quality under intensive banana production and extensive pastureland in tropical Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arya, D.R.; Geissen, V.; Ponce-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Reyes, R.; Becker, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of intensive banana production with high mineral-fertilizer application and of extensive pastures were compared regarding water quality in a lowland region of SE Mexico. We monitored NO, NO, and PO43– concentrations in groundwater (80 m depth), subsurface water (5 m depth), and surface

  17. THE DEMAND FOR PRIVATE PROPERTY RIGHTS: LAND TITLING, CREDIT, AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY IN MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Nancy L.

    1998-01-01

    Land titles can increase agricultural productivity by increasing access to collateralized credit. However, increased credit use depends on the assumption that farmers face asset-based credit rationing. This assumption is tested using data from Mexico's voluntary land titling program. The results do not support the existence of widespread credit rationing.

  18. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geissen, V.; Que Ramos, F.; Bastidas-Bastidas, de P.J.; Díaz-González, G.; Bello-Mendoza, R.; Huerta-Lwanga, E.; Ruiz-Suárez, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn— bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha-1week-1 for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the

  19. Labeling and effectiveness testing; sunscreen drug products for over-the-counter human use; delay of compliance dates. Final rule; delay of compliance dates; request for comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is delaying the compliance dates for the final rule for over-the-counter (OTC) sunscreen drug products that published in the Federal Register of June 17, 2011 (76 FR 35620). The final rule establishes labeling and effectiveness testing for certain OTC sunscreen products containing specified active ingredients and marketed without approved applications. It also amends labeling claims that are not currently supported by data and lifts the previously-published delay of implementation of the Drug Facts labeling requirements for OTC sunscreens. The 2011 final rule's compliance dates are being delayed because information received after publication of the 2011 final rule indicates that full implementation of the 2011 final rule's requirements for all affected products will require an additional 6 months. This final rule is part of FDA's ongoing review of OTC drug products.

  20. Adaptation to delayed auditory feedback induces the temporal recalibration effect in both speech perception and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kosuke; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2014-12-01

    We ordinarily speak fluently, even though our perceptions of our own voices are disrupted by various environmental acoustic properties. The underlying mechanism of speech is supposed to monitor the temporal relationship between speech production and the perception of auditory feedback, as suggested by a reduction in speech fluency when the speaker is exposed to delayed auditory feedback (DAF). While many studies have reported that DAF influences speech motor processing, its relationship to the temporal tuning effect on multimodal integration, or temporal recalibration, remains unclear. We investigated whether the temporal aspects of both speech perception and production change due to adaptation to the delay between the motor sensation and the auditory feedback. This is a well-used method of inducing temporal recalibration. Participants continually read texts with specific DAF times in order to adapt to the delay. Then, they judged the simultaneity between the motor sensation and the vocal feedback. We measured the rates of speech with which participants read the texts in both the exposure and re-exposure phases. We found that exposure to DAF changed both the rate of speech and the simultaneity judgment, that is, participants' speech gained fluency. Although we also found that a delay of 200 ms appeared to be most effective in decreasing the rates of speech and shifting the distribution on the simultaneity judgment, there was no correlation between these measurements. These findings suggest that both speech motor production and multimodal perception are adaptive to temporal lag but are processed in distinct ways.

  1. Possible sources for hydrogen production in Mexico; Posibles fuentes de produccion de hidrogeno en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Esparza Mata, Esther; Perez Garcia, Edgar C. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    In agreement with the Secretaria de Energia, Mexico consumed daily in year 2000, 1.7 millions of oil barrels and according to numbers of PEMEX the proven reserves to December 31 of that year, ascended to 12,312 million barrels, obviously the consumption and the reserves will change through the time, but making a calculation these reserves will be sufficient only for 20 years, on the other hand according to PEMEX Gas y Petroquimica Basica numbers, the present natural gas reserves are sufficient to supply the demand during 22 years, with these data we can have an approximate calculation of 20 years of fossil fuel supply, to this stage we can name it the period of power transition, when this time interval is over we will have an eminent power crisis and it will be necessary to count already on new power alternatives, which have a sustainable development and which will have to be ready at by the end of the next 20 years. One of the most viable alternatives is obtaining energy from hydrogen, this is the most abundant element in the universe, near 75% is constituted by it, but it is not found in pure state in nature. In order to determine certain state it is necessary to investigate about the processes for the hydrogen obtaining, the reforming of natural gas, the natural gas reserves, the natural gas distribution and the integrated gasification. [Spanish] De acuerdo con la Secretaria de Energia, Mexico consumio en el ano 2000, 1.7 millones de barriles diarios de petroleo y segun cifras de PEMEX las reservas probadas al 31 de diciembre de ese ano ascienden a 12,312 millones de barriles, obviamente el consumo y las reservas cambiaran a traves del tiempo, pero haciendo un calculo estas reservas seran suficientes unicamente para 20 anos, por otro lado segun cifras de PEMEX Gas y Petroquimica basica las reservas de gas natural actuales son suficientes para abastecer la demanda durante 22 anos, con estos datos podemos tener un calculo aproximado de 20 anos de abastecimiento de

  2. Minimization of Delay Costs in the Realization of Production Orders in Two-Machine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylewski, Robert; Jardzioch, Andrzej; Dworak, Oliver

    2018-03-01

    The article presents a new algorithm that enables the allocation of the optimal scheduling of the production orders in the two-machine system based on the minimum cost of order delays. The formulated algorithm uses the method of branch and bounds and it is a particular generalisation of the algorithm enabling for the determination of the sequence of the production orders with the minimal sum of the delays. In order to illustrate the proposed algorithm in the best way, the article contains examples accompanied by the graphical trees of solutions. The research analysing the utility of the said algorithm was conducted. The achieved results proved the usefulness of the proposed algorithm when applied to scheduling of orders. The formulated algorithm was implemented in the Matlab programme. In addition, the studies for different sets of production orders were conducted.

  3. Fokker-Planck Modelling of Delayed Loss of Charged Fusion Products in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edenstrasser, J.W.; Goloborod'ko, V.Ya.; Reznik, S.N.; Yavorskij, V.A.; Zweben, S.

    1998-01-01

    The results of a Fokker-Planck simulation of the ripple-induced loss of charged fusion products in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) are presented. It is shown that the main features of the measured ''delayed loss'' of partially thermalized fusion products, such as the differences between deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium discharges, the plasma current and major radius dependencies, etc., are in satisfactory agreement with the classical collisional ripple transport mechanism. The inclusion of the inward shift of the vacuum flux surfaces turns out to be necessary for an adequate and consistent explanation of the origin of the partially thermalized fusion product loss to the bottom of TFTR

  4. THE PRODUCTION OF MEZCAL IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF DURANGO, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixto Barraza-Soto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Durango Municipality there are six enterprises which elaborate mezcal, four of them are certified. Row matter is extracted from wild plantations, 72% comes from the fields of the Ejido Nicolás Romero. The possible production of mezcal is 528,092 liters per year; this quantity exceeds 5 times the maximum production projected, according to the installed infrastructure capacity. Certified enterprises have higher production costs but also have better benefits than “vinatas”. The price of a 750 ml mezcal bottle is $138.00 pesos plus tax, while the price of a bottle of the same capacity produced in rustic enterprises fluctuates between $30.00 y $70.00 pesos. Certified enterprises produce the mezcal following the production and packaging criteria of the NOM-070-SCFI-1994. Rustic enterprises do not follow this Rule, storing and selling the product in any kind of bottle either of glass or plastic. The conclusion is that mezcal production is profitable if the producers are associated and certify the product, especially in the production of maguey and in the packaging process. This on one hand would help preserve biodiversity in the sites where the plant is extracted now, and, on the other hand, it would decrease the intervention of intermediaries contributing to obtaining higher incomes for mezcal producers.

  5. Advanced glycation end products delay corneal epithelial wound healing through reactive oxygen species generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Long; Chen, Hongmei; Yu, Xiaoming; Wu, Xinyi

    2013-11-01

    Delayed healing of corneal epithelial wounds is a serious complication in diabetes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are intimately associated with the diabetic complications and are deleterious to the wound healing process. However, the effect of AGEs on corneal epithelial wound healing has not yet been evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (BSA) on corneal epithelial wound healing and its underlying mechanisms. Our data showed that AGE-BSA significantly increased the generation of intracellular ROS in telomerase-immortalized human corneal epithelial cells. However, the generation of intracellular ROS was completely inhibited by antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), anti-receptor of AGEs (RAGE) antibodies, or the inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. Moreover, AGE-BSA increased NADPH oxidase activity and protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, p22phox and Nox4, but anti-RAGE antibodies eliminated these effects. Furthermore, prevention of intracellular ROS generation using NAC or anti-RAGE antibodies rescued AGE-BSA-delayed epithelial wound healing in porcine corneal organ culture. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that AGE-BSA impaired corneal epithelial wound healing ex vivo. AGE-BSA increased intracellular ROS generation through NADPH oxidase activation, which accounted for the delayed corneal epithelial wound healing. These results may provide better insights for understanding the mechanism of delayed healing of corneal epithelial wounds in diabetes.

  6. Seed production and quality of maize in High Valleys of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Virgen-Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to increase the productivity of maize in High Valleys of Mexico, at the Valley of México and Bajio Experimental Stations of the National Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research (INIFAP. The following activities were carried out: production of registered seed to strengthen seed micro- enterprises of national capital, quality evaluation of certified seed, and generation of production technology. Between 2005 and 2013, 46.71 tons of registered seed of the hybrids parents: H-40, H-48, H-50, H-52, H-66, H-70 and H-161, and the varieties: VS-22, V-54A and V-55A were produced and sold to 31 seed producers in the Estado de Mexico, Tlaxcala, Puebla, Hidalgo, Morelos, Guanajuato, Michoacan, and Jalisco; that satisfied 60 % of demand per year (8.68 t. In 2013 and 2014, agreements were signed between INIFAP and four micro-enterprises to produce registered seeds. The certified seed produced by companies reached certification standards, germination percentage ≥ 85, 98% pure seed and less than 2% inert matter; test weight between 72 and 78 kg/hl, thousand seed weight between 288 and 361 g and genetic quality between 96 and 98 % of the true type plants. The study identified information about locations, potential yields, population density, and planting dates for the production of parents, lines and single crosses, in the Estado de Mexico and Tlaxcala.

  7. Productivity loss by tobacco in Mexico in 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Manuel Guerrero-López

    2018-01-01

    Background Tobacco use causes acute and chronic diseases such as acute myocardial infarction (ICD-10: I21), cerebrovascular diseases (ICD-10: I60-I69), lung cancer (ICD-10: C34) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ICD-10: J40-J44) that lead to direct and indirect costs. The latter include lost productivity due to premature death and absenteeism, among others. The objective of this study was to estimate lost productivity attributable to tobacco by premature death a...

  8. Influence of fission product transport on delayed neutron precursors and decay heat sources in LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apperson, C.E. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A method is presented for studying the influence of fission product transpot on delayed neutron precursors and decay heat sources during Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) unprotected accidents. The model represents the LMFBR core as a closed homogeneous cell. Thermodynamic phase equilibrium theory is used to predict fission product mobility. Reactor kinetics behavior is analyzed by an extension of point kinetics theory. Group dependent delayed neutron precursor and decay heat source retention factors, which represent the fraction of each group retained in the fuel, are developed to link the kinetics and thermodynamics analysis. Application of the method to a highly simplified model of an unprotected loss-of-flow accident shows a time delay on the order of 10 ms is introduced in the predisassembly power history if fission product motion is considered when compared to the traditional transient solution. The post-transient influence of fission product transport calculated by the present model is a 24 percent reduction in the decay heat level in the fuel material which is similar to traditional approximations. Isotopes of the noble gases, Kr and Xe, and the elements I and Br are shown to be very mobile and are responsible for a major part of the observed effects. Isotopes of the elements Cs, Se, Rb, and Te were found to be moderately mobile and contribute to a lesser extent to the observed phenomena. These results obtained from the application of the described model confirm the initial hypothesis that sufficient fission product transport can occur to influence a transient. For these reasons, it is concluded that extension of this model into a multi-cell transient analysis code is warranted

  9. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Geissen, V.; Que Ramos, F.; Bastidas-Bastidas, de, P.J.; Díaz-González, G.; Bello-Mendoza, R.; Huerta-Lwanga, E.; Ruiz-Suárez, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn— bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha-1week-1 for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the main metabolite ethylenethiourea was near the detection limit. Surface and subsurface water was highly polluted with ethylenethiourea, the main metabolite of Mancozeb (22.5 and 4.3 lg L-1, respective...

  10. δ 13C evidence that high primary productivity delayed recovery from end-Permian mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K. M.; Yu, M.; Jost, A. B.; Kelley, B. M.; Payne, J. L.

    2011-02-01

    Euxinia was widespread during and after the end-Permian mass extinction and is commonly cited as an explanation for delayed biotic recovery during Early Triassic time. This anoxic, sulfidic episode has been ascribed to both low- and high-productivity states in the marine water column, leaving the causes of euxinia and the mechanisms underlying delayed recovery poorly understood. Here we use isotopic analysis to examine the changing chemical structure of the water column through the recovery interval and thereby better constrain paleoproductivity. The δ 13C of limestones from 5 stratigraphic sections in south China displays a negative gradient of approximately 4‰ from shallow-to-deep water facies within the Lower Triassic. This intense gradient declines within Spathian and lowermost Middle Triassic strata, coincident with accelerated biotic recovery and carbon cycle stabilization. Model simulations show that high nutrient levels and a vigorous biological pump are required to sustain such a large gradient in δ 13C, indicating that Early Triassic ocean anoxia and delayed recovery of benthic animal ecosystems resulted from too much productivity rather than too little.

  11. Smallholder Participation and Certification of Organic Farm Products in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Alma Amalia; Nigh, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Organic and other environmental and social marketing devices seek to connect producers and consumers more directly and reward environmentally and socially superior production systems. Some researchers have observed that these schemes may introduce mechanisms of exclusion, creating an elite group of certified smallholders while putting…

  12. The political organization of sugarcane production in Western Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guzman - Flores, E.

    1995-01-01

    The strike of CNC sugarcane producers and the immediate response by the refinery administration are a good example of the ongoing political negotiations between the main actors involved in the organization of sugarcane production in the Valley of Autlán-El Grullo. I introduced in Chapter I

  13. Gender gaps and scientific productivity in middle-income countries: Evidence from Mexico - prepared for the Institutions for Development Department

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera León, Lorena; Mairesse, Jacques; Cowan, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides evidence of the existence and determinants of the publication productivity gender gap in Mexico at the individual level, and its consequences for the Mexican scientific system and productivity at both the individual discipline and the aggregate levels. The paper specifies and performs a panel data econometric analysis based on a sample of Mexican researchers who are members of the National System of Researchers (SNI) of Mexico in the period 2002-13. It corrects for a selec...

  14. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico. 94.23 Section 94.23 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN...

  15. Dynamic Game Behavior of Retailers Considering the Quality of Substitute Products Based on Delay Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Binshuo; Ma, Junhai

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road project, i.e. the Belt and Road (B&R), more goods will flow around the world. With this trading platform, people can buy products at relatively cheap prices, and it is easier for people to buy various goods. The quality and quantity of products thus attract more and more attention in the supply chains. This paper discusses the quantity decision by considering the product quality in parallel supply chains where two manufacturers produce substitute products and then sell them to their downstream retailers separately. In terms of the changing quantity, as well as the different quality, this paper establishes a dynamic game model to explore the dynamic behavior when the optimal profits of two retailers have been calculated. The dynamic behaviors of the system, such as stable region, bifurcation and chaos, strange attractors and the largest Lyapunov exponents (LLE) are analyzed. The effect of the quantity adjustment parameter on the stability of the supply chain system is investigated through numerical simulations. Furthermore, a dynamic game model is established based on the quality delay decision, to investigate the influence of the quality delay parameter on the dynamic game model and the profits. Finally, the optimal decisions are obtained and analyzed.

  16. Paper Town: The Social Production of Territory in the Industrial Town of Atenquique, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ponce de León Pagaza

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the social production of space in Atenquique, an industrial town in the southern region of Jalisco in western Mexico. The theoretical framework draws on insights from critical geography. Through the case of Atenquique we reflect on the transformation of the area from the beginning of the neoliberal period in Mexico. Neoliberalism ushered in the growth of precarious and insecure working conditions, something which has deepened over the past several decades. The methodology employed is based on ethnographic research undertaken over a period of four months in Atenquique. During this time period we used three different audiovisual methods to collect information: photography, oral history and the production of an ethnographic documentary film. The results of the study show how the ex-inhabitants of Atenquique have knit together complex constructions- both material and symbolic- that provide insight on how the changes of the past several decades have affected the area. In the conclusions, we return to the broader debates on the local and territorial consequences of the implementation of the neoliberal policies in Mexico.

  17. Modeling lost production from destroyed platforms in the 2004-2005 Gulf of Mexico hurricane seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Yu, Yunke; Jablonowski, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Hurricanes Ivan, Katrina, and Rita passed through the Gulf of Mexico during 2004 and 2005 and resulted in the largest number of destroyed and damaged offshore oil and gas structures in the history of Gulf operations. In the final official government assessment, a total of 126 platforms were destroyed and over 183 structures were identified as having extensive damage. Production associated with wells and structures that are not redeveloped are classified as lost. The purpose of this paper is to derive functional relations that describe the likely contribution the collection of destroyed assets would have made to future production in the Gulf of Mexico. We estimate that the total remaining reserves from the set of destroyed structures range in value between 1.3 and 4.5 billion depending on the assumptions employed. We summarize the impact of the storms on the Gulf of Mexico oil and gas infrastructure and discuss the main issues involved in redevelopment decision making. A meta-model analytic framework is applied to perform sensitivity analysis and to explore the interactions of assumptions on model output. A discussion of the limitations of the analysis is presented. (author)

  18. Marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico - I. Historical statistics and model framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Experts may disagree on when world oil production will peak, but there is general agreement that marginal fields will contribute a greater percentage of world supply in the future. As fields mature and operations transition into the later stages of their production cycle, decreasing revenue streams, higher operating costs, and fewer upside opportunities lead to declining profitability. Eventually, all properties are abandoned when cost exceeds the revenue of production. In this two-part paper on marginal production in the Gulf of Mexico, the number of marginal structures in the gulf and their expected contribution to future production is forecast using established economic models. In Part 1, a historical perspective on producing assets is provided and the inventory of committed assets is modeled and categorized. We operationalize the definition of marginal production based on a structure's economic limit. The model framework to identify marginal assets in the Gulf of Mexico is discussed and a step-by-step description of the methodology is provided. In Part 2, the results of the model are described. (author)

  19. A generalized business cycle model with delays in gross product and capital stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattaf, Khalid; Riad, Driss; Yousfi, Noura

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A generalized business cycle model is proposed and rigorously analyzed. • Well-posedness of the model and local stability of the economic equilibrium are investigated. • Direction of the Hopf bifurcation and stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions are determined. • A special case and some numerical simulations are presented. - Abstract: In this work, we propose a delayed business cycle model with general investment function. The time delays are introduced into gross product and capital stock, respectively. We first prove that the model is mathematically and economically well posed. In addition, the stability of the economic equilibrium and the existence of Hopf bifurcation are investigated. Our main results show that both time delays can cause the macro-economic system to fluctuate and the economic equilibrium to lose or gain its stability. Moreover, the direction of the Hopf bifurcation and the stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions are determined by means of the normal form method and center manifold theory. Furthermore, the models and results presented in many previous studies are improved and generalized.

  20. Complex Dynamics in a Triopoly Game with Multiple Delays in the Competition of Green Product Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Fengshan; Ma, Junhai

    Research on the output game behavior of oligopoly has greatly advanced in recent years. But many unknowns remain, particularly the influence of consumers’ willingness to buy green products on the oligopoly output game. This paper constructs a triopoly output game model with multiple delays in the competition of green products. The influence of the parameters on the stability and complexity of the system is studied by analyzing the existence and local asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point. It is found that the system loses stability and increases complexity if delay parameters exceed a certain range. In the unstable or chaotic game market, the decisions of oligopoly will be counterproductive. It is also observed that the influence of weight and output adjustment speed on the firm itself is obviously stronger than the influence of other firms. In addition, it is important that weight and output adjustment speed cannot increase indefinitely, otherwise it will bring unnecessary losses to the firm. Finally, chaos control is realized by using the variable feedback control method. The research results of this paper can provide a reference for decision-making for the output of the game of oligopoly.

  1. Wetlands as principal zones of methylmercury production in southern Louisiana and the Gulf of Mexico region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, B.D. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Biology, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Parkway, Regina, SK, S4S 0A2 (Canada)], E-mail: britt.hall@uregina.ca; Aiken, G.R. [United States Geological Survey, 3215 Marine Street, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Krabbenhoft, D.P. [United States Geological Survey, 8505 Research Way, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Marvin-DiPasquale, M. [United States Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Swarzenski, C.M. [United States Geological Survey, Suite 120, 3535 S. Sherwood Forest Blvd., Baton Rouge, LA 70816 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    It is widely recognized that wetlands, especially those rich in organic matter and receiving appreciable atmospheric mercury (Hg) inputs, are important sites of methylmercury (MeHg) production. Extensive wetlands in the southeastern United States have many ecosystem attributes ideal for promoting high MeHg production rates; however, relatively few mercury cycling studies have been conducted in these environments. We conducted a landscape scale study examining Hg cycling in coastal Louisiana (USA) including four field trips conducted between August 2003 and May 2005. Sites were chosen to represent different ecosystem types, including: a large shallow eutrophic estuarine lake (Lake Pontchartrain), three rivers draining into the lake, a cypress-tupelo dominated freshwater swamp, and six emergent marshes ranging from a freshwater marsh dominated by Panicum hemitomon to a Spartina alterniflora dominated salt marsh close to the Gulf of Mexico. We measured MeHg and total Hg (THg) concentrations, and ancillary chemical characteristics, in whole and filtered surface water, and filtered porewater. Overall, MeHg concentrations were greatest in surface water of freshwater wetlands and lowest in the profundal (non-vegetated) regions of the lake and river mainstems. Concentrations of THg and MeHg in filtered surface water were positively correlated with the highly reactive, aromatic (hydrophobic organic acid) fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). These results suggest that DOC plays an important role in promoting the mobility, transport and bioavailability of inorganic Hg in these environments. Further, elevated porewater concentrations in marine and brackish wetlands suggest coastal wetlands along the Gulf Coast are key sites for MeHg production and may be a principal source of MeHg to foodwebs in the Gulf of Mexico. Examining the relationships among MeHg, THg, and DOC across these multiple landscape types is a first step in evaluating possible links between key zones for

  2. Wetlands as principal zones of methylmercury production in southern Louisiana and the Gulf of Mexico region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, B.D.; Aiken, G.R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M.; Swarzenski, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    It is widely recognized that wetlands, especially those rich in organic matter and receiving appreciable atmospheric mercury (Hg) inputs, are important sites of methylmercury (MeHg) production. Extensive wetlands in the southeastern United States have many ecosystem attributes ideal for promoting high MeHg production rates; however, relatively few mercury cycling studies have been conducted in these environments. We conducted a landscape scale study examining Hg cycling in coastal Louisiana (USA) including four field trips conducted between August 2003 and May 2005. Sites were chosen to represent different ecosystem types, including: a large shallow eutrophic estuarine lake (Lake Pontchartrain), three rivers draining into the lake, a cypress-tupelo dominated freshwater swamp, and six emergent marshes ranging from a freshwater marsh dominated by Panicum hemitomon to a Spartina alterniflora dominated salt marsh close to the Gulf of Mexico. We measured MeHg and total Hg (THg) concentrations, and ancillary chemical characteristics, in whole and filtered surface water, and filtered porewater. Overall, MeHg concentrations were greatest in surface water of freshwater wetlands and lowest in the profundal (non-vegetated) regions of the lake and river mainstems. Concentrations of THg and MeHg in filtered surface water were positively correlated with the highly reactive, aromatic (hydrophobic organic acid) fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). These results suggest that DOC plays an important role in promoting the mobility, transport and bioavailability of inorganic Hg in these environments. Further, elevated porewater concentrations in marine and brackish wetlands suggest coastal wetlands along the Gulf Coast are key sites for MeHg production and may be a principal source of MeHg to foodwebs in the Gulf of Mexico. Examining the relationships among MeHg, THg, and DOC across these multiple landscape types is a first step in evaluating possible links between key zones for

  3. Changes in frequency of delayed graft function in deceased donor renal transplant recipient in a tertiary care center in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega-Salas, Ana Lorena; Alberú, Josefina; Sánchez-Cedillo, Aczel I; Navarro-Vargas, Luis; Visag, Víctor; Vintimilla-Moscoso, Agustín; López-Jiménez, José Luis; Madrigal-Bustamante, José; Contreras, Alan G; Vilatobá-Chapa, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Delayed graft function (DGF) is defined as the need for dialysis within the first seven days of transplantation. The frequency of DGF has decreased in the last five years compared with the previous 20 years of the kidney transplant program at a Mexican referral hospital. To determine the incidence and risk factors for DGF in the past five years (2009-2013). We analyzed a retrospective cohort of renal transplant recipients from deceased donors at our hospital between March 2009 and May 2013 (Period 2), and compared the results with a previously evaluated cohort (Period 1, between January 1990 and February 2009). During the analyzed period, 78 deceased donor transplants were performed. The frequency of DGF was 9%. Multivariate analysis showed that recipient older age (OR: 1.074419; 95% CI: 1.0009-1.155116; p = 0.05), transoperative amines administration (OR: 7.73; 95% CI: 1.037-57.6; p = 0.046), and hypotension during surgery in the recipient (OR: 11.6; 95% CI: 1.33-100.8; p = 0.026) were risk factors for DGF. The incidence of DGF has significantly decreased in the past five years when compared to the previous 20 years in our hospital.

  4. Inventory model with two rates of production for deteriorating items with permissible delay in payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ajanta; Samanta, G. P.

    2011-08-01

    Goyal (1985) ['Economic Order Quantity Under Conditions of Permissible Delay in Payments', Journal of Operational research Society, 36, 35-38] assumed that unit selling price and unit purchasing price are equal. But in real-life the scenario is different. The purpose of this article is to reflect the real life problem by allowing unit selling price and purchasing price to be unequal. Our model is a continuous production control inventory model for deteriorating items in which two different rates of production are available. The results are illustrated with the help of a numerical example. We discuss the sensitivity of the solution together with the changes of the values of the parameters associated with the model. Our model may be applicable in many manufacturing planning situations where management practices for deterioration are stringent; e.g. the two-production rate will be more profitable than the one-production rate in the manufacture of cold, asthma and allergy medicine. Our proposed model might be applicable to develop a prototype advance planning system for those manufacturers to integrate the management science techniques into commercial planning.

  5. GROWTH, MORTALITY AND PRODUCTION OF BROWN AND RAINBOW TROUT IN NEW MEXICO STREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Leiner

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two representative trout sites in 15 high elevation New Mexico streams (1,661 - 2560 m above sea level were sampled in 1988 and 1989. Fish was captured by consecutive removal via electrofishing in net-blocked segments from 65 to 160 m long. Maximum estimated trout length (Lm.ax was related inversely to yield (r2 = 0.351; p = 0.055. Instantaneous rate of mortality was also marginally related to yield (r2 = 0.294. The production index ranged from 1,38 to 32.02 g/m2/year. Variation in production was highly correlated to trout biomass (r2 = 0.910. Trout growth and production were best defined by the relationships where: cover, stream width, water temperature, yield by anglers, LMAX, and nitrate-nitrogen concentration were included.

  6. Delayed coherent quantum feedback from a scattering theory and a matrix product state perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, P.-O.; Pletyukhov, M.; Pichler, H.; Zoller, P.

    2017-12-01

    We study the scattering of photons propagating in a semi-infinite waveguide terminated by a mirror and interacting with a quantum emitter. This paradigm constitutes an example of coherent quantum feedback, where light emitted towards the mirror gets redirected back to the emitter. We derive an analytical solution for the scattering of two-photon states, which is based on an exact resummation of the perturbative expansion of the scattering matrix, in a regime where the time delay of the coherent feedback is comparable to the timescale of the quantum emitter’s dynamics. We compare the results with numerical simulations based on matrix product state techniques simulating the full dynamics of the system, and extend the study to the scattering of coherent states beyond the low-power limit.

  7. Delaying postpartum supplementation in cows consuming low-quality forage does not alter cow and calf productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing the amount of supplemental feed postpartum without affecting productivity may enhance profitability of cow-calf operations. Therefore, sixteen 2-yr-old fall calving cows were used to evaluate effects of delaying postpartum supplementation on milk production, serum metabolites, cow and calf ...

  8. Teaching Generalized Reading of Product Warning Labels to Young Adults with Autism Using the Constant Time Delay Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogoe, Maud S.; Banda, Devender R.; Lock, Robin H.; Feinstein, Rita

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the constant timed delay procedure for teaching two young adults with autism to read, define, and state the contextual meaning of keywords on product warning labels of common household products. Training sessions were conducted in the dyad format using flash cards. Results indicated that both participants…

  9. Black Carbon And Co-Pollutants Emissions And Energy Efficiency From Bricks Production In Guanajuato, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, L. T.; Zavala, M.; Maiz, P.; Monsivais, I.; Chow, J.; Munguia, J.

    2013-12-01

    In many parts of the world, small-scale traditional brick kilns are a notorious informal sector source of urban air pollution. Many are both inefficient and burn highly polluting fuels that emit significant levels of black carbon and other pollutants into local communities and to the atmosphere, resulting in severe health and environmental impacts. It is estimated that there are nearly 20,000 traditional brick kilns in Mexico, in which bricks are still produced as they have been for centuries. They are made by hand, dried in the sun, and generally fired in small, one chamber kilns that use various types of fuels, including plastic refuse, used tires, manure, wood scrap, and used motor oil. Three brick kilns, two traditional kilns and an improved kiln (MK2), were sampled as part of the SLCFs-Mexico campaign in Guanajuato, Mexico during March of 2013. The concept of the MK-2 involves covering the kiln with a dome and channeling the output of an active kiln through a second, identical loaded kiln for its additional filtration of the effluents. The results of energy efficiency and carbon mass balance calculations are presented for comparing the production efficiency and carbon emissions from the sampled kilns. Measurements included PM2.5 mass with quartz filters and temporally-resolved elemental carbon and organic carbon composition obtained using thermo-optical methods. The carbon emissions obtained with the mass balance method are compared with concurrent, high- time resolution, emissions measurements obtained using the Aerodyne mobile laboratory employing the tracer method (see abstract by Fortner et al.)

  10. Hydrogen production through nuclear energy, a sustainable scenario in Mexico; Produccion de hidrogeno mediante energia nuclear, un escenario sostenible en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega V, E.; Francois L, J.L. [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: iqoren@gmail.com

    2007-07-01

    The energy is a key point in the social and economic development of a country, for such motive to assure the energy supply in Mexico it is of vital importance. The hydrogen it is without a doubt some one of the alternating promising fuels before the visible one necessity to decentralize the energy production based on hydrocarbons. The versatility of their applications, it high heating power and having with the more clean fuel cycle of the energy basket with which count at the moment, they are only some examples of their development potential. However the more abundant element of the universe it is not in their elementary form in our planet, it forms molecules like in the hydrocarbons or water and it stops their use it should be extracted. At the present time different methods are known for the extraction of hydrogen, there is thermal, electric, chemical, photovoltaic among others. The election of the extraction method and the primary energy source to carry out it are decisive to judge the sustainability of the hydrogen production. The sustainable development is defined as development that covers the present necessities without committing the necessity to cover the necessities of the future generations, and in the mark of this definition four indicators of the sustainable development of the different cycles of fuel were evaluated in the hydrogen production in Mexico. These indicators take in consideration the emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (environment), the readiness of the energy resources (technology), the impacts in the floor use (social) and the production costs of the cycles (economy). In this work the processes were studied at the moment available for the generation of hydrogen, those that use coal, natural gas, hydraulic, eolic energy, biomass and nuclear, as primary energy sources. These processes were evaluated with energy references of Mexico to obtain the best alternative for hydrogen production. (Author)

  11. Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf daily oil and gas production rate projections from 1999 through 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melancon, J.M.; Baud, R.D.

    1999-02-01

    This paper provides daily oil and gas production rate projections for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for the years 1999 through 2003. These projections represent daily oil and gas production estimates at calendar year end. In this report, daily oil production rates include both oil and condensate production, and daily gas production rates include both associated and nonassociated gas production. In addition to providing daily oil and gas production rate projections, the authors have included one figure and one table pertaining to leasing history and one table concerning exploration and development plan approvals

  12. Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf daily oil and gas production rare projections from 1998 through 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melancon, J.M.; Roby, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    This paper provides daily oil and gas production rate projections for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for the years 1998 through 2002. These projections represent daily oil and gas production estimates at calendar year end. In this report, daily oil production rates include both oil and condensate production, and daily gas production rates include both associated and nonassociated gas production. In addition to providing daily oil and gas production rate projections, the authors have included one figure and one table pertaining to leasing history and one table concerning exploration and development plan approvals

  13. A new dimension to EU pharma antitrust product hopping and unilateral pay for delay

    OpenAIRE

    Gallasch, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Pay for delay settlements are currently high on the competition law enforcement agenda. The focus in these investigations is on the collusive nature of the agreements between a brand company and generic companies. However, this article moves the discussion away from the commonly recognized collusive anticompetitive potential, advocating for the expansion of antitrust scrutiny of pay for delay settlements to unilateral conduct. Pay for delay settlements could be used as a “facilitator” for a b...

  14. Break-even price for upstream activities in Brazil: Evaluation of the opportunity cost of oil production delay in a non-mature sedimentary production region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Machado, Giovani; Carneiro, Jason Thomas Guerreiro

    2008-01-01

    Some Latin American policy-makers and analysts state that it would be better to hold oil reserves in place than to produce and cash it now, given the recent oil prices spikes and the fear related to future oil supply disruptions. This article evaluates the strategy of delaying the start-up of oil production in a discovered field with proved reserves. A Reference Discounted Cash Flow (FCD-R) for a typical 350 million barrel Brazilian oil field was simulated. The study estimated which future oil price may render the project insensitive to a delay of 5, 10, 15 or 20 years in its production beginning. Additionally, the value of the in situ oil stock was calculated, providing the opportunity cost for delaying oil production in a frontier area, such as Brazil. It is an application of the Hotelling Principle. Findings indicate that progressive delays of 5 years in the start-up of operation of a typical oil field reduce its revenues by a factor of 2. A delay of 10 years would be justifiable at international oil prices higher than US $15/bbl. Delays higher than 10 years lead this break-even price to values between US $200 and 350/bbl. (author)

  15. Evaluation of regional effects of effluents from uranium production in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    The Grants Uranium Region is a 2500 mile area of northcentral New Mexico which has produced about 40 percent of all domestic uranium, and holds over one-half of the current reserves. The increasing demand for uranium to fuel commercial nuclear power plants is resulting in rapid growth of the uranium industry and economic, social, and environmental changes are occurring. One of the environmental issues of this region is the concern for eventually unacceptable levels of air and water pollution from effluents from uranium mill tailings piles. This study addresses these potential impacts in relation to industrial environmental control practices, siting features, and other regional/temporal variables, including rates of production, locations and sizes of new mills, and population distributions

  16. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissen, Violette; Ramos, Franzisco Que; de J Bastidas-Bastidas, Pedro; Díaz-González, Gilberto; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo; Huerta-Lwanga, Esperanza; Ruiz-Suárez, Luz E

    2010-10-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn-bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha⁻¹week⁻¹ for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the main metabolite ethylenethiourea was near the detection limit. Surface and subsurface water was highly polluted with ethylenethiourea, the main metabolite of Mancozeb (22.5 and 4.3 μg L⁻¹, respectively), but not with manganese. In deep ground water, no ethylenethiourea was detected. The level of pollution in the region presents a worrisome risk for aquatic life and for human health.

  17. Poverty and Gender Perspective in Productive Projects for Rural Women in Mexico: Impact Evaluation of a Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquieta-Salomon, Jose E.; Tepichin-Valle, Ana Maria; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of a pilot study that promoted productive and capacity-building activities among deprived rural women of Mexico. The evaluation design is observational; 1,278 women are interviewed, and the comparison group is estimated by propensity score matching. The results show a positive impact on the…

  18. When can insurers offer products that dominate delayed old-age pension benefit claiming?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, L.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Nijman, T.E.

    2013-01-01

    It is common practice for public pension schemes to offer individuals the option to delay benefit claiming until after the normal retirement age, and increase the annual benefit level as a result. Existing literature shows that for non-liquidity constrained individuals, delaying benefit claiming for

  19. Oil policies and privatization strategies in Mexico: implications for the petrochemical sector and its production spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna, N.M.

    2004-01-01

    Through a retrospective analysis of Mexico's oil history, this work examines the privatization processes that occurred in the petrochemical sector, from the abolishment of the government's monopoly, Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) during the 1980s, until the restructuring and open liberalization in the early 1990s, focusing on the areas incorporated to production processes, particularly along the Gulf coast. As a result of the industrial policies and regional development strategies promoted by the government from the sixties, oriented towards strengthening production in areas with the highest potential, attractive business investment areas were developed. These included southern Tamaulipas, a strategic region where a number of industrial factors facilitated access to raw materials at competitive prices, as well as their processing and distribution to local and international markets, all of these within a single location. The strategic nature of the petrochemical location and production have made southern Tamaulipas a key factor for the territorial shaping and industrial development linked to the behavior of transnational companies that, seeking comparative advantages, have relocated parts of their production capacity in this region

  20. Investigation of OxProduction Rates in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MILAGRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusanter, S.; Molina, L. T.; Stevens, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and the formation of secondary pollutants are important issues in atmospheric chemistry. For instance, the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone (O3) is of particular interest due to its detrimental effects on both human health and agricultural ecosystems. A detailed characterization of tropospheric O3 production rates will help in the development of effective control strategies. The 2006 Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign (MCMA-2006) was one of four components of MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations) intended to collect information on the impact of megacity emissions on local, regional and global scales. In this presentation, rates of production of Ox (Ox = O3 + NO2) species during MCMA-2006 at the supersite T0 (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo) will be presented using different approaches based on measured and modeled concentrations of ROx (OH + HO2 + RO2) radicals. In addition, we will examine both the reactivity of OH and the contribution of specific peroxy radicals to the oxidation rate of NO to estimate the contribution of groups of VOCs (alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, oxygenated and biogenic VOCs) to the total production rate of Ox species.

  1. Characterization of agroecosystems with sheep production in the eastern side of Yucatán, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardino Candelaria-Martínez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize and group agroecosystems with sheep production in the eastearn side of Yucatan, Mexico. This study was held from August 2012 to April 2013. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied while interviewing 93% of producers from seven municipalities that have sheep within their agroecosystems. Random sampling, cluster analysis, ANOVA using GLM and comparison of means by Tukey (P>0.05 were performed. Four different groups of agroecosystems with sheep production were obtained: GA (elderly people in charge, middle schooling, and high amount of land, large herds or more years practicing sheep farming, GB middle age people in charge, higher schooling, intermediate amount of land, and intermediate herd size, GC (elderly people in charge, less schooling, low amount of land and reduced herd size, and GD (younger people in charge, high schooling, low amount of land, small herd size and less time performing the activity. Sheep farming was the first, second, and third productive option for 12%, 75% and 11,8% of producers. In some cases, sheep production in the region has been practiced for over 15 years; however it is the economic priority only of a small group of producers. Access to resources determined their level of development and lack of organization among sheep producers is evident.

  2. Possibilities for converting conventional cattle production to the organic model in the Grijalva River Basin, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nahed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities for converting conventional cattle production to the organic model were evaluated in the Grijalva River Basin, Mexico, and possible interventions were identified. A multi-criteria organic livestock conversion index (OLCI with 10 indicators comprising 35 variables was used. Information was obtained through participatory workshops, direct observation, and interviews to 91 farmers of 11 different communities in the municipalities of Mazapa de Madero (n = 17, Huitiupán (n = 30, and Tacotalpa (n = 44. Results show higher OLCI values in Mazapa (56.8% and Tacotalpa (56.7% than in Huitiupán (49.0%. The production units evaluated show: (i limitations with respect to indicators ecological weed control in pastures and crops, veterinary prevention and treatment, food safety, and ecological management, and (ii strengths to reach the organic standards are: feed management, sustainable pasture management, soil fertilization, ecological pest and disease control in pastures and crops, breeds and reproduction, and animal well-being. In order to revert the future scenario of conventional livestock production and to transition to organic cattle raising, it is necessary to: (1 train and advice farmers regarding ecological production techniques and management, principally with respect to the limitations pointed out, and (2 implement a policy for development of livestock raising with specific functional and structural changes.

  3. Ozone production, nitrogen oxides, and radical budgets in Mexico City: observations from Pico de Tres Padres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Kroll, J. H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Neuman, J. A.; Seila, R.; Zavala, M.; Knighton, W. B.

    2008-08-01

    Observations at a mountain-top site within the Mexico City basin are used to characterize ozone production and destruction, the nitrogen oxide budget, and the radical budget during the MILAGRO campaign. An ozone production rate of ~50 ppbv/h was observed in a stagnant air mass during the afternoon of 12 March 2006, which is among the highest observed anywhere in the world. Approximately half of the ozone destruction was due to the oxidation of NO2. During this time period ozone production was VOC-limited, deduced by a comparison of the radical production rates and the formation rate of NOx oxidation products (NOz) For [NOx]/[NOy] values between 0.2 and 0.8, gas-phase HNO3 typically accounted for less than 10% of NOz and accumulation-mode particulate nitrate (NO3-(PM)) accounted for 20% 70% of NOz, consistent with high ambient NH3 concentrations. The fraction of NOz accounted for by the sum of HNO3(g) and NO3-(PM) decreased with photochemical processing. This decrease is apparent even when dry deposition of HNO3 is accounted for, and indicates that HNO3 formation decreased relative to other NOx "sink" processes during the first 12 h of photochemistry and/or a significant fraction of the nitrate was associated with the coarse aerosol size mode. The ozone production efficiency of NOx on 11 and 12 March 2006 was approximately 7 on a time scale of one day. A new metric for ozone production efficiency that relates the dilution-adjusted ozone mixing ratio to cumulative OH exposure is proposed.

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Existing Conditions and Production Strategies for the Baca Geothermal System, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Charles R.; Mercer, James W.; Thomas, Stephen D.; Balleau, W. Pete

    1984-05-01

    The Baca geothermal reservoir and adjacent aquifers in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico comprise an integrated hydrogeologic system. Analysis of the geothermal reservoir either under natural conditions or subject to proposed development should account for the mass (water) and energy (heat) balances of adjacent aquifers as well as the reservoir itself. A three-dimensional model based on finite difference approximations is applied to this integrated system. The model simulates heat transport associated with the flow of steam and water through an equivalent porous medium. The Baca geothermal reservoir is dominated by flow in fractures and distinct strata, but at the scale of application the equivalent porous media concept is appropriate. The geothermal reservoir and adjacent aquifers are simulated under both natural conditions and proposed production strategies. Simulation of natural conditions compares favorably with observed pressure, temperature, and thermal discharge data. The history matching simulations show that the results used for comparison are most sensitive to vertical permeability and the area of an assumed high-permeability zone connecting the reservoir to a deep hydrothermal source. Simulations using proposed production strategies and optimistic estimates of certain hydrologic parameters and reservoir extent indicate that a 50-MW power plant could be maintained for a period greater than 30 years. This production, however, will result in significant decreases in the total water discharge to the Jemez River.

  5. Organochlorine pesticide distribution in an organic production system for cow's milk in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murga, María N; Gutiérrez, Rey; Vega, Salvador; Pérez, José J; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Yamasaki, Alberto; Ruíz, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of organochlorine pesticides in samples of forage, soil, water, and milk in four units of an organic production system for cow´s milk (samples of forage, milk, soil, and water) in Tecpatan, Chiapas, Mexico. The organochlorine pesticides were extracted from forage, soil and water based on the USEPA (2005) guideline and from milk based on the IDF 1991 guideline. The pesticides were identified and quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (CG-ECD). In general, the highest average concentration of total pesticides was found in the samples of milk and forage (311 ± 328 and 116.5 ±77 ng g(-1) respectively). Although, the production systems analyzed are organic, organochlorine pesticides were detected in all environmental samples (forage, soil, water, and organic milk). Although no values surpassed the defined limits of Mexican and International regulation it is advisable that a monitoring program of contaminants in these production systems is continued.

  6. Wood Volume Production and Use of 10 Woody Species in Semiarid Zones of Northeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Foroughbakhch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A research strategy was established to analyze the structure of timber trees in terms of forest productivity (volume and wood density of 10 species. The native species Acacia farnesiana, Acacia schaffneri, Bumelia celastrina, Cercidium macrun, Condalia hookeri, Ebenopsis ebano, Helietta parvifolia, and Prosopis laevigata and the exotic species Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Leucaena leucocephala were chosen due to their ecological and economic importance to the rural villages of northeastern Mexico. Measurements of different growth parameters and volume of trees were evaluated. The introduced species E. camaldulensis and L. leucocephala showed the best performance in wood volume production per tree and per hectare when compared to the native species. Likewise, among the native species, E. ebano, P. laevigata, C. hookeri, and A. farnesiana tended to show better characteristics in terms of wood volume production in comparison to H. parvifolia, A. schaffneri, C. macrum, and B. celastrina. Results showed a high diversity on the properties studied. The high biomass produced by most of the species considered in this study revealed their great energetic potential when used as wood and firewood or vegetal charcoal.

  7. Delayed neutron spectra and their uncertainties in fission product summation calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazono, T.; Sagisaka, M.; Ohta, H.; Oyamatsu, K.; Tamaki, M. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Uncertainties in delayed neutron summation calculations are evaluated with ENDF/B-VI for 50 fissioning systems. As the first step, uncertainty calculations are performed for the aggregate delayed neutron activity with the same approximate method as proposed previously for the decay heat uncertainty analyses. Typical uncertainty values are about 6-14% for {sup 238}U(F) and about 13-23% for {sup 243}Am(F) at cooling times 0.1-100 (s). These values are typically 2-3 times larger than those in decay heat at the same cooling times. For aggregate delayed neutron spectra, the uncertainties would be larger than those for the delayed neutron activity because much more information about the nuclear structure is still necessary. (author)

  8. PROBLEMATIC IN THE PROCESSES OF PRODUCTION IN RUBBER PLANTATIONS (Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg. IN TABASCO, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyra Izquierdo-Bautista

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify some of the basic problems presented in the production process in rubber plantations Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg. in Tabasco, Mexico. The applied diagnosis technique was the randomized survey for 68 producers in plantations under rubber production. ANOVA and Duncan analyses were done (P< 0.05. Plantations under production were between 7 to 46 years old. The 24% of these are considered as young plantations (7 to 18 years old, 34% mature (19 to 30 years old, and 12% old growth (31 to 46 years old, according to the level of latex production. Latex collection is realized by 85% men and 15% women. An important detected problem is the incidence of insects and diseases over the 82% of the plantations. In Tabasco State, two types of raw material are generated: clot (solid and latex (liquid. The tapping systems are ½ S d/1 6d/7 (one cuts in an average spiral with daily tapping over the 49% of the plantations, and the system ½ S d/2 6d/7, cuts in semi-spirals with alternating tapping over 51% of the plantations. The producers that practiced daily tapped obtained yields of 1.588 kg per ha/yr of dry rubber, in the other hand, those that tapped every other day obtained a yield of 1.647 kg per ha/year of dry rubber. The yield in daily tapping was 3.54% lower than the system with alternating tapping. The income obtained by the producers of fresh rubber varied from $8.750, 00 (810, 2 USD ha/year to $27.870, 00 (2.580 USD ha/year in 2006 and the production of latex from $5.955, 00 (551, 4 USD to 16.568,00 (1.534 USD per ha/year.

  9. Effect of Methylparathion on nitrous oxide production in Chinampa soil of Xochimilco, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Oropeza, M.; Marquez, S.; Ruiz, U.; Cabirol, N.

    2009-07-01

    Contamination of soil from pesticides is result of their bulk handling at the farmyard or following application in the field. synthetic organophosphorus compounds like chlorpyrifos and methylparathion have been used in the particulate cultivated areas, the chosen chinampa ( from Nahuatl or Aztec, chinamitl, bulrush or cattail stalks lattice for hydro-ponics cultivation) from the Xochimilco zone in Mexico City, Mexico (CICLOPLAFEST, 2006). (Author)

  10. Effect of Methylparathion on nitrous oxide production in Chinampa soil of Xochimilco, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Oropeza, M.; Marquez, S.; Ruiz, U.; Cabirol, N.

    2009-01-01

    Contamination of soil from pesticides is result of their bulk handling at the farmyard or following application in the field. synthetic organophosphorus compounds like chlorpyrifos and methylparathion have been used in the particulate cultivated areas, the chosen chinampa ( from Nahuatl or Aztec, chinamitl, bulrush or cattail stalks lattice for hydro-ponics cultivation) from the Xochimilco zone in Mexico City, Mexico (CICLOPLAFEST, 2006). (Author)

  11. Assessment of the Impacts of Standards and Labeling Programs inMexico (four products).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Itha; Pulido, Henry; McNeil, Michael A.; Turiel, Isaac; della Cava, Mirka

    2007-06-12

    This study analyzes impacts from energy efficiency standards and labeling in Mexico from 1994 through 2005 for four major products: household refrigerators, room air conditioners, three-phase (squirrel cage) induction motors, and clothes washers. It is a retrospective analysis, seeking to assess verified impacts on product efficiency in the Mexican market in the first ten years after standards were implemented. Such an analysis allows the Mexican government to compare actual to originally forecast program benefits. In addition, it provides an extremely valuable benchmark for other countries considering standards, and to the energy policy community as a whole. The methodology for evaluation begins with historical test data taken for a large number of models of each product type between 1994 and 2005. The pre-standard efficiency of models in 1994 is taken as a baseline throughout the analysis. Model efficiency data were provided by an independent certification laboratory (ANCE), which tested products as part of the certification and enforcement mechanism defined by the standards program. Using this data, together with economic and market data provided by both government and private sector sources, the analysis considers several types of national level program impacts. These include: Energy savings; Environmental (emissions) impacts, and Net financial impacts to consumers, manufacturers and utilities. Energy savings impacts are calculated using the same methodology as the original projections, allowing a comparison. Other impacts are calculated using a robust and sophisticated methodology developed by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in a collaboration supported by the Collaborative Labeling and Standards Program (CLASP).

  12. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions and energy balances of sugarcane ethanol production in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Carlos A.; Fuentes, Alfredo; Hennecke, Anna; Riegelhaupt, Enrique; Manzini, Fabio; Masera, Omar

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to estimate GHG emissions and energy balances for the future expansion of sugarcane ethanol fuel production in Mexico with one current and four possible future modalities. We used the life cycle methodology that is recommended by the European Renewable Energy Directive (RED), which distinguished the following five system phases: direct Land Use Change (LUC); crop production; biomass transport to industry; industrial processing; and ethanol transport to admixture plants. Key variables affecting total GHG emissions and fossil energy used in ethanol production were LUC emissions, crop fertilization rates, the proportion of sugarcane areas that are burned to facilitate harvest, fossil fuels used in the industrial phase, and the method for allocation of emissions to co-products. The lower emissions and higher energy ratios that were observed in the present Brazilian case were mainly due to the lesser amount of fertilizers applied, also were due to the shorter distance of sugarcane transport, and to the smaller proportion of sugarcane areas that were burned to facilitate manual harvest. The resulting modality with the lowest emissions of equivalent carbon dioxide (CO 2e ) was ethanol produced from direct juice and generating surplus electricity with 36.8 kgCO 2e /GJ ethanol . This was achieved using bagasse as the only fuel source to satisfy industrial phase needs for electricity and steam. Mexican emissions were higher than those calculated for Brazil (27.5 kgCO 2e /GJ ethanol ) among all modalities. The Mexican modality with the highest ratio of renewable/fossil energy was also ethanol from sugarcane juice generating surplus electricity with 4.8 GJ ethanol /GJ fossil .

  13. A case study of ozone production, nitrogen oxides, and the radical budget in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Wood

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Observations at a mountain-top site within the Mexico City basin are used to characterize ozone production and destruction, nitrogen oxide speciation and chemistry, and the radical budget, with an emphasis on a stagnant air mass observed on one afternoon. The observations compare well with the results of recent photochemical models. An ozone production rate of ~50 ppbv/h was observed in a stagnant air mass during the afternoon of 12 March 2006, which is among the highest observed anywhere in the world. Approximately half of the ozone destruction was due to the oxidation of NO2. During this time period ozone production was VOC-limited, deduced by a comparison of the radical production rates and the formation rate of NOx oxidation products (NOz. For [NOx]/[NOy] values between 0.2 and 0.8, gas-phase HNO3 typically accounted for less than 10% of NOz and accumulation-mode particulate nitrate (NO3(PM1 accounted for 20%–70% of NOz, consistent with high ambient NH3 concentrations. The fraction of NOz accounted for by the sum of HNO3(g and NO3(PM1 decreased with photochemical processing. This decrease is apparent even when dry deposition of HNO3 is accounted for, and indicates that HNO3 formation decreased relative to other NOx "sink" processes during the first 12 h of photochemistry and/or a significant fraction of the nitrate was associated with the coarse aerosol size mode. The ozone production efficiency of NOx on 11 and 12 March 2006 was approximately 7 on a time scale of one day. A new metric for ozone production efficiency that relates the dilution-adjusted ozone mixing ratio to cumulative OH exposure is proposed.

  14. Petroleum Refining and its Economic and Technological Impact for the Production of Gasoline in Mexico to 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granados-Hernández Elías

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gas imports in Mexico have increased in the last few years. Nowadays Mexico has no capacity to meet the demands of this fuel in the next twenty years. In this paper we analyze several oil refining projections that enable the oil supply in Mexico until year 2030, taking into consideration four types of refineries, processing the produc- tion of pure oils in the country, using four mixtures of the higher reserve, consider- ing an import to meet the demand of fuel and once met consider exportation. Modeling was carried out analyzing the volume of refined oil and the required in- vestment, based on the kind of refinery and on the processing units that characterize it. As it was mentioned before, there are different refining projections to meet the demand of gas, but considering that the main oil production in Mexico is heavy. The simulated projection with this type of oil would require a higher volume in the exis- tent refineries in the country to meet that demand. Besides, considering the kind of refinery (out of four, the volumes to refine will be less, if very complex refineries are used. However, the cost of investment in this technology would be higher, consider- ing that new refineries will be built in a near future to meet the fuel demands.

  15. IPRODIONE DELAYS MALE RAT PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT, REDUCING SERUM TESTOSTERONE AND EX VIVO TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iprodione (IPRO) is a dichlorophenyl dicarboximide fungicide similar to the androgen receptor (AR) antagonist vinclozolin. The current studies were designed to determine if IPRO would delay male rat pubertal development like vinclozolin and to identify the mechanism(s) of action...

  16. Biomass production in the Lower Mississippi River Basin: Mitigating associated nutrient and sediment discharge to the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Miae; Zhang, Zhonglong; Wu, May

    2018-04-24

    A watershed model was developed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) that simulates nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment loadings in the Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB). The LMRB SWAT model was calibrated and validated using 21 years of observed flow, sediment, and water-quality data. The baseline model results indicate that agricultural lands within the Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB) are the dominant sources of nitrogen and phosphorus discharging into the Gulf of Mexico. The model was further used to evaluate the impact of biomass production, in the presence of riparian buffers in the LMRB, on suspended-sediment and nutrient loading discharge from the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico. The interplay among land use, riparian buffers, crop type, land slope, water quality, and hydrology were anlyzed at various scales. Implementing a riparian buffer in the dominant agricultural region within the LMRB could reduce suspended sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus loadings at the regional scale by up to 65%, 38%, and 39%, respectively. Implementation of this land management practice can reduce the suspended-sediment content and improve the water quality of the discharge from the LMRB into the Gulf of Mexico and support the potential production of bioenergy and bio-products within the Mississippi River Basin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Simulating environmental effects on brown shrimp production in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) are a commercially important fishery species of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Young shrimp settle in estuarine salt marsh...

  18. Lifetime and per year productivity of sows in four pig farms in the tropics of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek-Mex, Jesús Enrique; Segura-Correa, José Candelario; Alzina-López, Alejandro; Batista-Garcia, Laura

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the lifetime and per year productivity of sows and to determine the effect of some factor on those traits in four pig farms in the tropics of Mexico. Data from 7526 sows for lifetime number of piglets born alive per sow (LBA), lifetime kilograms of piglets at farrowing (LKF), number of piglets born alive per year (NPF/Y), and kilograms of piglets at farrowing per year (KPF/Y); and data from 7230 sows for lifetime number of piglets weaned (LPW), lifetime kilograms of piglets weaned (LKW), number of piglets weaned per year (NPW/Y), and kilograms of piglets weaned per year (KPW/Y) per sow were used. The statistical model for all traits included the fixed effects of farm, year of first farrowing, season of first farrowing, litter size at first farrowing, age at first farrowing, removal reason, simple interactions, and the error term. The means for LBA, LKF, NPF/Y, and KPF/Y were 45.1 piglets, 67.1 kg, 22.7 piglets, and 33.7 kg, respectively. The means for LPW, LKW, NPW/Y, and KPW/Y were 43.2 piglets, 251.9 kg, 21.5 piglets, and 125.1 kg, respectively. All factors were significant for all traits, except for age at first farrowing on LPW and LKW. Sows with large litter sizes and those that farrowed the first time, at an early age, had the highest lifetime and per year productivity. Therefore, more care and better management should be provided to those types of sows to improve the farms profit.

  19. Estimates of Lightning NOx Production Based on OMI NO2 Observations Over the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.; Bucsela, Eric; Allen, Dale; Ring, Allison; Holzworth, Robert; Krotkov, Nickolay

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate nitrogen oxide (NO(sub x) NO + NO2) production from lightning over the Gulf of Mexico region using data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASAs Aura satellite along with detection efficiency-adjusted lightning data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). A special algorithm was developed to retrieve the lightning NOx [(LNO(sub x)] signal from OMI. The algorithm in its general form takes the total slant column NO2 from OMI and removes the stratospheric contribution and tropospheric background and includes an air mass factor appropriate for the profile of lightning NO(sub x) to convert the slant column LNO2 to a vertical column of LNO(sub x). WWLLN flashes are totaled over a period of 3 h prior to OMI overpass, which is the time an air parcel is expected to remain in a 1 deg. x 1 deg. grid box. The analysis is conducted for grid cells containing flash counts greater than a threshold value of 3000 flashes that yields an expected LNO(sub x) signal greater than the background. Pixels with cloud radiance fraction greater than a criterion value (0.9) indicative of highly reflective clouds are used. Results for the summer seasons during 2007-2011 yield mean LNO(sub x) production of approximately 80 +/- 45 mol per flash over the region for the two analysis methods after accounting for biases and uncertainties in the estimation method. These results are consistent with literature estimates and more robust than many prior estimates due to the large number of storms considered but are sensitive to several substantial sources of uncertainty.

  20. Economic impact of milk production in the State of New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, V E; Hagevoort, R; Solís, D; Kirksey, R; Diemer, J A

    2008-05-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify the economic role of dairy farming in New Mexico and to identify its linkages with allied industries in terms of income, value added, and employment impacts. An input-output model was used to estimate the direct, indirect, and induced impacts of the dairy farm industry on the economy of New Mexico. The results showed that in 2005, New Mexico's dairy farm industry had a total economic impact of $1.98 billion and accounted for 14,313 jobs. Therefore, dairy farming in New Mexico had an output multiplier (income) of 1.92, a labor income multiplier of $248 thousand/$ million of gross sales, and an employment multiplier of 13.91 jobs/$ million of gross sales. Furthermore, the New Mexico dairy farms accounted for 13.1% of the total agricultural outputs, 20.5% of the agricultural jobs, 1.5% of total state economic activity, and $80 million in tax revenue. With the exception of Lea, Eddy, and Bernalillo counties, which are diversified, the dairy farms accounted for more than two-thirds of the agricultural outputs and for more than two-fifths of the agricultural employment in counties where dairy farms are concentrated.

  1. Hydrocarbon production forecast for committed assets in the shallow water Outer Continental Shelf of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the federal waters of the Gulf of Mexico averaged daily production of 1.3 million barrels of oil and 7.6 billion cubic feet of natural gas. The majority of oil is produced from deepwater fields in water depth greater than 1000 ft, while most gas production is extracted from the shelf. The Outer Continental Shelf is a mature province with over 3800 fixed structures and 6500 producing wells connected into an integrated pipeline network more than 30,000 miles in length. The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to forecast oil and gas production in the shallow water Gulf of Mexico. Structures are categorized according to age and production characteristics, and forecast procedures for each asset class are described and illustrated. The methodology is implemented using the inventory of committed assets circa December 2006. The expected amount of hydrocarbon production arising from the inventory of committed assets under stable reservoir and investment conditions is estimated to be 1056 MMbbl oil and 13.3 Tcf gas valued between $85 and 150 billion. The results of generalized regression models are presented with a discussion of the limitations of analysis. (author)

  2. Electromagnetically induced transparency with large delay-bandwidth product induced by magnetic resonance near field coupling to electric resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hai-ming; Liu, Shao-bin, E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Liu, Si-yuan; Zhang, Hai-feng; Bian, Bo-rui; Kong, Xiang-kun [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Shen-yun [Research Center of Applied Electromagnetics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China)

    2015-03-16

    In this paper, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like spectral response with magnetic resonance near field coupling to electric resonance. Six split-ring resonators and a cut wire are chosen as the bright and dark resonator, respectively. An EIT-like transmission peak located between two dips can be observed with incident magnetic field excitation. A large delay bandwidth product (0.39) is obtained, which has potential application in quantum optics and communications. The experimental results are in good agreement with simulated results.

  3. Moving from a Predominantly Teaching Oriented Culture to a Research Productivity Mission: The Case of Mexico and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gregorutti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study qualitatively analyzes the culture conflicts professors in the United States and Mexico are experiencing with the increasing pressures to produce more research about higher education. The first dataset was collected from 36 faculty members from 12 small and medium sized private, doctorate-granting universities. These universities are located in 11 states across the United States. The remaining data came from 44 faculty members employed at four small and medium sized private, doctoral granting universities in four states across Mexico. Results showed that universities in the US are transitioning from a predominantly teaching college culture to a more research orientation. Although the sampled universities continue to offer established graduate programs, faculty members continue to struggle with their teaching requirements and conflicts research productivity pressures place on their teaching and mentoring time with students. Participating faculty members employed in the US were not evenly interested in research opportunities due to the diverse mission objectives promoted by their respective institutions. On the other hand, faculty members employed in Mexico were generally more concerned with their research productivity and subsequent factors, which negatively impact their research productivity. Mexican faculty members rarely cited conflicts between their institutional missions and teaching objectives. This study is highly relevant to policy makers, higher education administrators, and scholars interested in comparative and international higher education. Administrators can benefit from the findings in this study, which provides faculty members’ perceptions and describes departmental structures and organizational dynamics employed to advance greater research and development opportunities. This study concludes with a discussion on how administrators and faculty members should handle the pressures for research productivity and

  4. Consequences of buffelgrass pasture development for primary productivity, perennial plant richness, and vegetation structure in the drylands of Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Kimberly; Molina-Freaner, Francisco

    2010-12-01

    In large parts of northern Mexico native plant communities are being converted to non-native buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare) pastures, and this conversion could fundamentally alter primary productivity and species richness. In Sonora, Mexico land conversion is occurring at a regional scale along a rainfall-driven gradient of primary productivity, across which native plant communities transition from desert scrub to thorn scrub. We used a paired sampling design to compare a satellite-derived index of primary productivity, richness of perennial plant species, and canopy-height profiles of native plant communities with buffelgrass pastures. We sampled species richness across a gradient of primary productivity in desert scrub and thorn scrub vegetation to examine the influence of site productivity on the outcomes of land conversion. We also examined the influence of pasture age on species richness of perennial plants. Index values of primary productivity were lower in buffelgrass pastures than in native vegetation, which suggests a reduction in primary productivity. Land conversion reduced species richness by approximately 50% at local and regional scales, reduced tree and shrub cover by 78%, and reduced canopy height. Land conversion disproportionately reduced shrub species richness, which reflects the common practice among Sonoran ranchers of conserving certain tree and cactus species. Site productivity did not affect the outcomes of land conversion. The age of a buffelgrass pasture was unrelated to species richness within the pasture, which suggests that passive recovery of species richness to preconversion levels is unlikely. Our findings demonstrate that land conversion can result in large losses of plant species richness at local and regional scales and in substantial changes to primary productivity and vegetation structure, which casts doubt on the feasibility of restoring native plant communities without active intervention on the part of land managers.

  5. On the production of active nitrogen by thunderstorms over New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, B. A.; Dye, J. E.; Walega, J. G.; Zheng, J.; Grahek, F. E.; Rison, W.

    1996-09-01

    In July and August of 1989 the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Sabreliner jet aircraft was used to probe electrically active and inactive convective storms over west central New Mexico to examine the production of odd nitrogen in the middle and upper troposphere by thunderstorms. In the anvil outflow or cloud top region of active and nonactive storms, the majority of flights showed that O3 was reduced relative to the extracloud air owing to transport of ozone-poor air from lower altitudes. A similar result was found for active nitrogen (NOx) and total odd nitrogen (NOy) in nonelectrically active storms, but the reduction in NOy was also enhanced by removal of soluble constituents during convective transport. Examples of efficient removal from the gas phase are described. There was no evidence of O3 production by lightning discharges. Indeed, O3 was a good tracer over the lifetime (˜1 hour) of the storms. During the active-to-mature stage of air mass thunderstorms, large enhancements in active nitrogen were observed in the anvil altitude region (9-11.8 km) and, in one case, in the midlevel outflow (near 7 km) of a dissipating thunderstorm. Two thunderstorms allow good estimates of the NOx production by lightning within or transport to the upper altitude region (8-11.8 km). Thunderstorms of August 12 and August 19 yield amounts in the range of 253-296 kg(N) and 263-305 kg(N), respectively. If, as an exercise, these amounts are extrapolated to the global scale on the basis of the number of cloud-to-ground and intracloud lightning flashes counted or estimated for each storm and a global flash frequency of 100 s-1 the result is 2.4-2.7 and 2.0-2.2 Tg(N)/yr. Alternatively, an estimate for the two storms made on the basis of the average number of thunderstorms that occur per day globally (44,000) yields amounts in the range of 4.1-4.7 and 4.2-4.9 Tg(N)/yr, respectively. These estimates only apply to the production or transport of lightning-generated NOx

  6. Altitude effects on technology and productivity of small bovine farms (milk meat) in Veracruz (Gulf of Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz-Guevara, C; De León-González, F; Soriano-Robles, R; Pérez-Carrera, A L; García-Hernández, L A

    2018-03-01

    The dual-purpose bovine system represents 98.4% of the bovine livestock of Veracruz, the main cattle-producing state of Mexico. This system supplies calves to meat companies, a sector in which Veracruz has been the national leader in the last decade. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of the altitudinal zonation of farms on livestock technology and productivity in a microbasin of the Gulf of Mexico where small farms predominate. Structured interviews were applied to producers located in three altitudinal zones (at average altitudes of 50, 140, and 450 m, respectively, for lower, middle, and upper zones). Sample size was 135 farms having similar land surface (within a range of 15-22 ha). The results indicated multiple differences among farms located in the three zones. Farms in the middle and lower zones presented higher productive indicators than those in the upper zone. Differences in herd structure and management resulted in important differences in productivity, income, and profits in milk and calf production. We concluded from this study that altitudinal zonation in Veracruz had a clear effect on the differentiation of small farms, which are representative of dual-purpose cattle. The upper zone performs cattle activity under conditions with greater disadvantages in the analyzed region.

  7. 77 FR 27591 - Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Delay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule; delay of compliance dates; request for comments... that FDA has delayed implementation of rules in the past when a delay is justified. We acknowledge that... implementing the delay of the compliance dates for the 2011 final rule. In accordance with Sec. 10.40(e)(1...

  8. Geochemical Tracers and Rates of Short-Chain Alkane Production in Gulf of Mexico Cold Seep Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibert, R.; Bernard, B. B.; Brooks, J. M.; Hunter, K.; Joye, S. B.

    2014-12-01

    The organic-rich cold seep sediments in the deep Gulf of Mexico commonly contain mixtures of light hydrocarbon gases either dissolved in pore fluids, adsorbed to sediment particles, trapped in methane ice, or as free gas. The dominant component in these natural gas mixtures is typically methane (C1), but ethane (C2) and propane (C3) are nearly always present in trace or major amounts. The ratio of C1:C2:C3 varies but C2 and C3 are typically present at single digit percent levels, whereas methane usually dominates at >80%. Methane production proceeds by at least two well-studied mechanisms: either 1) by thermocatalytic cracking of fossil organic matter, or 2) as a direct product of microbial metabolism, methanogenesis. In contrast, ethane and propane production in deep-sea sediments has been historically attributed only to thermocatalytic processes. However, limited data suggests production of C2/C3 compounds through the activity of archaea. Such studies of microbial- driven dynamics of C2/C3 gases (i.e. 'alkanogenesis') in cold seep sediments are rare. Furthermore, the identities of potential substrates are poorly constrained and no attempt has been made to quantify production rates of C2/C3 gases. However, carbon isotopic data on ethane and propane from deep cores from the Gulf of Mexico suggest alkanogenesis at depth in the sediment column and alkane oxidation in uppermost oxidant-rich sediments. Here, we present the results of a series of incubation experiments using sediment slurries culled from GC600, one of the most prolific natural oil and gas seeps in the Gulf of Mexico. Rates of both alkane production and oxidation were measured under a variety of conditions to assess the net rates of alkane production and elucidate the driving microbiological mechanisms and controls on the central processes of >C1 alkane cycling in cold seep sediments. Microbial processes are important both in terms of alkane production and oxidation, raising many questions as to the

  9. Diagnostic Delay among Adults with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a High Gross Domestic Product Per Capita Country: Reasons and Magnitude of the Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Wanis H; Alousi, Faraj H; Al-Khal, Abdulatif; Bener, Abdulbari; AlSalman, Ahmed; Aamer, Aaiza; Khaled, Ahmed; Raza, Tasleem

    2016-01-01

    To determine the mean and median delays in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosis among adults in one of the world's highest gross domestic product per capita countries and identify patient and health system-related reasons for these delays. This is a cross-sectional, face-to-face, prospective study of 100 subjects with confirmed PTB, conducted at main tuberculosis (TB) admitting facilities in Qatar. The mean and median diagnostic delays were measured. The Chi-square test with two-sided P factors and diagnostic delay. The mean and median total diagnostic delays of PTB were 53 (95% confidence interval [CI] 42.61-63.59) and 30 (interquartile range; Q1-Q3, 15-60) days, respectively. The mean patient factor delay was 45.7 (95% CI 28.1-63.4) days, and the median was 30 (interquartile range; Q1-Q3, 15-60) days. The mean health system factor delay was 46.3 (95% CI 35.46-57.06) days, and the median was 30 (interquartile range; Q1-Q3, 18-60) days. The most common cause of patient factor delay was neglect of TB symptoms by patients (in 39% of cases), and for health-care system factor delay was a failure (mostly at general and private care levels) to suspect PTB by doctors (in 57% of cases). There were no significant associations between the presence of language barrier, patient occupation or nationality, and diagnostic delay. Despite a favorable comparison to other countries, there is a substantial delay in the diagnosis of PTB in Qatar. Relevant actions including health education on TB are required to minimize this delay.

  10. A RIPK2 inhibitor delays NOD signalling events yet prevents inflammatory cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nachbur, Ueli; Stafford, Che A; Bankovacki, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD) receptors recognize antigens including bacterial peptidoglycans and initiate immune responses by triggering the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines through activating NF-κB and MAP kinases. Receptor interacting protein kinase ...

  11. Use of Insulated Covers over Product Crates to Reduce Losses in Amaranth during Shipping Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizanne Wheeler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Amaranth is a leafy vegetable with high nutrient content which is sensitive to temperature and low relative humidity. Delays in shipment to market may result in significant losses, therefore improved packaging to minimize mechanical damage and reduce moisture loss are desirable. Amaranth was stored in three types of consumer packages, bunches, clamshells and thin plastic bags, within vented plastic crates. Pallet loads were either covered with insulated material or not, while awaiting transportation. Results indicated covering pallets improved the color and overall quality while reducing weight loss and wilting. Covered crates had a “good” (7.6/9.0 overall quality while uncovered averaged 5.5/9.0 or “moderate” quality. There were significant differences in consumer package type, with the bagged amaranth having almost “excellent” quality (8.8/9.0 compared to “good-fair” quality in clamshells (6.2/9.0 and “poor-fair” quality in the control bunches (4.7/9.0. Amaranth stored in thin plastic bags was better in quality and color, with less weight loss and wilting, however, temperatures at the end of six hours of storage were higher and this may lead to microbial growth. Storage of amaranth in thin bags or clamshell packages, within plastic crates covered with insulated pallet covers while awaiting shipping resulted in improved overall quality and color.

  12. Design and evaluation of a no-tillage seeder for small scale vegetable production using a two-wheeled tractor in Coahuila, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.; Cadena Zapata, M.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2009-01-01

    Currently used conventional tillage systems for small-scale vegetable production in the region of Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico require a considerable amount of hand labor, energy and materials for all activities. Seedbed preparation can require up to 60% of the total production cost in some systems in

  13. Uranium and thorium occurrences in New Mexico: distribution, geology, production, and resources, with selected bibliography. Open-file report OF-183

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLemore, V.T.

    1983-09-01

    Over 1300 uranium and thorium occurrences are found in over 100 formational units in all but two counties, in all 1- by 2-degree topographic quadrangles, and in all four geographic provinces in New Mexico. Uranium production in New Mexico has surpassed yearly production from all other states since 1956. Over 200 mines in 18 counties in New Mexico have produced 163,010 tons (147,880 metric tons) of U 3 O 8 from 1948 to 1982, 40% of the total uranium production in the United States. More than 99% of this production has come from sedimentary rocks in the San Juan Basin area in northwestern New Mexico; 96% has come from the Morrison Formation alone. All of the uranium reserves and the majority of the potential uranium resources in New Mexico are in the Grants uranium district. About 112,500 tons (102,058 metric tons) of $30 per pound of U 3 O 8 reserves are in the San Juan Basin, about 55% of the total $30 reserves in the United States. Thorium reserves and resources in New Mexico have not been adequately evaluated and are unknown. Over 1300 uranium and thorium occurrences are described in this report, about 400 of these have been examined in the field by the author. The occurrence descriptions include information on location, commodities, production, development, geology, and classification. Over 1000 citations are included in the bibliography and referenced in the occurrence descriptions. Production statistics for uranium mines that operated from 1948 to 1970 are also included. Mines that operated after 1970 are classified into production categories. 43 figures, 9 tables

  14. Statistical effects in beta-delayed neutron emission from fission product nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, R.D. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The delayed neutron spectra for the precursors Rb-93, 94, 95, 96, 97 and Cs-145 were measured by use of the on-line isotope separator facility TRISTAN and a time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer. Flight paths were used that provided, for energies below 70 keV, a FWHM energy resolution between 2 and 4 percent. Each spectrum showed discrete neutron peaks below 156 keV, with as many as 26 in the Rb-95 spectra. Level densities near the neutron binding energy in the neutron-emitting nuclide were deduced using a missing-level indicator based on a Porter-Thomas distribution of neutron peak intensities. The resulting level density data were compared to the predictions of the Gilbert and Cameron formulism and to those of Dilg, Schantl, Vonach and Uhl. Comparisons were made between the empirically-based level parameter a and the values predicted by each model for Sr-93, 94, 95, 97 and Ba-145. The two models appear, within the uncertainties, to be equally capable of describing these neutron-rich nuclides and equally as capable for them as they are for nuclides in the valley of beta stability. Measurements of the neutron strength function are sometimes possible with the present TOF system for neutron decays with competing neutron branches to levels in the grandchild nucleus. A value for the d-wave strength function of Sr-96 is found to be (4.2 +- 1.1)/10 4 . Improvements in the TOF system, allowing the measurement of the neutron strength function for the more general case, are discussed. 72 refs., 56 figs., 16 tabs

  15. Water as contamination source of Salmonella and Escherichia coli in vegetable production in Mexico: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Mendoza, D.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mexico has an extensive infrastructure that has positioned it as a power vegetable producer exporter. However, the use of wastewater represents a potential risk to agriculture, economy and human health, since they are used without due precautions as applied in crop irrigation. In this sense, potential methods for diagnosis have been developed, such as microbiological and molecular methods, which are used for the rapid detection of Samonella and E. coli in minimally processed vegetables. Further studies are needed to determine a threshold dose of pathogens in the water and to correlate the risk that tends to cause pollution of a crop and the specified edible parts of the vegetables marketed in the interior and outside of Mexico.

  16. Thermic solar plants for the production of electricity in Mexico: present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almanza, R.

    1990-01-01

    During the last decade, there are have been some important achievements in generating electricity using solar concentrators. The Instituto de Ingenieria, of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), has started the design and construction of solar thermic plants for generating electricity , capable of reaching 1 Kw and 10 Kw. The Instituto continues developing the research and testing of new materials, because this way of generating electricity has become economically feasible: besides, it constitutes a non polluting alternative. (Author)

  17. Delayed Fission Product Gamma-Ray Transmission Through Low Enriched UO2 Fuel Pin Lattices in Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumbull, TH [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2004-10-18

    The transmission of delayed fission-product gamma rays through various arrangements of low-enriched UO2 fuel pin lattices in an air medium was studied. Experimental measurements, point-kernel and Monte Carlo photon transport calculations were performed to demonstrate the shielding effect of ordered lattices of fuel pins on the resulting gamma-ray dose to a detector outside the lattice. The variation of the gamma-ray dose on the outside of the lattice as a function of radial position, the so-called “channeling” effect, was analyzed. Techniques for performing experimental measurements and data reduction at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute’s Reactor Critical Facility (RCF) were derived. An experimental apparatus was constructed to hold the arrangements of fuel pins for the measurements. A gamma-ray spectroscopy system consisting of a sodium-iodide scintillation detector was used to collect data. Measurements were made with and without a collimator installed. A point-kernel transport code was developed to map the radial dependence of the gamma-ray flux. Input files for the Monte Carlo code, MCNP, were also developed to accurately model the experimental measurements. The results of the calculations were compared to the experimental measurements. In order to determine the delayed fission-product gamma-ray source for the calculations, a technique was developed using a previously written code, DELBG and the reactor state-point data obtained during the experimental measurements. Calculations were performed demonstrating the effects of material homogenization on the gamma-ray transmission through the fuel pin lattice.Homogeneous and heterogeneous calculations were performed for all RCF fuel pin lattices as well as for a typical commercial pressurized water reactor fuel bundle. The results of the study demonstrated the effectiveness of the experimental measurements to isolate the channeling effect of delayed fission-product gamma-rays through lattices of RCF fuel pins

  18. Corn industrial wastewater (nejayote): a promising substrate in Mexico for methane production in a coupled system (APCR-UASB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    España-Gamboa, Elda; Domínguez-Maldonado, Jorge Arturo; Tapia-Tussell, Raul; Chale-Canul, Jose Silvano; Alzate-Gaviria, Liliana

    2018-01-01

    In Mexico, the corn tortilla is a food of great economic importance. Corn tortilla production generates about 1500-2000 m 3 of wastewater per 600 tons of processed corn. Although this wastewater (also known as nejayote) has a high organic matter content, few studies in Mexico have analyzed its treatment. This study presents fresh data on the potential methane production capacity of nejayote in a two-phase anaerobic digestion system using an Anaerobic-Packed Column Reactor (APCR) to optimize the acidogenic phase and an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to enhance the methanogenic process. Results indicate that day 8 was ideal to couple the APCR to the UASB reactor. This allowed for a 19-day treatment that yielded 96% COD removal and generated a biogas containing 84% methane. The methane yield was 282 L kg -1 of COD removed . Thus, two-phase anaerobic digestion is an efficient process to treat nejayote; furthermore, this study demonstrated the possibility of using an industrial application by coupling the APCR to the UASB reactor system, in order to assess its feasibility for biomethane generation as a sustainable bioenergy source.

  19. Evaluation of altimetry-derived surface current products using Lagrangian drifter trajectories in the eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonggang; Weisberg, Robert H.; Vignudelli, Stefano; Mitchum, Gary T.

    2014-05-01

    Lagrangian particle trajectory models based on several altimetry-derived surface current products are used to hindcast the drifter trajectories observed in the eastern Gulf of Mexico during May to August 2010 (the Deepwater Horizon oil spill incident). The performances of the trajectory models are gauged in terms of Lagrangian separation distances (d) and a nondimensional skill score (s), respectively. A series of numerical experiments show that these altimetry-based trajectory models have about the same performance, with a certain improvement by adding surface wind Ekman components, especially over the shelf region. However, their hindcast skills are slightly better than those of the data assimilative numerical model output. After 3 days' simulation the altimetry-based trajectory models have mean d values of 75-83 and 34-42 km (s values of 0.49-0.51 and 0.35-0.43) in the Gulf of Mexico deep water area and on the West Florida Continental Shelf, respectively. These satellite altimetry data products are useful for providing essential information on ocean surface currents of use in water property transports, offshore oil and gas operations, hazardous spill mitigation, search and rescue, etc.

  20. Physico-chemical characterization of products from vacuum oil under delayed coking process by infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meléndez, L V; Cabanzo, R; Mejía-Ospino, E; Guzmán, A

    2016-01-01

    Eight vacuum residues and their delayed coking liquids products from Colombian crude were study by infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and principal component analysis (PCA). For the samples the structural parameters of aromaticity factor (fa), alifaticity (A2500-3100cm -1 ), aromatic condensation degree (GCA), length of aliphatic chains (LCA) and aliphatic chain length associated with aromatic (LACAR) were determined through the development of a methodology, which includes the previous processing of spectroscopy data, identifying the regions in the IR spectra of greatest variance using PCA and molecules patterns. The parameters were compared with the results obtained from proton magnetic resonance ( 1 H-NMR) and 13 C-NMR. The results showed the influence and correlation of structural parameters with some physicochemical properties such as API gravity, weight percent sulphur (% S) and Conradson carbon content (% CCR) (paper)

  1. Productive, economic and environmental effects of optimised feeding strategies in small-scale dairy farms in the Highlands of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Velarde-Guillén

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since most dairy production in developing countries comes from small farms, there is scope to reduce their contribution to greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. In the highlands of Mexico, the limitations in these systems are high feeding costs. This paper assessed the production, economics and estimated methane emissions from traditional feeding strategies (TFS in 22 small-scale dairy farms compared to optimised feeding strategies (OFS evaluated through on-farm research in eight participating farms in the dry (DS and in the rainy (RS seasons. Results were analysed with a completely randomized design. There were no differences (P>0.05 in milk fat, body condition score (BCS or live weight between TFS and OFS, but there was higher (P

  2. USE OF GUACIMO (Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. AS A FORAGE SOURCE FOR EXTENSIVE LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN A TROPICAL AREA OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elena Nava-Tablada

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the traditional uses of guacimo (Guazuma ulmifolia Lam, compared to other local forage resources for livestock. The expectative of farmers on the use of trees as alternative sources of forage in Angostillo, Paso de Ovejas, Veracruz, Mexico was also investigated. Data was collected through interviews and direct observation. All farmers practice ranching and 85% combine animal production with crop cultivation; allocating 40% of their land to corn and 60% to dual purpose cattle production. The principal uses of guacimo are as forage, firewood, timber, shade, and living fence posts. Guacimo has the highest value as forage compared to other local fodder trees such as guaje de indio (Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson, espino (Acacia cavenia Mol. and huizache (A. farnesiana Willd.. Farmers showed interest in establishing silvopastoral systems including forage banks using guacimo. However, they foresaw limitations due to a lack of consulting, agronomic training and financial support to establish the crops.

  3. Uranium and thorium occurrences in New Mexico: distribution, geology, production, and resources. Appendix 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLemore, V.T.

    1983-09-01

    The following compilation of uranium and thorium occurrences, prospects, deposits, and mines and their descriptions is the most comprehensive tabulation of natural-occurring radioactive occurrences in New Mexico to date. It is possible that many additional occurrences will be discovered in the future. For the purposes of this compilation any locality where uranium or thorium mineralization is reported or produced, or where uranium or thorium concentration exceeds 0.001%, or where the radioactivity is twice background radioactivity or greater is considered an occurrence

  4. Delayed fungal evolution did not cause the Paleozoic peak in coal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Matthew P; DiMichele, William A; Peters, Shanan E; Boyce, C Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Organic carbon burial plays a critical role in Earth systems, influencing atmospheric O2 and CO2 concentrations and, thereby, climate. The Carboniferous Period of the Paleozoic is so named for massive, widespread coal deposits. A widely accepted explanation for this peak in coal production is a temporal lag between the evolution of abundant lignin production in woody plants and the subsequent evolution of lignin-degrading Agaricomycetes fungi, resulting in a period when vast amounts of lignin-rich plant material accumulated. Here, we reject this evolutionary lag hypothesis, based on assessment of phylogenomic, geochemical, paleontological, and stratigraphic evidence. Lignin-degrading Agaricomycetes may have been present before the Carboniferous, and lignin degradation was likely never restricted to them and their class II peroxidases, because lignin modification is known to occur via other enzymatic mechanisms in other fungal and bacterial lineages. Furthermore, a large proportion of Carboniferous coal horizons are dominated by unlignified lycopsid periderm with equivalent coal accumulation rates continuing through several transitions between floral dominance by lignin-poor lycopsids and lignin-rich tree ferns and seed plants. Thus, biochemical composition had little relevance to coal accumulation. Throughout the fossil record, evidence of decay is pervasive in all organic matter exposed subaerially during deposition, and high coal accumulation rates have continued to the present wherever environmental conditions permit. Rather than a consequence of a temporal decoupling of evolutionary innovations between fungi and plants, Paleozoic coal abundance was likely the result of a unique combination of everwet tropical conditions and extensive depositional systems during the assembly of Pangea.

  5. The world economy of petroleum products and the strategy of a petroleum company from exporting country: Cases of SONATRACH (Algeria), KPC (Kuwait), PEMEX (Mexico), PDVSA (Venezuela). First volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preure, M.

    1992-12-01

    This thesis contains 2 volumes. In this first volume, the author describes in a first part the world economy of petroleum and natural gas products: Historical aspects and relationships between the different actors; General structure of the world economy of petroleum and gas products and actual trends. In a second part, the relationships between petroleum products, national economic development and problem of technology conservation are studied. The cases of Algeria, Kuwait, Mexico and Venezuela are given. 258 refs., 103 tabs

  6. Productivity differences and food security: a metafrontier analysis of rain-fed maize farmers in MasAgro in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laura Donnet

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rain-fed maize production in Mexico includes approximately 6 million hectares which variation in productivity represents huge challenges to meeting the sustainable intensification goals of the Sustainable Modernization of Traditional Agriculture (MasAgro program. We use the information available from farmers participating in this program to investigate the differences in productivity and the effects of the promoted practices and technologies in seven defined rain-fed maize regions. We do this by applying metafrontier analysis to measure the technical efficiency and the technology gap. The results show a range of technical efficiency from 70 to 100%, which indicates the gains that can be achieved through improved management of the current inputs and practices of farmers in the program, and a range of the environment–technology gap between 32 and 82%, which indicates the limitations of the production environment which would require innovations in technologies and policies particularly adapted for the dry, the tropical and the more traditional regions. Furthermore, the results show that the use of hybrid seed and selling into maize markets have the largest impact in increasing maize yields in all regions. The difference between the MasAgro farmers and the average farmers in each region suggest that scaling the project will contribute to increasing maize production and Mexico’s food self-sufficiency.

  7. Is there willingness to buy and pay a surcharge for agro-ecological products? Case study of the production of vegetables in Xochimilco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revollo-Fernández, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Around the world there are approximately 2.5 trillion small-scale farmers, most of them subsistence farmers. In the 1970s the green revolution unfolded, which brought benefits to some producers, but it also brought costs, especially for small producers. Agro-ecology is presented as an alternative, but it is necessary to examine whether it is accepted in the markets, especially in developing countries. This study proves that there is a potential market, in this case in Mexico, but that it will depend on some socio-economic variables such as age, income, gender, product information, among others. Similarly, it is evident that buyers are willing to make an additional payment as compensation. Agro-ecology should not be considered as subsistence farming incompatible with the markets. It offers good prospects for increasing production and improving the sustainability of agriculture in marginal areas with few economic resources. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Gender, aging, and work: aging workers' strategies to confront the demands of production in maquiladora plants in nogales, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adarga, Mireya Scarone; Becerril, Leonor Cedillo; Champion, Catalina Denman

    2010-01-01

    This work is part of a qualitative socio-cultural investigation with a group of men and women 40 years and older in the maquila export industry in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. In 1994, as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement, maquila plants combined traditional intensive work methods with new "just in time" production norms that impacted work and health conditions, particularly in older, or aging, workers. The workers that were interviewed for this study show a reduction in their functional ability to work starting at 40 years of age. Work organization demands, general health conditions, and a decrease in physical abilities brings these 40-year-old workers to prematurely construct an image of themselves as aging workers and to develop coping strategies that vary by gender.

  9. Sediment porewater toxicity assessment studies in the vicinity of offshore oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R. S.; Chapman, D. C.; Presley, B. J.; Biedenbach, J. M.; Robertson, L.

    1996-01-01

    Sediment chemical analyses and porewater toxicity tests were conducted in the vicinity of five offshore oil and gas platforms in the Gulf of Mexico to determine the potential long-term environmental impacts of offshore oil and gas exploration and production. Evidence of toxicity was obtained from four of the five platforms from data on sea urchin fertilization and embryonic development. The majority of toxic samples were collected within 150 m of the platform. Sediment concentrations of several metals were well in excess of sediment quality assessment guidelines at a number of stations. Porewater metal concentrations were found to be high enough to account for the observed toxicity. The general conclusion reached from these toxicity tests was that the contaminant-induced impacts from the offshore platforms were confined to a limited area in the immediate vicinity of the platform. 23 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs

  10. Microbial risk assessment of Vibrio spp. in seafood products in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla M López-Hernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne diseases are among the major public health problems that currently exist. Microbiological risk assessment is a process used to evaluate the hidden hazards in food, the likelihood of exposure to these hazards and their impact on public health. Risk assessment is performed in four steps: hazard identification, hazard characterization, assessment of exposure and risk characterization. According to the process/response microbial risk assessment is classified in two categories, qualitative and quantitative. The aim of this review is to underline the importance of implementing assessments in seafood that is usually consumed raw, strengthening access to good quality and safe food for the consumer’s benefit and to stress the necessity of microbiological risks assessments in Mexico.

  11. [Population dynamics, urban structure, and production of living space in the metropolitan zone of Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schteingart, M

    1989-01-01

    "In this article, an attempt is made to account for certain trends in the growth and distribution of the population, and in the structuring of living space in the metropolitan zone of Mexico City.... Among the important conclusions of this essay are those having to do with the huge growth of some political-administrative units and the relation of this phenomenon to the practices followed by private realtors, often articulated with the policies and programs set by the State's housing agencies, as well as those that associate urban growth and expansion with the development of habitational spaces within the so-called 'formal' and 'informal' housing sectors." Data are from Mexican censuses and other official sources. (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  12. The world economy of petroleum products and the strategy of a petroleum company from exporting country: Cases of SONATRACH (Algeria), KPC (Kuwait), PEMEX (Mexico), PDVSA (Venezuela). Second volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preure, M.

    1992-12-01

    This thesis contains 2 volumes. In this second volume, the author describes the industrial and technological developments and the strategy of petroleum companies in exporting countries. The main industrial strategies studied are national integration strategy in a planned economy (case of Algeria) or in a controlled-liberal economy (case of Mexico) and international integration strategies to the lower part of petroleum industry and external growth (cases of Kuwait and Venezuela). Technological strategies studied are development of a national engineering, information, research programs/ development and innovation. The last chapter takes stock of research and development programs for petroleum products (case of Mexico) . 258 refs., 103 tabs

  13. Where Does the Delay in L2 Picture Naming Come from? Psycholinguistic and Neurocognitive Evidence on Second Language Word Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanulova, Jana; Davidson, Douglas J.; Indefrey, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Bilinguals are slower when naming a picture in their second language than when naming it in their first language. Although the phenomenon has been frequently replicated, it is not known what causes the delay in the second language. In this article we discuss at what processing stages a delay might arise according to current models of bilingual…

  14. Review of fission product yields and delayed neutron data for the actinides NP-237, PU-242, AM-242M, AM-243, CM-243 and CM-245

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, R.W.

    1990-07-01

    A review of fission product yields and delayed neutron data for Np-237, Pu-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-243 and Cm-245 has been undertaken. Gaps in understanding and inconsistencies in existing data were identified and priority areas for further experimental, theoretical and evaluation investigation detailed

  15. Adaptive pathways and coupled infrastructure: seven centuries of adaptation to water risk and the production of vulnerability in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Tellman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure development is central to the processes that abate and produce vulnerabilities in cities. Urban actors, especially those with power and authority, perceive and interpret vulnerability and decide when and how to adapt. When city managers use infrastructure to reduce urban risk in the complex, interconnected city system, new fragilities are introduced because of inherent system feedbacks. We trace the interactions between system dynamics and decision-making processes over 700 years of Mexico City's adaptations to water risks, focusing on the decision cycles of public infrastructure providers (in this case, government authorities. We bring together two lenses in examining this history: robustness-vulnerability trade-offs to explain the evolution of systemic risk dynamics mediated by feedback control, and adaptation pathways to focus on the evolution of decision cycles that motivate significant infrastructure investments. Drawing from historical accounts, archeological evidence, and original research on water, engineering, and cultural history, we examine adaptation pathways of humans settlement, water supply, and flood risk. Mexico City's history reveals insights that expand the theory of coupled infrastructure and lessons salient to contemporary urban risk management: (1 adapting by spatially externalizing risks can backfire: as cities expand, such risks become endogenous; (2 over time, adaptation pathways initiated to address specific risks may begin to intersect, creating complex trade-offs in risk management; and (3 city authorities are agents of risk production: even in the face of new exogenous risks (climate change, acknowledging and managing risks produced endogenously may prove more adaptive. History demonstrates that the very best solutions today may present critical challenges for tomorrow, and that collectively people have far more agency in and influence over the complex systems we live in than is often acknowledged.

  16. Beyond SHARP-- Primary Formaldehyde from Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaguer, E. P.

    2010-12-01

    Formaldehyde has been named by the EPA as a hazardous air pollutant that may be carcinogenic and also cause irritation to the eyes, nose, throat and lung. Moreover, it is a powerful radical and ozone precursor. The 2009 Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors (SHARP) was conceived by the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) on behalf of the Texas Environmental Research Consortium (TERC) to examine the relative importance of primary and secondary formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrous acid (HONO) in ozone formation. SHARP confirmed that primary combustion sources of HCHO, such as flares end engines, may be underestimated (by an order of magnitude or more) in official emission inventories used for the purpose of air quality modeling in highly industrialized areas such as Houston. This presentation provides recently generated modeling and observational evidence that the same may be true in both rural and urban areas with oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) activities, such as the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming and the Barnett Shale of Texas. Oil and gas E&P is increasing in the Gulf of Mexico region, particularly in the Barnett, Haynesville, Eagle Ford, Cana-Woodford, and Fayetteville shale basins. In the Barnett Shale, E&P activities are moving into urban neighborhoods, and may affect the ability to bring the Dallas-Ft. Worth region into attainment of the federal ozone standard. Data concerning formaldehyde emissions from drill rig and pipeline compressor engines, flares, and glycol or amine reboilers, should be obtained in order to more accurately model air quality in the Gulf of Mexico region.

  17. Frequent Shifts in Aspergillus flavus Populations Associated with Maize Production in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Beltran, A; Cotty, P J

    2018-03-01

    Aspergillus flavus frequently contaminates maize, a critical staple for billions of people, with aflatoxins. Diversity among A. flavus L morphotype populations associated with maize in Sonora, Mexico was assessed and, in total, 869 isolates from 83 fields were placed into 136 vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) using nitrate-nonutilizing mutants. VCG diversity indices did not differ in four agroecosystems (AES) but diversity significantly differed among years. Frequencies of certain VCGs changed manyfold over single years in both multiple fields and multiple AES. Certain VCGs were highly frequent (>1%) in 2006 but frequencies declined repeatedly in each of the two subsequent years. Other VCGs that had low frequencies in 2006 increased in 2007 and subsequently declined. None of the VCGs were consistently associated with any AES. Fourteen VCGs were considered dominant in at least a single year. However, frequencies often varied significantly among years. Only 9% of VCGs were detected all 3 years whereas 66% were detected in only 1 year. Results suggest that the most realistic measurements of both genetic diversity and the frequency of A. flavus VCGs are obtained by sampling multiple locations in multiple years. Single-season sampling in many locations should not be substituted for sampling over multiple years.

  18. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Electric power production and distribution equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.S.; Miller, R.W.

    1988-09-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for electric power production and distribution equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for electric power production and distribution equipment

  19. Possible effects of the Worldwide production of ethanol in two of the main countries that imports corn. South Korea and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Martínez González

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available South Korea is the second largest importer of corn and Mexico is the third. Although the corn has its origin in this country, since 1994 Mexico has become one of the major importers in the world. This essay examines the possible economic implications for Mexico and Korea for the increased production of ethanol from corn. The analysis parts of the close relationship of three interconnected problems, which are at the root of the current energy crisis: global warming, oil crisis and biofuel production. This is causing a global food crisis. The production of ethanol from corn is emerging as an alternative that may address global warming and attacking the alleged shortage of oil, which has resulted in rising prices. The point in discussion is what are the possible effects of policies to induce the production of biofuels (ethanol on the main importers of corn. That’s why the current status of the ethanol industry is analyzed, whose main protagonists on the world stage are the United States and Brazil. Then we made a brief analysis of the market of corn. Finally, based on the foregoing, we reflect on the possible implications it might have on the development of food production of etanol.

  20. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from Mexico. 93.427 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for immediate return to Mexico or...

  1. Alternative fabrication scheme to study effects of rework of nonconforming products and delayed differentiation on a multiproduct supply-chain system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Shyi Peter Chiu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study uses an alternative fabrication scheme to study the effect of rework of nonconforming items and delayed differentiation on a multiproduct supply-chain system. Traditional economic production quantity model focuses on a single-product inventory system where all products made are assumed to be perfect quality and finished products are issued continuously. To increase machine utilization, lower quality costs in production, and reflect the real-world vendor-buyer integrated systems Chiu et al. (2016a [Chiu, Y-S.P., Kuo, J-S., Chiu, S. W., Hsieh, Y-T. (2016a. Effect of delayed differentiation on a multiproduct vendor–buyer integrated inventory system with rework. Advances in Production Engineering & Management, 11(4, 333-344.] employed a single-machine two-stage production scheme to study the effects of rework and delayed differentiation on a multi-product supply-chain system. With the intention of further reducing fabrication cycle time, this study considers an alternative two-machine two-stage fabrication scheme to re-explore the problem in Chiu et al. (2016a. Machine one solely produces all common parts for multiple end products. Then, machine two fabricates the customized multiproduct using a common cycle time strategy. Through the use of mathematical modeling and analyses, the optimal production cycle length and distribution policy are derived. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate practical usage of the research results, and show its significant benefit in reducing fabrication cycle time compared to that obtained from prior studies that used different schemes.

  2. Variations of net ecosystem production due to seasonal precipitation differences in a tropical dry forest of northwest Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduzco, Vivian S.; Garatuza-Payán, Jaime; Yépez, Enrico A.; Watts, Christopher J.; Rodríguez, Julio C.; Robles-Morua, Agustin; Vivoni, Enrique R.

    2015-10-01

    Due to their large extent and high primary productivity, tropical dry forests (TDF) are important contributors to atmospheric carbon exchanges in subtropical and tropical regions. In northwest Mexico, a bimodal precipitation regime that includes winter precipitation derived from Pacific storms and summer precipitation from the North American monsoon (NAM) couples water availability with ecosystem processes. We investigated the net ecosystem production of a TDF ecosystem using a 4.5 year record of water and carbon fluxes obtained from the eddy covariance method complemented with remotely sensed data. We identified a large CO2 efflux at the start of the summer season that is strongly related to the preceding winter precipitation and greenness. Since this CO2 efflux occurs prior to vegetation green-up, we infer that respiration is mainly due to decomposition of soil organic matter accumulated from the prior growing season. Overall, ecosystem respiration has an important effect on the net ecosystem production but can be overwhelmed by the strength of the primary productivity during the NAM. Precipitation characteristics during NAM have significant controls on sustaining carbon fixation in the TDF into the fall season. We identified that a threshold of ~350 to 400 mm of monsoon precipitation leads to a switch in the annual carbon balance in the TDF ecosystem from a net source (+102 g C/m2/yr) to a net sink (-249 g C/m2/yr). This monsoonal precipitation threshold is typically exceeded one out of every 2 years. The close coupling of winter and summer periods with respect to carbon fluxes suggests that the annual carbon balance is dependent on precipitation amounts in both seasons in TDF ecosystems.

  3. Competitiveness of shallow water hydrocarbon development projects in Mexico after 2015 actualization of fiscal reforms: Economic benchmark of new production sharing agreement versus typical U.S. federal lease terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijermars, Ruud; Zhai, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Development of Mexican hydrocarbon reservoirs by foreign operators has become possible under Mexico's new Hydrocarbon Law, effective as per January 2015. Our study compares the economic returns of shallow water fields in the Gulf of Mexico applying the royalty and taxes due under the fiscal regimes of the U.S. and Mexico. The net present value (NPV) of the base case scenario is US$1.4 billion, assuming standard development and production cost (opex, capex), 10% discount rate accounting for the cost of capital and revenues computed using a reference oil price of $75/bbl. The impact on NPV of oil price volatility is accounted for in a sensitivity analysis. The split of the NPV of shallow water hydrocarbon assets between the two contractual parties, contractor and government, in Mexico and the U.S. is hugely different. Our base case shows that for similar field assets, Mexico's production sharing agreement allocates about $1,150 million to the government and $191 million to the contractor, while under U.S. license conditions the government take is about $700 million and contractor take is $553 million. The current production sharing agreement leaves some marginal shallow water fields in Mexico undeveloped for reasons detailed and quantified in our study. - Highlights: •Mexico's Energy Reform opens up the country to foreign petroleum companies. •Contractor and government takes are compared under each jurisdiction. •Contract terms for Mexico are much less favorable than those offered by the U.S.

  4. Energy use and production, demography and the world-market oil price-influencing twenty years of economic performance and environment degradation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Lemus, Luis Gerardo [SUNY College of Environmental Science & Forestry (United States)

    1997-07-01

    I present a compilation of data describing Mexico's economic performance as it relates to demographic and natural resource characteristics. Statistical correlations suggest that long term economic output and energy efficiency are influenced mostly by human population numbers and fuel consumption rate, although its fluctuations have been clearly driven by those of the world-market oil price throughout 1970-90. Neither energy production, agricultural yield, OPEC's oil price or forest coverage appeared important in determining Mexican GDP response for this 20-year period. Significant relations of these fluctuations were found also in the rates of deforestation, air pollution and agricultural production, being all of these variables seemingly independent of the intrinsic human population growth rate. I discuss how Mexico could bridge the GDP gap with its current Nafta partners from this system-energy perspective. [Spanish] Presento una coleccion de datos que describen el comportamiento de la economia de Mexico relacionado con las caracteristicas demograficas y de sus recursos naturales. Las correlaciones estadisticas sugieren que la produccion economica a largo plazo y la eficiencia de la energia estan influenciadas principalmente por las cifras de poblacion humana y por el regimen de consumo de combustible, si bien sus fluctuaciones han sido claramente impulsadas por los precios del petroleo en mercado mundial a traves de 1970 a 1990. Ni la produccion de energia, el rendimiento agricola, el precio del petroleo de OPEC o la extension de los bosques resultaron importantes en la determinacion de la respuesta del PIB de Mexico para este periodo de 20 anos. Se encontraron relaciones significativas de estas fluctuaciones tambien en los regimenes de deforestacion, contaminacion del aire y produccion agricola, siendo todas esta variables de forma similar independientes de regimen intrinseco del crecimiento de la poblacion humana. Analizo como podria Mexico salvar la

  5. Delayed fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsukawa, Yuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    Delayed fission is a nuclear decay process that couples {beta} decay and fission. In the delayed fission process, a parent nucleus undergoes {beta} decay and thereby populates excited states in the daughter. If these states are of energies comparable to or greater than the fission barrier of the daughter, then fission may compete with other decay modes of the excited states in the daughter. In this paper, mechanism and some experiments of the delayed fission will be discussed. (author)

  6. Mexico; Mexique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes the key energy data for Mexico: 1 - energy organizations and policy: Ministry of energy (SENER), Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE), Ministry of Finances, Ministry of trade and industrial development (SECOFI), national commission for energy savings (CONAE); 2 - companies: federal commission of electricity (CFE), Minera Carbonifera Rio Escondido (MICARE - coal), Pemex (petroleum); 3 - energy production: resources, electric power, petroleum, natural gas; 4 - energy consumption; 5 - stakes and perspectives. Some economic and energy indicators are summarized in a series of tables: general indicators, supply indicators (reserves, refining and electric capacity, energy production, foreign trade), demand indicators (consumption trends, end use, energy independence, energy efficiency, CO{sub 2} emissions), energy status per year and per energy source. (J.S.)

  7. Limits for hydrogen production of a solar - hydrogen system in Cuernavaca, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arriaga, H.L.G.; Gutierrez, S.L.; Cano, U.

    2006-01-01

    In this work experimental data are used in order to estimate the production of hydrogen as a function of irradiance of a direct-interconnection of solar panel system with a SPE (Solid Polymer Electrolyte) electrolyzer (also Solar-Hydrogen system). The solar - hydrogen system, consists of a photovoltaic solar array of 36 panels (75 Watts each) of monocrystalline silicon interconnected with an electrolyzer stack of 25 cells (around 100 cm 2 of geometrical area) with a maximum hydrogen production of 1 Nm 3 /h. By the use of voltage, current density, energy consumption values of the whole solar-hydrogen system, an average efficiency up to 5% was estimated and an average of 3,800 NL of hydrogen per day can be expected. Also the maximum hydrogen production for the months of July and December (sunniest and least sunny months in the location) is predicted. (authors)

  8. Limits for hydrogen production of a solar - hydrogen system in Cuernavaca, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriaga, H.L.G.; Gutierrez, S.L.; Cano, U. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas Av. Reforma 113, col. Palmira c.p.62490 Cuernavaca Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In this work experimental data are used in order to estimate the production of hydrogen as a function of irradiance of a direct-interconnection of solar panel system with a SPE (Solid Polymer Electrolyte) electrolyzer (also Solar-Hydrogen system). The solar - hydrogen system, consists of a photovoltaic solar array of 36 panels (75 Watts each) of monocrystalline silicon interconnected with an electrolyzer stack of 25 cells (around 100 cm{sup 2} of geometrical area) with a maximum hydrogen production of 1 Nm{sup 3}/h. By the use of voltage, current density, energy consumption values of the whole solar-hydrogen system, an average efficiency up to 5% was estimated and an average of 3,800 NL of hydrogen per day can be expected. Also the maximum hydrogen production for the months of July and December (sunniest and least sunny months in the location) is predicted. (authors)

  9. Sediment porewater toxicity assessment studies in the vicinity of offshore oil and gas production platforms in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C.; Presley, B.J.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Robertson, L.; Boothe, P.; Kilada, R.; Wade, T.; Montagna, P.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary program to assess the potential long-term impacts of offshore oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Gulf of Mexico, sediment chemical analyses and porewater toxicity tests were conducted in the vicinity of five offshore platforms. Based on data from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development assays, toxicity was observed near four of the five platforms sampled; the majority of the toxic samples were collected within 150 m of a platform. There was excellent agreement among the results of porewater tests with three different species (sea urchin embryological development, polychaete reproduction, and copepod nauplii survival). The sediment concentrations of several metals were well in excess of sediment quality assessment guidelines at a number of stations, and good agreement was observed between predicted and observed toxicity. Porewater metal concentrations compared with EC50, LOEC, and NOEC values generated for water-only exposures indicated that the porewater concentrations for several metals were high enough to account for the observed toxicity. Results of these studies utilizing highly sensitive toxicity tests suggest that the contaminant-induced impacts from offshore platforms are limited to a localized area in the immediate vicinity of the platforms. 

  10. Proposal of Organizational Innovation for The Creation of Sme’s Products Exotic in A Community Indigenous Totonaca in Papantla, Veracruz, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Dra. Bertha Alicia Arce Castro; Dr. Jorge Ramírez Juárez; Dra. Rosa María Sánchez Hernández

    2013-01-01

    In this work we’re given the results obtained after a year of improvement and application of a new model called Model of organizational change for the creation of small and medium-sized companies in non-traditional products, into a Totonaca a community in Veracruz, Mexico. Thisproposal has been designed to answer the under treatment of technical literature about rural family business, satisfying the lack of General models, which doesn’t respond to identified needs in farming communities with ...

  11. Soil types and limiting factors in agricultural production in the San Fernando district, Tamaulipas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa Ramirez, M.; Garza Cedillo, R.; Andrade limas, E.; Belmonte Serrato, F.

    2009-01-01

    The limiting factors in agricultural production, defined as those properties and characteristics of the geographical environment that influence the development of crops, can be diverse and are grouped with the physical environment of soil. They are the result of soil characteristics and soil degradation processes by anthropogenic influence. Due to the above, the objective of this study was to identify and surveying the limitative factors to agricultural production, as well as to define its ability land use capacity in San Fernando district, Tamaulipas. (Author) 7 refs.

  12. Strong-field Breit–Wheeler pair production in two consecutive laser pulses with variable time delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J.A. Jansen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Photoproduction of electron–positron pairs by the strong-field Breit–Wheeler process in an intense laser field is studied. The laser field is assumed to consist of two consecutive short pulses, with a variable time delay in between. By numerical calculations within the framework of scalar quantum electrodynamics, we demonstrate that the time delay exerts a strong impact on the pair-creation probability. For the case when both pulses are identical, the effect is traced back to the relative quantum phase of the interfering S-matrix amplitudes and explained within a simplified analytical model. Conversely, when the two laser pulses differ from each other, the pair-creation probability depends not only on the time delay but, in general, also on the temporal order of the pulses.

  13. The opportunity cost of family labor in the economy of the dairy production in Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Alexis Jiménez Jiménez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze associated factors with the variation of the profit margin and the influence of the opportunity cost of family labor in the economic profit of the family dairy in the municipality of Maravatio, Michoacan. Productive economic information was obtained through the use of questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and direct observation, using the methodology of Participatory Action Research. The opportunity cost of workforce was established on the basis of the work options for the family members involved in the activity; the options were classified into three types: local, regional, and foreign, according to the location of the job opportunities. In order to determine the influence of family labor in earning, it was used a multiple regression model with inclusion of step-by-step variables. The livestock feed represented the highest index of determination of the profit margin variation with the 68 %. Family labor is one of the variables that have an adverse impact on the profitability of the production units, it represented 26% of the variation of economic gain, with a negative linear relation of -1.05 (P ≤0.001. The best labor alternatives for producers, when emigrating, show that family labor is not the productive factor allowing them to have earnings; however, the dairy activity provides productive and economic sustenance for people with a local and regional opportunity cost.

  14. Powering Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines Mexico's demand for electricity and the market for independent power generation. The topics discussed in the article include the outlook for the 1990s for growth in Mexico's economy and energy demand, renewable energy, energy conservation, small-scale, off-grid renewable energy systems, and estimates of Mexico's market for electric power generating equipment

  15. Direct application of geothermal energy at the L'eggs Product Plant, Las Cruces, New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The study program to determine the feasibility of interfacing a potential geothermal resource of Dona Ana County, New Mexico L'eggs Product industrial process is discussed in this final report. Five separate sites were evaluated initially as to geothermal potential and technical feasibility. Preliminary analysis revealed that three sites were considered normal, but that two sites (about three miles from the L'eggs Plant) had very high shallow subsurface temperature gradients (up to 14.85/sup 0/F/100 ft). An initial engineering analysis showed that to meet the L'eggs plant temperature and energy requirements a geothermal fluid temperature of about 250/sup 0/F and 200 gpm flow rate would be necessary. A brief economic comparison indicated that the L'eggs plant site and a geothermal site approximately four miles from the plant did merit further investigation. Detailed engineering and economic design and analysis of these two sites (including the drilling of an 1873 feet deep temperature gradient test hole at the L'eggs Plant) showed that development of the four mile distant site was technically feasible and was the more economic option. It was determined that a single-stage flash system interface design would be most appropriate for the L'eggs Plant. Approximately 39 billion Btu/yr of fossil fuel could be replaced with geothermal energy at the L'eggs facility for a total installed system cost of slightly over $2 million. The projected economic payback period was calculated to be 9.2 years before taxes. This payback was not considered acceptable by L'eggs Products, Inc., to merit additional design or construction work at this time.

  16. FORAGE YIELD, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND IN VITRO GAS PRODUCTION OF YELLOW HYBRID MAIZE GROWN IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizbeth Esmeralda Roblez Jimenez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the most important forage in feed cattle, due to its higher energy content, however, it is characterized by its wide range of varieties and the possibility of generating a large quantity of final products. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the forage yield, chemical composition and in vitro gas production as fresh and hay of a local yellow criollo maize and six varieties of yellow hybrid maize (HIT13, CML460, PIONER, COPPER, CDMO80001 and CLO80902. Fresh and dry yield did not show differences between treatments (P>0.05, their chemical composition (g / kg DM showed differences (P ˂ 0.05 for the protein content by various storage methods ranging from 59.87 to 59.61 g kg-1 DM per conservation method, NDF ranged from 591 to 686 g kg-1 DM by variety and by the method ranged from 619 to 639 g kg -1 DM, ADF ranged from 298 to 345 g kg-1 DM by variety and 317 to 340 g kg-1 DM by conservation method; ADL ranged from 58 to 41 g kg-1 DM by variety and 41 to 57 g kg-1 DM by conservation method, in vitro gas production  there were no differences (P>0.05 between varieties and conservation method. It is concluded that according to the results obtained, the varieties studied show the same forage yields in both hay and fresh, chemical composition, and in vitro gas production.

  17. Effects of High and Low Constraint Utterances on the Production of Immediate and Delayed Echolalia in Young Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Patrick J.; Mirenda, Pat

    1994-01-01

    Examination of the effects of adult antecedent utterances on echolalia in seven male children with autism (ages five and six) during free play found that most immediate echoes followed high constraint utterances and were used as responsives, organizational devices, and cognitives. Most delayed echoes followed low constraint utterances and were…

  18. Distortion-product otoacoustic emission reflection-component delays and cochlear tuning: Estimates from across the human lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdala, Carolina; Guérit, François; Luo, Ping

    2014-01-01

    components were extracted in 184 subjects ranging in age from prematurely born neonates to elderly adults. DPOAEs were measured from 0.5–4 kHz in all age groups and extended to 8 kHz in young adults. Delay trends were effectively estimated using either energy weighting or peak picking, with the former method...

  19. Mexico Geoid Heights (MEXICO97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Mexico, and North-Central America, is the MEXICO97 geoid model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine gravity...

  20. FORAGE PRODUCTIVITY IN AGROECOSYSTEMS USING TRADITIONAL AND ROTATIONAL CATTLE GRAZING IN PASO DE OVEJAS, VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bautista-Tolentino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Forage biomass and chemical composition of Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq. B.K. Simon & S.W.L. Jacobs were assessed in monoculture (P or associated with trees of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (PGu or Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp (PGs, under traditional (TG or rotational (RG cattle grazing regimes, by season of the year (windy: October-February, dry: March-June, and rainy: July-September and annually. Annual forage production (kg DM ha-1 under RG and TG was 8049±586 and 4170±319, respectively; 5441±2225 in P-TG, 2022±82 in PGs-TG, 12326±2094 in PGu-TG, 9612±1331 in PGs-RG, and 7976±737 in PGu-RG. Gliricidia sepium produced 1448±2 and 1660±3 kg DM ha-1 year-1 under PGs-TG and PGs-RG, respectively. Forage yield across plant associations and grazing regimes was higher in the rainy season (5333.6±56.7 kg DM ha-1, and decreased in the windy (2462±349.0 kg DM ha-1 and dry seasons (252.9±2 kg DM ha-1. The PGu system had the highest crude protein content annually (21.8 % and by season (23.1 %, windy, and also showed the least neutral detergent fiber content during the year (55.2 % and by season (55.2 %, rainy. Biomass production and chemical composition of M. maximus in monoculture or associated with G. ulmifolia and G. sepium can be increased by modifying the traditional grazing regimes to a more intensive rotational system during the growth period of the year.

  1. Identifying ingredients that delay outgrowth of Listeria monocytogenes in natural, organic, and clean-label ready-to-eat meat and poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Lindsey M; Glass, Kathleen A; Sindelar, Jeffrey J

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify ingredients that inhibit Listeria monocytogenes in natural, organic, or clean-label ready-to-eat meat and poultry products. Fourteen ingredients were screened in uncured (no-nitrate-or-nitrite-added), traditional-cured (156 ppm of purified sodium nitrite), cultured (alternative cured, natural nitrate source, and Staphylococcus carnosus), or preconverted (alternative cured, natural nitrite source) turkey slurries. Slurries were cooked, cooled, inoculated to yield 3 log CFU/ml L. monocytogenes, stored at 4°C, and tested weekly for 4 weeks. Three antimicrobial ingredients, 1.5 % vinegar-lemon-cherry powder blend, 2.5 % buffered vinegar, and 3.0 % cultured sugar-vinegar blend, were incorporated into alternative-cured ham and uncured roast beef and deli-style turkey breast. Controls included all three meat products without antimicrobial ingredients and a traditional-cured ham with 2.8 % sodium lactate-diacetate. Cooked, sliced products were inoculated with 3 log CFU/g L. monocytogenes, vacuum packed, and stored at 4 or 7°C, for up to 12 weeks. For control products without antimicrobial agents stored at 4°C, a 2-log L. monocytogenes increase was observed at 2 weeks for ham and turkey and at 4 weeks for roast beef. Growth (>1-log increase) in the sodium lactate-diacetate was delayed until week 6. Compared with the control, the addition of either vinegar-lemon-cherry powder blend or buffered vinegar delayed L. monocytogenes growth for an additional 2 weeks, while the addition of cultured sugar-vinegar blend delayed growth for an additional 4 weeks for both ham and turkey. The greatest L. monocytogenes delay was observed in roast beef containing any of the three antimicrobial ingredients, with no growth detected through 12 weeks at 4°C for all the treatments. As expected, L. monocytogenes grew substantially faster in products stored at 7°C than at 4°C. These data suggest that antimicrobial ingredients from a natural source

  2. Delayed Ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cases, it is due to a combination of physical and psychological concerns. Psychological causes of delayed ejaculation include: Depression, anxiety or other mental health conditions Relationship problems due to stress, poor communication ...

  3. Delayed growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Slow rate of growth; Retarded growth and development; Growth delay Images Toddler development References Cooke DW, Divall SA, Radovick S. Normal and aberrant growth in children. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, ...

  4. Contribution of family labour to the profitability and competitiveness of small-scale dairy production systems in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadas-Domínguez, Rodolfo Rogelio; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Martínez-Castañeda, Francisco Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the effect of family labour on the profitability and competitiveness of small-scale dairy farms in the highlands of Central Mexico. Economic data from 37 farms were analysed from a stratified statistical sampling with a Neyman assignment. Three strata were defined taking herd size as criterion. Stratum 1: herds from 3 to 9 cows plus replacements, Stratum 2: herds from 10 to 19 cows and Stratum 3: herds from 20 to 30 cows. The policy analysis matrix was used as the method to determine profitability and competitiveness. The coefficient of private profitability (CPP) when the economic cost of family labour is included in the cost structure was 8.0 %, 31.0 % and 46.0 %. When the economic cost of family labour is not included, CPP increase to 47.0 %, 57.0 % and 66.0 % for each strata, respectively. The private cost ratio (PCR) when family labour is included was 0.79, 0.51 and 0.42 for strata 1, 2 and 3, respectively. When family labour is not included, the PCR was 0.07, 0.25 and 0.26. Net profit per litre of milk including family labour was US$0.03 l(-1) for Stratum 1, US$0.09 for Stratum 2 and US$0.12 l(-1) for Stratum 3; but increased to $0.12, 0.14 and 0.15, respectively, when the economic cost of family labour is not included. It is concluded that family labour is a crucial factor in the profitability and competitiveness of small-scale dairy production.

  5. Petrophysical Characterization and Reservoir Simulator for Methane Gas Production from Gulf of Mexico Hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore Mohanty; Bill Cook; Mustafa Hakimuddin; Ramanan Pitchumani; Damiola Ogunlana; Jon Burger; John Shillinglaw

    2006-06-30

    Gas hydrates are crystalline, ice-like compounds of gas and water molecules that are formed under certain thermodynamic conditions. Hydrate deposits occur naturally within ocean sediments just below the sea floor at temperatures and pressures existing below about 500 meters water depth. Gas hydrate is also stable in conjunction with the permafrost in the Arctic. Most marine gas hydrate is formed of microbially generated gas. It binds huge amounts of methane into the sediments. Estimates of the amounts of methane sequestered in gas hydrates worldwide are speculative and range from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet (modified from Kvenvolden, 1993). Gas hydrate is one of the fossil fuel resources that is yet untapped, but may play a major role in meeting the energy challenge of this century. In this project novel techniques were developed to form and dissociate methane hydrates in porous media, to measure acoustic properties and CT properties during hydrate dissociation in the presence of a porous medium. Hydrate depressurization experiments in cores were simulated with the use of TOUGHFx/HYDRATE simulator. Input/output software was developed to simulate variable pressure boundary condition and improve the ease of use of the simulator. A series of simulations needed to be run to mimic the variable pressure condition at the production well. The experiments can be matched qualitatively by the hydrate simulator. The temperature of the core falls during hydrate dissociation; the temperature drop is higher if the fluid withdrawal rate is higher. The pressure and temperature gradients are small within the core. The sodium iodide concentration affects the dissociation pressure and rate. This procedure and data will be useful in designing future hydrate studies.

  6. Delayed power analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, L.A.; Azarov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    Time dependent core power behavior in a nuclear reactor is described with well-known neutron kinetics equations. At the same time, two portions are distinguished in energy released from uranium nuclei fission; one released directly at fission and another delayed (residual) portion produced during radioactive decay of fission products. While prompt power is definitely described with kinetics equations, the delayed power presentation still remains outstanding. Since in operation the delayed power part is relatively small (about 6%) operation, it can be neglected for small reactivity disturbances assuming that entire power obeys neutron kinetics equations. In case of a high negative reactivity rapidly inserted in core (e.g. reactor scram initiation) the prompt and delayed components can be calculated separately with practically no impact on each other, employing kinetics equations for prompt power and known approximation formulas for delayed portion, named residual in this specific case. Under substantial disturbances the prompt component in the dynamic process becomes commensurable with delayed portion, thus making necessary to take into account their cross impact. A system of differential equations to describe time-dependent behavior of delayed power is presented. Specific NPP analysis shows a way to significantly simplify the task formulation. (author)

  7. Aloe vera oral administration accelerates acute radiation-delayed wound healing by stimulating transforming growth factor-β and fibroblast growth factor production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiba, Ayman; Nishimura, Mayumi; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Hiraoka, Takeshi; Goryo, Masanobu; Shimada, Yoshiya; Ueno, Hiroshi; Uzuka, Yuji

    2011-06-01

    Delayed wound healing is a significant clinical problem in patients who have had previous irradiation. This study investigated the effectiveness of Aloe vera (Av) on acute radiation-delayed wound healing. The effect of Av was studied in radiation-exposed rats compared with radiation-only and control rats. Skin wounds were excised on the back of rats after 3 days of local radiation. Wound size was measured on days 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 after wounding. Wound tissues were examined histologically and the expressions of transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β-1) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were examined by immunohistochemistry and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Wound contraction was accelerated significantly by Av on days 6 and 12 after wounding. Furthermore, the inflammatory cell infiltration, fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition, angiogenesis, and the expression levels of TGF-β-1 and bFGF were significantly higher in the radiation plus Av group compared with the radiation-only group. These data showed the potential application of Av to improve the acute radiation-delayed wound healing by increasing TGF-β-1 and bFGF production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimal pricing and lot-sizing policies for an economic production quantity model with non-instantaneous deteriorating items, permissible delay in payments, customer returns, and inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoreishi, Maryam; Mirzazadeh, Abolfazl; Nakhai Kamalabadi, Isa

    2014-01-01

    . The effects of time value of money are studied using the Discounted Cash Flow approach. The main objective is to determine the optimal selling price, the optimal length of the production period, and the optimal length of inventory cycle simultaneously such that the present value of total profit is maximized....... An efficient algorithm is presented to find the optimal solution of the developed model. Finally, a numerical example is extracted to solve the presented inventory model using our proposed algorithm, and the effects of the customer returns, inflation, and delay in payments are also discussed....

  9. Thinning and prescribed fire and projected trends in wood product potential, financial return, and fire hazard in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Fight; R. James Barbour; Glenn Christensen; Guy L. Pinjuv; Rao V. Nagubadi

    2004-01-01

    This work was undertaken under a joint fire science project "Assessing the need, costs, and potential benefits of prescribed fire and mechanical treatments to reduce fire hazard." This paper compares the future mix of timber projects under two treatment scenarios for New Mexico.We developed and demonstrated an analytical method that uses readily available...

  10. Developmental delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition support is essential for the care of the child with developmental delay. After a thorough evaluation, an individualized intervention plan that accounts for the child’s nutrition status, feeding ability, and medical condition may be determined. Nutrition assessments may be performed at leas...

  11. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry from Mexico shall be inspected as provided in §§ 93.306 and 93.323; shall be accompanied by a...

  12. The Transfer of Core-Based Hazardous Production Processes to the Export Processing Zones of the Periphery: The Maquiladora Centers of Northern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Scott Frey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transnational corporations appropriate 'carrying capacity" for the core by transferring the core's hazardous products, production processes, and wastes to the peripheral countries of the world-system. An increasingly important form of this reproduction process is the transfer of core-based hazardous industries to export processing zones (EPZs locatedin a number of peripheral countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. A specific case is examined in this paper: the transfer of hazardous industries to the maquiladora centers located on the Mexican side of the Mexico-U.S. border. Maquiladoras provide an excellent case for examining what is known about the causes, adverse consequences, and political responses associated with the transfer of core-based hazardous production processes to the EPZs of the periphery.

  13. State policies and requirements for management of uranium mining and milling in New Mexico. Volume IV. The supply of electric power and natural gas fuel as possible constraints on uranium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, G.B.

    1980-04-01

    The report contained in this volume considers the availability of electric power to supply uranium mines and mills. The report, submited to Sandia Laboratories by the New Mexico Department of Energy and Minerals (EMD), is reproduced without modification. The state concludes that the supply of power, including natural gas-fueled production, will not constrain uranium production

  14. Characterizing Natural Gas Hydrates in the Deep Water Gulf of Mexico: Applications for Safe Exploration and Production Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, Jimmy

    2014-05-31

    In 2000 Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deep water portion of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Chevron is an active explorer and operator in the Gulf of Mexico and is aware that natural gas hydrates need to be understood to operate safely in deep water. In August 2000 Chevron worked closely with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and held a workshop in Houston, Texas to define issues concerning the characterization of natural gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, the workshop was meant to clearly show where research, the development of new technologies, and new information sources would be of benefit to the DOE and to the oil and gas industry in defining issues and solving gas hydrate problems in deep water.

  15. Property Analysis of the Real-Time Uncalibrated Phase Delay Product Generated by Regional Reference Stations and Its Influence on Precise Point Positioning Ambiguity Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The real-time estimation of the wide-lane and narrow-lane Uncalibrated Phase Delay (UPD of satellites is realized by real-time data received from regional reference station networks; The properties of the real-time UPD product and its influence on real-time precise point positioning ambiguity resolution (RTPPP-AR are experimentally analyzed according to real-time data obtained from the regional Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS network located in Tianjin, Shanghai, Hong Kong, etc. The results show that the real-time wide-lane and narrow-lane UPD products differ significantly from each other in time-domain characteristics; the wide-lane UPDs have daily stability, with a change rate of less than 0.1 cycle/day, while the narrow-lane UPDs have short-term stability, with significant change in one day. The UPD products generated by different regional networks have obvious spatial characteristics, thus significantly influencing RTPPP-AR: the adoption of real-time UPD products employing the sparse stations in the regional network for estimation is favorable for improving the regional RTPPP-AR up to 99%; the real-time UPD products of different regional networks slightly influence PPP-AR positioning accuracy. After ambiguities are successfully fixed, the real-time dynamic RTPPP-AR positioning accuracy is better than 3 cm in the plane and 8 cm in the upward direction.

  16. [Food security in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance.

  17. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  18. [A delayed motor production of open chains of linear strokes presented visually in static and dynamic modes: a comparison between 9 to 11 years old children and adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, A A; Absatova, K A; Korneev, A A; Kurgansky, A V

    2015-01-01

    The production of drawing movements was studied in 29 right-handed children of 9-to-11 years old. The movements were the sequences of horizontal and vertical linear stokes conjoined at right angle (open polygonal chains) referred to throughout the paper as trajectories. The length of a trajectory varied from 4 to 6. The trajectories were presented visually to a subject in static (linedrawing) and dynamic (moving cursor that leaves no trace) modes. The subjects were asked to draw (copy) a trajectory in response to delayed go-signal (short click) as fast as possible without lifting the pen. The production latency time, the average movement duration along a trajectory segment, and overall number of errors committed by a subject during trajectory production were analyzed. A comparison of children's data with similar data in adults (16 subjects) shows the following. First, a substantial reduction in error rate is observed in the age range between 9 and 11 years old for both static and dynamic modes of trajectory presentation, with children of 11 still committing more error than adults. Second, the averaged movement duration shortens with age while the latency time tends to increase. Third, unlike the adults, the children of 9-11 do not show any difference in latency time between static and dynamic modes of visual presentation of trajectories. The difference in trajectory production between adult and children is attributed to the predominant involvement of on-line programming in children and pre-programming in adults.

  19. Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolby, Nanna; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    . The underlying reasons for the large variation in the age at pubertal onset are not fully established; however, nutritional status and socioeconomic and environmental factors are known to be influencing, and a significant amount of influencing genetic factors have also been identified. The challenges...... optimal in discriminating especially CDGP from HH. Management of the delayed puberty depends on the etiology. For boys with CDGP an observational period will often reveal imminent puberty. If puberty is not progressing spontaneously, sex steroid replacement is effective in stimulating the development...

  20. Assessment and Analysis of QuikSCAT Vector Wind Products for the Gulf of Mexico: A Long-Term and Hurricane Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurico D’Sa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The northern Gulf of Mexico is a region that has been frequently impacted in recent years by natural disasters such as hurricanes. The use of remote sensing data such as winds from NASA’s QuikSCAT satellite sensor would be useful for emergency preparedness during such events. In this study, the performance of QuikSCAT products, including JPL’s latest Level 2B (L2B 12.5 km swath winds, were evaluated with respect to buoy-measured winds in the Gulf of Mexico for the period January 2005 to February 2007. Regression analyses indicated better accuracy of QuikSCAT’s L2B DIRTH, 12.5 km than the Level 3 (L3, 25 km wind product. QuikSCAT wind data were compared directly with buoy data keeping a maximum time interval of 20 min and spatial interval of 0.1° (≈10 km. R2 values for moderate wind speeds were 0.88 and 0.93 for L2B, and 0.75 and 0.89 for L3 for speed and direction, respectively. QuikSCAT wind comparisons for buoys located offshore were better than those located near the coast. Hurricanes that took place during 2002-06 were studied individually to obtain regressions of QuikSCAT versus buoys for those events. Results show QuikSCAT’s L2B DIRTH wind product compared well with buoys during hurricanes up to the limit of buoy measurements. Comparisons with the National Hurricane Center (NHC best track analyses indicated QuikSCAT winds to be lower than those obtained by NHC, possibly due to rain contamination, while buoy measurements appeared to be constrained at high wind speeds. This study has confirmed good agreement of the new QuikSCAT L2B product with buoy measurements and further suggests its potential use during extreme weather conditions in the Gulf of Mexico.

  1. Diagnostic delay among adults with pulmonary tuberculosis in a high gross domestic product per capita country: Reasons and magnitude of the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanis H Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Despite a favorable comparison to other countries, there is a substantial delay in the diagnosis of PTB in Qatar. Relevant actions including health education on TB are required to minimize this delay.

  2. Implementation of the method air-kerma product area in KAP camera calibration with reference qualities of X-ray series at the SSDL RQR of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cejudo, Jesus; Tovar, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    The X-Ray machines, at a reference laboratory for the instrument calibration in diagnostic radiology, should compliance with the ISO requirements. Sometimes there is not available as much laboratories as needed in Latin American countries. So this project shows the KAP ionization chamber implementation method using the TRS-457 radiation quality from the IAEA at the SSDL of Mexico. The KAP instruments calibration method consists in doing a substitution comparison using a standard reference with traceability to a primary laboratory and a transmission-monitoring chamber that measures the number of photons of the X-ray primary beam. A KAP chamber calibration requires a special array that consists in collocating the chamber in two different positions of its calibration process. Then, with air kerma-area product coefficient together with a corrected electrometer measure at referential conditions, the patient dosimetry magnitudes are calculated. The dosimetry necessity at hospitals always will be in function of possessing a highly reliable calibration coefficient chamber for making these measures. That dosimetry results will help in reducing the total or partial irradiation emitted to the human body of the patient. This is how stochastic risks will be lessened due to diagnostic studies. The purpose of this project is to have a synergy with calibration for making known that the SSDL of Mexico has the technical capacity to act as a link between primary standard dosimetry laboratories and the ionizing radiation equipment users who require that their KAP chamber have traceability from the primary standard to the user. (author)

  3. Uranium resources in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLemore, V.T.; Chenoweth, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    For nearly three decades (1951-1980), the Grants uranium district in northwestern New Mexico produced more uranium than any other district in the world. The most important host rocks containing economic uranium deposits in New Mexico are sandstones within the Jurassic Morrison Formation. Approximately 334,506,000 lb of U 3 O 8 were produced from this unit from 1948 through 1987, accounting for 38% of the total uranium production from the US. All of the economic reserves and most of the resources in New Mexico occur in the Morrison Formation. Uranium deposits also occur in sandstones of Paleozoic, Triassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary formations; however, only 468,680 lb of U 3 O 8 or 0.14% of the total production from New Mexico have been produced from these deposits. Some of these deposits may have a high resource potential. In contrast, almost 6.7 million lb of U 3 O 8 have been produced from uranium deposits in the Todilto Limestone of the Wanakah Formation (Jurassic), but potential for finding additional economic uranium deposits in the near future is low. Other uranium deposits in New Mexico include those in other sedimentary rocks, vein-type uranium deposits, and disseminated magmatic, pegmatitic, and contact metasomatic uranium deposits in igneous and metamorphic rocks. Production from these deposits have been insignificant (less than 0.08% of the total production from New Mexico), but there could be potential for medium to high-grade, medium-sized uranium deposits in some areas. Total uranium production from New Mexico from 1948 to 1987 amounts to approximately 341,808,000 lb of U 3 O 8 . New Mexico has significant uranium reserves and resources. Future development of these deposits will depend upon an increase in price for uranium and lowering of production costs, perhaps by in-situ leaching techniques

  4. Deep Production Well for Geothermal Direct-Use Heating of A Large Commercial Greenhouse, Radium Springs, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James C. Witcher

    2002-01-01

    Expansion of a large commercial geothermally-heated greenhouse is underway and requires additional geothermal fluid production. This report discusses the results of a cost-shared U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and A.R. Masson, Inc. drilling project designed to construct a highly productive geothermal production well for expansion of the large commercial greenhouse at Radium Springs. The well should eliminate the potential for future thermal breakthrough from existing injection wells and the inducement of inflow from shallow cold water aquifers by geothermal production drawdown in the shallow reservoir. An 800 feet deep production well, Masson 36, was drilled on a US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Geothermal Lease NM-3479 at Radium Springs adjacent to the A. R. Masson Radium Springs Farm commercial greenhouse 15 miles north of Las Cruces in Dona Ana County, New Mexico just west of Interstate 25 near the east bank of the Rio Grande. The area is in the Rio Grande rift, a tectonically-active region with high heat flow, and is one of the major geothermal provinces in the western United State

  5. Ethnobotanical, micrographic and pharmacological features of plant-based weight-loss products sold in naturist stores in Mexico City: the need for better quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Marta Arenas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of dietary supplements and herbal mixtures to promote weight loss is a common practice in the West. This study was undertaken in Mexico City, surveying stores selling "natural products" at subway stations. The aims of this paper were as follows: to compile a record of plant products marketed as slimming aids and of retailer perceptions of these products; to review the pharmacological and ethnobotanical literature on the species declared; and to create an optical micrograph of a subset of products to verify the accuracy of the list of component plant species shown on the labels. We applied the techniques of observation, semi-structured interviews and free-listing at the retail stores. Results are presented for the 75 species recorded in the 41 weight-loss products surveyed, showing which plant parts are used, the geographical distribution of the species, pharmacological effects, dosage, route of administration and method of preparation, as well as ethnobotanical information derived from fieldwork. We discuss the values assigned to the species used. Microscopic analyses revealed that many of the plant ingredients declared were absent, highlighting the need for greater quality control and safety of these herbal remedies.

  6. Impaired gamete production and viability in Atlantic croaker collected throughout the 20,000 km(2) hypoxic region in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Peter; Rahman, Md Saydur; Picha, Matthew E; Tan, Wenxian

    2015-12-15

    The long-term impacts of recent marked increases in the incidence and extent of hypoxia (dissolved oxygen Gulf of Mexico. Potential fecundity was significantly lower in croaker collected throughout the ~20,000 km(2) hypoxic region than in croaker from normoxic sites. In vitro bioassays of gamete viability showed reductions in oocyte maturation and sperm motility in croaker collected from the hypoxic sites in response to reproductive hormones which were accompanied by decreases in gonadal levels of membrane progestin receptor alpha, the receptor regulating these processes. The finding that environmental hypoxia exposure reduces oocyte viability in addition to decreasing oocyte production in croaker suggests that fecundity estimates need to be adjusted to account for the decrease in oocyte maturation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. All projects related to mexico | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Argentina, South America, Mexico, North and Central America, Peru ... West Indies, Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Mexico ... which interact in the diffusion, production and use of new and economically useful ...

  8. Distributed power production in Mexico and Argentina: what are the new perspectives linked with the institutional reforms of the electric power sector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islas, J.; Menanteau, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the power systems are made from the progressive aggregation of small size local networks. Todays, this structure shows its limitations with an apparent exhausting of the gains linked with the size of production units, with the increasing difficulties to develop new transportation infrastructures, and with a fast performance improvement of the modular production technologies under the effect of the deregulation of the electric sector and of the policies of greenhouse gases abatement. Thus, it is not excluded that the distributed power production systems (i.e. gas and diesel engines, micro-turbines, small gas turbines and combined cycles, fuel cells, technologies using renewable energy sources) will play a more and more important role in the power supply, beside big production facilities. The factors influencing the development of these technologies can greatly change from one country to the other but some common established factors remain such as the search for a better reliability of supplies, the implementation of policies against climatic change or the deregulation of the electrical sector. The influence of these different factors are examined in this document which stresses more particularly on the consequences of the liberalization of network industries by using first, an analysis of the international experience, and then by examining the particular cases of Mexico and Argentina. (J.S.)

  9. Energetic integration of processes: a case of practical application in the petroleum exploitation and production area in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel D, H.; Rodriguez T, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The energetic integration of processes also called Pinch technology has reached the maturity by means of its development and application in different parts of the world, producing enormous savings in energy and capital, nevertheless. In Latin America countries, particularly in Mexico, not much is done respect of its practical application, and for this reason, the majority of the industrial processes operate with high costs of energy and capital. The infrastructure of the Mexican Petroleum Industry represents a great potential to make efficient the use of materials and energetic resources. In this work, with a vision of saving energy and capital, the traditional process of crude oil dehydration is analyzed. By means of the application of Pinch technology there were proposed modifications to the existing process, intended for the saving of energy and capital and to avoid unnecessary consumption of cooling water. (Author)

  10. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from Mexico. 93.428 Section 93.428 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Mexico...

  11. Regional application of a cropping systems simulation model: crop residue retention in maize production systems of Jalisco, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartkamp, A.D.; White, J.W.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Bakker, E.J.; Rabbinge, R.

    2004-01-01

    To ensure the productivity of smallholder maize production systems in Central America, increased attention must be paid to conserving soil and water resources. Various stakeholders from national agricultural research services (NARS), networks, non-governmental organizations (NGO's) and research

  12. A modified implementation of tristate inverter based static master-slave flip-flop with improved power-delay-area product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunwar; Tiwari, Satish Chandra; Gupta, Maneesha

    2014-01-01

    The paper introduces novel architectures for implementation of fully static master-slave flip-flops for low power, high performance, and high density. Based on the proposed structure, traditional C(2)MOS latch (tristate inverter/clocked inverter) based flip-flop is implemented with fewer transistors. The modified C(2)MOS based flip-flop designs mC(2)MOSff1 and mC(2)MOSff2 are realized using only sixteen transistors each while the number of clocked transistors is also reduced in case of mC(2)MOSff1. Postlayout simulations indicate that mC(2)MOSff1 flip-flop shows 12.4% improvement in PDAP (power-delay-area product) when compared with transmission gate flip-flop (TGFF) at 16X capacitive load which is considered to be the best design alternative among the conventional master-slave flip-flops. To validate the correct behaviour of the proposed design, an eight bit asynchronous counter is designed to layout level. LVS and parasitic extraction were carried out on Calibre, whereas layouts were implemented using IC station (Mentor Graphics). HSPICE simulations were used to characterize the transient response of the flip-flop designs in a 180 nm/1.8 V CMOS technology. Simulations were also performed at 130 nm, 90 nm, and 65 nm to reveal the scalability of both the designs at modern process nodes.

  13. Black carbon, organic carbon, and co-pollutant emissions and energy efficiency from artisanal brick production in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel; Molina, Luisa T.; Maiz, Pablo; Monsivais, Israel; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Munguia, Jose Luis; Cardenas, Beatriz; Fortner, Edward C.; Herndon, Scott C.; Roscioli, Joseph R.; Kolb, Charles E.; Knighton, Walter B.

    2018-04-01

    In many parts of the developing world and economies in transition, small-scale traditional brick kilns are a notorious source of urban air pollution. Many are both energy inefficient and burn highly polluting fuels that emit significant levels of black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and other atmospheric pollutants into local communities, resulting in severe health and environmental impacts. However, only a very limited number of studies are available on the emission characteristics of brick kilns; thus, there is a need to characterize their gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emission factors to better assess their overall contribution to emissions inventories and to quantify their ecological, human health, and climate impacts. In this study, the fuel-, energy-, and brick-based emissions factors and time-based emission ratios of BC, OC, inorganic PM components, CO, SO2, CH4, NOx, and selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from three artisanal brick kilns with different designs in Mexico were quantified using the tracer ratio sampling technique. Simultaneous measurements of PM components, CO, and CO2 were also obtained using a sampling probe technique. Additional measurements included the internal temperature of the brick kilns, mechanical resistance of bricks produced, and characteristics of fuels employed. Average fuel-based BC emission factors ranged from 0.15 to 0.58 g (kg fuel)-1, whereas BC/OC mass ratios ranged from 0.9 to 5.2, depending on the kiln type. The results show that both techniques capture similar temporal profiles of the brick kiln emissions and produce comparable emission factors. A more integrated inter-comparison of the brick kilns' performances was obtained by simultaneously assessing emissions factors, energy efficiency, fuel consumption, and the quality of the bricks produced.

  14. Delayed puberty in girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sexual development - girls; Pubertal delay - girls; Constitutional delayed puberty ... In most cases of delayed puberty, growth changes just begin later than usual, sometimes called a late bloomer. Once puberty begins, it progresses normally. This pattern runs ...

  15. Delayed Puberty (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Delayed Puberty KidsHealth / For Teens / Delayed Puberty What's in this ... wonder if there's anything wrong. What Is Delayed Puberty? Puberty is the time when your body grows ...

  16. Gulf of Mexico development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenz, D.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has seen significant deepwater growth. An overview of the GOM deepwater leaseholds by Shell and developments by competing companies is presented. Deepwater GOM developments, total production from the shelf and from deepwater wells, new offshore pipeline capacity and ownership, and processing plant capacity are also discussed. Significant deepwater growth in the Gulf is anticipated. Despite significant economic and technological challenges, the area is judged to be the prime exploration and production opportunity in the lower 48 states of the USA. tabs., figs

  17. Nutrient enhanced coastal ocean productivity in the north Gulf of Mexico: understanding the effects of nutrients on a coastal ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The continental shelf adjacent to the Mississippi River is a highly productive system, often referred to as the fertile fisheries crescent. This productivity is attributed to the effects of the river, especially nutrient delivery. In the later decades of the 2oth century, though, changes in the system were becoming evident. Nutrient loads were seen to be increasing and reports of hypoxia were becoming more frequent. During most recent summers, a broad area (up to 20,000 krn2) of near botto...

  18. Anandamide attenuates Th-17 cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity response by triggering IL-10 production and consequent microRNA induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin R Jackson

    Full Text Available Endogenous cannabinoids [endocannabinoids] are lipid signaling molecules that have been shown to modulate immune functions. However, their role in the regulation of Th17 cells has not been studied previously. In the current study, we used methylated Bovine Serum Albumin [mBSA]-induced delayed type hypersensitivity [DTH] response in C57BL/6 mice, mediated by Th17 cells, as a model to test the anti-inflammatory effects of endocannabinoids. Administration of anandamide [AEA], a member of the endocannabinoid family, into mice resulted in significant mitigation of mBSA-induced inflammation, including foot pad swelling, cell infiltration, and cell proliferation in the draining lymph nodes [LN]. AEA treatment significantly reduced IL-17 and IFN-γ production, as well as decreased RORγt expression while causing significant induction of IL-10 in the draining LNs. IL-10 was critical for the AEA-induced mitigation of DTH response inasmuch as neutralization of IL-10 reversed the effects of AEA. We next analyzed miRNA from the LN cells and found that 100 out of 609 miRNA species were differentially regulated in AEA-treated mice when compared to controls. Several of these miRNAs targeted proinflammatory mediators. Interestingly, many of these miRNA were also upregulated upon in vitro treatment of LN cells with IL-10. Together, the current study demonstrates that AEA may suppress Th-17 cell-mediated DTH response by inducing IL-10 which in turn triggers miRNA that target proinflammatory pathways.

  19. Lipid production by pure and mixed cultures of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa isolated in Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna-Martínez, Raúl; Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; López-Chuken, Ulrico J; González-González, Rosario; Fernández-Delgadillo, Sergio; Balderas-Rentería, Isaias

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-known environmental drawbacks of using fossil fuels, advances in the field of alternative energy have become a worldwide technological priority. Special interest has been focused on the production of biodiesel obtained from oleaginous microorganisms. In the present research, lipid production by two species, microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa and yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was assessed, independently and in mixed culture to evaluate a possible synergy. Fatty acid analysis was performed by gas chromatography. Among pure and mixed cultures of both strains and several culturing conditions, the highest biomass and lipid productivity was obtained by C. pyrenoidosa (8.05 and 1.62 g/L, respectively). The results of this study showed that both strains used are in fact oleaginous strains as they were found to reach up to 20 % of lipids, in addition, lipids in both pure and mixed cultures were mainly of triglycerides (>90 %), composed of fatty acid chains between 16 and 18 carbons.

  20. EVALUATION OF PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY AT THE WILDLIFE PROTECTED AREA, "NEVADO DE TOLUCA" MEXICO, DURING THE DRY SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martínez-Hernández

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report on grassland primary productivity for the wildlife protected area Nevado de Toluca (APFF Nevado de Toluca. We evaluated three communities in this area during dry season: Loma Alta, La Peñuela y Agua Blanca. Following Hodgson (1994, for this study we used exclusion cages. Vegetation was cut every 28 days during a five months sampling period. A randomized block design was used, where the blocks represented the grassland communities and the different months constituted treatments. The month of September showed the higher production (610.3 kg/ha DM. No significant differences were observed among communities (P >0.05. In conclusion, these communities have similar low primary productivity through the evaluation dry season months, which in addition was found lower in comparison to other areas, therefore livestock grazing in this region should be limited this season.

  1. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND in vitro GAS PRODUCTION OF SOME LEGUME BROWSE SPECIES IN SUBTROPICAL AREAS OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Garcia Montes de Oca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the chemical composition and in vitro gas production of different legume and wild arboreal pods. Seven seeds of legume browse species, Mexican calabash (Crescentia alata, esculent leadtree (Leucaena esculenta, guamuchil (Phitecellobium dulce, bastard cedar (Guazuma ulmifolia, needle bush (Acacia farnesiana, mimosa (Mimosa sp. and elephant ear tree (Enterolobium cyclocarpum. Were evaluated for their chemical composition (g/kg DM and in vitro gas production pattern. Crude Protein was higher for L. esculenta (220 and lower for G. ulmifolia (70. Neutral and acid detergent fiber were higher for G. ulmifolia (687 and 554 and lower for A. farnesiana (267 and 176. Lignin was higher for Mimosa sp. (219 and lower for P. dulce (81. Total gas production (ml gas/g DM of P. dulce (187 and E. cyclocarpum (164 were higher (P

  2. Nitric oxide and superoxide anion production in monocytes from children exposed to arsenic and lead in region Lagunera, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda-Zavaleta, Ana Patricia; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo; Borja-Aburto, Victor H.; Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C.; Vera Aguilar, Eunice; Gomez-Munoz, Aristides; Cebrian, Mariano E.; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated in Mexican children environmentally exposed to arsenic and lead monocyte nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion production in response to direct activation with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) + lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The integrity of Th1-regulated cellular immune response when monocytes were indirectly activated was also evaluated. Most children lived near a primary lead smelter. Lead and arsenic contamination in soil and dust by far exceeded background levels. As levels in water were between 10 and 30 ppb. Most children (93%) had urinary arsenic (AsU) concentrations above 50 μg/l (range 16.75-465.75) and 65% had lead blood levels (PbB) above 10 μg/dl (range 3.47-49.19). Multivariate analyses showed that NO production in monocytes activated indirectly was negatively associated with both PbB and AsU. Superoxide production in directly activated monocytes was negatively associated with AsU but positively associated with PbB. The models including the interaction term for AsU and PbB suggested the possibility of a negative interaction for NO production and a positive interaction for superoxide. There were indications of differential gender-based associations, NO production in indirectly activated monocytes obtained from girls was negatively associated with AsU but not with PbB. Superoxide production was positively associated with PbB in both directly and indirectly activated monocytes from boys but the latter was negatively associated with AsU. These effects are consistent with immune system abnormalities observed in human populations exposed to Pb or As. Further studies in larger populations are required to characterize As and Pb interactions and the mechanism(s) underlying the observed effects

  3. September 1985 Mexico City, Mexico Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.1 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Mexico. The damage was concentrated in a 25 square km area of Mexico City, 350 km from the epicenter....

  4. Economy, employment and productivity in the metropolis of Mexico / Economía, empleo y productividad en las metrópolis de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edel Cadena Vargas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the economy, employment, and productivity of 56 metropolitan zones from Mexico. Concludes that, through statistical analysis, this kind of cities keep being a big attraction focus of population, but its economical activities decrease or damages gradually. For that, if this tendency to stagnation continues, in the short term will be a gloomy future to the metropolis for this country. Este artículo analiza la evolución de la economía, empleo y productividad de las 56 zonas metropolitanas de México, de 1989 a 2004. Concluye, a través del análisis estadístico, que este tipo de ciudades siguen siendo un gran foco de atracción de la población, pero sus actividades económicas disminuyen gradualmente o se deterioran. Por ello, de continuar esta tendencia al estancamiento, se vislumbra a corto plazo un futuro sombrío para las metrópolis de este país.

  5. Long-lasting insecticide-treated house screens and targeted treatment of productive breeding-sites for dengue vector control in Acapulco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che-Mendoza, Azael; Guillermo-May, Guillermo; Herrera-Bojórquez, Josué; Barrera-Pérez, Mario; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Gutierrez-Castro, Cipriano; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I; Sánchez-Tejeda, Gustavo; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Ranson, Hilary; Lenhart, Audrey; Sommerfeld, Johannes; McCall, Philip J; Kroeger, Axel; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2015-02-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal net screens (LLIS) fitted to domestic windows and doors in combination with targeted treatment (TT) of the most productive Aedes aegypti breeding sites were evaluated for their impact on dengue vector indices in a cluster-randomised trial in Mexico between 2011 and 2013. Sequentially over 2 years, LLIS and TT were deployed in 10 treatment clusters (100 houses/cluster) and followed up over 24 months. Cross-sectional surveys quantified infestations of adult mosquitoes, immature stages at baseline (pre-intervention) and in four post-intervention samples at 6-monthly intervals. Identical surveys were carried out in 10 control clusters that received no treatment. LLIS clusters had significantly lower infestations compared to control clusters at 5 and 12 months after installation, as measured by adult (male and female) and pupal-based vector indices. After addition of TT to the intervention houses in intervention clusters, indices remained significantly lower in the treated clusters until 18 (immature and adult stage indices) and 24 months (adult indices only) post-intervention. These safe, simple affordable vector control tools were well-accepted by study participants and are potentially suitable in many regions at risk from dengue worldwide. © The author 2015. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  6. Comparing the sustainability impacts of solar thermal and natural gas combined cycle for electricity production in Mexico: Accounting for decision makers' priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Serrano, Irene; Caldés, Natalia; Oltra, Christian; Sala, Roser

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to conduct a comprehensive sustainability assessment of the electricity generation with two alternative electricity generation technologies by estimating its economic, environmental and social impacts through the "Framework for Integrated Sustainability Assessment" (FISA). Based on a Multiregional Input Output (MRIO) model linked to a social risk database (Social Hotspot Database), the framework accounts for up to fifteen impacts across the three sustainability pillars along the supply chain of the electricity production from Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) and Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) technologies in Mexico. Except for value creation, results show larger negative impacts for NGCC, particularly in the environmental pillar. Next, these impacts are transformed into "Aggregated Sustainability Endpoints" (ASE points) as a way to support the decision making in selecting the best sustainable project. ASE points obtained are later compared to the resulting points weighted by the reported priorities of Mexican decision makers in the energy sector obtained from a questionnaire survey. The comparison shows that NGCC achieves a 1.94 times worse negative score than STE, but after incorporating decision makerś priorities, the ratio increases to 2.06 due to the relevance given to environmental impacts such as photochemical oxidants formation and climate change potential, as well as social risks like human rights risks.

  7. Proposal of Organizational Innovation for The Creation of Sme’s Products Exotic in A Community Indigenous Totonaca in Papantla, Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Bertha Alicia Arce Castro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we’re given the results obtained after a year of improvement and application of a new model called Model of organizational change for the creation of small and medium-sized companies in non-traditional products, into a Totonaca a community in Veracruz, Mexico. Thisproposal has been designed to answer the under treatment of technical literature about rural family business, satisfying the lack of General models, which doesn’t respond to identified needs in farming communities with similar characteristics, generating companies to promote change in the Mexican food industry, able to meet the requirements of the current socio-economic context. The project has a strong element of innovation, which should gradually relates knowledge of farmers and that combined with them, generate knowledge management, which will become in organizational knowledge of the new company. In the selected region is intended to replicate the good results obtained in the implementation of the model in the region of Coatepec Veracruz, where 13 peasant families dedicated to beekeeping formed an innovative company that is involved in local, national and international markets.

  8. Effects of hillslope gully stabilization on erosion and sediment production in the Torreon Wash watershed, New Mexico, 2009–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matherne, Anne Marie; Tillery, Anne C.; Douglas-Mankin, Kyle R.

    2018-04-10

    Sediment erosion and deposition in two sets of paired (treated and untreated) upland drainages in the Torreon Wash watershed, upper Rio Puerco Basin, New Mexico, were examined over a 3 1/2-year period from spring 2009 through fall 2012. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of shallow, loose-stone check dams, or “one-rock dams,” as a hillslope gully erosion stabilization and mitigation method, and its potential for retaining upland eroded soils and decreasing delivery of sediment to lower ephemeral stream channels. Two high-resolution topographic surveys, completed at the beginning and end of the study period, were used to assess the effects of the mitigation measures at paired-drainage sites in both Penistaja Arroyo and Papers Wash watersheds, and at six main-stem-channel cross-section clusters along Penistaja Arroyo and Torreon Wash in the Torreon Wash watershed.For both drainage pairs, the treated drainage had greater sediment aggradation near the channel than the untreated drainage. Erosion was the dominant geomorphic process in the untreated Penistaja Arroyo drainage, whereas aggradation was the dominant process in the other three drainages. For the Penistaja Arroyo paired drainages, the treated site showed a 51-percent increase in area aggraded and 67-percent increase in volume aggraded per area analyzed over the untreated site. Both Papers Wash drainages showed net aggradation, but with similar treatment effect, with the treated site showing a 29-percent increase in area aggraded and 60-percent increase in volume aggraded per area analyzed over the untreated site. In the untreated Penistaja Arroyo drainage, the calculated minimum erosion rate was 0.0055 inches per year (in/yr; 0.14 millimeters per year [mm/yr]), whereas the calculated aggradation rates for the three drainages for which aggradation was the dominant geomorphic process were 0.0063 in/yr (0.16 mm/yr) for the Penistaja Arroyo treated drainage, 0.012 in/yr (0.31 mm/yr) for the Papers

  9. Gender Gaps in North American Research Productivity: Examining Faculty Publication Rates in Mexico, Canada, and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Gonzalez, Laura; Metcalfe, Amy Scott; Galaz-Fontes, Jesus F.; Fisher, Donald; Snee, Iain

    2011-01-01

    The present study addresses gender gaps in North American research productivity, which may be influenced by personal and family variables, as well as professional and work-related variables. The study was conducted as part of the "Changing Academic Profession (CAP) International Survey", conducted in 2007-08. Using articles as indicator…

  10. Speech and Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OTC Relief for Diarrhea Home Diseases and Conditions Speech and Language Delay Condition Speech and Language Delay Share Print Table of Contents1. ... Treatment6. Everyday Life7. Questions8. Resources What is a speech and language delay? A speech and language delay ...

  11. Natural gas in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on various aspects of the natural gas industry in Mexico. Some of the viewgraphs depicted statistics from 1998 regarding natural gas throughput from various companies in North America, natural gas reserves around the world, and natural gas reserves in Mexico. Other viewgraphs depicted associated and non-associated natural gas production from 1988 to 1998 in million cubic feet per day. The Burgos Basin and the Cantarell Basin gas production from 1997 to 2004 was also depicted. Other viewgraphs were entitled: (1) gas processing infrastructure for 1999, (2) cryogenic plant at Cd. PEMEX, (3) average annual growth of dry natural gas production for 1997-2004 is estimated at 5.2 per cent, (4) gas flows for December 1998, (5) PGPB- interconnect points, (6) U.S. Mexico gas trade for 1994-1998, (7) PGPB's interconnect projects with U.S., and (8) natural gas storage areas. Technological innovations in the industry include more efficient gas turbines which allow for cogeneration, heat recovery steam generators which reduce pollutant emissions by 21 per cent, cold boxes which increase heat transfer efficiency, and lateral reboilers which reduce energy consumption and total costs. A pie chart depicting natural gas demand by sector shows that natural gas for power generation will increase from 16 per cent in 1997 to 31 per cent in 2004. The opportunities for cogeneration projects were also reviewed. The Comision Federal de Electricidad and independent power producers represent the largest opportunity. The 1997-2001 investment program proposes an 85 per cent sulphur dioxide emission reduction compared to 1997 levels. This presentation also noted that during the 1998-2001 period, total ethane production will grow by 58 tbd. 31 figs

  12. Mexico and the CTBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre G, J.; Martinez L, J.; Ruiz E, L. J.; Aragon M, I. B.

    2013-10-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) is a treaty that prohibits all the nuclear explosions by anybody and in any place, either on the terrestrial surface, in the atmosphere, under the sea or underground. From the adoption of this Treaty by the United Nations, Mexico has had interest for its entrance in vigor, as integral part to assure the international peace. For this reason, our country signed the Treaty since it was open in September 24, 1996 and three years later ratified it, due to Mexico is part of the group of necessary countries for their entrance in vigor. During 13 years, the country has been committed and helped to the installation of monitoring stations, actions that allow the strengthening of the International System of Surveillance. The purpose of this work is to divulge the Treaty,its technologies and benefits; and also to diffuse the works realized by Mexico regarding the radionuclides monitoring station and noble gases both certified ones for the CTBT. Besides the radionuclides technology, Mexico has taken charge of the installation and operation of the seismic stations and hydro-acoustics that have been certified too. The radionuclides station Rn-44 located in Guerrero Negro, BCS has two technologies, an automated sampler of suspended particles in air brand Cinderella/ARAME and a noble gases system Sauna used for the particles detection of radioactive material gamma emitting and Xenon radioisotopes product of nuclear assays. Both technologies are transmitting data in real time to the International Center of Data. These technologies are shown in this work. (Author)

  13. Cedrela odorata L. PRODUCTION IN A RAW SAWDUST SUBSTRATE IN TECHNICIAN SYSTEM AT TECPAN DE GALEANA, GUERRERO, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Justo Mateo-Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nursery high quality plants production by using expensive commercial substrates (peat moss, perlite, vermiculite decreases profits; this is the main reason to search alternative production substrates. Pine sawdust is a sub product of forestry industry cheap and available in forest areas. In recent years it has been used as a substrateproviding good results. In this study it was evaluated the effect of different sawdust mixtures on Cedrela odorata L. plant growth in a technician system in forest nursery under shade cloth covered. A completely randomized experimental design was used with eleven substrate components combinations (sawdust + peat moss-perlite-vermiculite mixtures ranging from 0% to 100% each. After three and a half months morphological variables were measured so as some quality indexes in seedlings. The largest diameter was obtained by the mixture of 70% sawdust + 30% peat moss mix-vermiculite-perlite. The highest in height by using the mixture 80% sawdust + 20% peat moss - vermiculite – perlite mixture. The highest leaves dry weight corresponded to 90 % sawdust + 10% peat moss-vermiculite-perlite mixture. However the highest root weight and total dry weight values occurred in 60% sawdust + 40% peat moss – perlite - vermiculite mixture. As for the height-diameter ratio (slenderness index, the best value is obtained a mixture of 80% sawdust + 20% peat moss, perlite, vermiculite. According to Dickson Quality Index (DQI, used to predict the plant field surviving, the highest value was obtained for the 60% sawdust + 40% peat moss-perlite-vermiculite mixture.

  14. Origin and evolution of formation water at the Jujo-Tecominoacan oil reservoir, Gulf of Mexico. Part 2: Isotopic and field-production evidence for fluid connectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkle, Peter, E-mail: birkle@iie.org.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca 62490, Morelos (Mexico); Garcia, Bernardo Martinez; Milland Padron, Carlos M. [PEMEX Exploracion y Produccion, Region Sur, Activo Integral Bellota-Jujo, Diseno de Explotacion, Cardenas, Tabasco (Mexico); Eglington, Bruce M. [Saskatchewan Isotope Laboratory, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada SK S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    The chemical and isotopic characterization of formation water from 18 oil production wells, extracted from 5200 to 6100 m b.s.l. at the Jujo-Tecominoacan carbonate reservoir in SE-Mexico, and interpretations of historical production records, were undertaken to determine the origin and hydraulic behavior of deep groundwater systems. The infiltration of surface water during Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene time is suggested by {sup 14}C-concentrations from 2.15 to 31.86 pmC, and by {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr-ratios for high-salinity formation water (0.70923-0.70927) that are close to the composition of Holocene to modern seawater. Prior to infiltration, the super-evaporation of seawater reached maximum TDS concentrations of 385 g/L, with lowest {delta}{sup 18}O values characterizing the most hypersaline samples. Minor deviations of formation water and dolomite host rocks from modern and Jurassic {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr-seawater composition, respectively, suggest ongoing water-rock interaction, and partial isotopic equilibration between both phases. The abundance of {sup 14}C in all sampled formation water, {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr-ratios for high-salinity water close to Holocene - present seawater composition, a water salinity distribution that is independent of historic water-cut, and a total water extraction volume of 2.037 MMm{sup 3} (1/83-4/07) excludes a connate, oil-leg origin for the produced water of the Jurassic-Cretaceous mudstone-dolomite sequence. Temporal fluctuations of water chemistry in production intervals, the accelerated migration of water fronts from the reservoir flanks, and isotopic mixing trends between sampled wells confirms the existence of free aquifer water below oil horizons. Vertical and lateral hydraulic mobility has probably been accelerated by petroleum extraction. The combination of interpreting historical fluctuations of salinity and water percentage in production wells with chemical-isotopic analysis of formation water resulted in a

  15. Origin and evolution of formation water at the Jujo-Tecominoacan oil reservoir, Gulf of Mexico. Part 2: Isotopic and field-production evidence for fluid connectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkle, Peter; Garcia, Bernardo Martinez; Milland Padron, Carlos M.; Eglington, Bruce M.

    2009-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic characterization of formation water from 18 oil production wells, extracted from 5200 to 6100 m b.s.l. at the Jujo-Tecominoacan carbonate reservoir in SE-Mexico, and interpretations of historical production records, were undertaken to determine the origin and hydraulic behavior of deep groundwater systems. The infiltration of surface water during Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene time is suggested by 14 C-concentrations from 2.15 to 31.86 pmC, and by 87 Sr/ 86 Sr-ratios for high-salinity formation water (0.70923-0.70927) that are close to the composition of Holocene to modern seawater. Prior to infiltration, the super-evaporation of seawater reached maximum TDS concentrations of 385 g/L, with lowest δ 18 O values characterizing the most hypersaline samples. Minor deviations of formation water and dolomite host rocks from modern and Jurassic 87 Sr/ 86 Sr-seawater composition, respectively, suggest ongoing water-rock interaction, and partial isotopic equilibration between both phases. The abundance of 14 C in all sampled formation water, 87 Sr/ 86 Sr-ratios for high-salinity water close to Holocene - present seawater composition, a water salinity distribution that is independent of historic water-cut, and a total water extraction volume of 2.037 MMm 3 (1/83-4/07) excludes a connate, oil-leg origin for the produced water of the Jurassic-Cretaceous mudstone-dolomite sequence. Temporal fluctuations of water chemistry in production intervals, the accelerated migration of water fronts from the reservoir flanks, and isotopic mixing trends between sampled wells confirms the existence of free aquifer water below oil horizons. Vertical and lateral hydraulic mobility has probably been accelerated by petroleum extraction. The combination of interpreting historical fluctuations of salinity and water percentage in production wells with chemical-isotopic analysis of formation water resulted in a successful method to distinguish four groundwater bodies

  16. Mexico: Imports or exports?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, J.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of Mexico's energy sector. Proven oil reserves place Mexico in ninth position in the world and fourth largest in natural gas reserves. Energy is one of the most important economic activities of the country, representing 3 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Oil exports represent 8.4 per cent of total exports. Approximately 40 per cent of total public investment is earmarked for energy projects. The author discusses energy resources and energy sector limitations. The energy sector plan for the period 2001-2006 is discussed. Its goals are to ensure energy supply, to develop the energy sector, to stimulate participation of Mexican enterprises, to promote renewable energy sources, and to strengthen international energy cooperation. The regulatory framework is being adapted to increase private investment. Some graphs are presented, displaying the primary energy production and primary energy consumption. Energy sector reforms are reviewed, as are electricity and natural gas reforms. The energy sector demand for 2000-2010 and investment requirements are reviewed, as well as fuel consumption for power generation. The author discusses the National Pipeline System (SNG) and the bottlenecks caused by pressure efficiency in the northeast, flow restriction on several pipeline segments, variability of the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) own use, and pressure drop on central regions. The entire prospect for natural gas in the country is reviewed, along with the Strategic Gas Program (PEG) consisting of 20 projects, including 4 non-associated natural gas, 9 exploration and 7 optimization. A section dealing with multiple service contracts is included in the presentation. The authors conclude by stating that the priority is a national energy policy to address Mexico's energy security requirements, to increase natural gas production while promoting the diversification of imports, and a regulatory framework to be updated in light of current

  17. PRODUCTIVE AND QUALITATIVE PERFORMANCE OF NATURALIZED AND NATIVE FORAGE LEGUMES IN THE TEMPERATE ZONE OF PUEBLA STATE, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan de Dios Guerrero-Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate seven species of native and naturalized legumes in terms of forage production and nutritive quality. The control species, Vicia sativa was represented by two varieties, which maintained a high dry matter production at two locations, in one of them, matched by Melilotus albus. The latter species also had high yields of dry matter in two locations, but in one of them the varieties of V. sativa were not successful. Less yielding species were those that had lower fiber concentration, a situation that was in part due to a higher leaf:stem ratio. Medicago polymorpha had the lowest digestibility, which coincided with higher concentrations of neutral and acid detergent fiber. The crude protein concentration was different among species (P<0.0001, where M. polymorpha consistently had low (P<0.05 concentration (16.8% as well as M. albus (17%. Among the species tested in this study, several of them have potential yield and quality to improve the diet of ruminants in the highland region of Puebla State and can replace the vetches. Additionally, even when the climate may be the same, the soil conditions also determine which species can thrive in a region.

  18. China in Mexico: More Opportunity than Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    factory.55 Mexico’s percent of Ford’s U.S. car production went from 11.8 in 2006 to 16 percent in 2008.56 Nissan , Mazda, Volkswagen, Audi, Toyota ... compared to the time lag (and increased cost) of over a week required to transport products from China to the United States. Even in the well...and Honda also produce cars in Mexico, all increasing investment and manufacturing facilities.57 China, in selecting Mexico as a major FDI

  19. Weather delay costs to trucking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Estimates of the nations freight sector of transportation range to upwards of $600 billion of total gross domestic product with 70 percent of total value and 60 percent of total weight moving by truck. Weather-related delays can add significantly ...

  20. Tandem duplication of 11p12-p13 in a child with borderline development delay and eye abnormalities: dose effect of the PAX6 gene product?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalfs, C. M.; Fantes, J. A.; Wenniger-Prick, L. J.; Sluijter, S.; Hennekam, R. C.; van Heyningen, V.; Hoovers, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    We report on a girl with a duplication of chromosome band 11p12-->13, which includes the Wilms tumor gene (WT1) and the aniridia gene (PAX6). The girl had borderline developmental delay, mild facial anomalies, and eye abnormalities. Eye findings were also present in most of the 11 other published

  1. Pubertal administration of DEHP delays puberty, suppresses testosterone production and inhibits reproductive tract development in male Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    While is clear that exposure to high dosage levels of some phthalates delays the onset of puberty in the male rat it has been hypothesized that low levels of DEHP accelerate puberty by enhancing testicular androgen synthesis. The current study was designed to determine if the do...

  2. Annual egg production rates of calanoid copepod species on the continental shelf of the Eastern Tropical Pacific off Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Eva R.; Franco-Gordo, Carmen; Palomares-García, Ricardo; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Jaime; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    We provide the first estimations of calanoid copepod egg production rates (EPR) in the Eastern Tropical Pacific over an annual cycle (January-December 2011). Gravid females were collected twice monthly and incubated for 12 h without food to estimate EPR, weight-specific fecundity (Gf), spawning success (SS, percentage of females to spawn out of the total species incubated per month and season) and egg hatching success (EHS). This study reports the average EPR of 10 species and the monthly EPR and Gf of four planktonic calanoid copepods (Centropages furcatus, Temora discaudata, Pontellina sobrina, and Nannocalanus minor) that spawned with enough frequency to infer their seasonal reproductive patterns. These species showed distinct seasonal reproductive strategies. Most copepod species spawned sporadically with large EPR variability, while three copepod species reproduced throughout the year (C. furcatus, T. discaudata and P. sobrina) and N. minor spawned only during the mixed period (Feb-May). The four species had relatively similar average EPR (C. furcatus 16, T. discaudata 18, P. sobrina 13, and N. minor 12 eggs fem-1 day-1). These are the first EPR estimations of P. sobrina and its previously known reproductive period is expanded. A Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to analyze EPR and species abundance of all calanoid copepods (40 spp.) collected throughout the time series in relation to temperature, salinity, mixed layer depth (MLD), dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentrations to identify the variables that best explained the copepod abundance variability. Temperature, Chl-a, and salinity had the strongest effect on the biological variables, linked to seasonal and episodic upwelling-downwelling processes in the surveyed area. As a result of moderate upwelling events and seasonal variation of environmental conditions, it appears relatively few species are capable of maintaining continuous reproduction under the relatively higher

  3. UAVs and Control Delays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Vries, S. C

    2005-01-01

    .... Delays of about 250-300 ms often lead to unacceptable airplane handling qualities. Techniques such as filtering and predictive displays may extend the range of acceptable delays up to about 400 ms...

  4. Delayed puberty in boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007695.htm Delayed puberty in boys To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Delayed puberty in boys is when puberty does not begin ...

  5. Delayed Orgasm and Anorgasmia

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Lawrence C.; Mulhall, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies; which include: medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation and psychological etiologies, amongst others. Unfortunately, ...

  6. The effect of prophylaxis with chloroquine and proguanil on delayed-type hypersensitivity and antibody production following vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyhrs, A; Pedersen, B K; Bygbjerg, I

    1991-01-01

    (1,000 mg/week), or 4) proguanil hydrochloride (200 mg/day) for six weeks. Skin testing was performed on days 0 and 28. Vaccinations with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal polysaccharide antigen vaccines were performed on day 28, and the presence of specific antibodies was determined...... dosages, does not induce any detectable suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity or vaccination responses to diphtheria, tetanus, polio, or pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens....

  7. New Mexico Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of parks in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data from a...

  8. New Mexico State Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the generalized physical boundaries of New Mexico State Parks, in polygonal form with limited attributes, compiled using...

  9. New Mexico Ghost Towns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data provides locations and non-spatial attributes of many ghost towns in the State of New Mexico, compiled from various sources. Locations provided with...

  10. The effect of prophylaxis with chloroquine and proguanil on delayed-type hypersensitivity and antibody production following vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyhrs, A; Pedersen, B K; Bygbjerg, I; Henrichsen, J; Heron, I; Petersen, I; Skinhoj, P

    1991-11-01

    In vitro studies have shown that anti-malarial drugs suppress immunity. In this study, the effects of chloroquine and proguanil (Paludrine) on the cellular and humoral immune system were measured by two in vivo methods: 1) cell-mediated immunity (delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity) i.e., skin tests with seven delayed-type common antigens (Multitest) and 2) humoral immunity by measurement of specific antibody response to vaccination. Sixty healthy young individuals were randomized into four groups and given 1) no treatment (controls), 2) chloroquine diphosphate (500 mg/week), 3) chloroquine diphosphate (1,000 mg/week), or 4) proguanil hydrochloride (200 mg/day) for six weeks. Skin testing was performed on days 0 and 28. Vaccinations with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal polysaccharide antigen vaccines were performed on day 28, and the presence of specific antibodies was determined on days 0, 28, and 42. The skin tests induced a significant increase in skin reactive areas from day 0 to day 28 in all groups. Furthermore, the skin test induced an increase in the level of specific IgG for diphtheria and tetanus, but had no effect on antibodies to antigens not included in the skin test. The results showed that there were no significant differences among the four groups regarding skin test areas and increases in antibody titers following vaccination. Therefore, it is concluded that in healthy persons, six weeks intake of chloroquine, even in double doses, or proguanil in chemoprophylactic dosages, does not induce any detectable suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity or vaccination responses to diphtheria, tetanus, polio, or pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens.

  11. The rise of health biotechnology research in Latin America: A scientometric analysis of health biotechnology production and impact in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes the patterns of health biotechnology publications in six Latin American countries from 2001 to 2015. The countries studied were Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba and Mexico. Before our study, there were no data available on HBT development in half of the Latin-American countries we studied, i.e., Argentina, Colombia and Chile. To include these countries in a scientometric analysis of HBT provides fuller coverage of HBT development in Latin America. The scientometric study used the Web of Science database to identify health biotechnology publications. The total amount of health biotechnology production in the world during the period studied was about 400,000 papers. A total of 1.2% of these papers, were authored by the six Latin American countries in this study. The results show a significant growth in health biotechnology publications in Latin America despite some of the countries having social and political instability, fluctuations in their gross domestic expenditure in research and development or a trade embargo that limits opportunities for scientific development. The growth in the field of some of the Latin American countries studied was larger than the growth of most industrialized nations. Still, the visibility of the Latin American research (measured in the number of citations) did not reach the world average, with the exception of Colombia. The main producers of health biotechnology papers in Latin America were universities, except in Cuba were governmental institutions were the most frequent producers. The countries studied were active in international research collaboration with Colombia being the most active (64% of papers co-authored internationally), whereas Brazil was the least active (35% of papers). Still, the domestic collaboration was even more prevalent, with Chile being the most active in such collaboration (85% of papers co-authored domestically) and Argentina the least active (49% of papers). We conclude that the

  12. The rise of health biotechnology research in Latin America: A scientometric analysis of health biotechnology production and impact in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-de la O, Dante Israel; Thorsteinsdóttir, Halla; Calderón-Salinas, José Víctor

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes the patterns of health biotechnology publications in six Latin American countries from 2001 to 2015. The countries studied were Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba and Mexico. Before our study, there were no data available on HBT development in half of the Latin-American countries we studied, i.e., Argentina, Colombia and Chile. To include these countries in a scientometric analysis of HBT provides fuller coverage of HBT development in Latin America. The scientometric study used the Web of Science database to identify health biotechnology publications. The total amount of health biotechnology production in the world during the period studied was about 400,000 papers. A total of 1.2% of these papers, were authored by the six Latin American countries in this study. The results show a significant growth in health biotechnology publications in Latin America despite some of the countries having social and political instability, fluctuations in their gross domestic expenditure in research and development or a trade embargo that limits opportunities for scientific development. The growth in the field of some of the Latin American countries studied was larger than the growth of most industrialized nations. Still, the visibility of the Latin American research (measured in the number of citations) did not reach the world average, with the exception of Colombia. The main producers of health biotechnology papers in Latin America were universities, except in Cuba were governmental institutions were the most frequent producers. The countries studied were active in international research collaboration with Colombia being the most active (64% of papers co-authored internationally), whereas Brazil was the least active (35% of papers). Still, the domestic collaboration was even more prevalent, with Chile being the most active in such collaboration (85% of papers co-authored domestically) and Argentina the least active (49% of papers). We conclude that the

  13. Pupal productivity in rainy and dry seasons: findings from the impact survey of a randomised controlled trial of dengue prevention in Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Jiménez-Alejo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The follow-up survey of a cluster-randomised controlled trial of evidence-based community mobilisation for dengue control in Nicaragua and Mexico included entomological information from the 2012 rainy and dry seasons. We used data from the Mexican arm of the trial to assess the impact of the community action on pupal production of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in both rainy and dry seasons. Methods Trained field workers inspected household water containers in 90 clusters and collected any pupae or larvae present for entomological examination. We calculated indices of pupae per person and pupae per household, and traditional entomological indices of container index, household index and Breteau index, and compared these between rainy and dry seasons and between intervention and control clusters, using a cluster t-test to test significance of differences. Results In 11,933 houses in the rainy season, we inspected 40,323 containers and found 7070 Aedes aegypti pupae. In the dry season, we inspected 43,461 containers and counted 6552 pupae. All pupae and entomological indices were lower in the intervention clusters (IC than in control clusters (CC in both the rainy season (RS and the dry season (DS: pupae per container 0.12 IC and 0.24 CC in RS, and 0.10 IC and 0.20 CC in DS; pupae per household 0.46 IC and 0.82 CC in RS, and 0.41 IC and 0.83 CC in DS; pupae per person 0.11 IC and 0.19 CC in RS, and 0.10 IC and 0.20 CC in DS; household index 16% IC and 21% CC in RS, and 12.1% IC and 17.9% CC in DS; container index 7.5% IC and 11.5% CC in RS, and 4.6% IC and 7.1% CC in DS; Breteau index 27% IC and 36% CC in RS, and 19% IC and 29% CC in DS. All differences between the intervention and control clusters were statistically significant, taking into account clustering. Conclusions The trial intervention led to significant decreases in pupal and conventional entomological indices in both rainy and dry seasons. Trial registration ISRCTN

  14. English Teaching in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Discusses teaching English in Mexico, a country with important social, cultural, and economic ties to the United States. Looks at the various English teaching situations as well as teacher education for teachers in Mexico. Concludes that the English teaching situation in Mexico reflects great diversity and growth, and that the knowledge of English…

  15. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  16. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lawrence C; Mulhall, John P

    2015-11-01

    Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies, which include medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation, and psychological etiologies. Unfortunately, there are no excellent pharmacotherapies for delayed orgasm/anorgasmia, and treatment revolves largely around addressing potential causative factors and psychotherapy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Manufacturing real wages in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López V Antonia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the recent evolution and determinants of real wages in Mexico?s manufacturing sector, using theories based on the assumption of imperfect competition both in the product and in the labour markets, especially wage-bargain theory, insider-outsider and mark-up models. We show evidence that the Mexican labour market does not behave as a traditional competitive market. The proposed explanation for this fact is that some workers benefit from advantages when compared with others, so that they can get a greater share of the proceedings of the productive process. Also, we find that changes in the degree of competition in the market for output influence the behaviour of real wages.

  18. Impacts of the Japan-Mexico EPA on Bilateral Trade

    OpenAIRE

    ANDO Mitsuyo; URATA Shujiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of the Japan-Mexico EPA on bilateral trade by using two different types of information, trade statistics and the EPA utilization rate. Using trade data, we found that Japan's exports of built-up cars, auto parts, base metals, electrical machinery, precision machinery, and ballpoint pens to Mexico increased sharply. We also found that Japan's imports of live animals and products, leather, and footwear with leather from Mexico increased significantly. These are s...

  19. American Dream Delayed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia; Miller, Robert A.

    This paper investigates the delay in homeownership and a subsequent reduction in homeownership rate observed over the past decades. We focus on the delay in giving birth to children and increased labor market participation as contributing factors to homeownership dynamics for prime-age female hou...

  20. Relations between Mexico and the European Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Alonso

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Mexico-EC bilateral relations must be considered within the general relation ECLatin America which -as the author remarks, do not appear among EC's preferential relations.Latin America can benefit from the Generalized Preference System which is not discriminatory, without reciprocity and generalized, but has some restrictions: for some products as textile, leather or oil. This affects some Latin American countries and specifically Mexico.Mexico initiates its relation with the EC in 1960; in 1975 both parts sign the Agreement on Economic and Trade Cooperation which has been substituted by the new General Agreement on Cooperation signed on April26, 1991. A new factor that will condition this relation is the Free Trade Agreement recently signed between USA, Canada and Mexico.

  1. Learning processes and productive modernization of learning in agriculture from northwestern Mexico: Cases of commercial agriculture of the coast of Hermosillo, Sonora and organic agriculture of the southern zone of Baja California Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel O. Villa Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of open markets has created import changes in the Mexican agriculture sector, very much noted in the so called crop pattern, the institutional frame that guides the agro–productive commercial relationships and trade organization. The agriculture in the Northwest region, particularly La Costa de Hermosillo in the State of Sonora and southern Baja in Baja Peninsula, shows a big transformation. This corresponds to Global Production Networks (gpn, a vertical integration with intensive extraterritorial interaction resulting in a process of productive escalation that favors; learning and the creation of new competitive capabilities indispensable to comply with high standards in international markets. These capabilities are reflected in improvements in product quality, productive efficiency and the development of new functions for the players involved in the production and trade of produce. It also reflects the transition to more sophisticated productive units where players are located in other territories. This study focuses on analyzing the roll of gpn in the transformation of the agricultural sector in the northwest region of Mexico, particularly the process that took place in modernizing both places.

  2. Implementation of the method air-kerma product area in KAP camera calibration with reference qualities of X-ray series at the SSDL RQR of Mexico; Implementacion del metodo producto kerma en aire-area en la calibracion de camaras KAP con calidades de referencia de rayos X de la serie RQR en el LSCD de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cejudo, Jesus; Tovar, Victor M., E-mail: jesus.cejudo@ini.gob.mx, E-mail: victor.tovar@inin.gob.mx [lnstituto Nacional de lnvestigaciones Nucleares (DMRI/LSDC/lNlN), Ocoyoacac (Mexico). Centro Nuclear Dr. Nabor Carrillo Flores. Laboratorio Secundario de Calibracion Dosimetrica

    2013-10-01

    The X-Ray machines, at a reference laboratory for the instrument calibration in diagnostic radiology, should compliance with the ISO requirements. Sometimes there is not available as much laboratories as needed in Latin American countries. So this project shows the KAP ionization chamber implementation method using the TRS-457 radiation quality from the IAEA at the SSDL of Mexico. The KAP instruments calibration method consists in doing a substitution comparison using a standard reference with traceability to a primary laboratory and a transmission-monitoring chamber that measures the number of photons of the X-ray primary beam. A KAP chamber calibration requires a special array that consists in collocating the chamber in two different positions of its calibration process. Then, with air kerma-area product coefficient together with a corrected electrometer measure at referential conditions, the patient dosimetry magnitudes are calculated. The dosimetry necessity at hospitals always will be in function of possessing a highly reliable calibration coefficient chamber for making these measures. That dosimetry results will help in reducing the total or partial irradiation emitted to the human body of the patient. This is how stochastic risks will be lessened due to diagnostic studies. The purpose of this project is to have a synergy with calibration for making known that the SSDL of Mexico has the technical capacity to act as a link between primary standard dosimetry laboratories and the ionizing radiation equipment users who require that their KAP chamber have traceability from the primary standard to the user. (author)

  3. The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peach, James; Starbuck, C.

    2009-06-01

    The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. The analysis is based on economic multipliers derived from an input-output model of the New Mexico economy. The direct, indirect, and induced impacts of coal mining in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment, and labor income for calendar year 2007. Tax, rental, and royalty income to the State of New Mexico are also presented. Historical coal production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. The impacts of coal-fired electricity generation will be examined in a separate report.

  4. A continuous time Cournot duopoly with delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, Luca; Guerrini, Luca; Sodini, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the classical repeated duopoly model with quantity-setting firms of Bischi et al. (1998) by assuming that production of goods is subject to some gestation lags but exchanges take place continuously in the market. The model is expressed in the form of differential equations with discrete delays. By using some recent mathematical techniques and numerical experiments, results show some dynamic phenomena that cannot be observed when delays are absent. In addition, depending on the extent of time delays and inertia, synchronisation failure can arise even in the event of homogeneous firms.

  5. Mexico: 'oil mentality' at last accepts a role for gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgs, R.

    1992-01-01

    The history of Mexico's policy of concentrating on oil and treating natural gas as a nuisance is traced. The current redefinition of natural gas policies by PEMEX, Mexico's giant oil and gas state monopoly, and the expanding petrochemical industry are discussed. Proven reserves of natural gas, imports of gas from the US, and the growing demand for gas products are considered. (UK)

  6. Agricultural Policy and Child Health in Rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Antoinette B.; Partridge, William L.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the impact on malnutrition of Mexico's Sistema de Alementacion Mexicana (SAM) program, which tried to make the country self-sufficient in basic foods. Concludes that the food problem in Mexico is not so much one of production as it is a problem of distribution and consumption. (PS)

  7. Delay in polling systems in heavy traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mei, Robert D.

    1998-10-01

    We study the delay in asymmetric cyclic polling systems with general mixtures of gated and exhaustive service, with generally distributed service times and switch-over times, in heavy traffic. We obtain closed-form expressions for all moments of the delay incurred at each of the queues. The expressions are strikingly simple and can even be expressed as finite products of known factors. The results provide new insights into the heavy-traffic behavior of polling systems.

  8. Delayed myelosuppression with acute exposure to hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and environmental degradation product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaligama, Sridhar; Kale, Vijay M.; Wilbanks, Mitchell S. [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA 71209 (United States); Perkins, Edward J. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Meyer, Sharon A., E-mail: meyer@ulm.edu [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA 71209 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a widely used munitions compound, and hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), its N-nitroso product of anaerobic microbial nitroreduction, are contaminants of military sites. Previous studies have shown MNX to be the most acutely toxic among the nitroreduced degradation products of RDX and to cause mild anemia at high dose. The present study compares hematotoxicity with acute oral exposure to MNX with parent RDX. Both RDX and MNX caused a modest decrease in blood hemoglobin and ∼ 50% loss of granulocytes (NOAELs = 47 mg/kg) in female Sprague–Dawley rats observed 14 days post-exposure. We explored the possibility that blood cell loss observed after 14 days was delayed in onset because of toxicity to bone marrow (BM) progenitors. RDX and MNX decreased granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) at 14, but not 7, days (NOAELs = 24 mg/kg). The earliest observed time at which MNX decreased GM-CFCs was 10 days post-exposure. RDX and MNX likewise decreased BM burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-Es) at 14, but not 7, days. Granulocyte–erythrocyte–monocyte–megakaryocyte (GEMM)-CFCs were unaffected by RDX and MNX at 7 days suggesting precursor depletion did not account for GM-CFC and BFU-E loss. MNX added to the culture media was without effect on GM-CFC formation indicating no direct inhibition. Flow cytometry showed no differential loss of BM multilineage progenitors (Thy1.1{sup +}) or erythroid (CD71{sup +}) precursors with MNX suggesting myeloid and erythroid lineages were comparably affected. Collectively, these data indicate that acute exposure to both RDX and MNX caused delayed suppression of myelo- and erythropoiesis with subsequent decrease of peripheral granulocytes and erythrocytes. Highlights: ► Acute oral exposure to munitions RDX causes myelosuppression. ► Environmental degradation product MNX is comparable in effect. ► RDX and MNX are cytotoxic to both myeloid and erythroid

  9. Delayed growth of EL4 lymphoma in SR-A-deficient mice is due to upregulation of nitric oxide and interferon-gamma production by tumor-associated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komohara, Yoshihiro; Takemura, Kenichi; Lei, Xiao Feng; Sakashita, Naomi; Harada, Mamoru; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Takeya, Motohiro

    2009-11-01

    Class A scavenger receptors (SR-A, CD204) are highly expressed in tumor-associated macrophages (TAM). To investigate the function of SR-A in TAM, wild-type and SR-A-deficient (SR-A(-/-)) mice were injected with EL4 cells. Although these groups of mice did not differ in the numbers of infiltrating macrophages and lymphocytes and in neovascularization, SR-A(-/-) mice had delayed growth of EL4 tumors. Expression of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase and interferon (IFN)-gamma mRNA increased significantly in tumor tissues from SR-A(-/-) mice. Engulfment of necrotic EL4 cells induced upregulation of NO and IFN-gamma production by cultured macrophages, and production of NO and IFN-gamma increased in SR-A(-/-) macrophages in vitro. IFN-beta production by cultured macrophages was also elevated in SR-A(-/-) macrophages in vitro. These results suggested that the antitumor activity of macrophages increased in SR-A(-/-) mice because of upregulation of NO and IFN-gamma production. These data indicate an important role of SR-A in regulating TAM function by inhibiting toll-like receptor (TLR)4-IFN-beta signaling.

  10. Optimal pricing and lot-sizing policies for an economic production quantity model with non-instantaneous deteriorating items, permissible delay in payments, customer returns, and inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoreishi, Maryam; Mirzazadeh, Abolfazl; Nakhai Kamalabadi, Isa

    2014-01-01

    . The effects of time value of money are studied using the Discounted Cash Flow approach. The main objective is to determine the optimal selling price, the optimal length of the production period, and the optimal length of inventory cycle simultaneously such that the present value of total profit is maximized...

  11. Neutron delayed choice experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Delayed choice experiments for neutrons can help extend the interpretation of quantum mechanical phenomena. They may also rule out alternative explanations which static interference experiments allow. A simple example of a feasible neutron test is presented and discussed. (orig.)

  12. Quad nanosecond delay module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, R.J.; Hunter, J.B.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1986-04-01

    Four nanosecond (ns) delay units have been designed to fit in a single-width NIM module. This module is particularly suited for use in conjunction with quad constant fraction timing discriminators (CFTDs) since it has four delay units that can be placed adjacent to the four units of the CFTD. A series of different length cables connected via DIP toggle switches provide delays of 0.60 ns in 4 ns increments. Thus, the CFTD delay can be optimized for pulses of different rise times from approx.10-100 ns. Design work for the PC board and silkscreening of the front panel were done with the MacDraw program on the Apple Mackintosh computer and printed with the Lasewriter printer. 6 refs

  13. Delayed rule following

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [SD], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the SD. The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative even...

  14. Vernier Delay Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, W.B.

    1984-10-01

    This module will accept differential ECL pulses from the auxiliary rear panel or NIM level pulses from the front panel. The pulses are produced at the output with a fixed delay that is software programmable in steps of 0.1 ns over the range of 0.1 to 10.5 ns. Multiple outputs are available at the front panel. Minimum delay through the module is 9 ns

  15. Quad precision delay generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Shanti; Gopalakrishnan, K.R.; Marballi, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    A Quad Precision Delay Generator delays a digital edge by a programmed amount of time, varying from nanoseconds to microseconds. The output of this generator has an amplitude of the order of tens of volts and rise time of the order of nanoseconds. This was specifically designed and developed to meet the stringent requirements of the plasma focus experiments. Plasma focus is a laboratory device for producing and studying nuclear fusion reactions in hot deuterium plasma. 3 figs

  16. Modelling delays in pharmacokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, Z.H.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Linear system analysis has come to form the backbone of pharmacokinetics. Natural systems usually involve time delays, thus models incorporating them would be an order closer approximation to the real world compared to those that do not. Delays may be modelled in several ways. The approach considered in this study is to have a discrete-time delay dependent rate with the delay respresenting the duration between the entry of a drug into a compartment and its release in some form (may be as a metabolite) from the compartment. Such a delay may be because of one or more of several physiological reasons, like, formation of a reservoir, slow metabolism, or receptor binding. The mathematical structure this gives rise to is a system of delay-differential equations. Examples are given of simple one and two compartment systems with drugs like bumetanide, carbamazepine, and quinolone-caffeine interaction. In these examples generally a good fit is obtained and the suggested models form a good approximation. 21 refs., 6 figs

  17. Gulf of Mexico deep-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    The deepwater Gulf of Mexico, an emerging basin with 20 BBOE resource potential, was discussed. Technologies are advancing and development options are increasing within the Gulf of Mexico deepwater environment. Deepwater offers significant rate potentials leading to strong cash flows. The projected steep rate of resources captured in the next five years show that there is a short window of opportunity to establish a business position. The major production variables are development costs and cycle time. There is a definite market for Gulf of Mexico products because U.S. energy demand is expected to outstrip U.S. supply. Present infrastructure is capable of moving large volumes of gas into major U.S. markets, but with the large number of projects currently underway, especially in the United States, supply could exceed capacity. 1 tab., 16 figs

  18. Mexico and the CTBT; Mexico y el CTBT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre G, J.; Martinez L, J.; Ruiz E, L. J.; Aragon M, I. B., E-mail: jaguirre@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) is a treaty that prohibits all the nuclear explosions by anybody and in any place, either on the terrestrial surface, in the atmosphere, under the sea or underground. From the adoption of this Treaty by the United Nations, Mexico has had interest for its entrance in vigor, as integral part to assure the international peace. For this reason, our country signed the Treaty since it was open in September 24, 1996 and three years later ratified it, due to Mexico is part of the group of necessary countries for their entrance in vigor. During 13 years, the country has been committed and helped to the installation of monitoring stations, actions that allow the strengthening of the International System of Surveillance. The purpose of this work is to divulge the Treaty,its technologies and benefits; and also to diffuse the works realized by Mexico regarding the radionuclides monitoring station and noble gases both certified ones for the CTBT. Besides the radionuclides technology, Mexico has taken charge of the installation and operation of the seismic stations and hydro-acoustics that have been certified too. The radionuclides station Rn-44 located in Guerrero Negro, BCS has two technologies, an automated sampler of suspended particles in air brand Cinderella/ARAME and a noble gases system Sauna used for the particles detection of radioactive material gamma emitting and Xenon radioisotopes product of nuclear assays. Both technologies are transmitting data in real time to the International Center of Data. These technologies are shown in this work. (Author)

  19. Human eosinophils are direct targets to nanoparticles: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) delay apoptosis and increase the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luis Rafael; Girard, Denis

    2016-09-30

    Zinc oxide NPs (ZnO) have been recently proposed as novel candidates for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases. Paradoxically, recent data suggested that ZnO could cause eosinophilic airway inflammation in rodents. Despite the above observations, there are currently no studies reporting direct interaction between a given NP and human eosinophils themselves. In this study, freshly isolated human eosinophils were incubated with ZnO and several cellular functions were studied. We found that ZnO delay human eosinophil apoptosis, partially by inhibiting caspases and by preventing caspase-4 and Bcl-xL degradation. ZnO do not induce production of reactive oxygen species but increase de novo protein synthesis. In addition, ZnO were found to increase the production of the proinflammatory IL-1β and IL-8 cytokines. Using a pharmacological approach, we demonstrated that inhibition of caspase-1 reversed the ability of ZnO to induce IL-1β and IL-8 production, whereas inhibition of caspase-4 only reversed that of IL-8. Our results indicate the necessity of conducting studies to determine the potential of using NP as nanotherapies, particularly in diseases in which eosinophils may be involved. We conclude that, indeed, human eosinophils represent potential new direct targets to NPs, ZnO in the present case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Aging in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras de Lehr, E

    1986-01-01

    Demographic social and economic aspects of the situation of the elderly in Mexico are described with special emphasis upon education programmes and types of care in nursing homes. Considering the future trends of an increase in Mexico's elderly population, the author calls for more efforts in research and training in the field of gerontology. First results in this area are reported.

  1. Research Paper: Production of A Protocol on Early Intervention for Speech and Language Delays in Early Childhood: An Novice Experience in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshanak Vameghi

    2016-01-01

    Results The result of this study is presented as 7 intervention packages, including the following domains of disorders: prelingual lingual speech and language hearing impairment, speech sound, dysphagia, stuttering, and dysarthria  Conclusion Most studies have confirmed the effectiveness and need for early interventions for children with speech and language impairment. However, most do not explain the details of these interventions. Before the present study, no systematic and evidence-based protocol existed for early intervention in childhood speech and language impairments, in Iran; and due to language differences, as well as possible differences in the speech and language developmental process of children of different communities, making direct use of non-Persian references was not possible and effective. Thus, there was a clear demand for the production of such a protocol.

  2. Gamma irradiation service in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liceaga C, G.; Martinez A, L.; Mendez T, D.; Ortiz A, G.; Olvera G, R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1980 it was installed in Mexico, on the National Institute of Nuclear Research, an irradiator model J S-6500 of a canadian manufacture. Actually, this is the greatest plant in the Mexican Republic that offers a gamma irradiation process at commercial level to diverse industries. However, seeing that the demand for sterilize those products were not so much as the irradiation capacity it was opted by the incursion in other types of products. During 17 years had been irradiated a great variety of products grouped of the following form: dehydrated foods, disposable products for medical use, cosmetics, medicaments, various. Nowadays the capacity of the irradiator is saturated virtue of it is operated the 24 hours during the 365 days of the year and only its operation is suspended by the preventive and corrective maintenance. However, the fresh food market does not be attended since this irradiator was designed for doses greater than 10 kGy (1.0 Mrad)

  3. A delay fractioning approach to global synchronization of delayed complex networks with stochastic disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yao; Wang Zidong; Liang Jinling

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, the synchronization problem is investigated for a class of stochastic complex networks with time delays. By utilizing a new Lyapunov functional form based on the idea of 'delay fractioning', we employ the stochastic analysis techniques and the properties of Kronecker product to establish delay-dependent synchronization criteria that guarantee the globally asymptotically mean-square synchronization of the addressed delayed networks with stochastic disturbances. These sufficient conditions, which are formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), can be solved efficiently by the LMI toolbox in Matlab. The main results are proved to be much less conservative and the conservatism could be reduced further as the number of delay fractioning gets bigger. A simulation example is exploited to demonstrate the advantage and applicability of the proposed result

  4. Optimal Joint Expected Delay Forwarding in Delay Tolerant Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Xu; Xin Feng; Wen Jun Yang; Ru Chuan Wang; Bing Qing Han

    2013-01-01

    Multicopy forwarding schemes have been employed in delay tolerant network (DTN) to improve the delivery delay and delivery rate. Much effort has been focused on reducing the routing cost while retaining high performance. This paper aims to provide an optimal joint expected delay forwarding (OJEDF) protocol which minimizes the expected delay while satisfying a certain constant on the number of forwardings per message. We propose a comprehensive forwarding metric called joint expected delay (JE...

  5. Foliicolous fungi from Arctostaphylos pungens in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno-Rico, O.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Arctostaphylos pungens "Manzanita" is an important shrub in the southwestern USA, and northern and central Mexico. Manzanita bears apple-like fruit that is utilised for a range of edible products. Over the past two years, several foliar disease problems were noted on this host in the San José de

  6. Foliicolous fungi from Arctostaphylos pungens in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno-Rico, Onésimo; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Crous, Pedro W

    Arctostaphylos pungens "Manzanita" is an important shrub in the southwestern USA, and northern and central Mexico. Manzanita bears apple-like fruit that is utilised for a range of edible products. Over the past two years, several foliar disease problems were noted on this host in the San José de

  7. Mexico and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfman, M

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration and HIV/AIDS in Mexico and Central America, including Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama. Most migrants travel to the US through Mexico. US-Mexico trade agreements created opportunities for increased risk of HIV transmission. The research literature focuses on Mexico. Most countries, with the exception of Belize and Costa Rica, are sending countries. Human rights of migrants are violated in transit and at destination. Migration policies determine migration processes. The Mexican-born population in the US is about 3% of US population and 8% of Mexico's population. About 22% arrived during 1992-97, and about 500,000 are naturalized US citizens. An additional 11 million have a Mexican ethnic background. Mexican migrants are usually economically active men who had jobs before leaving and were urban people who settled in California, Texas, Illinois, and Arizona. Most Mexican migrants enter illegally. Many return to Mexico. The main paths of HIV transmission are homosexual, heterosexual, and IV-drug-injecting persons. Latino migrants frequently use prostitutes, adopt new sexual practices including anal penetration among men, greater diversity of sexual partners, and use of injectable drugs.

  8. Assessing delay discounting in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Suzanne H.

    2014-01-01

    Delay discounting (also intertemporal choice or impulsive choice) is the process by which delayed outcomes, such as delayed food delivery, are valued less than the same outcomes delivered immediately or with a shorter delay. This process is of interest because many psychopathologies, including substance dependence, pathological gambling, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder, are characterized by heightened levels of delay discounting. Some of these disorders are herit...

  9. Estimating Delays In ASIC's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Gary; Nesheiwat, Jeffrey; Su, Ling

    1994-01-01

    Verification is important aspect of process of designing application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Design must not only be functionally accurate, but must also maintain correct timing. IFA, Intelligent Front Annotation program, assists in verifying timing of ASIC early in design process. This program speeds design-and-verification cycle by estimating delays before layouts completed. Written in C language.

  10. Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Fu Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper wants to investigate the optimal retailer's lot-sizing policy with two warehouses under partially permissible delay in payments within the economic order quantity (EOQ framework. In this paper, we want to extend that fully permissible delay in payments to the supplier would offer the retailer partially permissible delay in payments. That is, the retailer must make a partial payment to the supplier when the order is received. Then the retailer must pay off the remaining balance at the end of the permissible delay period. In addition, we want to add the assumption that the retailer's storage space is limited. That is, the retailer will rent the warehouse to store these exceeding items when the order quantity is larger than retailer's storage space. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer's optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Three theorems are developed to efficiently determine the optimal replenishment policy for the retailer. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems and obtained a lot of managerial insights.

  11. Delayed neutrons in ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, T.

    1988-01-01

    Delayed neutron analysis carried out at the Australian Nuclear Scientific and Technology Organization facilities, provides a fast, high sensitivity, low cost, reliable method, particularly suitable for large batches of samples, and for non destructive analysis of a range of materials. While its main use has been in uranium exploration, other applications include archeological investigations, agriculture, oceanography and biology

  12. Foliicolous fungi from Arctostaphylos pungens in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Rico, Onésimo; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Crous, Pedro W.

    2014-01-01

    Arctostaphylos pungens "Manzanita" is an important shrub in the southwestern USA, and northern and central Mexico. Manzanita bears apple-like fruit that is utilised for a range of edible products. Over the past two years, several foliar disease problems were noted on this host in the San José de Gracia region of Mexico. The aim of the present study was to elucidate their identity through the analysis of morphological characters and DNA phylogeny (based on the large subunit nuclear ribosomal R...

  13. Mexico's nuclear paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redclift, M.

    1989-01-01

    Opposition to Mexico's nuclear reactors at Laguna Verde has grown during the last two years. The nuclear programme is blamed for being expensive and wasteful, and the decision to rely on the USA contradicts Mexico's espoused policy of greater independence from the USA. The way in which petroleum revenues were used to precipitate the nuclear option is compared with the lack of urgency given to renewable energy and greater energy efficiency. From a social and environmental perspective, as well as an economic one, Mexico's nuclear programme is judged expensive and irrelevant. (author)

  14. Effect of Ethephon on Almond Bloom Delay, Yield, and Nut Quality under Warm Climate Conditions in Northwestern Mexico Efecto del Ethephon en el Retraso de la Floración, la Producción y la Calidad del Almendro, bajo Condiciones de Clima Caliente del Noroeste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Leonel Grijalva-Contreras

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available World almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill. D.A. Webb production is mostly located in areas where flowering is injured by low temperatures, and using ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid to delay bloom is suggested as a measure to avoid frost damage. However, it is unknown if that practice could be beneficial in Mexico’s warm climates. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ethephon on almond bloom delay and yield. We evaluated foliar applications of ethephon at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg L-1 at 10% leaf drop stage and at 150 mg L-1 during dormancy over 2 yr. In 2004, ethephon applied at 10% leaf drop stage delayed bloom by 7, 8, and 9 d at 75, 150, and 300 mg L-1, respectively (p La producción de almendra (Prunus dulcis (Mill. D.A. Webb en el mundo está situada sobre todo en las áreas donde la floración es dañada por bajas temperaturas, y se sugiere el uso del ethephon (ácido 2-cloroetil fosfónico para retrasarla, como una medida para evitar daños por helada. Sin embargo, no se sabe si esa práctica podría ser beneficiosa bajo los climas calientes de México. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto del ethephon (ácido 2-cloroetil fosfónico sobre el retraso de la floración y la producción de la almendra. Evaluamos la aplicación foliar de ethephon en dosis de 75; 150 y 300 mg L-1 en la etapa de 10% de caída de la hoja, y en 150 mg L-1 en la etapa de dormancia, durante 2 años. En el 2004, ethephon aplicado en la etapa de 10% de caída de la hoja retrasó la floración por 7; 8 y 9 d a 75; 150 y 300 mg L-1 respectivamente (p < 0,01, y en 2005 el retraso de la floración fue de 3 d a 300 mg L-1. El ethephon aplicado durante dormancia retrasó la floración 2 d en el primer año pero no hubo efecto en el segundo año. El rendimiento y el amarre de fruta fueron afectados por el ethephon aplicado en la etapa de 10% de caída de la hoja en 2004, pero no en 2005. Ni la producción ni el amarre de fruta fue

  15. Criteria to determine the depth of the production interval in wells of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico; Criterios para determinar la profundidad del intervalo productor en pozos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon Vivar, Jesus Saul de [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico)]. E-mail: jesus.deleon@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-15

    Ways to select the depth of the production interval or to complete wells in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field have changed during the development of the field. From 1961 when drilling began to the middle of 2005, a total of 325 wells were drilled. The paper compares the approaches used in the past with those of the last ten years. The Cerro Prieto system has been classified as being of liquid-dominated and high-temperature. Today, after 33 years of commercial exploitation, it has experienced a series of thermal and geochemical fluid changes making it necessary to modify the ways to select the depth of the well production intervals, according to the observed behavior of the reservoir. The new criteria include the thermal approach, the geological approach, the geochemical approach and a comparative approach with neighboring wells. If most of these criteria are interpreted correctly, the success of a well is ensured. [Spanish] Los criterios para seleccionar la profundidad del intervalo productor o la terminacion de los pozos en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto han cambiado durante el desarrollo del mismo. De 1961, cuando se perforaron los primeros pozos, hasta mediados del 2005 se han perforado un total de 325 pozos. En el presente articulo se hara una breve revision de cuales han sido los criterios usados en el pasado y los que se han venido empleando en los ultimos diez anos. El yacimiento de Cerro Prieto ha sido clasificado como de liquido dominante, de alta temperatura, pero actualmente, despues de 33 anos de explotacion comercial, ha sufrido una serie de cambios termicos y geoquimicos en sus fluidos, por lo que ha sido necesario modificar los criterios para seleccionar la profundidad del intervalo productor de los pozos de acuerdo al comportamiento observado en el yacimiento. Los criterios actuales se dividen en cuatro: 1. Criterio termico, 2. Criterio geologico, 3. Criterio geoquimico y 4. Criterio comparativo de los pozos vecinos. Cuando la mayoria de estos

  16. [Brucellosis: a zoonosis of importance in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Hernández, Rosa Lilia; Contreras-Rodríguez, Araceli; Ávila-Calderón, Eric Daniel; Morales-García, M Rosario

    2016-12-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most frequent zoonosis in most parts of the world. This zoonosis remains a great problem to public health in developing countries, although developed countries have successfully controlled it. Mexico still shows a high annual brucellosis incidence in humans; thus, the country is considered around the world as an endemic brucellosis country. To describe the connection/association between this zoonosis and the current epidemiological situation in the Mexican population. Perusal of research reports, epidemiological studies and veterinarian reviews performed in Mexico, using data bases such as PubMed, Thompson Reuters, Mesh research. The risk of infection by Brucella in Mexico is associated with the consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, mainly fresh cheeses.

  17. Policies to reduce carbon emissions from Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The two long-term scenarios carried out for Mexico attempt to paint a picture of carbon emissions and energy use in the year 2025. The scenarios reveal that Mexico's current energy path is not optimal; the energy-intensity indicators show an increasing reliance on petroleum products and electricity over the next 40 years. Thus, Mexico must embark on a program of energy conservation in the near future. Mexico recently has undertaken several energy conservation efforts. The Mexican government implemented a National Program for Energy Modernization. This program identifies the promotion of energy conservation in Mexico as one of its top priorities between 1990 and 1994. It incorporates a number of actions geared at improving energy conservation, including: establishing pricing policies which pay special attention to electricity tariffs; setting aside budget appropriations for energy-savings programs; carrying out an energy diagnosis in the transportation and industrial sectors; promoting cogeneration and new legislation in this field; setting efficiency standards for equipment; initiating a public education campaign to inform people about energy conservation; promoting the participation of research institutes and consulting firms in the research of the technological aspects of energy-saving measures; and creating agreement with industrial and commerce associations

  18. Silencing criticism in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Suárez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Journalists and human rights defenders in Mexico are being attacked in an attempt to silence their criticism. Many are forced to flee or risk being assassinated. The consequences are both personal and of wider social significance.

  19. New Mexico State Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census MAF/TIGER database. The Census MAF/TIGER database...

  20. New Mexico Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  1. New Mexico Mountain Ranges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  2. Mexico - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mexican Surface Daily Observations taken at 94 observatories located throughout Mexico, beginning in 1872 and going up through 1981. The data resided on paper...

  3. Productive fluid intervals in wells H-35 and H-39, Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla (Mexico); Intervalos productores de fluidos en los pozos H-35 y H-39 del campo geotermico Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina Martinez, Moises [Comision Federal de Electridad, Perote, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents the results of log interpretations using the percentage method to define the productive fluid intervals in wells H-35 and H-39. These were identified with pressure, temperature and flow rate (PTS) electronic logs, used for the first time in this field. The test were carried out with the well integrated to the electrical generation units. Well H-35 fed steam to Units 1, 4, 5 and 7 through a plate with a restriction orifice diameter of 50.8 mm (2 inches), a well head pressure of 45 bars and a mass flow rate of 40 t/h. Well H-39 fed steam to Unit 3 through plate with a restriction orifice diameter of 50.8 mm (2 inches), a well head pressure of 27 bars and a mass flow rate of 30 t/h. [Spanish] Se presenta la intervencion realizada por el metodo de porcentajes para definir los intervalos productores de fluidos en los pozos H-35 y H-39. El estudio se hizo a partir de datos obtenidos con una sonda electronica de presion, temperatura y velocidad de flujo (PTS), utilizada por primera vez en este campo. En ambos casos se realizaron las pruebas con el pozo integrado a las unidades de generacion electrica, el primero suministra vapor para las Unidades 1, 4, 5 y 7 a traves de una placa de orificio de restriccion de 50.8 mm (2 pulgadas) de diametro, con presion de cabezal de 45 bar manometricos y un gasto de mezcla de 40 t/h. El segundo alimenta a la Unidad 3, fluye por orificio de 50.8 mm (2 pulgadas) de diametro y produce 30 t/h de mezcla con una presion en la cabeza de 27 bar.

  4. Doing Business in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Thomas A.

    2002-01-01

    On 1 July 2001, a far-reaching free trade agreement between the EFTA States and Mexico entered into force. ”Doing Business in Mexico” provides targeted assistance to Swiss Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME) that wish to tap the potential of Mexico as both an export destination and investment location. This comprehensive guide contains information and advice on market research, market entry, and investment in this fascinating country. Part I introduces the reader to this fascinating ...

  5. Mexico tornado climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Macías Medrano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A brief introduction on some features of tornado database in Mexico is exposed showing its substantive criteria. We resent a brief analysis about main Mexican tornadoes´ characteristics, based on data collected between 2000 to 2010, talking about spatial and temporal expressions (historical, seasonal and horary in order to show the importance of it destruction capacity and also the people´s vulnerability in Mexico.

  6. Occupational health in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón, Tania; Santos-Burgoa, Carlos; Baron, Sherry; Hernández, Sendy

    2002-01-01

    The authors discuss the maquiladoras and child labor, and offer an overview of the history of occupational safety and health in Mexico that covers laws and regulations, social security, unions, and enforcement of legislation. The organization and structure of the various institutions responsible for occupational safety and health (OSH), as well as administrative procedures, are described. This article concludes with a list of the new challenges for OSH in Mexico.

  7. Inventory of nanotechnology companies in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Richard; Zayago Lau, Edgar; Foladori, Guillermo; Parker, Rachel; Vazquez, Laura Liliana Villa; Belmont, Eduardo Robles; Figueroa, Edgar Ramón Arteaga

    2016-02-01

    This study presents an inventory of 139 nanotechnology companies in Mexico, identifying their geographic distribution, economic sector classification, and position in the nanotechnology value chain. We find that the principal economic sector of nanotechnology-engaged firms involves the manufacture of chemical products, which largely serve as means of production (primary or intermediate materials; instruments and equipment) for industrial processes. The methodology used in this analysis could be replicated in other countries without major modifications.

  8. Inventory of nanotechnology companies in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelbaum, Richard; Zayago Lau, Edgar; Foladori, Guillermo; Parker, Rachel; Vazquez, Laura Liliana Villa; Belmont, Eduardo Robles; Figueroa, Edgar Ramón Arteaga

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an inventory of 139 nanotechnology companies in Mexico, identifying their geographic distribution, economic sector classification, and position in the nanotechnology value chain. We find that the principal economic sector of nanotechnology-engaged firms involves the manufacture of chemical products, which largely serve as means of production (primary or intermediate materials; instruments and equipment) for industrial processes. The methodology used in this analysis could be replicated in other countries without major modifications

  9. Inventory of nanotechnology companies in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelbaum, Richard, E-mail: rich@global.ucsb.edu [University of California at Santa Barbara, MacArthur Foundation Chair in Sociology and Global & International Studies Co-PI, Center for Nanotechnology and Society, Social Science and Media Studies 2103 (United States); Zayago Lau, Edgar [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (CINVESTAV, Zacatenco)., Multidisciplinary Graduate Programs (Mexico); Foladori, Guillermo [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas. Latin American Nanotechnology & Society Network (ReLANS), Unidad Académica en Estudios del Desarrollo (Mexico); Parker, Rachel [Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Research Programs (Canada); Vazquez, Laura Liliana Villa [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas (Mexico); Belmont, Eduardo Robles [UNAM, Institute for Research in Applied Mathematics and Systems (IIMAS) (Mexico); Figueroa, Edgar Ramón Arteaga [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas. Latin American Nanotechnology & Society Network (ReLANS), Unidad Académica en Estudios del Desarrollo (Mexico)

    2016-02-15

    This study presents an inventory of 139 nanotechnology companies in Mexico, identifying their geographic distribution, economic sector classification, and position in the nanotechnology value chain. We find that the principal economic sector of nanotechnology-engaged firms involves the manufacture of chemical products, which largely serve as means of production (primary or intermediate materials; instruments and equipment) for industrial processes. The methodology used in this analysis could be replicated in other countries without major modifications.

  10. Petroleum exploration and development opportunities in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.; Daschle, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a historical overview of the energy sector in Mexico, an important player in the world energy market, whose trade and market policies support economic development and foreign investment. Trade, commerce and investment between Canada and Mexico has been increasing steadily ever since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) came into effect in January 1994. TransAlta Corporation and Westcoast Energy Inc. are two very active investors in the energy sector. Westcoast has invested in increasing natural gas and oil production from the Cantarell field in the Gulf of Mexico through the Campeche Natural Gas Compression Service Project and the Cantarell Nitrogen Plant. TransAlta has invested in two natural gas fired power plants which are both expected to be in service for the second quarter of 2003. These include the 252 MW Campeche facility and the 259 MW Chihuahua facility. Mexico has proven crude oil reserves of 27 billion barrels, proven natural gas reserves of 30 tcf, and in 2000 had a crude oil production of 3.4 mmbl/d, of which half was exported. The energy sector in Mexico may need about $120 billion of investment by 2010, of which half will be used for crude oil exploration and production, transportation and refining and the other half for natural gas exploration and production, transportation and distribution and power generation. Recently, the Mexican government embarked on two initiatives. The first to increase the productivity and profitability of PEMEX, the largest corporation in Mexico and one of the largest in the world, and to allow a form of private investment in the development of non-associated natural gas fields. This paper discussed the significance of the Multiple Service Contracts (MSC) program which involves domestic and international petroleum exploration and development. It also discussed forms of business organizations, taxation and structuring, financial issues, employment and the North American Free Trade Agreement

  11. Topological Acoustic Delay Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwang; Tian, Ye; Cheng, Ying; Wei, Qi; Liu, Xiaojun; Christensen, Johan

    2018-03-01

    Topological protected wave engineering in artificially structured media is at the frontier of ongoing metamaterials research that is inspired by quantum mechanics. Acoustic analogues of electronic topological insulators have recently led to a wealth of new opportunities in manipulating sound propagation with strikingly unconventional acoustic edge modes immune to backscattering. Earlier fabrications of topological insulators are characterized by an unreconfigurable geometry and a very narrow frequency response, which severely hinders the exploration and design of useful devices. Here we establish topologically protected sound in reconfigurable phononic crystals that can be switched on and off simply by rotating its three-legged "atoms" without altering the lattice structure. In particular, we engineer robust phase delay defects that take advantage of the ultrabroadband reflection-free sound propagation. Such topological delay lines serve as a paradigm in compact acoustic devices, interconnects, and electroacoustic integrated circuits.

  12. Delayed traumatic intracranial hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Hiroki

    1984-01-01

    CT was performed serially within 24 hours after head injury in 64 patients having Glasgow Coma Scale of 14 or less or cranial fracture shown on roentgenogram. Delayed traumatic extradural hematoma was observed within 7-12 hours after head injury in 6 cases (9.4%). This was prominent in the frontal and occipital regions (67%). Good recovery was seen in 83.3%. Delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma was observed within 6-24 hours after head injury in 17 cases (26.6%). This higher incidence was related to contre coup injury. Conservative treatment was possible in 14 of the 17 patients (82.4%), showing good recovery in 70%. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. The Upper Toluca Pumice (10.5 kyr): Product of the last major Plinian eruption of Nevado de Toluca volcano, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Macias, J. L.

    2001-12-01

    The last Plinian eruption at Nevado de Toluca volcano occurred 10.5 kyr ago producing the Upper Toluca Pumice (UTP). The UTP consists of four widespread fallout layers, interbedded with pyroclastic flow and surge deposits. The UTP event occurred under open vent conditions starting with hydromagmatic explosions that emplaced a hot pyroclastic flow (F0) on the east and northern flanks of the volcano. This explosion decompressed the magmatic system allowing almost immediately the formation of a 21 km high Plinian column that was dispersed by predominant winds 5o to the NE (PC0), which waned after some time. The eruption recommenced with the establishment of three Plinian columns that were dispersed in a NE-E direction, reaching heights of 39, 42, and 28 km, and deposited fall layers (PC1, PC2, and PC3) respectively. These Plinian columns were interrupted several times by phreatomagmatic and collapse events that emplaced pyroclastic flows (F1, F2, and F3) and surges (S1, and S2), mainly on the eastern and northern flanks of the volcano. The juvenile components of the UTP sequence are white, gray and banded pumice and gray juvenile lithic clasts both of dacitic composition (63-66wt% SiO2), and minor accidental lithics. The fallout deposits (PC1 and PC2) covered a minimum area of 2000 km2 with a total volume of 14 km3 (ca. 6 km3 D.R.E.); a mass eruption rate ranging from 3\\times107 to 5\\times108 kg/s and a total mass of 1.2\\times1013 kg. The UTP emplaced 1.5 m of gravel-sized pumice in the modern City of Toluca region and ca. 20 cm of fine sand in the Mexico City region. A future event of this magnitude might represent a major catastrophe to the 30 million people living in these cities and their surroundings.

  14. Time-Delay Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tinto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Equal-arm detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers, the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called time-delay interferometry (TDI. This article provides an overview of the theory, mathematical foundations, and experimental aspects associated with the implementation of TDI. Although emphasis on the application of TDI to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA mission appears throughout this article, TDI can be incorporated into the design of any future space-based mission aiming to search for gravitational waves via interferometric measurements. We have purposely left out all theoretical aspects that data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the TDI data combinations.

  15. Update of Geothermics in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Negrin, Luis C.A.; Quijano Leon, Jose Luis [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2004-12-01

    Four geothermal fields are currently operating in Mexico (Cerro Prieto, Los Azufres, Los Humeros and Las Tres Virgenes), with a total installed geothermal-electric capacity of 953 megawatts (MW). This means the country is located in third place, worldwide, just behind the USA and Philippines. Thirty-six power plants of several types (condensing, back pressure and binary cycle), between 1.5 and 110 MW, operate in the fields, fed by 197 wells with a combined production of 7,700 metric tons of steam per hour (t/h). These production wells have depths between 600 and 4,400 meters. Steam comes with 8,750 t/h of brine that is injected through 19 injection wells or treated in a solar evaporation pond of 14 km2 in Cerro Prieto. During 2003, steam produced in those fields equaled 67.5 million metric tons, and the power plants generated 6,282 gigawatt-hours (GWh), which represented 3.1% of the electric energy produced in Mexico. All the power plants and the geothermal fields are operated bye the public utility, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE)). [Spanish] Actualmente se operan en Mexico cuatro campos geotermicos (Cerro Prieto, Los Azufres, Los Humeros y Las Tres Virgenes), con una capacidad geotermoelectrica total de 953 megawatts (MW). Esto coloca al pais en el tercer lugar mundial, detras de Estados Unidos y Filipinas. En esos campos operan treinta y seis unidades de tipos diversos (a condensacion, a contrapresion y de ciclo binario), entre 1.5 y 110 MW, alimentadas por 197 pozos con una produccion combinada de 7,700 toneladas de vapor por hora (t/h). Estos pozos productores tienen profundidades entre 600 y 4,400 metros. El vapor sale acompanado por 8,750 t/h de salmuera, que se inyecta en 19 pozos inyectores o se trata en una laguna de evaporacion solar de 14 km2 en Cerro Prieto. Durante 2003 el vapor producido en los campos sumo 67.5 millones de toneladas y las unidades generaron 6,282 gigawatts-hora (GWh), lo que represento el

  16. Analysis of results from delay studies of isol-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudstam, G.

    1980-01-01

    The delay between production and measurement is an important effect in ISOL-experiments aiming at the determination of nuclear reaction yields. The present report discusses methods to correct for decay losses caused by the delay in the target - ion source system of the isotope separator. (author)

  17. Seasonal and interannual patterns in primary production, respiration and net ecosystem metabolism in three estuaries in the northeast Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of primary production and respiration provide fundamental information about the trophic status of aquatic ecosystems, yet such measurements are logistically difficult and expensive to sustain as part of long-term monitoring programs. However, ecosystem metabolism par...

  18. Salt marsh construction costs and shrimp production in Galveston Bay and Gulf of Mexico from 1999-01-01 to 2005-01-01 (NCEI Accession 0161218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains marsh construction cost in relation to shrimp yield per year. This modeling approach provides estimates of total annual shrimp production from...

  19. Delayed neutrons in liquid metal spallation targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridikas, D.; Bokov, P.; David, J.C.; Dore, D.; Giacri, M.L.; Van Lauwe, A.; Plukiene, R.; Plukis, A.; Ignatiev, S.; Pankratov, D.

    2003-01-01

    The next generation spallation neutron sources, neutrino factories or RIB production facilities currently being designed and constructed around the world will increase the average proton beam power on target by a few orders of magnitude. Increased proton beam power results in target thermal hydraulic issues leading to new target designs, very often based on flowing liquid metal targets such as Hg, Pb, Pb-Bi. Radioactive nuclides produced in liquid metal targets are transported into hot cells, past electronics, into pumps with radiation sensitive components, etc. Besides the considerable amount of photon activity in the irradiated liquid metal, a significant amount of the delayed neutron precursor activity can be accumulated in the target fluid. The transit time from the front of a liquid metal target into areas, where delayed neutrons may be important, can be as short as a few seconds, well within one half-life of many delayed neutron precursors. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the total neutron flux (including delayed neutrons) as a function of time and determine if delayed neutrons contribute significantly to the dose rate. In this study the multi-particle transport code MCNPX combined with the material evolution program CINDER'90 will be used to evaluate the delayed neutron flux and spectra. The following scientific issues will be addressed in this paper: - Modeling of a typical geometry of the liquid metal spallation target; - Predictions of the prompt neutron fluxes, fission fragment and spallation product distributions; - Comparison of the above parameters with existing experimental data; - Time-dependent calculations of delayed neutron precursors; - Neutron flux estimates due to the prompt and delayed neutron emission; - Proposal of an experimental program to measure delayed neutron spectra from high energy spallation-fission reactions. The results of this study should be directly applicable in the design study of the European MegaPie (1 MW

  20. Brazil and Mexico's manufacturing performance in international perspective, 1970-1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Nanno; Montout, Sylvie; Perez Lopes, Luis

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the labour productivity performances of Brazil and Mexico in international perspective by comparing them with the United States, one of the international productivity leaders, during the period 1970-99. Brazil and Mexico are compared separately with the USA, in 1985 and 1988

  1. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  2. New Mexico State Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries of the New Mexico Forestry Districts, plus the names of the district offices. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a...

  3. HSIP Hospitals in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Hospitals in New Mexico The term "hospital" ... means an institution which- (1) is primarily engaged in providing, by or under the supervision of physicians, to...

  4. Delayed child-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jo-Ann; Tough, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    To provide an overview of delayed child-bearing and to describe the implications for women and health care providers. Delayed child-bearing, which has increased greatly in recent decades, is associated with an increased risk of infertility, pregnancy complications, and adverse pregnancy outcome. This guideline provides information that will optimize the counselling and care of Canadian women with respect to their reproductive choices. Maternal age is the most important determinant of fertility, and obstetric and perinatal risks increase with maternal age. Many women are unaware of the success rates or limitations of assisted reproductive technology and of the increased medical risks of delayed child-bearing, including multiple births, preterm delivery, stillbirth, and Caesarean section. This guideline provides a framework to address these issues. Studies published between 2000 and August 2010 were retrieved through searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library using appropriate key words (delayed child-bearing, deferred pregnancy, maternal age, assisted reproductive technology, infertility, and multiple births) and MeSH terms (maternal age, reproductive behaviour, fertility). The Internet was also searched using similar key words, and national and international medical specialty societies were searched for clinical practice guidelines and position statements. Data were extracted based on the aims, sample, authors, year, and results. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Women who delay child-bearing are at increased risk of infertility. Prospective parents, especially women, should know that their fecundity and fertility begin to decline significantly after 32 years of age. Prospective parents should know that assisted reproductive technologies cannot guarantee a live birth or completely

  5. Delaying information search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Shani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In three studies, we examined factors that may temporarily attenuate information search. People are generally curious and dislike uncertainty, which typically encourages them to look for relevant information. Despite these strong forces that promote information search, people sometimes deliberately delay obtaining valuable information. We find they may do so when they are concerned that the information might interfere with future pleasurable activities. Interestingly, the decision to search or to postpone searching for information is influenced not only by the value and importance of the information itself but also by well-being maintenance goals related to possible detrimental effects that negative knowledge may have on unrelated future plans.

  6. Recycling of solid wastes in Mexico City in livestock and agricultural production systems as a sustainable alternative Le recyclage des déchets solides issus du bétail et des systèmes de production agricole comme solution alternative durable à la gestion des déchets dans la ville de Mexico Reciclaje de desechos sólidos para la producción agropecuaria en la Ciudad de México como alternativa sustentable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Losada

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of solid organic wastes (manure and  fruit and vegetable refusals as a way to recycle rubbish from peri-urban areas for the production of crops for local consumption, has been designated by some researchers as an alternate method to partially reduce city waste disposal problems as well as to generate employment and promote the consumption of local products. This model production has also been suggested as a closed system ideally suited for urban environments in order to reduce the use of external inputs and encourage waste recycling policies for resource usage. A system that uses a significant amount of solid waste in the form of fruits and vegetables and the local food industry to feed dairy cows has been implemented in the East of Mexico City. The stable refusal consisting of manure and straw are sent in a fresh way to agricultural areas of the South-East of the city and used as an important external input support for the production of nopal-verdura which constitutes an important food in the diet of the inhabitants of Mexico City. The main goal of this paper is to expose and analyze current and future advantages and problems in both systems as sustainable alternatives for waste management.L’utilisation de déchets organiques solides (fumier et déchets de fruits et légumes comme moyen de recyclage des ordures des zones périurbaines pour produire des récoltes destinées à la consommation locale, a été décrite par certains chercheurs comme une solution permettant de réduire partiellement les problèmes de gestion des déchets dans les villes, de générer de l’emploi et d’encourager la consommation de produits locaux. Ce modèle de production est également considéré comme un système fermé parfaitement adapté aux environnements urbains car il permet de réduire le recours à des ressources externes et d’encourager les politiques de recyclage des déchets pour l’utilisation des ressources. Un système qui utilise

  7. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  8. A Long-run Equilibrium Demand Function: Tourism in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Brida, Juan Gabriel; Risso, Wiston Adriàn; Carrera, Edgar J. Sanchez

    2007-01-01

    Tourism demand in Mexico is around 80 percent represented by USA visitors. The goal of this paper is to explain the long-term effects of Tourism Demand in Mexico with respect to US visitors. To reach our goal the methodology of this paper follows the Johansen cointegration analysis and using annual time-series data, a single equation is estimated. With the empirical analyze, we study the tourism demand elasticities considering public investment, relative prices of tourist products, and US inc...

  9. Regulatory challenges for preventing firearms smuggling into Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Eugenio Weigend; González, Silvia Villarreal

    2015-01-01

    The recent surge in illegal firearms trafficking from the U.S. into Mexico has helped empower Mexican criminal groups to adopt highly confrontational strategies, contributing to a surge of violence throughout the country. This article addresses the regulatory asymmetries between Mexico and the U.S. with respect to the production, import, export, sales and possession of firearms. It reviews several important gun laws and explores why this asymmetry limits bilateral cooperation and encourages g...

  10. Delayed rule following.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D R

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [S(D)], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the S(D). The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative events for some behavior can be event based (a specific setting stimulus) or time based. The latter are more demanding with respect to intention following and show age-related deficits. Studies suggest that the specificity with which the components of a rule (termed intention) are stated has a substantial effect on intention following, with more detailed specifications increasing following. Reminders of an intention, too, are most effective when they refer specifically to both the behavior and its occasion. Covert review and written notes are two effective strategies for remembering everyday intentions, but people who use notes appear not to be able to switch quickly to covert review. By focusing on aspects of the setting and rule structure, research on prospective memory and goal pursuit expands the agenda for a more complete explanation of rule effects.

  11. Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciaudo-Lacroix, C.; Lapresle, J.

    1985-01-01

    A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. γEG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed [fr

  12. Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaudo-Lacroix, C; Lapresle, J [Centre Hospitalier de Bicetre, 94 - Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    1985-01-01

    A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. ..gamma..EG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed.

  13. Application of the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard using Satellite-derived and Modeled Data Products for Pelagic Habitats in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellite-derived data for sea surface temperature, salinity, chlorophyll; euphotic depth; and modeled bottom to surface temperature differences (Delta t) were evaluated to assess the utility of these products as proxies for in situ measurements. The data were used to classify su...

  14. Differential responses of production and respiration to temperature and moisture drive the carbon balance across a climatic gradient in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira; John P. Delong; Andrew M. Fox; Daniel A. Brese; Marcy E. Litvak

    2011-01-01

    Southwestern North America faces an imminent transition to a warmer, more arid climate, and it is critical to understand how these changes will affect the carbon balance of southwest ecosystems. In order to test our hypothesis that differential responses of production and respiration to temperature and moisture shape the carbon balance across a range of spatio-temporal...

  15. SIMULATION MODEL OF THE PRODUCTIVITY OF A HERD OF GOATS GRAZING UNDER DIFFERENT SCENARIOS OF HANDLING IN THE SOUTHWESTERN REGION OF TAMAULIPAS, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Villanueva-Castillo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the major current challenges in the livestock industry is meeting the demand for livestock products of a growing world population. Bio-economic models integrate animal biology and rural enterprise management, which allows for the study of complex animal production systems. This paper aims at simulating the productive performance of a herd grazing under different management conditions. To do so, a simple simulation model of a goat herd (MSSRC, rangeland forage growth, and the dynamics of animal population in the semi-arid region of Southwestern Tamaulipas under three rainfall scenarios (300, 500, and 700 mm. of average annual precipitation was built. The objective was to evaluate the sustainability of extensive grazing under different animal loads. Nine different scenarios were evaluated, corresponding to the different combinations of the three rainfall scenarios and three levels of initial loads (Hi and nannies maximum load (HMAX. Evaluated variables are: kids sales (C; total number of nannies (female goats, HT; sales of replacement nannies (VREE; sales of scrap goats (CDS; rangeland condition (CA; voluntary consumption (CV; mortality rate (M; abortion rate (A;  and average annual profits (UPA. Simulation was performed on a 1,000 hectares plot, and three 10-year periods were used as time framework. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA revealed statistically significant (P < 0.05 differences between scenarios for all studied variables. Biomass primary net production under the 300, 500, and 700 mm of rainfall was found to be 1,132.2 ± 362.9, 2,244.2 ± 517.0, and 3,113.3 ± 598.7 kg DM ha-1 per year, and the average annual production of kids was 36 ± 17, 90 ± 31, and 132 ±37, respectively. The low loads scenarios showed a stable behavior, with a constant rate of kids production over the three simulation periods (0-30 years, which resulted in a higher average annual profit, and a more sustainable profile than those with heavier

  16. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2003-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  17. Teledermatology in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Megan

    2016-12-01

    The Health Frontiers in Tijuana (HFiT) clinic is a binational partnership between the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine (San Diego, California); the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California School of Medicine (Tijuana, Mexico); and Desayunador Salesiano Padre Chava, a community grassroots organization in Tijuana, Mexico. Health Frontiers in Tijuana provides accessible quality health care for the underserved in Tijuana's Zona Norte. This article is a narrative meant to share my clinical experience as a dermatology resident who worked with HFiT to establish teledermatology services at this clinic.

  18. Mexico: a solar future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Immersed in the global price instability of fossil fuels and with an upsurge in renewables as the agent for development, countries like Mexico, that largely depend on this resource to generate income and whose national electrical energy generation mainly comes from these fuels, find themselves obliged to take decisions that allow them to maintain their appeal compared to other emerging markets. In this decision-making process, Mexico has been slow to implement its long-awaited Energy Reform that incentivises direct foreign investment and avoids the monopolies that have until recently prevailed in the Mexican energy and electricity sector. (Author)

  19. Distribution, abundance and traditional management of Agave potatorum in the Tehuacán Valley, Mexico: bases for sustainable use of non-timber forest products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Lemus, América; Casas, Alejandro; Téllez, Oswaldo

    2014-09-03

    Agave species have been used for thousands of years in the Tehuacán Valley, but the current mescal production has great impact on populations of the most used species. Harvesting of A. potatorum takes place before sexual reproduction and the over-extraction put local populations at high risk. In the community of San Luis Atolotilán (SLA), mescal has been produced for one century but the growing mescal trade is leading to intensified agave extraction. Our study evaluated distribution and abundance of A. potatorum, extraction rates, management practices and economic importance for SLA households. The unbalanced relation between availability and extraction rates would be an indicator of risk requiring sustainable management strategies. Our case study aspires contributing to analyze general patterns for sustainable use for this and other forest products highly extracted. We used bioclimatic modeling to project a map of potential distribution of the species, and ecological sampling to estimate the total availability of harvestable agaves within the territory of SLA. We used participant observation, surveys and semi-structured interviews with producers and households of SLA to document agave uses, technological and socio-economic aspects of mescal production, and to estimate extraction rates of agaves. Mescal production, medicine and fodder are the most important uses of A. potatorum. Its distribution area is nearly 608 ha where annually occur on average 7,296 harvestable plants, nearly 54 to 87% of them being harvested. Mescal production currently is a non-sustainable activity, requiring great changes in patterns of extraction and management adopting sustainable criteria. Local people started management planning to ensure the future availability of agaves, and the ecological information of this study has been helpful in constructing their decisions. Technical support for improving local experiences for managing populations' recovering is a priority. Interaction of

  20. Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from stray dog and coyote feces in a major leafy greens production region at the United States-Mexico border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele T Jay-Russell

    Full Text Available In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010-2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6% dog and 5 (4.9% coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2% dog and 33 (32% coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2% of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1% of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the

  1. Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua

    2016-08-01

    This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity.

  2. Listeriosis in Mexico: Clinical and epidemiological importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Castañeda-Ruelas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Listeriosis is caused by Listeria monocytogenes, an important food-borne disease due to its clinical forms, high mortality rate, and the economic impact in both clinical and food production industries. In Mexico, the lack of epidemiological surveillance systems leads to the need of accurate data on the incidence of listeriosis and its association with food-borne disease. In this paper, we present data about the presence of this bacterium in food, reports related to clinical cases of listeriosis, and information of diseases in which L. monocytogenes may be involved. However, in most of these cases the etiology was not established. Given this, there´s a need to inform and warn the appropriate entities, to define strategies for the mandatory search of L. monocytogenes through the whole food production chain and clinical suspects, for the epidemiological importance and control of listeriosis in Mexico.

  3. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... of radiation therapy was associated with a non-significantly increased risk of reoperation after both 1-stage (HR = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.7-2.5) and 2-stage (HR = 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) procedures. Reconstruction failure was highest (13.2%) in the 2-stage procedures with a history of radiation therapy. Breast...... reconstruction approaches other than implants should be seriously considered among women who have received radiation therapy....

  4. Delay tolerant networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Longxiang; Luan, Tom H

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents emerging and promising communication methods for network reliability via delay tolerant networks (DTNs). Different from traditional networks, DTNs possess unique features, such as long latency and unstable network topology. As a result, DTNs can be widely applied to critical applications, such as space communications, disaster rescue, and battlefield communications. The brief provides a complete investigation of DTNs and their current applications, from an overview to the latest development in the area. The core issue of data forward in DTNs is tackled, including the importance of social characteristics, which is an essential feature if the mobile devices are used for human communication. Security and privacy issues in DTNs are discussed, and future work is also discussed.

  5. Protection gaps in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Villasenor

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With Mexico a major destination – and transit – country for people displaced by violence in the Northern Triangle of Central America, the Mexican government needs urgently to improve its asylum systems and procedures if they are to be fit for purpose.

  6. The Art of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccardi, Marianne

    1997-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of books for grades K and up which explores the folklore, poetry, fiction, and art of Mexico, and focuses on the Mayans and Aztecs and Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo. Also suggests various research, reading, drama, music, social studies, physical education, and art activities and lists related videos and Internet…

  7. Christmas in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    The Christmas season in Mexico starts on December 16 with "las posadas," a series of religious processions in which families or neighbors reenact Joseph's search for shelter for Mary en route to Bethlehem. Those representing pilgrims travel from home to home until they are finally accepted by those representing innkeepers at a home with…

  8. Empire: New Mexico's First Television Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-14

    In recent years, New Mexico has hosted television and motion picture film crews working on both famous and not-so-famous productions. Perhaps the most famous of these productions was the television hit Breaking Bad. Perhaps the least famous production, which almost certainly no one remembers, is the 1962-1963 television series Empire. Empire was an hour long western that chronicled the lives of 1960s ranchers in New Mexico. The series starred Richard Egan, Ryan O’Neal, Denver Pyle, and Charles Bronson. Guest stars included Robert Vaughn (The Man from Uncle), Inger Stevens (The Farmer’s Daughter), Robert Culp (I Spy), and Telly Savalas (Kojak).

  9. Location Estimation using Delayed Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Larsen, Thomas Dall; Nørgård, Peter Magnus

    1998-01-01

    When combining data from various sensors it is vital to acknowledge possible measurement delays. Furthermore, the sensor fusion algorithm, often a Kalman filter, should be modified in order to handle the delay. The paper examines different possibilities for handling delays and applies a new techn...... technique to a sensor fusion system for estimating the location of an autonomous guided vehicle. The system fuses encoder and vision measurements in an extended Kalman filter. Results from experiments in a real environment are reported...

  10. Modeling delay in genetic networks: from delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Bennett, Matthew R; Josić, Krešimir; Ott, William

    2014-05-28

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  11. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Bennett, Matthew R. [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77204, USA and Institute of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Josić, Krešimir [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  12. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William; Bennett, Matthew R.; Josić, Krešimir

    2014-01-01

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay

  13. Denials and Delays of Radioactive Material Shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    2011-01-01

    delays of shipments of radioactive materials forms an important issue today. Radioactive materials need to be transported using all modes of transport for use in different applications such as public health, industry, research and production of nuclear power. The transport of radioactive materials is governed by national and international regulations, which are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (TS-R-1). These regulations ensure high standards of safety. Recently there were increasing numbers of instances of denials and delays of shipments of radioactive materials even when complying with the regulations. The denials and delays can result in difficulties to patients and others who rely on products sterilized by radiation. Therefore there is an urgent need for a universally accepted approach to solve this problem. In response, the IAEA has formed an International Steering Committee (ISC) on denials and delays of radioactive materials. Also, it designate the National Focal Points (NFP) representative to help the ISC members and the IAEA by informing about denial operations and how they can help. The Steering Committee developed and adopted an action plan which includes the action to be taken. This plan is based on: Awareness, Training, Communication, Lobbying for marketing, Economic and Harmonization among member states. It is important to work within the mandate of the ISC and in the line of action plan on denials and delays. It identified the following network members such as: National Focal Points, Regional Coordinators, National Committee, National Representative for different modes of transport and similar bodies, Carriers, Producers and Suppliers, Different civil societies, NGO's, Ministry of transport and others.

  14. Systematic of delayed neutron parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, S.G.; Piksaikin, V.M.

    2000-01-01

    The experimental studies of the energy dependence of the delayed neutron (DN) parameters for various fission systems has shown that the behaviour of a some combination of delayed neutron parameters has a similar features. On the basis of this findings the systematics of delayed neutron experimental data for thorium, uranium, plutonium and americium isotopes have been investigated with the purpose to find a correlation of DN parameters with characteristics of fissioning system as well as a correlation between the delayed neutron parameters themselves. It was presented the preliminary results which were obtained during study the physics interpretation of the results [ru

  15. Time Delay of CGM Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; Kirchsteiger, Harald; Freckmann, Guido; Heinemann, Lutz; del Re, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a powerful tool to support the optimization of glucose control of patients with diabetes. However, CGM systems measure glucose in interstitial fluid but not in blood. Rapid changes in one compartment are not accompanied by similar changes in the other, but follow with some delay. Such time delays hamper detection of, for example, hypoglycemic events. Our aim is to discuss the causes and extent of time delays and approaches to compensate for these. Methods: CGM data were obtained in a clinical study with 37 patients with a prototype glucose sensor. The study was divided into 5 phases over 2 years. In all, 8 patients participated in 2 phases separated by 8 months. A total number of 108 CGM data sets including raw signals were used for data analysis and were processed by statistical methods to obtain estimates of the time delay. Results: Overall mean (SD) time delay of the raw signals with respect to blood glucose was 9.5 (3.7) min, median was 9 min (interquartile range 4 min). Analysis of time delays observed in the same patients separated by 8 months suggests a patient dependent delay. No significant correlation was observed between delay and anamnestic or anthropometric data. The use of a prediction algorithm reduced the delay by 4 minutes on average. Conclusions: Prediction algorithms should be used to provide real-time CGM readings more consistent with simultaneous measurements by SMBG. Patient specificity may play an important role in improving prediction quality. PMID:26243773

  16. New Mexico Math Pathways Taskforce Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Higher Education Department, 2016

    2016-01-01

    In April 2015 New Mexico faculty, Dana Center staff, and New Mexico Higher Education (NMHED) co-presented the need for better math pathways statewide. Faculty from 6 institutions (New Mexico State University, New Mexico Highlands University, Dine College, Eastern New Mexico University, El Paso Community College, and San Juan College) participated…

  17. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing A Cumulative Delay Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Suwa, Haruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Online scheduling is recognized as the crucial decision-making process of production control at a phase of “being in production" according to the released shop floor schedule. Online scheduling can be also considered as one of key enablers to realize prompt capable-to-promise as well as available-to-promise to customers along with reducing production lead times under recent globalized competitive markets. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing introduces new approaches to online scheduling based on a concept of cumulative delay. The cumulative delay is regarded as consolidated information of uncertainties under a dynamic environment in manufacturing and can be collected constantly without much effort at any points in time during a schedule execution. In this approach, the cumulative delay of the schedule has the important role of a criterion for making a decision whether or not a schedule revision is carried out. The cumulative delay approach to trigger schedule revisions has the following capabilities for the ...

  18. Propagation of dry tropical forest trees in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha A. Cervantes Sanchez

    2002-01-01

    There is a distinct lack of technical information on the propagation of native tree species from the dry tropical forest ecosystem in Mexico. This ecosystem has come under heavy human pressures to obtain several products such as specialty woods for fuel, posts for fences and construction, forage, edible fruits, stakes for horticulture crops, and medicinal products. The...

  19. Global synchronization in arrays of delayed neural networks with constant and delayed coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jinde; Li Ping; Wang Weiwei

    2006-01-01

    This Letter investigates the global exponential synchronization in arrays of coupled identical delayed neural networks (DNNs) with constant and delayed coupling. By referring to Lyapunov functional method and Kronecker product technique, some sufficient conditions are derived for global synchronization of such systems. These new synchronization criteria offer some adjustable matrix parameters, which is of important significance in the design and applications of such coupled DNNs, and the results improve and extend the earlier works. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the theoretical results

  20. Reed Canary Grass Project. Development of a new crop production system based on delayed harvesting and a system for its combined processing to chemical pulp and bio fuel powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Rolf (ed.) (and others)

    2004-07-01

    The Reed canary grass project has been performed by 13 partners 8 countries; Sweden, Finland, Germany, Denmark, England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland. The aim of the project has been to evaluate if new breeding lines of reed canary grass suits in different European agricultural areas and to evaluate if the new delayed harvesting method originally developed in Sweden can be used all over the northern parts of Europe. The other part of the project deals with developing a system for its combined processing to chemical pulp and biofuel powder. The scientific objectives are to develop the C3 plant reed canary grass to an economically and environmentally competitive industrial crop for combined production of high quality chemical pulp and bioenergy fuel powder. Main results obtained in the project can be summarised as follows: The screening trials with new breeding lines of reed canary grass have shown a large potential for getting higher yields and better quality in new industrial varieties of reed canary grass. The best breeding lines tested gave at average a yield 20 % higher than now existing forage varieties which all economic calculations are based on. The results show that the delayed harvesting method gives important quality improvements and can be used except in areas with maritime climate. The research on chemical pulping and paper making have been successfully developed in the project and the obtained results in laboratory and pilot scale made it also possible to increase the ambitions in the project and include research on mill scale in cooperation with industry. This gave also possibilities to develop technologies needed for the whole chain from production fields to long distance handling and transport technology of intermediate processed raw materials. Different cooking processes have been developed for reed canary grass and a new cooking method the soda-oxygen process has given extremely high pulp yields if combined with intermediate processed raw material

  1. Physiological and productive responses of multiparous lactating Holstein cows exposed to short-term cooling during severe summer conditions in an arid region of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Rivera, J. A.; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F. D.; Macías-Cruz, U.; Díaz-Molina, R.; Correa-Calderón, A.; Robinson, P. H.; Fadel, J. G.

    2012-11-01

    Heat stress generates a significant economic impact for the dairy industry in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, so that heat abatement is an important issue for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of two short-term cooling periods on physiological and productive status of lactating Holstein cows during hot ambient temperatures. Thirty-nine multiparous cows were blocked by milk yield and assigned to one of three treatments including: control group (C), cows cooled before milking time (0500 and 1700 h daily, 1 h cooling); AM group, cows cooled at 1000 h and before milking (2 h cooling); and AM + PM group, cows cooled at 1100, 1500 and 2200 h, as well as before milking (4 h cooling). The cooling system was placed in the holding pen which the cows were moved through for cooling. Respiratory rate, and temperatures of thurl and right flank, were lower ( P cows from the AM + PM group than AM and C cows during the morning and afternoon. However, udder temperature was higher in the AM + PM group compared to AM and C groups during the afternoon, although lower than the AM group during the morning. Rectal temperature was similar in all groups. Thyroxin concentrations tended ( P cows had a trend ( P cows.

  2. Evaluation of means used to access the impacts of energy production on human health. LASL third life sciences symposium, Los Alamos, New Mexico, October 15--17, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, E.C.; Sullivan, E.M. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    The symposium explored the various techniques and methods available to study the potential effects that various energy-producing industries may have on human health. Three papers presented at Session I dealt with national energy needs, resources, and future developments; responsibilities and capabilities in ERDA as related to the health and environmental impacts of energy productions; and health hazards associated with alternate energy sources. Four papers presented at Session II reviewed standards setting for the worker and for the public; the radiation experience; and developing health policies and standards as the responsibility of the scientist. Eight papers in Sessions III and IV, Sources of Information, dealt with developing a health standard from epidemiological and clinical data and from laboratory animal data; carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, teratogenesis, and behavior changes as end points in health impact assessments; new methods and approaches to health impact assessment; problems in sampling for health impact; and the application of scientific data to worker/workplace health decision making. Two papers at Session V covered bases for the application of scientific data to health standards and health and environmental standards from a legal viewpoint. A final discussion, Room for Controversy, was conducted by four panelists. (MCW)

  3. #FakeNobelDelayReasons

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Tuesday’s hour-long delay of the Nobel Prize in Physics announcement was (and still is) quite the cause for speculation. But on the Twittersphere, it was simply the catalyst for some fantastic puns, so-bad-they're-good physics jokes and other shenanigans. Here are some of our favourite #FakeNobelDelayReasons.    

  4. Picosecond resolution programmable delay line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchenek, Mariusz

    2009-01-01

    The note presents implementation of a programmable delay line for digital signals. The tested circuit has a subnanosecond delay range programmable with a resolution of picoseconds. Implementation of the circuit was based on low-cost components, easily available on the market. (technical design note)

  5. Ranking of Delay Factors for Makkah’s Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Emad Nashwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents identification of significant delay factors encountered by Makkah’s construction industry using quantitative approach. A structured questionnaire developed based on literature review was verified through pilot study involved selected construction experts. Questionnaire survey was conducted amongst Makkah construction practitioners include contractors, consultants and project management consultancy. The survey managed to collect 100 valid responses which were used to rank the factors using average index approach. Results of the analysis for 10 most significant factors causing construction delay in Makkah construction industry are Difficulties in financing project by contractor, Poor coordination between parties, Shortage of manpower, Delays in producing design documents, Improper planning and scheduling of the project, Delay in progress payments, Low productivity level of labour, Poor communication between parties, Unqualified workforce and Poor contract management. This finding is helpful to Makkah construction’s community particularly projects’ stakeholders in avoiding potential delay for their future projects.

  6. Project delay analysis of HRSG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvianita; Novega, A. S.; Rosyid, D. M.; Suntoyo

    2017-08-01

    Completion of HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generator) fabrication project sometimes is not sufficient with the targeted time written on the contract. The delay on fabrication process can cause some disadvantages for fabricator, including forfeit payment, delay on HRSG construction process up until HRSG trials delay. In this paper, the author is using semi quantitative on HRSG pressure part fabrication delay with configuration plant 1 GT (Gas Turbine) + 1 HRSG + 1 STG (Steam Turbine Generator) using bow-tie analysis method. Bow-tie analysis method is a combination from FTA (Fault tree analysis) and ETA (Event tree analysis) to develop the risk matrix of HRSG. The result from FTA analysis is use as a threat for preventive measure. The result from ETA analysis is use as impact from fabrication delay.

  7. Radon availability in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLemore, V.T.

    1995-01-01

    The New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources (NMBMMR) in cooperation with the Radiation Licensing and Registration Section of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been evaluating geologic and soil conditions that may contribute to elevated levels of indoor radon throughout New Mexico. Various data have been integrated and interpreted in order to determine areas of high radon availability. The purpose of this paper is to summarize some of these data for New Mexico and to discuss geologic controls on the distribution of radon. Areas in New Mexico have been identified from these data as having a high radon availability. It is not the intent of this report to alarm the public, but to provide data on the distribution of radon throughout New Mexico

  8. U.S.-Mexico energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports that while Mexico's petrochemical industry has grown rapidly, it now faces shortages both in investment funds and in supplies of basic petrochemicals due to a financial crisis in the 1980s. Mexico has undertaken a series of policy reforms aimed at encouraging foreign and private investment, but these efforts have generally failed to entice U.S. investment in Mexico. U.S. petrochemical companies have cited unfavorable market conditions, insufficient basic petrochemical capacity in Mexico, concern about the reversibility of Mexican reforms, inadequate Mexican protection of intellectual property rights, and lack of investment protection for U.S. businesses as impediments to investment in Mexico. Cooperation between the two nations in overcoming these obstacles could help U.S. petrochemical companies maintain their positions in a competitive global market, while at the same time provide Mexico with much needed capital investment and technological expertise

  9. Delayed radiation neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Beppu, H.; Hirose, K.; Yamada, K. (Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital (Japan))

    1981-07-01

    A case of cervical plexus neuropathy was reported in association with chronic radio-dermatitis, myxedema with thyroid adenoma and epiglottic tumor. A 38-year-old man has noticed muscle weakness and wasting of the right shoulder girdle since age 33. A detailed history taking revealed a previous irradiation to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy at age 10 (X-ray 3,000 rads), keroid skin change at age 19, obesity and edema since 26, and hoarseness at 34. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a tumor on the right vocal cord, diagnosed as benign papilloma by histological study. In addition, there were chronic radio-dermatitis around the neck, primary hypothyroidism with a benign functioning adenoma on the right lobe of the thyroid, the right phrenic nerve palsy and the right recurrent nerve palsy. All these lesions were considered to be the late sequellae of radiation to the neck in childhood. Other neurological signs were weakness and amyotrophy of the right shoulder girdle with patchy sensory loss, and areflexia of the right arm. Gross power was fairly well preserved in the right hand. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the tested muscles, suggesting a peripheral nerve lesion. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. No abnormal findings were revealed by myelography and spinal CT. The neurological findings of the patient were compatible with the diagnosis of middle cervical plexus palsy apparently due to late radiation effect. In the literature eight cases of post-radiation neuropathy with a long latency have been reported. The present case with the longest latency after the radiation should be included in the series of the reported cases of ''delayed radiation neuropathy.'' (author).

  10. Delayed radiation neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Toshiko; Miyamoto, Kazuto; Beppu, Hirokuni; Hirose, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Katsuhiro

    1981-01-01

    A case of cervical plexus neuropathy was reported in association with chronic radio-dermatitis, myxedema with thyroid adenoma and epiglottic tumor. A 38-year-old man has noticed muscle weakness and wasting of the right shoulder girdle since age 33. A detailed history taking revealed a previous irradiation to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy at age 10 (X-ray 3,000 rads), keroid skin change at age 19, obesity and edema since 26, and hoarseness at 34. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a tumor on the right vocal cord, diagnosed as benign papilloma by histological study. In addition, there were chronic radio-dermatitis around the neck, primary hypothyroidism with a benign functioning adenoma on the right lobe of the thyroid, the right phrenic nerve palsy and the right recurrent nerve palsy. All these lesions were considered to be the late sequellae of radiation to the neck in childhood. Other neurological signs were weakness and amyotrophy of the right shoulder girdle with patchy sensory loss, and areflexia of the right arm. Gross power was fairly well preserved in the right hand. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the tested muscles, suggesting a peripheral nerve lesion. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. No abnormal findings were revealed by myelography and spinal CT. The neurological findings of the patient were compatible with the diagnosis of middle cervical plexus palsy apparently due to late radiation effect. In the literature eight cases of post-radiation neuropathy with a long latency have been reported. The present case with the longest latency after the radiation should be included in the series of the reported cases of ''delayed radiation neuropathy.'' (author)

  11. ALARA development in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, M.A.M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Col Lomas de Barrilaco (Mexico)

    1995-03-01

    Even though the ALARA philosophy was formally implemented in the early 1980`s, to some extent, ALARA considerations already had been incorporated into the design of most commercial equipment and facilities based on experience and engineering development. In Mexico, the design of medical and industrial facilities were based on international recommendations containing those considerations. With the construction of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station, formal ALARA groups were created to review some parts of its design, and to prepare the ALARA Program and related procedures necessary for its commercial operation. This paper begins with a brief historical description of ALARA development in Mexico, and then goes on to discuss our regulatory frame in Radiation Protection, some aspects of the ALARA Program, efforts in controlling and reducing of sources of radiation, and finally, future perspectives in the ALARA field.

  12. Neuropsychology in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky Shejet, Feggy; Velez Garcia, Alicia

    2016-11-01

    This invited paper explores the diverse pathways that have led to the development of neuropsychology in Mexico. The authors conducted a review of the literature and their own experiences to describe the seminal events and people relevant to the development of this area of research and practice. The master's degree is the usual level of educational attainment for those who wish to practice clinical neuropsychology. As of now, there is not a board certification process in neuropsychology, although there is one in clinical psychology. Neuropsychology and other mental health disciplines in Mexico and Latin America have historically been poorly funded, and have lacked optimal means of communication as to research findings and clinical initiatives and standards. However, there is reason to think that this will be improved upon in coming years.

  13. Dust storm, northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    This large dust storm along the left side of the photo, covers a large portion of the state of Coahuila, Mexico (27.5N, 102.0E). The look angle of this oblique photo is from the south to the north. In the foreground is the Sierra Madre Oriental in the states Coahuila and Nuevo Leon with the Rio Grande River, Amistad Reservoir and Texas in the background.

  14. Seismology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, C.

    1982-01-01

    Mexico is situated at the intersection of four major crustal Plates: the Americas Plate, the Pacific Plate, the Caribbean Plate, and the Cocos Plate. The interaction of these four plates is very complex. The pattern of earthquake risk is, therefore, among the most complicated in the world. The average release of seismic energy each is 55x1021 ergs-more than twice the figure for California. 

  15. Mexico's energy dilemmas in an interdependent world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.

    2008-01-01

    Mexico's energy system is overwhelmingly dependent on hydrocarbons. Although a significant producer of oil and gas, and a considerable exporter of crude oil, it is increasingly dependent on imports of oil products and natural gas for its internal energy demand. In a World where free trade is increasing the interdependence of the industrialized economies, Mexico's energy policy dilemma is basically between maintaining as much as possible its self sufficiency; or relying on imports, while generating oil revenues through exports to invest in developing a diversified economy. Energy demand projections to 2030 are carried out that exhibit the limitations of present available oil and gas proved reserves under past policies. Alternative energy policy scenarios are then examined. (authors)

  16. Gulf of Mexico forecasts : the dead sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good Abbott, C.

    1999-01-01

    The future gas supply potential from the offshore Gulf of Mexico region was discussed with particular emphasis on the issue of whether there is enough growth potential to satisfy the anticipated growth in power generation markets. In 1980, a forecasted decrease in gas supply proved to be wrong. In fact, supply actually increased and productivity in the Gulf of Mexico has been relatively stable since 1982. A significant growth has been forecasted for 1997 to 2010. This growth will coincide with a large growth in gas demand in the northeastern U.S. The fact that electric power generation is changing hands adds to the opportunities in the northeast. It was emphasized that Canadian supply must be present to compete. 1 tab., 16 figs

  17. Mexico's development strategy for the 1980s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, C

    1982-06-01

    In examining the problems and prospects of the Mexican economy in the 1980s, the main concern of this paper is whether Mexico will use its new found wealth to correct some of the major deficiences of past policies or whether the development of the energy sector will further increase the dualism between the modern and traditional sectors. This paper surveys the major problems now facing the economy (poverty and unemployment, declining agricultural production, a weak industrial base, inflation) and then discusses the framework in which Mexico proposes to deal with these problems, in particular the priority allocated to development of oil and gas. The policies are then compared briefly with the experience of Japan and Iran. The conclusion takes a critical view of current Mexican policies and suggests that a more equity-oriented and efficient growth strategy is required. 18 references, 2 tables.

  18. [Obesity in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Torres, Javier; González-Izquierdo, José Jesús; Barrera-Cruz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Excess body weight (overweight and obesity) is currently recognized as one of the most important challenges of public health in the world, given its size, speed of growth and the negative effect it has on the health of the population that suffers. Overweight and obesity significantly increases the risk of chronic no communicable diseases, premature mortality and the social cost of health. An estimated 90 % of cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus attributable to overweight and obesity. Today, Mexico is second global prevalence of obesity in the adult population, which is ten times higher than that of countries like Japan and Korea. With regard to children, Mexico ranks fourth worldwide obesity prevalence, behind Greece, USA and Italy. In our country, over 70 % of the adult population, between 30 and 60 years are overweight. The prevalence of overweight is higher in men than females, while the prevalence of obesity is higher in women than men. Until 2012, 26 million Mexican adults are overweight and 22 million obese, which represents a major challenge for the health sector in terms of promoting healthy lifestyles in the population and development of public policies to reverse this scenario epidemiology. Mexico needs to plan and implement strategies and action cost effective for the prevention and control of obesity of children, adolescents and adults. Global experience shows that proper care of obesity and overweight, required to formulate and coordinate multisectoral strategies and efficient for enhancing protective factors to health, particularly to modify individual behavior, family and community.

  19. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  20. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  1. Youth programmes in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez De Macias, G

    1990-12-01

    Research indicates that in-school adolescents in Mexico have their first sexual contact at the average age of 15.5 years. In 50% of cases, such contact is with a boyfriend or girlfriend, 28.1% with a fiance, and 18.3% with a prostitute. First sexual intercourse occurs with a spouse in only 1.3% of cases. Since only one in six young people in Mexico use a form of contraception, many unwanted pregnancies outside of marriage result. 450,000 births in 1989 were to mothers below 20 years old, with 15% of births annually being among teenage mothers. An estimated three million abortions occur annually in Mexico, and abortions are the fifth major cause of death at the national level. Teen pregnancy is decisively linked with poor living conditions and life expectancy, a relatively lower level of education, and rural residence. As for psychological and anthropological variables, most teens who become pregnant belong to large, unstable families with poor family communication, and are characterized as submissive, highly dependent, and of low self-esteem. Targeting students, workers, and other youths, the MEXFAM Youth Program selects and trains program coordinators over age 21 and volunteer promoters of both sexes aged 16-20 in urban/marginal communities. Promoters offer information to their peers and other youths in their local communities, distribute barrier contraceptives, and channel medical, psychological, and legal services to young people in need. Program procedure is described.

  2. New Mexico Clean Energy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation addresses New Mexico oil and gas development, brownfields, mining development, renewable energy development, renewable resources, renewable standards, solar opportunities, climate change, and energy efficiency.

  3. Delayed or early sowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tippe, Dennis E.; Rodenburg, Jonne; Ast, van Aad; Anten, Niels P.R.; Dieng, Ibnou; Kayeke, Juma; Cissoko, Mamadou; Bastiaans, Lammert

    2017-01-01

    Parasitic weeds are a severe problem in rain-fed rice production ecosystems in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, effects of sowing time of rice on parasitic weed infection and crop yields were investigated. Field experiments were conducted in Striga asiatica-infested upland and Rhamphicarpa

  4. Attosecond Delays in Molecular Photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Martin; Jordan, Inga; Baykusheva, Denitsa; von Conta, Aaron; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2016-08-26

    We report measurements of energy-dependent photoionization delays between the two outermost valence shells of N_{2}O and H_{2}O. The combination of single-shot signal referencing with the use of different metal foils to filter the attosecond pulse train enables us to extract delays from congested spectra. Remarkably large delays up to 160 as are observed in N_{2}O, whereas the delays in H_{2}O are all smaller than 50 as in the photon-energy range of 20-40 eV. These results are interpreted by developing a theory of molecular photoionization delays. The long delays measured in N_{2}O are shown to reflect the population of molecular shape resonances that trap the photoelectron for a duration of up to ∼110 as. The unstructured continua of H_{2}O result in much smaller delays at the same photon energies. Our experimental and theoretical methods make the study of molecular attosecond photoionization dynamics accessible.

  5. Systemic Competitiveness of SMEs in Mexico City, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Saavedra García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to apply the model of systemic competitiveness, SMEs in Mexico City. Developing four levels of competitiveness: macro level (economic environment, meso level (regional environment, Level Goal (Environment Socioeconomic and micro Level (internal factors. Data collection was done through fieldwork and archival research. The main findings are among the major strengths of the economic environment: high level of gross domestic product, high labor productivity and fiscal autonomy, the main weaknesses: the unions and the unemployment rate; meanwhile stand between foreign investment opportunities between threats and insecurity, corruption and difficulty in business transactions. In the regional setting a positive and 1 perfect relationship between the number of economic units and per capita GDP was found. With regard to socio-cultural factors, presents lower levels of poverty and unemployment to the rest of the country. Finally, at the micro level, the competitiveness of SMEs is in direct relation to the size of the company and the industry sector shows higher competitiveness trade and services sectors.

  6. Mexico: Rasgos de Su Historia. (Mexico: Highlights of Its History).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Cecilio

    Intended for both teachers and students, this publication, written in Spanish, briefly traces Mexico's history from its Conquest in 1519 to the overthrow of Porfirio Diaz in 1910. The following are briefly discussed: Mexico's Conquest in 1519; events immediately after the fall of Tenochtitlan; the War for Independence; Texas' separation from…

  7. Financing options in Mexico`s energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, J.J. [PricewaterhouseCoopers Securities, Houston, TX (United States)

    1999-10-01

    A series of brief notes accompanied this presentation which was divided into seven sections entitled: (1) capital markets update, (2) Mexican financial market update, (3) financing options in the energy industry, (4) the Venezuelan experience at La Apertura, (5) private and strategic equity alternatives, (6) Pricewaterhouse Coopers Securities, and (7) Mexico energy 2005 prediction. The paper focused on how the financial crisis and merger activity in Latin America will impact electricity reform in Mexico. It was noted that under Mexico`s Policy Proposal for Electricity Reform of the Mexican Electricity Industry, the financial community will seek to back companies in power generation, transportation and distribution. The difficulty of financing government businesses undergoing privatization was also discussed with particular emphasis on the challenge of accepting political and regulatory risks. The Latin private equity market and Canadian investment in Mexico was also reviewed. Since NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) went into affect in 1994, Canadian investment in Mexico has more than tripled. Canadian companies have invested more than C$1.7 billion in Mexico since NAFTA. Pricewaterhouse Coopers Securities is a global investment bank which sees large opportunities in the Mexican energy market. They predict that in five years, Mexico will experience a gradual liberalization of the oil and gas sector, and a full liberalization of the gas pipeline and distribution business and the power generation, transmission and distribution business. 3 figs.

  8. Synchronization of Markovian jumping stochastic complex networks with distributed time delays and probabilistic interval discrete time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongjie; Yue Dong

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates the synchronization stability problem for a class of complex dynamical networks with Markovian jumping parameters and mixed time delays. The complex networks consist of m modes and the networks switch from one mode to another according to a Markovian chain with known transition probability. The mixed time delays are composed of discrete and distributed delays, the discrete time delay is assumed to be random and its probability distribution is known a priori. In terms of the probability distribution of the delays, the new type of system model with probability-distribution-dependent parameter matrices is proposed. Based on the stochastic analysis techniques and the properties of the Kronecker product, delay-dependent synchronization stability criteria in the mean square are derived in the form of linear matrix inequalities which can be readily solved by using the LMI toolbox in MATLAB, the solvability of derived conditions depends on not only the size of the delay, but also the probability of the delay-taking values in some intervals. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

    2005-10-01

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  10. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  11. Delays and networked control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hetel, Laurentiu; Daafouz, Jamal; Johansson, Karl

    2016-01-01

    This edited monograph includes state-of-the-art contributions on continuous time dynamical networks with delays. The book is divided into four parts. The first part presents tools and methods for the analysis of time-delay systems with a particular attention on control problems of large scale or infinite-dimensional systems with delays. The second part of the book is dedicated to the use of time-delay models for the analysis and design of Networked Control Systems. The third part of the book focuses on the analysis and design of systems with asynchronous sampling intervals which occur in Networked Control Systems. The last part of the book exposes several contributions dealing with the design of cooperative control and observation laws for networked control systems. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of control theory, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students. .

  12. Linear rotary optical delay lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerboukha, Hichem; Qu, Hang; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2016-03-01

    We present a semi-analytical solution for the design of a high-speed rotary optical delay line that use a combination of two rotating curvilinear reflectors. We demonstrate that it is possible to design an infinite variety of the optical delay lines featuring linear dependence of the optical delay on the rotation angle. This is achieved via shape optimization of the rotating reflector surfaces. Moreover, a convenient spatial separation of the incoming and outgoing beams is possible. For the sake of example, we present blades that fit into a circle of 10cm diameter. Finally, a prototype of a rotary delay line is fabricated using CNC machining, and its optical properties are characterized.

  13. POTENTIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK OF THE BIOFUELS IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Montiel-Montoya

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of potential environmental risk of major biofuel: bioethanol, biodiesel and hydrogen in Mexico and specifically in Sinaloa is shown. The advantages that the algae have in relation to other production inputs of these biofuels are discussed. The bioenergetics impact: Economically.- Reducing costs and improving quality in products, giving economical independence and improving the competitiveness. In environmental.- Reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, creating recyclable and biodegradable products. Socially.- Helping the growth and diversification of rural economy. Bioenergy production on a commercial scale may be feasible in Mexico and Sinaloa, where there are actions that should include comprehensive technical, economic and environmental aspects in consultation with the agricultural and agroindustrial sectors. . It is recommended: For the production biodiesel: Jatropha, algae, salicornia, moringa, palm oil, higuerilla and used oil. For the production of bioethanol: algae, sweet sorghum, agricultural and municipal wastes, grass giant and maguey to produce hydrogen: algae native of Sinaloa State.

  14. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  15. Study of calculated and measured time dependent delayed neutron yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldo, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    Time-dependent delayed neutron emission is of interest in reactor design, reactor dynamics, and nuclear physics studies. The delayed neutrons from neutron-induced fission of 232 U, 237 Np, 238 Pu, 241 Am, /sup 242m/Am, 245 Cm, and 249 Cf were studied for the first time. The delayed neutron emission from 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu, and 242 Pu were measured as well. The data were used to develop an empirical expression for the total delayed neutron yield. The expression gives accurate results for a large variety of nuclides from 232 Th to 252 Cf. The data measuring the decay of delayed neutrons with time were used to derive another empirical expression predicting the delayed neutron emission with time. It was found that nuclides with similar mass-to-charge ratios have similar decay patterns. Thus the relative decay pattern of one nuclide can be established by any measured nuclide with a similar mass-to-charge ratio. A simple fission product yield model was developed and applied to delayed neutron precursors. It accurately predicts observed yield and decay characteristics. In conclusion, it is possible to not only estimate the total delayed neutron yield for a given nuclide but the time-dependent nature of the delayed neutrons as well. Reactors utilizing recycled fuel or burning actinides are likely to have inventories of fissioning nuclides that have not been studied until now. The delayed neutrons from these nuclides can now be incorporated so that their influence on the stability and control of reactors can be delineated. 8 figures, 39 tables

  16. Analytical applications for delayed neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccleston, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical formulations that describe the time dependence of neutron populations in nuclear materials contain delayed-neutron dependent terms. These terms are important because the delayed neutrons, even though their yields in fission are small, permit control of the fission chain reaction process. Analytical applications that use delayed neutrons range from simple problems that can be solved with the point reactor kinetics equations to complex problems that can only be solved with large codes that couple fluid calculations with the neutron dynamics. Reactor safety codes, such as SIMMER, model transients of the entire reactor core using coupled space-time neutronics and comprehensive thermal-fluid dynamics. Nondestructive delayed-neutron assay instruments are designed and modeled using a three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code. Calculations on high-burnup spent fuels and other materials that contain a mix of uranium and plutonium isotopes require accurate and complete information on the delayed-neutron periods, yields, and energy spectra. A continuing need exists for delayed-neutron parameters for all the fissioning isotopes

  17. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Helping eradicate the medfly from Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, G.

    1982-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit-fly (Medfly) is a serious pest in Agriculture. It causes damage primarily by its larvae, which feed on the host fruit or vegetable. Agricultural production of about 30 km 2 can be infested in 100 days by the progeny of 1000 females. In Mexico, the Medfly was first observed in 1977. It severely damages the agricultural economy and limits the trade balance and food supplies of the country. Realizing the gravity of the problem, the IAEA, in co-operation with the Governments of Mexico and the United States, implemented a joint pest management programme under the code-name of MOSCAMED. It utilized the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) on which the Agency has gained considerable experience from its previous involvements in many developing countries. The SIT is technically suitable and environmentally acceptable for Medfly eradication. A factory was built with all areas of SIT expertise. This factory could produce 2 thousand million Medfly eggs in 12 days. The Agency, including its Seibersdorf laboratory, was the primary back-up of the programme. As a result, the northward migration of the fly has been halted and the pest that had infested over 3 million hectares has been eradicated from Mexico as from early 1981

  19. New Mexico's energy resources '80. Annual report of Bureau of Geology in the mining and minerals Division of New Mexico Energy and Minerals Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, E.C.; Hill, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Because of a steady depletion of reserves and the failure to make new discoveries in recent years, production of crude oil in New Mexico declined in 1979 with a production of 74.7 million bbls (barrels), which was 3.4 million bbls or 4.6 percent less than 1978 production. Although condensate production increased slightly over the previous year, total crude and condensate production continued to decline. Natural-gas production increased in 1979 by 3,565,351 thousand cu ft or 4 percent from the previous year, with an increase in production occurring in northwest New Mexico. Drilling continued to increase as the total number of well completions in New Mexico in 1979 was the highest in the past 9 yrs. Primary and secondary crude oil reserves were calculated for 50 major pools in southeast New Mexico and for selected oil and gas wells in northwest New Mexico. Coal production increased 1.8 million tons in 1979 or 14 percent over 1978 production, and a more extensive expansion will depend partly on factors such as the availability of rail transportation to new areas. The development of synthetic fuel technology may have a substantial impact on longer term coal production. Production of U 3 O 8 declined 13 percent from 1978 with 7420 tons U 3 O 8 reported as production in 1979. A depressed uranium market and other economic factors contributed to the decline in production. New Mexico, however, continues to lead the nation in production and uranium reserves. Researchers are continuing to explore geothermal energy applications and to characterize geothermal systems in the state, and the US Bureau of Land Management has issued 126 geothermal leases that remain active. Recent geothermal exploration activity has been detailed for 14 companies

  20. 21 CFR 808.81 - New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false New Mexico. 808.81 Section 808.81 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.81 New Mexico. The following New Mexico medical device requirement is... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: New Mexico Statutes Annotated, section 67-36-16(F...

  1. [The pharmaceutical market in Mexico: size, value, and concentration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Guerra, Sandra; Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo

    2009-07-01

    To describe the pharmaceutical drug market in Mexico in terms of its size, structure, business' market power, and consumer negotiating power. A descriptive study based on data from the 2004 Economics Census and the reports of IMS Health, Inc. (Norwalk, Connecticut, United States of America). Sales amounts and volumes of Mexico's pharmaceutical companies from 2002-2005 were obtained and the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) and its inverse were calculated as indicators of the market's degree of concentration; also, price elasticity was determined by a product index. The total value of the products manufactured by the pharmaceutical sector was 115 billion in 2006 Mexican pesos, of which 99% pertained to companies categorized as large. This amount constituted 1.2% of the national gross domestic product that year (20.0% of the health sector's portion, estimated to be 6.0%) and 3.9% of the total value of manufactured goods. The HHI of Mexico's pharmaceutical market during the study period was about 0.04, albeit with a steady decline, and its inverse decreased from 23 to 26. The price elasticity of pharmaceutical products was minimal (0.007, 0.003, and -0.002). This study constitutes a preliminary description of Mexico's pharmaceutical market, one of the country's most dynamic economic sectors. It confirmed that the market is a rigid oligopoly, and thus supports enactment of firmer regulatory tools to reduce the power of the manufacturers in favor of that of the consumers.

  2. Exploring maize-legume intercropping systems in Southwest Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores-Sanchez, D.; Pastor, A.V.; Lantinga, E.A.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Kropff, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Maize yields in continuous maize production systems of smallholders in the Costa Chica, a region in Southwest Mexico, are low despite consistent inputs of fertilizers and herbicides. This study was aimed at investigating the prospects of intercropping maize (Zea mays L.) and maize-roselle (Hibiscus

  3. Potential economic impact assessment for cattle parasites in Mexico review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here, economic losses caused by cattle parasites in Mexico were estimated on an annual basis. The main factors taken into consideration for this assessment included the total number of animals at risk, potential detrimental effects of parasitism on milk production or weight gain, and records of cond...

  4. Industriebroschüren zum Buch "Doing Business in Mexico"

    OpenAIRE

    Perales, MonicaC.; Zimmermann, Thomas A.

    2002-01-01

    St. Gallen: SIAW-HSG / Zürich: Lateinamerikanische Handelskammer in der Schweiz; Selling High-Quality Consumer Goods to Mexico (Download); Tools (Download); Machine Tools (Download) Pharmaceutical Products (Download); Medical and Surgical Equipment (Download); Measuring Technology and Quality Control (Download)

  5. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Annual petroleum report. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The comprehensive appraisal of the Mexican Petroleum industry was completed in July 1991. Some of the topics concerning the Mexican petroleum industry covered in the Annual Petroleum Report include: exploration efforts, oil reserves, pipelines, refining, finances, transportation, alternative energy sources, and others. The report also contains lists of petrochemicals produced in Mexico and extensive statistics on oil production and export prices

  6. Mexico Wind Resource Assessment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.N.; Elliott, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    A preliminary wind energy resource assessment of Mexico that produced wind resource maps for both utility-scale and rural applications was undertaken as part of the Mexico-U.S. Renewable Energy Cooperation Program. This activity has provided valuable information needed to facilitate the commercialization of small wind turbines and windfarms in Mexico and to lay the groundwork for subsequent wind resource activities. A surface meteorological data set of hourly data in digital form was utilized to prepare a more detailed and accurate wind resource assessment of Mexico than otherwise would have been possible. Software was developed to perform the first ever detailed analysis of the wind characteristics data for over 150 stations in Mexico. The hourly data set was augmented with information from weather balloons (upper-air data), ship wind data from coastal areas, and summarized wind data from sources in Mexico. The various data were carefully evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. The preliminary assessment has identified many areas of good-to-excellent wind resource potential and shows that the wind resource in Mexico is considerably greater than shown in previous surveys.

  7. Smoke in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of the Bay of Campeche, acquired January 17, 2001, shows a 300-kilometer long smoke plume streaming towards the northwest from around 19.4o North and 92o West, the location of the Akal oil field. In the lower right (southeast) corner of the image is the country of El Salvador, site of a magnitude 7.6 earthquake on January 13, 2001. On the Pacific side of Southern Mexico, the productive waters of the Gulf of Tehuantepec are visible. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  8. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Publishes Misleading Information on Gulf of Mexico "Dead Zone"

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Michael W.; Courtney, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Mississippi River nutrient loads and water stratification on the Louisiana-Texas shelf contribute to an annually recurring, short-lived hypoxic bottom layer in areas of the northern Gulf of Mexico comprising less than 2% of the total Gulf of Mexico bottom area. Many publications demonstrate increases in biomass and fisheries production attributed to nutrient loading from river plumes. Decreases in fisheries production when nutrient loads are decreased are also well documented. However, the Na...

  9. ADDRESSING CONFLICT IN TOP MEDIA EDUCATION IN MEXICO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualberto Gatica Reyna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mexico is going through a period of exacerbated violence, corruption, intolerance, etc. as it is shown by the index of Peace (2015, where the country as a whole is less than the peaceful Central America and the state of Mexico ranks 23 out of 32 states that make up the Mexican republic. These behaviors permeate schools are a product of society itself and although efforts have been made to reverse these trends by manual or classical coercive discipline offenders actually work must be with the entire school population that the results are lasting.

  10. UWB delay and multiply receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2013-09-10

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.

  11. Texas-Mexico multimodal transportation: developments in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boske, Leigh B.

    1994-03-01

    This presentation highlights the results of a recently completed study that examines the Texas- Mexico multimodal transport system already in place, current plans for improvements or expansion, and opportunities and constraints faced by each transport mode -- motor carriage, rail, maritime, and air. Particular emphasis is given to findings regarding transportation developments in Mexico. The study concludes that in Mexico, all modes are working at establishing new services and strategic alliances, intermodal arrangements are on the rise, and private-sector participation in infrastructure improvements is growing daily at Mexican seaports and airports as well as within that nation's highway and rail systems. This presentation looks at developments that concern privatization, deregulation, infrastructure improvements, financing arrangements, and new services in Mexico.

  12. Chaos in the delay logistic equation with discontinuous delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Ayan; Mukherjee, Debasis

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes a delay logistic equation which models a feedback control problem. Interval map associated to the system is derived. By calculating Lyapunov exponent, we indicate stable orbit and chaotic phenomenon respectively. The results are verified through computer simulation. We identify the parameter which controls the dynamics.

  13. Postraumatic delayed loss of vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partington, C.R.; Graves, V.B.; Ruetenacht, D.A.; Weinstein, J.M.; Strother, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    The imaging studies and clinical findings in 10 patients who suffered delayed vision loss beginning 1 day to 13 years after head trauma have been reviewed. Two different primary lesions could be identified: pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery and carotid cavernous fistula. The pathologic changes associated with pseudoaneurysm included compression of the optic nerves and/or chiasm by arterial aneurysm and intracranial hematoma. Carotid cavernous fistula caused delayed vision loss by compression of the optic nerves and chiasm by saccular dilatation of the cavernous sinus and by abnormal orbital venous drainage with retinal venous stasis, retinal edema, and glaucoma

  14. Time delayed Ensemble Nudging Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Zhe; Abarbanel, Henry

    Optimal nudging method based on time delayed embedding theory has shows potentials on analyzing and data assimilation in previous literatures. To extend the application and promote the practical implementation, new nudging assimilation method based on the time delayed embedding space is presented and the connection with other standard assimilation methods are studied. Results shows the incorporating information from the time series of data can reduce the sufficient observation needed to preserve the quality of numerical prediction, making it a potential alternative in the field of data assimilation of large geophysical models.

  15. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time. ...

  16. Mexico City aerosol study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcon, Y.I.; Ramirez, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    A major task in the field of air pollution monitoring is the development of devices for determining the mass and composition of airborne particulate matter as a function of size - and time. The sample collection device must be designed giving consideration to the nature of the aerosol and to the effects of the aerosol on human health. It has been established that particles smaller than 3.5 μm in diameter can penetrate deeply into the human respiratory system, and that larger particles are trapped in the upper respiratory passages. For these reasons, it is desirable to use a dichotomous sampler to collect particles in two size ranges, rather than to collect total particulates on a single filter. The authors discuss a study in Mexico City using a dichotomous sampler

  17. Mexico introduces pentavalent vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Combination vaccines have been introduced in Mexico. The national immunization program has incorporated the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines in 1998, and the pentavalent vaccine in 1999. The two categories of antigen composition in combination vaccines are: 1) multiple different antigenic types of a single pathogen, such as the 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and 2) antigens from different pathogens causing different diseases, such as the DPT and MMR vaccines. Pentavalent vaccines are included in the second category. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and other diseases produced by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenza type b (DTP-HB/Hib) vaccine has been distributed to 87% of Mexican children under 1 year of age. Over 800,000 doses of pentavalent vaccine have been administered.

  18. Development of the Regulatory Framework in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreño Padilla, A. L.; Paz García Beltran, A.B.; Godínez Sánchez, V.

    2015-01-01

    The present study describes and introduces in a simplified way the process for issuing a Mexican Official Standard of Nuclear series, setting out the departments and agencies involved in this process, and also describing the main challenges identified for preparation, issuance and review of them. Furthermore, topics that are currently in the process of standardisation in Mexico in radiation and nuclear safety are mentioned. The National Commission for Nuclear Safety and Safeguards is the regulatory body empowered and commissioned in Mexico to issue and amends the Official Mexican Standards in nuclear and radiation safety, whose duties and responsibilities are set out in the Regulatory Law on Nuclear Matters of Article 27. The Mexican Standards are of social kind because they are focused to prevent risks that could affect human been health, animal or plants damages, and are also associated to safety in the workplaces, to avoid damages which may be irreparable to the environment and population. Normalization is the process by which all the activities concerning public health, environment protection, labor protection, among others, are ruled on in both, private and public sectors. Through this process, the rules, features or products specifications are set for a product or a regulated service. The objective of a standard is to get an optimum degree of order in a given activity. The objective of creating a regulation is to develop legal certainty, to avoid imminent harm or to reduce existing damages on health, the environment and the Economy. Currently, the regulation for nuclear and radiological safety, physical security, as well as for safeguards in Mexico, is under constant development, looking for to cover the safety needs of employees, licencees, environment and society in a whole; many of these needs are supported by the international recommendations of the IAEA. (author)

  19. New Mexico, 2010 Census Place

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  20. New Mexico, 2010 Congressional Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  1. New Mexico Urban Areas - Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census MAF/TIGER database. The Census MAF/TIGER database...

  2. August 1973 Veracruz, Mexico Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — South of Veracruz, southeastern Mexico. Damage: Severe. The earthquake caused heavy damage in the states of Morelos, Puebla, and Veracruz. Thousands were left...

  3. United States Strategy for Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Centner, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    The security and stability of Mexico is of national interest to the United States, and a strong, effective alliance between the two countries is pivotal to our national defense strategy and economic prosperity...

  4. Transportation energy use in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum, C.; Meyers, S.; Sathaye, J.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents data on passenger travel and freight transport and analysis of the consequent energy use in Mexico during the 1970--1971 period. We describe changes in modal shares for passenger travel and freight transport, and analyze trends in the energy intensity of different modes. We look in more detail at transportation patterns, energy use, and the related environmental problems in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, and also discuss policies that have been implemented there to reduce emissions from vehicles.

  5. Early-delayed radiation rhombencephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nightingale, S.; Dawes, P.J.D.K.; Cartlidge, N.E.F.; Newcastle upon Tyne Univ.

    1982-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman developed an early-delayed rhombencephalopathy 7 weeks after completing a course of radiotherapy to a glomus jugulare tumour. The clinical features, comprising nystagmus, skew strabismus, unilateral facial weakness, dysarthria and ataxia, are compared with four previously reported patients with this syndrome. (author)

  6. Another definition for time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.

    1980-01-01

    Time delay is defined by geometrical considerations which work in classical as well as in quantum mechanics, and its connection with the S-matrix and the virial is proven for potentials with V(x vector) and x vector V(x vector) vanishing as rsup(-1-epsilon) for r -> infinity. (Author)

  7. Diagnostic Delay in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbaek, Karen; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Primdahl, Jette

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To prevent joint damage among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there is a need to minimize delays from the onset of symptoms until the initiation of appropriate therapy. The present study explored the factors that have an impact on the time it takes for Danish patients with RA...

  8. Design flaw could delay collider

    CERN Multimedia

    Cho, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    "A magnet for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) failed during a key test at the European particle physics laboratory CERN last week. Physicists and engineers will have to repair the damaged magnet and retrofit others to correct the underlynig design flaw, which could delay the start-up of the mammouth subterranean machine." (1,5 page)

  9. Concurrent Delay in Construction Disputes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    the delay is contractually defined as a contractor's risk, the contractor is liable to pay liquidated damages to the employer; if it is not, the contractor can under certain circumstances claim an extension of time and in some cases also economic compensation from the employer. The situation where a given...

  10. Deconstructing delayed posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, G

    2011-01-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, delayed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) must be diagnosed in individuals fulfilling criteria for PTSD if the onset of symptoms is at least six months after the trauma. The purpose of this thesis was to establish the

  11. Livermore blasted for project delay

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    In a 12 page report issued last week, a review committee set up by the University of California has concluded that mismanagement and poor planning are to blame for significant cost overruns and delays in the construction of NIF, the worlds largest laser (1 page).

  12. Providing delay guarantees in Bluetooth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ait Yaiz, R.; Heijenk, Geert; Titsworth, F.

    2003-01-01

    Bluetooth polling, also referred to as Bluetooth MAC scheduling or intra-piconet scheduling, is the mechanism that schedules the traffic between the participants in a Bluetooth network. Hence, this mechanism is highly determining with respect to the delay packets experience in a Bluetooth network.

  13. Que La Tortilla Se Vuelvai A History of U.S. Agribusiness Companies in Mexico. (May the Tortilla Return! A History of U.S. Agribusiness Companies in Mexico.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdy, Jack

    1978-01-01

    There is a direct link, today and historically, between Mexico's underdevelopment and maldistribution of wealth, and U.S. domination of Mexico's economy, including the current penetration by U.S. transnationals. Activity in the food production and processing industries is just one facet of the total picture, but one of the most important.…

  14. Seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus antibodies in domestic pigs in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, Montserrat Elemi; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Sánchez-Betancourt, José Iván; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Vergara-Castañeda, Arely; Trujillo, María E; Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena

    2017-09-21

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is one of the most common causes of acute liver diseases in humans worldwide. In developing countries, HEV is commonly associated with waterborne outbreaks. Conversely, in industrialized countries, HEV infection is often associated with travel to endemic regions or ingestion of contaminated animal products. Limited information on both, human and animal HEV infection in Mexico is available. As a consequence, the distribution of the virus in the country is largely unknown. Here, we assessed the seroprevalence of HEV among swine in different geographical regions in Mexico. Seroprevalence of anti-HEV antibodies in swine herds in Mexico was evaluated in a representative sample including 945 pig serum specimens from different regions of the country using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies in swine was 59.4%. The northern region of Mexico exhibited the highest seroprevalence in the country (86.6%), while the central and southern regions in Mexico showed lower seroprevalence, 42.7% and 51.5%, respectively. In Mexico, HEV seroprevalence in swine is high. Importantly, northern Mexico showed the highest seroprevalence in the country. Thus, further studies are required to identify the risk factors contributing to HEV transmission among pigs in the country. Assessment of HEV human infection in the context of viral transmission in swine is required to better understand the epidemiology of hepatitis E in Mexico.

  15. Singular Perturbation Analysis and Gene Regulatory Networks with Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlykova, Irina; Ponosov, Arcady

    2009-09-01

    There are different ways of how to model gene regulatory networks. Differential equations allow for a detailed description of the network's dynamics and provide an explicit model of the gene concentration changes over time. Production and relative degradation rate functions used in such models depend on the vector of steeply sloped threshold functions which characterize the activity of genes. The most popular example of the threshold functions comes from the Boolean network approach, where the threshold functions are given by step functions. The system of differential equations becomes then piecewise linear. The dynamics of this system can be described very easily between the thresholds, but not in the switching domains. For instance this approach fails to analyze stationary points of the system and to define continuous solutions in the switching domains. These problems were studied in [2], [3], but the proposed model did not take into account a time delay in cellular systems. However, analysis of real gene expression data shows a considerable number of time-delayed interactions suggesting that time delay is essential in gene regulation. Therefore, delays may have a great effect on the dynamics of the system presenting one of the critical factors that should be considered in reconstruction of gene regulatory networks. The goal of this work is to apply the singular perturbation analysis to certain systems with delay and to obtain an analog of Tikhonov's theorem, which provides sufficient conditions for constracting the limit system in the delay case.

  16. 75 FR 81643 - In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Products Made by Advanced Lithography Techniques and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Semiconductor Products Made by Advanced Lithography Techniques and Products Containing Same; Notice of... Mexico) (``STC''), alleging a violation of section 337 in the importation, sale for [[Page 81644

  17. Standards for arsenic in drinking water: Implications for policy in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Andrew T; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Gamboa-Loira, Brenda; Cebrián, Mariano E

    2017-11-01

    Global concern about arsenic in drinking water and its link to numerous diseases make translation of evidence-based research into national policy a priority. Delays in establishing a maximum contaminant level (MCL) to preserve health have increased the burden of disease and caused substantial and avoidable loss of life. The current Mexican MCL for arsenic in drinking water is 25 μg/l (2.5 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation from 1993). Mexico's struggles to set its arsenic MCL offer a compelling example of shortcomings in environmental health policy. We explore factors that might facilitate policy change in Mexico: scientific evidence, risk communication and public access to information, economic and technological resources, and politics. To raise awareness of the health, societal, and economic implications of arsenic contamination of drinking water in Mexico, we suggest action steps for attaining environmental policy change and better protect population health.

  18. Analysis of a first-order delay differential-delay equation containing two delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, C.; Vallée, R.; Delisle, C.

    1989-09-01

    An experimental and numerical analysis of the behavior of a two-delay differential equation is presented. It is shown that much of the system's behavior can be related to the stability behavior of the underlying linearized modes. A new phenomenon, mode crossing, is explored.

  19. Design of delay insensitive circuits using multi-ring structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, Jens; Staunstrup, Jørgen; Dantzer-Sørensen, Michael

    1992-01-01

    The design and VLSI implementation of a delay insensitive circuit that computes the inner product of two vec·tors is described. The circuit is based on an iterative serial-parallel multiplication algorithm. The design is based on a data flow approach using pipelines and rings that are combined...

  20. Governability in Contemporary Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Curzio Gutiérrez

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the difficulties to establish a concept of governability and the frequent ideological usage of the term, it is much more operative to turn to the principle of governability, in the broad sense, which supports itself on five pillars: the political legitimacy of the government, the governmental efficiency to attend to the demands of society, the existence of shared social project, the agreement with the principle special interest groups, and international viability. The analysis of the structure and relevance of these five points during the long period of political transition that Mexico underwent between 1988 and 1997 shows how it was possible for this country to play off certain factors against each other in order to secure governability and safeguard against the consequences of any resultant imbalances. Between 1998-1993, the government of Salinas de Gotari based itself on the viability of a neoliberal project within an international context, and on this projectís attention to domestic demands as well as on the governmentís pact with elites. Institutional integration and legitimacy made up, then, for a process of discreet liberalization and the lack of democratic electoral commitment, which culminated in the PRI’s 1994 elections victory.The assassination of Colosia, though, and the appearance of the EZLN and the subsequent crisis surrounding the peso’s devaluation that accompanied Ernesto Zedilloís rise to power soon led to the collapse of those pillars of support. Crowning the process of the silenttransition were the elections of 1997, which makes it possible to say that in Mexico today there are now smooth elections, but that reform of the State is still unresolved —a subject that includes the reduction of the president’s competence. Seen in the short term, the most direct threats to Mexico’s governability will come as a result of the lack of attention to those demands of society’s underprivileged and the ill

  1. Studies on the biosynthesis of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in delayed hypersensitivity, 1. Effects of inhibitors of nucleic acid and protein synthesis on the production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizoguchi, Y; Yamamoto, S; Morisawa, S [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1973-03-01

    Specific antigenic stimulation of sensitized lymphocytes leads to the production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Production of MIF is inhibited by mitomycin C, actinomycin D, and puromycin. These inhibition effects are studied by using thymidine-/sup 3/H. The first two of these antibiotics only inhibit MIF production when added to the culture medium at a very early stage of antigenic stimulation. In contrast, puromycin exerts its inhibitory effect several hours after the antigenic stimulation, but not at an earlier stage. MIF behaves like a protein, so it seems likely that synthesis of RNA is necessary for MIF formation and MIF synthesis may start as early as a few hours after specific antigenic activation of the sensitized lymphocytes. The inhibitory effects of the antibiotics are discussed in relation to the kinetics of MIF production.

  2. Energetic sustainability: Challenges and options in Mexico; Sustentabilidad energetica: Retos y opciones en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas Flores, Dionicio; Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this report present a general overview of energy trends and objectives of policy for Mexico, in the context of sustainable development. The work is divided in two main parts: the first one presents trends in energy use and potential, energy sector reform, social and economics indicators and revision of efficiency and renewable energy. The second part discusses options and instruments of energy politics for the country in regard of the sustainable development. The energy is central to concerns of sustainable development, affecting economic; the local and global environment, and social problems as poverty, population, health and education. Mexico should promote political energy that permit the fulfillment the energy requirements while developing strategies that help to alleviate the social problems and productivity, based on lesser environmental impacts. [Spanish] Este reporte presenta una vision sobre las tendencias energeticas de Mexico y plantea prioridades y objetivos de politica para el pais, en el contexto de desarrollo sustentable. El trabajo muestra dos partes principales: la primera seccion presenta tendencias en el uso de energia, potenciales energeticos e indicadores economicos y sociales, ademas de una revision de eficiencias y politicas de energias renovables. La segunda parte discute opciones, instrumentos y restricciones en el contexto del desarrollo energetico sustentable en el pais. La energia es un elemento central en el desarrollo ya que esta relacionado con la economia, el ambiente local y global y aspectos sociales como pobreza, poblacion, salud y educacion. Esto obliga en Mexico a promover politicas que permitan la cobertura de los requerimientos energeticos, las cuales deben desarrollarse de manera conjunta con estrategias, para ayudar a disminuir los problemas, productivos y sociales con menores impactos ambientales.

  3. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-02-15

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.

  4. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W.; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-01-01

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified

  5. Gamma irradiation service in Mexico; Servicio de Irradiacion Gamma en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liceaga C, G; Martinez A, L; Mendez T, D; Ortiz A, G; Olvera G, R [Departamento del Irradiador Gamma. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Col. Escandon, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In 1980 it was installed in Mexico, on the National Institute of Nuclear Research, an irradiator model J S-6500 of a canadian manufacture. Actually, this is the greatest plant in the Mexican Republic that offers a gamma irradiation process at commercial level to diverse industries. However, seeing that the demand for sterilize those products were not so much as the irradiation capacity it was opted by the incursion in other types of products. During 17 years had been irradiated a great variety of products grouped of the following form: dehydrated foods, disposable products for medical use, cosmetics, medicaments, various. Nowadays the capacity of the irradiator is saturated virtue of it is operated the 24 hours during the 365 days of the year and only its operation is suspended by the preventive and corrective maintenance. However, the fresh food market does not be attended since this irradiator was designed for doses greater than 10 kGy (1.0 Mrad)

  6. The deepwater Gulf of Mexico : promises delivered?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    A summary review of deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) oil production was presented for the years 1989 to 1998. Trends and prospects in deepwater GOM production and leasing were assessed. Promises and forecasts made in the early 1990s were compared with what actually happened since then. Forecasts in the early 1990s promised deeper, faster and cheaper developments in the deepwater Gulf. Results of the comparison showed that the prognosticators were correct on all three counts. Regarding the future of the Gulf, one can be justified in being optimistic in so far as more experience, robust economics, more and cheaper rigs can be taken as reliable indicators of optimism. In contrast, there are certain negatives to consider, such as low commodity prices, budget constraints, lease expirations, technical challenges and increased competition. . 12 figs

  7. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-11-09

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  8. Depressive illness delayed Hamlet's revenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A B; Pickering, Neil

    2002-12-01

    If Hamlet had not delayed his revenge there would have been no play. Many explanations of the delay have been offered in the last four centuries. None is convincing. The interpretation which best fits the evidence best is that Hamlet was suffering from an acute depressive illness, with some obsessional features. He could not make a firm resolve to act. In Shakespeare's time there was no concept of acute depressive illness, although melancholy was well known. Melancholy, however, would have been seen as a character defect. In the tragic model the hero brings himself and others to ruin because of a character defect. Thus, at the time, the play conformed to the tragic model. With today's knowledge, it does not. This analysis adds to, but does not replace, other insights into the play.

  9. Air congestion delay: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alberto Pamplona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a literature review of the air congestion delay and its costs. Air congestion is a worldwide problem. Its existence brings costs for airlines and discomfort for passengers. With the increasing demand for air transport, the study of air congestion has attracted the attention of many researchers around the world. The cause for the delays is erroneously attributed only to the lack of infrastructure investments. The literature review shows that other factors such as population growth, increasing standards of living, lack of operational planning and environmental issues exercise decisive influence. Several studies have been conducted in order to analyze and propose solutions to this problem that affects society as a whole.

  10. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-01-08

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  11. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  12. 75 FR 28555 - Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Trade Mission to Mexico City, Mexico AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce... Trade Mission to Mexico City from September 27-29, 2010. This Executive led mission will focus on... & Energy Efficiency conference will take place at the World Trade Center in Mexico City. Relevant issues on...

  13. Deep-water northern Gulf of Mexico hydrocarbon plays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.H.; Cooke, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    The geologic setting in the deep-water (depths greater than 1,500 feet) Gulf of Mexico is very favorable for the existence of large, commercial hydrocarbon accumulations. These areas have active salt tectonics that create abundant traps, underlying mature Mesozoic source rocks that can be observed expelling oil and gas to the ocean surface, and good quality reservoirs provided by turbidite sand deposits. Despite the limited amount of drilling in the deep-water Gulf of Mexico, 11 deep-water accumulations have been discovered which, when developed, will rank in the top 100 largest fields in the Gulf of Mexico. Proved field discoveries (those with announced development plans) have added over 1 billion barrels of oil equivalent to Gulf of Mexico reserves, and unproved field discoveries may add to additional billion barrels of oil equivalent. The Minerals Management Service, United States Department of the Interior, has completed a gulf-wide review of over 1,086 oil and gas fields and placed every pay sand in each field into a hydrocarbon play (plays are defined by chronostratigraphy, lithostratigraph, structure, and production). Seven productive hydrocarbon plays were identified in the deep-water northern Gulf of Mexico. Regional maps illustrate the productive limits of each play. In addition, field data, dry holes, and wells with sub-economic pay were added to define the facies and structural limits for each play. Areas for exploration potential are identified for each hydrocarbon play. A type field for each play is chosen to demonstrate the play's characteristics

  14. Teriparatide Induced Delayed Persistent Hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirosshan Thiruchelvam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teriparatide, a recombinant PTH, is an anabolic treatment for osteoporosis that increases bone density. Transient hypercalcemia is a reported side effect of teriparatide that is seen few hours following administration of teriparatide and resolves usually within 16 hours of drug administration. Persistent hypercalcemia, although not observed in clinical trials, is rarely reported. The current case describes a rare complication of teriparatide induced delayed persistent hypercalcemia.

  15. Assembly delay line pulse generators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    Assembly of six of the ten delay line pulse generators that will power the ten kicker magnet modules. One modulator part contains two pulse generators. Capacitors, inductances, and voltage dividers are in the oil tank on the left. Triggered high-pressure spark gap switches are on the platforms on the right. High voltage pulse cables to the kicker magnet emerge under the spark gaps. In the centre background are the assembled master gaps.

  16. Energy and the environment: the case of the Metropolitan area of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazan N, G.

    1992-01-01

    The inefficient use of energy by the different types of consumers of the Metropolitan area of Mexico City (ZMCM, this means, Mexico city and the municipalities of the Estado de Mexico, which constitute a single economic population unit), is one of the main causes for the production of polluting emissions into the atmosphere, specially of nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. This originates a deterioration of the environment, which injures the health of the population. As a consequence, the private and public sectors have been forced to establish programs in order to improve the use of energy, as well as to preserve the environment. (Author)

  17. Mexico's petroleum and US policy: implications for the 1980s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronfeldt, D.; Nehring, R.; Gandara, A.

    1980-06-01

    This report examines selected factor affecting Mexico's future petroleum policies, and then assesses various implications of Mexico's petroleum for US interests and policies. After a brief introduction, the report is divided into three sections. The first offers a detailed analysis of Mexico's petroleum resources and production possibilities. The second considers petroleum as a symbolic issue of profound significance for Mexican nationalism. The final section provides an assessment of these and other factors for US interests, objectives, and policy options during the 1980s.

  18. Mexico's critical choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, E.

    1990-01-01

    In Mexico, the 1982 fall in international oil prices shook the national conscience and pushed the Mexican people in search of a new national image and toward the choices they must make to attain that image. But, according to the author of this paper, the country as a whole has already made critical choices for overall strategy and there are reasons for optimism. In the current economic environment of growing domestic demand and enhanced international competitiveness, the author sees PEMEX (the Mexican national oil company) facing not only the challenge of responding to the rapid changes taking place in the Mexican economy, but also making a significant contribution toward the solid and stable growth of the country. The relevant question is how PEMEX will live up to these expectations. This paper describes several steps PEMEX has taken already or is preparing to take in order to meet this challenge, including: investment in the domestic petrochemical industry; entry into the Eurobond market; development of new methods of project financing

  19. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-05-14

    This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal of proposed method is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Since motion estimation can be unreliable between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Observing more frames before declaring a detection may lead to a more accurate detection and segmentation, since more motion may be observed leading to a stronger motion cue. However, this leads to greater delay. The proposed method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms, defined as declarations of detection before the object moves or incorrect or inaccurate segmentation at the detection time. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  20. Development of delayed radiation necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, ShigFeki; Takagi, Terumasa; Shibata, Taichiro; Nagai, Hajime.

    1983-01-01

    The authors discussed the developing process of delayed radiation necrosis of the brain from the case of a 42-year-old female who developed intracranial hypertension and left hemiparesis 5 and a half years after radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. The initial sign of radiation necrosis was from a CT scan taken 3 and a half years after radiotherapy showing an irregular low density lesion in the right temporal lobe. CT scan 2 years later demonstrated displacement of the midline structures to the left and a larger low density lesion with partially high density in the right MCA territory that was enhanced with intravenous contrast medium. Recovery after a right temporal lobectomy and administration of steroid hormone were uneventful. Eight months later there were no signs of raised intracranial pressure nor of neurological deficits. Tissues obtained from the right temporal lobe at lobectomy revealed the characteristic changes of delayed radiation necrosis; a mixture of fresh, recent, and old vascular lesions in the same specimen. From these findings, it was speculated that delayed radiation necrosis might initially occur within several years after radiotherapy and might gradually take a progressive and extended course, even in cases whose clinical symptoms develop much later. (author)

  1. New Mexico HUC-10 Boundaries - 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the watershed (10-digit) 10th level for the State of New Mexico. This data set consists of...

  2. New Mexico Museums and Cultural Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of museums and cultural centers in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using...

  3. Mexico Terrain Corrected Free Air Anomalies (97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' gravity anomaly grid for Mexico, North-Central America and the Western Caribbean Sea is NOT the input data set used in the development of the MEXICO97 model....

  4. New Mexico HUC-8 Boundaries - 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subbasin (8-digit) 8th level for the State of New Mexico. This data set consists of...

  5. HSIP Fire Stations in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Fire Stations in New Mexico Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  6. Probing the limits of delay intolerance: preliminary young adult data from the Delay Frustration Task (DeFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsakou, Paraskevi; Antrop, Inge; Wiersema, Jan Roelf; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2006-02-15

    Delay intolerance/aversion is one amongst a number of candidate neuropsychological endophenotypes for ADHD. Pilot data suggest that, because of potential ceiling effects, simple choice measures of delay tolerance used for children are probably not appropriate for adolescents and adults. The Delay Frustration Task (DeFT) is a new measure of delay intolerance, designed to be used in a similar form with adolescents and adults as well as children. In it delay frustration is indexed as the number and duration of responses made on a response key during a series of unpredictable and unsignalled delay periods, which interrupt the completion of a simple computer-based tests. The aim of this study was to provide preliminary data on the applicability of the task in a sample of young adults. The DeFT was administered to 49 male and female undergraduate students selected from a normal population-base. Their mean age was 23.14 (S.D.=1.54). Three measures of delay frustration were recorded across time intervals during the response window; the number of responses, their duration and their combined product (total time button was pressed) was calculated for each second interval bin during the post-response delay period. The AARS and HADS were used as screening questionnaires for ADHD and anxiety behaviour, respectively. The results indicated that young adults with high-ADHD symptoms scores pressed the button more than those with low ADHD scores during the post-response delay condition. While both groups increased responding across time within intervals this was significantly more marked in the high-ADHD symptom group. These effects became more pronounced when anxiety was controlled. Young adults with high-ADHD symptoms appear to be more sensitive to the imposition of unscheduled and unsignalled delay during a simple maths test. DeFT may provide a useful index of delay tolerance in young adults with ADHD. Future research needs to examine DeFT performance in different age groups and

  7. Antisense and sense expression of cDNA coding for CYP73A15, a class II cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, leads to a delayed and reduced production of lignin in tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blee, K.; Choi, J. W.; O'Connell, A. P.; Jupe, S. C.; Schuch, W.; Lewis, N. G.; Bolwell, G. P.

    2001-01-01

    A number of plant species contain the class II of genes encoding the cytochrome P450, CYP73, the cognate protein of which cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase, is the second enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway. In order to begin to determine possible functionality, tobacco has been transformed with a truncated French bean class II cinnamate hydroxylase (CYP73A15) in the sense and antisense orientations. Signals for C4H protein could be detected in vascular tissue from wild-type plants using heterologous probes. The transformed plants showed a normal phenotype, even though detectable C4H protein was much reduced in tissue prints. Young propagated transformants displayed a range of reduced C4H activities, as well as either reduced or no phloroglucinol-stainable lignin. However, all mature tobacco plants showed the accumulation of lignin, even though its deposition was apparently delayed. This was not due to induction of tyrosine ammonia-lyase activity, which was not detected, but instead it is presumed due to sufficient C4H residual activity. Analysis of the lignin content of the plants showed reductions of up to 30% with a slightly reduced syringyl to guaiacyl ratio as compared to wild type. This reduction level was favourable in comparison with some other targets in the lignification pathway that have been manipulated including that of class I cinnamate 4-hydroxylase. It is proposed that the class II cinnamate 4-hydroxylase might also function in lignification in a number of species including French bean and tobacco, based on these data.

  8. Synchronization in networks with heterogeneous coupling delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Andreas; Radons, Günter; Bachrathy, Dániel; Orosz, Gábor

    2018-01-01

    Synchronization in networks of identical oscillators with heterogeneous coupling delays is studied. A decomposition of the network dynamics is obtained by block diagonalizing a newly introduced adjacency lag operator which contains the topology of the network as well as the corresponding coupling delays. This generalizes the master stability function approach, which was developed for homogenous delays. As a result the network dynamics can be analyzed by delay differential equations with distributed delay, where different delay distributions emerge for different network modes. Frequency domain methods are used for the stability analysis of synchronized equilibria and synchronized periodic orbits. As an example, the synchronization behavior in a system of delay-coupled Hodgkin-Huxley neurons is investigated. It is shown that the parameter regions where synchronized periodic spiking is unstable expand when increasing the delay heterogeneity.

  9. Working without a Union in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adele, Niame; Rack, Christine

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide a description of the academic climate in New Mexico. Like many other places in the world today, New Mexico is trying to find an identity in an environment that the authors label "increasingly privatized, corporatized, and militarized." New Mexico's higher education salaries are lower than those in…

  10. New Mexico Charter Schools Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Public Education Department, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the New Mexico legislature passed changes to the Charter School Act that provided more accountability for both charters and authorizers in New Mexico. As part of that law, the Public Education Department (PED) is asked to submit an annual report on the status of charter schools in New Mexico. This is the first report submitted under that…

  11. California-Mexico gas exports eyed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that two California utilities have proposed providing natural gas transportation services to Mexico. The arrangement would provide a second U.S. export sales point at the U.S.-Mexico border and perhaps help alleviate an expected surplus of gas pipeline capacity available to California. Mexico currently imports about 200 MMcfd of U.S. gas via pipelines in Texas

  12. Digital Geologic Map of New Mexico - Formations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The geologic map was created in GSMAP at Socorro, New Mexico by Orin Anderson and Glen Jones and published as the Geologic Map of New Mexico 1:500,000 in GSMAP...

  13. Impact of Heavy Metals in Enzymatic Activity of Soils from Hidalgo, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Ortigoza, A. L.; Reyes-Solis, I. E.; Galicia-Palacios, M. S.; Montiel-Arteaga, S.

    2009-01-01

    The soils from Valle of Mezquital, Hidalgo, Mexico have been irrigated with waste waters from Mexico City for more than 88 years. the present investigation was made in order to know the relationship between heavy metal contents and time of irrigation with waste waters and production of CO 2 and enzymatic activity in soils from Valle Mezquital for knowing the disponibility of nutrients and degradation of soils. (Author)

  14. Endogenous Growth and Comparative Standards of Living between Mexico and the US

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Rodríguez Arana

    2005-01-01

    This paper calibrates an AK model of growth for Mexico. Investment financing is modeled considering the domestic savings ratio as well as net factorial income and capital inflows of the balance of payments. Productivity A and the rate of depreciation of capital are found using econometric techniques. According to this model, actual parameters determining growth in Mexico are compatible with a sustained long run rate of growth of about 3.6%. At the same time, under these circumstances the rati...

  15. Demand Uncertainty: Exporting Delays and Exporting Failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of the resolution of uncertainty found in models with heterogeneity...... of firm productivity. This retooling addresses several shortcomings. First, the imperfect correlation of demands reconciles the sales variation observed in and across destinations. Second, since demands for the firm's output are correlated across destinations, a firm can use previously realized demands...... to forecast unknown demands in untested destinations. The option to forecast demands causes firms to delay exporting in order to gather more information about foreign demand. Third, since uncertainty is resolved after entry, many firms enter a destination and then exit after learning that they cannot profit...

  16. Health system delay and its effect on clinical stage of breast cancer: Multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Miranda, Alfonso; Zarco-Espinosa, Gelasio; Mainero-Ratchelous, Fernando; Bargalló-Rocha, Enrique; Miguel Lázaro-León, Jesús

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between health system delay and clinical disease stage in patients with breast cancer. This was a cross-sectional study of 886 patients who were referred to 4 of the largest public cancer hospitals in Mexico City for the evaluation of a probable breast cancer. Data on time intervals, sociodemographic factors, and clinical stage at diagnosis were retrieved. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the average marginal effects of delay on the probability of being diagnosed with advanced breast cancer (stages III and IV). The median time between problem identification and the beginning of treatment was 7 months. The subinterval with the largest delay was that between the first medical consultation and diagnosis (median, 4 months). Only 15% of the patients who had cancer were diagnosed with stage 0 and I disease, and 48% were diagnosed with stage III and IV disease. Multivariate analyses confirmed independent correlations for the means of problem identification, patient delay, health system delay, and age with a higher probability that patients would begin cancer treatment in an advanced stage. In the sample studied, the majority of patients with breast cancer began treatment after a delay. Both patient delays and provider delays were associated with advanced disease. Research aimed at identifying specific access barriers to medical services is much needed to guide the design of tailored health policies that go beyond the promotion of breast care awareness and screening participation to include improvements in health services that facilitate access to timely diagnosis and treatment. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

  17. Semantic Interference in Immediate and Delayed Naming and Reading: Attention and Task Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piai, Vitoria; Roelofs, Ardi; Schriefers, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Disagreement exists about whether lexical selection in word production is a competitive process. Competition predicts semantic interference from distractor words in immediate but not in delayed picture naming. In contrast, Janssen, Schirm, Mahon, and Caramazza (2008) obtained semantic interference in delayed picture naming when participants had to…

  18. CERN servers go to Mexico

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    On Wednesday, 26 August, 384 servers from the CERN Computing Centre were donated to the Faculty of Science in Physics and Mathematics (FCFM) and the Mesoamerican Centre for Theoretical Physics (MCTP) at the University of Chiapas, Mexico.   CERN’s Director-General, Rolf Heuer, met the Mexican representatives in an official ceremony in Building 133, where the servers were prepared for shipment. From left to right: Frédéric Hemmer, CERN IT Department Head; Raúl Heredia Acosta, Deputy Permanent Representative of Mexico to the United Nations and International Organizations in Geneva; Jorge Castro-Valle Kuehne, Ambassador of Mexico to the Swiss Confederation and the Principality of Liechtenstein; Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General; Luis Roberto Flores Castillo, President of the Swiss Chapter of the Global Network of Qualified Mexicans Abroad; Virginia Romero Tellez, Coordinator of Institutional Relations of the Swiss Chapter of the Global Network of Qualified Me...

  19. Health technology assessment in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Frenk, Julio

    2009-07-01

    The history of health technology assessment (HTA) in Mexico is examined, starting with the efforts to incorporate this topic into the policy agenda and culminating with the recent creation of a specialized public agency. Information was gathered through a bibliographic search and interviews with actors involved in HTA in Mexico. HTA efforts were developed in Mexico since the mid-1980s with the participation both of academics and of policy makers, a relationship that eventually led to the creation of the Center for Technological Excellence within the Ministry of Health. Institutionalization of HTA in resource-constrained settings requires the development of a critical mass of researchers involved in this field, the implementation of information efforts, and the establishment of strong relationships between HTA experts and policy makers.

  20. Foliicolous fungi from Arctostaphylos pungens in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Rico, Onésimo; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Crous, Pedro W

    2014-06-01

    Arctostaphylos pungens "Manzanita" is an important shrub in the southwestern USA, and northern and central Mexico. Manzanita bears apple-like fruit that is utilised for a range of edible products. Over the past two years, several foliar disease problems were noted on this host in the San José de Gracia region of Mexico. The aim of the present study was to elucidate their identity through the analysis of morphological characters and DNA phylogeny (based on the large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene and the ITS spacers and the intervening 5.8S rRNA gene of the nrDNA operon) of the fungi associated with these disease symptoms. Three species are newly described: Phaeococcomyces mexicanus sp. nov., a presumed epiphyte, and two species associated with leaf spots and defoliation, namely Coccomyces arctostaphyloides sp. nov. and Passalora arctostaphyli sp. nov. A fourth species is also associated with leaf spots and tip dieback is Harknessia arctostaphyli, for which an epitype is designated. All species can co-occur on the same shrub, which adds to the stress experienced by the plant, leading to further defoliation and dieback.

  1. Country watch: Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel Aguirre, E

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the program activities of the Mexican National Commission on Human Rights (CNDH), which in 1994 created a program to address human rights issues of HIV-infected victims. The aim was to answer complaints of discrimination against HIV-infected persons and to modify confrontational attitudes of groups that feel infringed upon by the rights of HIV-infected persons. CNDH formed a task force of HIV/AIDS medical experts, which recommended actions for three types of discriminatory practices. Persons with HIV/AIDS (PWHA) who were confined in prison filed complaints about the lack of necessary medications or medical attention. The Official Mexican Norm for the Prevention and Control of HIV stipulates, in its Manual for the Attention of Complaints Regarding HIV/AIDS, protocols for treatment of PWHA. This manual was distributed to 31 State Human Rights Commissions in Mexico. CNDH implemented an outreach program to educate the public about HIV/AIDS, to offer training courses, and to publish written materials about discrimination against PWHA. The CNDH conducted conferences and training sessions for workers in the health services, where most violations of human rights take place. CNDH works closely with the National Board for the Prevention and Control of AIDS to assess clinical records, train staff handling complaints, and channel complaints that require CNDH intervention. CNDH conducts training workshops for nongovernmental organizations. CNDH is constrained by bureaucratic procedures that slow the process of resolving complaints and by the small CNDH staff responsible for handling the more complex cases. However, CNDH has successfully resolved a number of complaints and improved the prison conditions of PWHA.

  2. Synchronization analysis of coloured delayed networks under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper investigates synchronization of coloured delayed networks under decentralized pinning intermittent control. To begin with, the time delays are taken into account in the coloured networks. In addition, we propose a decentralized pinning intermittent control for coloured delayed networks, which is different from that ...

  3. A Cucker--Smale Model with Noise and Delay

    KAUST Repository

    Erban, Radek

    2016-08-09

    A generalization of the Cucker-Smale model for collective animal behavior is investigated. The model is formulated as a system of delayed stochastic differential equations. It incorporates two additional processes which are present in animal decision making, but are often neglected in modeling: (i) stochasticity (imperfections) of individual behavior and (ii) delayed responses of individuals to signals in their environment. Sufficient conditions for flocking for the generalized Cucker-Smale model are derived by using a suitable Lyapunov functional. As a by-product, a new result regarding the asymptotic behavior of delayed geometric Brownian motion is obtained. In the second part of the paper, results of systematic numerical simulations are presented. They not only illustrate the analytical results, but hint at a somehow surprising behavior

  4. A Cucker--Smale Model with Noise and Delay

    KAUST Repository

    Erban, Radek; Haskovec, Jan; Sun, Yongzheng

    2016-01-01

    A generalization of the Cucker-Smale model for collective animal behavior is investigated. The model is formulated as a system of delayed stochastic differential equations. It incorporates two additional processes which are present in animal decision making, but are often neglected in modeling: (i) stochasticity (imperfections) of individual behavior and (ii) delayed responses of individuals to signals in their environment. Sufficient conditions for flocking for the generalized Cucker-Smale model are derived by using a suitable Lyapunov functional. As a by-product, a new result regarding the asymptotic behavior of delayed geometric Brownian motion is obtained. In the second part of the paper, results of systematic numerical simulations are presented. They not only illustrate the analytical results, but hint at a somehow surprising behavior

  5. The biophysical perspective of a middle income economy. Material flows in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Ana Citlalic; Schandl, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    We analyse natural resource use dynamics in the Mexican economy during the last three decades. Despite low and uneven economic growth, the extraction and use of materials in the Mexican economy has continuously increased during the last 30 years. In this period, population growth rather than economic growth was the main driving force for biophysical growth. In addition, fundamental changes have taken place in the primary sectors, in manufacturing, and in household consumption and these are reflected in an increasing emphasis on the use of fossil fuels and construction materials. Mexico's economy has been strongly influenced by international trade since the country commenced competing in international markets. In the 1970s, Mexico mainly exported primary resources. This pattern has changed and manufactured goods now have a much greater importance due to a boom in assembling industries. In contrast with other Latin American countries, Mexico has achieved a diversification of production, moving towards technology-intensive products and a better mix in its export portfolio. However, crude oil exports still represent the single most important export good. Mexico's material consumption is still well below the OECD average but is growing fast and the current resource use patterns may well present serious social and environmental problems to the medium and long-term sustainability of Mexico's economy and community. Information on natural resource use and resource productivity could provide valuable guidance for economic policy planning in Mexico. (author)

  6. Maximum principle for a stochastic delayed system involving terminal state constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jiaqiang; Shi, Yufeng

    2017-01-01

    We investigate a stochastic optimal control problem where the controlled system is depicted as a stochastic differential delayed equation; however, at the terminal time, the state is constrained in a convex set. We firstly introduce an equivalent backward delayed system depicted as a time-delayed backward stochastic differential equation. Then a stochastic maximum principle is obtained by virtue of Ekeland's variational principle. Finally, applications to a state constrained stochastic delayed linear-quadratic control model and a production-consumption choice problem are studied to illustrate the main obtained result.

  7. Designing Distributed Generation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linvill, Carl [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montepelier, VT (United States); Brutkoski, Donna [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montepelier, VT (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Mexico's energy reform will have far-reaching effects on how people produce and consume electricity in the country. Market liberalization will open the door to an increasing number of options for Mexican residential, commercial, and industrial consumers, and distributed generation (DG), which for Mexico includes generators of less than 500 kilowatts (kW) of capacity connected to the distribution network. Distributed generation is an option for consumers who want to produce their own electricity and provide electricity services to others. This report seeks to provide guidance to Mexican officials on designing DG economic and regulatory policies.

  8. New Mexico Geothermal Data Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witcher, J.C.; Whittier, J.; Morgan, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the New Mexico Geothermal Data Base (NMGDB) which is a comprehensive public-domain data base of low-temperature geothermal resource information for New Mexico that is designed to assist researchers and developers. A broad range of geoscience, engineering, climatic, economic, and land status information are complied in the dBASE III PLUS data base management system for use on an IBM or IBM-compatible personal computer. A user friendly menu format with on-screen prompts allows easy and convenient use

  9. New Mexico's energy resources '81. Annual report of Bureau of Geology in the Mining and Minerals Division of New Mexico Energy and Minerals Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, E.C.; Hill, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Although production of U 3 O 8 declined only slightly in 1980, New Mexico's share of domestic production has declined from 48% in 1976 to 35% in 1980. Production projections indicate a continued decline in 1981 and lower production until at least 1984. New Mexico has 41% of total domestic reserves producible in the $50-per-lb cost category. In keeping with the anticipated steady depletion of reserves, production of crude oil in New Mexico was 69.9 million bls, a 6.3% decline in production from 1979. Condensate production of 5.4 million bbls in 1980, however, represented an increase of 7% from 1979 production. Although natural gas production was the lowest since 1970 and declined by 2.6% from 1979 production, 1980 was the 15th year that production exceeded 1 trillion cu ft. Despite declines in production, the valuation of oil and gas production has increased significantly with oil sales doubling from the previous year and gas sales increasing by $409 million because of higher prices. Reserves have been estimated to be 959 million bbls of crude oil and 17.667 trillion cu ft of natural gas. Production of 19.5 million short tons of coal in 1980 represented a 33% increase over 1979 production and an increase of 157% since 1970. Coal resources in New Mexico are estimated to be 180.79 billion short tons, and production is projected to incease to 39.61 million tons in 1985 and 67.53 million tons in 1990. The most notable developments in geothermal energy have been in technical advances in drilling, testing, and applications, especially in the area of hot dry rock systems. The US Bureau of Land Management has issued 113 geothermal leases that remain active. Recent geothermal exploration activity has been detailed for 21 companies

  10. New Mexico's energy resources '81. Annual report of Bureau of Geology in the Mining and Minerals Division of New Mexico Energy and Minerals Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, E.C.; Hill, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Although production of U 3 O 8 declined only slightly in 1980, New Mexico's share of domestic production has declined from 48% in 1976 to 35% in 1980. Production projections indicate a continued decline in 1981 and lower production until at least 1984. New Mexico has 41% of total domestic reserves producible in the $50-per-lb cost category. In keeping with the anticipated steady depletion of reserves, production of crude oil in New Mexico was 69.9 million bbls, a 6.3% decline in production from 1979. Condensate production of 5.4 million bbls in 1980, however, represented an increase of 7% from 1979 production. Although natural gas production was the lowest since 1970 and declined by 2.6% from 1979 production, 1980 was the 15th year that production exceeded 1 trillion cu ft. Despite declines in production, the valuation of oil and gas production has increased significantly with oil sales doubling from the previous year and gas sales increasing by $409 million because of higher prices. Reserves have been estimated to be 959 million bbls of crude oil and 17.667 trillion cu ft of natural gas. Production of 19.5 million short tons of coal in 1980 represented a 33% increase over 1979 production and an increase of 157% since 1970. Coal resources in New Mexico are estimated to be 180.79 billion short tons, and production is projected to increase to 39.61 million tons in 1985 and 67.53 million tons in 1990. The most notable developments in geothermal energy have been in technical advances in drilling, testing, and applications, especially in the area of hot dry rock systems. The U.S. Bureau of Land Management has issued 113 geothermal leases that remain active. Recent geothermal exploration activity has been detailed for 21 companies

  11. Hopf Bifurcation in a Cobweb Model with Discrete Time Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Gori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a cobweb model with discrete time delays that characterise the length of production cycle. We assume a market comprised of homogeneous producers that operate as adapters by taking the (expected profit-maximising quantity as a target to adjust production and consumers with a marginal willingness to pay captured by an isoelastic demand. The dynamics of the economy is characterised by a one-dimensional delay differential equation. In this context, we show that (1 if the elasticity of market demand is sufficiently high, the steady-state equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable and (2 if the elasticity of market demand is sufficiently low, quasiperiodic oscillations emerge when the time lag (that represents the length of production cycle is high enough.

  12. Report on the actual state of the basic, applied research and industrial applications of the radiation in Mexico; Informe sobre el estado actual de la investigacion basica, aplicada y aplicaciones industriales de la radiacion en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez V, H

    1991-07-15

    In this report the main works of basic, applied research and industrial applications that are carried out in Mexico, about radiations (radiation chemistry, technology, applications, use and isotope production, etc.): infrastructure, radiation sources, groups and research programs are presented. (Author)

  13. Las Tierras de Nuevo Mexico. [The Lands of New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadesh, Frances Leon; And Others

    New Mexico was inhabited thousands of years ago. Each group of settlers saw the land in distinct ways. For some, its beauty consisted of its quality, the abundance of water, and the hope of a good harvest. For others, its beautiful sites were of more importance. Thus, each group established its own manner of living on the land and of using it.…

  14. Opportunity for America: Mexico`s coal future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, V.W.

    1993-09-01

    This study examines the history, current status and future prospects for increased coal use in Mexico. Environmental implications of the power-generation capacity expansion plans are examined in general terms. Mexican environmental law and regulations are briefly reviewed along with the new sense of urgency in the cleanup of existing environmental problems and avoidance of new problems as clearly mandated in recent Mexican government policy initiatives. It is expected that new capital facilities will need to incorporate the latest in process and technology to comply with existing environmental regulation. Technology developments which address these issues are identified. What opportunities have new initiatives caused by the recent diversification of Mexico`s energy economy offered US firms? This report looks at the potential future use of coal in the Mexican energy economy, examining this issue with an eye toward identifying markets that might be available to US coal producers and the best way to approach them. Market opportunities are identified by examining new developments in the Mexican economy generally and the energy economy particularly. These developments are examined in light of the current situation and the history which brought Mexico to its present status.

  15. A Polynomial Estimate of Railway Line Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Harrod, Steven; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    Railway service may be measured by the aggregate delay over a time horizon or due to an event. Timetables for railway service may dampen aggregate delay by addition of additional process time, either supplement time or buffer time. The evaluation of these variables has previously been performed...... by numerical analysis with simulation. This paper proposes an analytical estimate of aggregate delay with a polynomial form. The function returns the aggregate delay of a railway line resulting from an initial, primary, delay. Analysis of the function demonstrates that there should be a balance between the two...

  16. Delay Variation Model with Two Service Queues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Rezac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Delay in VoIP technology is very unpleasant issue and therefore a voice packets prioritization must be ensured. To maintain the high call quality a maximum information delivery time from the sender to the recipient is set to 150 ms. This paper focuses on the design of a mathematical model of end-to-end delay of a VoIP connection, in particular on a delay variation. It describes all partial delay components and mechanisms, their generation, facilities and mathematical formulations. A new approach to the delay variation model is presented and its validation has been done by experimention.

  17. Fuzzy delay model based fault simulator for crosstalk delay fault test ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a fuzzy delay model based crosstalk delay fault simulator is proposed. As design trends move towards nanometer technologies, more number of new parameters affects the delay of the component. Fuzzy delay models are ideal for modelling the uncertainty found in the design and manufacturing steps.

  18. Report on the actual state of the basic, applied research and industrial applications of the radiation in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez V, H.

    1991-07-01

    In this report the main works of basic, applied research and industrial applications that are carried out in Mexico, about radiations (radiation chemistry, technology, applications, use and isotope production, etc.): infrastructure, radiation sources, groups and research programs are presented. (Author)

  19. Oil and Gas Producing Platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1998)[platforms_MMS_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point data set for the location of over 4300 MMS administered platform structures used for oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico. Groups of platform...

  20. Precise delay measurement through combinatorial logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Gary R. (Inventor); Chen, Yuan (Inventor); Sheldon, Douglas J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A high resolution circuit and method for facilitating precise measurement of on-chip delays for FPGAs for reliability studies. The circuit embeds a pulse generator on an FPGA chip having one or more groups of LUTS (the "LUT delay chain"), also on-chip. The circuit also embeds a pulse width measurement circuit on-chip, and measures the duration of the generated pulse through the delay chain. The pulse width of the output pulse represents the delay through the delay chain without any I/O delay. The pulse width measurement circuit uses an additional asynchronous clock autonomous from the main clock and the FPGA propagation delay can be displayed on a hex display continuously for testing purposes.

  1. Reasons for diagnostic delay in gynecological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandborg, Mai Partridge; Christensen, René dePont Christensen; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    (≤ or > 60 years), performance of gynecological examination by the GP and notification of cancer suspicion on first referral from GP’s on the diagnostic delay (short delay ≤90 days and long delay >90 days). Results Across cancer type a median total delay of 101 days was observed. The 10% of women......Aim The primary aim of this study was to identify and describe different delay types in women with gynecologic cancer, and to analyze the relationship between diagnostic delay and a number of characteristics for patients, cancers and the health care system. Setting A cohort study of women newly......) and The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD). 161 women were included; ovarian cancer: 63, endometrial cancer: 50, cervical cancer: 34 and vulvar cancer: 14. Outcome measures were different delay types counted in days and the influence of four clinical important variables: Presence of alarm symptoms, age...

  2. Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation in Floorplanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Andreas Thor; Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI circuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length can be different. Traditional thermal aware floorplanning algorithms use wirelength to estimate delay and routability. In this w......Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI circuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length can be different. Traditional thermal aware floorplanning algorithms use wirelength to estimate delay and routability....... In this work, we show that using wirelength as the evaluation metric does not always produce a floorplan with the shortest delay. We propose a temperature dependent wire delay estimation method for thermal aware floorplanning algorithms, which takes into account the thermal effect on wire delay. The experiment...

  3. Elite athletes and pubertal delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczuk, Karina

    2017-10-01

    Intensive physical training and participation in competitive sports during childhood and early adolescence may affect athletes' pubertal development. On the other hand, pubertal timing, early or late, may impact on an athlete selection for a particular sport. Genetic predisposition, training load, nutritional status and psychological stress determine athletes' pubertal timing. Athletes that practice esthetic sports, especially gymnasts, are predisposed to a delay in pubertal development. The growing evidence indicates that energy deficiency, not a systemic training per se, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of functional hypothalamic hypogonadism in female athletes. Metabolic and psychologic stress activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Female athletes who do not begin secondary sexual development by the age of 14 or menstruation by the age of 16 warrant a comprehensive evaluation and a targeted treatment. Somatic growth and sexual maturation of elite female athletes are largely sport-specific since each sport favors a particular somatotype and requires a specific training. Chronic negative energy balance resulting from a systemic physical training and inadequate energy intake may delay pubertal development in elite athletes. Youth athletes, especially those engaged in competitive sports that emphasize prepubertal or lean appearance, are at risk of developing relative energy deficiency in sport associated with disordered eating or eating disorders. Management strategies should address the complex conditions underlying functional hypothalamic hypogonadism.

  4. Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Silk, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, n s , and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z * =1078±11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1σ to R=1.734±0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: ε α i <0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

  5. Asymptotic Delay Analysis for Cross-Layer Delay-Based Routing in Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Jacquet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of the evaluation of the delay distribution via analytical means in IEEE 802.11 wireless ad hoc networks. We show that the asymptotic delay distribution can be expressed as a power law. Based on the latter result, we present a cross-layer delay estimation protocol and we derive new delay-distribution-based routing algorithms, which are well adapted to the QoS requirements of real-time multimedia applications. In fact, multimedia services are not sensitive to average delays, but rather to the asymptotic delay distributions. Indeed, video streaming applications drop frames when they are received beyond a delay threshold, determined by the buffer size. Although delay-distribution-based routing is an NP-hard problem, we show that it can be solved in polynomial time when the delay threshold is large, because of the asymptotic power law distribution of the link delays.

  6. Juvenile Justice in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Frías Armenta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first tribunal in Mexico was established in the central state of San Luis Potosi in 1926. The Law Regarding Social Prevention and Juvenile Delinquency for the Federal District and Mexican territories was promulgated in 1928. In 2005, Article 18 of the Mexican Constitution was modified to establish a comprehensive system (“Sistema Integral de justicia” in Spanish of justice for juveniles between 12 and 18 years old who had committed a crime punishable under criminal law. Its objective was to guarantee juveniles all the due process rights established for adults, in addition to the special ones recognized for minors. The constitutional reform also provides a framework that includes special tribunals as well as alternative justice options for juveniles. With these reforms, institutionalization of minors was to be considered an extreme measure applicable only to felonies and to juveniles older than 14. In 2006, all states within the Mexican federation enacted the “Law of justice for adolescents”. This system, at both the federal and state levels, formalizes a new global paradigm with regard to the triangular relationship between children, the State and the Law. It recognizes that children are also bearers of the inherent human rights recognized for all individuals, instead of simply objects in need of protection. However, despite formally aligning Mexican juvenile justice law with the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC, issues of actual substantive rights remained and new ones have appeared. For example, juveniles younger than 14 who have not committed a felony are released from institutions without any rehabilitation or treatment options, and alternative forms of justice were included without evaluating their possibilities of application or their conditions for success. In addition, the economic status of most juvenile detainees continues to be one of the most important determining factors in the administration of justice

  7. A delay-dependent approach to robust control for neutral uncertain neural networks with mixed interval time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Chien-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of delay-dependent global robust stabilization for discrete, distributed and neutral interval time-varying delayed neural networks described by nonlinear delay differential equations of the neutral type. The parameter uncertainties are norm bounded. The activation functions are assumed to be bounded and globally Lipschitz continuous. Using a Lyapunov functional approach and linear matrix inequality (LMI) techniques, the stability criteria for the uncertain neutral neural networks with interval time-varying delays are established in the form of LMIs, which can be readily verified using the standard numerical software. An important feature of the result reported is that all the stability conditions are dependent on the upper and lower bounds of the delays. Another feature of the results lies in that it involves fewer free weighting matrix strategy, and upper bounds of the inner product between two vectors are not introduced to reduce the conservatism of the criteria. Two illustrative examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and the reduced conservatism of the proposed method

  8. Tax revenue and innovations in natural gas supply: New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulibarri, C.A.; Marsh, T.L.

    1994-10-01

    This paper develops an econometric model of natural gas supply at the state-level using New Mexico as a case study. The supply model is estimated using annual time series observations on production levels, delivered prices, proved reserves, existing wells, and extraction costs. The authors validate the model against historical data and then use it to consider the fiscal impacts on state tax revenue from innovations in extraction technologies

  9. GDP Growth, Potential Output, and Output Gaps in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrima A Faal

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of Mexico's economic growth since the 1960s and compares various decompositions of historical growth into its trend and cyclical components. The role of the implied output gaps in the inflationary process is then assessed. Looking ahead, the paper presents medium-term paths for GDP based on alternative assumptions for productivity growth rates. The results indicate that the most important factor underlying the slowdown in output growth was a decline in trend to...

  10. Occurency and aqueous processing of tellurides from Sonora (Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, S.; Perez, E.; Ecinas, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Tellurium production is limited mainly to that obtained from the treatment of electrolyte muds from copper refineries. however, there are several other sources from which the precious metal tellurides are potentially attractive. This work presents a review of the main localitiesin Sonora (Mexico), where tellurides have been found. In addition, based upon the physical chemistry fundamentals for tellurium and precious metal tellurides, the aqueous extraction and recovery routes are discussed. (Author) 51 refs

  11. ( Didelphis virginiana ) from Yucatan, Mexico

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite recognized as a causal agent of toxoplasmosis; zoonotic disease endemic in many countries worldwide, including Mexico. Different species of animals participate in the wild cycle infection, including opossums of the species Didelphis virginiana. Thirteen D. virginiana ...

  12. Radioactive waste management in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, L.; Reyes L, J.; Jimenez D, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the radioactive waste management in Mexico, particularly the activities that the National Institute of Nuclear Research (NINR) is undertaking in this field. Classification and annual generation of radioactive waste, together with practices and facilities relating to the management of radioactive waste are addressed. The respective national legal framework and policy are outlined. (author)

  13. Shell Trumpets from Western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Novella

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine shells have been used as musical instruments in almost all parts of the world (Izikowitz 1935, including Mesoamerica, where large univalves, also called conch shells in the literature, had a utilitarian function as trumpets. Their use is well documented in most cultural areas of Mesoamerica, as in Western Mexico, through their various occurrences in archaeological contexts and museums collections.

  14. Pemex and Mexico's mixed emotions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombey, D.

    1997-01-01

    Pemex, Mexico's state owned oil company, has long been a byword for overmanning, inefficiency, disregard for the environment and for having all the ills of state incorporation, with few of the benefits. Matters, however, are changing. Pemex wants to be normal. (author)

  15. Alternative Education Spaces in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Chloe

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the architecture of the Red de Innovacion y Aprendizaje (RIA), or Learning and Innovation Network, which is a group of education centres that provide access to computers, the Internet and quality education to low-income communities in Mexico. The RIA began in May 2009 when ten pilot centres were opened in four municipalities…

  16. Mexico: swapping crude for atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, B.

    1982-01-01

    Mexico, considered the Saudi Arabia of the Western Hemisphere because of its proven and potential petroleum reserves, has surprised the world: it has embarked on the biggest nuclear-electric program in the Third World, only to postpone it days before scheduled approval of an international bidding (on which the atomic energy industry had pinned its hopes). A graph shows Mexican supplies of electricity by source with official projections to 1990. The point of entrance of the first nuclear reactor, originally scheduled for 1982, won't come onstream until 1983; and how nuclear-generated electricity grows close to 5% of the total in 1990. The big question is, will the future President of Mexico give the green light to the atomic megaproject. And if he does, how will Mexico deal with the serious logistics problems and grave ecological implications confronting the industry worldwide. In this issue, the author and Energy Detente touch on these questions and review the nuclear power status of Mexico, as well as addressing some of its global problems. Also presented in this issue is an update of the fuel price/tax series for the Western Hemisphere countries

  17. Village Dogs in Coastal Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, Eliza; Hebinck, P.G.M.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Village dogs are important for households in coastal Mexico, yet they are seen as out of place by etic stakeholders (public health and wildlife experts, and animal welfarists). Caregivers of village dogs are considered irresponsible, a view that is reinforced by Mexican policy. We describe two

  18. Structural Damage in Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, John F.; Beck, James L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the structural damage in Mexico City caused by the September 19, 1985 earthquake. Photographs which illustrate various features of structural behavior are included. One explanation is presented as to why buildings with fundamental periods of elastic vibration considerably below the predominant two‐second period of the ground motion were most vulnerable to damage.

  19. "Mexico in Transition." Curriculum Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Foreign Language Resource Center.

    These curriculum units were developed in a National Endowment for the Humanities 1994 summer seminar "Mexico in Transition." The 23 lessons are written in Spanish. Lessons are entitled: (1) "La Migracion Mexicana Vista a Traves del Cuento 'Paso del Norte' de Juan Rulfo" (Jose Jorge Armendariz); (2) "Los Grupos Indigenas de…

  20. Herbal Medicine in Mexico: A Cause of Hepatotoxicity. A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia-Correa, Bárbara; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2016-02-15

    In Mexico, herbal products are commonly used as therapeutic tools. The analysis of several publications reveals that there are dozens of different herbs and herbal products used for different reasons, some of which have been implicated in causing toxic liver disease. However, methodological aspects limit the attribution of causality, and the precise incidence and clinical manifestations of herb-induced liver injury have not been well characterized. This review outlines the history of traditional herbal medicine in Mexico, critically summarizes the mechanisms and adverse effects of commonly used herbal plants, and examines the regulatory issues regarding the legal use of these products.