WorldWideScience

Sample records for mexico pacific region

  1. Mexico's challenges in the Asia-Pacific region: prospects in the XXI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia María Ramírez Meda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present article is to make a count of the actions taken by Mexico for its correct insertion in the Asia Pacific region and subsequently, to assess whether these strategies have been enhanced and promoted a real membership in the region. In the first part a theoretical and conceptual count of the term "region" and "regionalism" it's done. Second section deals with the question; can Asia Pacific be considered a region by addressing economic, political, social and cultural elements? Subsequently, in a third section the question; "in which region it's Mexico located?" its answered and in this way, finally we analyze if Asia Pacific is or not a mega (macro region unlikely to Mexico, where the latter could benefit if some recommendations that are seen at the end of the present work are applied.

  2. Pacific Northwest regional AGU meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Roy

    The 27th Annual Pacific Northwest Regional American Geophysical Union Meeting, held September 25 and 26, 1980, was hosted by the Pacific Geoscience Centre at the Institute of Ocean Sciences, near Victoria, British Columbia. A total of 79 papers was presented to the 150 registrants in six general sessions: seismology; electromagnetic induction; general geophysics; volcanology; hydrology; and oceanography, and in three special symposia: ‘The Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault system and other active faults of the Pacific Northwest’ ‘Coastal circulation in the northeast Pacific’ and ‘Studies of the eruption of Mount St. Helens.’

  3. Mexico and Asia-Pacific: proximities and distances of a long relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis León-Manríquez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mexico and Asia-Pacific have strong links and yet they keep their distance at a subjective level. This article analyses this complex relationship in order to identify the points of approchement and bilateral distancing from a historical perspective. The text analyses the economic, trade, political and multilateral links between Mexico and the main countries and regional organisations in the region of Asia-Pacific. It observes that, despite the economic emergence of Asia-Pacific in recent decades, Mexico alternates between periods of distancing and rapprochement. If it maintains this trend, Mexico will lose out on participating actively in the region where the most dynamic international relations in the 21st century are being formed.

  4. Pacific Northwest regional assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest (comprised of the states of Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming) can by several measures be regarded as a national warehouse of fossil energy resources. This condition coupled with an evolving national policy stressing utilization of fossil fuels in the near term prior to development of more advanced technologies for energy supply, could result in the imposition of major changes in the region's environmental, socioeconomic and possibly health status. The objective of the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program is to establish and exercise an integrated analytical assessment program for evaluation of these potential changes that may result from various energy development or conservation scenarios. After consideration of a variety of approaches to integrated assessment at a regional level, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) has concluded that dynamic simulation techniques provide the best available approach to evaluating the issues pertinent to the Northwest. As a result, the PNW Regional Assessment Program has been structured in a framework involving ten sectors. Each of these sectors involve their own submodels that receive information either from outside the model as exogenous inputs or from other sector submodels

  5. Northeast Pacific Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0163799)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northeast Pacific (NEP) new regional climatology is derived from the NCEI World Ocean Database archive of temperature and salinity and covers a time period from...

  6. Pacific Northwest DIVER Regional Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DIVER environmental data holdings are primarily comprised of datasets gathered from regional studies, site specific studies from non-NOAA entities, and NOAA...

  7. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from the Asia/Pacific region are featured here.

  8. Regional climate change for the Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBean, G.A.; Thomas, G.

    1991-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest climate is dominated by topography and the Pacific Ocean; the forests have become adapted to the present climate. Within short distances there are large changes in precipitation and temperature, with resultant changes in ecosystems. As the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases increase, global climate is expected to warm and precipitation to increase. Global climate model simulations show enhanced warming at high northern latitudes. For the Pacific Northwest, models show 2-6 degree C warming and increased precipitation in the winter for doubled atmospheric CO 2 concentration. However, the regional details of these models are presently not very reliable. The results and limitations of present global climate models are reviewed. The roles of the oceans, clouds, and other feedback mechanisms are described along with some of the possible impacts of climate change on forest resources. 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. The Southern Ocean and South Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Kelleher, K.; Warnau, Michel; Failler, Pierre; Pecl, Gretta; Turley, Carol; Boeuf, Gilles; Laffoley, Dan; Parker, Laura; Gurney, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    The Region comprises three sub-regions (FAO Statistical Areas) with very different characteristics. The South Pacific includes the vast and virtually unpopulated Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic. It has the world’s largest fisheries off Peru and Chile and some of the world’s best managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. The Region has over 27% of the world’s ocean area and over 98% of the Region’s total area of 91 million km2 is ‘open ocean’. The Region contains less than 5% of...

  10. Genetic signature analysis of Perkinsus marinus in Mexico suggests possible translocation from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek-Huchim, Juan Pablo; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Améndola-Pimenta, Monica; Vidal-Martínez, Victor Manuel; Pérez-Vega, Juan Antonio; Simá-Alvarez, Raúl; Jiménez-García, Isabel; Zamora-Bustillos, Roberto; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna

    2017-08-02

    The protozoan Perkinsus marinus (Mackin, Owen & Collier) Levine, 1978 causes perkinsosis in the American oyster Crassostrea virginica Gmelin, 1791. This pathogen is present in cultured C. virginica from the Gulf of Mexico and has been reported recently in Saccostrea palmula (Carpenter, 1857), Crassostrea corteziensis (Hertlein, 1951) and Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) from the Mexican Pacific coast. Transportation of fresh oysters for human consumption and repopulation could be implicated in the transmission and dissemination of this parasite across the Mexican Pacific coast. The aim of this study was two-fold. First, we evaluated the P. marinus infection parameters by PCR and RFTM (Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium) in C. virginica from four major lagoons (Términos Lagoon, Campeche; Carmen-Pajonal-Machona Lagoon complex, Tabasco; Mandinga Lagoon, Veracruz; and La Pesca Lagoon, Tamaulipas) from the Gulf of Mexico. Secondly, we used DNA sequence analyses of the ribosomal non-transcribed spacer (rNTS) region of P. marinus to determine the possible translocation of this species from the Gulf of Mexico to the Mexican Pacific coast. Perkinsus marinus prevalence by PCR was 57.7% (338 out of 586 oysters) and 38.2% (224 out of 586 oysters) by RFTM. The highest prevalence was observed in the Carmen-Pajonal-Machona Lagoon complex in the state of Tabasco (73% by PCR and 58% by RFTM) and the estimated weighted prevalence (WP) was less than 1.0 in the four lagoons. Ten unique rDNA-NTS sequences of P. marinus [termed herein the "P. marinus (Pm) haplotype"] were identified in the Gulf of Mexico sample. They shared 96-100% similarity with 18 rDNA-NTS sequences from the GenBank database which were derived from 16 Mexican Pacific coast infections and two sequences from the USA. The phylogenetic tree and the haplotype network showed that the P. marinus rDNA-NTS sequences from Mexico were distant from the rDNA-NTS sequences of P. marinus reported from the USA. The ten r

  11. Far-Field Tsunami Hazard Assessment Along the Pacific Coast of Mexico by Historical Records and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Huerta, Laura G.; Ortiz, Modesto; García-Gastélum, Alejandro

    2018-03-01

    Historical records of the Chile (22 May 1960), Alaska (27 March 1964), and Tohoku (11 March 2011) tsunamis recorded along the Pacific Coast of Mexico are used to investigate the goodness of far-field tsunami modeling using a focal mechanism consisting in a uniform slip distribution on large thrust faults around the Pacific Ocean. The Tohoku 2011 tsunami records recorded by Deep ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) stations, and at coastal tide stations, were used to validate transoceanic tsunami models applicable to the harbors of Ensenada, Manzanillo, and Acapulco on the coast of Mexico. The amplitude resulting from synthetic tsunamis originated by M w 9.3 earthquakes around the Pacific varies from 1 to 2.5 m, depending on the tsunami origin region and on the directivity due to fault orientation and waveform modification by prominent features of sea bottom relief.

  12. Far-Field Tsunami Hazard Assessment Along the Pacific Coast of Mexico by Historical Records and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Huerta, Laura G.; Ortiz, Modesto; García-Gastélum, Alejandro

    2018-04-01

    Historical records of the Chile (22 May 1960), Alaska (27 March 1964), and Tohoku (11 March 2011) tsunamis recorded along the Pacific Coast of Mexico are used to investigate the goodness of far-field tsunami modeling using a focal mechanism consisting in a uniform slip distribution on large thrust faults around the Pacific Ocean. The Tohoku 2011 tsunami records recorded by Deep ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) stations, and at coastal tide stations, were used to validate transoceanic tsunami models applicable to the harbors of Ensenada, Manzanillo, and Acapulco on the coast of Mexico. The amplitude resulting from synthetic tsunamis originated by M w 9.3 earthquakes around the Pacific varies from 1 to 2.5 m, depending on the tsunami origin region and on the directivity due to fault orientation and waveform modification by prominent features of sea bottom relief.

  13. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world, including nearly 30 countries in the Asia/Pacific region. This document highlights a few examples of the Solutions Center's work in the region.

  14. Security in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Working Group began by discussing the meaning of security in terms of its comprehensive, cooperative and human dimensions. In doing so, the members of the Group focused on major issues which could endanger regional stability and non-proliferation. In order to identify the major problems and sources of tension, it was agreed that the Group would concentrate on two sub-regions, namely, East Asia and South East Asia and then to compare these briefly with South Asia and Latin America, the aim being to identify common security concerns. The discussion was framed in terms of: (i) evaluating the adequacy of the existing institutional framework for security cooperation; (ii) evaluating linkages between economic development and security; and (iii) seeking ways to reduce tension and to increase security in the region. Discussion was focused on the broad subject of security risks and challenges as well as opportunities for effective cooperative security in the Asia Pacific region. Attention was devoted to ways of changing Cold War mentalities, which still hinder the normalization process and the achievement of comprehensive security cooperation among the countries in the region

  15. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Dietary Guidelines for the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Colin W; Lee, Mi Kyung; Kagawa, Masaharu; Low, Wah Yun; Liqian, Qiu; Guldan, Georgia S; Hokama, Tomiko; Nanishi, Keiko; Oy, Sreymom; Tang, Li; Zerfas, Alfred

    2017-03-01

    Nutrition is a major determinant of health throughout all stages of life and together with smoking is the most important risk factor for morbidity and mortality in the Asia Pacific Region. The workshop participants examined Dietary Guidelines and Food Guides that are in use in our region, together with additional materials from the World Health Organization, UNICEF and the World Cancer Research Foundation. The resulting set of guidelines is meant as a reminder of the main issues to be covered in a general public health education program. It may also be of value in reminding public health practitioners, educators, administrators, and policy makers of current nutrition issues. It may additionally be useful as a checklist of the issues to be considered in public health programs and regulations. The main areas of nutrition that are included in the Guidelines are eating a variety of foods, including vegetables, fruits, whole grain cereals, and nuts. Choose fish, poultry, and meats grown in a sustainable way. Appropriate growth, including avoiding obesity, and physical activity are important. Breastfeeding is the basis of infant nutrition and nutrition of mothers is an important public health measure. Negative factors in the Asian diet include salt, refined sugar, alcohol and fats. The APACPH Dietary Guidelines will need to be kept under review and modified to meet regional differences in food supply. The Guidelines will be useful as a checklist of the issues to be considered in public health programs, addressing both acute and chronic diseases.

  17. Getting to Know Education in the Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific region is comprised of American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI); the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM)-Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap; Guam; Hawai'i; the Republic of the Marshall Islands; and the Republic of Palau. This document begins by providing a map of the REL Pacific region overlaid on a map of…

  18. Tissue banking in Asia Pacific region: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nather, Aziz; Mandy, Foong Shi Yun; Ning, Tan; Kaiying, Wang

    2018-04-25

    Tissue banking in the Asia Pacific regions is driven by two main forces-firstly the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) via Regional Co-operative Agreement projects and secondly by the Asia Pacific Association of Surgical Tissue Banking (APASTB). This overview is written in three sections: (1) History of tissue banking in individual country in the region. (2) History of APASTB. (3) History of IAEA programme in Asia Pacific region. The current status and future of the tissue banking programme in the region will be discussed.

  19. Confidence-building measures in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Huasun

    1991-01-01

    The regional confidence-building, security and disarmament issues in the Asia-Pacific region, and in particular, support to non-proliferation regime and establishing nuclear-weapon-free zones are reviewed

  20. Northern North Pacific Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0156768)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northern North Pacific (NNP) plays a significant role in long-term earth and ocean climate change. It is also a region of high importance for regional marine...

  1. Governance, corruption, and trade in the Asia Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Kazutomo; Wilson, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of reducing corruption and improving transparency to lower trade costs in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation region. The authors find, based on a computable general equilibrium model, significant potential trade and welfare gains for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation members, with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption. Results suggest that ...

  2. Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Judd, Chaeli [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gulbransen, Thomas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Michael G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodruff, Dana L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thom, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guzy, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hardin, Danny [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Estes, Maury [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative (GoMRC), a year-long project funded by NASA. The GoMRC project was organized around end user outreach activities, a science applications team, and a team for information technology (IT) development. Key outcomes are summarized below for each of these areas. End User Outreach; Successfully engaged federal and state end users in project planning and feedback; With end user input, defined needs and system functional requirements; Conducted demonstration to End User Advisory Committee on July 9, 2007 and presented at Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA) meeting of Habitat Identification committee; Conducted significant engagement of other end user groups, such as the National Estuary Programs (NEP), in the Fall of 2007; Established partnership with SERVIR and Harmful Algal Blooms Observing System (HABSOS) programs and initiated plan to extend HABs monitoring and prediction capabilities to the southern Gulf; Established a science and technology working group with Mexican institutions centered in the State of Veracruz. Key team members include the Federal Commission for the Protection Against Sanitary Risks (COFEPRIS), the Ecological Institute (INECOL) a unit of the National Council for science and technology (CONACYT), the Veracruz Aquarium (NOAA’s first international Coastal Ecology Learning Center) and the State of Veracruz. The Mexican Navy (critical to coastal studies in the Southern Gulf) and other national and regional entities have also been engaged; and Training on use of SERVIR portal planned for Fall 2007 in Veracruz, Mexico Science Applications; Worked with regional scientists to produce conceptual models of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) ecosystems; Built a logical framework and tool for ontological modeling of SAV and HABs; Created online guidance for SAV restoration planning; Created model runs which link potential future land use trends, runoff and SAV viability; Analyzed SAV

  3. [Nesting habitat characterization for Amazona oratrix (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) in the Central Pacific, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrubio-Rico, Tiberio C; Álvarez-Jara, Margarito; Tellez-Garcia, Loreno; Tena-Morelos, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    The nesting requirements of the Yellow-headed Parrot (Amazona oratrix) are poorly understood, despite their broad historical distribution, high demand for pet trade and current endangered status. Information concerning their nesting requirements is required in order to design specific restoration and conser- vation actions. To assess this, we studied their nesting ecology in the Central Pacific, Michoacan, Mexico during a ten year period. The analyzed variables ranged from local scale nest site characteristics such as nesting tree species, dimensions, geographic positions, diet and nesting forest patches structure, to large scale features such as vegetation use and climatic variables associated to the nesting tree distributions by an ecological niche model using Maxent. We also evaluated the parrot tolerance to land management regimes, and compared the Pacific nest trees with 18 nest trees recorded in an intensively managed private ranch in Tamaulipas, Gulf of Mexico. Parrots nested in tall trees with canopy level cavities in 92 nest-trees recorded from 11 tree species. The 72.8% of nesting occurred in trees of Astronium graveolens, and Enterolobium cyclocarpum which qualified as key- stone trees. The forests where the parrots nested, presented a maximum of 54 tree species, 50% of which were identified as food source; besides, these areas also had a high abundance of trees used as food supply. The lowest number of tree species and trees to forage occurred in an active cattle ranch, whereas the highest species rich- ness was observed in areas with natural recovery. The nesting cavity entrance height from above ground of the Pacific nesting trees resulted higher than those found in the Gulf of Mexico. We hypothesize that the differences may be attributed to Parrot behavioral differences adapting to differential poaching pressure and cavity avail- ability. Nesting trees were found in six vegetation types; however the parrots preferred conserved and riparian semi

  4. Prehistoric Marine Resource Use in the Indo-Pacific Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Rintaro; Morrison , Alex; Addison, David

    2013-01-01

    Although historic sources provide information on recent centuries, archaeology can contribute longer term understandings of pre-industrial marine exploitation in the Indo-Pacific region, providing valuable baseline data for evaluating contemporary ecological trends. This volume contains eleven papers which constitute a diverse but coherent collection on past and present marine resource use in the Indo-Pacific region, within a human-ecological perspective. The geographical focus extends from E...

  5. Regional cooperative agreement for the Asia and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Among the means available to the International Atomic Energy Agency to promote cooperative efforts in the nuclear field is the Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) for Research, Development, and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology for the Asia and Pacific Region. Under the terms of this agreement, which came into force on June 12, 1972, participating countries aim to promote and coordinate research, development, and training projects in nuclear fields through collaborative efforts among relevant national institutions in the region. The Agency's role is to provide organizational, administrative, advisory, technical, and financial assistance when needed to secure successful execution of the projects undertaken within the framework of the RCA. Although this presentation deals primarily with the benefits of regional cooperation under the agreement, a review of the RCA would be somewhat imbalanced without a mention of its shortcomings. One of the principal impediments to more rapid progress, as is the case in many other areas, is financing. There is no stable source of funding outside the research contract program and, the likelihood of large-scale UNDP support notwithstanding, a greater willingness on the part of participating Member States to support the program along with the development of a greater sense of common purpose are called for. In this connection serious consideration is being given to the possibility of establishing an Asian Centre for Research and Training, an institute that would bring together scientists from the region to collaborate on problems common to the RCA countries. A study group has already been convened to investigate the feasibility of this proposal

  6. The Index of Asia-Pacific Regional Integration Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Yifan Ye

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asia-Pacific region is not typically seen as one geographic or socio-economic space. Yet, 58 regional economies occupying the space of 28 million square kilometers from Turkey in the West, Russian Federation in the North, French Polynesia in the East and New Zealand in the South belong to the Economic and Social Commission of Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP. This commission provides a forum for member states that "promotes regional cooperation and collective action, assisting countries in building and sustaining shared economic growth and social equity". In 2013, ESCAP's members adopted the Bangkok Declaration to enhance efforts towards deeper regional economic integration. Yet this document neither proposes a concrete modality or modalities of achieving deeper integration, nor provides a sense of distance of individual countries to a "perceived" integrated Asia-Pacific.This paper aims to comprehensively quantify recent integration efforts of economies in the Asia-Pacific region. We provide an "index of integration effort" based on twelve metrics that measure the relative distance of a given economy to the region as an economic entity. Generally, we find that while the region has trended towards becoming integrated in general, both the level of integration and integration effort are inconsistent among Asia-Pacific economies. We discuss potential applications and extensions of the index in developing our perspective of the region's economic and social dynamics.

  7. Regional cooperation on public acceptance in the pacific basin area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumasa Tanaka

    1987-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to examine the nature of nuclear issues and the need for effective public acceptance programs in the Pacific Basin area, drawing attention to Japan, Canada and Taiwan of China. The paper first presents a general institutional framework in which regional cooperetion is being sought in the Pacific Basin area. Secondly, country-specific nuclear issues and public acceptance programs of Canada, Japan and Taiwan of China will be presented. And thirdly, the importance of international public acceptance programs will be discussed for nuclear-electric power to grow in the Pacific Basin area toward the Year 2000. (author)

  8. Warm Water Pools of the Western Caribbean and Eastern Tropical Pacific: Their Influence on Intraseasonal Rainfall Regimes and Tropical Storm Activity in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, A. V.; Englehart, P. J.

    2007-05-01

    A dipole in tropical cyclone development between the Caribbean and the eastern tropical Pacific will be examined relative to its affect on southern Mexican rainfall. With the change over in the AMO and PDO in 1994 and 1998, respectively, tropical storm genesis has been increasing in the Caribbean while declining in the tropical east Pacific. This dipole in tropical cyclone development appears to be related to changes in the pre storm season heat content of the two ocean basins (data Scripps Institution of Oceanography). Preliminary work indicates that if the Caribbean is warmer than the Pacific by late May the dipole will be accentuated with a pronounced decrease in tropical storms in the east Pacific with an early and prolonged season in the Caribbean. In recent years there appears to have been an increase in the intensity and duration of midsummer drought (Canicula) in Mexico associated with changes in the PDO and AMO. These long term ocean oscillations appear to control the dipole in the strength of the Caribbean and East Pacific warm pools. Mid summer drought is a normal occurrence in much of Mexico and Central America, but the intensified droughts of the recent period have stressed the agricultural community of the region. Based on preliminary work, it appears that the recent increased frequency of midsummer drought can be linked to a shift in the warmest pool from the East Pacific to the Caribbean.

  9. Nuclear power developments in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, T.

    2001-01-01

    There are 438 nuclear power reactors operating in the world. Of these, 95 are in the Asia-Pacific region. Of the 36 reactors currently under construction in the world, 19 are in the Asia-Pacific region. Of the 44 planned reactors in the world, 36 are in this region. At the start of the 'New Nuclear Century' the Asia-Pacific region has become the main area for growth and innovation in nuclear power. This paper describes the nuclear power developments in each country and examines the status of the construction programme and the planned projects. Countries included are China, India, Japan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), Republic of Korea, Pakistan and Taiwan. New projects include the HTR in China, Advance Breeder Water Reactors in Japan, KEDO in the DPRK and the Advance Pressurised Water Reactor in the Republic of Korea

  10. Disarmament and security issues in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The main issues of the conference were focused on current political trends related to outstanding disputes between the state in Asia-Pacific region. Second cluster od issues which merits careful examination was concerned with the relevance of various arms control and disarmament measures. The tools of arms control and disarmament are proving to be more versatile, flexible instruments for security-building than was the case during the cold-war period. The third item of interest for many states in the Asia-Pacific region is the question of promoting new forums for regional dialogues on security matters

  11. Food irradiation: regulatory aspects in the Asia and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckman, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Irradiation treatment of food is becoming an increasingly accepted processing option for countries in the Asia Pacific region wishing to meet growing sanitary and phytosanitary requirements in international trade. There remain however, large differences between the regulatory requirements in the countries in this region. This paper gives an outline on existing food irradiation regulations in the separate countries of the Asia Pacific region. New developments such as the recent decision by the Australia New Zealand Food Authority to start assessing applications for food irradiation treatment are discussed. Australia's intention to regulate the export of food treated by irradiation will also be outlined. Details of the decision to harmonise food irradiation regulations by 13 countries in the Asia Pacific region based on conformance with Codex requirements is outlined. The likelihood of other Asia Pacific countries enacting similar harmonisation of their regulations will be examined. Future development such as certification of irradiation as a sanitary treatment for food are discussed. The expected result of these initiatives is a likely increase in irradiated foods traded within the Asia Pacific region

  12. Pacific region influenza surveillance for oseltamivir resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Heather B; Gose, Remedios B; Nagata, Mark T; Sciulli, Rebecca H; Whelen, A Christian

    2012-05-01

    Hawaii and the United States-affiliated Pacific islands (USAPI) host over 8 million travelers annually, most of whom originate in Asia, Australia, and the Americas where prevalence of oseltamivir resistance in 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) has been reported to be 2.5-3.5%. To survey a collection of samples from Hawaii and the USAPI that had tested positive for the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus by RTI-PCR to assess whether antiviral resistance emerged in these island communities during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We examined RNA extracted from Hawaiian and USAPI cases for the neuraminidase H275Y mutation associated with oseltamivir resistance by pyrosequencing. Two hundred and sixty-three (263) 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) positive specimens were tested and 263/263 (100%) were shown to lack the mutation most commonly associated with oseltamivir resistance. There was no evidence of oseltamivir resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 virus during the 2009 pandemic in the Pacific islands despite considerable travel exposure. Geographic isolation, the lack of a "second wave" of pandemic influenza, judicious antiviral use, aggressive vaccination, and below average tourism due to the global economic crisis may have been contributing factors. Continued surveillance and vigilance is necessary to monitor unpredictable influenza activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis of the Pacific Coast of Mexico: Case Study Based on the 1995 Colima Earthquake Tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhito Mori

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a novel computational framework to carry out probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for the Pacific coast of Mexico. The new approach enables the consideration of stochastic tsunami source scenarios having variable fault geometry and heterogeneous slip that are constrained by an extensive database of rupture models for historical earthquakes around the world. The assessment focuses upon the 1995 Jalisco–Colima Earthquake Tsunami from a retrospective viewpoint. Numerous source scenarios of large subduction earthquakes are generated to assess the sensitivity and variability of tsunami inundation characteristics of the target region. Analyses of nine slip models along the Mexican Pacific coast are performed, and statistical characteristics of slips (e.g., coherent structures of slip spectra are estimated. The source variability allows exploring a wide range of tsunami scenarios for a moment magnitude (Mw 8 subduction earthquake in the Mexican Pacific region to conduct thorough sensitivity analyses and to quantify the tsunami height variability. The numerical results indicate a strong sensitivity of maximum tsunami height to major slip locations in the source and indicate major uncertainty at the first peak of tsunami waves.

  14. 77 FR 47880 - U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Canada and Mexico: Advice on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ....S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on Probable Economic... Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Canada and Mexico: Advice on the Probable Economic Effect of... Mexico: Advice on the Probable Economic Effect of Providing Duty-Free Treatment for Imports. DATES...

  15. [Community structure of zooxanthellate corals (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) in Carrizales coral reef, Pacific coast, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Bonilla, Hector; Escobosa-González, Laura Elena; Cupul-Magaña, Amilcar L; Medina-Rosas, Pedro; Calderón-Aguilera, Luis E

    2013-06-01

    Coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific and notably those of the continental coastline of Colima state are still poorly studied. Fortunately, recent efforts have been carried out by researchers from different Mexican institutions to fill up these information gaps. The aim of this study was to determine the ecological structure of the rich and undisturbed coral building communities of Carrizales by using the point transect interception method (25m-long). For this, three survey expeditions were conducted between June and October 2005 and September 2006; and for comparison purposes, the reef was subdivided according to its position in the bay, and depth (0 to 5 m, and 6 to 10 m). Thirteen coral species were observed in the area, with Pocillopora verrucosa as the most abundant, contributing up to 32.8% of total cover, followed by Porites panamensis and Pocillopora capitata with 11% and 7%, respectively. Other species, Pocillopora damicornis, Pavona gigantea, Pocillopora eydouxi and Pocillopora inflata accounted for 1.5% to 2% of coral cover whereas the remaining five species had cover of less than 1%. Seven of the observed species represented new records for Colima state coastline: Pocillopora eydouxi, P inflata, P meandrina, Pavona duerdeni, P varians, Psammocora stellata and P contigua. This last species is a relevant record, because it has never been observed before in the Eastern Pacific. Although there was no significant difference (ANOVA, p = 0.478) neither in the abundance between the sides of the bay, nor between the depths considered, and the shallow zone observed the higher coral cover. Live coral cover was up to 61%, one of the highest ever reported for the Mexican Pacific, including the Gulf of California. The observed values of diversity (H' = 0.44 +/- 0.02), uniformity (J' = 0.76 +/- 0.02), and taxonomic distinctness index (delta* = 45.87 +/- 3.16), showed that currently this is the most important coral reef of Colima coastline. Currently, this region does not

  16. Level III Eco Regions for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  17. Level IV Eco Regions for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  18. Security trends in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jiadong

    1992-01-01

    The drastic world changes are less conspicuous in Asia-Pacific region than in it was the case in Europe, although they must be considered as stabilizing factors as well as sustained economic dynamism. Due to these changes some progress was achieved in world disarmament and arms control. But this is considered only a first step, there remains a long way to go. In the case of Asia-Pacific, possessors of largest nuclear arsenals and most sophisticated conventional arms need to further reduce their forces, support the proposals of setting up nuclear-weapon-free zones and commit themselves to no-first-use of nuclear weapons and non-use of nuclear weapons against non-nuclear states. Their fulfilment of these demands would undoubtedly contribute towards the prevention of a new round of the arms race and to the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in Asia-Pacific region

  19. Some thoughts on nuclear cooperation in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djaloeis, Azhar

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes some thoughts of the author on the importance of the role of nuclear cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region in giving significant contributions to the development of the individual countries and to the region as a whole. The paper focuses on the role of nuclear science and technology and the importance of nuclear cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region, in particular to meet the challenges and opportunities in the new millennium. The paper starts off with a brief discussion on some important aspects of the Asia-Pacific region in view of its strategic location and its vast potential in terms of human and natural resources. Some of the major needs, challenges and opportunities in association with a future vision are briefly presented in terms of areas of activities that can be supported by the application of nuclear science and technology. The paper then discusses some ideas on how to further strengthen the nuclear cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region, followed by some concluding remarks and suggestions. (author)

  20. Gulf of Mexico Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0123320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Gulf of Mexico Regional Climatology is a set of objectively analyzed climatological fields of temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, silicate, and nitrate at...

  1. Actinides detection in the Pacific Coast of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez R, E.; Almazan T, M. G.; Cruz C, G. J.; Ramirez S, R.

    2013-10-01

    In this work is evaluated the activity of the alpha emitters, uranium and plutonium, in sand samples and seawater coming from diverse points of the Mexican Pacific Coast (Baja California, Jalisco, Colima and Guerrero). The used techniques were: radiochemistry separation and alpha spectrometry, with these techniques could be observed that the sand contains natural uranium and trace quantities of 239 Pu and 240 Pu combinations. The biggest activity in Pu was found in Finisterra, Baja California Sur (0.13 Bq/kg) and the minor (0 Bq/kg) in Miramar, Colima. The relationship between the geographical localization and the Pu activity suggests that while there is more interaction of the site with the oceanic currents, more is the content of Pu in the sands of the coast. (Author)

  2. Gender and Investment Climate Reform Assessment : Pacific Regional Executive Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Hedditch, Sonali; Manuel, Clare

    2010-01-01

    This report profiles 52 business women, representing countries where IFC works across the Pacific region, in 30 case studies. Women in the report share lessons in starting their businesses, and describe the obstacles and opportunities they encountered in their pursuit of growth. By revealing their future plans, the women provide inspiration for current and future business women of the Paci...

  3. Future fuels for the asia-pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegart, G.

    2006-01-01

    The debate about climate change, the role of greenhouse gas emissions and the need for reduction of fossil fuel consumption has largely been between developed economies. The rapidly growing economic activities of China and India and other Asian and South American economies have not been factored into the debate. Many of these economies are members of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation, a grouping of 21 economies around the Pacific Rim, which has been concerned, among other issues such as trade liberalisation and economic cooperation, about the future energy needs of economies in the region

  4. Re-Framing Pacific Regional Service Delivery: Opportunity Spaces for "Together" and "Apart"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanga, Kabini

    2011-01-01

    Regionalism is a common development strategy in the Pacific region. Through it, numerous services are delivered to countries, communities and organisations. While some see regionalism as an effective and efficient strategy for the Pacific region, others point to its dismal performance. Using the experience of the Rethinking Pacific Education…

  5. Nuclear developments in the Asia and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    Countries in the Asia and Pacific region are engaged in many aspects of nuclear science and technology, often as part of national development plan. A number of them are members of the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology which was developed under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency to provide a basis for nuclear technical assistance and cooperation in the Asia and Pacific region. The report describes nuclear developments, from power and research reactors to reprocessing facilities, in these countries. The information was gathered from a range of sources, including relevant journals, publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the OECD/ Nuclear Energy Agen, and annual reports of national nuclear institutes. 4 tabs

  6. Regional impacts of ocean color on tropical Pacific variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Wittenberg, A.

    2009-08-01

    The role of the penetration length scale of shortwave radiation into the surface ocean and its impact on tropical Pacific variability is investigated with a fully coupled ocean, atmosphere, land and ice model. Previous work has shown that removal of all ocean color results in a system that tends strongly towards an El Niño state. Results from a suite of surface chlorophyll perturbation experiments show that the mean state and variability of the tropical Pacific is highly sensitive to the concentration and distribution of ocean chlorophyll. Setting the near-oligotrophic regions to contain optically pure water warms the mean state and suppresses variability in the western tropical Pacific. Doing the same above the shadow zones of the tropical Pacific also warms the mean state but enhances the variability. It is shown that increasing penetration can both deepen the pycnocline (which tends to damp El Niño) while shifting the mean circulation so that the wind response to temperature changes is altered. Depending on what region is involved this change in the wind stress can either strengthen or weaken ENSO variability.

  7. Regional impacts of ocean color on tropical Pacific variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Anderson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the penetration length scale of shortwave radiation into the surface ocean and its impact on tropical Pacific variability is investigated with a fully coupled ocean, atmosphere, land and ice model. Previous work has shown that removal of all ocean color results in a system that tends strongly towards an El Niño state. Results from a suite of surface chlorophyll perturbation experiments show that the mean state and variability of the tropical Pacific is highly sensitive to the concentration and distribution of ocean chlorophyll. Setting the near-oligotrophic regions to contain optically pure water warms the mean state and suppresses variability in the western tropical Pacific. Doing the same above the shadow zones of the tropical Pacific also warms the mean state but enhances the variability. It is shown that increasing penetration can both deepen the pycnocline (which tends to damp El Niño while shifting the mean circulation so that the wind response to temperature changes is altered. Depending on what region is involved this change in the wind stress can either strengthen or weaken ENSO variability.

  8. Tectonostratigraphic terranes of the frontier circum-Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, D.G.; Jones, D.L.; Schermer, E.R.

    1983-03-01

    Many major exploration frontiers around the Pacific are in regions where complex geologic relations reflect plate-tectonic processes, crustal mobility, and accretion of exotic terranes. The destruction of the proto-Pacific ocean (Panthalassa) involved accretion of terranes to cratonal regions such as Gondwana and Laurasia. Terranes in southwestern New Zealand and eastern Antarctica were also probably accreted during the Paleozoic. The southern margin of Siberia, extending into China, underwent a protracted period of accretion from the late Precambrian through the early Mesozoic. Mid-Paleozoic accretion is reflected in the Innuitian foldbelt of the Arctic Ocean, the Black Clastic unit of the northern Rocky Mountains, and the Antler orogeny of the western US cordillera. The Mesozoic breakup of Pangaea and the acceleration of subduction aided in the rifting and dispersal of terranes from equatorial paleolatitudes. Fragments of these terranes now compose much of the continental margins of the Pacific basin, including New Zealand, Indochina, southern China, southeast Siberia, the North American cordillera, and South America. Some terranes are presently being further fragmented by post-accretionary dispersion processes such as strike-slip faulting in western North America and Japan. Although the character and distribution of terranes in the western US are fairly well documented, details are needed for other terranes around the Pacific basin. Interpretation of structure and stratigraphy at depth will be aided by more data on the timing of accretion and the nature of deformation associated with accretion and dispersion. Such data are needed for further define specific exploration targets in the circum-Pacific region.

  9. A new species of Peltidium Philippi, 1839 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Pacific coast of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Jarquín-González, Jani

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During the analysis of phytal meiobenthic samples collected from a rocky-sandy beach in the state of Nayarit, in the Mexican Pacific, several specimens of harpacticoid copepods were obtained and taxonomically examined. These specimens were found to represent an undescribed species of the peltidiid genus Peltidium Philippi, 1839. The new species, Peltidium nayarit sp. n. is described herein. It resembles Peltidium nichollsi Geddes and Peltidium lerneri Geddes from Bahamas but also the widespread Peltidium speciosum Thompson & Scott and Peltidium purpureum Philippi. The new species from the Mexican Pacific differs from its known congeners by its possession of a unique combination of characters, including a modified pectinate seta on the antennary exopod, three terminal setae on the second endopodal segment of leg 1, third exopodal segment of leg 1 with three elements, inner terminal claw twice as long as outer claw, female fifth leg with 5 exopodal setae, exopodal setae I-III stout, spinulose and seta IV being as long as seta V. This is the second species of the family known to be distributed in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in Mexico. Pending additional data, the distribution of this species appears to be restricted to this area of the Mexican Pacific. PMID:24003319

  10. Distance on FDI and Trade: The Roles of China and Mexico in the Pacific Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Yushi Yoshida; Hiro Ito

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the dynamics of the trilateral trade relationship among the U.S., Japan and an emerging economy in the Pacific Basin. Our particular attention is paid to two emerging countries; China and Mexico. In what we call the “triangular trade approach,” we explore how Japanese trade with and foreign direct investment to an emerging economy affect its exports to the US market. We apply the trilateral trade approach to eight Southeast Asian countries, four American continen...

  11. Asia-Pacific region's oil demand growth strains refining capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The rapidly industrializing Asia-Pacific region has become a stand-alone economic force and the world's growth market for oil. Japan remains the region's premier economic powerhouse but no longer its only one. And Asia-Pacific economic fortunes have decoupled from the more-mature economies of Europe and the U.S. The East-West Center, Honolulu, in January projected Asia-Pacific average oil demand growth of 3.6%/year through 1999, nearly double what most economists expect for oil demand growth worldwide. Demand reached 14.5 million b/d in 1992, up 862,000 b/d from 1991. East-West Center analysts project demand of 16.4 million b/d in 1995 and 19.1 million b/d by 2000. Not all analysts expect such rapid growth for the region. Edward N. Krapels, president of Energy Security Analysis Inc., Washington, D.C., told a seminar in Houston during March that demand in Southeast Asia will grow at an average of 500,000 b/d/year. The paper discusses economic strength; regional demand; the pressure on refining; the shortfall seen; an opposing view from the Energy Security Analysis; and construction activity

  12. RCA activities in the Asian and Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.

    1984-01-01

    So-called ''RCA'' activities - practical work undertaken within the framework of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology for the Asian and Pacific region - are widely regarded as an example of successful co-operative effort in the application of nuclear techniques at a regional level. Activities undertaken to promote the transfer of nuclear technology within the framework of the RCA cover a large spectrum of nuclear applications in agriculture and food production, medicine, study of the environment, industry, and physics. Fourteen projects are operational this year (1984)

  13. Contested Regional Orders and Institutional Balancing in the Asia Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai

    2015-01-01

    . On the basis of institutional balancing theory, I argue that (i) China’s rise has led to a competition among different regional orders, that is, the US-led bilateralism versus ASEAN-centered and China-supported multilateralism. However, conflicts or wars are not inevitable since the contested regional orders...... can coexist in the Asia Pacific. (ii) The deepening economic interdependence has encouraged regional powers, including the United States, China and ASEAN, to rely on different institutional balancing strategies to pursue security after the Cold War....

  14. Relevance of CBR for the Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Yuenwah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available While the focus of CBR action is at the community level, it is pertinent to note some of the Asia-Pacific region’s overall development trends. In an interconnected world, these trends have significant implications for the practice of CBR and its advancement in the region.This paper discusses how CBR could give impetus to a community-supported self-help movement for change. The paper presents seven prisms for akaleidoscopic view to highlight some parameters that are unique to the Asia-Pacific scenario for CBR. The relevance of CBR for this region is discussed in relation to two groups of issues: the first refers to chronic issues of poverty, hunger and inequalities; and the second, to dramatic emerging challenges, from urbanisation to the current economic scenario.

  15. Nuclear waste disposal: regional options for the Western Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, I.

    1985-01-01

    The disposal of nuclear waste is a complex environmental problem involving the technology of containing a radiation hazard and the political problem of finding an acceptable site for a hazardous waste facility. The focus of discussion here is the degree to which Western Pacific countries are committed to nuclear power as an energy source, and the political and economic interdependencies in the region which will influence waste disposal options

  16. Tectonic map of the Circum-Pacific region, Pacific basin sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibner, E.; Moore, G.W.; Drummond, K.J.; Dalziel, Corvalan Q.J.; Moritani, T.; Teraoka, Y.; Sato, T.; Craddock, C.

    2013-01-01

    Circum-Pacific Map Project: The Circum-Pacific Map Project was a cooperative international effort designed to show the relationship of known energy and mineral resources to the major geologic features of the Pacific basin and surrounding continental areas. Available geologic, mineral, and energy-resource data are being complemented by new, project-developed data sets such as magnetic lineations, seafloor mineral deposits, and seafloor sediment. Earth scientists representing some 180 organizations from more than 40 Pacific-region countries are involved in this work. Six overlapping equal-area regional maps at a scale of 1:10,000,000 form the cartographic base for the project: the four Circum-Pacific Quadrants (Northwest, Southwest, Southeast, and Northeast), and the Antarctic and Arctic Sheets. There is also a Pacific Basin Sheet at a scale of 1:17,000,000. The Base Map Series and the Geographic Series (published from 1977 to 1990), the Plate-Tectonic Series (published in 1981 and 1982), the Geodynamic Series (published in 1984 and 1985), and the Geologic Series (published from 1984 to 1989) all include six map sheets. Other thematic map series in preparation include Mineral-Resources, Energy-Resources and Tectonic Maps. Altogether, more than 50 map sheets are planned. The maps were prepared cooperatively by the Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey and are available from the Branch of Distribution, U. S. Geological Survey, Box 25286, Federal Center, Denver, Colorado 80225, U.S.A. The Circum-Pacific Map Project is organized under six panels of geoscientists representing national earth-science organizations, universities, and natural-resource companies. The six panels correspond to the basic map areas. Current panel chairmen are Tomoyuki Moritani (Northwest Quadrant), R. Wally Johnson (Southwest Quadrant), Ian W.D. Dalziel (Antarctic Region), vacant. (Southeast Quadrant), Kenneth J. Drummond (Northeast Quadrant), and

  17. Nuclear developments in the Asia and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillan, M.J.; Silver, J.M.

    1993-07-01

    Countries in this part of the world are engaged in many aspects of nuclear science and technology, often as part of a national development plan. A number of them are members of the Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology which was developed under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency to provide a basis for nuclear technical assistance and cooperation in the Asia and Pacific region. In contrast to North America and most of western Europe, where growth in installed nuclear generating capacity has ceased, a number of regional countries are planning, ordering and building new power reactors to meet their increasing demands for electricity. Major fuel cycle facilities, such as commercial enrichment and reprocessing plants in Japan, are also being developed. This report describes nuclear developments from power and research reactors to reprocessing facilities in countries of the Asia and Pacific region listed in alphabetical order. Power Reactor and Research Reactors programs in the region as well as lists of regional centres with irradiation facilities are presented in the appendixes The information was gathered from a range of sources, including relevant journals, publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency(NEA), and annual reports of national nuclear institutes. 1 tab., ill

  18. Seismic Regionalization of Michoacan, Mexico and Recurrence Periods for Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña García, N.; Figueroa-Soto, Á.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.; Zúñiga, R.

    2017-12-01

    Michoacán is one of the states with the highest occurrence of earthquakes in Mexico and it is a limit of convergence triggered by the subduction of Cocos plate over the North American plate, located in the zone of the Pacific Ocean of our country, in addition to the existence of active faults inside of the state like the Morelia-Acambay Fault System (MAFS).It is important to make a combination of seismic, paleosismological and geological studies to have good planning and development of urban complexes to mitigate disasters if destructive earthquakes appear. With statistical seismology it is possible to characterize the degree of seismic activity as well as to estimate the recurrence periods for earthquakes. For this work, seismicity catalog of Michoacán was compiled and homogenized in time and magnitude. This information was obtained from world and national agencies (SSN, CMT, etc), some data published by Mendoza and Martínez-López (2016) and starting from the seismic catalog homogenized by F. R. Zúñiga (Personal communication). From the analysis of the different focal mechanisms reported in the literature and geological studies, the seismic regionalization of the state of Michoacán complemented the one presented by Vázquez-Rosas (2012) and the recurrence periods for earthquakes within the four different seismotectonic regions. In addition, stable periods were determined for the b value of the Gutenberg-Richter (1944) using the Maximum Curvature and EMR (Entire Magnitude Range Method, 2005) techniques, which allowed us to determine recurrence periods: years for earthquakes upper to 7.5 for the subduction zone (A zone) with EMR technique and years with MAXC technique for the same years for earthquakes upper to 5 for B1 zone with EMR technique and years with MAXC technique; years for earthquakes upper to 7.0 for B2 zone with EMR technique and years with MAXC technique; and the last one, the Morelia-Acambay Fault Sistem zone (C zone) years for earthquakes

  19. Do regions outside the tropical Pacific influence ENSO through atmospheric teleconnections?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dayan, H.; Izumo, T.; Vialard, J.; Lengaigne, M.; Masson, S

    This paper aims at identifying oceanic regions outside the tropical Pacific, which may influence the El Ni�o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) through interannual modulation of equatorial Pacific winds An Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) 7...

  20. Mexico's four economies reflect regional differences, challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Canas, Jesus; Gutierrez, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The economic potential of Mexico’s four regions is defined by their industrial makeup, income per capita and how much of the labor force operates outside the formal economy. Recent government reforms could promote growth and reduce regional inequality.

  1. 75 FR 28564 - Fisheries of the Northeast Region; Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... overfishing or an overfished condition. SUMMARY: This action serves as a notice that NMFS, on behalf of the... to overfishing and are in an overfished condition. Also, in the Northeast Region, Southern New England/Mid-Atlantic windowpane is subject to overfishing and Georges Bank winter flounder is in an...

  2. Western Pacific Regional Green Light Committee: progress and way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Islam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Western Pacific Regional Green Light Committee (rGLC WPR was established in 2011 to promote the rational scale-up of programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (PMDT. We reflect on its achievements, consider the challenges faced, and explore its potential future role. Achievements include the supervision and support of national PMDT action plans, increased local ownership, contextualized guidance, and a strong focus on regional capacity building, as well as a greater awareness of regional challenges. Future rGLC activities should include (1 advocacy for high-level political commitment; (2 monitoring, evaluation, and supervision; (3 technical support and contextualized guidance; and (4 training, capacity building, and operational research. Regional activities require close collaboration with both national and global efforts, and should be an important component of the new Global Drug-resistant TB Initiative.

  3. Asia-Pacific Regional Economic Integration: Coopetition vs. Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YuJane Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the era of economic globalization, promoting regional trade agreements or regional cooperation has become a plausible strategy to attract foreign direct investment and to promote national competitiveness at a global level. Nonetheless, facing the differential national economic interests and the needs of protection of domestic industries, as well as the diverse levels of economic liberalization domestically, the involvement of FTA negotiation in every country is universally in the situation of struggling between securing economic sovereignty and national economic development. Countries in the Asia-Pacific region are in the same situation. This article analyzes how countries balance between securing economic sovereignty and promoting national economic development when they are involved in TPP and RCEP negotiations. By confirming the appropriate linkage between each participating countries’ decision for balancing between domestic economic sovereignty and further integrating into regional economic cooperation institutions the validity of the proposition for this research project can be verified.

  4. Geology of the border region between Coahuila and Zacatecas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vloten, van Roger

    1954-01-01

    The border region between Coahuila and Zacatecas is part of the mountainous country south of Parras in northeastern Mexico. It includes a thickness of about 2,600 meters of Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks that were deposited along the northern border of the Mexican geosyncline along the southern

  5. The Asia-Pacific: A Region in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    after drawn-out discussions to do with the positions of such eminences as Le Duc Tho and Truong Chinh following the death of old-guard leader Le Duan in...in regional social capital as shown in interstate and trans -state relationships. The Indo-Pakistani rivalry has been at the center of the depletion...dialogues will mean for the region’s existing ‘alphabet soup’ of trans -Pacific institutions. This means not only APEC and the ARF but also ASEAN

  6. Thermoluminescence dating in the South-West Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The archaeometry laboratory of the University of Adelaide has undertaken a variety of dating projects for archaeologists in the region. For example, a survey of Pacific Island pottery has shown that themoluminescence dating is likely to be severely limited in usefulness on islands remote from the continental shelf i.e., the andesitic island arcs and oceanic islands. On the mainland of Australia, we have dated prehistoric campsites using ovenstones from fireplaces and have compared C-14 ages with themoluminescent ages. Where there is a close stratigraphic association of the C-14 and TL materials, there is good agreement between the two methods. (author)

  7. United States - Japanese nuclear relations: implications for the pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suttmeier, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    The initiation of a new approach to non-proliferation policy by the United States in 1977 was the most upsetting development in the history of US-Japanese nuclear relations. The policy has seemingly altered Japanese views of its own nuclear future very little, yet it has altered the tone of the nuclear relationship with the United States. Recent Japanese nuclear power developments, both technical and administrative, are outlined and the prospects for the future of the United States-Japanese nuclear relationship and for Pacific regional cooperation assessed. Issues of importance in the relationship include reprocessing - enrichment, plutonium management, spent fuel and waste management and uranium supplies

  8. Epidemiology of Dyslipidemia in the Asia Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Feng Lin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Dyslipidemia, including high levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, is a major risk factor of atherosclerosis that leads to various cardiovascular diseases. This article compares the epidemiology of dyslipidemia among countries of the Asia Pacific region, including Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, Thailand, and Taiwan, based on public-accessible data from websites. Sources of lipid management guidelines of the countries are also summarized. Before comparing the data from each of the countries, the readers should pay attention to the impact of lipid testing methods, medication use, the year of data acquisition, the age range of the examinees, and the definition of dyslipidemia in each country. Apart from the mentioned factors that may affect the epidemiology data, some of the countries have unique features. For example, substantial ethnic differences existed in Indonesia and Malaysia; whereas the reports from China and Thailand exhibited significant regional variations. However, a common feature is that the levels of serum lipids change with age, and men and women may have quite different levels of serum lipids even of the same age range. Nevertheless, there is a lot of room for improvement in the awareness, treatment, and control rate of dyslipidemia. To reduce the prevalence of dyslipidemia and promote cardiovascular health, the epidemiological surveys of dyslipidemia and implementation of management guidelines according to their own national conditions are encouraged. Keywords: Asia Pacific region, dyslipidemia, epidemiology

  9. Comparative Resilience in Five North Pacific Regional Salmon Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xanthippe Augerot

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past century, regional fisheries for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. have been managed primarily for their provisioning function, not for ecological support and cultural significance. We examine the resilience of the regional salmon fisheries of Japan, the Russian Far East, Alaska, British Columbia, and Washington-Oregon-California (WOC in terms of their provisioning function. Using the three dimensions of the adaptive cycle - capital, connectedness, and resilience - we infer the resilience of the five fisheries based on a qualitative assessment of capital accumulation and connectedness at the regional scale. In our assessment, we evaluate natural capital and connectedness and constructed capital and connectedness. The Russian Far East fishery is the most resilient, followed by Alaska, British Columbia, Japan, and WOC. Adaptive capacity in the fisheries is contingent upon high levels of natural capital and connectedness and moderate levels of constructed capital and connectedness. Cross-scale interactions and global market demand are significant factors in reduced resilience. Greater attention to ecological functioning and cultural signification has the potential to increase resilience in Pacific salmon ecosystems.

  10. Estimating evapotranspiration in the central mountain region of Veracruz, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ballinas, Mónica; Esperón-Rodríguez, Manuel; Barradas, Víctor L

    2015-01-01

    The global, regional and local hydrological cycle is strongly linked to vegetation distribution. The hydrological cycle is composed by precipitation, infiltration, runoff, transpiration and evaporation. Evaporation is influenced by high temperatures, high winds and low relative humidity. This work is focused on the study of evapotranspiration (ET) as the main variable of water loss in the water balance in the central mountain region of Veracruz, Mexico. ET was estimated using the Penman-Monte...

  11. [Anthropoentomophagic biodiversity of the Zongolica region, Veracruz, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Landero-Torres, Ivonne; Murguía-González, Joaquín; Pino, José M M

    2008-03-01

    Anthropoentomophagic biodiversity of the Zongolica region, Veracruz, Mexico. During two and a half years (2003-2005) we recorded the insect species used as food at Zongolica, Veracruz State, Mexico. Interviews were made among people (200) of this municipality to know which insects they consumed. The total of registered species was 57 (Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera, Megaloptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera). The Orthoptera was the most frequently ingested. Twenty-four of these species were new records for edible insects of Mexico. They are eaten in immature stages or as adults, generally only roasted. Consumption is seasonal. Some species are commercialized in the "tianguis" (little town markets) and/or in the larger Zongolica market. There is a "protoculture" of three species, one cockroach (Periplaneta australasiae Fabricius) and two moths (Latebraria amphipyroides Guenée and Arsenura armida armida Cramer). In Zongolica, anthropoentomophagy is an ancestral habit.

  12. Notes on the origin of extensive endorheic regions in central and northern Mexico, and some implications for paleozoogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-Gómez, José Jorge; Carranza-Castañeda, Oscar; Wang, Xiaoming; Tseng, Z. Jack; Pacheco-Castro, Adolfo

    2018-04-01

    The recent discovery of a fossil of Enhydritherium terraenovae in upper Miocene fluvial deposits in Juchipila (Mexico), nearly 200 km away from the nearest coast, together with other known occurrences of the same species in Florida and California, made possible to envision an alternative to the Panamanian and Polar routes of migration through fluvial systems in Mexico. In order to cross from one ocean to the other, individuals of E. terraenovae must have passed the continental divide, which is a physiographic feature that separates surface waters that flow into the Atlantic and Pacific versants. Two vast endorheic regions, which together span more than 400,000 km2 in area, currently dominate drainage systems in northern and central Mexico. The endorheic regions are broadly bounded by two mountain ranges and coincide with the arid and semi-arid regions of the Chihuahuan desert. These closed basins are an additional obstacle for migration. However, drainage systems are constantly varying and adjusting to changing conditions imposed by climate, tectonic activity, volcanism, and pronounced asymmetries in topography and rainfall distribution. The migration route across Mexico for Enhydritherium terraenovae in the late Miocene (≥6 Ma) could have been facilitated by one or more river captures that inverted the flow direction near the headwaters of a drainage system that debouched either into the Gulf of Mexico or the Pacific coast. Biologists studying fresh water fish faunas in the southern part of the United States and in northern and central Mexico have documented several living species that occur in both the Rio Grande and in the Mezquital rivers, two drainages that are not presently connected, drain in opposite directions (i.e. towards the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf of California, respectively) and are separated by the endorheic regions. Furthermore, systematic studies of fresh water fish faunas in the region has numerous examples of endemicity and allopatric

  13. Solar energy support in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avril, Sophie; Mansilla, Christine; Lemaire, Thibault

    2012-01-01

    The transition to a sustainable energy system now seems to be inevitable. The role of renewable energy sources in this mutation will be crucial. Amongst these, photovoltaic electricity has recently grown due to strong national policy support. Indeed, it appears as a good solution to substitute conventional fossil fuel, especially in the Asia Pacific region where reducing greenhouse gas emissions is a real challenge. This paper aims to review public support for photovoltaic energy by focusing on the policies of three emblematic developed countries of the Asia Pacific region: Australia, Japan and Korea. The efficiency of these different policies is assessed by comparing their estimated total costs. These costs can have different origins: market incentives, demonstration programs and subsidies for research and development (R and D). The public investment was compared with installed capacities in order to evaluate the efficiency of the energy strategy. The point made by this study is that a well-planned policy limiting unwanted side effects should be preferred. Even if expensive in the short term, innovative technologies are beneficial in the longer term, and thus R and D subsidies should be maintained. (authors)

  14. Russia's economic prospects in the Asia Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Fortescue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia has declared a priority interest in developing a strong economic relationship with the Asia Pacific Region. There has been considerable internal debate over the best strategic approach to such a relationship. While a policy victory has been won by a strategy focusing on the export into the region of manufactured goods and services, a resource-export strategy is still dominant in practice and funding. Here the prospects of each strategy are assessed. Regarding resource exports, hydrocarbons, copper and iron ore prospects are reviewed, but most detail is provided on the coal sector. That involves an account of infrastructure issues, including a major debate over the expansion of the BAM and TransSiberian railways. The analysis suggests that Russia will struggle both to revitalise the Russian Far East through manufacturing exports to the APR and to replace revenues earned through resource exports to the West through an economic ‘turn to the East’.

  15. Coordination of nuclear developments in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, H.; An, S.

    1984-01-01

    Healthy, coordinated development of nuclear energy in the Asia-Pacific region requires the securing of human resources. This is an important component of development and should be well designed in advance, notwithstanding the fact that each country and area has its own unique system for nuclear research, education, and training. Differences are even more pronounced where preparedness for nuclear abnormal occurrences are concerned, despite the international impact of such incidents. From this point of view, we examine the current situation in international education and training of nuclear specialists, encompassing nuclear education and training systems, IAEA efforts, bilateral and multilateral transregional cooperation, and matters relating to national and transnational preparedness for nuclear abnormal occurrences. We present a proposal to create a regional center that would establish cooperation in nuclear research, education, training, and preparedness for abnormal occurrences. (author)

  16. Research reactor collaboration in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Byung Jin

    2006-01-01

    The number of research reactors over the world has been decreasing since its peak in the middle of the 1970s, and it is predicted to decrease more rapidly than before in the future. International collaboration on research reactors is an effective way for their continued safe service to human welfare in various technical areas. The number of new research reactors under construction or planned for in the Asia-Pacific region is the greatest in the world. Among the regional collaboration activities on research reactors, safety has been the most important subject followed by neutron activation analysis, radioisotope production and neutron beam applications. It is understood that more regional collaboration on basic technologies important for the safety, management and utilization of the research reactors is demanding. The new project proposal of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia on 'Research Reactor Technology for Effective Utilization' is understood to meet the demands. Meanwhile, there is a consensus on the need for research reactor resource sharing in the region. As a result of the review on the international collaboration activities in the region, the author suggests a linkage between the above new project and IAEA/RCA project considering a possible sharing of research reactor resources in the region. (author)

  17. Microplastics in tourist beaches of Huatulco Bay, Pacific coast of southern Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retama, I.; Jonathan, M.P.; Shruti, V.C.; Velumani, S.; Sarkar, S.K.; Roy, Priyadarsi D.

    2016-01-01

    The presence and impacts of plastic marine debris (PMD) have been documented in the oceans worldwide, and they deserve special attention. This study is the first to report the presence of microplastics in tourist beaches located in Huatulco Bay, southern Mexico. A total of 70 beach sediment samples (for 2 distinct seasons) were collected from Huatulco Bay in April 2013 and December 2014. The samples were subsequently extracted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to identify the fibrous microplastics (diameter < 5 mm). The maximum number of fibrous materials was found in April 2013 and December 2014 in the Rincón Sabroso beach (48/30 g sediment) and the Cuatunalco beach (69/30 g sediment), respectively. Overall, a high amount of microplastics is present in the Conejos, Tangolunda, Santa Cruz, and San Agustin beaches. The microplastics are mainly derived from tourism-based activities and effluents discharged from the hotels and restaurants located along the beaches. - Highlights: • Microplastics were found in the coastal sediments, Pacific coast, Mexico. • Use of plastic materials by tourists and local municipal effluents • High density of microplastics reported based on density of tourist presence. • Risk to the food web structure and the health hazard for humans

  18. Mexico: a regional power or a failed State?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Derwich

    2015-10-01

    Caribbean region for many years. This opinion has strong foundations. Territory, geographical location, economy, and political influence are the key factors that predestine this country to the role of a regional power. The democratic transition that has taken place in Mexico in last decades and economic cooperation with the United States also allow it to play a role of regional leader. However, Mexico has significant problems that make it difficult for the country to play the role of a real leader. The most important one is the development of narcobusiness. This phenomenon brings not only the growing activity of drug cartels but also the eruption of narcoviolence in Mexico. This gives rise to grave problems for the Mexican authorities. The development of narcobusiness is partially the result of weakness of some of its institutions. For example, police forces do not carry out their tasks and are closely related to the drug cartels. As a result, the Mexican state is incapable of assuring security to its citizens – one of the most important functions of every state. Is it able to control its territory? It definitely does not have a monopoly for the use of violence on its territory. Huge corruption enables different non-state actors to influence decision making processes. All these problems make substantiated theses that the Mexican state is dysfunctional in some areas. Some analysts go much further in their opinions and describe Mexico as a failed state. The aim of the paper is to analyze the present position of Mexico in Latin America and the Caribbean region. Are the contemporary problems so big that they can lead to the collapse of the Mexican state or does Mexico have a real potential to play the role of a local leader and regional power? The author would like to analyze the impact of the present day internal problems in Mexico’s geopolitical position.

  19. 210Pb geochronology and trace metal fluxes (Cd, Cu and Pb) in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, South Pacific of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Fernandez, Ana Carolina; Paez-Osuna, Federico; Machain-Castillo, Maria Luisa; Arellano-Torres, Elsa

    2004-01-01

    Distributions of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn and Pb were analyzed in a sediment core collected in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, an important fisheries region located in the South Pacific of Mexico, where data on metal accumulation and accretion rates were previously almost nonexistent. Depth profiles of metal concentrations were converted to time-based profiles by using a 210 Pb-derived vertical accretion rate, estimated to be 0.05 cm year -1 on the average. Sediments were dated up to 8 cm depth, corresponding to a layer of ca. 140 years old. The historical changes of metal accumulation along the sediment core have shown a moderate enrichment of Cd, Cu and Pb concentrations at present, of about threefold the corresponding background concentrations. Chronological trace metal records showed that metal fluxes have increased over the last 20 years, reaching the maximum values at present of 2.5, 22.5 and 45.8 (μg cm -2 year -1 ) for Cd, Pb and Cu, respectively. These increments in metal fluxes are likely influenced by the development of anthropogenic land-based activities since over this period of time oil production activities in the region have had a significant development

  20. Energy options and regional cooperation on nuclear energy in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jae In

    1986-10-01

    This paper reviews the extensive forms of Asia-Pacific regional cooperation in nuclear power to develop and provide economical and reliable energy supply for sound economical growths of developing countries in this region, which has seen rapid growth of energy consumption more than anywhere else in recent years. Nuclear power has received keen attention from DCs because it can provide a self-reliable energy supply and promote development of high technology in the associated engineering and manufacturing industries locally. However, due to the particular characteristics in nuclear power technology, a close cooperation is required between the seller(industrialized) and buyer(developing) countries. The Asia-Pacific regional cooperation in nuclear power is a step toward providing mutual benefits to the countries involved in this region, and this paper explores potential ways in formulating basic and systematic approaches and areas of full scope cooperation. (author)

  1. Tissue banking in the Asia Pacific region - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasim Mohamad

    1999-01-01

    Tissue banking is a relative new entity in the Asia-Pacific region. Sporadic cases of tissue transplantation were reported in the early sixties whereby corneas mainly from Sri Lanka were airflown to ophthalmic surgeons in this region. Till today Sri Lanka has been playing a key role in supplying corneas and other tissues throughout the globe. Similar cases of allograft bone transplantation were reported from Myanmar during that period. However it was not until early eighties when a group of scientist medical doctors from various countries in this region met in Colombo under IAEA to discuss the possibilities of developing tissue banks in their respective countries. This development had been very slow and until today only about fourteen countries are directly involved. Due to the lack of financial support both from the authorities or non-government organizations most of the tissue banks survived by research grants from universities, the government research and development grants or grants from private bodies which are hard to come by and are usually inadequate to sustain or to maintain the banks. Most of our tissue banks started small by involving in amniotic membrane processing for use in bum patients in their initial stage of development. These are true for countries like China, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Indonesia where amniotic membranes are easily available and the processing cost is cheap. The availability of cobalt source for radiation of these tissues is also an important factor. Some of these banks until today still focussed on these areas whereas others had rapidly progress into production of other tissue such as bones, heart valves, allograft skin, and xenograft bones. Richer counties in the Pacific rim, where financing is not a major problem, the progress of their banks depends greatly on the demands of tissue by the clinicians and the availability of raw materials and tissue bank facilities. At the moment due to the lack of donors the raw

  2. The nuclear power industry in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the nuclear reactor industry in the Pacific Basin began in the United States and Canada and spread to Japan and, more recently, to South Korea and Taiwan. The American and Canadian industries face serious economic and political difficulties; indeed, their current plight is so severe that their survival no longer seems assured. Because of the key regional role played up to now by the North American industries, and by the U.S. industry in particular, the realization of this scenario would have important repercussions for nuclear trade and investment throughout the region. In the longer run some basic structural changes would seem likely, with the focal point of industrial strength and technological leadership in the region shifting to Northeast Asia, and to Japan in particular. Already there is evidence of this shift. But the prospect of a smooth, gradual transition toward a new regional industrial structure centered on Japan may be misleading. What is missing from this picture is a full measure of the extent to which nuclear industrial development elsewhere in the region is positively correlated with the trend in the United States. (author)

  3. Regional security in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Amba

    2002-01-01

    Ever since the weapons of mass destruction have become an international currency of power, the efforts for their control and elimination have also developed simultaneously, as an important stream in international politics. Countries all over the globe have strived to evolve various devices to ensure security against these weapons at international, regional as well as national levels. One such regional effort for nuclear arms control is the creation of nuclear-free zone. The nuclear free zones present a potentially effective option to supplement the global nuclear disarmament regime. This is an endeavour towards crisis management, reducing the threat perception, common security and confidence building. In addition, they help in creating a regional security order by developing a code of conduct which binds external actors as well as the regional countries. They are meant to reduce if not eliminate the likelihood of a region getting involved into the war of mass destruction. It is in this context the cases of Southeast Asia and the South Pacific nuclear-free zones have been discussed in this book

  4. Sustainability and Security: Timber Certification in Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Ivanova

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of sustainable development initiatives since the 1990’s reflected an emphasis on integrated solutions to economic development, socio-political stability and environmental health in the global community. In the same context the traditional concept of security needed to be open in two directions. First, the notion of security should no longer be applied only to the military realm, but also to the economic, the societal, the environmental, and the political fields. Second, the referent object of the “security” should not be conceptualized solely in terms of the state, but should embrace the individual below the state, and the international system above it. The forests industry timber certification in Asia-Pacific region has been selected as a case study because it is an excellent example to illustrate the links between the sustainable development and the environmental security, including also certain elements of economic security. This article is presenting a critical overview of the forest industry and the status of timber certification globally, with an emphasis on Asia – Pacific countries applying the Systemic Thinking approach. In conclusion, an outlook is presented concerning the future of timber certification and possible impacts on security and sustainable development.

  5. Characteristics of regional aerosols: Southern Arizona and eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Gouri

    Atmospheric aerosols impact the quality of our life in many direct and indirect ways. Inhalation of aerosols can have harmful effects on human health. Aerosols also have climatic impacts by absorbing or scattering solar radiation, or more indirectly through their interactions with clouds. Despite a better understanding of several relevant aerosol properties and processes in the past years, they remain the largest uncertainty in the estimate of global radiative forcing. The uncertainties arise because although aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere they are highly variable in space, time and their physicochemical properties. This makes in-situ measurements of aerosols vital in our effort towards reducing uncertainties in the estimate of global radiative forcing due to aerosols. This study is an effort to characterize atmospheric aerosols at a regional scale, in southern Arizona and eastern Pacific Ocean, based on ground and airborne observations of aerosols. Metals and metalloids in particles with aerodynamic diameter (Dp) smaller than 2.5 μm are found to be ubiquitous in southern Arizona. The major sources of the elements considered in the study are identified to be crustal dust, smelting/mining activities and fuel combustion. The spatial and temporal variability in the mass concentrations of these elements depend both on the source strength and meteorological conditions. Aircraft measurements of aerosol and cloud properties collected during various field campaigns over the eastern Pacific Ocean are used to study the sources of nitrate in stratocumulus cloud water and the relevant processes. The major sources of nitrate in cloud water in the region are emissions from ships and wildfires. Different pathways for nitrate to enter cloud water and the role of meteorology in these processes are examined. Observations of microphysical properties of ambient aerosols in ship plumes are examined. The study shows that there is an enhancement in the number

  6. An Indo-Pacific damselfish (Neopomacentrus cyanomos in the Gulf of Mexico: origin and mode of introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ross Robertson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Indo-West Pacific (IWP coral-reef damselfish Neopomacentrus cyanomos is well established across the south-west Gulf of Mexico (SwGoMx. Comparisons of mtDNA sequences of the SwGoMx population with those from conspecifics from 16 sites scattered across its native geographic range show that the SwGoMx population is derived from two of four native lineages: one from the north-west Pacific Ocean, the other from the northern Indian Ocean. Three hypotheses address how this species was introduced to the SwGoMX: (1 aquarium release; (2 borne by cargo-ship; and (3 carried by offshore petroleum platform (petro-platform. The first is unlikely because this species rarely features in the aquarium trade, and “N. cyanomos” traded to the USA from the sole IWP source we are aware of are a misidentified congener, N. taeniurus. The second hypothesis is unlikely because shipping has not been associated with the introduction of alien damselfishes, there is little international shipping between the IWP and the SwGoMx, and voyages between those areas would be lengthy and along environmentally unfavorable routes. Various lines of evidence support the third hypothesis: (i bio-fouled petro-platforms represent artificial reefs that can sustain large and diverse populations of tropical reef-fishes, including N. cyanomos in the SwGoMx; (ii relocation of such platforms has been implicated in trans-oceanic introductions leading to establishment of non-native populations of such fishes; and (iii genetic characteristics of the SwGoMx population indicate that it was established by a large and diverse group of founders drawn from the IWP regions where many petro-platforms currently in the SwGoMx and other Atlantic offshore oilfields originated.

  7. An Indo-Pacific damselfish (Neopomacentrus cyanomos) in the Gulf of Mexico: origin and mode of introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, D Ross; Dominguez-Dominguez, Omar; Victor, Benjamin; Simoes, Nuno

    2018-01-01

    The Indo-West Pacific (IWP) coral-reef damselfish Neopomacentrus cyanomos is well established across the south-west Gulf of Mexico (SwGoMx). Comparisons of mtDNA sequences of the SwGoMx population with those from conspecifics from 16 sites scattered across its native geographic range show that the SwGoMx population is derived from two of four native lineages: one from the north-west Pacific Ocean, the other from the northern Indian Ocean. Three hypotheses address how this species was introduced to the SwGoMX: (1) aquarium release; (2) borne by cargo-ship; and (3) carried by offshore petroleum platform (petro-platform). The first is unlikely because this species rarely features in the aquarium trade, and " N. cyanomos " traded to the USA from the sole IWP source we are aware of are a misidentified congener, N. taeniurus . The second hypothesis is unlikely because shipping has not been associated with the introduction of alien damselfishes, there is little international shipping between the IWP and the SwGoMx, and voyages between those areas would be lengthy and along environmentally unfavorable routes. Various lines of evidence support the third hypothesis: (i) bio-fouled petro-platforms represent artificial reefs that can sustain large and diverse populations of tropical reef-fishes, including N. cyanomos in the SwGoMx; (ii) relocation of such platforms has been implicated in trans-oceanic introductions leading to establishment of non-native populations of such fishes; and (iii) genetic characteristics of the SwGoMx population indicate that it was established by a large and diverse group of founders drawn from the IWP regions where many petro-platforms currently in the SwGoMx and other Atlantic offshore oilfields originated.

  8. An Indo-Pacific damselfish (Neopomacentrus cyanomos) in the Gulf of Mexico: origin and mode of introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Dominguez, Omar; Victor, Benjamin; Simoes, Nuno

    2018-01-01

    The Indo-West Pacific (IWP) coral-reef damselfish Neopomacentrus cyanomos is well established across the south-west Gulf of Mexico (SwGoMx). Comparisons of mtDNA sequences of the SwGoMx population with those from conspecifics from 16 sites scattered across its native geographic range show that the SwGoMx population is derived from two of four native lineages: one from the north-west Pacific Ocean, the other from the northern Indian Ocean. Three hypotheses address how this species was introduced to the SwGoMX: (1) aquarium release; (2) borne by cargo-ship; and (3) carried by offshore petroleum platform (petro-platform). The first is unlikely because this species rarely features in the aquarium trade, and “N. cyanomos” traded to the USA from the sole IWP source we are aware of are a misidentified congener, N. taeniurus. The second hypothesis is unlikely because shipping has not been associated with the introduction of alien damselfishes, there is little international shipping between the IWP and the SwGoMx, and voyages between those areas would be lengthy and along environmentally unfavorable routes. Various lines of evidence support the third hypothesis: (i) bio-fouled petro-platforms represent artificial reefs that can sustain large and diverse populations of tropical reef-fishes, including N. cyanomos in the SwGoMx; (ii) relocation of such platforms has been implicated in trans-oceanic introductions leading to establishment of non-native populations of such fishes; and (iii) genetic characteristics of the SwGoMx population indicate that it was established by a large and diverse group of founders drawn from the IWP regions where many petro-platforms currently in the SwGoMx and other Atlantic offshore oilfields originated. PMID:29441235

  9. PACIFIC NORTHWEST REGIONAL COLLABORATORY ANNUAL REPORT FOR SYNERGY VII (2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagestad, Jerry D.; Bolte, John; Guzy, Michael; Woodruff, Dana L.; Humes, Karen; Walden, Von; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Glenn, Nancy; Ames, Dan; Rope, Ronald; Martin, David; Sandgathe, Scott

    2008-04-01

    During this final year of the Pacific Northwest Regional Collaboratory we focused significantly on continuing the relationship between technical teams and government end-users. The main theme of the year was integration. This took the form of data integration via our web portal and integration of our technologies with the end users. The PNWRC's technical portfolio is based on EOS strategies, and focuses on 'applications of national priority: water management, invasive species, coastal management and ecological forecasting.' The products of our technical approaches have been well received by the community of focused end-users. The objective this year was to broaden that community and develop external support to continue and operationalize product development.

  10. Why is Coastal Community Resilience Important in the Gulf of Mexico Region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gulf of Mexico Program supports the regional collaborative approach and efforts of the Coastal Community Resilience Priority Issue Team of the Gulf of Mexico Governors’ Alliance and its broad spectrum of partners and stakeholders.

  11. Preserving food in Asia and the Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-15

    At this time of increasing world population there is greater need than ever before to produce more food, especially in developing countries which have the fastest growth of population. Equally important, but often overlooked by most authorities, is the need to preserve food after harvest so that losses are reduced, more food is available, and the investment and energy employed in food production is effectively used. One method of reducing losses is to use ionizing energy in the form of gamma rays, electron, or X-rays to prevent food from spoiling because of micro-organisms, insect pests or physiological factors. This method can treat food in the final package without significantly altering its physico-chemical characteristics. The technique has been much studied in many countries over the past three decades. As most countries in the Asian and Pacific region are in tropical zones which make food especially vulnerable to spoilage losses this technique has received wide attention from food and nuclear scientists. In 1979, the Agency and the Government of Japan sponsored a special mission to evaluate the state of the art of this technology in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It was evident from the mission's report that most of these countries not only have active research and development programmes in the use of ionizing energy for food preservation but also are anxious to develop their programmes to reach practical application. Moreover, most countries in Asia and the Pacific have a common interest in using this technology to preserve fishery products, tropical fruits, onions, and spices. Consequently, the Government of Japan agreed to sponsor a research programme in this field as one of the Co-ordinated Research Programmes of the Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development. Started in 1980, the project will last for three years

  12. Preserving food in Asia and the Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    At this time of increasing world population there is greater need than ever before to produce more food, especially in developing countries which have the fastest growth of population. Equally important, but often overlooked by most authorities, is the need to preserve food after harvest so that losses are reduced, more food is available, and the investment and energy employed in food production is effectively used. One method of reducing losses is to use ionizing energy in the form of gamma rays, electron, or X-rays to prevent food from spoiling because of micro-organisms, insect pests or physiological factors. This method can treat food in the final package without significantly altering its physico-chemical characteristics. The technique has been much studied in many countries over the past three decades. As most countries in the Asian and Pacific region are in tropical zones which make food especially vulnerable to spoilage losses this technique has received wide attention from food and nuclear scientists. In 1979, the Agency and the Government of Japan sponsored a special mission to evaluate the state of the art of this technology in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It was evident from the mission's report that most of these countries not only have active research and development programmes in the use of ionizing energy for food preservation but also are anxious to develop their programmes to reach practical application. Moreover, most countries in Asia and the Pacific have a common interest in using this technology to preserve fishery products, tropical fruits, onions, and spices. Consequently, the Government of Japan agreed to sponsor a research programme in this field as one of the Co-ordinated Research Programmes of the Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development. Started in 1980, the project will last for three years

  13. Cloud-to-ground lightning over Mexico and adjacent oceanic regions. A preliminary climatology using the WWLLN dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucienska, B.; Raga, G.B. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera; Rodriguez, O. [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    This work constitutes the first climatological study of lightning over Mexico and adjacent oceanic areas for the period 2005-2009. Spatial and temporal distributions of cloud to ground lightning are presented and the processes that contribute to the lightning variability are analysed. The data are retrieved from theWorldWide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) dataset. The current WWLL network includes 40 stations which cover much of the globe and detect very low frequency radiation (''spherics'') associated with lightning. The spatial distribution of the average yearly lightning over the continental region of Mexico shows the influence of orographic forcing in producing convective clouds with high lightning activity. However, a very high number of strikes is also observed in the States of Tabasco and Campeche, which are low-lying areas. This maximum is related to the climatological maximum of precipitation for the country and it may be associated with a region of persistent low-level convergence and convection in the southern portion of the Gulf of Mexico. The maps of correlation between rainfall and lightning provide insight into the microphysical processes occurring within the clouds. The maritime clouds close to the coastline exhibit similar properties to continental clouds as they produce very high lightning activity. The seasonal cycle of lightning registered by WWLLN is consistent with the LIS/OTD dataset for the selected regions. In terms of the annual distribution of cloud-to-ground strikes, July, August and September exhibit the highest number of strikes over continental Mexico. The diurnal cycle indicates that the maximum number of strikes over the continent is observed between 6 and 9 p.m. LT. The surrounding oceanic regions were subdivided into four distinct sectors: Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, Subtropical Pacific and Tropical Pacific. The Gulf of Mexico has the broadest seasonal distribution, since during winter lightning associated

  14. 77 FR 12567 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems Logbook and Reporting AGENCY... with, or any U.S. citizen issued with, a Special Coral Reef Ecosystem Fishing Permit (authorized under the Fishery Management Plan for Coral Reef Ecosystems of the Western Pacific Region), to complete...

  15. Sustainability in Business Education in the Asia Pacific Region: A Snapshot of the Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Malik; Neal, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide information about the extent to which sustainability is integrated into business school education and learning in the Asia Pacific region. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was developed, and administered to business schools in the Asia Pacific region. In addition to measuring the number of…

  16. Chemical composition of marine sediments in the Pacific Ocean from Sinaloa to Jalisco, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Ramos, A.; Navarrete, M.; Mulller, G.

    2014-01-01

    Marine sediments from Mexico's West coast in the Pacific Ocean from Sinaloa to Jalisco were analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. Ten sediment samples were collected in May, 2010 between 55.5 and 1264 m water depth with a Reinneck type box nucleate sampler. Sediments were dried and fractioned by granulometry. Their physical and chemical properties were determined in laboratory by standard methods, pH, and conductivity. Concentration and distribution of K, Ca, Ti Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ga, Pb, Br and Sr were analyzed. In order to determine the status of the elements, enrichment factors were calculated. Total, organic carbon and CaCO 3 were also determined. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction show predominant groups of compounds. As quality-control method, Certified Reference Material was both processed and analyzed at even conditions. Enrichment factors for K, Ca, Ti, Mn Fe, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ni, and Sr show they are conservative elements having concentrations in the range of unpolluted sites giving a base data line for the sampling zone In spite of moderately enrichment factors -1 ) and enrichment factor show the influence of anthropogenic sources with values between lowest effect level and a third part of 250 μg g -1 value, which is considered to have severe effect levels for aquatic life. (author)

  17. The Ecological Impacts of Marine Plastic Debris in the South Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Chowra, Isabella

    2013-01-01

    The population in the Pacific Islands region is vastly dependant on their oceanic resources, for food, protection and economic income. Today the Pacific Ocean faces many threats that could risk the living hood of its population. This study aims to map the extent of plastic pollution in the South Pacific and possible measurements against it. The study will also be focused on plastic shopping bags and try to assess the most environmentally friendly option. This will be achieved by literature re...

  18. LNG (liquefied natural gas) in the Asia-Pacific region: Twenty years of trade and outlook for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiani, B.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: the current status of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region; present structure and projected demand in the Asia-Pacific region; prospective and tentative projects; and LNG contracts: stability versus flexibility.

  19. Booming Asia-Pacific oil trade spawns regional storage projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that surging oil trade in the Asia-Pacific region is spawning a number of big petroleum storage projects there. Among the biggest are those in Indonesia and Singapore. A group led by Singapore's Sembawang Group plans to build a $272 million (Singapore) oil storage terminal on Karimun Island in Riau province, Indonesia. Other participants include Kuo International, Hong Kong, and likely companies from Japan, Europe, and the U.S. According to press reports from Jakarta and Singapore, Van Ommeren Terminals of Netherlands was also reportedly involved in negotiations on the projects. A joint venture agreement was expected to be signed by the third quarter. Plans call for building a terminal with a capacity of 1.5 million cu m on the island, where Sembawang has a 100 year lease. Ultimately, Sembawang and Indonesian company Bangun Cipta want to develop the site as an industrial city with petrochemical plants, engineering and manufacturing industries, and shipyards. Semabawang Project Engineering recently completed a feasibility study of the Karimun storage project

  20. Cost of asthma in the Asia-Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. W. Lai

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The substantial morbidity caused by asthma suggests that the disease is associated with a large economic burden. The current study analysed the burden of asthma in eight countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Responses to questions regarding resource use from a survey of people with asthma were analysed. Unit costs were obtained for each resource use element. Individual patient costs were estimated and means calculated for each country. A multivariate model was developed to identify potential predictors of resource use. Annual per-patient direct costs ranged from US$108 for Malaysia to US$1,010 for Hong Kong. When productivity costs were included, total per-patient societal costs ranged from US$184 in Vietnam to US$1,189 in Hong Kong. Urgent care costs were responsible for 18–90% of total per-patient direct costs. Overall, total per-patient direct costs were equivalent to 13% of per capita gross domestic product and 300% of per capita healthcare spending. Extremes of age, greater severity of asthma, and poorer general health status were predictive of high cost. The per-patient cost of asthma in these countries is high, particularly when seen in the context of overall per-patient healthcare spending. Strategies to improve asthma control are likely to not only improve patient outcomes, but also to decrease societal costs.

  1. Out of the Blue: The Pacific Rim as a Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Santa-Cruz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1993, in advance of what was to be the first Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC leader’s summit, US president Bill Clinton gave a lecture at Waseda University in Japan. In his speech, Clinton called for the creation of a “community of the Pacific.” The idea of a Pacific community is neither Clinton’s nor the Democratic Party’s invention, however. In the previous decade Ronald Reagan had already used it, going even beyond later conceptualizations, by referring to the 21st century as the Pacific’s century. But Reagan's prophecy concerning the Great Ocean was not new back in the 1980s either. In 1900 then US Secretary of State John Hay wrote: “the Mediterranean is the ocean of the past, the Atlantic the ocean of the present and the Pacific is the ocean of the future.” In a more general manner, as Christopher Coker has observed, the notion of the “Century of the Pacific” is plausible because it is consistent with the idea, popularized by Hegel, that the spirit of civilization is moving toward that part of the globe. Thus, the century of the Pacific has become a kind of zeitgeist. In this paper I undertake a conceptual, historical, and theoretical journey through the “Pacific Rim” or “Asia-Pacific,” as it has been called more recently. Although I will question the utility of the term, I want to make clear that my purpose is only to undertake a critical survey of “the Pacific.” As in any trip, however, one needs a starting point. But, What is the starting point of the Pacific Rim, that geographic zone that has been compared to Pascal’s sphere: “with periphery indeterminable and a center that may be anywhere”?

  2. Training of tissue bank operators in Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz Nather

    1999-01-01

    To raise quality standards of Tissue Bank in Asia Pacific Region and to meet training needs of tissue bank operators. Singapore (NUH Tissue Bank) was officially appointed by IAEA on 18 September 1996 in Vienna to be the IAEA/NUS Regional Training Centre for RCA (Regional Co-operative Agreement). Member of States including Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Sri Lanka and Vietnam. The Singapore Ministry of Environment gave a grant of $225,500 for setting up of this centre with National Science and Technology Board as funding agency, $100,000 being allocated for production of IAEA Developed Curriculum into Multi-Media. (authors being National Project Co-ordinators, Directors of Tissue Banks in the region). The Modules included Guide to Curriculum, Historical Background (0), Rules and Regulation (1), Organisation (2), Quality Assurance (3), Procurement (4), Processing (5), Distribution and Utilisation (6) and Future Developments (7). The Distance Learning Package included case studies from the region in text, in slides and videotapes. A new purpose-built NUH Tissue Bank with separate Wet and Dry Processing laboratories equipped with hands-on facilities was completed in July 1997. This was inaugurated as; IAEA/NUS Regional Training Centre for RCA; IAEA/NUS Interregional Training Centre; and NUS Diploma Course on Tissue Banking also launched by Deputy vice-chancellor, NUS, in conjunction with the IAEA/RCA Regional Training Course on 3 November 1997. One year NUS Open Distance Learning Diploma Course started with two weeks Intensive Course with Core Lectures on Modules (0-7) in the Curriculum and Practical Hands-on Demonstrations. One theory and two practical assessments were conducted. Nineteen participants registered for the Diploma Course. Production of IAEA Multi-Media Curriculum was completed and the Curriculum was distributed to member States during a 2-week-RCA 'Train the Trainers' Workshop on 27 April

  3. Gastric cancer incidence and mortality is associated with altitude in the mountainous regions of Pacific Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Javier; Correa, Pelayo; Ferreccio, Catterina; Hernandez-Suarez, Gustavo; Herrero, Rolando; Cavazza-Porro, Maria; Dominguez, Ricardo; Morgan, Douglas

    2013-02-01

    In Latin America, gastric cancer is a leading cancer, and countries in the region have some of the highest mortality rates worldwide, including Chile, Costa Rica, and Colombia. Geographic variation in mortality rates is observed both between neighboring countries and within nations. We discuss epidemiological observations suggesting an association between altitude and gastric cancer risk in Latin America. In the Americas, the burden of gastric cancer mortality is concentrated in the mountainous areas along the Pacific rim, following the geography of the Andes sierra, from Venezuela to Chile, and the Sierra Madre and Cordillera de Centroamérica, from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. Altitude is probably a surrogate for host genetic, bacterial, dietary, and environmental factors that may cluster in the mountainous regions. For example, H. pylori strains from patients of the Andean Nariño region of Colombia display European ancestral haplotypes, whereas strains from the Pacific coast are predominantly of African origin. The observation of higher gastric cancer rates in the mountainous areas is not universal: the association is absent in Chile, where risk is more strongly associated with the age of H. pylori acquisition and socio-economic determinants. The dramatic global and regional variations in gastric cancer incidence and mortality rates offer the opportunity for scientific discovery and focused prevention programs.

  4. 77 FR 12243 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems Permit Form AGENCY: National... using a vessel to fish for Western Pacific coral reef ecosystem management unit species in the... allowed in the regulations; or (3) fishing for, taking, or retaining any Potentially Harvested Coral Reef...

  5. How well-known is the Cephalaspidean fauna (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) in the Indo-Pacific region?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1998-01-01

    The gastropod group Cephalaspidea contains about 700 recent species worldwide. The status of the research on the group, indicated as the number of described species, in the tropical Indo-Pacific region is compared with other areas. The number ofspecies are 118 in the Indo-Pacific, 168 in Japan...

  6. A Systematic Review of Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Pacific Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Josephine; Souares, Y; Hoy, D

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first systematic literature review of cervical cancer incidence and mortality as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype prevalence among women with cervical cancer in the Pacific Island countries and territories. The cervical cancer burden in the Pacific Region....... There are only few comprehensive studies examining the epidemiology of cervical cancer in this region and no published data have hitherto described the current cervical cancer prevention initiatives in this region....

  7. Macroeconomic dataset for generating macroeconomic volatility among selected countries in the Asia Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Yee Peng; Muhammad, Junaina; Amin Noordin, Bany Ariffin; Cheng, Fan Fah

    2017-01-01

    This data article provides macroeconomic data that can be used to generate macroeconomic volatility. The data cover a sample of seven selected countries in the Asia Pacific region for the period 2004–2014, including both developing and developed countries. This dataset was generated to enhance our understanding of the sources of macroeconomic volatility affecting the countries in this region. Although the Asia Pacific region continues to remain as the most dynamic part of the world's economy,...

  8. Regional impacts of ocean color on tropical Pacific variability

    OpenAIRE

    W. Anderson; A. Gnanadesikan; A. Wittenberg

    2009-01-01

    The role of the penetration length scale of shortwave radiation into the surface ocean and its impact on tropical Pacific variability is investigated with a fully coupled ocean, atmosphere, land and ice model. Previous work has shown that removal of all ocean color results in a system that tends strongly towards an El Niño state. Results from a suite of surface chlorophyll perturbation experiments show that the mean state and variability of the tropical Pacific is highly se...

  9. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Leslie

    The text explores Mexico's history, geography, art, religion, and lifestyles in the context of its complex economy. The text focuses on Mexico's economy and reasons for its current situation. Part I of this teaching unit includes: Teacher Overview, Why Study Mexico, Mexico Fact Sheet, Map of Mexico, the Land and Climate, History, Government,…

  10. Geochemistry of soils along a transect from Central Mexico to the Pacific Coast: a pilot study for continental-scale geochemical mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiprés, J.A.; de la Calleja,; Tellez, J.I.; Jiménez, F.; Cruz, Carlos; Guerrero, E.G.; Castro, J.; Monroy, M.G.; Salinas, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mexican Geological Survey (SGM), the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics (INEGI) and the Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi (UASLP) have established a multidisciplinary team with the objective of creating a national program of geochemical mapping of soils in Mexico. This is being done as part of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project in partnership with the US Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada. As the first step, a pilot study was conducted over a transect that extends from the Mexico–US border near Ciudad Juarez in the north to the Pacific Ocean in the south. This pilot transect was conducted in two phases, and this paper presents results from the first phase, which sampled soils at about a 40-km spacing along a 730-km transect beginning in Central Mexico and ending at the Pacific Coast. Samples were collected from the A and C horizons at each site and 60 elements were analyzed. This pilot study demonstrates that geochemical mapping based on a 40-km spacing is adequate to identify broad-scale geochemical patterns. Geologic influence (i.e., soil parent material) was the most important factor influencing the distribution of elements along the transect, followed by the influence of regional mineralization. The study also showed that influence by human activities over the transect is minimal except possibly in large mining districts. A comparison of element abundance in the A horizon with the environmental soil guidelines in Mexico showed that the natural concentrations of the studied soils were lower than the established threshold for soil restoration with the exception of V and As. The former had a median value (75 mg/kg) approximately equal to the value established in Mexico for soil restoration in agricultural and residential lands (78 mg/kg), and the latter had three values higher than the 22 mg/kg threshold for soil restoration in agricultural and residential lands. These cases demonstrate

  11. Defense Spending Databases for Countries in the Asia-Pacific Region: An Analysis and Comparison

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reuning, Charles

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify and analyze a select number of unclassified databases that cover defense spending and other defense related criteria for countries in the Asia-Pacific region...

  12. Fertility determinants in the oil region of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, J B; Tellis, G L; Butler, E W

    1989-01-01

    This study analyzes fertility determinants in the oil region of Mexico, consisting of the states of Veracruz, Tabasco, and Campeche. Data are from the 1980 Mexican census and the unit of analysis is the municipio. The regression models, in which the dependent variables of children ever born and child-woman ratio are examined, reveal religious variables to be most significant, with greater fertility for non-Catholics and persons with no religion than for Catholics. Also of great importance are economic variables. Literacy and urbanization, both "classical" Mexican fertility variables, reduce fertility. There are major differences among three urban/rural and three indigenous language subsamples. Results are discussed vis-a-vis demographic theories and prior research.

  13. The United States and the Southwest Pacific: Policy Options for a Changing Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    Water applies in the South Pacific: DETERMINED to keep the region free of environmental polution by radioactive wastes and other radioactive matter...extend this plant at a cost of $11 million. 51 \\ ik source). While there are no current programs for dumping radioactive waste in the region, the...policy. The Japanese prime minister further assured Island leaders that Japan would never dump low- level radioactive waste in the Pacific without the

  14. 76 FR 61695 - Gulf of Mexico Regional Ecosystem Restoration Strategy (Preliminary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OA-2011-0798; FRL-9475-6] Gulf of Mexico Regional... of Availability. SUMMARY: This notice announces the availability of the Gulf of Mexico Regional... http://www.regulations.gov in the docket identified by Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OA-2011-0798. President...

  15. Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment: Building a Framework to Track Physical and Social Indicators of Climate Change Across Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecni, Z. N.; Keener, V. W.

    2016-12-01

    Assessments inform regional and local climate change governance and provide the critical scientific basis for U.S. climate policy. Despite the centrality of scientific information to public discourse and decision making, comprehensive assessments of climate change drivers, impacts, and the vulnerability of human and ecological systems at regional or local scales are often conducted on an ad hoc basis. Methods for sustained assessment and communication of scientific information are diverse and nascent. The Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment (PIRCA) is a collaborative effort to assess climate change indicators, impacts, and adaptive capacity of the Hawaiian archipelago and the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI). In 2012, PIRCA released the first comprehensive report summarizing the state of scientific knowledge about climate change in the region as a technical input to the U.S. National Climate Assessment. A multi-method evaluation of PIRCA outputs and delivery revealed that the vast majority of key stakeholders view the report as extremely credible and use it as a resource. The current study will present PIRCA's approach to establishing physical and social indicators to track on an ongoing basis, starting with the Republic of the Marshall Islands as an initial location of focus for providing a cross-sectoral indicators framework. Identifying and tracking useful indicators is aimed at sustaining the process of knowledge coproduction with decision makers who seek to better understand the climate variability and change and its impacts on Pacific Island communities.

  16. PACFEST 2004 : enabling technologies for maritime security in the Pacific region.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Whitley, John B.; Chellis, Craig (Pacific Disaster Center, Kihei, HI)

    2005-06-01

    In October of 2003 experts involved in various aspects of homeland security from the Pacific region met to engage in a free-wheeling discussion and brainstorming (a 'fest') on the role that technology could play in winning the war on terrorism in the Pacific region. The result was a concise and relatively thorough definition of the terrorism problem in the Pacific region, emphasizing the issues unique to Island nations in the Pacific setting, along with an action plan for developing working demonstrations of advanced technological solutions to these issues. Since PacFest 2003, the maritime dimensions of the international security environment have garnered increased attention and interest. To this end, PacFest 2004 sought to identify gaps and enabling technologies for maritime domain awareness and responsive decision-making in the Asia-Pacific region. The PacFest 2004 participants concluded that the technologies and basic information building blocks exist to create a system that would enable the Pacific region government and private organizations to effectively collaborate and share their capabilities and information concerning maritime security. The proposed solution summarized in this report integrates national environments in real time, thereby enabling effective prevention and first response to natural and terrorist induced disasters through better use of national and regional investments in people, infrastructure, systems, processes and standards.

  17. Enteric fever in the Pacific: a regional retrospective study from Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R J; Holland, D; McBride, S; Perera, S; Zeng, I; Wilson, M; Read, K; Jelleyman, T; Ingram, R J H

    2015-02-01

    There are limited clinical data on enteric fever in the Pacific and New Zealand (NZ) compared with the Indian subcontinent (ISC) and South-East Asia (SEA). Our objective was to describe enteric fever in Auckland - a large Pacific city, focusing on disease acquired in these regions. We reviewed enteric fever cases hospitalised in Auckland from January 2005 to December 2010. Microbiologically confirmed EF was identified in 162 patients. Travel regions: Pacific, 40 cases (25%) (Samoa, 38; Fiji, two), ISC, 72 (44%), SEA, seven (4%), other, three (2%), no travel, 40 (25%). Enteric fever rates for Auckland resident travellers were: India 50.3/100 000; Samoa 19.7/100 000.All Pacific cases were Salmonella Typhi. Of local isolates (without travel history), 38 were S. Typhi (36 fully susceptible, one multi-drug resistant (MDR) + nalidixic acid resistant (NAR), one unknown) and two S. Paratyphi (both NAR). Of non-Pacific travel, 56/82 (69%) isolates were S. Typhi, the remainder S. Paratyphi (15 isolates were fully susceptible, only 1% were MDR). Significant associations of serotype and antibiotic resistance with different travel regions and similarity of phage types (local and Pacific) were observed. Headache, vomiting and acute kidney injuries were more frequent with Pacific travel, while abdominal distension and cholecystitis with local disease. Shorter duration of treatment in the Pacific group was seen despite length of stay in hospital not being reduced. Local cases were associated with longer hospital admissions. One half of cases in Auckland are acquired either from Pacific or locally. Similarities mean that disease acquired locally is likely of Pacific origin. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  18. Regional amplification of ground motion in central Mexico. Results from coda-length magnitude data and preliminary modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Martín; Chávez-García, Francisco J.; Gusev, Alexander

    Seismic ground motion in central Mexico is amplified relative to ground motion observed at the same epicentral distance along the Pacific Coast in a frequency band that includes destructive ground motion at Mexico City. Although several hypothesis have been advanced, at present there is no generally accepted explanation of such amplification. We have analyzed coda-length magnitude data reported by Servicio Sismológico Nacional (SSN) for events recorded during 1993 to increase our understanding of the spatial distribution of this phenomenon. Our results indicate that regional amplification: (a) is detected by magnitude residual computed at each station, relative to the average of SSN network;and (b) is likely related to the crustal structure under the central portion of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB). Finally, preliminary wave propagation modelling (using SH wave, finite difference method) suggests that crustal heterogeneity is a possible cause of regional amplification. However, if this is so, it is required that both geometry and velocity distribution vary between the coast and Mexico City.

  19. Pacific Northwest ampersand Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program. 1992--1993 yearbook with 1994 activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy administers five Regional Bioenergy Programs to encourage regionally specific application of biomass and municipal waste-to-energy technologies to local needs, opportunities and potentials. The Pacific Northwest and Alaska region has taken up a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided its five participating state energy programs. This report describes the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, and related projects of the state energy agencies, and summarizes the results of technical studies. It also considers future efforts of this regional program to meet its challenging assignment

  20. Multinational Tagging Efforts Illustrate Regional Scale of Distribution and Threats for East Pacific Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas agassizii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Catherine E.; Blanco, Gabriela S.; Coyne, Michael S.; Delgado-Trejo, Carlos; Godley, Brendan J.; Jones, T. Todd; Resendiz, Antonio; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Witt, Matthew J.; Nichols, Wallace J.

    2015-01-01

    To further describe movement patterns and distribution of East Pacific green turtles (Chelonia mydas agassizii) and to determine threat levels for this species within the Eastern Pacific. In order to do this we combined published data from existing flipper tagging and early satellite tracking studies with data from an additional 12 satellite tracked green turtles (1996-2006). Three of these were tracked from their foraging grounds in the Gulf of California along the east coast of the Baja California peninsula to their breeding grounds in Michoacán (1337-2928 km). In addition, three post-nesting females were satellite tracked from Colola beach, Michoacán to their foraging grounds in southern Mexico and Central America (941.3-3020 km). A further six turtles were tracked in the Gulf of California within their foraging grounds giving insights into the scale of ranging behaviour. Turtles undertaking long-distance migrations showed a tendency to follow the coastline. Turtles tracked within foraging grounds showed that foraging individuals typically ranged up to 691.6 km (maximum) from release site location. Additionally, we carried out threat analysis (using the cumulative global human impact in the Eastern Pacific) clustering pre-existing satellite tracking studies from Galapagos, Costa Rica, and data obtained from this study; this indicated that turtles foraging and nesting in Central American waters are subject to the highest anthropogenic impact. Considering that turtles from all three rookeries were found to migrate towards Central America, it is highly important to implement conservation plans in Central American coastal areas to ensure the survival of the remaining green turtles in the Eastern Pacific. Finally, by combining satellite tracking data from this and previous studies, and data of tag returns we created the best available distributional patterns for this particular sea turtle species, which emphasized that conservation measures in key areas may have

  1. Multinational tagging efforts illustrate regional scale of distribution and threats for east pacific green turtles (Chelonia mydas agassizii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Catherine E; Blanco, Gabriela S; Coyne, Michael S; Delgado-Trejo, Carlos; Godley, Brendan J; Jones, T Todd; Resendiz, Antonio; Seminoff, Jeffrey A; Witt, Matthew J; Nichols, Wallace J

    2015-01-01

    To further describe movement patterns and distribution of East Pacific green turtles (Chelonia mydas agassizii) and to determine threat levels for this species within the Eastern Pacific. In order to do this we combined published data from existing flipper tagging and early satellite tracking studies with data from an additional 12 satellite tracked green turtles (1996-2006). Three of these were tracked from their foraging grounds in the Gulf of California along the east coast of the Baja California peninsula to their breeding grounds in Michoacán (1337-2928 km). In addition, three post-nesting females were satellite tracked from Colola beach, Michoacán to their foraging grounds in southern Mexico and Central America (941.3-3020 km). A further six turtles were tracked in the Gulf of California within their foraging grounds giving insights into the scale of ranging behaviour. Turtles undertaking long-distance migrations showed a tendency to follow the coastline. Turtles tracked within foraging grounds showed that foraging individuals typically ranged up to 691.6 km (maximum) from release site location. Additionally, we carried out threat analysis (using the cumulative global human impact in the Eastern Pacific) clustering pre-existing satellite tracking studies from Galapagos, Costa Rica, and data obtained from this study; this indicated that turtles foraging and nesting in Central American waters are subject to the highest anthropogenic impact. Considering that turtles from all three rookeries were found to migrate towards Central America, it is highly important to implement conservation plans in Central American coastal areas to ensure the survival of the remaining green turtles in the Eastern Pacific. Finally, by combining satellite tracking data from this and previous studies, and data of tag returns we created the best available distributional patterns for this particular sea turtle species, which emphasized that conservation measures in key areas may have

  2. 75 FR 11118 - Fisheries of the Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    .... The Pacific Fishery Management Council is in the process of reviewing the overfished threshold for petrale sole; however, regardless of future changes, NMFS has determined that the stock is overfished at... implement conservation and management measures to rebuild affected stocks. A Council receiving notification...

  3. Mexico's summer rainfall patterns: an analysis of regional modes and changes in their teleconnectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englehart, P.J.; Douglas, A.V. [Department of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciencies, Creighton University, Omaha, N.E. (United States)

    2002-07-01

    This study explores the interanual variability in Mexico's warm season rainfall. It is based on historical rainfall data (1927-1997) from a grid of 130 long-term stations. The grid provides reasonable spatial coverage over most of the country. Using Principal Component Analysis, this study delimits five relatively large sub-areas of the country. Within each of these regions, monthly station rainfall exhibits high levels of spatial coherence. The regional structures are distinct and physically plausible with respect to the climatology of Mexico. The regional time series are expressed as departures from normal. In most of these series the intra seasonal, that is, month to month, persistence is minimal; in fact, only a few of the series display significant tendencies toward nonrandom serial behavior. This study evaluates the tele connectivity between the regional rainfall series and several different indices of large-scale ocean and atmosphere variability. These indices include an El Nino-Southern Oscillation index, indices that describe the strength and position of the subtropical anticyclone belt, as well as local SSTs in the Eastern Pacific and the Gulf of Mexico. All of the tele connections analyses consider the quasi-decadal mode of variability that is commonly referred to as the Pacific Decadal Oscillations (PDO). The study results generally agree with the findings of other researchers to the extent that they indicate differential tele connectivity as a function of PDO phase. However, unlike other studies, we see no compelling evidence for non-linear behavior in the tele connections within PDO phase. Instead, the more prominent feature of the tele connections is simply that they tend to be both more spatially extensive and stronger in the positive PDO phase. [Spanish] Este estudio explora la variabilidad interanual de la lluvia de verano en Mexico. Se basa en el analisis de datos historicos de la lluvia de 130 estaciones con un periodo largo de observacion

  4. Chemistry and transport of pollution over the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific: spring 2006 INTEX-B campaign overview and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Singh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-B (INTEX-B was a major NASA (Acronyms are provided in Appendix A. led multi-partner atmospheric field campaign completed in the spring of 2006 (http://cloud1.arc.nasa.gov/intex-b/. Its major objectives aimed at (i investigating the extent and persistence of the outflow of pollution from Mexico; (ii understanding transport and evolution of Asian pollution and implications for air quality and climate across western North America; and (iii validating space-borne observations of tropospheric composition. INTEX-B was performed in two phases. In its first phase (1–21 March, INTEX-B operated as part of the MILAGRO campaign with a focus on observations over Mexico and the Gulf of Mexico. In the second phase (17 April–15 May, the main INTEX-B focus was on trans-Pacific Asian pollution transport. Multiple airborne platforms carrying state of the art chemistry and radiation payloads were flown in concert with satellites and ground stations during the two phases of INTEX-B. Validation of Aura satellite instruments (TES, OMI, MLS, HIRDLS was a key objective within INTEX-B. Satellite products along with meteorological and 3-D chemical transport model forecasts were integrated into the flight planning process to allow targeted sampling of air parcels. Inter-comparisons were performed among and between aircraft payloads to quantify the accuracy of data and to create a unified data set. Pollution plumes were sampled over the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific several days after downwind transport from source regions. Signatures of Asian pollution were routinely detected by INTEX-B aircraft, providing a valuable data set on gas and aerosol composition to test models and evaluate pathways of pollution transport and their impact on air quality and climate. This overview provides details about campaign implementation and a context within which the present

  5. Paleocurrent analysis and physical properties of deep-sea mud cores collected from NW Pacific and Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T.; Kawamura, K.; Ogawa, Y.; Flemings, P. B.; Behrmann, J. H.; John, C. M.; Hirano, N.; Abe, N.

    2005-12-01

    We collected three m-long piston cores of mud during the Kairei cruise (KR04-08 and KR05-10) of Japan Marine Science and Technology Center in 2004 and 2005 from the NW Pacific between Honshu and Shatsky Rise; aside the Fukahori Knoll and Yukawa Knoll. Another set of mud cores, 234.5 m long, was collected during the JOIDES Resolution cruise (IODP Exp308, site U1322) in 2005 from the Ursa Basin located at the eastern levee of the Mississippi Canyon, northeastern Gulf of Mexico of about 1000 m depth. Our study purpose is to know the flow direction by mud particle arrangement by thin section and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data. The data from the NW Pacific indicate weak preferred orientation from SW to NE, suggesting weak bottom current. This is supported by erosional moat to NE direction around the Fukahori Knoll. In the Gulf of Mexico we can know the flow directions of river plumes, turbidity currents, etc., and we can know whether the flows come from the main entry point in the basin or they are derived from the others of the basin. The other basic features of the core sediments are lithology, sedimentary structures, and porosity, together with paleocurrent analysis.

  6. Evolution of Value Added Chains in Asia Pacific Region and Opportunities for Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Alekseevich Makarov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the changing patterns of transnational value chains in the Asia-Pacific region. The methodology is based on the analysis of data extracted from the OECD – WTO Trade in Value Added Database (2016. The study demonstrates that 1 Asia-Pacific countries show extremely high involvement in the global value chains; 2 intra-Asian value chains develop at a fast pace, reflecting the trend towards regiona-lization of economic ties in Asia-Pacific (caused by the processes of transformation within China, the growing income divergence in the region and the development of regional integration mechanisms; 3 the level of participation in global value chains differs across countries and is subject to constant changes. In particular, Chinese manufacturers are moving to the processes with higher value added, and the role of an ‘assembly shop’ in the region is shifting to the ASEAN countries. Russia’s participation in the value chains in the Asia-Pacific region is currently limited to its role as a supplier of raw materials. High tariffs make manufacturing oriented towards Asia less viable, especially considering that most of Asia-Pacific countries have free trade agreements with each other. However, favorable rules of origin in Asian RTAs as well as good political relations with leading Asian countries in conditions of tensions between them still create some opportunities for involving Russia in regional value chains at the more advanced stages

  7. Effects of technological change in regional labor markets in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Elizabeth Rodríguez Pérez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Technological change has meant that organizations require workers with higher qualifications, development, implementation and adaptation of technology looking to stay at the forefront in international competitiveness. The aim of this paper is to analyze the changes that have occurred in regional labor markets in Mexico on occupational and wage and identify to what extent these changes may have resulted from technological change and if this behavior is spatially homogeneous. The information source is made up of microdata from the National Survey of Urban Employment (Employment Survey 2000–2004. The empirical analysis –considering workers officiating at high and low technological intensity and applying a Mincerian income function with different classification criteria: education, sex, age groups and regions– during the period indicate that there have been significant changes in the Mexican labor market as a result of biased technological change, as it provides statistical evidence indicating the existence of a higher wage premium for subordinates in the technological area, and different effects at the regional level, encouraging more to the border.

  8. Current and potential ant impacts in the Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loope, Lloyd L.; Krushelnycky, Paul D.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, ants are a powerful ecological force, and they appear to be dominant components of animal communities of many tropical and temperate ecosystems in terms of biomass and numbers of individuals (Bluthgen et al. 2000). For example, ants comprise up to 94% of arthropod individuals in fogging samples taken from diverse lowland tropical rainforest canopies, and 86% of the biomass (Davidson et al. 2003). The majority of these ant species and individuals obtain carbohydrates either from extrafloral nectaries or from sap-feeding Hemiptera that pass carbohydrate-rich “honeydew” to attending ants while concentrating nitrogen (N) from N-poor plant sap (Davidson et al. 2003). Honeydew and nectar represent key resources for arboreal ant species, although most ant species are at least partly carnivorous or scavengers (Bluthgen et al. 2004). In contrast to most of the terrestrial world, the biotas of many Pacific islands evolved without ants. Whereas endemic ant species are found in New Zealand (ca. 10 spp.), Tonga (ca. 10 spp.), and Samoa (ca. 12 spp.), other islands of Polynesia and parts of Micronesia likely lack native ants (Wilson and Taylor 1967, Wetterer 2002, Wetterer and Vargo 2003). About 20 Indo-Australian and western Pacific ant species range to the east and north of Samoa, but it is unclear how many of these were transported there by humans at some time (Wilson and Taylor 1967). Most of the remainder of the ant species currently found on Pacific islands are widespread species that fall in the category of “tramp species,” dispersed by recent human commerce and generally closely tied to human activity and urban areas (Wilson and Taylor 1967, McGlynn 1999). In Pacific island situations, some of these tramp ant species are able to thrive beyond areas of human activity. Relatively few ant species have been successful invaders of native communities on continents, and these include most of the species that pose the greatest problems for Pacific islands

  9. Nuclear power developments in the Asia-pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    Each Asia-Pacific country has a unique set of energy needs and capabilities: a). Some need large amounts of baseload power and have the political will to install nuclear capacity, but they have no funds b). Others have mature nuclear energy programs to which extra capacity needs to be planned-for. So there is no common Asian drive to install (or reject) nuclear power. However, the Asia-Pacific countries do all seem to have a long term view in regard to their future electricity supply. This paper will briefly discuss China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam. Indonesia remains an interesting prospect for the nuclear power industry, however, there is little real information about when a unit might be built

  10. Supply Chains and Rural Development in the Asia Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Armbruster, Walter J.; Coyle, William T.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid income growth and urbanization are having profound impacts on the food system, food producers and rural areas in the developing Asia Pacific economies. Meeting the challenge of rural development will depend on better integrating rural areas with fast-growing urban areas where the composition of food demand is changing and the logistics of supply are growing more complex. Possible government options include investment in transportation infrastructure—roads, railroads and waterway—and pro...

  11. An assessment of the Pacific Regional Cancer Coalition: outcomes and implications of a regional coalition internal and external assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Angela U; Heckert, Karen A; Buenconsejo-Lum, Lee; Hedson, Johnny; Tamang, Suresh; Palafox, Neal

    2011-11-01

    The Pacific Regional Cancer Coalition (PRCC) provides regional leadership in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) to implement the Regional Comprehensive Control Plan: 2007-2012, and to evaluate its coalition and partnerships. The Pacific Center of Excellence in the Elimination of Disparities (CEED), aims to reduce cancer disparities and conducts evaluation activities relevant to cancer prevention and control in the USAPI. The PRCC Self (internal) and Partner (external) Assessments were conducted to assess coalition functioning, regional and national partnerships, sustainability, and the role of regionalism for integrating all chronic disease prevention and control in the Pacific. Self-administered questionnaires and key informant telephone interviews with PRCC members (N=20), and representatives from regional and national partner organizations were administered (N=26). Validated multi item measures using 5-point scales on coalition and partnership characteristics were used. Chronbach's alphas and averages for the measures were computed. Internal coalition measures: satisfaction (4.2, SD=0.48) communication (4.0, SD=0.56), respect (4.0, SD=0.60) were rated more highly than external partnership measures: resource sharing (3.5, SD=0.74), regionalism (3.9, SD=0.47), use of findings (3.9, SD=0.50). The PRCC specifically identified its level of "collaboration" with external partners including Pacific CEED. External partners identified its partnership with the PRCC in the "coalition" stage. PRCC members and external partners are satisfied with their partnerships. All groups should continue to focus on building collaboration with partners to reflect a truly regional approach to sustain the commitment, the coalitions and the programming to reduce cancer in the USAPI. PRCC and partners should also work together to integrate all chronic disease prevention and control efforts in the Pacific.

  12. Visualisation and globalisation in the Asia-Pacific region: the Taipei Biennial 1996-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Ming

    2009-01-01

    Whilst globalisation, urbanisation and explosive expansion of urban spaces are the most dynamic and challenging issues in the Asia-Pacific region today, modernisation and cultural re-interpretation are also taking place at a rapid speed. Asia-Pacific metropolises, combining most of their nations’ population and resources, are at the centre of its globalisation process and intend to create their own characters whilst information and fashion have been moving between territories. Taipei, being t...

  13. Confidence-building in the Asia-Pacific region. Report of working group II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, J.

    1992-01-01

    Detailed presentations of South and North Korea offers positive evaluation concerning bilateral agreements, which aim both reconciliation between the two states and denuclearization of the Korean peninsula. Consideration was given to confidence building measures in the Asia-Pacific region as a whole as well as to the progress made in introducing such measures in various Subregions of Asia-Pacific. The concept of confidence building actually implies a two-part agenda, particular procedures and general process

  14. Measurements within the Pacific-Indian oceans throughflow region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieux, M.; Andrié, C.; Delecluse, P.; Ilahude, A. G.; Kartavtseff, A.; Mantisi, F.; Molcard, R.; Swallow, J. C.

    1994-07-01

    Two hydrographic (θ, S, O 2) and trichlorofluoromethane (F-11) sections were carried out between the Australian continental shelf and Indonesia, in August 1989, on board the R.V. Marion Dufresne. The sections lie in the easternmost part of the Indian Ocean where the throughflow between the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean emerges. They allow us to describe the features of the water-property and circulation fields of the throughflow at its entrance in the Indian Ocean. Between the Australian continental shelf and Bali, the Subtropical and Central waters are separated from the waters of the Indonesian seas by a sharp hydrological front, located around 13°30 S, below the thermocline down to 700 m. Near the coast of Bali, upwelling occurs in the near-surface layer under the effect of the southeast monsoon; at depth, between 300 m to more than 800 m, a water mass of northern Indian Ocean origin was present. From the characteristics of the bottom water found in the Lombok basin, the maximum depth of the Java ridge which separates the Lombok basin from the Northwest Australian basin lies around 3650 m. Off Sumba, Savu, Roti and Timor channels a core of low salinity and high oxygen content near-surface water was found in the axis of each channel, which suggests strong currents from the interior Indonesian seas towards the Indian Ocean. The entrance of the deep water flowing in the opposite direction, from the Indian Ocean to the Timor basin, was marked below 1400 m to the sill depth, through an increase of salinity and oxygen content. The flow reversal, observed briefly by a Pegasus direct current profiler in the Timor strait, was located at 1200 m depth. During the southeast monsoon, the net (geostrophic + Ekman) transport calculated on the section Australia-Bali give an estimate of the throughflow between 0 and 500 m of 22 ± 4 × 10 6 m 3 s -1 towards the Indian Ocean, with a concentration of the transport in the upper layers (19 × 10 6 m 3 s -1 in 0-200 m) and

  15. Wintertime component of the THORPEX Pacific-Asian Regional Campaign (T-PARC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Toth, Z.; Asuma, Y.; Reynolds, C.; Lngland, R.; Szunyogh, I.; Colle, B.; Chang, E.; Doyle, C.; Kats, A.

    2009-04-01

    The winter component of the T-PARC is an international field project that aims at improving high impact weather event forecasts for North America. The main objective is to understand how perturbations from the tropics, Eurasia and polar fronts travel through waveguide and turn into high impact weather events. Through adaptive observations by using manned aircrafts (NOAA G-IV and US Air force C-130s) and Russian rawinsonde network over data sparse regions, it is expected that accurate initial conditions will improve the numerical weather forecasts. Non-adaptive aircraft measurements over the Pacific Rim and part of India are also deployed through E-AMDAR program, which is expected to improve the background field over Asia where perturbations are initiated. The campaign is led by NOAA and joined by agencies and universities from US, Canada, Mexico, Japan, ECWMF, and Russia. While most observational data will be assimilated by operational centers to improve real time numerical weather predictions, post field studies will focus on aspects such as: data impact on forecast and analysis, dry and moist processes that affect the formation and propagation of perturbations, meso-scale storm structure, error growth, forecast "busts" under certain atmospheric regimes, and socio-economic applications such as costs and benefits of improved forecasts and their use by the public for high impact weather events. In particular, a Winter Olympics demonstration project (February 12 - February 28) is expected to be a test bed during winter T-PARC for real user outreach and application purposes. Effectiveness of existing targeting methods as well as new targeting methods in the 3-5 day lead time range will be pursued and other aspects related to data assimilation and numerical forecasts (both deterministic and ensemble forecasts) will be investigated within this project as well.

  16. Faculty Study: New Mexico Higher Education Institutions Compared with Regional Peers. Gap Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Beverlee J.

    2006-01-01

    This study addresses concerns regarding compensation disparities between New Mexico institutions and their peers. A recommended adjustment schedule with fiscal requirements is included, but not specific recommendations for faculty at individual institutions. The average salaries for New Mexico institutions were compared with regional peers to…

  17. Quest for Middle East oil: the US versus the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salameh, Mamdouh G.

    2003-01-01

    Two very powerful geopolitical factors will decisively determine whether the quest for Middle East oil (mainly Gulf oil) could enhance the global oil security or could lead to oil supply disruptions and also instability and conflict in the Asia-Pacific region. The two factors are the United States' growing dependence on oil imports from the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region's thirst for oil and the increasingly likely Chinese dependence on oil from the region. The Asia-Pacific countries are increasingly growing concerned about their ability to supply enough oil to fuel future economic growth. The region's phenomenal economic growth up to July 1997 and its economic recovery since then, and its steadily rising energy needs lend urgency to the question of how the region would meet its considerable energy challenges. This paper will endeavour to analyze the impact of this growing dependence on Middle East oil, on global oil supplies, the price of oil and global oil security. It will argue that such dependence on a volatile region like the Middle East and the perception of scarcer energy resources in the Asia-Pacific region, have the potential to lead to conflict in both regions unless these issues are dealt with in geoeconomic rather than geostrategic terms. The paper will strongly express the view that potential conflicts can be resolved not by force but through markets and investment and also through the diversification of energy sources and the promotion of alternative energy development and use across the region

  18. The Rarotonga treaty: regional approach to non-proliferation in the South Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadimitropulos, P.

    1988-01-01

    The regional approach to the problem of non-proliferation in the South-Pacific-the Rarotonga treaty - is discussed. The regional approach to the problem of non-proliferation is aimed in a wide sense at the assistance to detante in a certain region and the propagation of measures strengthening confidence there. On December 11, 1975 at the initiative of New Zealand and Fiji the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution on the nuclear-free zone in the South-Pacific. In compliance with the Rarotonga treaty a large nuclear-free zone is created. The participants of the Rarotonga Treaty assess the values of the Non-Proliferation Treaty

  19. Political and security issues in the Asia-Pacific region: Assessment of trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donowaki, Mitsuro

    1992-01-01

    Within the attitude of Japan concerning its policy for peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region the the need for dialogue and cooperation was underlined specifying the importance of economic cooperation, diplomatic efforts to solve the political problems and the presence of United States in the region. Particular emphasis was put on the relations with China and Russia

  20. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS IN THREE ECOLOGICAL REGIONS FROM THE CENTRAL REGION OF VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar O. Castelan-Hernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in cattle from three ecological regions in the central area of the state of Veracruz, Mexico, was determined. A transversal study was conducted in 72 calves 3 to 12 months old from six production units from the municipalities of Zentla, Tlacotalpan and Manlio F. Altamirano. Fecal samples were collected from the calves and analyzed using the Kinyoun stain technique. Overall prevalence of cryptosporidiosis was 73.6 %, and by municipality it was 66.7 % in Zentla, 75 % in Tlacotalpan, and 79.2 % in Manlio F. Altamirano. Prevalence by age was 72.4 % in calves 3 months old and 74.4 % in calves 6 to 12 months old. Prevalence was higher in females (78.7 % than in males (45.5 %. Prevalence by breed was 78.8 % in Brown Swiss/Zebu, 83.3 % in Brown Swiss, 50 % in Holstein/Zebu, and 50 % in Brown Swiss/Holstein, with no difference among crosses (P > 0.05. There was no association among infection by Cryptosporidium spp. and sex, breed, age and ecological region. In conclusion, Cryptosporidium spp. is present in the dual purpose cattle production systems in the three municipalities studied located in the central region of Veracruz, Mexico.

  1. Estuarine Living Marine Resources: Gulf of Mexico Regional Distribution and Abundance (NCEI Accession 0163993)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the original (1992) Gulf of Mexico regional component of NOAA's Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Project, a national database of ecologically and...

  2. Strengthening e‐commerce in the Asia‐Pacific region: Opportunities and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, J. Scott; Petropoulos, Georgios; Jitsuzumi, Toshiya

    2017-01-01

    What policy measures might contribute to greater use of e‐commerce within the Asia‐Pacific region, especially on a cross‐border basis? What are the potential benefits, versus the potential costs? How feasible might it be to implement such measures? Surveys of consumers and merchants suggest that the Asia Pacific region is subject to challenges similar to those in Europe, where cross‐border e‐commerce has been a major policy focus for the past few years. We attempt in this paper to make a prel...

  3. Actinides detection in the Pacific Coast of Mexico; Deteccion de actinidos en el Litoral Pacifico de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez R, E.; Almazan T, M. G.; Cruz C, G. J.; Ramirez S, R., E-mail: eduardo.ordonez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In this work is evaluated the activity of the alpha emitters, uranium and plutonium, in sand samples and seawater coming from diverse points of the Mexican Pacific Coast (Baja California, Jalisco, Colima and Guerrero). The used techniques were: radiochemistry separation and alpha spectrometry, with these techniques could be observed that the sand contains natural uranium and trace quantities of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu combinations. The biggest activity in Pu was found in Finisterra, Baja California Sur (0.13 Bq/kg) and the minor (0 Bq/kg) in Miramar, Colima. The relationship between the geographical localization and the Pu activity suggests that while there is more interaction of the site with the oceanic currents, more is the content of Pu in the sands of the coast. (Author)

  4. A new yeti crab phylogeny: Vent origins with indications of regional extinction in the East Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roterman, Christopher Nicolai; Lee, Won-Kyung; Liu, Xinming; Lin, Rongcheng; Li, Xinzheng; Won, Yong-Jin

    2018-01-01

    The recent discovery of two new species of kiwaid squat lobsters on hydrothermal vents in the Pacific Ocean and in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean has prompted a re-analysis of Kiwaid biogeographical history. Using a larger alignment with more fossil calibrated nodes than previously, we consider the precise relationship between Kiwaidae, Chirostylidae and Eumunididae within Chirostyloidea (Decapoda: Anomura) to be still unresolved at present. Additionally, the placement of both new species within a new "Bristly" clade along with the seep-associated Kiwa puravida is most parsimoniously interpreted as supporting a vent origin for the family, rather than a seep-to-vent progression. Fossil-calibrated divergence analysis indicates an origin for the clade around the Eocene-Oligocene boundary in the eastern Pacific ~33-38 Ma, coincident with a lowering of bottom temperatures and increased ventilation in the Pacific deep sea. Likewise, the mid-Miocene (~10-16 Ma) rapid radiation of the new Bristly clade also coincides with a similar cooling event in the tropical East Pacific. The distribution, diversity, tree topology and divergence timing of Kiwaidae in the East Pacific is most consistent with a pattern of extinctions, recolonisations and radiations along fast-spreading ridges in this region and may have been punctuated by large-scale fluctuations in deep-water ventilation and temperature during the Cenozoic; further affecting the viability of Kiwaidae populations along portions of mid-ocean ridge.

  5. Yaws in the Western Pacific Region: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Corinne; Ozaki, Masayo

    2011-01-01

    Until the middle of the 20th century, yaws was highly endemic and considered a serious public health problem in the Western Pacific Region (WPR), leading to intensive control efforts in the 1950s–1960s. Since then, little attention has been paid to its reemergence. Its current burden is unknown. This paper presents the results of an extensive literature review, focusing on yaws in the South Pacific. Available records suggest that the region remains largely free of yaws except for Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. Many clinical cases reported recently were described as “attenuated”; advanced stages are rare. A single intramuscular injection of benzathine penicillin is still effective in curing yaws. In the Pacific, yaws may be amenable to elimination if adequate resources are provided and political commitment revived. A mapping of yaws prevalence in PNG, Solomon, and Vanuatu is needed before comprehensive country-tailored strategies towards yaws elimination can be developed. PMID:22235208

  6. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in the Gulf Coast Region of Mexico, 2003–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A. Paige; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Ramirez-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Irene; Leal, Grace; Flores-Mayorga, Jose M.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D.; Singh, Amber J.; Borland, Erin M.; Powers, Ann M.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.

    2012-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been the causative agent for sporadic epidemics and equine epizootics throughout the Americas since the 1930s. In 1969, an outbreak of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) spread rapidly from Guatemala and through the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, reaching Texas in 1971. Since this outbreak, there have been very few studies to determine the northward extent of endemic VEEV in this region. This study reports the findings of serologic surveillance in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico from 2003–2010. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed on viral isolates from this region to determine whether there have been substantial genetic changes in VEEV since the 1960s. Based on the findings of this study, the Gulf Coast lineage of subtype IE VEEV continues to actively circulate in this region of Mexico and appears to be responsible for infection of humans and animals throughout this region, including the northern State of Tamaulipas, which borders Texas. PMID:23133685

  7. Diversity of mosquitoes and the aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites along the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, J Guillermo; Casas-Martínez, Mauricio; Quiroz-Martínez, Humberto; Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Marina, Carlos F; Ulloa, Armando; Orozco-Bonilla, Arnoldo; Muñoz, Miguel; Williams, Trevor

    2014-01-22

    The abundance, richness and diversity of mosquitoes and aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites were surveyed along eight states of the Pacific coast of Mexico. Diversity was estimated using the Shannon index (H'), similarity measures and cluster analysis. Oviposition sites were sampled during 2-3 months per year, over a three year period. Field collected larvae and pupae were reared and identified to species following adult emergence. Aquatic insects present at oviposition sites were also collected, counted and identified to species or genus. In total, 15 genera and 74 species of mosquitoes were identified: Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, An. albimanus and Aedes aegypti were the most abundant and widely-distributed species, representing 47% of total mosquito individuals sampled. New species records for certain states are reported. Anopheline diversity was lowest in Sinaloa state (H' = 0.54) and highest in Chiapas (H' = 1.61) and Michoacán (H' = 1.56), whereas culicid diversity was lowest in Michoacán (H' = 1.93), Colima (H' = 1.95), Sinaloa (H' = 1.99) and Jalisco (H' = 2.01) and highest in Chiapas (H' = 2.66). In total, 10 orders, 57 families, 166 genera and 247 species of aquatic insects were identified in samples. Aquatic insect diversity was highest in Chiapas, Oaxaca and Michoacán (H' = 3.60-3.75). Mosquito larval/pupal abundance was not correlated with that of predatory Coleoptera and Hemiptera. This represents the first update on the diversity and geographic distribution of the mosquitoes and aquatic insects of Mexico in over five decades. This information has been cataloged in Mexico's National Biodiversity Information System (SNIB-CONABIO) for public inspection.

  8. Grand, Bland or Somewhat Planned? Toward a Canadian Strategy for the Indo-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick James

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Canada may be a Pacific nation, but one would hardly know it, given its history of merely sporadic and inconsistent engagement with the Indo-Pacific region. The idea of a proud legacy of special relations with Asian nations is clearly overblown. Canada’s relations with the Indo-Pacific region are in need of serious attention and forethought. There is cause for concern: With the spectacular economic rise, and growing influence, of certain Asian nations, Canada’s pattern of Indo-Pacific neglect is proving increasingly unaffordable. Canada may not have squandered any significant legacy from the past, but it might easily squander the potential for crucial relations in the future. Understandably, that has led some observers to call for a sort of “grand strategy” for Canada to deal with the Indo-Pacific region: an overarching framework that would co-ordinate all the various facets — economic, institutional and security — where Canadian interests do and will touch the Indo-Pacific region. Yet, again, these calls are misplaced: Canada must be more engaged in the region, but there are instances where it should address issues on a seriatim basis (that is, confronting and responding to issues on their own, as they emerge. In some cases, a strategic framework may be prudent, but not in all cases. The appropriate approach is neither a grand strategy, nor a “muddling through” approach, but rather, something in between: partly strategically planned, partly not. In particular, it would be inadvisable for Canada to fully commit to any standing security strategy to deal with the rise of China’s military power. Canada is not a global military power, whereas its closest ally, the United States, is the world’s largest military power. The American strategy toward China will influence Canada’s approach more than any other factor, however the U.S. strategy is currently largely unclear. For Canada to be proactive in independently developing a

  9. Local perspectives on global tourism in the Asia-Pacific region [introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahles, H.; Meijl, A.H.M. van

    1999-01-01

    The articles brought together in this special issue of the IIAS Newsletter are centered on the question of how people at the grassroots level in the Asia-Pacific region have responded to international tourism. In view of the widespread negative view of the potential impact of tourism on local

  10. A review of the fern genus Hypolepis (Dennstardtiaceae) in the Malesian and Pacific regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brownsey, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Fourteen species and one subspecies of the fern genus Hypolepis Bernh. are recognised in the Malesian and Pacific regions, excluding Australia and New Zealand. Three species, H. hawaiiensis, H. malesiana and H. scabristipes, and one subspecies, H. elegans subsp. carolinensis, are described for the

  11. Iron stress in the Pacific region of the Southern Ocean : evidence from enrichment bioassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Klaas; van Leeuwe, M.A.; de Jong, J.T.M.; Nolting, R.F.; Witte, H.J; van Ooyen, J; Swagerman, M.J W; Kloosterhuis, H; de Baar, H.J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of iron on phytoplankton physiology in a scarcely investigated part of the Pacific region of the Southern Ocean was studied during an expedition aboard RV 'Polarstern'. Physiological effects of iron enrichments were studied during short-term bottle experiments (72 h) in high-nutrient,

  12. Network performance, hub connectivity potential, and competitive position of primary airports in Asia/Pacific region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsumoto, H.; Veldhuis, J.; de Wit, J.; Burghouwt, G.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, hub-and-spoke network configurations are more and more developed in the Asia/Pacific region. In this paper, it is argued that the measurement of network performance in hub-and-spoke systems should take into account the quantity and quality of both direct and indirect connections. The

  13. Animal damage to conifers on national forests in the Pacific Northwest region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn L. Crouch

    1969-01-01

    Animal damage to conifers is a timely topic in the Pacific Northwest. Foresters in this Region are increasingly concerned and perplexed by damage caused by animals to natural and planted seedlings and larger growing stock. Nearly every animal inhabiting for st land is believed to injure seedlings and small trees to some degree. Mice girdle small trees, and bears girdle...

  14. Malaria vectors in ecologically heterogeneous localities of the Colombian Pacific region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Naranjo-Díaz

    Full Text Available The Colombian Pacific region is second nationally in number of malaria cases reported. This zone presents great ecological heterogeneity and Anopheles species diversity. However, little is known about the current spatial and temporal distribution of vector species. This study, conducted in three ecologically different localities of the Pacific region, aimed to evaluate the composition and distribution of Anopheles species and characterize transmission intensity. A total of 4,016 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected representing seven species. The composition and dominant species differed in each locality. Three species were infected with malaria parasites: Anopheles darlingi and An. calderoni were infected with Plasmodium falciparum and An. nuneztovari with Plasmodium vivax VK210 and VK247. Annual EIRs varied from 3.5-7.2 infective bites per year. These results confirm the importance of the primary vector An. nuneztovari in areas disturbed by human interventions, of An. darlingi in deforested margins of humid tropical rainforest and An. albimanus and the suspected vector An. calderoni in areas impacted by urbanization and large-scale palm oil agriculture close to the coast. This constitutes the first report in the Colombia Pacific region of naturally infected An. darlingi, and in Colombia of naturally infected An. calderoni. Further studies should evaluate the epidemiological importance of An. calderoni in the Pacific region.

  15. 76 FR 16610 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Vessel and Gear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Vessel and Gear Identification Requirements AGENCY... and gear, as specified in 50 CFR 665 and 50 CFR 300. Vessels registered for use with a permit issued... require that certain fishing gear must be marked. In the pelagic longline fisheries, the vessel operator...

  16. Continuing Professional Development in the Accounting Profession: Practices and Perceptions from the Asia Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lange, Paul; Jackling, Beverley; Suwardy, Themin

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on research in the sociology of professions as a reference point, this study examines the practices and perceptions of professional accountants towards the requirements of IES7 on continuing professional development (CPD). Responses from 1310 accountants in the Asia Pacific region suggest while increasing globalisation has led to more…

  17. HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia Pacific: a regional tool to support strategic information needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Yu Shwe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The 2011 global commitments towards controlling HIV made by Asia-Pacific countries require considerable improvement in strategic information and response tracking. The HIV and AIDS Data Hub can serve as an important tool for stakeholders with its regional database of subnational indicators, web site and data synthesis capacity.

  18. Innovative approaches in nutrition education in the Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabre, B

    1981-01-01

    It has often been said that ignorance is the most cause of malnutrition. However, in the Pacific Islands rapid modernization has confronted the people with the realization that their traditional way of life is no longer applicable and socially acceptable: this has led to the adoption of practices that are not fully understood or carried out properly (as is the case in bottle feeding). The nutrition education programme described in the paper attempts to halp individuals and communities become aware of the changes taking place and their consequences, and to provide them with the knowledge they need to seek solutions by themselves. To consolidate nutrition education in the various islands, training is undertaken by the Community Education Training Centre and in the territories through in-service courses. The level of training is highly practical and stresses skills and information useful for village people. Emphasis is on methods of motivating the community and techniques in nutrition education; the use of growth charts, cooking demonstrations, vegetable gardens and the proper use of audio-visual aids. One aim is to promote the consumption of coconut milk instead of soft drinks, while a major focus is the encouragement of breast feeding. Recipes are traditional ones modified for higher nutritive value, such as the addition of vegetables, perhaps taro leaves, or banana flower to a typical fish soup. In school, learning units have also been developed to promote appreciation of local food. Apart from the conventional educational techniques and materials, new aids are being utilised, especially games: nutrition bingo, gin rummy, menu planning games, the coconut climber's game, nutrition puzzles, etc. It is the author's experience that, to be effective, nutrition education programmes have to be an integral part of a national strategy aimed at combatting malnutrition. Isolated efforts may be better than none, but results remain marginal, if only because there is such a

  19. Temperature profile data collected using BT and XBT casts in the Gulf of Mexico and TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER from 1985-10-20 to 1985-12-14 (NODC Accession 8700105)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the Gulf of Mexico and TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from 30 October 1985 to...

  20. Temperature profile and other data from CTD Casts in the Gulf of Mexico and TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from 1982-03-26 to 1983-11-26 (NODC Accession 8500267)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the Gulf of Mexico and TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean...

  1. Cloud amount/frequency, NITRATE and other data from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER, NOAA Ship WHITING and MT. MITCHELL in the Gulf of Mexico and NE Pacific from 1991-05-27 to 1991-09-05 (NODC Accession 9200034)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) and other SEACAT data were collected from Gulf of Mexico, NE Pacific (limit-180). Data was collected from NOAA Ship...

  2. Free Trade and Regional Development in Northern Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leendert de Bell

    2010-01-01

    The impressive economic performance of Mexico during the first years after signing the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with Canada and the United States has generated much interest as an example for other Latin American countries in their transition towards market-led economies. However,

  3. The energy supply and demand outlook in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.

    1993-01-01

    The 1980s witnessed spectacular growth rates in the Asia-Pacific region. While the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption is not necessarily one-to-one, energy is a required input for economic activity and trade. Energy demand growth in the Asia-Pacific region has been accordingly rapid. At this point in history, oil and economic growth are so inter-related that changes in one invariably have major repercussions on the other. During the coming decade, continued economic growth is foreseen for the Asia-Pacific region, coupled with the fastest rate of oil demand growth of any region on earth. Pressure will come to bear on the regional oil and gas markets, since demand growth will take place concurrently with a decline in the availability of local, low-sulfur crudes. The region will become even more dependent on imports of Middle Eastern crude, which will result in a higher-sulfur crude slate. Moreover, we anticipate that the existing and planned refinery complexes will lack the capacity and the flexibility to fully satisfy product demand. The consequence will be a higher level of refined product imports. The paper looks in greater detail at the supply and demand situation with respect to oil and natural gas, at regional oil import dependency and refining capacity. (10 figures). (author)

  4. For Smooth Expansion of Coal Trade in the Asia-Pacific Region and the World:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, H.

    1996-01-01

    This document deals with issues related to the smooth expansion of coal trade in the Asia-Pacific region and the world. Since the oil crises, the coal trade has significantly expanded and will further expand, but there remain barriers to this expansion. This paper describes the issues discussed during the first Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Coal Flow Seminar which took place in Tokyo on October 4 to 6, 1994. With the expected increase in coal demand, there will be less barriers concerning its trade. (TEC)

  5. An arms race is coming to the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu Yuan Hsieh

    1997-01-01

    After nearly half a century of the Cold War, the USA and Russia have finally come to carrying out their arms control agreements, drastically cutting their nuclear and conventional weapons as well as military personnel. One would imagine that the world would gradually cease to manufacture and sell weapons. The reality has seen quite the opposite. The Asia-Pacific region needs to establish urgently a forum for dialogue in security and cooperation negotiations in order to resolve peacefully outstanding territorial and political disputes. Certain arms control measures should be initiated by the Asia-Pacific nations, otherwise they will face the 21st century with the prospect of many military confrontations

  6. 2013 Asia-Pacific Education Research Institutes Network (ERI-Net) Regional Study on Transversal Competencies in Education Policy & Practice (Phase I). Regional Synthesis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoko, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    This report provides an understanding of how transversal competencies are viewed, implemented, and adapted in education policy and curriculum across the Asia-Pacific region. The publication consolidates the results of ten country studies carried out in 2013-2014 in ten countries and economies of the Asia-Pacific region, including: Australia; China…

  7. Security in the Asia-Pacific region. Report on working group 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Security in the Asia-Pacific region is highly dependent on nuclear weapons-proliferation which can be achieved in two steps: non-introduction of nuclear weapons by nuclear powers, and creation of nuclear-weapon-free zone. The causes and steps towards arms build-up in the region are discussed. On of the indispensable factors in improving the relations between the countries in the zone is creation of confidence building measures and a security forum

  8. WHO collaboration in hazardous waste management in the Western Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Hisashi [Western Pacific Regional Environmental Health Centre, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    Since April 1989 when the World Health Organization`s (WHO`s) activities in hazardous waste management in the Western Pacific Region were presented at the Pacific Basin Conference in Singapore, WHO and its Member States have carried out a number of collaborative activities in hazardous waste management. These activities focused on three main areas: national capacity building in the management of toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes in rapidly industrializing countries, management of clinical or medical waste, and hazardous waste management in Pacific Island countries. This paper summarizes these collaborative activities, identifies the main problems and issues encountered, and discusses future prospects of WHO collaboration with its Member States in the area of hazardous waste management. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Reflections about nuclear power for the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, D.J.; Wakabayashi, H.

    1984-01-01

    This introductory essay touches briefly on the following: fuel supply, energy security, cost, environment, health, prevention of nuclear war, lead time for construction of plants, size of reactors, nuclear wastes, finance, planning, economics, energy policy, CO 2 buildup from fossil fuels, what kind of reactor best in the circumstances, high technology, electric utilities, generating capacity, accidents, labour productivity, regional cooperation. (U.K.)

  10. Epidemiological update on the dengue situation in the Western Pacific Region, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Yuzo; Chiew, May; Matsui, Tamano

    2015-01-01

    Dengue has caused a substantial public health burden in the Western Pacific Region. To assess this burden and regional trends, data were collated and summarized from indicator-based surveillance systems on dengue cases and deaths from countries and areas in the Western Pacific Region. In 2012, dengue notifications continued to increase with 356,838 dengue cases reported in the Region (relative to 244,855 cases reported in 2011) of which 1248 died. In the Asia subregion, the notification rate was highest in Cambodia, the Philippines and the Lao People's Democratic Republic (316.2, 198.9 and 162.4 per 100,000 population, respectively), and in the Pacific island countries and areas, the notification rate was highest in Niue, the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia (8556.0, 337.0 and 265.1 per 100,000 population, respectively). All four serotypes were circulating in the Region in 2012 with considerable variabilitiy in distribution. Regional surveillance provides important information to enhance situational awareness, conduct risk assessments and improve preparedness activities.

  11. Epidemiological update on the dengue situation in the Western Pacific Region, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzo Arima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dengue has caused a substantial public health burden in the Western Pacific Region. To assess this burden and regional trends, data were collated and summarized from indicator-based surveillance systems on dengue cases and deaths from countries and areas in the Western Pacific Region. In 2012, dengue notifications continued to increase with 356 838 dengue cases reported in the Region (relative to 244 855 cases reported in 2011 of which 1248 died. In the Asia subregion, the notification rate was highest in Cambodia, the Philippines and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (316.2, 198.9 and 162.4 per 100 000 population, respectively, and in the Pacific island countries and areas, the notification rate was highest in Niue, the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia (8556.0, 337.0 and 265.1 per 100 000 population, respectively. All four serotypes were circulating in the Region in 2012 with considerable variabilitiy in distribution. Regional surveillance provides important information to enhance situational awareness, conduct risk assessments and improve preparedness activities.

  12. Effect of temperature on growth and paralytic toxin profiles in isolates of Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band-Schmidt, Christine J; Bustillos-Guzmán, José J; Hernández-Sandoval, Francisco E; Núñez-Vázquez, Erick J; López-Cortés, David J

    2014-11-01

    The effects of temperature on growth, cell toxicity, toxin content, and profile of paralytic shellfish toxins was determined in eight isolates of Gymnodinium catenatum from several localities along the Pacific Coast of Mexico. The isolates were cultivated in modified f/2 media with Se (10(-8) M), and a reduced concentration of Cu (10(-8) M), under a 12 h:12 h day-night cycle with an irradiance of 150 μE m(-2) s(-1). Isolates were progressively adapted for three generations to each of the temperatures (16, 19, 22, 24, 27, 30, and 33 °C). The cultures were grown in 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks with 60 mL of media and harvested by filtration in late exponential growth. Toxins were analyzed by HPLC with a post-column oxidation and fluorescent detection (FLD). G. catenatum isolates tolerate temperatures between 16 and 33 °C, with maximum growth rates of 0.32 and 0.39 div day(-1) at 21 °C and 24 °C, respectively; maximum cell densities of 4700 and 5500 cells mL(-1) were obtained at 27 and 21 °C, respectively. No effect of toxicity per cell with temperature was observed, varying between 10.10 and 28.19 pgSXTeq cell(-1). Ten saxitoxin analogues were detected in all isolates, observing changes in the toxin profile with temperature. C1/2 toxins decreased from 80% mol at 16 °C to 20% mol at 33 °C, B1/2 toxins increased from 19% mol at 16 °C to 42% mol at 33 °C, and decarbamoyl toxins were more abundant at 21 °C. These results show that G. catenatum isolates from different regions of the Pacific coast of Mexico have a similar response to temperature and that this parameter can modify growth rate, cell density, and toxin profile of the species, particularly the decarbamoyl and sulfocarbamoyl toxins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Security of water, energy, and food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, M.; Endo, A.; Fujii, M.; Shoji, J.; Baba, K.; Gurdak, J. J.; Allen, D. M.; Siringan, F. P.; Delinom, R.

    2014-12-01

    Water, energy, and food are the most important and fundamental resources for human beings and society. Demands for these resources are escalating rapidly because of increases in populations and changes in lifestyles. Therefore intensive demand for those resources makes conflicts between resources. Securities of water, energy, and food are treated separately, however they should be considered as one integrated matter, because water-energy-food are connected and it makes nexus and tradeoff. Security in terms of self-production, diversity of alternatives, and variability are evaluated for water, energy and food for thirty two countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The water and energy nexus includes water consumption for the cooling of power plant systems, water use for hydro power generation, and energy consumption for water allocation and pumping. The water and food nexus consists of water consumption for agriculture and aquaculture. The energy and food nexus includes energy consumption for food production and biomass for energy. Analyses of 11 countries within the Asia- Pacific region show that energy consumption for fish is the largest among foods in Japan, Philippines, and Peru, while energy consumption for cereals is the largest among foods in Canada, US, Indonesia, and others. Water consumption for different types of food and energy are also analyzed, including nexus ratio to total water consumption. The water-energy-food nexus at a local level in the Asia Pacific region are examined by the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature project "Human environmental security in Asia Pacific Ring of Fire". Themes including geothermal power plants for energy development and hot springs as water, shale gas for energy development and water consumption/contamination, aquaculture for food and water contamination are used to evaluate the water-energy-food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region.

  14. New flags, upward forces and sheltered harbours: The new ‘Great Game’ in the Pacific Islands region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowasch, Matthias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The centre of the global economy and the US-geostrategic focus seem to be shifting to the Asia-Pacific region. The present paper deals with the role of Pacific Island states in this new ‘Great Game’ between China and Western powers. Pacific Island states have a long tradition in building non-confrontational and open ties with rival powers. While only four countries in the Pacific have known mineral resources, others depend mainly on tourism, fisheries and remittances. China is interested in the vast mineral resources in the Pacific Island region, visible in increasing investment. Nevertheless, Australia remains the principal economic and key security partner for most of the Island states. Besides a painful colonial history, unequal distribution of mining benefits and social disparities are reasons for independence movements. Besides a painful colonial history, unequal distribution of mining benefits and social disparities are reasons for independence movements that are another issue in Pacific Island politics.

  15. Natural gas supply and demand projections for the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The phenomenon of rapid economic growth in the Asia Pacific has inevitably led the countries of this region to expand and diversify their energy sources in order to satisfy their burgeoning energy demands. Natural gas has become an increasingly marketable energy source in this region benefitting from vast reserves and its advantages as an environmentally clean fuel. As a result of the impact of the two oil shocks of the 1970's on the Asia Pacific economy, the governments in the region set about the development of energy strategies which would make their national economies more resilient to the instabilities of world energy price and supply. The Japanese Gas Industry has estimated that the overall rise in demand for energy in Asia, set at an average rate of 3.7% per annum, will see a corresponding growth in demand for natural gas at 5%. Experts from a number of major oil companies, such as Exxon, expect an annual growth in the Asian natural gas market of 6.0 to 6.3%. These figures are over shadowed by the worldwide demand for natural gas which is expected to gain an 8% increase within the next two decades. Approximately 8.75% of the world's proven natural gas reserves are held in Asia-Pacific region (Table I). Most of the region's natural gas production will provide over 100 years of supply. A review of natural gas supply/demand in the Asia-Pacific region is presented in sub-regions, namely ASIAN, Northeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent and Oceania

  16. Capacity Building for Sustainable Marine Research in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liuming; Avril, Bernard; Zhang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    An international workshop on capacity building (CB) for marine research in the Asia-Pacific region (http://www.imber.info/index.php/Science/Working-Groups/Capacity-Building/2012-CB-Workshop) was held at the East China Normal University (ECNU), in Shanghai, China. The workshop brought together about 20 marine researchers and CB experts from 14 countries to discuss CB experiences, assess regional CB needs, and consider recommendations to improve regional CB, which would be of interest to other groups and other geographical regions.

  17. Characterization of emissions sources in the California-Mexico Border Region during Cal-Mex 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, M. A.; Lei, W.; Li, G.; Bei, N.; Barrera, H.; Tejeda, D.; Molina, L. T.; Cal-Mex 2010 Emissions Team

    2010-12-01

    The California-Mexico border region provides an opportunity to evaluate the characteristics of the emission processes in rapidly expanding urban areas where intensive international trade and commerce activities occur. Intense anthropogenic activities, biomass burning, as well as biological and geological sources significantly contribute to high concentration levels of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), air toxics, and ozone observed in the California-US Baja California-Mexico border region. The continued efforts by Mexico and US for improving and updating the emissions inventories in the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali has helped to understand the emission processes in the border region. In addition, the recent Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign included a series of measurements aimed at characterizing the emissions from major sources in the California-Mexico border region. In this work we will present our analyzes of the data obtained during Cal-Mex 2010 for the characterization of the emission sources and their use for the evaluation of the recent emissions inventories for the Mexican cities of Tijuana and Mexicali. The developed emissions inventories will be implemented in concurrent air quality modeling efforts for understanding the physical and chemical transformations of air pollutants in the California-Mexico border region and their impacts.

  18. Environmental neglect that fuels migration. Regional report 3: Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This article reports the impact of environmental neglect on the Mexican population. Despite its participation in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Mexico is experiencing an environmental crisis. Being the first developing country to engage in the Green Revolution during the 1950s, the country experienced a four-fold increase in grain production. The population increased rapidly from 27 million to 92 million in the 1990s. Due to the increase in population and because the government was too preoccupied with its economic endeavors, the environment suffered, which in a way counteracted the benefits of the Green Revolution. Furthermore, environmental degradation (like loss of forests, less water supply to agricultural lands) had a chain effect. Large farmers engaging in capital-intensive cash cropping for export are buying out small farmers, which leads to many landless or near-landless peasants. Also, many marginalized farmers have long been forced to migrate into marginal lands. Because of the increase in migration in addition to the present population of 92 million, Mexico is showing inadequacy in securing food, employment, and houses. A realistic prognosis is that many Mexicans in the year 2000 could be poorer than they were in 1985; but with the help of the NAFTA free-trade zone, Mexico is hopeful to increase its employment opportunities and reverse its present situation.

  19. Re-Evaluating the Geological Evidence for Late Holocene Marine Incursion Events along the Guerrero Seismic Gap on the Pacific Coast of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Bianchette

    Full Text Available Despite the large number of tsunamis that impact Mexico's Pacific coast, stratigraphic studies focusing on geological impacts are scanty, making it difficult to assess the long-term risks for this vulnerable region. Surface samples and six cores were taken from Laguna Mitla near Acapulco to examine sedimentological and geochemical evidence for marine incursion events. Sediment cores collected from behind the beach barrier are dominated by intercalated layers of peat and inorganic sediments, mostly silt and clay, with little or no sand. Sand- and shell-rich clastic layers with high levels of sulfur, calcium, and strontium only occur adjacent to the relict beach ridge remnants near the center of the lagoon. With the exception of one thin fine sand layer, the absence of sand in the near-shore cores and the predominance of the terrigenous element titanium in the inorganic layers, evidently eroded from the surrounding hillslopes, suggests that these large-grained intervals do not represent episodic marine incursions, but rather were likely formed by the erosion and redeposition of older marine deposits derived from the beach ridge remnants when water levels were high. These results do not support the occurrence of a large tsunami event at Laguna Mitla during the Late Holocene.

  20. Re-Evaluating the Geological Evidence for Late Holocene Marine Incursion Events along the Guerrero Seismic Gap on the Pacific Coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchette, Thomas A; McCloskey, Terrence A; Liu, Kam-Biu

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of tsunamis that impact Mexico's Pacific coast, stratigraphic studies focusing on geological impacts are scanty, making it difficult to assess the long-term risks for this vulnerable region. Surface samples and six cores were taken from Laguna Mitla near Acapulco to examine sedimentological and geochemical evidence for marine incursion events. Sediment cores collected from behind the beach barrier are dominated by intercalated layers of peat and inorganic sediments, mostly silt and clay, with little or no sand. Sand- and shell-rich clastic layers with high levels of sulfur, calcium, and strontium only occur adjacent to the relict beach ridge remnants near the center of the lagoon. With the exception of one thin fine sand layer, the absence of sand in the near-shore cores and the predominance of the terrigenous element titanium in the inorganic layers, evidently eroded from the surrounding hillslopes, suggests that these large-grained intervals do not represent episodic marine incursions, but rather were likely formed by the erosion and redeposition of older marine deposits derived from the beach ridge remnants when water levels were high. These results do not support the occurrence of a large tsunami event at Laguna Mitla during the Late Holocene.

  1. Preparedness for Zika virus testing in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raynal C Squires

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available On 1 February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO declared that clusters of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders occurring in Zika virus (ZIKV-affected areas constituted a public health emergency of international concern. Increased surveillance of the virus, including the requirement for laboratory confirmation of infection, was recommended. The WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific therefore initiated a rapid survey among national-level public health laboratories in 19 countries and areas to determine regional capacity for ZIKV detection. The survey indicated that 16/19 (84% countries had capacity for molecular detection of ZIKV while others facilitated testing through referral. These results suggest that robust laboratory capacity is in place to support ZIKV surveillance in the Western Pacific Region.

  2. TPP: Is the best path to regional integration of Asia Pacific?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Carlos Martínez Jurado

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Asia-Pacific has distinguished itself for its high levels of interdependence and its fast economic growth, however, it lacks of a strong regional institutional framework. Despite the existence of APEC as a forum which includes the region’s diversity of economic development levels and cultural differences, its voluntary approach which relays on open regionalism has not allowed member economies to advance towards its ambitious goals of trade and investment liberalization. Therefore, several of its members have decided to embrace binding schemes, at a bilateral and multilateral basis, among them the TPP, which due to its comprehensive approach, for many represents the better route to achieve regional integration. However, there are questions raised regarding the convenience for Asia-Pacific to transit from a flexible model towards a reciprocal one, and the possible costs involved in such process.

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance Control Strategies: A Coordinated Research Initiative Experience in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Lisette; Asenjo, Gabriela; Vergara, Constanza; Cornejo, Javiera

    2017-05-01

    The objective was to gather information on the status of antimicrobial surveillance in the Asia Pacific region and suggest control strategies. Twenty-one economies of the Asia Pacific region participated in this initiative. A survey was conducted on antimicrobial use and surveillance throughout the region. A workshop was carried out to create awareness about the issue and discuss the implementation of control strategies. Based on the survey results and workshop conclusions, it can be established that there is better understanding of the implications of antimicrobial resistance in the human medicine area. Only few economies take actions to control antimicrobial resistance on a veterinary/agricultural level. To confront antimicrobial resistance, it is critical to raise awareness; cooperation between all countries is needed to apply international standards, to be able to have harmonized public policies. Countries must align and improve their systems for surveillance and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in human, animals, and the environment.

  4. Preparedness for Zika virus testing in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Raynal C; Konings, Frank

    2016-01-01

    On 1 February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that clusters of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders occurring in Zika virus (ZIKV)-affected areas constituted a public health emergency of international concern. Increased surveillance of the virus, including the requirement for laboratory confirmation of infection, was recommended. The WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific therefore initiated a rapid survey among national-level public health laboratories in 19 countries and areas to determine regional capacity for ZIKV detection. The survey indicated that 16/19 (84%) countries had capacity for molecular detection of ZIKV while others facilitated testing through referral. These results suggest that robust laboratory capacity is in place to support ZIKV surveillance in the Western Pacific Region.

  5. Respiratory health issues in the Asia-Pacific region: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, Euzebiusz; Musk, Arthur William

    2011-01-01

    The Asia-Pacific region is home to a large heterogeneous population whose respiratory health is influenced by diverse social, economic and environmental factors. Despite this variability, the most prevalent causes of respiratory morbidity and mortality are tobacco smoking, infection, and air pollution. This review aims to summarize current respiratory health issues in the region including smoking-related diseases especially COPD, lung cancer and infectious problems such as pandemic influenza, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, bacterial pneumonia and tuberculosis, as well as the contribution of air pollution to respiratory disease. Published data on trends in the epidemiology and management of respiratory diseases and are summarized; finally, the limitations of available data and projections for the future of respiratory health in the region are discussed. © 2010 Commonwealth of Australia. Respirology © 2010 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  6. Application of radiation processing in Asia and the pacific region: focus on Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman, H.J.; Mohd Dahlan

    1995-01-01

    Applications of radiation processing in Malaysia and other developing countries in Asia and the Pacific region is increasing as the countries move toward industrialisation. At present, there are more than 85 gamma facilities and 334 electron accelerators in Asia and the Pacific region which are mainly in Japan, Rep. of Korea and China. The main applications which are in the interest of the region are radiation sterilisation of medical products; radiation crosslinking of wire and cable, heat shrinkable film and tube, and foam; radiation euring of surface coatings, printing inks and adhesive; radiation vulcanisation of natural rubber latex; radiation processing of agro-industrial waste; radiation treatment of sewage sludge and municipal waste; food irradiation; tissue grafts and radiation synthesis of bioactive materials. (author)

  7. Application of radiation processing in Asia and the Pacific region: focus on Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan, K.Z.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Applications of radiation processing in Malaysia and other developing countries in Asia and the Pacific region is increasing as the countries move toward industrialisation. At present, there are more than 85 gamma facilities and 334 electron accelerators in Asia and the Pacific region which are mainly in Japan, Rep. of Korea and China. The main applications which are in the interest of the region are radiation sterilisation of medical products; radiation crosslinking of wire and cable, heat shrinkable film and tube, and foam; radiation curing of surface coatings, printing inks and adhesive; radiation vulcanisation of natural rubber latex; radiation processing of agro-industrial waste; radiation treatment of sewage sludge and municipal waste; food irradiation; tissue grafts and radiation synthesis of bioactive materials. (author)

  8. Politics and economics in the Asia-Pacific region: Beyond the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byung-Joon Ahn

    1995-01-01

    Linked inexorably by geopolitics and geo-economics, Asia and North America are facing a number of common challenges in the aftermath of the Cold War. The prospects of a North Korea armed with nuclear weapons and medium-range ballistic missiles, and of China becoming another superpower, are impelling both Asia and America, and the US, Japan, and South Korea in particular, to strengthen their partnership for security, interdependence, and democracy. Politics and economics in the Asia-Pacific region are at a crossroads, facing a new era of post-Cold War uncertainty. This chapter addresses the major trends emerging in the region in terms of changing national and international perspectives. It is important to examine what these changes imply for a new security and economic framework in Asia and the Pacific. The gravity of the world's political economy is shifting to this region

  9. The Asia-Pacific Region on the Paris Agreement against Climate Change: Geopolitics and Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bertha Cuevas Tello

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the complexity surrounding climate change, it is argued that the willingness to cooperate on the part of the States is based on one of the faces that, for the climate field, can offer geopolitics: strengths or weaknesses (understood as vulnerability of geographical conditions, location and territory. That is, the physical, geographic, economic and demographic factors of each State influence the decision making of the foreign climate policy, which induces them to cooperate or the abstention of it. This paper will address, broadly speaking, the participation of the main economies of the Asia-Pacific region in the institutionalization of climate change in the International Agenda; the importance of the economies of the Asia-Pacific region with regard to the Paris Agreement; and the geopolitical strengths and weaknesses that explain the cooperative or non-cooperative behavior of the region in the fight against climate change.

  10. Modern Integration Processes in the Asia-Pacific Region: the Formation of Trans-Regional Mega-Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliuta Iryna A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century, especially in the last decade, new intercontinental integration projects appear on the global stage with a high potential for influencing the regional economic structure and at the same time bearing certain challenges for the international geo-economic and geo-political map of the world. Comprehensive new-generation inter-regional agreements are being formed, such as the TTP, the TTIP, the RCEP, the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement between Canada and the EU (CETA, the Japan-EU Economic Partnership. The Asia-Pacific region has been an active participant in the creation and promotion of mega-regional trade agreements. Mega-regional trade agreements in the Asia-Pacific region, namely the TTP and the RCEP, are analyzed as mega-projects with an unprecedented scale of liberalization within the framework of the agreement that include provisions complementing the WTO framework or extending beyond it. There identified reasons for the emergence of mega-regional trade agreements and prospects for the implementation of these projects, as well as possible consequences for the international economic system. It is established that new trans-regional projects, providing certain advantages to the participating countries, simultaneously carry both opportunities and challenges for the world economy. The latter are associated with the threats of crowding the countries that do not take an active part in the integration processes out of the global chains of value creation as well as of the processes of international trade.

  11. Nuclear Power in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    To understand the role of nuclear energy in Asia today, it is important to recognize that nuclear technology has had a long period of development in the region and has helped shape present Asian political and economic patterns. Nuclear power shares with some of the renewable energy systems the problem of capital intensiveness and technological uncertainty, which tends to prevent both from becoming economically attractive during rapid changes in the oil market. The economic and physical risks associated with nuclear power expansion are likely to lead to low growth rates, although nuclear power will remain an important way to help reduce oil dependency. 156 references, 4 figures, 10 tables

  12. Nuclear-weapon-free zones in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Eiji

    1997-01-01

    The Review and Extension Conference of the Parties to the Non-Proliferation Treaty decided on the indefinite extension of the Treaty, and adopted two documents 'principles and Objectives for Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament' and 'Strengthening the Review Process for the Treaty'. In the former document, the Conference encourages the establishment of nuclear-weapon-free zones, on the conviction that such zones will enhance global and regional peace and security. Besides the Rarotonga Treaty, ASEAN countries plan to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the South-East Asia

  13. Current and potential impacts of mosquitoes and the pathogens they vector in the Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Mosquitoes and the pathogens they transmit are ubiquitous throughout most of the temperate and tropical regions of the world. The natural and pre-European distribution and diversity of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases throughout much of the Pacific region, however, depicts a depauperate and relatively benign fauna reinforcing the dream of “paradise regained”. In the central and South Pacific few mosquito species were able to colonize the remotest islands and atolls. Native mosquitoes are limited to a few far-ranging species and island endemics are typically restricted to the genera of Aedes and Culex. Only lymphatic filariasis appears to have been present as an endemic mosquito-borne disease before European contact. In nearby Australia, however, some 242 species of mosquitoes are known to occur and more than 70 arboviruses have been identified (Mackenzie 1999). In this regard Australia is more similar to the rest of the tropic and subtropical world than the smaller islands of Oceania. In our ever-shrinking world of global commerce, military activity and travel, the nature of mosquito-borne disease in the Pacific was bound to change. This paper is a brief summary of introduced mosquitoes in the Pacific and their potential impacts on human and wildlife health.

  14. Dynamic spatiotemporal trends of dengue transmission in the Asia-Pacific region, 1955-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahera Banu

    Full Text Available Dengue fever (DF is one of the most important emerging arboviral human diseases. Globally, DF incidence has increased by 30-fold over the last fifty years, and the geographic range of the virus and its vectors has expanded. The disease is now endemic in more than 120 countries in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. This study examines the spatiotemporal trends of DF transmission in the Asia-Pacific region over a 50-year period, and identified the disease's cluster areas.The World Health Organization's DengueNet provided the annual number of DF cases in 16 countries in the Asia-Pacific region for the period 1955 to 2004. This fifty-year dataset was divided into five ten-year periods as the basis for the investigation of DF transmission trends. Space-time cluster analyses were conducted using scan statistics to detect the disease clusters. This study shows an increasing trend in the spatiotemporal distribution of DF in the Asia-Pacific region over the study period. Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Singapore and Malaysia are identified as the most likely clusters (relative risk = 13.02 of DF transmission in this region in the period studied (1995 to 2004. The study also indicates that, for the most part, DF transmission has expanded southwards in the region.This information will lead to the improvement of DF prevention and control strategies in the Asia-Pacific region by prioritizing control efforts and directing them where they are most needed.

  15. A survey on pulmonary thromboendarterectomy in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashar Izzat, Mohammad; Almohammad, Farouk; Raslan, Ahmad F

    2017-06-01

    Background Surgical pulmonary thromboendarterectomy has been established as the treatment of choice for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. We conducted a survey among Asia-Pacific cardiothoracic surgeons to examine their current practice demographics and reflect their views on the future prospects for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy surgery. Methods All cardiothoracic surgeons who were registered on the CTSNet.org website and based in the Asia-Pacific region were invited to participate in an online survey. The electronic questionnaire was completed by 172 (6.3%) surgeons. Responses were recorded anonymously and tabularized as absolute figures and fractions. Results Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy surgery has been performed by few Asia-Pacific surgeons and in small numbers of patients, but survival rates and functional outcomes were satisfactory in most experiences. Failures were thought to have resulted primarily from the difficulty in selecting suitable candidates for surgery. The need for greater clinical experience was clear, yet this might be hampered by the limited recognition of pulmonary thromboendarterectomy surgery as a potential cure for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Most surgeons considered that this procedure should be restricted to designated expert centers, and acknowledged the need to organize dedicated regional meetings where clinical practice guidelines can be established and updated as appropriate for regional healthcare facilities. Conclusions Although much effort is needed before pulmonary thromboendarterectomy surgery becomes widely adopted in the Asia-Pacific region, many surgeons and centers are already seeking its implementation. Designating expert centers, bringing together a regional working group on pulmonary thromboendarterectomy, and establishing clinical practice guidelines as appropriate for regional healthcare facilities were recommended.

  16. Evaluating energy security in the Asia-Pacific region: A novel methodological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivoda, Vlado

    2010-01-01

    This paper establishes an 'energy security assessment instrument' based on a new and expanded conceptualisation of energy security. The instrument is a systematic interrogative tool for evaluating energy security of individual states or regions. It consists of eleven broad energy security dimensions associated with the current global energy system. These energy security dimensions take into account numerous quantitative and qualitative attributes of each country's energy security and policy, and include both traditional energy security concerns and many new factors, such as environmental, socio-cultural and technological. Another dimension, largely absent from previous analyses, is the existence of, and the issues addressed in, energy security policy in each country. This instrument serves as an assessment system with which to evaluate energy security in the Asia-Pacific region. The existing studies on energy security in the Asia-Pacific region suffer from serious limitations. No study to date examines regional energy security policies by adopting a more comprehensive energy security definition as a starting point. Most studies also focus on a single country or issue. Even if they examine energy security in major regional economies, they lack critical comparative analysis. The instrument is valuable as it may be utilised to draw a comprehensive map of regional energy security situation, which can also include comparative analysis of energy security characteristics across the Asia-Pacific region. Ultimately, it may be utilised to set up a framework for improved regional energy cooperation with the aim of providing regional leaders with a blueprint for improving regional energy security and policy.

  17. September 1985 Mexico City, Mexico Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.1 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Mexico. The damage was concentrated in a 25 square km area of Mexico City, 350 km from the epicenter....

  18. The Arctic Marine Pulses Model: Linking Contiguous Domains in the Pacific Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S. E.; Stabeno, P. J.

    2016-02-01

    The Pacific Arctic marine ecosystem extends from the northern Bering Sea, across the Chukchi and into the East Siberian and Beaufort seas. Food webs in this domain are short, a simplicity that belies the biophysical complexity underlying trophic linkages from primary production to humans. Existing biophysical models, such as pelagic-benthic coupling and advective processes, provide frameworks for connecting certain aspects of the marine food web, but do not offer a full accounting of events that occur seasonally across the Pacific Arctic. In the course of the Synthesis of Arctic Research (SOAR) project, a holistic Arctic Marine Pulses (AMP) model was developed that depicts seasonal biophysical `pulses' across a latitudinal gradient, and linking four previously-described contiguous domains, including the: (i) Pacific-Arctic domain = the focal region; (ii) seasonal ice zone domain; (iii) Pacific marginal domain; and (iv) riverine coastal domain. The AMP model provides a spatial-temporal framework to guide research on dynamic ecosystem processes during this period of rapid biophysical changes in the Pacific Arctic. Some of the processes included in the model, such as pelagic-benthic coupling in the Northern Bering and Chukchi seas, and advection and upwelling along the Beaufort shelf, are already the focus of sampling via the Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) and other research programs. Other aspects such as biological processes associated with the seasonal ice zone and trophic responses to riverine outflow have received less attention. The AMP model could be enhanced by the application of visualization tools to provide a means to watch a season unfold in space and time. The capability to track sea ice dynamics and water masses and to move nutrients, prey and upper-trophic predators in space and time would provide a strong foundation for the development of predictive human-inclusive ecosystem models for the Pacific Arctic.

  19. Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program : Five Year Report, 1985-1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program (U.S.)

    1991-02-01

    This five-year report describes activities of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program between 1985 and 1990. Begun in 1979, this Regional Bioenergy Program became the model for the nation's four other regional bioenergy programs in 1983. Within the time span of this report, the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program has undertaken a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided the work of its five participating state energy programs. During this period, the Regional Bioenergy Program has brought together public- and private-sector organizations to promote the use of local biomass and municipal-waste energy resources and technologies. This report claims information on the mission, goals and accomplishments of the Regional Bioenergy Program. It describes the biomass projects conducted by the individual states of the region, and summarizes the results of the programs technical studies. Publications from both the state and regional projects are listed. The report goes on to consider future efforts of the Regional Bioenergy Program under its challenging assignment. Research activities include: forest residue estimates; Landsat biomass mapping; woody biomass plantations; industrial wood-fuel market; residential space heating with wood; materials recovery of residues; co-firing wood chips with coal; biomass fuel characterization; wood-boosted geothermal power plants; wood gasification; municipal solid wastes to energy; woodstove study; slash burning; forest depletion; and technology transfer. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Epidemiologic update on the dengue situation in the Western Pacific Region, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Yuzo; Edelstein, Zoe Rebecca; Han, Hwi Kwang; Matsui, Tamano

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is an emerging vectorborne infectious disease that is a major public health concern in the Asia and the Pacific. Official dengue surveillance data for 2011 provided by ministries of health were summarized as part of routine activities of the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. Based on officially reported surveillance data, dengue continued to show sustained activity in the Western Pacific Region. In 2011, Member States reported a total of 244,855 cases of which 839 died for a case fatality rate of 0.34%. More than 1000 cases were reported each from Cambodia, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, the Philippines, the Marshall Islands, Singapore and Viet Nam. Cambodia, the Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands reported higher activity relative to 2010. There continues to be great variability among the dengue-endemic countries and areas in the Region in the number of cases and serotype distribution. The continued high notification rate and complex dengue epidemiology in the Region highlight the need for information-sharing on a routine and timely basis.

  1. Epidemiologic update on the dengue situation in the Western Pacific Region, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamano Matsui

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is an emerging vectorborne infectious disease that is a major public health concern in Asia and the Pacific. Official dengue surveillance data for 2011 provided by ministries of health were summarized as part of routine activities of the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. Based on officially reported surveillance data, dengue continued to show sustained activity in the Western Pacific Region. In 2011, Member States reported a total of 244 855 cases of which 839 died. More than 1000 cases were reported each from Cambodia, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, the Philippines, the Marshall Islands, Singapore and Viet Nam. Cambodia, the Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands reported more cases relative to 2010. There continues to be great variability among the dengue-endemic countries and areas in the Region in the number of cases and serotype distribution. The continued high notification rate and complex dengue epidemiology in the Region highlight the need for information-sharing on a routine and timely basis.

  2. A Survey of Home Enteral Nutrition Practices and Reimbursement in the Asia Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin Wong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Literature regarding the use of home enteral nutrition (HEN and how it is reimbursed in the Asia Pacific region is limited. This research survey aims to determine the availability of HEN, the type of feeds and enteral access used, national reimbursement policies, the presence of nutrition support teams (NSTs, and clinical nutrition education in this region. An electronic questionnaire was sent to 20 clinical nutrition societies and leaders in the Asia Pacific region in August 2017, where thirteen countries responded. Comparison of HEN reimbursement and practice between countries of different income groups based on the World Bank’s data was investigated. Financial support for HEN is only available in 40% of the countries. An association was found between availability of financial support for HEN and health expenditure (r = 0.63, p = 0.021. High and middle-upper income countries use mainly commercial supplements for HEN, while lower-middle income countries use mainly blenderized diet. The presence of NSTs is limited, and only present mainly in acute settings. Sixty percent of the countries indicated an urgent need for funding and reimbursement of HEN. This survey demonstrates the varied clinical and economic situation in the Asia Pacific region. There is a lack of reimbursement, clinical support, and inadequate educational opportunities, especially for the lower-middle income countries.

  3. New flags, upward forces and sheltered harbours: The new ‘Great Game’ in the Pacific Islands region

    OpenAIRE

    Kowasch, Matthias; Lindenmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The centre of the global economy and the US-geostrategic focus seem to be shifting to the Asia-Pacific region. The present paper deals with the role of Pacific Island states in this new ‘Great Game’ between China and Western powers. Pacific Island states have a long tradition in building non-confrontational and open ties with rival powers. While only four countries in the Pacific have known mineral resources, others depend mainly on tourism, fisheries and remittances. China is interested in t...

  4. Results of the IAEA/RCA personal dosemeter intercomparison in the Asian and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, H.; Minami, K.; Griffith, R.V.

    1994-01-01

    In 1988, the International Atomic Energy Agency started the Regional Co-operative Agreement project for strengthening the radiation protection infrastructure in the Asian and Pacific region. One component of the initial programme was a regional personal dosimetry intercomparison, which was subsequently conducted in three phases over three years during the period 1990 to 1992. Seventeen organisations of all 14 member states participated in the programmes. Irradiations and data compilation were conducted by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This paper describes the results of the intercomparison programmes and discusses some features and personal dosimetry problems in the RCA member states. (author)

  5. A Comprehensive Approach to Bi-National Regional Energy Planning in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt Morrison

    2007-12-31

    The Pacific NorthWest Economic Region, a statutory organization chartered by the Northwest states of Alaska, Washington, Idaho, Montana, and Oregon, and the western Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and the Yukon through its Energy Working Group launched a bi-national energy planning initiative designed to create a Pacific Northwest energy planning council of regional public/private stakeholders from both Canada and the US. There is an urgent need to deal with the comprehensive energy picture now before our hoped for economic recovery results in energy price spikes which are likely to happen because the current supply will not meet predicted demand. Also recent events of August 14th have shown that our bi-national energy grid system is intricately interdependent, and additional planning for future capacity is desperately needed.

  6. New information on regional subsidence and soil fracturing in Mexico City Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Auvinet

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, updated information about regional subsidence in Mexico City downtown area is presented. Data obtained by R. Gayol in 1891, are compared with information obtained recently from surveys using the reference points of Sistema de Aguas de la Ciudad de México (2008 and on the elevation of a cloud of points on the ground surface determined using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR technology. In addition, this paper provides an overview of recent data obtained from systematic studies focused on understanding soil fracturing associated with regional land subsidence and mapping of areas susceptible to cracking in Mexico City Valley.

  7. [Migration to the northern frontier of Mexico and its relationship with the regional labor market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguiano Tellez, M E

    1998-01-01

    "This document tries to show the close relationship between the recent population growth in the northern border cities of Mexico and the dynamic demand of the regional market labor. First, it analyzes the evolution of demographic growth and the development of economic activities, in the Mexican borders in urban towns, then it reviews the data from the survey called Encuesta sobre Migracion en la Frontera Norte de Mexico in order to explore the connection between the regional labor market characteristics and the internal and international migration flows." (EXCERPT)

  8. The Costs of Producing Biodiesel from Microalgae in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Griffin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Capital and operating cost estimates for converting microalgae to oil or biodiesel are compared. These cost comparisons are based on Australian locations, which are expected to fall at the lower end of the cost spectrum in the Asia-Pacific Region and other parts of the world.  It is assumed that microalgae are grown in a concentrated saltwater medium in raceway ponds, then are harvested, dewatered and the oil is extracted and converted to biodiesel by transesterification. The size of the desired pond system affects the number of potential locations due to constraints in resource availability. Cost estimates vary significantly due to differences in the assumed oil productivity, the harvesting equipment and the method of converting residual biomass to electric power. A comparison is made with recent cost estimates from other parts of the world, in which the expected costs of microalgae oil production from a number of publicly available sources lay between 0.34–31.0 USD/L.  The resulting cost estimates of between 1.37—2.66 USD/L are at the lower end of this scale, thereby confirming that Australia has the potential to be a low-cost producer of algal oil and biodiesel in the Asia-Pacific Region.  It was significant that, despite similar assumptions for the microalgae-to-oil process, cost estimates for the final biodiesel or oil price differed by a factor of 2.  This highlights the high degree of uncertainty in such economic predictions. Keywords: Asia-Pacific region; biodiesel; economics; microalgaeThis article is cited as :Griffin, G., Batten, D., Beer, T., & Campbell, P. (2013. The Costs of Producing Biodiesel from Microalgae in the Asia-Pacific Region. International Journal Of Renewable Energy Development (IJRED, 2(3, 105-113. doi:10.14710/ijred.2.3.105-113Permalinkhttp://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.2.3.105-113

  9. Eichhornia crassipes as a potential phytoremediation agent and an important bioresource for Asia Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhat Kumar Rai; Mayanglambam Muni Singh

    2016-01-01

    Eichhornia crassipes is a free floating plant found growing in almost all the aquatic environment of Asia Pacific region. The invasive and infesting nature of this plant disturbed the whole environment wherever if present and has become one of the most problematic environmental concern. The current review discussed the cost-effective and eco-friendly way of utilizing this invasive and infesting plant in a way to incur the daily needs and also help in controlling the negative outcome. Developm...

  10. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region; Clean Energy Solutions Center (CESC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-11

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to governments in the Asia/Pacific region, including the benefits of that assistance.

  11. Intergrating Data From NASA Missions Into NOAAs Pacific Region Intergrated Climatology Information Products (PRICIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benham, L.; Chester, K.; Eisberg, A.; Iyer, S.; Lee, K.; Marra, J.; Schmidt, C.; Skiles, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Pacific Region Integrated Climatology Information Products (PRICIP) Project is developing a number of products that will successfully promote awareness and understanding of the patterns and effects of "storminess" in the Pacific Rim. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Integrated Data and Environmental Applications (IDEA) Center initiated the PRICIP Project to improve our understanding of such storm processes by creating a web portal containing both scientific and socioeconomic information about Pacific storms. Working in conjunction with partners at NOAA, students from the NASA Ames DEVELOP internship program are integrating NASA satellite imagery into the PRICIP web portal by animating eight storm systems that took place in the South Pacific Ocean between 1992 and 2005, four other anomalous high water events in the Hawaiian Islands, and annual storm tracks. The primary intended audience includes coastal disaster management decision-makers and other similarly concerned agencies. The broad access of these web-based products is also expected to reach scientists, the National Weather Service (NWS), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and media broadcasting consumers. The newly integrated and animated hindcast data will also help educate laypersons about past storms and help them for future storms.

  12. Geochemistry of Dissolved Trace Metals in the Waters of Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur, Pacific Coast, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Babu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Forty two samples were acquired from the surface and bottom water profiles along 5 transects spread over Bahia Magdalena lagoon, Baja California Sur to assess the behavior of trace metals in a high influenced upwelling region on the Pacific coast. To elaborate the fate of metals, also the physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature, salinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen). Determination of the concentrations of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cd As, Hg) were measured using Atomic absorption spectrometry. The results demonstrated high values of As, Ni and Co which is attributed to the local geology and phosphate deposits. Low values of Fe and Mn are attested to the oxic conditions of the lagoon which are responsible for the oxidation of Fe and Mn. The region witnesses raised temperatures (28.92ºC) and salinities of 35.2 PSU for its arid climatic conditions and high rates of evaporation. In general, the region presented minor quantities of dissolved trace metals due to dispersion and high intense interaction with the open sea. The results were also compared with other studies to understand the enrichment pattern in this side of the pacific coast which experiences various geothermal activities and upwelling phenomenon.

  13. Infectious disease morbidity in the US region bordering Mexico, 1990-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, T J; Bryan, R T

    2000-11-01

    The United States and Mexico share an international boundary approximately 3000 km long. This border separates 2 nations with great differences in health status. The objective of this study was to assess morbidity due to infectious diseases in the US region bordering Mexico. The incidence between 1990 and 1998 of 22 nationally notifiable infectious diseases was compared between border and nonborder regions. Disease rates, reflected as rate ratios, were higher in the border region for botulism, brucellosis, diphtheria, hepatitis A, measles, mumps, rabies, rubella, salmonellosis, and shigellosis than in either of 2 nonborder comparison regions. These data indicate that incidence rates for a variety of infectious diseases of public health importance are significantly higher in the United States along the Mexican border than in nonborder regions. These results suggest that an inadequate public health infrastructure may contribute to excess morbidity due to infectious diseases in the border region.

  14. Probiotics for gastrointestinal disorders: Proposed recommendations for children of the Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Donald; Hock, Quak Seng; Kadim, Musal; Mohan, Neelam; Ryoo, Eell; Sandhu, Bhupinder; Yamashiro, Yuichiro; Jie, Chen; Hoekstra, Hans; Guarino, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Recommendations for probiotics are available in several regions. This paper proposes recommendations for probiotics in pediatric gastrointestinal diseases in the Asia-Pacific region. Epidemiology and clinical patterns of intestinal diseases in Asia-Pacific countries were discussed. Evidence-based recommendations and randomized controlled trials in the region were revised. Cultural aspects, health management issues and economic factors were also considered. Final recommendations were approved by applying the Likert scale and rated using the GRADE system. Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (Sb) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) were strongly recommended as adjunct treatment to oral rehydration therapy for gastroenteritis. Lactobacillus reuteri could also be considered. Probiotics may be considered for prevention of (with the indicated strains): antibiotic-associated diarrhea (LGG or Sb); Clostridium difficile-induced diarrhea (Sb); nosocomial diarrhea (LGG); infantile colic (L reuteri) and as adjunct treatment of Helicobacter pylori (Sb and others). Specific probiotics with a history of safe use in preterm and term infants may be considered in infants for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. There is insufficient evidence for recommendations in other conditions. Despite a diversity of epidemiological, socioeconomical and health system conditions, similar recommendations apply well to Asia pacific countries. These need to be validated with local randomized-controlled trials. PMID:29259371

  15. The energy supply and demand outlook in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, Fereidun; Yamaguchi, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    The 1980s witnessed spectacular growth rates in the Asia-Pacific region, the rising economic power of Japan, an unprecedented opening of China's economy, the emergence of the ''Four Tigers'' or the ''Little Dragons'' (Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong), a rapid growth of exports from the region - in short, remarkable economic success and an increase in entrepreneurialism and the free-market philosophy. Even the United States, which historically has been Atlantic-oriented, sat up and took notice. While the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption is not necessarily one-to-one, energy is a required input for economic activity and trade. Energy demand growth in the Asia-Pacific region has been accordingly rapid. At this point in history, oil and economic growth are so interrelated that changes in one invariably have major repercussions on the other. During the coming decade, continued economic growth is foreseen for the Asia-Pacific region, coupled with the fastest rate of oil demand growth of any region on Earth. Pressure will come to bear on the regional oil and gas markets, since demand growth will take place concurrently with a decline in the availability of local, low-sulphur crudes. The region will become even more dependent on imports of Middle Eastern crude, which will result in a higher-sulphur crude slate. Moreover, we anticipate that the existing and planned refinery complexes will lack the capacity and the flexibility to fully satisfy product demand. The consequence will be a higher level of refined product imports. (author)

  16. The energy supply and demand outlook in the Asia-Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesharaki, Fereidun; Yamaguchi, Nancy (East-West Centre, Honolulu, Hawaii (US))

    The 1980s witnessed spectacular growth rates in the Asia-Pacific region, the rising economic power of Japan, an unprecedented opening of China's economy, the emergence of the ''Four Tigers'' or the ''Little Dragons'' (Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong), a rapid growth of exports from the region - in short, remarkable economic success and an increase in entrepreneurialism and the free-market philosophy. Even the United States, which historically has been Atlantic-oriented, sat up and took notice. While the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption is not necessarily one-to-one, energy is a required input for economic activity and trade. Energy demand growth in the Asia-Pacific region has been accordingly rapid. At this point in history, oil and economic growth are so interrelated that changes in one invariably have major repercussions on the other. During the coming decade, continued economic growth is foreseen for the Asia-Pacific region, coupled with the fastest rate of oil demand growth of any region on Earth. Pressure will come to bear on the regional oil and gas markets, since demand growth will take place concurrently with a decline in the availability of local, low-sulphur crudes. The region will become even more dependent on imports of Middle Eastern crude, which will result in a higher-sulphur crude slate. Moreover, we anticipate that the existing and planned refinery complexes will lack the capacity and the flexibility to fully satisfy product demand. The consequence will be a higher level of refined product imports. (author).

  17. PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region: opportunities, implementation and barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Iryna; Grulich, Andrew E; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Anand, Tarandeep; Janyam, Surang; Poonkasetwattana, Midnight; Baggaley, Rachel; van Griensven, Frits; Lo, Ying-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV epidemics in the Asia-Pacific region are concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM) and other key populations. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention intervention and could be a potential game changer in the region. We discuss the progress towards PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region, including opportunities and barriers. Discussion Awareness about PrEP in the Asia-Pacific is still low and so are its levels of use. A high proportion of MSM who are aware of PrEP are willing to use it. Key PrEP implementation barriers include poor knowledge about PrEP, limited access to PrEP, weak or non-existent HIV prevention programmes for MSM and other key populations, high cost of PrEP, stigma and discrimination against key populations and restrictive laws in some countries. Only several clinical trials, demonstration projects and a few larger-scale implementation studies have been implemented so far in Thailand and Australia. However, novel approaches to PrEP implementation have emerged: researcher-, facility- and community-led models of care, with PrEP services for fee and for free. The WHO consolidated guidelines on HIV testing, treatment and prevention call for an expanded access to PrEP worldwide and have provided guidance on PrEP implementation in the region. Some countries like Australia have released national PrEP guidelines. There are growing community leadership and consultation processes to initiate PrEP implementation in Asia and the Pacific. Conclusions Countries of the Asia-Pacific region will benefit from adding PrEP to their HIV prevention packages, but for many this is a critical step that requires resourcing. Having an impact on the HIV epidemic requires investment. The next years should see the region transitioning from limited PrEP implementation projects to growing access to PrEP and expansion of HIV prevention programmes. PMID:27760688

  18. Metal concentrations in demersal fish species from Santa Maria Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico (Pacific coast).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan, M P; Aurioles-Gamboa, David; Villegas, Lorena Elizabeth Campos; Bohórquez-Herrera, Jimena; Hernández-Camacho, Claudia J; Sujitha, S B

    2015-10-15

    Concentrations of 11 trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Cd, As, Hg) in 40 fish species from Santa Maria Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico, the strategically important area for marine mammals and organisms were analyzed. Based on their concentrations the ranking of metals Fe>Zn>Ni>Cr>Mn>Pb>Cu>Co>As>Cd>Hg suggests that organism size, metabolism and feeding habits are correlated with metal concentrations. Local geological formations affect the concentrations of different metals in the aquatic environment and are subsequently transferred to fishes. The correlation analysis suggests that metabolism and nurturing habits impact the concentration of metals. Concentrations of Fe and Mn appear to be influenced by scavenging and absorption processes, which vary by species. The considerable variability in the metal concentrations obtained in different species underscores the importance of regular monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tropical cyclone-related socio-economic losses in the western North Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, C.; Faust, E.

    2013-01-01

    The western North Pacific (WNP) is the area of the world most frequently affected by tropical cyclones (TCs). However, little is known about the socio-economic impacts of TCs in this region, probably because of the limited relevant loss data. Here, loss data from Munich RE's NatCatSERVICE database is used, a high-quality and widely consulted database of natural disasters. In the country-level loss normalisation technique we apply, the original loss data are normalised to present-day exposure levels by using the respective country's nominal gross domestic product at purchasing power parity as a proxy for wealth. The main focus of our study is on the question of whether the decadal-scale TC variability observed in the Northwest Pacific region in recent decades can be shown to manifest itself economically in an associated variability in losses. It is shown that since 1980 the frequency of TC-related loss events in the WNP exhibited, apart from seasonal and interannual variations, interdecadal variability with a period of about 22 yr - driven primarily by corresponding variations of Northwest Pacific TCs. Compared to the long-term mean, the number of loss events was found to be higher (lower) by 14% (9%) in the positive (negative) phase of the decadal-scale WNP TC frequency variability. This was identified for the period 1980-2008 by applying a wavelet analysis technique. It was also possible to demonstrate the same low-frequency variability in normalised direct economic losses from TCs in the WNP region. The identification of possible physical mechanisms responsible for the observed decadal-scale Northwest Pacific TC variability will be the subject of future research, even if suggestions have already been made in earlier studies.

  20. Tropical cyclone-related socio-economic losses in the western North Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Welker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The western North Pacific (WNP is the area of the world most frequently affected by tropical cyclones (TCs. However, little is known about the socio-economic impacts of TCs in this region, probably because of the limited relevant loss data. Here, loss data from Munich RE's NatCatSERVICE database is used, a high-quality and widely consulted database of natural disasters. In the country-level loss normalisation technique we apply, the original loss data are normalised to present-day exposure levels by using the respective country's nominal gross domestic product at purchasing power parity as a proxy for wealth. The main focus of our study is on the question of whether the decadal-scale TC variability observed in the Northwest Pacific region in recent decades can be shown to manifest itself economically in an associated variability in losses. It is shown that since 1980 the frequency of TC-related loss events in the WNP exhibited, apart from seasonal and interannual variations, interdecadal variability with a period of about 22 yr – driven primarily by corresponding variations of Northwest Pacific TCs. Compared to the long-term mean, the number of loss events was found to be higher (lower by 14% (9% in the positive (negative phase of the decadal-scale WNP TC frequency variability. This was identified for the period 1980–2008 by applying a wavelet analysis technique. It was also possible to demonstrate the same low-frequency variability in normalised direct economic losses from TCs in the WNP region. The identification of possible physical mechanisms responsible for the observed decadal-scale Northwest Pacific TC variability will be the subject of future research, even if suggestions have already been made in earlier studies.

  1. Low cloud precipitation climatology in the southeastern Pacific marine stratocumulus region using CloudSat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, Anita D; Lebsock, Matthew; L’Ecuyer, Tristan

    2013-01-01

    A climatology of low cloud surface precipitation occurrence and intensity from the new CloudSat 2C-RAIN-PROFILE algorithm is presented from June 2006 through December 2010 for the southeastern Pacific region of marine stratocumulus. Results show that over 70% of low cloud precipitation falls as drizzle. Application of an empirical evaporation model suggests that 50–80% of the precipitation evaporates before it reaches the surface. Segregation of the CloudSat ascending and descending overpasses shows that the majority of precipitation occurs at night. Examination of the seasonal cycle shows that the precipitation is most frequent during the austral winter and spring; however there is considerable regional variability. Conditional rain rates increase from east to west with a maximum occurring in the region influenced by the South Pacific Convergence Zone. Area average rain rates are highest in the region where precipitation rates are moderate, but most frequent. The area average surface rain rate for low cloud precipitation for this region is ∼0.22 mm d −1 , in good agreement with in situ estimates, and is greatly improved over earlier CloudSat precipitation products. These results provide a much-needed quantification of surface precipitation in a region that is currently underestimated in existing satellite-based precipitation climatologies. (letter)

  2. Nuclear issues in the Asia-Pacific region: socio-political factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Y.

    1984-01-01

    This paper explores the prospect of peaceful use of nuclear power in the Asia-Pacific region, criteria for judging the acceptability of nuclear electric power in the region, and alternative worldviews on the basis of which a regional nuclear order should be established. First, current nuclear power issues in Japan are discussed. Secondly, the Asia-Pacific countries are classified according to their stages of civil nuclear development, Thirdly, the acceptability of civil nuclear power in the region is discussed, using nuclear nonproliferation, safety, and public acceptance as three major criteria. Fourthly, conflicts of interest that cut across North/South, East/West, nuclear/non-nuclear, and nuclear weapons states/non-nuclear weapons states boundaries are discussed. Lastly,it is proposed that an international forum be convened of all the countries concerned with nuclear issues in the region. Several major objectives of this forum are suggested, including construction of a rational model for a solution for non-zero-sum gain to everyone regarding use of nuclear power in the region. (author)

  3. Structural Transformations of the Economy in the Pacific Region of Russia and Efficiency Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Yakovlevich Baklanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pacific Russia is considered as an aqua-territorial macro-region entering the Far Eastern Federal Okrug and its adjacent water area within a 200-mile sea economic zone. The macro-region has the richest nature-resource potential of a dry land and the sea, the possibilities to use the sea transport for communications of Russia and Europe with the countries of the Asian-Pacific region. In Pacific Russia, two latitudinal zones are allocated: the northern and southern ones, consisting of the territories of the Far Eastern Federal Okrug of Russia. Combinations of activities by the subjects and by the latitudinal zones are considered as the territorial structures of economy. The distinctions of these latitudinal zones by their socio-economic potential and the level of development are shown. By the changes of homogeneous activities in the subjects and their ratios, measured in the shares of the added cost, the assessment of the structural transformation of economy was carried out in the latitudinal zones from 2004 to 2013. The tendencies of the transformation of the territorial structures of economy were revealed in the latitudinal zones. The greatest changes of the structures of economy occurred in the northern zone for this period. In the southern zone, the structural transformations of economy were a little less, except for Sakhalin. In this case, in both latitudinal zones, a share of processing manufactures reduced and that of the extracting industries increased. The generalized assessment of the changes in social and economic efficiency (by increased personal income, labor productivity, profits in correlation with the structural changes in the economy of the regions of Pacific Russia has been made. The authors note that an important premise for building a sufficiently sustainable system of interregional division of labor in Pacific Russia is the location of extractive industries and initial stages of the manufacturing industry activities in the

  4. Prospects and challenges for new security arrangements in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Mark

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered in this presentation are as follows: prospects and challenges for arms limitations; cooperation for new regional security arrangements; role of the United nations in conflict prevention, peace-keeping and disarmament. Developments in former Soviet Union which create concern are: the possible dispersion of Russian nuclear expertise and personnel to would be nuclear powers; the continuing friction between Russia and Ukraine over disposal of ex-Soviet ICBMs and tactical nuclear weapons, and the transfer to Russia of 3000 nuclear warheads in Ukraine; the Black Sea fleet, and the Crimea question. These dramatic events have global as well as regional impact as Russia is an Asia-Pacific Country

  5. Regional approach to the management of fruit flies in the Pacific Island countries and territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allwood, Allan

    2000-01-01

    Of the 4,500 species of fruit flies (family Tephritidae) world-wide, over 350 species occur in the Pacific region. Of these, at least 25 species are regarded as being of major economic importance to fruit and vegetable production and to international trade within the region. Recognition of the economic importance of fruit flies to horticultural production and trade increased markedly in the 1980s due to the imposition of restrictions on the use of ethylene dibromide (EDB) fumigation by trading partners. This treatment was the mainstay of quarantine treatments for fresh fruits and vegetables susceptible to fruit fly infestations and destined for markets in Australia, New Zealand, USA, Japan and Canada. Small, but economically significant, markets for fresh fruits and vegetables in the Pacific rim countries disappeared because alternative quarantine treatments for EDB fumigation were not available. Countries, such as Cook Islands, Fiji, Tonga and Samoa, looked for modern technologies to overcome these constraints to export. As well as quarantine treatment technologies, procedures new to the Pacific Island countries, such as quality assurance systems and quarantine pathways, had to be included into the production and marketing chains. Quarantine surveillance, particularly for exotic fruit flies, became a prerequisite for trade in fresh fruits and vegetables. The emphasis on fruit flies also regionally increased because of the increasing number of incursions of exotic fruit flies into the region over the past 10-12 years. Outbreaks of exotic fruit flies in the Solomon Islands (1984-85), Nauru (1984-85), Northern Australia (1995 and 1998), New Zealand (1996), French Polynesia (1995-96), and Palau (1995-96) demonstrated the vulnerability of the Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) to these incursions. To address the increased threat of introduction of exotic fruit flies through increased tourism and regional travellers, a regional approach to the management

  6. Trade-off analysis for sustainability evaluation: a case study of the Purhepecha region, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, E.N.; Astier, M.; López Ridaura, S.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the use and role of trade-off analysis as a decision-making tool in the implementation of new technologies and sustainability evaluation. As an example, soils in the Purhepecha region in Mexico have been eroding for decades and crop residue retention has been suggested as an

  7. An overview of the floristic richness and conservation of the arid regions of northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura Arriaga; Elizabeth Moreno; Claudia Aguilar

    2005-01-01

    The arid and semiarid regions of Northern Mexico harbor diverse, highly endemic, and geographically complex ecosystems. These share topographic and biogeographic similarities that can be used as an analytical framework to assess biodiversity patterns. This study presents the current status of vascular plant inventories for Mexican Aridamerica. The spatial distribution...

  8. Perceptions of Village Dogs by Villagers and Tourists in the Coastal Region of Rural Oaxaca, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, E.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of the village dog-keeping system, and of perceptions of dog-related problems by villagers and tourists, in the coastal region of Oaxaca, Mexico. We conducted a survey of the inhabitants of three villages (Mazunte, Puerto Angel, and Río Seco),

  9. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geissen, V.; Que Ramos, F.; Bastidas-Bastidas, de P.J.; Díaz-González, G.; Bello-Mendoza, R.; Huerta-Lwanga, E.; Ruiz-Suárez, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn— bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha-1week-1 for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the

  10. International labour migration in the Asian-Pacific region: patterns, policies and economic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athukorala, P

    1993-11-01

    "This paper reviews the literature on international labour migration from and within the Asian-Pacific region. It deals with patterns and characteristics of migration flows, government policies towards labour migration, and economic implications of labour migration for both labour-exporting and importing countries in the region. The indications are that, despite gradual slowing down of labour flows to the western industrial countries and the Middle East, labour migration will continue to be a major economic influence on surplus-labour countries in the region. As an integral part of the growth dynamism in the region, labour migration has now begun to take on a regional dimension, with immense implications for the process of industrial restructuring in high growth economies and the changing pattern of economic interdependence among countries." excerpt

  11. Wind Energy Resource Atlas. Volume 11. Hawaii and Pacific Islands Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, T.A.; Hori, A.M.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, and assessments of the wind resource in each division of the region. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be inerpreted is presented. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource for each division are provided. Assessments for individual divisions are presented as separate chapters. Much of the information in the division chapters is given in graphic or tabular form. The sequences for each chapter are similar, but some presentations used for Hawaii are inappropriate or impractical for presentation with the Pacific Islands. Hawaii chapter figure and tables are cited below and appropriate Pacific Islands figure and table numbers are included in brackets ().

  12. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 2. Pacific Southwest region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The estimates of existing, incremental, and the undeveloped hydropower potential for all states in the various regions of the country are presented. In the Pacific Southwest region, the maximum physical potential for all sites exceeds 33,000 MW of capacity with an estimated average annual energy greater than 85,000 GWH. By comparison, these values represent about 6% of the total potential capacity and hydroelectric energy generation estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 9900 MW has been installed. The remainder (23,200 MW) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (6000 MW) and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (17,200 MW). Small-scale facilities account for less than 4% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 600 MW could be added to these and other small water resource projects. In addition, 600 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of California and Utah having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Pacific Southwest region. States comprising the Southwest are Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, and Utah.

  13. A perspective of the evolving nuclear power programs in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langmo, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the issues related to the need for nuclear power in the Asia-Pacific region. It further discusses the benefits for nuclear power introduction, as they have been reported in countries with significant nuclear power programs and as they are now being computed and forecasted in this region. A large body of experience in commercializing and operating nuclear power plants bas been accumulated worldwide and some of the most significant nuclear power achievements have occurred in this region. Examples are the large nuclear plants standardisation program implemented in Japan, culminating in the construction of the two advanced boiling water reactors (ABWRs) in Kashiwakaki-Kariwa and the recent record short 48 months construction time for Hamaoka - 4 unit, the Korean standard nuclear plant design and the impressively high lifetime capacity factors achieved in the Korean and Taiwanese nuclear power programs. These and other examples enhance the confidence that further nuclear power expansion can be implemented successfully in the Asia-Pacific region, and provide the region with the benefits of large scale economic supply of electricity required for future economic development. 16 figs

  14. Integrated approach to natural gas utilization in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovdestad, W.R.; Egbogah, E.O.

    1995-01-01

    The rapidly expanding economies in the Pacific Rim have placed increasing demands upon indigenous natural gas supplies in South East Asia and Australia. Competing demands include exports of liquefied natural gas (LNG), domestic consumption, and potential use for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) to extend the useful life of maturing oil fields. An additional competing demand for gas exports may emerge as the interstate pipeline grid is expanded. An integrated approach incorporating the evolving nature of gas demands and discrete physical supplies would provide a means to mitigate against potential mismatching of supply and demand. The consideration of the evolving nature of gas demands could promote economically beneficial changes to gas field development. The development of high carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) content gas fields has been slowed by the lack of a market for CO 2 . Utilization of by-product CO 2 for EOR could improve development economics, thus facilitating earlier development of gas supplies to satisfy gas demands including domestic use and LNG exports. End users would also benefit from the assurance that gas supplies would become available as needed. The maturity and increasingly complex natural gas industry in the Asia Pacific Region has led to a qualitative change. The model of single projects to satisfy single markets is no longer valid. The current environment is more dynamic, creating the need to anticipate changes to market demands and to find value-added markets for by-products. The integrated approach to gas utilization discussed in this paper presents a new model more appropriate to the gas industry existing today in the Asia Pacific Region. This approach is particularly significant to widely discussed proposals for an Asia Pacific energy grid extending to Australia

  15. Studies on Enhancing Nuclear Transparency in the Asia-Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakubo, Y.; Tomikawa, H.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear transparency is defined as ''a cooperative process of providing information to all interested parties so that they can independently assess the safety, security, and legitimate management of nuclear materials'' by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Since the Asia- Pacific region has a broad spectrum of nuclear development underway and planned in the future, nuclear transparency is recognized as essential to provide additional assurance and enhance confidence building in this area. It is expected that elevated nuclear transparency should also supplement International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. With this recognition, JAEA has committed various studies and activities for enhancing regional nuclear transparency mainly with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its national laboratories. The efforts include concept study, development of secure data transmission technologies at the Experimental Fast Reactor ''Joyo'' for the use of regional nuclear transparency, and support for Council for Security and Cooperation in Asia Pacific (CSCAP) to develop internet-based transparency tools. JAEA also organized several workshops to discuss with stakeholder organizations to build acceptance for transparency tools and activities. Based on the past studies, JAEA, jointly with SNL, Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), initiated a new phase of study in 2011 to design and establish an Information Sharing Framework (ISF) which was defined as ''a communication platform on which nuclear nonproliferation experts can provide and/or receive relevant information in a practical and sustainable manner''. During the period of two-year study, partner organizations identified essential elements to establish ISF and developed the requirements. Currently, JAEA and KINAC are planning to implement demonstration of ISF under Asia Pacific

  16. Political and security issues in the Asia-Pacific region: Assessment of trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, R.F. II

    1992-01-01

    It should be emphasized that the fundamental shift has taken place in international relations, away from a world dominated by the bipolar super-Power confrontation. There is a today to be more concerned about regional instabilities, which are made more threatening by the potential proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Just as every nation was affected by the cold war, regional instabilities and proliferation concern each member of the world community. In the Asia-Pacific region, the goal is clear: safer, more stable military postures; transparency and confidence-building; and stronger non-proliferation norms. In working together towards that goal, there is a need to foster greater security through bilateral and multilateral dialogue. In that way, one could promote the change within and among societies; that is the best hope for defusing regional tensions, preventing the spread of weapons of mass destruction, and building a lasting peace

  17. E-Government in the Asia-Pacific Region: Progress and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clay Wescott

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on two issues: (i recent e-government progress and challenges, and (ii the practices regional organizations follow to cope with the challenges, while maximizing the benefits. Beginning with an overview of efforts to improve governance in the region, it then analyzes recent progress in the use of information and communication technology (ICT in the Asia-Pacific region to promote more efficient, cost-effective, and participatory government, facilitate more convenient government services, allow greater public access to information, and make government more accountable to citizens. Successful adoption of e-government presents major challenges. The paper concludes by examining the practices regional organizations follow to cope with the challenges, while maximizing the benefits.

  18. Meningococcal disease in the Asia-Pacific region: Findings and recommendations from the Global Meningococcal Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrow, Ray; Lee, Jin-Soo; Vázquez, Julio A; Enwere, Godwin; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Kamiya, Hajime; Kim, Hwang Min; Jo, Dae Sun

    2016-11-21

    The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) is a global expert group that includes scientists, clinicians, and public health officials with a wide range of specialties. The purpose of the Initiative is to promote the global prevention of meningococcal disease (MD) through education, research, and cooperation. The first Asia-Pacific regional meeting was held in November 2014. The GMI reviewed the epidemiology of MD, surveillance, and prevention strategies, and outbreak control practices from participating countries in the Asia-Pacific region.Although, in general, MD is underreported in this region, serogroup A disease is most prominent in low-income countries such as India and the Philippines, while Taiwan, Japan, and Korea reported disease from serogroups C, W, and Y. China has a mixed epidemiology of serogroups A, B, C, and W. Perspectives from countries outside of the region were also provided to provide insight into lessons learnt. Based on the available data and meeting discussions, a number of challenges and data gaps were identified and, as a consequence, several recommendations were formulated: strengthen surveillance; improve diagnosis, typing and case reporting; standardize case definitions; develop guidelines for outbreak management; and promote awareness of MD among healthcare professionals, public health officials, and the general public. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Critical issues in implementing low vision care in the Asia-Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Pei-Chia Chiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-thirds of the world′s population with low vision resides in the Asia-Pacific region. Provision of comprehensive low vision services is important to improve vision-related quality of life (QoL for people with this condition. This review outlines the critical issues and challenges facing the provision of low vision services in the Asia-Pacific region. The review offers possible strategies to tackle these issues and challenges facing service providers and policy makers in lieu of Vision 2020 strategies in this area. Pertinent findings from the global survey of low vision services and extensive ground work conducted in the region are used; in addition, a discussion on the availability of services, human resources and training, and funding and the future sustainability of low vision care will be covered. In summary, current issues and challenges facing the region are the lack of specific evidence-based data, access, appropriate equipment and facilities, human resources, funding, and sustainability. These issues are inextricably interlinked and thus cannot be addressed in isolation. The solutions proposed cover all areas of the VISION 2020 strategy that include service delivery, human resources, infrastructure and equipment, advocacy and partnership; and include provision of comprehensive care via vertical and horizontal integration; strengthening primary level care in the community; providing formal and informal training to enable task shifting and capacity building; and promoting strong government and private sector partnership to achieve long-term service financial sustainability.

  20. Uranium and plutonium in anoxic marine sediments of the Santiago River mouth (Eastern Pacific, Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán-Torres, María Guadalupe; Ordóñez-Regil, Eduardo; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina

    2016-11-01

    The uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) content with depth in a sediment core collected in the continental shelf off the mouth of the Santiago River in the Mexican Pacific was studied to evaluate the contamination effects of the effluent of the Santiago-Lerma River as it moves into the sea. The large mass of terrestrial detritus delivered by the river influences the physicochemical and geochemical processes in the seafloor. Abnormal concentrations of U and Pu in sediments were examined as indicative of the effects of anoxic conditions. One of the indicators of pollution of seawater is the bacterial activity of the shallow seabed layer; and among the prevailing bacteria, the magnetotactic ones induce the formation of euhedral and framboidal shapes (pyrite). These pyrite entities are by-products of anoxic environments loaded with decomposing detrital material and are very abundant in the surface layers of the sediment core analyzed. The pyrite formation is the result of a biochemical reaction between iron and organic sulphur reduced by bacteria, and the pyrite entities precipitate to the seafloor. In the same upper zone of the profile, 238 U is readily immobilized, while 234 U is oxidized and dissolved in seawater by the effect of hot atom chemistry. This may cause the activity ratio (AR) 234 U/ 238 U disequilibrium (near 0.41). Furthermore, in the shallow layer of the sediment core, an abnormally high concentration of 239+240 Pu was detected. In this upper layer, the activity concentrations found were 3.19 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, 1.32 kg -1 for 234 U and 2.78 Bq kg -1 for 239+240 Pu. In the lower fractions of the sediment core, normal values of AR 234 U/ 238 U (≈1) were found, with traces of 239+240 Pu. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A; Brown, Derek S; Mercy, James A; Dunne, Michael P; Butchart, Alexander R; Corso, Phaedra S; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region's per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region's GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US. The 1992 population is estimated at 89 million of which 60% are mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% are American Indian, 9% are Caucasian, and 1% are other. 90% are Roman Catholic. There are 8 years of compulsory education. Infant mortality is 30/1000 live births. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females. The labor force is comprised of 30% in services, 24% in agriculture and fishing, 19% in manufacturing, 13% in commerce, 7% in construction, 4% in transportation and communication, and .4% in mining. There are 31 states and a federal district. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $3200 in 1991. Military expenditures were .5% of GDP in 1991. The average inflation rate is 19%. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3.6% in 1991 from 2% in 1987. Dependence on oil exports has decreased. There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of .8% in 1992. Mexico's foreign debt has been reduced from its high in 1987 of $107 billion. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly. Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations.

  3. Characterization of Archaeological Sediments Using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Portable X-ray Fluorescence (pXRF): An Application to Formative Period Pyro-Industrial Sites in Pacific Coastal Southern Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Hector; Bigney, Scott J; Sakai, Sachiko; Burger, Paul R; Garfin, Timothy; George, Richard G; Culleton, Brendan J; Kennett, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological sediments from mounds within the mangrove zone of far-southern Pacific coastal Chiapas, Mexico, are characterized in order to test the hypothesis that specialized pyro-technological activities of the region's prehistoric inhabitants (salt and ceramic production) created the accumulations visible today. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is used to characterize sediment mineralogy, while portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) is used to determine elemental concentrations. Elemental characterization of natural sediments by both instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and pXRF also contribute to understanding of processes that created the archaeological deposits. Radiocarbon dates combined with typological analysis of ceramics indicate that pyro-industrial activity in the mangrove zone peaked during the Late Formative and Terminal Formative periods, when population and monumental activity on the coastal plain and piedmont were also at their peaks. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Regionalization and classification of bioclimatic zones in the central-northeastern region of Mexico using principal component analysis (PCA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Martinez, L.F.; Carbajal, N.; Medina-Roldan, E. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, A. C., San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: lpineda@ipicyt.edu.mx

    2007-04-15

    Applying principal component analysis (PCA), we determined climate zones in a topographic gradient in the central-northeastern part of Mexico. We employed nearly 30 years of monthly temperature and precipitation data at 173 meteorological stations. The climate classification was carried out applying the Koeppen system modified for the conditions of Mexico. PCA indicates a regionalization in agreement with topographic characteristics and vegetation. We describe the different bioclimatic zones, associated with typical vegetation, for each climate using geographical information systems (GIS). [Spanish] Utilizando un analisis de componentes principales, determinamos zonas climaticas en un gradiente topografico en la zona centro-noreste de Mexico. Se emplearon datos de precipitacion y temperatura medias mensuales por un periodo de 30 anos de 173 estaciones meteorologicas. La clasificacion del clima fue llevada a cabo de acuerdo con el sistema de Koeppen modificado para las condiciones de Mexico. El analisis de componentes principales indico una regionalizacion que concuerda con caracteristicas de topografia y vegetacion. Se describen zonas bioclimaticas, asociadas a vegetacion tipica para cada clima, usando sistemas de informacion geografica (SIG).

  5. Macroeconomic dataset for generating macroeconomic volatility among selected countries in the Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Peng Chow

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This data article provides macroeconomic data that can be used to generate macroeconomic volatility. The data cover a sample of seven selected countries in the Asia Pacific region for the period 2004–2014, including both developing and developed countries. This dataset was generated to enhance our understanding of the sources of macroeconomic volatility affecting the countries in this region. Although the Asia Pacific region continues to remain as the most dynamic part of the world's economy, it is not spared from various sources of macroeconomic volatility through the decades. The reported data cover 15 types of macroeconomic data series, representing three broad categories of indicators that can be used to proxy macroeconomic volatility. They are indicators that account for macroeconomic volatility (i.e. volatility as a macroeconomic outcome, domestic sources of macroeconomic volatility and external sources of macroeconomic volatility. In particular, the selected countries are Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines, which are regarded as developing countries, while Singapore, Japan and Australia are developed countries. Despite the differences in level of economic development, these countries were affected by similar sources of macroeconomic volatility such as the Asian Financial Crisis and the Global Financial Crisis. These countries were also affected by other similar external turbulence arising from factors such as the global economic slowdown, geopolitical risks in the Middle East and volatile commodity prices. Nonetheless, there were also sources of macroeconomic volatility which were peculiar to certain countries only. These were generally domestic sources of volatility such as political instability (for Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines, natural disasters and anomalous weather conditions (for Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Japan and Australia and over-dependence on the electronic sector (for Singapore. Keywords

  6. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region: 2011 survey results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, T; Azhari, HA; Voon, EO; Cheung, KY; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Han, Y; Ung, NM; Bold, L; Win, UM; Srivastava, R; Meyer, J; Farrukh, S; Rodriguez, L; Kuo, M; Lee, JCL; Kumara, A; Lee, CC; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, XC; Ng, KH

    2012-01-01

    Background: Medical physicists are essential members of the radiation oncology team. Given the increasing complexity of radiotherapy delivery, it is important to ensure adequate training and staffing. The aim of the present study was to update a similar survey from 2008 and assess the situation of medical physicists in the large and diverse Asia Pacific region. Methods: Between March and July 2011, a survey on profession and practice of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) in the Asia Pacific region was performed. The survey was sent to senior physicists in 22 countries. Replies were received from countries that collectively represent more than half of the world’s population. The survey questions explored five areas: education, staffing, work patterns including research and teaching, resources available, and job satisfaction. Results and discussion: Compared to a data from a similar survey conducted three years ago, the number of medical physicists in participating countries increased by 29% on average. This increase is similar to the increase in the number of linear accelerators, showing that previously identified staff shortages have yet to be substantially addressed. This is also highlighted by the fact that most ROMPs are expected to work overtime often and without adequate compensation. While job satisfaction has stayed similar compared to the previous survey, expectations for education and training have increased somewhat. This is in line with a trend towards certification of ROMPs. Conclusion: As organisations such as the International Labour Organization (ILO) start to recognise medical physics as a profession, it is evident that despite some encouraging signs there is still a lot of work required towards establishing an adequately trained and resourced medical physics workforce in the Asia Pacific region. PMID:22970066

  7. Climate Change in U.S. South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Fisheries Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffer, M. A.; Hernandez, D. L.; Lamkin, J. T.; Pugliese, R.; Reichert, M.; Hall, C.

    2016-02-01

    A review of the recent evidence that climate change is affecting marine ecosystems in the U.S. fishery management zones of the South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean regions will be presented. This will include affects on the living marine resources (including fish, invertebrates, marine mammals and turtles), fisheries, habitat and people. Emphasis will be given on the effects that impact managed species and the likely new challenges that they present to fishery managers. The evidence is being derived from the results of the "Climate Variability and Fisheries Workshop: Setting Research Priorities for the Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Regions," October 26-28, 2015 in St. Petersburg Beach, Florida. Commonalities and regional differences will be presented in terms of how climate variability is likely to impact distribution, catch, catchability, socioeconomics, and management.

  8. Intercomparison of personal radiation monitoring services in the Asia/Pacific region- our participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhond, R.V.; Worlikar, R.M.; Saralamma Nair, D.; Pathak, A.S.; Sankaran, M.P.; Shenoy, K.S.; Patel, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    Radiation Protection Services Division participated in the intercomparison of personal monitoring services in Asia/Pacific region during 1991-92 organised by Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL). The exposed films returned by ARL were processed in our laboratory. The nature and energies of the incident radiations were identified and doses evaluated in terms of new operational quantities. The doses evaluated were within ± 20% except in two cases where energy determination did not match with the ARL values. The results are presented in the paper. (author). 1 ref., 3 tabs

  9. Probiotic research in Australia, New Zealand and the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, R; Bird, A R; Gopal, P; Henriksson, A; Lee, Y K; Playne, M J

    2005-01-01

    Although the epicentres of probiotic research in the past decade have been Japan and Europe, researchers in the Asia-Pacific region have actively contributed to the growing understanding of the intestinal microbial ecosystem, and interactions between gut bacteria, diet and health of the human host. A number of new probiotic strains have been developed in the region that have been demonstrated to have beneficial impacts on health in animal and human trials, including improved protection against intestinal pathogens and modulation of the immune system. Probiotics targeted to animals, including aquaculture, feature heavily in many Asian countries. Developments in probiotic technologies have included microencapsulation techniques, antimicrobial production in fermented meats, and synbiotic combinations. In particular, the impact of resistant starch on the intestinal environment and fermentation by intestinal bacteria has been intensively studied and new probiotic strains selected specifically for synbiotic combinations with resistant starch. This paper provides an overview of probiotic research within Australia, New Zealand and a number of Asian countries, and lists scientists in the Asia-Pacific region involved in various aspects of probiotic research and development.

  10. Capital Markets, Infrastructure Investment and Growth in the Asia Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Regan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between infrastructure investment activity, capital market development, the role of public institutions and economic development in the Asia Pacific. It adopts a review approach drawing on empirical evidence over recent decades. Infrastructure is shown to be an important asset class playing a central role in a nation’s output, growth, productivity and microeconomic performance. Infrastructure investment also requires investment and predictions of a widening gap in the future supply of infrastructure in the Asia Pacific will require new forms of capital from both traditional and new sources including wider use of private participation, institutional investment, asset recycling and revenue bonds. Capital market development is also necessary to raise long-term local currency finance and evidence suggests that progress with regional capital market integration is slow and a continuing reform agenda is required. The dividend for regional countries is the prospect of higher levels of economic growth with infrastructure investment, capital market development, and foreign direct investment shown to have a strong and positive association with growth. A crucial link in this association identified in the review is the part played by national and regional institutions in improving the efficiency with which infrastructure is managed and providing promising ground for further research where the importance of these links can be researched in greater depth.

  11. Regional Cooperation Agreement for Asia and the Pacific (RCA). A mechanism for nuclear technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin Muslim, N.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the regional cooperation programs of the IAEA which have as purpose to promote the applications of peaceful uses of atomic energy and to transfer technology to the developing countries. The paper focusses on the (RCA) program for Asia and the Pacific, it is considered the most important mechanism for genuine technology transfer. The annex no 1 lists the full text of the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987 (13 articles). The annex no.3 lists also the full text of the African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (14 articles). 11 refs., 17 tabs

  12. Chemical and isotopic variations of precipitation in the Los Alamos Region, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, A.I.; Goff, F.; Counce, D.

    1995-02-01

    Precipitation collectors were installed at 14 locations on the Pajarito Plateau and surrounding areas to study variations in chemistry, stable isotopes and tritium for the years 1990 to 1993. The volume of precipitation was measured and samples were collected and analyzed every three to four months. All precipitation samples contain 18 O) results record seasonal variations in precipitation as the weather patterns shift from sources in the Pacific Ocean to sources in the Gulf of Mexico. The stable isotope results also show isotopic variations due to elevation differences among the collection points. The tritium contents ( 3 H) in rain samples vary from 6.54 T.U. to 141 T.U. Contouring of high tritium values (e.g. >20 T.U.) from each collection period clearly shows that Laboratory activities release some tritium to the atmosphere. The effect of these releases are well below the limits set by the Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water (about 6200 T.U.). The magnitude of the releases is apparently greatest during the summer months. However, anomalous tritium values are detected as far north as Espahola, New Mexico for many collection periods. Tritium releases by the Laboratory are not constant; thus, the actual amount of tritium in each release has been diluted in the composite samples of our three to four month collection periods

  13. Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Inland Pacific Northwest Cereal Production Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenbrode, S. D.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Burke, I. C.; Capalbo, S.; Gessler, P.; Huggins, D. R.; Johnson-Maynard, J.; Kruger, C.; Lamb, B. K.; Machado, S.; Mote, P.; Painter, K.; Pan, W.; Petrie, S.; Paulitz, T. C.; Stockle, C.; Walden, V. P.; Wulfhorst, J. D.; Wolf, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    The long-term environmental and economic sustainability of agriculture in the Inland Pacific Northwest (northern Idaho, north central Oregon, and eastern Washington) depends upon improving agricultural management, technology, and policy to enable adaptation to climate change and to help realize agriculture's potential to contribute to climate change mitigation. To address this challenge, three land-grant institutions (Oregon State University, the University of Idaho and Washington State University) (OSU, UI, WSU) and USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) units are partners in a collaborative project - Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Pacific Northwest Agriculture (REACCH-PNA). The overarching goal of REACCH is to enhance the sustainability of Inland Pacific Northwest (IPNW) cereal production systems under ongoing and projected climate change while contributing to climate change mitigation. Supporting goals include: - Develop and implement sustainable agricultural practices for cereal production within existing and projected agroecological zones throughout the region as climate changes, - Contribute to climate change mitigation through improved fertilizer, fuel, and pesticide use efficiency, increased sequestration of soil carbon, and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions consistent with the 2030 targets set by the USDA National Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), - Work closely with stakeholders and policymakers to promote science-based agricultural approaches to climate change adaptation and mitigation, - Increase the number of scientists, educators, and extension professionals with the skills and knowledge to address climate change and its interactions with agriculture. In this poster, we provide an overview of the specific goals of this project and activities that are underway since its inception in spring of 2011.

  14. Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vay, S. A.; Woo, J.-H.; Anderson, B. E.; Thornhill, K. L.; Blake, D. R.; Westberg, D. J.; Kiley, C. M.; Avery, M. A.; Sachse, G. W.; Streets, D. G.; Tsutsumi, Y.; Nolf, S. R.

    2003-10-01

    We report here airborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 over the western North Pacific during the March-April 2001 Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) mission. The CO2 spatial distributions were notably influenced by cyclogenesis-triggered transport of regionally polluted continental air masses. Examination of the CO2 to C2H2/CO ratio indicated rapid outflow of combustion-related emissions in the free troposphere below 8 km. Although the highest CO2 mixing ratios were measured within the Pacific Rim region, enhancements were also observed further east over the open ocean at locations far removed from surface sources. Near the Asian continent, discrete plumes encountered within the planetary boundary layer contained up to 393 ppmv of CO2. Coincident enhancements in the mixing ratios of C2Cl4, C2H2, and C2H4 measured concurrently revealed combustion and industrial sources. To elucidate the source distributions of CO2, an emissions database for Asia was examined in conjunction with the chemistry and 5-day backward trajectories that revealed the WNW/W sector of northeast Asia was a major contributor to these pollution events. Comparisons of NOAA/CMDL and JMA surface data with measurements obtained aloft showed a strong latitudinal gradient that peaked between 35° and 40°N. We estimated a net CO2 flux from the Asian continent of approximately 13.93 Tg C day-1 for late winter/early spring with the majority of the export (79%) occurring in the lower free troposphere (2-8 km). The apportionment of the flux between anthropogenic and biospheric sources was estimated at 6.37 Tg C day-1 and 7.56 Tg C day-1, respectively.

  15. Challenges of Tsunami Disaster and Extreme climate Events Along Coastal Region in Asia-Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, S.

    2017-12-01

    South Asia is more vulnerable to Geo disasters and impacts of climate changes in recent years. On 26 December 2004 massive waves triggered by an earthquake surged into coastal communities in Asia and East Africa with devastating force. Hitting Indonesia, Sri Lanka , Thailand and India hardest, the deadly waves swept more than 200 000 people to their deaths. Also in an another extreme climate change phenomenon during 2005 - 2006,causing heavy rains and flooding situation in the South Asia - Europe and Pacific region ,more than 100 million population in these regions are witnessing the social- economical and ecological risks and impacts due to climate changes and Geohazards. For mitigating geo-disasters, marine hazards and rehabilitation during post tsunami period, scientific knowledge is needed, requiring experienced research communities who can train the local population during tsunami rehabilitation. Several civil society institutions jointly started the initiatives on the problem identifications in management of risks in geo-disasters, tsunami rehabilitation ,Vulnerability and risk assessments for Geohazards etc., to investigate problems related to social-economic and ecological risks and management issues resulting from the December tsunami and Geo- disaster, to aid mitigation planning in affected areas and to educate scientists and local populations to form a basis for sustainable and economic solutions. The poster aims to assess the potential risk and hazard , technical issues, problems and damage arising from Tsunami in the Asia-pacific region in coastal geology, coastal ecosystems and coastal environmental systems . This poster deals with the status and issues of interactions between Human and Ocean Systems, Geo-risks, marine risks along coastal region of Asia- Pacific and also human influence on the earth system . The poster presentation focuses on capacity building of the local population, scientists and researchers for integration of human and ocean

  16. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter across a Marine Distributed Biological Observatory in the Pacific Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, S. L.; Frey, K. E.; Shake, K. L.; Cooper, L. W.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in marine ecosystems as both a carbon source for the microbial food web (and thus a source of CO2 to the atmosphere) and as a light inhibitor in marine environments. The presence of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM; the optically active portion of total DOM) can have significant controlling effects on transmittance of sunlight through the water column and therefore on primary production as well as the heat balance of the upper ocean. However, CDOM is also susceptible to photochemical degradation, which decreases the flux of solar radiation that is absorbed. Knowledge of the current spatial and temporal distribution of CDOM in marine environments is thus critical for understanding how ongoing and future changes in climate may impact these biological, biogeochemical, and physical processes. We describe the quantity and quality of CDOM along five key productive transects across a developing Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) in the Pacific Arctic region. The samples were collected onboard the CCGS Sir Wilfred Laurier in July 2013 and 2014. Monitoring of the variability of CDOM along transects of high productivity can provide important insights into biological and biogeochemical cycling across the region. Our analyses include overall concentrations of CDOM, as well as proxy information such as molecular weight, lability, and source (i.e., autochthonous vs. allochthonous) of organic matter. We utilize these field observations to compare with satellite-derived CDOM concentrations determined from the Aqua MODIS satellite platform, which ultimately provides a spatially and temporally continuous synoptic view of CDOM concentrations throughout the region. Examining the current relationships among CDOM, sea ice variability, biological productivity, and biogeochemical cycling in the Pacific Arctic region will likely provide key insights for how ecosystems throughout the region will respond in future

  17. Current status of HIV treatment in Asia and the Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuphuakrat, Angsana; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek

    2014-07-01

    Asia and the Pacific represent a diverse group of nations facing HIV epidemic profiles of differing severity. Compared to other parts of the world, the burden of HIV disease is high in this region because of its large populations. At the end of 2011, 5million people were living with HIV in Asia and the Pacific. This accounted for 15% of people living with HIV worldwide. The prevalence of people living with HIV, as well as access to HIV treatment and care, varies widely between countries. Differences between high-income economies and the rest of the continent are remarkable. Many high-income countries provide antiretroviral therapy (ART) to their citizens. Middle- and low-income countries have rapid ART scale-up and are dependent on international funding. This may compromise the sustainability of ART availability. In addition, lack of access to second- and third-line therapy remains a problem in many countries. The global goal of achieving universal access to ART by 2015 requires mainly low- and middle-income countries to be targeted. Regional policy should be developed in order to identify new infections in key populations, to start earlier treatment, to retain patients in care and to maintain funding.

  18. Panel discussion: Roles of space program in the Asia Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tamiya

    1992-03-01

    A panel discussion on the subject 'Roles played by space development in Asia Pacific region' was held chaired by Space Activities Commission member and attended by the representatives of the participating countries, special attendance and observers. Opinions were expressed by each representative on three subjects, that is, social effects and benefits obtained by remote sensing data, observation data desired to augment the effect, and expectation for developed countries in space development. President of NASDA (National Space Development Agency of Japan) expressed his intension to promote international cooperation for the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1) verification program, utilization augmentation of Japanese earth observing satellites and human resource training and education. Deputy Director-General for Science and Technology Agency (STA) outlined ASCA (Association for Science Cooperation in Asia) seminar and STA fellowship in relation to human resource development. Chairman of the Japan International Space Year (ISY) Association cited the necessity of closer and extensive communication networks free from the existing commercial communication. Deputy-Minister for Posts and Telecommunications outlined the PARTNERS project (Post-operational utilization of the Engineering Test Satellite-5 (ETS-5)) for international cooperation in space activities in Asia Pacific region. President of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) outlined Japan's present status of and international cooperation in space science.

  19. Synthesis of Seafood Catch, Distribution, and Consumption Patterns in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimle and Associates, Inc.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this task was to gather and assemble information that will provide a synthesis of seafood catch, distribution and consumption patterns for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) region. This task was part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project entitled ''Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations.'' Personal interviews were conducted with a total of 905 recreational fishermen and 218 commercial fishermen (inclusive of shrimpers, crabbers, oystermen and finfishermen) in Louisiana and Texas using survey questionnaires developed for the study. Results of these interviews detail the species and quantities caught, location of catch, mode of fishing, distribution of catch, family consumption patterns and demographics of the fishermen

  20. Synthesis of Seafood Catch, Distribution, and Consumption Patterns in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimle and Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    The purpose of this task was to gather and assemble information that will provide a synthesis of seafood catch, distribution and consumption patterns for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) region. This task was part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project entitled ''Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations.'' Personal interviews were conducted with a total of 905 recreational fishermen and 218 commercial fishermen (inclusive of shrimpers, crabbers, oystermen and finfishermen) in Louisiana and Texas using survey questionnaires developed for the study. Results of these interviews detail the species and quantities caught, location of catch, mode of fishing, distribution of catch, family consumption patterns and demographics of the fishermen.

  1. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Geissen, V.; Que Ramos, F.; Bastidas-Bastidas, de, P.J.; Díaz-González, G.; Bello-Mendoza, R.; Huerta-Lwanga, E.; Ruiz-Suárez, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn— bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha-1week-1 for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the main metabolite ethylenethiourea was near the detection limit. Surface and subsurface water was highly polluted with ethylenethiourea, the main metabolite of Mancozeb (22.5 and 4.3 lg L-1, respective...

  2. Power in the pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights of the fourth Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference are presented, with the emphasis on opportunities for Canadian nuclear exports to the region. Japan and Korea are pressing ahead with nuclear generating programs to reduce their dependence on imported oil. Korea aims to increase the Korean content of its nuclear industry, and to participate in international ventures. China plans several nuclear power stations. In Canada and the U.S.A., no recent domestic orders have been received. Mexico is financially constrained to delay its nuclear program for about ten years. Indonesia is starting with a research reactor

  3. Current depression among women in California according to residence in the California-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan-Ibarra, Suzanne; Epstein, Joan Faith; Induni, Marta; Wright, Michael A

    2012-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of current depression; examine the relationship between current depression and immigration, health status, health care access, and health behaviors; and assess differences by California-Mexico border region (Imperial and San Diego Counties) among women in California. Using a cross-sectional, representative sample of adult women from the California Women's Health Survey (n = 13 454), a statewide telephone survey, prevalence of current depression and predictors of depression were examined in California and according to border region residence. Depression was assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire. The prevalence of current depression for women in California was 12.0%. It was similar in the border (13.0%) and the nonborder (11.9%) regions. Odds of current depression in women were lower among recent immigrants (depression and health status, health care access, and binge drinking were larger in the border region than outside the border region. Similar prevalences of current depression were observed among those who live in the border region of California and in those who do not, but the relationship between depression and health status, health care access, and binge drinking varied by border region residence. Ideally, future surveillance of depression and its predictors along the Mexico-California border will be conducted binationally to inform interventions and tracking such as the Healthy Border Program's objectives.

  4. Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes the key energy data for Mexico: 1 - energy organizations and policy: Ministry of energy (SENER), Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE), Ministry of Finances, Ministry of trade and industrial development (SECOFI), national commission for energy savings (CONAE); 2 - companies: federal commission of electricity (CFE), Minera Carbonifera Rio Escondido (MICARE - coal), Pemex (petroleum); 3 - energy production: resources, electric power, petroleum, natural gas; 4 - energy consumption; 5 - stakes and perspectives. Some economic and energy indicators are summarized in a series of tables: general indicators, supply indicators (reserves, refining and electric capacity, energy production, foreign trade), demand indicators (consumption trends, end use, energy independence, energy efficiency, CO 2 emissions), energy status per year and per energy source. (J.S.)

  5. United Nations regional disarmament workshop for Asia and the Pacific. Disarmament fellowship, training and advisory services programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main objectives of the Workshop have been to promote a better understanding and awareness of the current disarmament negotiations and issues, particularly those of common concern to the region, and to facilitate conflict resolution, strengthen disarmament efforts and enhance regional security. 19 papers were presented. The Workshop (a) considered the concepts of peace and security in the Asia-Pacific context; (b) assessed the global efforts to achieve a comprehensive ban on chemical weapons and to strengthen the non-proliferation regimes of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction; (c) reviewed regional disarmament efforts in general and examined in detail efforts and proposals from the South Asian, South-East Asian and Pacific perspectives; and (d) discussed, through various case studies, conflict resolution in the Asia-Pacific region. The discussions which followed the presentations could be grouped under the following headings: Perception of the role to be played by the major Powers in Asia and the Pacific; approach to peace and security; NPT; PTBT; the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Rarotonga) and the proposal to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone in South-East Asia (SEANWFZ)

  6. International Economic Integration in the Asia Pacific Region and Russia’s Interests: Results of 25 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Valeryevna Dyomina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2017 Russia marked the 25th anniversary of economic reforms. In the sphere of foreign policy in the Asia-Pacific region (APR it resulted in the FTA between Vietnam and the Eurasian Economic Union and membership in APEC. During the mentioned period Russia has not changed its role in the region: it’s still viewed as a supplier of raw materials and it’s not very attractive as FDI recipient. In recent years China has become the main trade partner of Russia and the APR’s share in the Russian foreign trade turnover has grown substantially (in imports from 11.8% in 1996 to 39.4% in 2016, in exports from 18.6% to 23.1%. As for the Russian Far East, the APR partners played a leading role in foreign trade relations throughout the studied period, however, they sharply devalued as investors (offshore territories and European countries occupied leading positions both in the Russian Far East and country as a whole. At the same time, during the years the APR’s integration area transformed significantly. Firs, there was enlargement of integration blocks. Second, integration processes became ‘deeper’ and ‘broader’ (agreements cover more and more issues. Now the formats of multilateral economic cooperation in the APR include following: APEC, NAFTA, ASEAN, TPP, etc. Among them the author emphasizes two blocs with hugest experience and ‘depth’ of integration processes development – NAFTA and ASEAN. During the period 1991–2015 each of these blocks was characterized by increasing share of mutual trade and the least developed members of the mentioned unions (Mexico in NAFTA and Laos, Myanmar, Cambodia and Vietnam in ASEAN had the highest growth rates of merchandise exports and imports. Although the operation of each of the associations had a positive impact on the dynamics of foreign trade of their member countries the study fails to prove a direct relationship between NAFTA and AFTA functioning and economic growth of their member states

  7. Epidemiological characteristics of the influenza A(H1N1 2009 pandemic in the Western Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa McCallum

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The first laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 in the Western Pacific Region were reported on 28 April 2009. By 11 June 2009, the day the pandemic was declared by the World Health Organization, nine Western Pacific Region countries and areas had reported laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 cases. From April 2009 to July 2010, more than 250 000 cases and 1800 deaths from laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 were reported from 34 countries and areas in the Region. By age group region-wide, 8.6%, 41.9%, 48.3%, and 1.2% of cases were in the < 5 years, 5–14 years, 15–64 years, and 65+ years age groups, respectively; the overall crude case fatality ratio in the Western Pacific Region was 0.5%. The pandemic demonstrated that region-wide disease reporting was possible. Countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region should take this opportunity to strengthen the systems established during the pandemic to develop routine disease reporting.

  8. U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Region Clean Energy Application Center (PCEAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipman, Tim [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kammen, Dan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); McDonell, Vince [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Samuelsen, Scott [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Beyene, Asfaw [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States); Ganji, Ahmad [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Region Clean Energy Application Center (PCEAC) was formed in 2009 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the California Energy Commission to provide education, outreach, and technical support to promote clean energy -- combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, and waste energy recovery (WHP) -- development in the Pacific Region. The region includes California, Nevada, Hawaii, and the Pacific territories. The PCEAC was operated as one of nine regional clean energy application centers, originally established in 2003/2004 as Regional Application Centers for combined heat and power (CHP). Under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, these centers received an expanded charter to also promote district energy and waste energy recovery, where economically and environmentally advantageous. The centers are working in a coordinated fashion to provide objective information on clean energy system technical and economic performance, direct technical assistance for clean energy projects and additional outreach activities to end users, policy, utility, and industry stakeholders. A key goal of the CEACs is to assist the U.S. in achieving the DOE goal to ramp up the implementation of CHP to account for 20% of U.S. generating capacity by 2030, which is estimated at a requirement for an additional 241 GW of installed clean technologies. Additional goals include meeting the Obama Administration goal of 40 GW of new CHP by 2020, key statewide goals such as renewable portfolio standards (RPS) in each state, California’s greenhouse gas emission reduction goals under AB32, and Governor Brown’s “Clean Energy Jobs Plan” goal of 6.5 GW of additional CHP over the next twenty years. The primary partners in the PCEAC are the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and the Energy and Resources Group (ERG) at UC Berkeley, the Advanced Power and Energy Program (APEP) at UC Irvine, and the Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC

  9. First round of external quality assessment of dengue diagnostics in the WHO Western Pacific Region, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwoon Yong Pok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Accurate laboratory testing is a critical component of dengue surveillance and control. The objective of this programme was to assess dengue diagnostic proficiency among national-level public health laboratories in the World Health Organization (WHO Western Pacific Region. Methods: Nineteen national-level public health laboratories performed routine dengue diagnostic assays on a proficiency testing panel consisting of two modules: one containing commercial serum samples spiked with cultured dengue viruses for the detection of nucleic acid and non-structural protein 1 (NS1 (Module A and one containing human serum samples for the detection of anti-dengue virus antibodies (Module B. A review of logistics arrangements was also conducted. Results: All 16 laboratories testing Module A performed reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for both RNA and serotype detection. Of these, 15 had correct results for RNA detection and all 16 correctly serotyped the viruses. All nine laboratories performing NS1 antigen detection obtained the correct results. Sixteen of the 18 laboratories using IgM assays in Module B obtained the correct results as did the 13 laboratories that performed IgG assays. Detection of ongoing/recent dengue virus infection by both molecular (RT-PCR and serological methods (IgM was available in 15/19 participating laboratories. Discussion: This first round of external quality assessment of dengue diagnostics was successfully conducted in national-level public health laboratories in the WHO Western Pacific Region, revealing good proficiency in both molecular and serological testing. Further comprehensive diagnostic testing for dengue virus and other priority pathogens in the Region will be assessed during future rounds.

  10. Macroeconomic dataset for generating macroeconomic volatility among selected countries in the Asia Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Yee Peng; Muhammad, Junaina; Amin Noordin, Bany Ariffin; Cheng, Fan Fah

    2018-02-01

    This data article provides macroeconomic data that can be used to generate macroeconomic volatility. The data cover a sample of seven selected countries in the Asia Pacific region for the period 2004-2014, including both developing and developed countries. This dataset was generated to enhance our understanding of the sources of macroeconomic volatility affecting the countries in this region. Although the Asia Pacific region continues to remain as the most dynamic part of the world's economy, it is not spared from various sources of macroeconomic volatility through the decades. The reported data cover 15 types of macroeconomic data series, representing three broad categories of indicators that can be used to proxy macroeconomic volatility. They are indicators that account for macroeconomic volatility (i.e. volatility as a macroeconomic outcome), domestic sources of macroeconomic volatility and external sources of macroeconomic volatility. In particular, the selected countries are Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines, which are regarded as developing countries, while Singapore, Japan and Australia are developed countries. Despite the differences in level of economic development, these countries were affected by similar sources of macroeconomic volatility such as the Asian Financial Crisis and the Global Financial Crisis. These countries were also affected by other similar external turbulence arising from factors such as the global economic slowdown, geopolitical risks in the Middle East and volatile commodity prices. Nonetheless, there were also sources of macroeconomic volatility which were peculiar to certain countries only. These were generally domestic sources of volatility such as political instability (for Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines), natural disasters and anomalous weather conditions (for Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Japan and Australia) and over-dependence on the electronic sector (for Singapore).

  11. Detection of soil moisture impact in convective initiation in the central region of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolores, Edgar; Caetano, Ernesto

    2017-04-01

    Soil moisture is important for understanding hydrological cycle variability in many regions. Local surface heat and moisture fluxes represent a major source of convective rainfall in Mexico during the summer, driven by positive evaporation-precipitation feedback. The effects of soil moisture are directly reflected in the limitation of evapotranspiration, affecting the development of the planetary boundary layer and, therefore, the initiation and intensity of convective precipitation. This study presents preliminary analysis of the role of soil moisture in convective initiations in central Mexico, for which a methodology for the detection of convective initiations similar to Taylor (2015) has been considered. The results show that the moisture fluxes from the surface influence the development of convection favored by mesoscale circulations at low levels. Initiations are more frequent in regions less humid than their surroundings with the very strong signal during the month of September. The knowledge of the soil predisposition to allow the development of deep convection suggests an alternative tool for the prediction of convective rains in Mexico.

  12. Diseases of livestock in the Pacific Islands region: setting priorities for food animal biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioudes, Aurélie; Warner, Jeffrey; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    Most Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) have developing economies and face a critical shortage of veterinarians with limited financial resources allocated to their animal disease surveillance programmes. Thus, animal health authorities have to set priorities for better focusing their scarce resources. The main objective of this study was to identify animal diseases perceived to be of importance by decision makers within selected PICTs, at the regional and national levels, to ensure better targeting of animal health resources. A second objective was to investigate whether the targeted surveillance programmes resulting from this rationalized approach would also benefit the local communities engaged in livestock production. A multi-criteria prioritization process was developed, involving local experts, to score and rank 132 animal diseases based on their priority at the regional and national levels for four PICTs: Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu, which form part of a regional Food Animal Biosecurity Network. In parallel interviews with farmers and field animal health and production workers were conducted to assess their perception of animal diseases. The list of the top-twenty ranked diseases for the Pacific Islands region shows a mix of endemic zoonotic diseases (such as leptospirosis ranked first; brucellosis third; tuberculosis sixth; and endoparasites and ectoparasites, respectively eleventh and thirteenth) with exotic diseases (such as HPAI ranked second, FMD fifth, and rabies ninth). There were different disease ranking lists for each of the four targeted PICTs, confirming different strategies of disease prevention and control may be required for each country, rather than a regional approach. Interviewed animal health and production workers were unfamiliar with most of the prioritized diseases and a majority acknowledged that they would not be able to recognize clinical signs if outbreaks were to occur in their area

  13. Physical and chemical properties of the regional mixed layer of Mexico's Megapolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Arnott

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of gases and aerosol particles have been measured at the mountain site of Altzomoni, 4010 m in altitude, located 60 km southeast of Mexico City, 50 km east of Puebla and 70 km northeast of Cuernavaca. The objective of this study was to evaluate the properties of gases and particles in the Regional Mixed Layer (RML of Mexico's Megapolis. Altzomoni is generally above the RML from late evening until late morning at which time the arrival of the RML is marked by increasing concentrations of CO and aerosol particles that reach their maxima in mid-afternoon. The average diurnal cycles for fourteen days in March, 2006 were evaluated during which time the synoptic scale circulation had three principal patterns: from the east (E, southwest (SW and west northwest (WNW. The original hypothesis was that air arriving from the direction of Mexico City would have much higher concentrations of anthropogenic gases and particles than air from Puebla or Cuernavaca, due to the relatively large differences in populations. In fact, not only were the average, maximum concentrations of CO and O3 (0.3 and 0.1 ppmv approximately the same for air originating from the WNW and E, but the average maximum concentrations of Peroxyacyl nitrates (PAN,PPN and particle organic matter (POM in air from the E exceeded those in air from the WNW. Comparisons of measurements from the mountain site with those made by aircraft during the same period, using the same type of aerosol mass spectrometer, show that the total masses of POM, NO3−, SO42− and NH4+ were approximately the same from aircraft measurements made over Mexico City and when winds were from the east at the mountain site. In contrast 75% of the total aerosol mass at the mountain site was POM whereas over Mexico City the fraction of POM was less than 60%. The measurements suggest the occasional influence of emissions from the nearby volcano, Popocatepetl, as well as possible incursions of biomass

  14. Socio-economic vulnerability to climate change in the central mountainous region of eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperón-Rodríguez, Manuel; Bonifacio-Bautista, Martín; Barradas, Víctor L

    2016-03-01

    Climate change effects are expected to be more severe for some segments of society than others. In Mexico, climate variability associated with climate change has important socio-economic and environmental impacts. From the central mountainous region of eastern Veracruz, Mexico, we analyzed data of total annual precipitation and mean annual temperature from 26 meteorological stations (1922-2008) and from General Circulation Models. We developed climate change scenarios based on the observed trends with projections to 2025, 2050, 2075, and 2100, finding considerable local climate changes with reductions in precipitation of over 700 mm and increases in temperature of ~9°C for the year 2100. Deforested areas located at windward were considered more vulnerable, representing potential risk for natural environments, local communities, and the main crops cultivated (sugarcane, coffee, and corn). Socio-economic vulnerability is exacerbated in areas where temperature increases and precipitation decreases.

  15. Environmental and economic assessment of discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettleson, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    Task 3 (Environmental Field Sampling and Analysis of NORM, Heavy Metals, and Organics) and 4 (Monitoring of the Recovery of Impacted Wetland and Open Bay Produced Water Discharge Sites in Coastal Louisiana and Texas) activities involved continued data analysis and report writing. Task 5 (Assessment of Economic Impacts of Offshore and Coastal Discharge Requirements on Present and Future Operations in the Gulf of Mexico Region) was issued as a final report during the previous reporting period. Task 6 (Synthesis of Gulf of Mexico Seafood Consumption and Use Patterns) activities included the preparation of the final report. There were no Task 7 (Technology Transfer Plan) activities to report. Task 8 (Project Management and Deliverables) activities involved the submission of the necessary reports and routine management

  16. The Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO): A Change Detection Array in the Pacific Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Moore, S. E.; Cooper, L. W.; Frey, K. E.; Pickart, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Pacific region of the Arctic Ocean is experiencing major reductions in seasonal sea ice extent and increases in sea surface temperatures. One of the key uncertainties in this region is how the marine ecosystem will respond to seasonal shifts in the timing of spring sea ice retreat and/or delays in fall sea ice formation. Climate changes are likely to result in shifts in species composition and abundance, northward range expansions, and changes in lower trophic level productivity that can directly cascade and affect the life cycles of higher trophic level organisms. The developing Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) is composed of focused biological and oceanographic sampling at biological "hot spot" sites for lower and higher trophic organisms on a latitudinal S-to-N array. The DBO is being developed by an international consortium of scientists in the Pacific Arctic as a change detection array to systematically track the broad biological response to sea ice retreat and associated environmental change. Coordinated ship-based observations over various seasons, together with satellite and mooring data collections at the designated sites, can provide an early detection system for biological and ecosystem response to climate warming. The data documenting the importance of these ecosystem "hotspots" provide a growing marine time-series from the northern Bering Sea to Barrow Canyon at the boundary of the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. Results from these studies show spatial changes in carbon production and export to the sediments as indicated by infaunal community composition and biomass, shifts in sediment grain size on a S-to-N latitudinal gradient, and range extensions for lower trophic levels and further northward migration of higher trophic organisms, such as gray whales. There is also direct evidence of negative impacts on ice dependent species, such as walrus and polar bears. As a ramp up to a fully operational observatory, hydrographic transects and select

  17. Ground Level Ozone Regional Background Characteristics In North-west Pacific Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, C.; Fan, J.; Chang, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the ground level ozone regional background characteristics is essential in understanding the contribution of long-range transport of pollutants from Asia Mainland to air quality in downwind areas. In order to understand this characteristic in north-west Pacific Rim, we conducted a coupled study using ozone observation from regional background stations and 3-D regional-scale chemical transport model simulations. We used O3, CO, wind speed and wind direction data from two regional background stations and ¡§other stations¡¨ over a ten year period and organized several numerical experiments to simulate one spring month in 2003 to obtain a deeper understanding. The so called ¡§other stations¡¨ had actually been named as background stations under various governmental auspices. But we found them to be often under strong influence of local pollution sources with strong diurnal or slightly longer time variations. We found that the Yonagunijima station (24.74 N, 123.02 E) and Heng-Chuen station (21.96 N,120.78 E), about a distance of 400 km apart, have almost the same ozone time series pattern. For these two stations in 2003, correlation coefficients (R2) for annual observed ozone concentration is about 0.64, in the springtime it is about 0.7, and in a one-month period at simulation days it is about 0.76. These two stations have very little small scale variations in all the variables studied. All variations are associated with large scale circulation changes. This is especially so at Yonagunijima station. Using a 3-D regional-scale chemical transport model for East Asia region including contribution from Asia continental outflow and neighboring island pollution areas we found that the Yonagunijima and HengChuen station are indeed free of pollutants from all neighboring areas keeping in mind that pollutants from Taiwan area is never far away. Ozone concentrations in these two stations are dominated by synoptic scale weather patterns, with diffused

  18. The supply and demand outlook for energy in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridley, D.

    1993-01-01

    It is reported that years of strong economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region have resulted in unprecedented increases in energy demand in the region, particularly for oil and gas. The supply of oil and gas to the region will become more problematic as the decade progresses. Already 50% dependent on imported oil, this figure will rise to nearly 65% by 2000. Because high rates of domestic oil demand growth among traditional petroleum exporters -Indonesia, China and Malaysia - will absorb exportable surpluses, the region will find itself dependent on the Middle East for at least 90% of its imported oil needs by 2000. Currently linked to oil, LNG prices cannot justify the investments needed to bring new greenfield projects on line. With demand expected to exceed 67 million tonnes (Mt) in 2000 and 100 Mt in 2010, over 50 Mt of new capacity will be needed; satisfying this demand will necessitate a new pricing structure for LNG, raising the price substantially above the relative price of crude oil. 1 ref., 5 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Regulatory aspects of food irradiation in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Peter B.

    2000-01-01

    The latest information on the countries in the Asia/Pacific region with approvals for food to be irradiated is provided. Differences in the type of regulations used are contrasted. However, progress has been made towards greater uniformity in regulations based around the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Food. Australia and New Zealand instituted, respectively, a moratorium and a ban on food irradiation in 1988. Australia has proposed a new draft Standard for food irradiation and this is the subject of public discussion under the Australia New Zealand Food Authority. The draft Standard is a prohibition with the possibility of exemptions being given on a case-by-case basis. Some details of the draft Standard are provided. (author)

  20. Financing of power/energy investments in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaswamy, V.

    1994-01-01

    Rapid economic growth among the developing member countries (DMCs) of the Asian Development Bank in the Asia Pacific Region is generating a need for massive investment in the energy sector to keep pace with energy demand. Changes in tactics and strategy, which will need to be adopted by the DMC governments in order to mobilize funds of this order for the energy sector, are considered. These include: a change in policy away from using government owned energy supply entities as vehicles of welfare transfer towards viewing energy as a commercial service/commodity to be provided to consumers for a fee; a willingness to restructure the electricity supply industry to enable greater private sector participation to take place; a determination to take effective measures to improve efficiency on the supply as well as the demand side to moderate the energy intensity of growth in the medium term. (UK)

  1. Eichhornia crassipes as a potential phytoremediation agent and an important bioresource for Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes is a free floating plant found growing in almost all the aquatic environment of Asia Pacific region. The invasive and infesting nature of this plant disturbed the whole environment wherever if present and has become one of the most problematic environmental concern. The current review discussed the cost-effective and eco-friendly way of utilizing this invasive and infesting plant in a way to incur the daily needs and also help in controlling the negative outcome. Development of the technology and used in accumulation and absorption of the heavy metals and other nutrients under phytoremediation from the aquatic bodies, biofuel and biogas production through fermentation and decomposition, fertilizer production through composting / vermicomposting, production of feeds for animal and many more utilities which are beneficial is discussed in this review. The review paper also deals with this multifaceted utility approach of this plant and their application in management.

  2. Highlighting the History of Astronomy in the Asia-Pacific Region

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Tsuko; Strom, Richard G; ICOA-6 Conference

    2011-01-01

    This book provides readers with the results of recent research from some of the world's leading historians of astronomy on aspects of Arabic, Australian, Chinese, Japanese, and North and South American astronomy and astrophysics. It contains peer-reviewed papers gathered from the International Conferences on Oriental Astronomy 6 (ICO-6) with the chosen theme of "Highlighting the History of Astronomy in the Asia-Pacific Region." Of particular note are the sections on Arabic astronomy, Asian applied astronomy and the history of Australian radio astronomy, and the chapter on Peruvian astronomy. This title is a valuable complement for those with research interests in applied historical astronomy; archaeoastronomy; calendars, manuscripts, and star charts; historical instruments and observatories, and the history of radio astronomy.

  3. First Asia-Pacific Regional School of the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) 2007 program

    CERN Document Server

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk; Ambastha, Ashok; Heliophysical Processes

    2010-01-01

    An outgrowth of the first Asia-Pacific Regional School on the International Heliophysical Year (IHY), this volume contains a collection of review articles describing the universal physical processes in the heliospace influenced by solar electromagnetic and mass emissions. The Sun affects the heliosphere in the short term (space weather) and in the long term (space climate) through numerous physical processes that exhibit similarities in various spatial domains of the heliosphere. The articles take into account various aspects of the Sun-heliosphere connection under a systems approach. This volume will serve as a ready reference work for research in the emerging field of heliophysics, which describes the physical processes taking place in the physical space controlled by the Sun out to the local interstellar medium.

  4. Intercomparison of personal radiation monitoring services in the Asia/Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.G.; Hargrave, N.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Australian Radiation Laboratory conducted an international intercomparison of personal radiation monitoring services in the Asia/Pacific region during 1991. Twenty nine organizations from sixteen countries took part in the study, with the People's Republic of China having eleven participants. Dosemeters incorporating thermoluminescent phosphors and conventional film were submitted for evaluation. Both types were irradiated at normal incidence on a phantom with 137 Cs gamma rays, X rays and beta radiation from a 90 Sr/ 90 Y source. Participants were requested to assess their dosemeters in terms of the new operational quantities of the ICRU for personal radiation monitoring, in particular the personal dose equivalents H p (0.07) and H p (10). (author)

  5. The Asia-Pacific region: non-proliferation and other disarmament issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In the past few years, the United States and the former Soviet Union began to adjust their force structures in Asia-Pacific region. In this respect, a large range of issues have been raised in discussions on the non-proliferation of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction. Apart from the issues and trends related to proliferation, military expenditure, arms transfer and other disarmament matters, the specific situations in the respective subregions of South-East Asia, South Asia and North-East Asia were discussed. Comprehensive and verified commitments not to possess any such weapons is stressed as the main goal of the meeting. It is vitally important that opportunities that were opened should be seized to prevent the spread of nuclear, chemical, biological as well as highly destabilizing conventional weapons

  6. 137Cs and 239+240Pu levels in the Asia-Pacific regional seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, E.B.; Povinec, P.P.; Fowler, S.W.; Airey, P.L.; Hong, G.H.

    2004-01-01

    137 Cs and 239+240 Pu data in seawater, sediment and biota from the regional seas of Asia-Pacific extending from 50 deg. N to 60 deg. S latitude and 60 deg. E to 180 deg. E longitude based on the Asia-Pacific Marine Radioactivity Database (ASPAMARD) are presented and discussed. 137 Cs levels in surface seawater have been declining to its present median value of about 3 Bq/m 3 due mainly to radioactive decay, transport processes, and the absence of new significant inputs. 239+240 Pu levels in surface seawater are much lower, with a median of about 6 mBq/m 3 . 239+240 Pu appears to be partly scavenged by particles and is therefore more readily transported down the water column. As with seawater, 239+240 Pu concentrations are lower than 137 Cs in surface sediment. The median 137 Cs concentration in surface sediment is 1.4 Bq/kg dry, while that of 239+240 Pu is only 0.2 Bq/kg dry. The vertical profiles of both 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu in the sediment column of coastal areas are different from deep seas which can be attributed to the higher sedimentation rates and additional contribution of run-offs from terrestrial catchment areas in the coastal zone. Comparable data for biota are far less extensive than those for seawater and sediment. The median 137 Cs concentration in fish (0.2 Bq/kg wet) is higher than in crustaceans (0.1 Bq/kg wet) or mollusks (0.1 Bq/kg wet). Benchmark values (as of 2001) for 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu concentrations in seawater, sediment and biota are established to serve as reference values against which the impact of future anthropogenic inputs can be assessed. ASPAMARD represents one of the most comprehensive compilations of available data on 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu in particular, and other anthropogenic as well as natural radionuclides in seawater, sediment and biota from the Asia-Pacific regional seas

  7. External quality assessment of dengue and chikungunya diagnostics in the Asia Pacific region, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ting Soh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct an external quality assessment (EQA of dengue and chikungunya diagnostics among national-level public health laboratories in the Asia Pacific region following the first round of EQA for dengue diagnostics in 2013. Methods: Twenty-four national-level public health laboratories performed routine diagnostic assays on a proficiency testing panel consisting of two modules. Module A contained serum samples spiked with cultured dengue virus (DENV or chikungunya virus (CHIKV for the detection of nucleic acid and DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1 antigen. Module B contained human serum samples for the detection of anti-DENV antibodies. Results: Among 20 laboratories testing Module A, 17 (85% correctly detected DENV RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, 18 (90% correctly determined serotype and 19 (95% correctly identified CHIKV by RT-PCR. Ten of 15 (66.7% laboratories performing NS1 antigen assays obtained the correct results. In Module B, 18/23 (78.3% and 20/20 (100% of laboratories correctly detected anti-DENV IgM and IgG, respectively. Detection of acute/recent DENV infection by both molecular (RT-PCR and serological methods (IgM was available in 19/24 (79.2% participating laboratories. Discussion: Accurate laboratory testing is a critical component of dengue and chikungunya surveillance and control. This second round of EQA reveals good proficiency in molecular and serological diagnostics of these diseases in the Asia Pacific region. Further comprehensive diagnostic testing, including testing for Zika virus, should comprise future iterations of the EQA.

  8. Collaboration and Development of Radio Astronomy in Australasia and South-Pacific Region: New Zealand Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaev, S.; Natusch, T.

    2006-08-01

    Radio telescopes in the Asia-Pacific region form a natural network for VLBI observations, similar to the very successful networks in North America (Network Users Group) and Europe (European VLBI Network). New Zealand's VLBI facility, which we are developing since 2005, has the potential to strengthen the Asian-Pacific VLBI network and its role in astronomy, geodesy and geoscience. It will positively influence regional and international activities in geoscience and geodesy that advance New Zealand's national interests. A self-contained radio astronomy system for VLBI, including a 1.658 GHz (centre frequency), 16 MHz bandwidth RF system (feed and downconversion system locked to a Rubidium maser and GPS clock), an 8-bit sampler/digitisation system, and a disk-based recording system built around a commodity PC was developed in New Zealand Centre for Radiophysics and Space Research. This was designed as a portable system for use on various radio telescopes. A number of Trans-Tasman tests has been conducted in 2005-2006 between the CRSR system installed on a 6 metre dish located in Auckland and the Australia Telescope Compact Array in Narrabri, Australia. This work has been successful, with fringes located from the recorded data and high resolution image of the quasar PKS1921-231 obtained. Experiments were recently conducted with Japan; new tests are planned with Korea and Fiji. Plans have been made to build a new 16.5 m antenna in New Zealand's North Island and to upgrade an 11 m dish in the South Island. A possible future of New Zealand's participation in the SKA is being discussed.

  9. Diabetes epidemic in the Asia Pacific region: has hemoglobin A1C finally earned its place as a diagnostic tool?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bagley

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two-third of the world's population lives in the Asia Pacific region where prevalence of diabetes has reached epidemic proportion. With China and India being the most populous nations on the globe, it is believed that over 150 million diabetes reside in the region with more than 95% being of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Furthermore, other Pacific islands in the region have high rates of T2DM including Tonga, Fiji, French Polynesia, and Nauru. The latter has the highest prevalence of T2DM per population in the world. Over the past two decades, in Australia and New Zealand, the prevalence of T2DM has more than doubled, mainly amongst the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and Maori peoples respectively. With the increasing prevalence of diabetes in the Asia Pacific region coupled with the limited number of resources, use of a reliable and effective mode of diagnosis for T2DM is warranted. Yet to date, only New Zealand has adopted the American Diabetes Association recommendation of using hemoglobin A1C in the diagnosis of the disease. The aim of this review is to discuss the clinical usefulness of hemoglobin A1C and highlight its diagnostic role in the Asia Pacific region where T2DM is increasingly encountered.

  10. The 2010 M w 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake Sequence, Baja California, Mexico and Southernmost California, USA: Active Seismotectonics along the Mexican Pacific Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauksson, Egill; Stock, Joann; Hutton, Kate; Yang, Wenzheng; Vidal-Villegas, J. Antonio; Kanamori, Hiroo

    2011-08-01

    The El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake sequence started with a few foreshocks in March 2010, and a second sequence of 15 foreshocks of M > 2 (up to M4.4) that occurred during the 24 h preceding the mainshock. The foreshocks occurred along a north-south trend near the mainshock epicenter. The M w 7.2 mainshock on April 4 exhibited complex faulting, possibly starting with a ~M6 normal faulting event, followed ~15 s later by the main event, which included simultaneous normal and right-lateral strike-slip faulting. The aftershock zone extends for 120 km from the south end of the Elsinore fault zone north of the US-Mexico border almost to the northern tip of the Gulf of California. The waveform-relocated aftershocks form two abutting clusters, each about 50 km long, as well as a 10 km north-south aftershock zone just north of the epicenter of the mainshock. Even though the Baja California data are included, the magnitude of completeness and the hypocentral errors increase gradually with distance south of the international border. The spatial distribution of large aftershocks is asymmetric with five M5+ aftershocks located to the south of the mainshock, and only one M5.7 aftershock, but numerous smaller aftershocks to the north. Further, the northwest aftershock cluster exhibits complex faulting on both northwest and northeast planes. Thus, the aftershocks also express a complex pattern of stress release along strike. The overall rate of decay of the aftershocks is similar to the rate of decay of a generic California aftershock sequence. In addition, some triggered seismicity was recorded along the Elsinore and San Jacinto faults to the north, but significant northward migration of aftershocks has not occurred. The synthesis of the El Mayor-Cucapah sequence reveals transtensional regional tectonics, including the westward growth of the Mexicali Valley and the transfer of Pacific-North America plate motion from the Gulf of California in the south into the southernmost San

  11. The Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea as the region of natural aquaculture: Organochlorine pesticides in Pacific salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu.; Lukyanova, Olga N.; Khristoforova, Nadezhda K.

    2016-01-01

    Kuril Islands of the Sea of Okhotsk and the western part of the Bering Sea are an area of natural feeding of Pacific salmon, and the catch area of ones for food market. Food safety of products is an important task of aquaculture. Сoncentrations of HCHs (α-, β-, γ-) and DDT and its metabolites (DDD and DDE) were determined in organs of the pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), chum (O. keta), chinook (O. tshawytscha), and sockeye (O. nerka), which caught from the natural aquaculture region of Russia (near the Kuril Islands (the northern-western part of the Pacific Ocean), the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea). The average total concentration of OCPs in organs of salmon from Western Pacific is lower than that in salmon from the North Pacific American coast and the Atlantic Ocean. The region can be used to grow smolts, which will be later released into the ocean. - Highlights: • The study area is area of natural feeding of Pacific salmon, and the catch area of ones for food market. • ΣOCPs in salmon muscle increases in the following: chum ≤ pink < chinook < sockeye. • ΣOCPs in salmon from study area is lower than that in ones from the Atlantic Ocean. • The salmon, which feeding in the study area, did not accumulate higher OCPs content.

  12. Spatial econometric model of natural disaster impacts on human migration in vulnerable regions of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña-Zorrilla, Sergio O; Sandberg, Krister

    2009-10-01

    Mexico's vast human and environmental diversity offers an initial framework for comprehending some of the prevailing great disparities between rich and poor. Its socio-economic constructed vulnerability to climatic events serves to expand this understanding. Based on a spatial econometric model, this paper tests the contribution of natural disasters to stimulating the emigration process in vulnerable regions of Mexico. Besides coping and adaptive capacity, it assesses the effects of economic losses due to disasters as well as the adverse production and trade conditions of the 1990s on emigration rates in 2000 at the municipality level. Weather-related disasters were responsible for approximately 80 per cent of economic losses in Mexico between 1980 and 2005, mostly in the agricultural sector, which continues to dominate many parts of the country. It is dramatic that this sector generates around only four per cent of gross domestic product but provides a livelihood to about one-quarter of the national population. It is no wonder, therefore, that most emigration from this country arises in vulnerable rural areas.

  13. Quantitative status of resources for radiation therapy in Asia and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Levin, Cecil Victor

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Resources for radiation therapy in Asian and Pacific countries were analyzed to obtain a better understanding of the status of radiation oncological practice in the region. Methods and Materials: The data were obtained mainly through surveys on the availability of major equipment and personnel which were conducted through an International Atomic Energy Agency regional project. The study included 17 countries in South Asia, South East Asia, East Asia and Australasia. Data were related to national populations and economic and a general health care indices. Results: Large differences in equipment and personnel among countries were demonstrated. The availability of both teletherapy and brachytherapy was related to the economic status of the countries. The shortage of teletherapy machines was evident in more countries than that of brachytherapy. Many departments were found to treat patients without simulators or treatment planning systems. The number of radiation oncologists standardized by cancer incidence of a country did not correlate well with economic status. Conclusions: There were significant deficiencies in the availability of all components of radiation therapy in the analyzed countries. The deficiencies were linked predominantly to the economic status of the country. Cognisance should be taken of the specific shortfalls in each country to ensure that expansion or any assistance offered appropriately match its needs and can be fully utilized. The information on the resources currently available for radiation oncological practice in the region presented in this paper provides a valuable basis for planning of development aid programs on radiation therapy

  14. Sustainable energy development: a challenge for Asia and the Pacific region in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Pranesh Chandra

    2003-01-01

    The main challenge to energy policy makers in the 21st century is how to develop and manage adequate, affordable and reliable energy services on a sustainable manner to fuel social and economic development. About 60 per cent of the world's two billion population, who do not have access to modern energy services, live in Asia and the Pacific region. The demand for energy is expected to continue growing at a high rate well into the century, often at a greater rate than economic growth. Latest assessment of conventional energy resources shows that their availability is not going to be an immediate threat to the security of supply but the question is can the region afford to allow current patterns of production and consumption of energy to continue in a rapidly deteriorating health of the environment? Changing these unsustainable patterns is the main challenge for the developed and developing countries alike. The paper dwells upon what are the major issues facing the region in promoting sustainable energy development and what are some of the policy options and possible strategies that the countries could consider to attain the objective of sustainable energy development. In this respect, the paper also dwells upon the need for strategic planning and management of energy resources

  15. Phytoplankton across Tropical and Subtropical Regions of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Marta; Delgado, Maximino; Blasco, Dolors; Latasa, Mikel; Cabello, Ana María; Benítez-Barrios, Verónica; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Mozetič, Patricija; Vidal, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    We examine the large-scale distribution patterns of the nano- and microphytoplankton collected from 145 oceanic stations, at 3 m depth, the 20% light level and the depth of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum, during the Malaspina-2010 Expedition (December 2010-July 2011), which covered 15 biogeographical provinces across the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans, between 35°N and 40°S. In general, the water column was stratified, the surface layers were nutrient-poor and the nano- and microplankton (hereafter phytoplankton, for simplicity, although it included also heterotrophic protists) community was dominated by dinoflagellates, other flagellates and coccolithophores, while the contribution of diatoms was only important in zones with shallow nutriclines such as the equatorial upwelling regions. We applied a principal component analysis to the correlation matrix among the abundances (after logarithmic transform) of the 76 most frequent taxa to synthesize the information contained in the phytoplankton data set. The main trends of variability identified consisted of: 1) A contrast between the community composition of the upper and the lower parts of the euphotic zone, expressed respectively by positive or negative scores of the first principal component, which was positively correlated with taxa such as the dinoflagellates Oxytoxum minutum and Scrippsiella spp., and the coccolithophores Discosphaera tubifera and Syracosphaera pulchra (HOL and HET), and negatively correlated with taxa like Ophiaster hydroideus (coccolithophore) and several diatoms, 2) a general abundance gradient between phytoplankton-rich regions with high abundances of dinoflagellate, coccolithophore and ciliate taxa, and phytoplankton-poor regions (second principal component), 3) differences in dominant phytoplankton and ciliate taxa among the Atlantic, the Indian and the Pacific oceans (third principal component) and 4) the occurrence of a diatom-dominated assemblage (the fourth principal

  16. Phytoplankton across Tropical and Subtropical Regions of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Marta; Delgado, Maximino; Blasco, Dolors; Latasa, Mikel; Cabello, Ana María; Benítez-Barrios, Verónica; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Mozetič, Patricija; Vidal, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    We examine the large-scale distribution patterns of the nano- and microphytoplankton collected from 145 oceanic stations, at 3 m depth, the 20% light level and the depth of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum, during the Malaspina-2010 Expedition (December 2010-July 2011), which covered 15 biogeographical provinces across the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans, between 35°N and 40°S. In general, the water column was stratified, the surface layers were nutrient-poor and the nano- and microplankton (hereafter phytoplankton, for simplicity, although it included also heterotrophic protists) community was dominated by dinoflagellates, other flagellates and coccolithophores, while the contribution of diatoms was only important in zones with shallow nutriclines such as the equatorial upwelling regions. We applied a principal component analysis to the correlation matrix among the abundances (after logarithmic transform) of the 76 most frequent taxa to synthesize the information contained in the phytoplankton data set. The main trends of variability identified consisted of: 1) A contrast between the community composition of the upper and the lower parts of the euphotic zone, expressed respectively by positive or negative scores of the first principal component, which was positively correlated with taxa such as the dinoflagellates Oxytoxum minutum and Scrippsiella spp., and the coccolithophores Discosphaera tubifera and Syracosphaera pulchra (HOL and HET), and negatively correlated with taxa like Ophiaster hydroideus (coccolithophore) and several diatoms, 2) a general abundance gradient between phytoplankton-rich regions with high abundances of dinoflagellate, coccolithophore and ciliate taxa, and phytoplankton-poor regions (second principal component), 3) differences in dominant phytoplankton and ciliate taxa among the Atlantic, the Indian and the Pacific oceans (third principal component) and 4) the occurrence of a diatom-dominated assemblage (the fourth principal

  17. Pacific island health inequities forecast to grow unless profound changes are made to health systems in the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Don; Park, Kunhee; Soakai, Taniela Sunia

    2017-10-01

    Objective Twenty years ago the Pacific's health ministers developed a 'Healthy Islands' vision to lead health development in the subregion. This paper reports on a review of health development over this period and discusses the implications for the attainment of the health related Sustainable Development Goals. Methods The review used qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative review included conducting semi-structured interviews with Pacific Island Government Ministers and officials, regional agencies, health workers and community members. A document review was also conducted. The quantitative review consisted of examining secondary data from regional and global data collections. Results The review found improvement in health indicators, but increasing health inequality between the Pacific and the rest of the world. Many of the larger island populations were unable to reach the health Millennium Development Goals. The 'Healthy Islands' vision remained an inspiration to health ministers and senior officials in the region. However, implementation of the 'Healthy Islands' approach was patchy, under-resourced and un-sustained. Communicable and Maternal and Child Health challenges persist alongside unprecedented levels of non-communicable diseases, inadequate levels of health finance and few skilled health workers as the major impediments to health development for many of the Pacific's countries. Conclusions The current trajectory for health in the Pacific will lead to increasing health inequity with the rest of the world. The challenges to health in the region include persisting communicable disease and maternal and child health threats, unprecedented levels of NCDs, climate change and instability, as well as low economic growth. In order to change the fortunes of this region in the age of the SDGs, a substantial investment in health is required, including in the health workforce, by countries and donors alike. That investment requires a nuanced response

  18. Presented by REL Pacific at McREL: A Summary of Cross-Regional Educational Laboratory Studies. Research Digest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific, 2013

    2013-01-01

    REL Pacific at McREL, 1 of 10 Regional Educational Laboratories (RELs) funded by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES), serves educators in American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap), Guam, Hawai'i, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic…

  19. Mortality trends from diabetes mellitus in the seven socioeconomic regions of Mexico, 2000-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Barriga, Juan Jesús

    2010-11-01

    To determine trends in mortality from diabetes mellitus nationwide according to federative entity, socioeconomic region, and sex and to establish the association between education level, federation entity of residence, and socioeconomic region and mortality from diabetes in Mexico during the years 2000-2007. Records of mortality associated with diabetes for 2000-2007 were obtained from the National Information System of the Secretariat of Health. This information is generated by the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics through death certificates. Codes of International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, that correspond to the basic cause of death from diabetes mellitus were identified. Rates of mortality by federative entity and socioeconomic region were calculated, along with the strength of association (obtained by Poisson regression) between federative entity of residence, socioeconomic region, and education level and mortality from diabetes. The seven socioeconomic regions elaborated by the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics include the 32 federative entities according to indicators related to well-being such as education, occupation, health, housing, and employment. Individuals who did not complete elementary school had a higher risk of dying from diabetes (relative risk [RR] 2.104, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.089-2.119). The federative entity and socioeconomic region with the strongest association with mortality from diabetes were Mexico City (RR 2.5, CI 2.33-2.68 for 2000; RR 2.06, CI 1.95-2.18 for 2007) and region 7 (RR 2.47, CI 2.36-2.57 for 2000; RR 2.05, CI 1.98-2.13 for 2007). Mortality rates increased from 77.9 to 89.2 per 100,000 inhabitants in the period 2000-2007. Women had higher mortality than men. Individuals who did not complete elementary school had a higher risk of dying from diabetes (RR 2.104, CI 2.089-2.119). Mexico City as federative entity and socioeconomic region 7 presented the

  20. Examining regional variability in work ethic within Mexico: Individual difference or shared value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega, Luis M; Woehr, David J; Del Rincón, Germán A

    2018-02-19

    Despite the acceptance of work ethic as an important individual difference, little research has examined the extent to which work ethic may reflect shared environmental or socio-economic factors. This research addresses this concern by examining the influence of geographic proximity on the work ethic experienced by 254 employees from Mexico, working in 11 different cities in the Northern, Central and Southern regions of the country. Using a sequence of complementary analyses to assess the main source of variance on seven dimensions of work ethic, our results indicate that work ethic is most appropriately considered at the individual level. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  1. Rewilding the tropics, and other conservation translocations strategies in the tropical Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louys, Julien; Corlett, Richard T; Price, Gilbert J; Hawkins, Stuart; Piper, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Alarm over the prospects for survival of species in a rapidly changing world has encouraged discussion of translocation conservation strategies that move beyond the focus of ‘at-risk’ species. These approaches consider larger spatial and temporal scales than customary, with the aim of recreating functioning ecosystems through a combination of large-scale ecological restoration and species introductions. The term ‘rewilding’ has come to apply to this large-scale ecosystem restoration program. While reintroductions of species within their historical ranges have become standard conservation tools, introductions within known paleontological ranges—but outside historical ranges—are more controversial, as is the use of taxon substitutions for extinct species. Here, we consider possible conservation translocations for nine large-bodied taxa in tropical Asia-Pacific. We consider the entire spectrum of conservation translocation strategies as defined by the IUCN in addition to rewilding. The taxa considered are spread across diverse taxonomic and ecological spectra and all are listed as ‘endangered’ or ‘critically endangered’ by the IUCN in our region of study. They all have a written and fossil record that is sufficient to assess past changes in range, as well as ecological and environmental preferences, and the reasons for their decline, and they have all suffered massive range restrictions since the late Pleistocene. General principles, problems, and benefits of translocation strategies are reviewed as case studies. These allowed us to develop a conservation translocation matrix, with taxa scored for risk, benefit, and feasibility. Comparisons between taxa across this matrix indicated that orangutans, tapirs, Tasmanian devils, and perhaps tortoises are the most viable taxa for translocations. However, overall the case studies revealed a need for more data and research for all taxa, and their ecological and environmental needs. Rewilding the Asian-Pacific

  2. Evaluation of regional effects of effluents from uranium production in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    The Grants Uranium Region is a 2500 mile area of northcentral New Mexico which has produced about 40 percent of all domestic uranium, and holds over one-half of the current reserves. The increasing demand for uranium to fuel commercial nuclear power plants is resulting in rapid growth of the uranium industry and economic, social, and environmental changes are occurring. One of the environmental issues of this region is the concern for eventually unacceptable levels of air and water pollution from effluents from uranium mill tailings piles. This study addresses these potential impacts in relation to industrial environmental control practices, siting features, and other regional/temporal variables, including rates of production, locations and sizes of new mills, and population distributions

  3. Does Sustainability Affect Corporate Performance and Economic Development? Evidence from the Asia-Pacific region and North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungbok Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how sustainability influences financial returns and economic development in the Asia-Pacific region and North America, utilizing real data empirically. It is controversial that sustainable activities are related to financial performance. For clarification, we tested hypotheses analyzing sustainability index, seven stock markets, financial data such as ROI, ROIC, and ROA from eleven companies, and GDP/GNI per capita, based on the Asia-Pacific region and North America. The results indicate that both financial return for companies and economic development in the two regions are positively germane to sustainable investment. Besides, we found evidence that sustainable investment impacts economic development based on variance decomposition analysis, depending on GDP per capita between the two regions. This implication will be interesting for both practitioners and researchers regarding the measurement of sustainable performance.

  4. Bioaccumulation of trace metals in farmed pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas from SW Gulf of California coast, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan, M P; Muñoz-Sevilla, N P; Góngora-Gómez, Andrés Martin; Luna Varela, Raquel Gabriela; Sujitha, S B; Escobedo-Urías, D C; Rodríguez-Espinosa, P F; Campos Villegas, Lorena Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the bioavailability of trace metals (Chromium, Copper, Nickel, Lead, Zinc, Cadmium, Arsenic, and Mercury) in the commercially consumed Crassostrea gigas oysters collected over a 12-month growth period (2011-12) from an experimental cultivation farm in La Pitahaya, Sinaloa State, Mexico. Sediment and water samples were also collected from four different zones adjacent to the cultivation area to identify the concentration patterns of metals. The results revealed that sewage disposals, fertilizers used for agricultural practices and shrimp culture are the major sources for the enrichment of certain toxic metals. The metal concentrations in oysters presented a decreasing order of abundance (all values in mg Kg -1 ): Zn (278.91 ± 93.03) > Cu (63.13 ± 31.72) > Cr (22.29 ± 30.23) > Cd (14.54 ± 4.28) > Ni (9.41 ± 11.33) > Pb (2.22 ± 1.33) > As (0.58 ± 0.91) > Hg (0.04 ± 0.06). Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) and Biota Sediment Accumulation Factor (BSAF) exhibited that C. gigas in the region are strong accumulators for Zn and Cd respectively. Thus, the present study proves to fulfill the gap in understanding the rate of bioaccumulation of metals in C. gigas which is regarded as the most sought after oyster species globally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events, and Human Health Implications in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Hashim, Zailina

    2016-03-01

    The Asia Pacific region is regarded as the most disaster-prone area of the world. Since 2000, 1.2 billion people have been exposed to hydrometeorological hazards alone through 1215 disaster events. The impacts of climate change on meteorological phenomena and environmental consequences are well documented. However, the impacts on health are more elusive. Nevertheless, climate change is believed to alter weather patterns on the regional scale, giving rise to extreme weather events. The impacts from extreme weather events are definitely more acute and traumatic in nature, leading to deaths and injuries, as well as debilitating and fatal communicable diseases. Extreme weather events include heat waves, cold waves, floods, droughts, hurricanes, tropical cyclones, heavy rain, and snowfalls. Globally, within the 20-year period from 1993 to 2012, more than 530 000 people died as a direct result of almost 15 000 extreme weather events, with losses of more than US$2.5 trillion in purchasing power parity. © 2015 APJPH.

  6. Transparency and nonproliferation in the Asia-Pacific region. Enhancing transparency, strengthening the nonproliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Kazuko

    2008-01-01

    Driven by the prospect of rapid economic growth and the perceived need for energy security, the Asia-Pacific region is destined to increase its nuclear energy use in the coming decades. This projected increase, however, will bring with it nuclear proliferation concerns, fueling fears about the security of nuclear material and creating suspicions about its use. The increasing use of nuclear energy inevitably necessitates supplementary efforts, designed to ensure nuclear security and a legitimate use of nuclear energy, other than the obligation to the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Nuclear transparency measures could be useful tools for building confidence that the increasing nuclear energy use does not contribute to nuclear proliferation. These measures could also foster a cooperative tradition that can address rising concerns over nuclear trafficking and terrorism, which require regional coordination to combat. However, moderate progress in implementing transparency measures suggests a lack of political appreciation of this concept. Thus, this paper describes various forms of potential transparency measures to expand the possibilities of the transparency concept and explore areas in which this concept might be applicable. This paper also clarifies some challenges involving transparency projects, and suggests possible ways to address these challenges. (author)

  7. Competition for petroleum exploration capital in the Asia-Pacific region - implications for New Zealand and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the future energy production and demand profiles for the Asia Pacific region and the global allocation of exploration capital made by major international petroleum companies. The implications of these factors for future government petroleum exploration policies within the region are considered, in particular the Australian and New Zealand situations, together with likely effects of such measures on the ability of exploration and production companies to raise capital. (Author)

  8. Wetlands as principal zones of methylmercury production in southern Louisiana and the Gulf of Mexico region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, B.D. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Biology, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Parkway, Regina, SK, S4S 0A2 (Canada)], E-mail: britt.hall@uregina.ca; Aiken, G.R. [United States Geological Survey, 3215 Marine Street, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Krabbenhoft, D.P. [United States Geological Survey, 8505 Research Way, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Marvin-DiPasquale, M. [United States Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Swarzenski, C.M. [United States Geological Survey, Suite 120, 3535 S. Sherwood Forest Blvd., Baton Rouge, LA 70816 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    It is widely recognized that wetlands, especially those rich in organic matter and receiving appreciable atmospheric mercury (Hg) inputs, are important sites of methylmercury (MeHg) production. Extensive wetlands in the southeastern United States have many ecosystem attributes ideal for promoting high MeHg production rates; however, relatively few mercury cycling studies have been conducted in these environments. We conducted a landscape scale study examining Hg cycling in coastal Louisiana (USA) including four field trips conducted between August 2003 and May 2005. Sites were chosen to represent different ecosystem types, including: a large shallow eutrophic estuarine lake (Lake Pontchartrain), three rivers draining into the lake, a cypress-tupelo dominated freshwater swamp, and six emergent marshes ranging from a freshwater marsh dominated by Panicum hemitomon to a Spartina alterniflora dominated salt marsh close to the Gulf of Mexico. We measured MeHg and total Hg (THg) concentrations, and ancillary chemical characteristics, in whole and filtered surface water, and filtered porewater. Overall, MeHg concentrations were greatest in surface water of freshwater wetlands and lowest in the profundal (non-vegetated) regions of the lake and river mainstems. Concentrations of THg and MeHg in filtered surface water were positively correlated with the highly reactive, aromatic (hydrophobic organic acid) fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). These results suggest that DOC plays an important role in promoting the mobility, transport and bioavailability of inorganic Hg in these environments. Further, elevated porewater concentrations in marine and brackish wetlands suggest coastal wetlands along the Gulf Coast are key sites for MeHg production and may be a principal source of MeHg to foodwebs in the Gulf of Mexico. Examining the relationships among MeHg, THg, and DOC across these multiple landscape types is a first step in evaluating possible links between key zones for

  9. Wetlands as principal zones of methylmercury production in southern Louisiana and the Gulf of Mexico region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, B.D.; Aiken, G.R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M.; Swarzenski, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    It is widely recognized that wetlands, especially those rich in organic matter and receiving appreciable atmospheric mercury (Hg) inputs, are important sites of methylmercury (MeHg) production. Extensive wetlands in the southeastern United States have many ecosystem attributes ideal for promoting high MeHg production rates; however, relatively few mercury cycling studies have been conducted in these environments. We conducted a landscape scale study examining Hg cycling in coastal Louisiana (USA) including four field trips conducted between August 2003 and May 2005. Sites were chosen to represent different ecosystem types, including: a large shallow eutrophic estuarine lake (Lake Pontchartrain), three rivers draining into the lake, a cypress-tupelo dominated freshwater swamp, and six emergent marshes ranging from a freshwater marsh dominated by Panicum hemitomon to a Spartina alterniflora dominated salt marsh close to the Gulf of Mexico. We measured MeHg and total Hg (THg) concentrations, and ancillary chemical characteristics, in whole and filtered surface water, and filtered porewater. Overall, MeHg concentrations were greatest in surface water of freshwater wetlands and lowest in the profundal (non-vegetated) regions of the lake and river mainstems. Concentrations of THg and MeHg in filtered surface water were positively correlated with the highly reactive, aromatic (hydrophobic organic acid) fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). These results suggest that DOC plays an important role in promoting the mobility, transport and bioavailability of inorganic Hg in these environments. Further, elevated porewater concentrations in marine and brackish wetlands suggest coastal wetlands along the Gulf Coast are key sites for MeHg production and may be a principal source of MeHg to foodwebs in the Gulf of Mexico. Examining the relationships among MeHg, THg, and DOC across these multiple landscape types is a first step in evaluating possible links between key zones for

  10. School Social Workers in Texas: A Comparative Demographic Analysis of the Texas-Mexico Border and Non-Border Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Cecilia; Landeck, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the role of school social workers as potential agents of change in the educational system, with a special focus on their major demographic characteristics in Texas and along the Mexico border region. The border region of the state has chronic poverty and limited educational attainment levels and demonstrates a need for…

  11. Climatic Data Integration and Analysis - Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Pacific Northwest Agriculture (REACCH PNA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, E.; Gessler, P. E.; Flathers, E.; Sheneman, L.; Gollberg, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Pacific Northwest Agriculture (REACCH PNA) is a five-year USDA/NIFA-funded coordinated agriculture project to examine the sustainability of cereal crop production systems in the Pacific Northwest, in relationship to ongoing climate change. As part of this effort, an extensive data management system has been developed to enable researchers, students, and the public, to upload, manage, and analyze various data. The REACCH PNA data management team has developed three core systems to encompass cyberinfrastructure and data management needs: 1) the reacchpna.org portal (https://www.reacchpna.org) is the entry point for all public and secure information, with secure access by REACCH PNA members for data analysis, uploading, and informational review; 2) the REACCH PNA Data Repository is a replicated, redundant database server environment that allows for file and database storage and access to all core data; and 3) the REACCH PNA Libraries which are functional groupings of data for REACCH PNA members and the public, based on their access level. These libraries are accessible thru our https://www.reacchpna.org portal. The developed system is structured in a virtual server environment (data, applications, web) that includes a geospatial database/geospatial web server for web mapping services (ArcGIS Server), use of ESRI's Geoportal Server for data discovery and metadata management (under the ISO 19115-2 standard), Thematic Realtime Environmental Distributed Data Services (THREDDS) for data cataloging, and Interactive Python notebook server (IPython) technology for data analysis. REACCH systems are housed and maintained by the Northwest Knowledge Network project (www.northwestknowledge.net), which provides data management services to support research. Initial project data harvesting and meta-tagging efforts have resulted in the interrogation and loading of over 10 terabytes of climate model output, regional entomological data

  12. Ocean Acidification in the Surface Waters of the Pacific-Arctic Boundary Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, J. T.; Cross, J. N.; Evans, W.; Doney, S. C.

    2016-02-01

    The continental shelves of the Pacific-Arctic Region (PAR) are especially vulnerable to the effects of ocean acidification (OA) because the intrusion of anthropogenic CO2 is not the only process that can reduce pH and carbonate mineral saturation states for aragonite (ΩArag). Enhanced sea-ice melt, respiration of organic matter, upwelling and riverine inputs have been shown to exacerbate CO2-driven ocean acidification in high-latitude regions. Additionally, the indirect effect of changing sea-ice coverage is providing a positive feedback to OA as more open water will allow for greater uptake of atmospheric CO2. Here, we compare model-based outputs from the Community Earth System Model with a subset of recent ship-based observations, and take an initial look at future model projections of surface water ΩArag in the Bering, Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. We then use the model outputs to define benchmark years when biological impacts are likely to result from reduced ΩArag. Each of the three continental shelf seas in the PAR will become undersaturated with respect to aragonite at approximately 30-year intervals, indicating that aragonite undersaturations gradually progress upstream along the flow path of the waters as they move north from the Pacific Ocean. However, naturally high variability in ΩArag may indicate higher resilience of the Bering Sea ecosystem to these low-ΩArag conditions than the Chukchi and the Beaufort Seas. Based on our initial results, we have determined that the annual mean for ΩArag will pass below the current range of natural variability in 2025 for the Beaufort Sea and 2027 for the Chukchi Sea. Because of the higher range of natural variability, the annual mean for ΩArag for the Bering Sea does not pass out of the natural variability range until 2044. As ΩArag in these shelf seas slips below the present-day range of large seasonal variability by midcentury, it could put tremendous pressure on the diverse ecosystems that support some of

  13. Magmatic evolution of the Easter microplate-Crough Seamount region (South East Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekinian, R.; Stoffers, P.; Akermand, D.; Binard, N.; Francheteau, Jean; Devey, C.; Garbe-Schonberg, D.

    1995-01-01

    The Easter microplate-Crough Seamount region located between 25?? S-116?? W and 25?? S-122?? W consists of a chain of seamounts forming isolated volcanoes and elongated (100-200 km in length) en echelon volcanic ridges oriented obliquely NE (N 065??), to the present day general spreading direction (N 100??) of the Pacific-Nazca plates. The extension of this seamount chain into the southwestern edge of the Easter microplate near 26??30??? S-115?? W was surveyed and sampled. The southern boundary including the Orongo fracture zone and other shallow ridges ( 0.25) MORBs which are similar in composition to other more recent basalts from the Southwest and East Rifts spreading axes of the Easter microplate. Incompatible element ratios normalized to chondrite values [(Ce/Yb)N = 1-2.5}, {(La/Sm)N = 0.4-1.2} and {(Zr/Y)N = 0.7-2.5} of the basalts are also similar to present day volcanism found in the Easter microplate. The volcanics from the Easter microplate-Crough region are unrelated to other known South Pacific intraplate magmatism (i.e. Society, Pitcairn, and Salas y Gomez Islands). Instead their range in incompatible element ratios is comparable to the submarine basalts from the recently investigated Ahu and Umu volcanic field (Easter hotspot) (Scientific Party SO80, 1993) and centered at about 80 km west of Easter Island. The oblique ridges and their associated seamounts are likely to represent ancient leaky transform faults created during the initial stage of the Easter microplate formation (??? 5 Ma). It appears that volcanic activity on seamounts overlying the oblique volcanic ridges has continued during their westward drift from the microplate as shown by the presence of relatively fresh lava observed on one of these structures, namely the first Oblique Volcanic Ridge near 25?? S-118?? W at about 160 km west of the Easter microplate West Rift. Based on a reconstruction of the Easter microplate, it is suggested that the Crough seamount (Easter Island. ?? 1995

  14. Experience with WASP and MAED among IAEA Member States participating in the Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) in Asia and the Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The report includes the proceedings and papers presented during the workshop on the experience with WASP/MAED computer programs among IAEA Member States participating in the regional co-operative agreement (RCA) in Asia and the Pacific Region, organized by the IAEA and held in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) between 5-9 December 1988. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 14 papers presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. The contribution of the UNDP/RCA/IAEA programmes to the development of nuclear technology in the Asia Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    The UNDP/RCA/IAEA Programmes are involving Member States in the Asia Pacific Region in projects to develop and increase the use of nuclear technologies. These efforts have already increased the level of awareness amongst the Region's scientists, engineers, technologists, and decision makers and has provided significant training to the scientists and engineers to enable them to play a role in technical back stopping at a national level. A new project has been started in 1993 and this will seek to expand the contribution of the nuclear technologies into further industrial and environmental fields. Much of the success of the programmes is credited to the high level of Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology in Asia and the Pacific

  16. STRONG-MOTION OBSERVATION DEMONSTRATION OF THE LONG-PATH EFFECTS FROM THE PACIFIC OCEAN TO MEXICO CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiro, IIDA; Yoshinori, FURUMOTO; Hitoshi, TANIGUCHI; Carlos, GUTIERREZ; Earthquake Res. Inst., University of Tokyo; Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd.; United Nations, Centre for Regional Development; National Disaster Prevention Center

    1997-01-01

    During the 1985 Michoacan earthquake (M=8.1), seismic waves were remarkably amplified in the lakebed zone of Mexico City, approximately 400 km from the epicenter, and the long duration of the lakebed seismograms was a great surprise. Many researchers thought that the origin of the long coda seen in the lakebed zone was surface waves caused by the deep Mexico basin and the soft surficial layers, but this explanation was not adequate. Another possible cause of the long coda is the long-distance...

  17. Analysis of cooperative society and taxation in the Mixteca region, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analaura Medina Conde

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the richness of the cooperative that lies mainly in its principles constitutes an important alternative for local development, the overall research objective was an analysis of the situation of the Cooperative Society in the Mixteca region of Oaxaca, which is one of the poorest and most marginalized regions of Mexico and its taxation, is a mixed qualitative and quantitative research transectional exploratory approach, the method of legal doctrine and the analytical method for statistical review provided by the National Statistics Directory of Economic Units, National Institute of Statistics and Geography and the database is used of the Labor Secretary Oaxaca.Received: 08.05.2015 Accepted: 17.07.2015

  18. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissen, Violette; Ramos, Franzisco Que; de J Bastidas-Bastidas, Pedro; Díaz-González, Gilberto; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo; Huerta-Lwanga, Esperanza; Ruiz-Suárez, Luz E

    2010-10-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn-bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha⁻¹week⁻¹ for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the main metabolite ethylenethiourea was near the detection limit. Surface and subsurface water was highly polluted with ethylenethiourea, the main metabolite of Mancozeb (22.5 and 4.3 μg L⁻¹, respectively), but not with manganese. In deep ground water, no ethylenethiourea was detected. The level of pollution in the region presents a worrisome risk for aquatic life and for human health.

  19. Fracture liaison services for osteoporosis in the Asia-Pacific region: current unmet needs and systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y -F; Huang, C -F; Hwang, J -S; Kuo, J -F; Lin, K -M; Huang, H -C; Bagga, S; Kumar, A; Chen, F -P; Wu, C -H

    2018-04-01

    The analysis aimed to identify the treatment gaps in current fracture liaison services (FLS) and to provide recommendations for best practice establishment of future FLS across the Asia-Pacific region. The findings emphasize the unmet need for the implementation of new programs and provide recommendations for the refinement of existing ones. The study's objectives were to evaluate fracture liaison service (FLS) programs in the Asia-Pacific region and provide recommendations for establishment of future FLS programs. A systematic literature review (SLR) of Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library (2000-2017 inclusive) was performed using the following keywords: osteoporosis, fractures, liaison, and service. Inclusion criteria included the following: patients ≥ 50 years with osteoporosis-related fractures; randomized controlled trials or observational studies with control groups (prospective or retrospective), pre-post, cross-sectional and economic evaluation studies. Success of direct or indirect interventions was assessed based on patients' understanding of risk, bone mineral density assessment, calcium intake, osteoporosis treatment, re-fracture rates, adherence, and mortality, in addition to cost-effectiveness. Overall, 5663 unique citations were identified and the SLR identified 159 publications, reporting 37 studies in Asia-Pacific. These studies revealed the unmet need for public health education, adequate funding, and staff resourcing, along with greater cooperation between departments and physicians. These actions can help to overcome therapeutic inertia with sufficient follow-up to ensure adherence to recommendations and compliance with treatment. The findings also emphasize the importance of primary care physicians continuing to prescribe treatment and ensure service remains convenient. These findings highlight the limited evidence supporting FLS across the Asia-Pacific region, emphasizing the unmet need for new programs and/or refinement of

  20. Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, J; McKenzie, J; Buenconsejo-Lum, L E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccinatio...... of prevention programs, operational research and advocacy could strengthen political momentum for cervical cancer prevention and avoid risking the lives of many women in the Pacific....

  1. Measuring the Impacts of Water Safety Plans in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Kumpel

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effectiveness of Water Safety Plans (WSP implemented in 99 water supply systems across 12 countries in the Asia-Pacific region. An impact assessment methodology including 36 indicators was developed based on a conceptual framework proposed by the Center for Disease Control (CDC and before/after data were collected between November 2014 and June 2016. WSPs were associated with infrastructure improvements at the vast majority (82 of participating sites and to increased financial support at 37 sites. In addition, significant changes were observed in operations and management practices, number of water safety-related meetings, unaccounted-for water, water quality testing activities, and monitoring of consumer satisfaction. However, the study also revealed challenges in the implementation of WSPs, including financial constraints and insufficient capacity. Finally, this study provided an opportunity to test the impact assessment methodology itself, and a series of recommendations are made to improve the approach (indicators, study design, data collection methods for evaluating WSPs.

  2. Biological nitrogen fixation in the oxygen-minimum region of the eastern tropical North Pacific ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Amal; Chang, Bonnie X; Widner, Brittany; Bernhardt, Peter; Mulholland, Margaret R; Ward, Bess B

    2017-10-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) was investigated above and within the oxygen-depleted waters of the oxygen-minimum zone of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific Ocean. BNF rates were estimated using an isotope tracer method that overcame the uncertainty of the conventional bubble method by directly measuring the tracer enrichment during the incubations. Highest rates of BNF (~4 nM day -1 ) occurred in coastal surface waters and lowest detectable rates (~0.2 nM day -1 ) were found in the anoxic region of offshore stations. BNF was not detectable in most samples from oxygen-depleted waters. The composition of the N 2 -fixing assemblage was investigated by sequencing of nifH genes. The diazotrophic assemblage in surface waters contained mainly Proteobacterial sequences (Cluster I nifH), while both Proteobacterial sequences and sequences with high identities to those of anaerobic microbes characterized as Clusters III and IV type nifH sequences were found in the anoxic waters. Our results indicate modest input of N through BNF in oxygen-depleted zones mainly due to the activity of proteobacterial diazotrophs.

  3. Monitoring and eradication of exotic fruit flies in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allwood, Allan; Vueti, Ema Tora

    2003-01-01

    Fruit flies (family Tephritidae) are very mobile and are capable of breaching quarantine barriers, resulting in authorities and horticultural industries having to conduct expensive eradication programs. During the last two decades, with improved air travel and large increases in traveller numbers, the numbers of incursions and outbreaks of exotic pest fruit flies, especially in the Pacific region, have increased, particularly those species belonging to the dorsalis complex. Quarantine surveillance or early warning systems for recording exotic fruit flies include border inspections, passenger profiling, detection trapping, host surveys, and emergency response capacity. Having these systems fully operational improves the prospects of recording new incursions or outbreaks before they have time to expand, but it is still essential to have the capacity to undertake an eradication response as quickly as possible. Eradication programs using protein bait application technique, male annihilation technique, and, in some cases, sterile insect technique have been recently used in Mauritius, Thailand, Philippines, Australia, Nauru, Cook Islands, and French Polynesia against a range of fruit fly species. (author)

  4. Global Climate Models Intercomparison of Anthropogenic Aerosols Effects on Regional Climate over North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Zhang, R.; Wang, Y.; Ming, Y.; Lin, Y.; Pan, B.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosols can alter atmospheric radiation and cloud physics, which further exert impacts on weather and global climate. With the development and industrialization of the developing Asian countries, anthropogenic aerosols have received considerable attentions and remain to be the largest uncertainty in the climate projection. Here we assess the performance of two stat-of-art global climate models (National Center for Atmospheric Research-Community Atmosphere Model 5 (CAM5) and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Atmosphere Model 3 (AM3)) in simulating the impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on North Pacific storm track region. By contrasting two aerosol scenarios, i.e. present day (PD) and pre-industrial (PI), both models show aerosol optical depth (AOD) enhanced by about 22%, with CAM5 AOD 40% lower in magnitude due to the long range transport of anthropogenic aerosols. Aerosol effects on the ice water path (IWP), stratiform precipitation, convergence and convection strengths in the two models are distinctive in patterns and magnitudes. AM3 shows qualitatively good agreement with long-term satellite observations, while CAM5 overestimates convection and liquid water path resulting in an underestimation of large-scale precipitation and IWP. Due to coarse resolution and parameterization in convection schemes, both models' performance on convection needs to be improved. Aerosols performance on large-scale circulation and radiative budget are also examined in this study.

  5. E-Cigarettes: Implications for Health Promotion in the Asian Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancey, Jonine; Maycock, Bruce; McCausland, Kahlia; Howat, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Since their introduction to the United States in 2007, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use has grown exponentially. This rapid growth in e-cigarette use has been heralded by some as a potential important public health measure that could ultimately replace tobacco cigarettes, while others recommend a cautionary approach until there is clear evidence they will not become "new tobacco" bringing a possible myriad of other problems. E-cigarettes may have real benefits, however they do expose users and those nearby to organic compounds, solvents and particulate matter, with there being limited data relating to their health impact. It is unclear as to whether this relatively new device has the potential to exacerbate nicotine addictions, or play a part in reducing harm and smoking cessation. The fundamental requirement of public health practice is to do no harm and from the inconclusive evidence we have to date on e-cigarettes, it appears a cautious approach is warranted. This commentary reviews evidence that supports a cautious approach to e-cigarette availability in Australia and the Asian Pacific region.

  6. Understanding Critical Socio-political and Hydro-climatic drivers behind Water Management and Increasing Dengue Disease Burden in Arid Regions of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Johnson, K.; Frost, M.; Serman, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    Dengue is a significant public health problem in Mexico, with distribution of dengue throughout the country. Mexico is characterized by a number of attributes likely to contribute to the spread of dengue, including population growth, poor water management, urbanization, significant seasonal migration, and concentrated poverty. Understanding the socio-political and hydro-climatic drivers behind the increasing dengue disease burden in the central arid regions of Mexico is a vital component for modeling the distribution and spread of Aedes aegypti vector borne infections such as Dengue and Zika as more parts of the Americas is affected. Here, we focus on the critical socio-economic and environmental drivers behind water management, urbanization, and population migration in the arid Oaxaca region, situated in the rain shadow of the Sierra Madre Mountains at an altitude of 5000 feet. In contrast to the Pacific Coastal region which hosts climactic conditions conducive to the survival of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with a moist tropical environment, Oaxaca is arid and exists in a constant state of water insecurity. Within Oaxaca City, water is trucked in and stored in large roof tanks; many of which are failing, allowing for leaks or mosquito infestation. Alternate sources range from existing cisterns, sophisticated collection systems, to open-air rock pits. Few resources exist to improve water security, particularly in poor neighborhoods creating a disincentive to invite surveillance for disease or to move to safer and improved water systems. Meanwhile, the region has experienced significant socio-political and demographic shift including migration, economic reorganization and urbanization over the last decade. The rise in dengue incidence during the dry season suggests human intervention (through migration, water management, sanitation, cultural practices) as a potentially important predictive factor. In this study, we analyze associations of regional hydroclimatic

  7. Recent Atlantic Hurricanes, Pacific Super Typhoons, and Tropical Storm Awareness in Underdeveloped Island and Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plondke, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey was the first major hurricane to make landfall in the continental U.S. in 12 years. The next tropical storm in the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season was Hurricane Irma, a category 5 storm and the strongest storm to strike the U.S. mainland since Hurricane Wilma in 2005. These two storms were the third and fourth in a sequence of 10 consecutive storms to reach hurricane status in this season that ranks at least seventh among the most active seasons as measured by the Accumulate Cyclone Energy (ACE) index. Assessment of damage from Harvey may prove it to be the costliest storm in U.S. history, approaching $190 billion. Irma was the first category 5 hurricane to hit the Leeward Islands, devastating island environments including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Barbuda, Saint Barthelemy, and Anguilla with sustained winds reaching at times 185 mph. Together with the two super typhoons of the 2017 Pacific season, Noru and Lan, the two Atlantic hurricanes rank among the strongest, longest-lasting tropical cyclones on record. How many more billions of dollars will be expended in recovery and reconstruction efforts following future mega-disasters comparable to those of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma? Particularly on Caribbean and tropical Pacific islands with specialized and underdeveloped economies, aging and substandard infrastructure often cannot even partially mitigate against the impacts of major hurricanes. The most frequently used measurements of storm impact are insufficient to assess the economic impact. Analysis of the storm tracks and periods of greatest storm intensity of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma, and Super Typhoons Lan and Noru, in spatial relationship with island and coastal administrative regions, shows that rainfall totals, flooded area estimates, and property/infrastructure damage dollar estimates are all quantitative indicators of storm impact, but do not measure the costs that result from lack of storm preparedness and education of residents

  8. Health Impacts of Climate Change in Pacific Island Countries: A Regional Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptation Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Rokho; Woodward, Alistair; Hales, Simon; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Iddings, Steven; Naicker, Jyotishma; Bambrick, Hilary; McMichael, Anthony J; Ebi, Kristie L

    2016-11-01

    Between 2010 and 2012, the World Health Organization Division of Pacific Technical Support led a regional climate change and health vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning project, in collaboration with health sector partners, in 13 Pacific island countries-Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. We assessed the vulnerabilities of Pacific island countries to the health impacts of climate change and planned adaptation strategies to minimize such threats to health. This assessment involved a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques. The former included descriptive epidemiology, time series analyses, Poisson regression, and spatial modeling of climate and climate-sensitive disease data, in the few instances where this was possible; the latter included wide stakeholder consultations, iterative consensus building, and expert opinion. Vulnerabilities were ranked using a "likelihood versus impact" matrix, and adaptation strategies were prioritized and planned accordingly. The highest-priority climate-sensitive health risks in Pacific island countries included trauma from extreme weather events, heat-related illnesses, compromised safety and security of water and food, vector-borne diseases, zoonoses, respiratory illnesses, psychosocial ill-health, non-communicable diseases, population pressures, and health system deficiencies. Adaptation strategies relating to these climate change and health risks could be clustered according to categories common to many countries in the Pacific region. Pacific island countries are among the most vulnerable in the world to the health impacts of climate change. This vulnerability is a function of their unique geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics combined with their exposure to changing weather patterns associated with climate change, the health risks entailed, and the limited capacity

  9. Regional assessment of anthropogenic impacts on air, water and soil, case: Huasteca Hidalguense, Mexico; Evaluacion regional del impacto antropogenico sobre aire, agua y suelo, caso: Huasteca Hidalguense, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordillo Martinez, Alberto Jose; Cabrera Cruz, Rene Bernardo Elias; Hernandez Mariano, Marisol; Galindo, Erick; Otazo, Elena; Prieto, Francisco [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)]. E-mail: gordillo@uaeh.edu.mx; rcabreracruz@yahoo.com.mx

    2010-08-15

    The state of Hidalgo, Mexico presents an important environmental problem that manifests itself in different ways. To identify the sources, types and the magnitude of pollutants, an inventory of sources of industrial and domestic pollution for air, water and soil in ten municipalities of the Huasteca Region of the state was carried out using the technique of Rapid Assessment of Sources of Environmental Pollution and the results are reported in this paper. A total of combined pollutants emitted was 116 978.95 tons/year. Gasoline vehicles contributed 11 039 tons/year of air pollutants and diesel vehicles 1521 tons/year. For water, industrial sources contributed 22 496 tons/year and domestic effluents 15 776 tons/year. Soil pollution was a result of industrial solid waste, 4025 tons/year, and municipal solid waste, 62 121 tons/year. By municipality, Huejutla de Reyes is the most polluted in air, water and soil, with 53 % of the regional total. These results were evaluated in relation to environmental quality of each medium based on the Mexican regulations; these levels are above permissible limits for water and soil. A database with relevant information was prepared as a support for efficient management of pollutant emissions, provide base mark data for complementary studies, and to promote the future conservation of environmental quality and the biological richness of the area. [Spanish] El estado de Hidalgo, Mexico presenta una importante problematica ambiental que se manifiesta de manera heterogenea a lo largo de su territorio. Existe la necesidad de conocer las fuentes, tipos de agentes contaminantes y su magnitud. En este trabajo se realizo un inventario de la contaminacion emitida por fuentes de origen industrial y domestico en aire, agua y suelo en diez municipios de la region de la Huasteca por medio de la tecnica de Evaluacion Rapida de Fuentes de Contaminacion Ambiental (ERFCA). El total de la contaminacion emitida fue de 116 978.95 ton/ano. Las emisiones al

  10. Mesozooplankton respiration and community structure in a seamount region of the eastern South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Leissing; Escribano, Ruben; Morales, Carmen E.; Hormazabal, Samuel; Medellín-Mora, Johanna

    2018-05-01

    Seamounts in the Juan Fernandez Ridge, as well as in other seamount regions in the eastern South Pacific and in the world oceans, remain poorly studied ecosystems in terms of structure and functioning. Here, community respiration by epipelagic mesozooplankton in three seamounts of the Juan Fernandez Ridge, including the O`Higgins Seamount close to the coastal upwelling zone and two oceanic seamounts near the Juan Fernandez Archipelago ( 33°S-78°W), was assessed. Oxygen consumption by mixed assemblages was estimated using continuous measurements of dissolved oxygen concentration under controlled temperature during onboard, short-term incubations (2-4 h). Mesozooplankton composition was analyzed with a ZooScan device and expressed in terms of community normalized size spectra, and taxa and size diversity (Shannon-Wiener index). Carbon-specific community respiration rates in the upper 100 m layer were in the range of 0.3-1.9 mg O2 m-2 d-1, indicating that up to 3.1% of the mesozooplankton biomass can be respired on a daily basis. The mesozooplankton community was dominated by small-size copepods but the proportions of small copepods, large copepods, and gelatinous zooplankton (mostly salps) changed between the seamounts, in association with modifications in taxa composition, size diversity, and the slope of the size spectrum. Community respiration was significantly correlated to these community descriptors, suggesting the composition of the pelagic community has a direct impact on the total amount of respired-C. Connectivity between the coastal upwelling zone and the Juan Fernandez Ridge region mediated by mesoscale activity, interacting with the seamounts, is suggested as a most important process in controlling zooplankton community structure and in turn community metabolism.

  11. Neglected diseases and ethnic minorities in the Western Pacific Region exploring the links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schratz, Alexander; Pineda, Martha Fernanda; Reforma, Liberty G; Fox, Nicole M; Le Anh, Tuan; Tommaso Cavalli-Sforza, L; Henderson, Mackenzie K; Mendoza, Raymond; Utzinger, Jürg; Ehrenberg, John P; Tee, Ah Sian

    2010-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups (EMGs) are often subject to exclusion, marginalization and poverty. These characteristics render them particularly vulnerable to neglected diseases, a diverse group of diseases that comprise bacteria, ecto-parasites, fungi, helminths and viruses. Despite the health policy relevance, only little is known of the epidemiological profile of neglected diseases among EMGs. We reviewed country data from Australia, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam and found several overlaps between regions with high proportions of EMG population and high prevalence rates of neglected diseases (infections with soil-transmitted helminths, filarial worms, schistosomes, food-borne trematodes and cestodes). While the links are not always clearly evident and it is impossible to establish correlations among highly aggregated data without control variables-such as environmental factors-there appear indeed to be important linkages between EMGs, socio-economic status and prevalence of neglected diseases. Some determinants under consideration are lack of access to health care and general health status, poverty and social marginalization, as well as education and literacy. Further research is needed to deepen the understanding of these linkages and to determine their public health and socio-economic significance. In particular, there is a need for more data from all countries in the Western Pacific Region that is disaggregated below the provincial level. Selected case studies that incorporate other control variables-such as risk factors from the physical environment-might be useful to inform policy makers about the feasibility of prevention and control interventions that are targeted at high-risk EMGs.

  12. Seafloor geomorphology and geology of the Kingman Reef-Palmyra Atoll region, Central Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakins, Barry; Barth, Ginger; Scheirer, Dan; Mosher, Dave; Armstrong, Andy

    2017-04-01

    Kingman Reef and Palmyra Atoll are the exposed summits of two seamounts within the Line Islands Volcanic Chain in the Central Pacific Ocean. Both are U.S. Territories, and the Exclusive Economic Zone around the islands was partially surveyed in 1991 with GLORIA sidescan sonar and seismic reflection profiling. New multibeam swath sonar surveys were conducted in 2010, 2015, and 2016 around the islands, in support of U.S. Extended Continental Shelf investigations. Numerous transits through the region by research vessels have collected additional multibeam swath sonar data. We present new, detailed maps of bathymetry, sidescan sonar imagery, geology, and sediment isopachs of the seafloor surrounding the islands, and how these have informed our understanding of the islands' margins. The islands are the last subaerial remnants of a complex, horse-shoe-shaped volcanic platform spanning roughly 200 km in diameter. The elevated platform from which the seamounts arise comprises at least 10 individual volcanic centers that have heights exceeding 3000m above the nearby abyssal plains. Gravity modeling suggests that the elevated platform is compensated by thickened crust. Strong carbonate caps and voluminous sediment accumulations flanking the platform indicate that the volcanoes were once shallow-water or emergent systems. These systems produced vast quantities of carbonate sediment that were shed to a deep interior basin to the east of Palmyra Atoll, and to nearby abyssal plains. The identification of mass failures, sediment reworking and bedforms, and channel networks provide evidence for extensive sedimentary processes around these volcanic centers. Analysis of the seamounts atop the elevated platform and in the seamount province to the northwest shows that flat-topped seamounts ("guyots") are principally found at depths shallower than 1300 meters, while peaked seamounts are almost exclusively found at greater depths. This constrains the amount of regional subsidence that

  13. Using a predictive model to evaluate spatiotemporal variability in streamflow permanence across the Pacific Northwest region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, K. L.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed the PRObability Of Streamflow PERmanence (PROSPER) model, a GIS-based empirical model that provides predictions of the annual probability of a stream channel having year-round flow (Streamflow permanence probability; SPP) for any unregulated and minimally-impaired stream channel in the Pacific Northwest (Washington, Oregon, Idaho, western Montana). The model provides annual predictions for 2004-2016 at a 30-m spatial resolution based on monthly or annually updated values of climatic conditions, and static physiographic variables associated with the upstream basin. Prediction locations correspond to the channel network consistent with the National Hydrography Dataset stream grid and are publicly available through the USGS StreamStats platform (https://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/). In snowmelt-driven systems, the most informative predictor variable was mean upstream snow water equivalent on May 1, which highlights the influence of late spring snow cover for supporting streamflow in mountain river networks. In non-snowmelt-driven systems, the most informative variable was mean annual precipitation. Streamflow permanence probabilities varied across the study area by geography and from year-to-year. Notably lower SPP corresponded to the climatically drier subregions of the study area. Higher SPP were concentrated in coastal and higher elevation mountain regions. In addition, SPP appeared to trend with average hydroclimatic conditions, which were also geographically coherent. The year-to-year variability lends support for the growing recognition of the spatiotemporal dynamism of streamflow permanence. An analysis of three focus basins located in contrasting geographical and hydroclimatic settings demonstrates differences in the sensitivity of streamflow permanence to antecedent climate conditions as a function of geography. Consequently, results suggest that PROSPER model can be a useful tool to evaluate regions of the

  14. New mechanism under International Flood Initiative toward robustness for flood management in the Asia Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, M.; Yoshitani, J.; Takeuchi, K.; Koike, T.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is likely to result in increases in the frequency or intensity of extreme weather events. It is imperative that a good understanding is developed of how climate change affects the events that are reflected in hydrological extremes such as floods and how practitioners in water resources management deal with them. Since there is still major uncertainty as to how the impact of climate change affect actual water resources management, it is important to build robustness into management schemes and communities. Flood management under such variety of uncertainty favors the flexible and adaptive implementation both in top-down and bottom-up approaches. The former uses projections of global or spatially downscaled models to drive resource models and project resource impacts. The latter utilizes policy or planning tools to identify what changes in climate would be most threatening to their long-range operations. Especially for the bottom-up approaches, it is essential to identify the gap between what should be done and what has not been achieved for disaster risks. Indicators or index are appropriate tools to measure such gaps, but they are still in progress to cover the whole world. The International Flood Initiative (IFI), initiated in January 2005 by UNESCO and WMO in close cooperation with UNU and ISDR, IAHS and IAHR, has promoted an integrated approach to flood management to take advantage of floods and use of flood plains while reducing the social, environmental and economic risks. Its secretariat is located in ICHARM. The initiative objective is to support national platforms to practice evidence-based disaster risk reduction through mobilizing scientific and research networks at national, regional and international levels. The initiative is now preparing for a new mechanism to facilitate the integrated approach for flood management on the ground regionally in the Asia Pacific (IFI-AP) through monitoring, assessment and capacity building.

  15. Local and regional species diversity of benthic Isopoda (Crustacea) in the deep Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, George D. F.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies of deep-sea faunas considered the influence of mid-domain models in the distribution of species diversity and richness with depth. In this paper, I show that separating local diversity from regional species richness in benthic isopods clarifies mid-domain effects in the distribution of isopods in the Gulf of Mexico. Deviations from the randomised implied species ranges can be informative to understanding general patterns within the Gulf of Mexico. The isopods from the GoMB study contained 135 species, with a total of 156 species including those from an earlier study. More than 60 species may be new to science. Most families of deep-sea isopods (suborder Asellota) were present, although some were extremely rare. The isopod family Desmosomatidae dominated the samples, and one species of Macrostylis (Macrostylidae) was found in many samples. Species richness for samples pooled within sites ranged from 1 to 52 species. Because species in pooled samples were highly correlated with individuals, species diversity was compared across sites using the expected species estimator ( n=15 individuals, ES 15). Six depth transects had idiosyncratic patterns of ES 15, and transects with the greatest short-range variation in topography, such as basins and canyons, had the greatest short-range disparity. Basins on the deep slope did not have a consistent influence (i.e., relatively higher or lower than surrounding areas) on the comparative species diversity. ES 15 of all transects together showed a weak mid-domain effect, peaking around 1200-1500 m, with low values at the shallowest and deepest samples (Sigsbee Abyssal Plain); no longitudinal (east-west) pattern was found. The regional species pool was analyzed by summing the implied ranges of all species. The species ranges in aggregate did not have significant patterns across longitudes, and many species had broad depth ranges, suggesting that the isopod fauna of the Gulf of Mexico is well dispersed. The summed

  16. Geology and recognition criteria for uraniferous humate deposits, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.S.; Saucier, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    The geology of the uraniferous humate uranium deposits of the Grants Uranium Region, northwestern New Mexico, is summarized. The most important conclusions of this study are enumerated. Although the geologic characteristics of the uraniferous humate deposits of the Grants Uranium Region are obviously not common in the world, neither are they bizarre or coincidental. The source of the uranium in the deposits of the Grants Uranium Region is not known with certainty. The depositional environment of the host sediments was apparently the mid and distal portions of a wet alluvial fan system. The influence of structural control on the location and accumulation of the host sediments is now supported by considerable data. The host sediments possess numerous important characteristics which influenced the formation of uraniferous humate deposits. Ilmenite-magnetite distribution within potential host sandstones is believed to be the simplest and most useful regional alteration pattern related to this type of uranium deposit. A method is presented for organizing geologic observations into what is referred to as recognition criteria. The potential of the United States for new districts similar to the Grants Uranium Region is judged to be low based upon presently available geologic information. Continuing studies on uraniferous humate deposits are desirable in three particular areas

  17. BOVINE NEOSPOROSIS IN CATTLE FARMS FROM THE NORTHERN REGION OF THE STATE OF VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Montiel-Peña

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the presence of antibodies against Neospora caninum and its DNA in blood samples from bovine females from the northern region of the state of Veracruz, Mexico. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out in 13 municipalities, with a sample size of 821 animals. Blood and serum samples were analyzed through ELISA and PCR, respectively. Overall prevalence was 20.8 %; the highest specific prevalences were obtained in breeding cows (27.4 %, crossbred cows (20.9 %, second-calving cows (23.2 %, three year-old cows (20.6 % and cows with abortion history (20 %. The risk factors associated with seropositivity were dairy cattle (OR = 1.9; IC95 %: 1.1-3.4 and dog presence in the farms (OR = 5.3; IC95 %: 1.3-22.3. The presence of N. caninum DNA was demonstrated in 4 out of 12 blood samples tested, which evidenced the existence of active infection. In conclusion, there were risk factors associated with bovine neosporosis, which proved the existence of active infection by N. caninum in cows from the state of Veracruz, Mexico.

  18. Volatile organic compound measurements in the California/Mexico border region during SCOS97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinska, B.; Sagebiel, J.; Harshfield, G.; Pasek, R.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were carried out in the California/Mexico border region during the Southern California Ozone Study in the summer of 1997 (SCOS97). Integrated 3-h samples were collected in Rosarito (south of Tijuana, Mexico) and in Mexicali during intensive operational periods (IOP), twice per IOP day. VOC were collected using stainless-steel 6-l canisters; carbonyl compounds were collected using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) impregnated C18 SepPak cartridges. The canister samples were analyzed for speciated volatile hydrocarbons (C 2 -C 12 ), CO, CO 2 , CH 4 , methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE), and halogenated hydrocarbons. DNPH-impregnated cartridges were analyzed for 14 C 1 -C 7 carbonyl compounds. The concentrations of all species were higher at Mexicali than in Rosarito. A good correlation between total non-methane hydrocarbons (TNMHC), CO, and other pollutants associated with motor vehicle emissions observed for Mexicali indicates that the main source of TNMHC at this site is vehicular traffic

  19. Presence of Toxoplasma gondii in Drinking Water from an Endemic Region in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Cortazar, Ivonne B; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Segura-Correa, Jose C; Jimenez-Coello, Matilde

    2017-05-01

    Toxoplasmosis can be acquired through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii, highly resistant to the routinely disinfection processes; based on chlorination commonly used in the water supply industry. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of T. gondii DNA in samples of public drinking water from an endemic region of southern Mexico. In total 74 samples of water (5 L each) were collected from the three well fields (I, II, and III) and 71 independent wells, distributing public drinking water to the city of Merida Yucatan, after passing through the chlorination process. Water samples were filtered and concentrated by a sucrose solution, then DNA was extracted and evaluated through a nested-PCR (nPCR) specific for T. gondii. Positive samples were detected in 5.4% (4/74) of the water samples. This is the first report of the presence of T. gondii DNA in public drinking water from a large city in southern Mexico, where their consumption without any postpurification treatment could pose a risk for acquiring the infection in the urban population.

  20. Economic burden of underweight and overweight among adults in the Asia-Pacific region: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Mohammad Enamul; Mannan, Munim; Long, Kurt Z; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2016-04-01

    To assess the economic burden of underweight and overweight among adults in the Asia-Pacific region. Systematic review of articles published until March 2015. Seventeen suitable articles were found, of which 13 assess the economic burden of overweight/obesity and estimate that it accounts for 1.5-9.9% of a country's total healthcare expenditure. Four articles on the economic burden of underweight estimate it at 2.5-3.8% of the country's total GDP. Using hospital data, and compared to normal weight individuals, four articles estimated extra healthcare costs for overweight individuals of 7-9.8% and more, and extra healthcare costs for obese individuals of 17-22.3% and higher. Despite methodological diversity across the studies, there is a consensus that both underweight and overweight impose a substantial financial burden on healthcare systems in the Asia-Pacific region. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. EPA Pacific Southwest Enforcement Division Inspected Tax Map Key Polygons, Hawaii, 2017, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This feature class contains the 64 tax map key polygons across the state of Hawaii that have been inspected by US EPA Pacific Southwest Enforcement Division as of...

  2. Emerging Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases in Asia Pacific: Implications to Health Care in the Region (World Gastroenterology Organization: Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology Distinguished Global Lecture 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Khean-Lee

    2017-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are considered important emerging diseases in the Asia Pacific (AP) region. The incidence rate of CRC is the highest among gastrointestinal cancers in the region surpassing that of gastric cancer. However, population CRC screening is limited by availability of adequate health resources and financing. GERD is a highly prevalent disease in AP with the prevalence of GERD symptoms and reflux esophagitis reported to be increasing. The usage of proton pump inhibitors has also been reported to be high. The incidence and prevalence of IBD is not as high as in the west but is now an increasingly recognizable disease in the AP region. Being a complicated disease, IBD will pose a huge financial burden with the increasing use of expensive biological drugs. In tandem with the exponential increase in obesity and diabetes mellitus in AP, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease will become the most important liver disease in the region in the coming years. These emerging diseases reflect the continued fast-paced socioeconomic development in the region with marked lifestyle changes and increasing affluence.

  3. Regional Integration in the Americas and the Pacific Rim: A Project Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Mena, Antonio

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 the Center for Iberian and Latin American Studies (CILAS) and the Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies (IR/PS) launched a two-year program on “Latin America and the Pacific Rim” at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). Its aim is to promote understanding of the increasingly significant relationship between Asia and Latin America, especially in light of the relatively scant scholarly attention which has been devoted to this subject. This wo...

  4. The Genesis of the Russian Empire’s geopolitical strategy in the Pacific region (1724-1917 gg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Kovaleva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the genesis’ peculiarities of the Russian Empire’s geopolitical strategy in the Pacific region. Geostrategy is defined, its main components distinguished. Geostrategy is divided into external (expansion and internal (organization of the territory of the state. The main regularities of development of new territories investigate. External expansion is analyzed in the context of relations with neighboring countries (Japan, China, Korea, USA.

  5. Distribution and transportability of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in the Asia-Pacific region using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Daisuke [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington ON L7R 4A6 (Canada) and Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Ehime (Japan)]. E-mail: ueno@qg8.so-net.ne.jp; Alaee, Mehran [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Marvin, Chris [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Muir, Derek C.G. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Macinnis, Gordia [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Reiner, Eric [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON (Canada); Crozier, Patrick [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON (Canada); Furdui, Vasile I. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON (Canada); Subramanian, Annamalai [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Ehime (Japan); Fillmann, Gilberto [Department of Oceanography, Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande (Brazil); Lam, Paul K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Zheng, Gene J. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Muchtar, Muswerry [Research and Development Center for Oceanology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Jakarta (Indonesia); Razak, Hamidah [Research and Development Center for Oceanology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Jakarta (Indonesia); Prudente, Maricar [Science Education Department, De La Salle University, Manila (Philippines); Chung, Kyu-hyuck [College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea (Korea); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Ehime (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    The geographical distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was investigated through analysis of muscle tissue of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from offshore waters of Asia-Pacific region (Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles, Brazil, Japan Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea, Indian Ocean and North Pacific Ocean). HBCD was detected in almost all samples analyzed (<0.1 to 45 ng/g lipid weight basis), indicating widespread presence of this compound in the marine environment. Elevated concentrations of HBCD were found in skipjack tuna from areas around Japan, which have the larger modern industrial/urban societies, and implicated these areas as primary regional sources. All three individual HBCD isomers ({alpha}-, {gamma}- and {beta}-HBCD) were detected in almost all samples; the percentage contribution of the {alpha}-isomer to total HBCD increased with increasing latitude. The estimated empirical 1/2 distance for {alpha}-HBCD was 8500 km, which is one of the highest atmospheric transportability among various halogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs). - Geographical distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in offshore water of Asia-Pacific region was investigated using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator.

  6. Distribution and transportability of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in the Asia-Pacific region using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Daisuke; Alaee, Mehran; Marvin, Chris; Muir, Derek C.G.; Macinnis, Gordia; Reiner, Eric; Crozier, Patrick; Furdui, Vasile I.; Subramanian, Annamalai; Fillmann, Gilberto; Lam, Paul K.S.; Zheng, Gene J.; Muchtar, Muswerry; Razak, Hamidah; Prudente, Maricar; Chung, Kyu-hyuck; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-01-01

    The geographical distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was investigated through analysis of muscle tissue of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from offshore waters of Asia-Pacific region (Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles, Brazil, Japan Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea, Indian Ocean and North Pacific Ocean). HBCD was detected in almost all samples analyzed (<0.1 to 45 ng/g lipid weight basis), indicating widespread presence of this compound in the marine environment. Elevated concentrations of HBCD were found in skipjack tuna from areas around Japan, which have the larger modern industrial/urban societies, and implicated these areas as primary regional sources. All three individual HBCD isomers (α-, γ- and β-HBCD) were detected in almost all samples; the percentage contribution of the α-isomer to total HBCD increased with increasing latitude. The estimated empirical 1/2 distance for α-HBCD was 8500 km, which is one of the highest atmospheric transportability among various halogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs). - Geographical distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in offshore water of Asia-Pacific region was investigated using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator

  7. Non-communicable diseases in the Asia-Pacific region: Prevalence, risk factors and community-based prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wah-Yun Low

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs lead to substantial mortality and morbidity worldwide. The most common NCDs are cardiovascular diseases (CVD, diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. With the rapid increase in NCD-related deaths in Asia Pacific countries, NCDs are now the major cause of deaths and disease burden in the region. NCDs hamper achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG. People in the low socio-economic group are most affected by NCDs as they have poor access to policies, legislations, regulations and healthcare services meant to combat NCDs. This results in loss of productivity by a decreasing labor force with implications at the macroeconomic level. The 3 major NCDs in the Asia Pacific region are CVDs, cancer and diabetes due to the increasing loss of disability adjusted life years (DALYs. The 4 major behavioral risk factors for NCDs are: tobacco use, alcohol consumption, inadequate physical activity and unhealthy diet. The underlying risk factors are urbanization, globalization, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and hypertension. Strategies to combat NCDs in the Asia Pacific region are as follows: population-based dietary salt reduction, health education, psychological interventions, i.e., cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational-interviewing, taxation and bans on tobacco-related advertisements, implementing smoke-free zones and surveillance by the World Health Organization. Control measures must focus on prevention and strengthening inter-sectorial collaboration.

  8. Accuracy Evaluation of 19 Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems Manufactured in the Asia-Pacific Region: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Fei, Wang; Wei-Ping, Jia; Ming-Hsun, Wu; Miao-O, Chien; Ming-Chang, Hsieh; Chi-Pin, Wang; Ming-Shih, Lee

    2017-09-01

    System accuracy of current blood glucose monitors (BGMs) in the market has already been evaluated extensively, yet mostly focused on European and North American manufacturers. Data on BGMs manufactured in the Asia-Pacific region remain to be established. In this study, we sought to assess the accuracy performance of 19 BGMs manufactured in the Asia-pacific region. A total of 19 BGMs were obtained from local pharmacies in China. The study was conducted at three hospitals located in the Asia-Pacific region. Measurement results of each system were compared with results of the reference instrument (YSI 2300 PLUS Glucose Analyzer), and accuracy evaluation was performed in accordance to the ISO 15197:2003 and updated 2015 guidelines. Radar plots, which is a new method, are described herein to visualize the analytical performance of the 19 BGMs evaluated. Consensus error grid is a tool for evaluating the clinical significance of the results. The 19 BGMs resulted in a satisfaction rate between 83.5% and 100.0% within ISO 15197:2003 error limits, and between 71.3% and 100.0% within EN ISO 15197:2015 (ISO 15197:2013) error limits. Of the 19 BGMs evaluated, 12 met the minimal accuracy requirement of the ISO 15197:2003 standard, whereas only 4 met the tighter EN ISO 15197:2015 (ISO 15197:2013) requirements. Accuracy evaluation of BGMs should be performed regularly to maximize patient safety.

  9. Regional well-log correlation in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.; Shaffer, S.E.

    1985-09-01

    Although well logs provide the most complete record of stratigraphy and structure in the northern Delaware Basin, regional interpretations of these logs generate problems of ambiguous lithologic signatures and on-hole anomalies. Interpretation must therefore be based on log-to-log correlation rather than on inferences from single logs. In this report, logs from 276 wells were used to make stratigraphic picks of Ochoan horizons (the Rustler, Salado, and Castile Formations) in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin. Current log correlation suggests that: (1) the Castile is characterized by lateral thickening and thinning; (2) some Castile thinnings are of Permian age; (3) irregular topography in the Guadalupian Bell Canyon Formation may produce apparent structures in the overlying Ochoan units; and (4) extensive dissolution of the Salado is not apparent in the area of the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) site. 13 refs., 37 figs

  10. Nitrous oxide dynamics in low oxygen regions of the Pacific: insights from the MEMENTO database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, L. M.; Oschlies, A.; Bange, H. W.; Huebert, K. B.; Craig, J. D.; Kock, A.; Löscher, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    The eastern tropical Pacific (ETP) is believed to be one of the largest marine sources of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Future N2O emissions from the ETP are highly uncertain because oxygen minimum zones are expected to expand, affecting both regional production and consumption of N2O. Here we assess three primary uncertainties in how N2O may respond to changing O2 levels: (1) the relationship between N2O production and O2 (is it linear or exponential at low O2 concentrations?), (2) the cutoff point at which net N2O production switches to net N2O consumption (uncertainties in this parameterisation can lead to differences in model ETP N2O concentrations of more than 20%), and (3) the rate of net N2O consumption at low O2. Based on the MEMENTO database, which is the largest N2O dataset currently available, we find that N2O production in the ETP increases linearly rather than exponentially with decreasing O2. Additionally, net N2O consumption switches to net N2O production at ~ 10 μM O2, a value in line with recent studies that suggest consumption occurs on a larger scale than previously thought. N2O consumption is on the order of 0.01-1 mmol N2O m-3 yr-1 in the Peru-Chile Undercurrent. Based on these findings, it appears that recent studies substantially overestimated N2O production in the ETP. In light of expected deoxygenation and the higher than previously expected point at which net N2O production switches to consumption, there is enough uncertainty in future N2O production that even the sign of future changes is still unclear.

  11. Alcoholic Liver Disease in the Asian–Pacific Region with High Prevalence of Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sien-Sing Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The hospitalized cases and mortality from alcoholic liver disease (ALD are increasing in Taiwan and worldwide. Meanwhile, the Asia–Pacific region also has a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The Taiwanese have the highest percentage of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 deficiency and the lowest amount of alcohol consumption. Based on the histological changes, ALD is clinically classified as steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic fibrosis, alcoholic cirrhosis, and alcoholic hepatitis on cirrhosis. Patients with overt alcoholic hepatitis often develop marked hepatomegaly, audible hepatic arterial bruit, mild leukocytosis, and mild fever. Patients having alcoholic cirrhosis had much more serious complications and mortality. It is clinically important to identify hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis earlier for early management. Active assessments for esophageal varices and ascites may help the diagnosis of cirrhosis. Sonography is helpful for exanimating features of cirrhosis including portal hypertension, ascites, increased hepatic portal flow, and collaterals. Synergistic damage of viral hepatitis on ALD patients lead to rapid progression to cirrhosis and HCC. Distinct from the Western population, 30% of Taiwanese alcoholics had concomitant chronic HBV regardless of the different histologic categories. Patient groups with combined alcoholics and HBV had fewer platelet counts and much more cirrhosis with Ishak Stage 5–6 fibrosis. The annual incidences of HCC were significantly higher in alcoholic cirrhotic patients having concomitant HBV infection than those with only HBV infection or alcoholism alone. Antiviral nucleotide and nucleoside analogs therapy reduces the prevalence of HCC to a similar level to those ALD patients without active HBV.

  12. 'La Fiebre de Malta': An interface of Farmers and Caprine Brucellosis Control Policies in the Bajio Region, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.; Udo, H.M.J.; Frankena, K.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2017-01-01

    This article shows that socio-economic factors, defined here as practices, knowledge, interests, beliefs and experiences have a role in the adoption of brucellosis control strategies in the Bajío region, Mexico. We combined qualitative and quantitative methods to show that socio-economic factors

  13. Assessment of undiscovered resources in calcrete uranium deposits, Southern High Plains region of Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Susan M.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2017-11-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimates a mean of 40 million pounds of in-place uranium oxide (U3O8) remaining as potential undiscovered resources in the Southern High Plains region of Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. This estimate used a geology-based assessment method specific to calcrete uranium deposits.

  14. REGIONAL HYDROLOGY OF THE NOPAL I SITE, SIERRA DE PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Rodriguez-Pineda; P. Goodell; P.F. Dobson; J. Walton; R. Oliver; De La Garza; S. Harder

    2005-07-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored the drilling of three wells in 2003 near the Nopal I uranium deposit at the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico. Piezometric information is being collected to understand groundwater flow at local and regional levels as part of an ongoing natural analogue study of radionuclide migration. Water level monitoring reported at these and other wells in the region is combined with archival data to provide a better understanding of the hydrology at Nopal I. Initial results suggest that the local hydrology is dependent on the regional hydrologic setting and that this groundwater system behaves as an unconfined aquifer. The region is dominated by an alternating sequence of highlands and basins that step down from west to east. The Sierra de Pena Blanca was downdropped from the cratonic block to the west during Cenozoic extension. The Nopal I area is near the intersection of two large listric faults, and the questa of ash flow tuffs that hosts the deposit has been subjected to complex structural events. The Pena Blanca Uranium District was originally characterized by 105 airborne radiometric anomalies, indicating widespread uranium mineralization. The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Sierra del Pena Blanca between the Encinillas Basin to the west, with a mean elevation of 1560 m, and the El Cuervo Basin to the east, with a mean elevation of 1230 m. The Nopal I + 10 level is at an intermediate elevation of 1463 m, with a corresponding groundwater elevation of approximately 1240 m. The regional potentiometric surface indicates flow from west to east, with the El Cuervo Basin being the discharge zone for the regional flow system. However, it appears that the local groundwater potential beneath the Nopal I site is more in accordance with the water table of the El Cuervo Basin than with that of the Encinillas Basin. This might indicate that there is limited groundwater flow between the Encinillas Basin and the Nopal I area.

  15. REGIONAL HYDROLOGY OF THE NOPAL I SITE, SIERRA DE PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Pineda, J.A.; Goodell, P.; Dobson, P.F.; Walton, J.; Oliver, R.; De La Garza; Harder, S.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored the drilling of three wells in 2003 near the Nopal I uranium deposit at the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico. Piezometric information is being collected to understand groundwater flow at local and regional levels as part of an ongoing natural analogue study of radionuclide migration. Water level monitoring reported at these and other wells in the region is combined with archival data to provide a better understanding of the hydrology at Nopal I. Initial results suggest that the local hydrology is dependent on the regional hydrologic setting and that this groundwater system behaves as an unconfined aquifer. The region is dominated by an alternating sequence of highlands and basins that step down from west to east. The Sierra de Pena Blanca was downdropped from the cratonic block to the west during Cenozoic extension. The Nopal I area is near the intersection of two large listric faults, and the questa of ash flow tuffs that hosts the deposit has been subjected to complex structural events. The Pena Blanca Uranium District was originally characterized by 105 airborne radiometric anomalies, indicating widespread uranium mineralization. The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Sierra del Pena Blanca between the Encinillas Basin to the west, with a mean elevation of 1560 m, and the El Cuervo Basin to the east, with a mean elevation of 1230 m. The Nopal I + 10 level is at an intermediate elevation of 1463 m, with a corresponding groundwater elevation of approximately 1240 m. The regional potentiometric surface indicates flow from west to east, with the El Cuervo Basin being the discharge zone for the regional flow system. However, it appears that the local groundwater potential beneath the Nopal I site is more in accordance with the water table of the El Cuervo Basin than with that of the Encinillas Basin. This might indicate that there is limited groundwater flow between the Encinillas Basin and the Nopal I area

  16. Prevalence and trends of metabolic syndrome among adults in the asia-pacific region: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ranasinghe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asia-Pacific region is home to nearly half of the world’s population. The region has seen a recent rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The present systematic review summarizes the recent prevalence and trends of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS among adults in countries of the Asia-Pacific Region. Methods Data on MetS in Asia-Pacific countries were obtained using a stepwise process by searching the online Medline database using MeSH terms ‘Metabolic Syndrome X’ and ‘Epidemiology/EP’. For the purpose of describing prevalence data for the individual countries, studies that were most recent, nationally representative or with the largest sample size were included. When evaluating secular trends in prevalence in a country we only considered studies that evaluated the temporal change in prevalence between similar populations, prospective studies based on the same population or National surveys conducted during different time periods. Results This literature search yielded a total of 757 articles, and five additional article were identified by screening of reference lists. From this total, 18 studies were eligible to be included in the final analysis. Of the 51 Asia-Pacific countries (WHO we only located data for 15. There was wide between country variation in prevalence of MetS. A national survey from Philippines conducted in 2003 revealed the lowest reported prevalence of 11.9% according to NCEP ATP III criteria. In contrast, the highest recorded prevalence in the region (49.0% came from a study conducted in urban Pakistan (Karachchi, 2004. Most studies reported a higher prevalence of MetS in females and urban residents. Data on secular trends were available for China, South Korea and Taiwan. An increase in the prevalence of MetS was observed in all three countries. Conclusion Despite differences in methodology, diagnostic criteria and age of subjects studied, the Asia-Pacific

  17. Variability and change of sea level and its components in the Indo-Pacific region during the altimetry era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Quran; Zhang, Xuebin; Church, John A.; Hu, Jianyu

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that regional sea level exhibits interannual and decadal variations associated with the modes of climate variability. A better understanding of those low-frequency sea level variations benefits the detection and attribution of climate change signals. Nonetheless, the contributions of thermosteric, halosteric, and mass sea level components to sea level variability and trend patterns remain unclear. By focusing on signals associated with dominant climate modes in the Indo-Pacific region, we estimate the interannual and decadal fingerprints and trend of each sea level component utilizing a multivariate linear regression of two adjoint-based ocean reanalyses. Sea level interannual, decadal, and trend patterns primarily come from thermosteric sea level (TSSL). Halosteric sea level (HSSL) is of regional importance in the Pacific Ocean on decadal time scale and dominates sea level trends in the northeast subtropical Pacific. The compensation between TSSL and HSSL is identified in their decadal variability and trends. The interannual and decadal variability of temperature generally peak at subsurface around 100 m but that of salinity tend to be surface-intensified. Decadal temperature and salinity signals extend deeper into the ocean in some regions than their interannual equivalents. Mass sea level (MassSL) is critical for the interannual and decadal variability of sea level over shelf seas. Inconsistencies exist in MassSL trend patterns among various estimates. This study highlights regions where multiple processes work together to control sea level variability and change. Further work is required to better understand the interaction of different processes in those regions.

  18. A pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 clone causing most associated diarrhea cases in the Pacific Northwest coast of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio De Jesus Hernández-Díaz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Between September and October of 2004, more than 1230 cases of gastroenteritis due to pandemic O3:K6 strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus were reported in the relatively small geographical area of Southern Sinaloa, a state located in Northwest Mexico. Since then, V. parahaemolyticus-associated gastroenteritis cases have gradually increased in prevalence spreading from south to north. The present study conducted an epidemiological surveillance of V. parahaemolyticus strains in both environmental and clinical samples along the Pacific coast of Sinaloa from 2011 to 2013. The genetic relatedness, serotype dominance and antibiotic resistance of isolates were investigated. A total of 46 strains were isolated from environmental samples (e.g., sediment, seawater and shrimp, whereas 249 strains were obtained from stools of patients with gastroenteritis. Nine different O serogroups and 16 serovars were identified. Serovars O3:K6 and O6:K46 were identified in both environmental and clinical strains. Whereas most environmental isolates carried the tdh gene (71.74%, 33/46, only three (6.52% belonged to pandemic clones (O3:K6, O3:KUT and OUT:KUT. In contrast, 81.1% (202/249 of clinical isolates belonged to pandemic serotypes, with O3:K6 (tdh, toxRS/new, and/or orf8 representing the predominant serovar (97%, 196/202. This prevalence of pathogenic (tdh and/or trh positive and O3:K6 pandemic V. parahaemolyticus isolates in this study were similar to those found from 2004-2010. As investigated by REP-PCR, genetic lineages of selected O3:K6 strains isolated in this study and some isolated earlier were nearly identical. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that most strains (93.8% were resistant to ampicillin but sensitive to chloramphenicol (98.8%. Multidrug resistance significantly increased from 8.6% (2004-2010 to 22.93% (2011-2013 (p< 0.05. Our data indicate that pandemic O3:K6 clone has endemically established in the Pacific Coast of

  19. Urban-Rural Relations in the Central Region of Mexico: A Viewpoint from Tlaxcala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Rosales Ortega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 90’s there was an important expansion of outsourcing industries all around the country and particularly on central region of Mexico, which enhanced an industrial diffusion that transformed the relation between rural an urban areas of the region. Labor and social practices around the textile industry on the region and particularly on the Tlaxcala state, enhanced the organization of a complex local-global network that was built on the context of the Nafta Agreement. Now a day, the local-global network around the textile industry has fall down due to the growing Chinese textile goods on the local and national market. The answer to this economic change has generated a wide range of changes among the different social actors that participated on the local-global network created by de textile industry during the golden years of the Nafta Agreement. Our research analyze the experience and strategies of a group of families from Tlaxcala, organized around the mixture of agricultural, manufacturing and service activities in order to reorganize the economic activities of their localities.

  20. Multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis in Los Altos, Selva and Norte regions, Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, H J; Díaz-Vázquez, A; Nájera-Ortiz, J C; Balandrano, S; Martín-Mateo, M

    2010-01-01

    To analyse the proportion of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in cultures performed during the period 2000-2002 in Los Altos, Selva and Norte regions, Chiapas, Mexico, and to analyse MDR-TB in terms of clinical and sociodemographic indicators. Cross-sectional study of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) from the above regions. Drug susceptibility testing results from two research projects were analysed, as were those of routine sputum samples sent in by health personnel for processing (n = 114). MDR-TB was analysed in terms of the various variables of interest using bivariate tests of association and logistic regression. The proportion of primary MDR-TB was 4.6% (2 of 43), that of secondary MDR-TB was 29.2% (7/24), while among those whose history of treatment was unknown the proportion was 14.3% (3/21). According to the logistic regression model, the variables most highly associated with MDR-TB were as follows: having received anti-tuberculosis treatment previously, cough of >3 years' duration and not being indigenous. The high proportion of MDR cases found in the regions studied shows that it is necessary to significantly improve the control and surveillance of PTB.

  1. Pacifiplex: an ancestry-informative SNP panel centred on Australia and the Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carla; Phillips, Christopher; Fondevila, Manuel; Daniel, Runa; van Oorschot, Roland A H; Burchard, Esteban G; Schanfield, Moses S; Souto, Luis; Uacyisrael, Jolame; Via, Marc; Carracedo, Ángel; Lareu, Maria V

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of human population variation is an area of considerable interest in the forensic, medical genetics and anthropological fields. Several forensic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays provide ancestry-informative genotypes in sensitive tests designed to work with limited DNA samples, including a 34-SNP multiplex differentiating African, European and East Asian ancestries. Although assays capable of differentiating Oceanian ancestry at a global scale have become available, this study describes markers compiled specifically for differentiation of Oceanian populations. A sensitive multiplex assay, termed Pacifiplex, was developed and optimized in a small-scale test applicable to forensic analyses. The Pacifiplex assay comprises 29 ancestry-informative marker SNPs (AIM-SNPs) selected to complement the 34-plex test, that in a combined set distinguish Africans, Europeans, East Asians and Oceanians. Nine Pacific region study populations were genotyped with both SNP assays, then compared to four reference population groups from the HGDP-CEPH human diversity panel. STRUCTURE analyses estimated population cluster membership proportions that aligned with the patterns of variation suggested for each study population's currently inferred demographic histories. Aboriginal Taiwanese and Philippine samples indicated high East Asian ancestry components, Papua New Guinean and Aboriginal Australians samples were predominantly Oceanian, while other populations displayed cluster patterns explained by the distribution of divergence amongst Melanesians, Polynesians and Micronesians. Genotype data from Pacifiplex and 34-plex tests is particularly well suited to analysis of Australian Aboriginal populations and when combined with Y and mitochondrial DNA variation will provide a powerful set of markers for ancestry inference applied to modern Australian demographic profiles. On a broader geographic scale, Pacifiplex adds highly informative data for inferring the ancestry

  2. Stable isotopic characteristic of Taiwan's precipitation: A case study of western Pacific monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tsung-Ren; Wang, Chung-Ho; Huang, Chi-Chao; Fei, Li-Yuan; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Hwong, Jeen-Lian

    2010-01-01

    The stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopic features of precipitation in Taiwan, an island located at the western Pacific monsoon area, are presented from nearly 3,500 samples collected during the past decade for 20 stations. Results demonstrate that moisture sources from diverse air masses with different isotopic signals are the main parameter in controlling the precipitation's isotope characteristics. The air mass from polar continental (Pc) region contributes the precipitation with high deuterium excess values (up to 23‰) and relatively enriched isotope compositions (e.g., - 3.2‰ for δ 18O) during the winter with prevailing northeasterly monsoon. By contrast, air masses from equatorial maritime (Em) and tropical maritime (Tm) supply the precipitation with low deuterium excess values (as low as about 7‰) and more depleted isotope values (e.g., - 8.9‰ and - 6.0‰ for δ 18O of Tm and Em, respectively) during the summer with prevailing southwesterly monsoon. Thus seasonal differences in terms of δ 18O, δD, and deuterium excess values are primarily influenced by the interactions among various precipitation sources. While these various air masses travel through Taiwan, secondary evaporation effects further modify the isotope characteristics of the inland precipitation, such as raindrop evaporation (reduces the deuterium excess of winter precipitation) and moisture recycling (increases the deuterium excess of summer precipitation). The semi-quantitative estimations in terms of evaluation for changes in the deuterium excess suggest that the raindrop evaporation fractions for winter precipitation range 7% to 15% and the proportions of recycling moisture in summer precipitation are less than 5%. Additionally, the isotopic altitude gradient in terms of δ 18O for summer precipitation is - 0.22‰/100 m, greater than - 0.17‰/100 m of winter precipitation. The greater isotopic gradient in summer can be attributed to a higher temperature vs. altitude gradient

  3. Natural gas in the Asian Pacific region: market behavior and the Japanese electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Bo

    2001-04-01

    This dissertation consists of four main chapters, all related to the Asian Pacific natural gas market, and the role of the Japanese electricity sector. The natural gas market in Asia Pacific is heavily dependent on the demand from Japan, which imports around 75% of the gas traded as LNG (liquefied natural gas) in the region. The demand for natural gas in Japan is, in turn, almost exclusively driven by the electricity industry that consumes around 70 % of the imported natural gas. On the supply side we find seller concentrations with only six countries exporting LNG in the region. The first main chapter analyzes the market structure of the Asian Pacific natural gas market, the next two relate to the usage of natural gas in the Japanese fossil-fueled electricity production, and the final study investigates the demand for electricity in the residential sector in Japan. The first chapter argues that the buyers in Japan, through cooperation, have the potential to exert the market power that their large market share provides them with. This could be offset by the monopoly power that the six present sellers have. In the chapter four, the solutions for the four imperfect competition cases of, monoposony, monopoly, bilateral monopoly, and the Cournot model are simulated. Neither of the model solutions comes close to both the actual market price, and the actual gas volumes. The model that best mimics the actual price is the bilateral monopoly model, while the monoposony model comes closest to the actual volumes. Giving some mixed evidence of how the Asian LNG market works. Given the indication of market power, the second study analyzes the fossil-fuel mix efficiency in the power sector in Japan. If the power sector is able to exert the alleged market power, it may be the case that they minimize costs according to shadow prices instead of actual market prices. Such behavior could cause the fossil-fuel mix used for power generation to be inefficient. The analysis is based on a

  4. Checklist of recent brachiopod species collected during the Terrasses and Exbodi cruises in the New Caledonian region, SW Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitner, Maria Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Twenty species belonging to 16 genera, i.e. Neoancistrocrania, Novocrania, Basiliola, Basiliolella, Ebiscothyris, Stenosarina, Kanakythyris, Xenobrochus, Terebratulina, Eucalathis, Fallax, Frenulina, Septicollarina, Campages, Annuloplatidia, and Thecidellina have been identified in the material collected during the Terrasses and Exbodi cruises in the New Caledonian region, SW Pacific. The species Basiliolella grayi (Woodward, 1855) and Fallax neocaledonensis Laurin, 1997 are the most common in the studied collection, while Eucalathis murrayi (Davidson, 1878) is reported for the first time from the New Caledonian region. PMID:26798235

  5. Adapting postcolonial societies: two case studies from the Pacific island region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Rodd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign Pacific island states attract little attention from the great powers. They achieved independence peacefully, mostly from the United Kingdom, and have generally maintained functional democratic societies. Nonetheless, some Pacific states have struggled with the political, institutional and economic legacy of colonization. Tensions between indigenous norms and practices and the expectations of a transposed Western model of society have led to crises. This paper focuses on two Pacific Island states, Fiji and the Solomon Islands. The collapse of the state in the Solomons at the turn of this century, and repeated military coups in Fiji, are due in part to the failure of British-derived institutions to be fully accepted. In both these countries, indigenous people have proposed reforms of these inherited models. Nonetheless, as we shall see, the recent rewriting of these two countries’ constitutions has maintained the fundamentals of the Westminster system, and a government by Westernized indigenous élites.

  6. Development of a Seasonal Extratropical Cyclone Activity Outlook for the North Pacific, Bering Sea, and Alaskan Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippee, N. J.; Atkinson, D. E.; Walsh, J. E.; Partain, J.; Gottschalck, J.; Marra, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Storm activity (i.e. 'storminess') and associated forecasting skill in the North Pacific, Bering Sea, and Alaska is relatively well understood on a daily to weekly scale, however, two important elements are missing from current capacity. First, there is no way to predict storm activity at the monthly to seasonal time frame. Second, storm activity is characterized in terms that best serve weather specialists, and which are often not very informative for different sectors of the public. Increasing the utility of forecasts for end users requires consultation with these groups, and can include expressing storm activity in terms of, for example, strong-wind return intervals or ship hull strength. These types of forecasts can provide valuable information for use in community planning, resource allocation, or potential risk assessment. A preliminary study of seasonal storminess predictability in the North Pacific and Alaska regions has shown that a key factor related to the annual variation of seasonal storminess is the strength of the Aleutian Low as measured using indices such as the North Pacific Index (NPI) or Aleutian Low Pressure Index (ALPI). Use of Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis to identify patterns in storminess variability indicates that the primary mode of annual variation is found to be best explained by the variation in the strength of the Aleutian Low. NPI and the first component of storm activity for the entire region are found to be are highly correlated (R = 0.83). This result is supported by the works of others such as Rodionov et al. (2007), who note the impact of the strength of the Aleutian Low on storm track and speed. Additionally, the phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), along with NPI, have been shown to be highly correlated with annual variance in the seasonal storminess for the North Pacific and Alaska. Additional skill has been identified when the phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is explicitly considered

  7. Amphibian diversity and threatened species in a severely transformed neotropical region in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Parral, Yocoyani; Pineda, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Many regions around the world concentrate a large number of highly endangered species that have very restricted distributions. The mountainous region of central Veracruz, Mexico, is considered a priority area for amphibian conservation because of its high level of endemism and the number of threatened species. The original tropical montane cloud forest in the region has been dramatically reduced and fragmented and is now mainly confined to ravines and hillsides. We evaluated the current situation of amphibian diversity in the cloud forest fragments of this region by analyzing species richness and abundance, comparing assemblage structure and species composition, examining the distribution and abundance of threatened species, and identifying the local and landscape variables associated with the observed amphibian diversity. From June to October 2012 we sampled ten forest fragments, investing 944 person-hours of sampling effort. A total of 895 amphibians belonging to 16 species were recorded. Notable differences in species richness, abundance, and assemblage structure between forest fragments were observed. Species composition between pairs of fragments differed by an average of 53%, with the majority (58%) resulting from species replacement and the rest (42%) explained by differences in species richness. Half of the species detected are under threat of extinction according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature, and although their distribution and abundance varied markedly, there were also ubiquitous and abundant species, along with rare species of restricted distribution. The evident heterogeneity of the ten study sites indicates that to conserve amphibians in a mountainous region such as this one it is necessary to protect groups of fragments which represent the variability of the system. Both individually and together cloud forest fragments are very important to conservation because each remnant is inhabited by several threatened species, some of

  8. Influence of ENSO on Regional Indian Summer Monsoon Precipitation—Local Atmospheric Influences or Remote Influence from Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Roy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Using CMIP5 model outputs in different El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO phases, this work investigates the indicator that could be used as an Index to characterise regional Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM precipitation. Dividing the Indian subcontinent into five arbitrarily chosen regions, viz. Central North East (CNE (18°N–31°N, 86°E–75°E, Hilly (H (28°N–38°N, 85°E–70°E, North West (NW (21°N–31°N, 79°E–67°E, North East (NE (21°N–31°N, 86°E–97°E and Southern India (S (18°N–7°N, 73°E–85°E, local wind field and remote influences from the tropical Pacific are considered to improve understanding of regional monsoon rainfall. Results are also compared with observations/reanalysis data to pinpoint areas of shortcomings and agreements. Model results suggest that regional wind velocity, viz. meridional wind component (V at 850 mb level (V850 and zonal component at 200 mb (U200 and 850 mb (U850 can yield better estimation of local precipitation in regions CNE, H and NW, agreeing well with earlier proposed monsoon Indices. Such observations are independent of different subcategories of ENSO phases and models show good correspondence with observations. Analyses with V at 200 mb (V200 indicate circulation of the upper branch of Hadley cells in regions CNE and S, though suggest the best agreement among models in comparison with other fields, but there are some deviations from observations, indicating a missing mechanism in the models. Using models, this study identified the best parameter in different regions that could be used for the regional monsoon Index, irrespective of various ENSO subcategories; for CNE it is the U200, for H it is U200 and U850, and for NW it is U850. The current analysis, however, fails to indicate anything clearly about the NE region. When focusing on the remote influence from the eastern Pacific region, it is found that atmospheric contribution to regional ISM precipitation fails to indicate

  9. Antimicrobial Stewardship in Inpatient Settings in the Asia Pacific Region: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hitoshi; Ohmagari, Norio; Tokuda, Yasuharu; Mattar, Caline; Warren, David K

    2017-05-15

    An antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) is one of the core elements needed to optimize antimicrobial use. Although collaboration at the national level to address the importance of ASPs and antimicrobial resistance has occurred in the Asia Pacific region, hospital-level ASP implementation in this region has not been comprehensively evaluated. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of ASPs in inpatient settings in the Asia Pacific region from January 2005 through March 2016. The impact of ASPs on various outcomes, including patient clinical outcomes, antimicrobial prescription outcomes, microbiological outcomes, and expenditure were assessed. Forty-six studies were included for a systematic review and meta-analysis. The pooled risk ratio for mortality from ASP before-after trials and 2-group comparative studies were 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI], .88-1.19) and 0.69 (95% CI, .56-.86), respectively. The pooled effect size for change in overall antimicrobial and carbapenem consumption (% difference) was -9.74% (95% CI, -18.93% to -.99%) and -10.56% (95% CI, -19.99% to -3.03%), respectively. Trends toward decreases in the incidence of multidrug-resistant organisms and antimicrobial expenditure (range, 9.7%-58.1% reduction in cost in the intervention period/arm) were also observed. ASPs in inpatient settings in the Asia Pacific region appear to be safe and effective to reduce antimicrobial consumption and improve outcomes. However, given the significant variations in assessing the efficacy of ASPs, high-quality studies using standardized surveillance methodology for antimicrobial consumption and similar metrics for outcome measurement are needed to further promote antimicrobial stewardship in this region. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Growth status of children 6-12 years from two different geographic regions of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Reyes, M E; Cárdenas Barahona, E E; Cahuich, M B; Barragán, A; Malina, R M

    2002-01-01

    The purposes of the study are to assess the growth status of urban Mexican children living in different geographic areas of the country, to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, and to explore secular trends in body size. Cross-sectional surveys of 293 children 6-11 years from Sonora in the north-west of the country (155 boys, 138 girls), and 356 children 7-12 years from Veracruz on the Gulf Coast (194 boys, 162 girls) were undertaken in 1992 and 1993, respectively. Height and weight were measured; the body mass index (BMI, kg m(-2)) was calculated. Growth status was compared to USA reference data and to samples of Mexican children in 1926 and 1975. The prevalence of overweight (BMI > or = 85th and or = 95th percentile) was estimated. Girls and boys from Sonora and Veracruz do not differ in height, weight and the BMI. Mean heights are at (girls) or below (boys) the medians of USA growth charts, while mean weights are at (boys) or just below (girls) the 75th percentiles at most ages. As a result, mean BMIs are above (boys) and below (girls) the 75th percentiles over the age range studied. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is 40% in boys and 35% in girls, whereas the prevalence of obesity per se is 23% in boys and 17% in girls. Compared to urban Mexican children in the Federal District surveyed in 1926, children in the present sample are taller and heavier, but the secular trend in body weight is more pronounced since the mid-1960s. Heights of the current samples are similar to those of well-off children in Mexico City in the early 1970s, but weights are heavier. The gap in height between well-off and lower socioeconomic status children in different regions of Mexico has been reduced, but there is an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity.

  11. New developments in emissions inventory activity along the northern border region of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, W.R.; Dickson, R.J.; Creelman, L.W. [Radian International LLC, Sacramento, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The development and evaluation of emissions data for sources located along the Mexico/US border have accelerated over the past few years. This paper examines several new activities in emissions inventory development for the northern border of Mexico. Reviewed in this paper are the following recent developments that will lead to improved inventories for Mexico: development of inventory educational materials; creation of inventory manuals; estimation of emissions for unique sources; emissions-related studies; and identification of key research needs for Mexico inventories. Some of these activities are building a greater capacity in Mexico to construct emissions estimates. These topics are reviewed from the perspective of improving Mexico emissions inventories and emissions estimation capabilities.

  12. Timing of the Cenozoic basins of Southern Mexico and its relationship with the Pacific truncation process: Subduction erosion or detachment of the Chortís block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Romo, Gilberto; Mendoza-Rosales, Claudia Cristina; Campos-Madrigal, Emiliano; Hernández-Marmolejo, Yoalli Bianii; de la Rosa-Mora, Orestes Antonio; de la Torre-González, Alam Israel; Bonifacio-Serralde, Carlos; López-García, Nallely; Nápoles-Valenzuela, Juan Ivan

    2018-04-01

    In the central sector of the Sierra Madre del Sur in Southern Mexico, between approximately 36 and 16 Ma ago and in the west to east direction, a diachronic process of the formation of ∼north-south trending fault-bounded basins occurred. No tectono-sedimentary event in the period between 25 and 20 Ma is recognized in the study region. A period during which subduction erosion truncated the continental crust of southern Mexico has been proposed. The chronology, geometry and style of the formation of the Eocene Miocene fault-bounded basins are more congruent with crustal truncation by the detachment of the Chortís block, thus bringing into question the crustal truncation hypothesis of the Southern Mexico margin. Between Taxco and Tehuacán, using seven new Laser Ablation- Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb ages in magmatic zircons, we refine the stratigraphy of the Tepenene, Tehuitzingo, Atzumba and Tepelmeme basins. The analyzed basins present similar tectono-sedimentary evolutions as follows: Stage 1, depocenter formation and filling by clastic rocks accumulated as alluvial fans and Stage 2, lacustrine sedimentation characterized by calcareous and/or evaporite beds. Based on our results, we propose the following hypothesis: in Southern Mexico, during Eocene-Miocene times, the diachronic formation of fault-bounded basins with general north-south trend occurred within the framework of the convergence between the plates of North and South America, and once the Chortís block had slipped towards the east, the basins formed in the cortical crust were recently left behind. On the other hand, the beginning of the basins' formation process related to left strike slip faults during Eocene-Oligocene times can be associated with the thermomechanical maturation cortical process that caused the brittle/ductile transition level in the continental crust to shallow.

  13. New insights into the abyssal sponge fauna of the Kurile-Kamchatka plain and Trench region (Northwest Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Rachel V.; Janussen, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    The under-explored abyssal depths of the Kurile-Kamchatka region have been re-examined during the KuramBio (Kurile-Kamchatka Biodiversity Study) expedition. Combining new KuramBio data with previous expedition data in this region has enhanced our understanding abyssal sponge fauna, in particular, the patchiness, rarity, and exceptional richness of the Cladorhizidae family. In total, 14 sponge species, from 7 genera, in 5 families, within two classes (Demospongiae and Hexactinellida) were collected. Of the 14 species, 29% (4 spp.) have been found previously in this region, 36% (5 spp.) were new to the regional abyssal fauna, and 21% (3 spp.) were new to science. The number of abyssal species in this region has now been increased by 26% (8 spp.) and genera by nearly 15% (2 genera). Rarity is a prominent feature of this abyssal fauna, with more than half of species only found at one station, and 83% (19 spp.) of species found previously in this region were not re-found during KuramBio. Cladorhizid sponges dominate demosponge species and genera richness in the abyssal Kurile-Kamchatka region; accounting for 87% (20 spp.) of all demosponge species, and accounting for over 60% (5 genera) of all demosponge genera. Sponge richness in this region is potentially aided by the productivity of the ocean waters, the geological age of the Pacific Ocean, low population densities, and the varied topographic features (ridges, trenches, and seamounts) found in this region. Unusually, the dominance of demosponges in the Kurile-Kamchatka sponge faunal composition is not replicated in other well-sampled abyssal regions, which tend to be richer in deep-sea hexactinellid fauna. Broad depth, latitudinal and longitudinal ranges in Kurile-Kamchatka abyssal fauna are a key characteristic of this faunal assemblage. Strong abyssal faunal connectivity is found between the Kurile-Kamchatka region and North Pacific abyssal fauna, with weaker faunal connections found with the adjacent semi

  14. Regional differences in the composition of Fusarium Head Blight pathogens and mycotoxins associated with wheat in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón-Bustamante, Minely; Ward, Todd J; Kelly, Amy; Vaughan, Martha M; McCormick, Susan P; Cowger, Christina; Leyva-Mir, Santos G; Villaseñor-Mir, Héctor E; Ayala-Escobar, Victoria; Nava-Díaz, Cristian

    2018-05-20

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is a destructive disease of small grain cereals and a major food safety concern. Epidemics result in substantial yield losses, reduction in crop quality, and contamination of grains with trichothecenes and other mycotoxins. A number of different fusaria can cause FHB, and there are significant regional differences in the occurrence and prevalence of FHB pathogen species and their associated mycotoxins. Information on FHB pathogen and mycotoxin diversity in Mexico has been extremely limited, but is needed to improve disease and mycotoxin control efforts. To address this, we used a combination of DNA sequence-based methods and in-vitro toxin analyses to characterize FHB isolates collected from symptomatic wheat in Mexico during the 2013 and 2014 growing seasons. Among 116 Fusarium isolates, we identified five species complexes including nine named Fusarium species and 30 isolates representing unnamed or potentially novel species. Significant regional differences (P 90% of isolates from the Mixteca region in southern Mexico, whereas F. avenaceum and related members of the F. tricinctum species complex (FTSC) accounted for nearly 75% of isolates from the Highlands region in Central Mexico. F. graminearum, which is the dominant FHB pathogen in other parts of North America, was not present among the isolates from Mexico. F. boothii isolates had the 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol toxin type, and some of the minor FHB species produced trichothecenes, such as nivalenol, T-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol. None of the FTSC isolates tested was able to produce trichothecenes, but many produced chlamydosporol and enniatin B. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. [The effect of contraception on fertility in the border region of Chiapas, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar-Beutelspacher, A; Halperin-Frisch, D; Salvatierra-Izaba, B

    1996-01-01

    To estimate the effect of contraception on fertility in the border region of Chiapas, Mexico. In 1994 an epidemiological cross-sectional study was carried out on a representative sample of 1,560 non-indigenous women between ages 15 and 49 in the border region of Chiapas. The prevalence of contraception practices and the total fertility rates (TFR) were obtained and stratified by rural, intermediate and urban communities. TFR were compared between women who had never used contraceptives and those who had used them. The estimated TFR was 3.67 and varied from 4.14 in rural areas to 3.36 in urban areas. There were no differences in the TFR (3.74 and 3.88) nor in the average live births (3.47 and 3.48) between women who had never used contraceptives and those who had used them. The major effect of contraception on fertility was observed in rural areas. Factors which influence the small impact of contraception on fertility include the late use of these methods and the early age of first union among users.

  16. Regional transport of a chemically distinctive dust: Gypsum from White Sands, New Mexico (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Warren H.; Hyslop, Nicole P.; Trzepla, Krystyna; Yatkin, Sinan; Rarig, Randy S.; Gill, Thomas E.; Jin, Lixin

    2015-03-01

    The White Sands complex, a National Monument and adjoining Missile Range in southern New Mexico, occupies the dry bed of an ice-age lake where an active gypsum dunefield abuts erodible playa sediments. Aerosols entrained from White Sands are sometimes visible on satellite images as distinct, light-colored plumes crossing the Sacramento Mountains to the east and northeast. The IMPROVE network (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments) operates long-term aerosol samplers at two sites east of the Sacramento range. In recent years a spring pulse of sulfate aerosol has appeared at these sites, eclipsing the regional summer peak resulting from atmospheric reactions of sulfur dioxide emissions. A significant fraction of this spring sulfate is contributed by gypsum and other salts from White Sands, with much of the sulfur in coarse particles and concentrations of calcium and strontium above regional levels. The increase in these gypsiferous species coincides with a drought following a period of above-average precipitation. White Sands and the IMPROVE samplers together provide a natural laboratory: a climatically sensitive dust source that is both well characterized and chemically distinct from its surroundings, with a signature that remains identifiable at long-term observatories 100-200 km downwind.

  17. Network Connectedness, Sense of Community, and Risk Perception of Climate Change Professionals in the Pacific Islands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlew, L. K.; Keener, V. W.; Finucane, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (Pacific RISA) Program conducted social network analysis research of climate change professionals (broadly defined) who are from or work in Hawaii and the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) region. This study is supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Pacific Islands Climate Science Center (PICSC) to address an identified need for a resource that quantifies the region's collaborative network of climate change professionals, and that supports the further development of cross-regional and inter-sectoral collaborations for future research and adaptation activities. A survey was distributed to nearly 1,200 people who are from and/or work in climate change related fields in the region. The Part One Survey questions (not confidential) created a preferential attachment network by listing major players in Hawaii and the USAPI, with additional open fields to identify important contacts in the greater professional network. Participants (n=340) identified 975 network contacts and frequency of communications (weekly, monthly, seasonally, yearly, at least once ever). Part Two Survey questions (confidential, n=302) explored climate change risk perceptions, Psychological Sense of Community (PSOC), sense of control over climate change impacts, sense of responsibility to act, policy beliefs and preferences regarding climate change actions, concern and optimism scales about specific impacts, and demographic information. Graphical representations of the professional network are being developed for release in September 2013 as a free online tool to promote and assist collaboration building among climate professionals in the region. The graphs are partitioned according to network 'hubs' (high centrality), participant location, and profession to clearly identify network strengths and opportunities for future collaborations across spatial and professional boundaries. For additional

  18. Nitrous oxide dynamics in low oxygen regions of the Pacific: insights from the MEMENTO database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Zamora

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The eastern tropical Pacific (ETP is believed to be one of the largest marine sources of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O. Future N2O emissions from the ETP are highly uncertain because oxygen minimum zones are expected to expand, affecting both regional production and consumption of N2O. Here we assess three primary uncertainties in how N2O may respond to changing O2 levels: (1 the relationship between N2O production and O2 (is it linear or exponential at low O2 concentrations?, (2 the cutoff point at which net N2O production switches to net N2O consumption (uncertainties in this parameterisation can lead to differences in model ETP N2O concentrations of more than 20%, and (3 the rate of net N2O consumption at low O2. Based on the MEMENTO database, which is the largest N2O dataset currently available, we find that N2O production in the ETP increases linearly rather than exponentially with decreasing O2. Additionally, net N2O consumption switches to net N2O production at ~ 10 μM O2, a value in line with recent studies that suggest consumption occurs on a larger scale than previously thought. N2O consumption is on the order of 0.01–1 mmol N2O m−3 yr−1 in the Peru-Chile Undercurrent. Based on these findings, it appears that recent studies substantially overestimated N2O production in the ETP. In light of expected deoxygenation and the higher than previously expected point at which net N2O production switches to consumption, there is enough uncertainty in future N2O production that even the sign of future changes is still unclear.

  19. Appendix 1: Regional summaries - Hawaii and U.S Affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian Giardina

    2012-01-01

    Hawaii and the U.S.-affiliated Pacific islands, including Guam, American Samoa, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of Palau, and the Marshall Islands (fig. A1-3), contain a high diversity of flora, fauna, ecosystems, geographies, and cultures, with climates ranging from lowland tropical to alpine desert. Forest ecosystems...

  20. Revision of Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Eastern Pacific region and Hawaii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastida-Zavala, J. Rolando; Hove, ten Harry A.

    2003-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the Hydroides species (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Eastern Pacific Ocean is presented. Twentyone taxa are described, of which two are widespread (H. diramphus Mörch, 1863 and H. elegans (Haswell, 1883)) and four are Amphiamerican (H. alatalateralis (Jones, 1962), H.

  1. Fe (III) speciation in the high nutrient, low chlorophyll Pacific region of the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolting, R.F.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Swagerman, M.J.W.; Timmermans, K.R.; Baar, H.J.W. de

    1998-01-01

    Fe speciation was measured with competitive ligand equilibration adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry in the Pacific part of the Southern Ocean between 58° and 68°30′S along the 90°W meridian. The conditional stability constant (K′ with respect to [Fe3+]) was between 10^20.6 and 10^21.6 when

  2. Yaws in the Western Pacific Region: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Capuano

    2011-01-01

    In the Pacific, yaws may be amenable to elimination if adequate resources are provided and political commitment revived. A mapping of yaws prevalence in PNG, Solomon, and Vanuatu is needed before comprehensive country-tailored strategies towards yaws elimination can be developed.

  3. The Value of Higher Education for Individuals and Society in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christopher S.; Bethke, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Central to this study is an exploration of the degree to which higher education is perceived as an individual and/or a collective value. Seminal literature supports the notion that colleges and universities are Western institutions. Throughout the Asia Pacific, higher education is expanding in a hybrid form in collectivist societies. This…

  4. Regional decline of coral cover in the Indo-Pacific: timing, extent, and subregional comparisons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Bruno

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of factors have recently caused mass coral mortality events in all of the world's tropical oceans. However, little is known about the timing, rate or spatial variability of the loss of reef-building corals, especially in the Indo-Pacific, which contains 75% of the world's coral reefs.We compiled and analyzed a coral cover database of 6001 quantitative surveys of 2667 Indo-Pacific coral reefs performed between 1968 and 2004. Surveys conducted during 2003 indicated that coral cover averaged only 22.1% (95% CI: 20.7, 23.4 and just 7 of 390 reefs surveyed that year had coral cover >60%. Estimated yearly coral cover loss based on annually pooled survey data was approximately 1% over the last twenty years and 2% between 1997 and 2003 (or 3,168 km(2 per year. The annual loss based on repeated measures regression analysis of a subset of reefs that were monitored for multiple years from 1997 to 2004 was 0.72 % (n = 476 reefs, 95% CI: 0.36, 1.08.The rate and extent of coral loss in the Indo-Pacific are greater than expected. Coral cover was also surprisingly uniform among subregions and declined decades earlier than previously assumed, even on some of the Pacific's most intensely managed reefs. These results have significant implications for policy makers and resource managers as they search for successful models to reverse coral loss.

  5. Atmospheric correction using near-infrared bands for satellite ocean color data processing in the turbid western Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Menghua; Shi, Wei; Jiang, Lide

    2012-01-16

    A regional near-infrared (NIR) ocean normalized water-leaving radiance (nL(w)(λ)) model is proposed for atmospheric correction for ocean color data processing in the western Pacific region, including the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea. Our motivation for this work is to derive ocean color products in the highly turbid western Pacific region using the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) onboard South Korean Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS). GOCI has eight spectral bands from 412 to 865 nm but does not have shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands that are needed for satellite ocean color remote sensing in the turbid ocean region. Based on a regional empirical relationship between the NIR nL(w)(λ) and diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm (K(d)(490)), which is derived from the long-term measurements with the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite, an iterative scheme with the NIR-based atmospheric correction algorithm has been developed. Results from MODIS-Aqua measurements show that ocean color products in the region derived from the new proposed NIR-corrected atmospheric correction algorithm match well with those from the SWIR atmospheric correction algorithm. Thus, the proposed new atmospheric correction method provides an alternative for ocean color data processing for GOCI (and other ocean color satellite sensors without SWIR bands) in the turbid ocean regions of the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea, although the SWIR-based atmospheric correction approach is still much preferred. The proposed atmospheric correction methodology can also be applied to other turbid coastal regions.

  6. Reduction in cardiovascular risk using a proactive multifactorial intervention is consistent among patients residing in Pacific Asian and non-Pacific Asian regions: a CRUCIAL trial subanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho EJ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Eun Joo Cho,1 Jae Hyung Kim,1 Santosh Sutradhar,2 Carla Yunis,2 Mogens Westergaard2On behalf of the CRUCIAL trial investigators1Department of Cardiology, St Paul's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea; 2Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USABackground: Few trials have compared different approaches to cardiovascular disease prevention among Pacific Asian (PA populations. The Cluster Randomized Usual Care versus Caduet Investigation Assessing Long-term-risk (CRUCIAL trial demonstrated that a proactive multifactorial intervention (PMI approach (based on single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin resulted in a greater reduction in calculated Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD risk compared with usual care (UC among hypertensive patients with additional risk factors. One-third of CRUCIAL patients resided in the PA region. The aim of this subanalysis was to compare two approaches to cardiovascular risk factor management (PMI versus UC among patients residing in PA and non-PA regions.Methods: This subanalysis of the CRUCIAL trial compared treatment-related changes in calculated CHD risk among patients residing in PA and non-PA regions. Sensitivity analyses were conducted among men and women and those with and without diabetes.Results: Overall, 448 patients (31.6% resided in the PA region and 969 patients (68.4% resided in non-PA regions. The PMI approach was more effective in reducing calculated CHD risk versus UC in both PA (−37.1% versus −3.5%; P<0.001 and non-PA regions (−31.1% versus −4.2%; P<0.001; region interaction P=0.131. PA patients had slightly greater reductions in total cholesterol compared with non-PA patients. PA patients without diabetes had slightly greater reductions in CHD risk compared with non-PA patients. Treatment effects were similar in men and women and those with diabetes.Conclusion: The PMI approach was more effective in reducing calculated Framingham 10-year CHD risk compared with UC among men and

  7. Issues associated with the emergence of coeliac disease in the Asia–Pacific region: a working party report of the World Gastroenterology Organization and the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makharia, Govind K; Mulder, Chris J J; Goh, Khean Lee; Ahuja, Vineet; Bai, Julio C; Catassi, Carlo; Green, Peter H R; Gupta, Siddhartha Datta; Lundin, Knut E A; Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan Siddartha; Rawat, Ramakant; Sharma, Hanish; Sood, Ajit; Watanabe, Chikako; Gibson, Peter R

    2014-04-01

    Once thought to be uncommon in Asia, coeliac disease (CD) is now being increasingly recognized in Asia–Pacific region. In many Asian nations, CD is still considered to be either nonexistent or very rare. In recognition of such heterogeneity of knowledge and awareness, the World Gastroenterology Organization and the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology commissioned a working party to address the key issues in emergence of CD in Asia. A working group consisting of members from Asia–Pacific region, Europe, North America, and South America reviewed relevant existing literature with focus on those issues specific to Asia–Pacific region both in terms of what exists and what needs to be done. The working group identified the gaps in epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of CD in Asian–Pacific region and recommended the following: to establish prevalence of CD across region, increase in awareness about CD among physicians and patients, and recognition of atypical manifestations of CD. The challenges such as variability in performance of serological tests, lack of population-specific cut-offs values for a positive test, need for expert dietitians for proper counseling and supervision of patients, need for gluten-free infrastructure in food supply and creation of patient advocacy organizations were also emphasized. Although absolute number of patients with CD at present is not very large, this number is expected to increase over the next few years or decades. It is thus appropriate that medical community across the Asia–Pacific region define extent of problem and get prepared to handle impending epidemic of CD.

  8. Annual egg production rates of calanoid copepod species on the continental shelf of the Eastern Tropical Pacific off Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Eva R.; Franco-Gordo, Carmen; Palomares-García, Ricardo; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Jaime; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    We provide the first estimations of calanoid copepod egg production rates (EPR) in the Eastern Tropical Pacific over an annual cycle (January-December 2011). Gravid females were collected twice monthly and incubated for 12 h without food to estimate EPR, weight-specific fecundity (Gf), spawning success (SS, percentage of females to spawn out of the total species incubated per month and season) and egg hatching success (EHS). This study reports the average EPR of 10 species and the monthly EPR and Gf of four planktonic calanoid copepods (Centropages furcatus, Temora discaudata, Pontellina sobrina, and Nannocalanus minor) that spawned with enough frequency to infer their seasonal reproductive patterns. These species showed distinct seasonal reproductive strategies. Most copepod species spawned sporadically with large EPR variability, while three copepod species reproduced throughout the year (C. furcatus, T. discaudata and P. sobrina) and N. minor spawned only during the mixed period (Feb-May). The four species had relatively similar average EPR (C. furcatus 16, T. discaudata 18, P. sobrina 13, and N. minor 12 eggs fem-1 day-1). These are the first EPR estimations of P. sobrina and its previously known reproductive period is expanded. A Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to analyze EPR and species abundance of all calanoid copepods (40 spp.) collected throughout the time series in relation to temperature, salinity, mixed layer depth (MLD), dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentrations to identify the variables that best explained the copepod abundance variability. Temperature, Chl-a, and salinity had the strongest effect on the biological variables, linked to seasonal and episodic upwelling-downwelling processes in the surveyed area. As a result of moderate upwelling events and seasonal variation of environmental conditions, it appears relatively few species are capable of maintaining continuous reproduction under the relatively higher

  9. The Economics of Climate Change in Mexico: Implications for National/Regional Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrada, E.; Papyrakis, E.; Tol, R.S.J.; Gay-García, C.

    2013-01-01

    The recent Mexican government study, The Economics of Climate Change in Mexico (ECCM), which has largely influenced Mexico's stance on climate change issues and international negotiations, is critically reviewed. Whilst the importance of such government-supported national studies as a first attempt

  10. Adults Experiencing Homelessness in the US–Mexico Border Region: A Photovoice Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Eva Margarita; Chavez-Baray, Silvia M.; Loweree, Jacqueline; Mattera, Brian; Martinez, Nahomi

    2017-01-01

    Homelessness is a social, economic, and political crisis in the United States. In particular, the US–Mexico Border region has seen a surge of homelessness, specifically among veterans, women victims of intimate partner violence, and immigrants. In 2014, 12 persons in El Paso, TX, with experience of being homeless used the photovoice methodology to participate in a project titled, “The Voices and Images of the Residents of the Opportunity Center for the Homeless: A Visual Project on the Identity and Challenges Homeless Adults Face on the Border Region.” The project was led by faculty from the Department of Social Work and facilitated by graduate students from the Departments of Social Work, Sociology, and Anthropology at the University of Texas at El Paso. In partnership with the Opportunity Center for the Homeless, a community-based organization, a gallery of photographs with respective narratives was produced along with a video documentary. The participants identified four themes: broken systems, invisibility, opportunities and what works, and growth and determination. These themes represent participants’ life experiences with homelessness and their aspirations. In addition to the photo gallery, participants supported the development of a Call to Action asking the community, policy, and decision makers to commit to changing the current social, economic, and political conditions affecting individuals experiencing homelessness. The gallery, Call to Action, and overall participant experiences with photovoice were shared during local, regional, and national conferences and events, including three State of the Homeless Conferences led by the Opportunity Center for the Homeless in partnership with the university. PMID:28580355

  11. Adults Experiencing Homelessness in the US–Mexico Border Region: A Photovoice Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Margarita Moya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Homelessness is a social, economic, and political crisis in the United States. In particular, the US–Mexico Border region has seen a surge of homelessness, specifically among veterans, women victims of intimate partner violence, and immigrants. In 2014, 12 persons in El Paso, TX, with experience of being homeless used the photovoice methodology to participate in a project titled, “The Voices and Images of the Residents of the Opportunity Center for the Homeless: A Visual Project on the Identity and Challenges Homeless Adults Face on the Border Region.” The project was led by faculty from the Department of Social Work and facilitated by graduate students from the Departments of Social Work, Sociology, and Anthropology at the University of Texas at El Paso. In partnership with the Opportunity Center for the Homeless, a community-based organization, a gallery of photographs with respective narratives was produced along with a video documentary. The participants identified four themes: broken systems, invisibility, opportunities and what works, and growth and determination. These themes represent participants’ life experiences with homelessness and their aspirations. In addition to the photo gallery, participants supported the development of a Call to Action asking the community, policy, and decision makers to commit to changing the current social, economic, and political conditions affecting individuals experiencing homelessness. The gallery, Call to Action, and overall participant experiences with photovoice were shared during local, regional, and national conferences and events, including three State of the Homeless Conferences led by the Opportunity Center for the Homeless in partnership with the university.

  12. Multifaceted intra-seasonal modes over the East Asia-western North Pacific summer monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, K. J.; Oh, H.

    2017-12-01

    Intra-seasonal monsoon prediction is the most imperative task due to high impact on 2/3 of world populations' daily life, but there remains an enduring challenge in climate science. The present study aims to provide a physical understanding of the sources for prediction of dominant intra-seasonal modes in the East Asian-western North Pacific summer monsoon (EA-WNPSM): preMeiyu&Baiu, Changma&Meiyu, WNPSM, and monsoon gyre modes classified by the self-organizing map analysis. The preMeiyu-Baiu mode is strongly linked to both the anomalous low-level convergence and vertical wind shear through baroclinic instability, and the Changma&Meiyu mode has a strengthened tropic-subtropics connection along the western north Pacific subtropical high, which induces vertical destabilization and strong convective instability. The WNPSM and monsoon gyre modes are characterized by anomalous southeasterly flow of warm and moist air from western north Pacific monsoon, and low-level easterly flow, respectively. Prominent difference in response to the ENSO leads to different effects of the Indian Ocean and western Pacific thermal state, and consequently, the distinct moisture supply and instability variations for the EASM intra-seasonal modes. We attempt to determine the predictability sources for the four modes in the EA-WNPSM using physical-empirical model. The selected predictors are based on the persistent and tendency signals of the SST/2m air temperature and sea level pressure fields, which reflect the asymmetric response to the ENSO and the ocean and land surface anomalous conditions. For the preMeiyu&Baiu mode, the SST cooling tendency over the WNP, which persists into summer, is the distinguishing contributor which is causative of north-south thermal contrast. Since the Changma&Meiyu mode is strongly related to the WNP subtropical high, a major precursor is the persistent SST difference between the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific. The WNPSM mode is mostly affected by the

  13. Regional cooperation in nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.; Muntzing, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    In November 1985, PBNCC (the Pacific Basin Nuclear Cooperation Committee) was formally established. Currently six Pacific Basin members have been participating in PBNCC: Canada, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Taiwan of Chian, and the United States of America. The People's Republic of China has sent observes to the PBNCC meetings. The technical contents of PBWCC working groups are as follows: 1. Regional cooperative for pooled spare parts of nuclear power plants and inventory management; 2. Regional cooperation in nuclear training; 3. Regional cooperation on nuclear safety; 4. Regional cooperation in Codes and Standards; 5. Regional Cooperation in public acceptance; 6. Regional cooperation on radwaste management. (Liu)

  14. Did biogeographical processes shape the monogenean community of butterflyfishes in the tropical Indo-west Pacific region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverter, M; Cribb, T H; Cutmore, S C; Bray, R A; Parravicini, V; Sasal, P

    2017-07-01

    Geographical distribution of parasite species can provide insights into the evolution and diversity of parasitic communities. Biogeography of marine parasites is poorly known, especially because it requires an understanding of host-parasite interactions, information that is rare, especially over large spatial scales. Here, we have studied the biogeographical patterns of dactylogyrid parasites of chaetodontids, one of the most well-studied fish families, in the tropical Indo-west Pacific region. Dactylogyrid parasites were collected from gills of 34 butterflyfish species (n=560) at nine localities within an approximate area of 62millionkm 2 . Thirteen dactylogyrid species were identified, with richness ranging from 6 to 12 species at individual localities. Most dactylogyrid communities were dominated by Haliotrema angelopterum or Haliotrema aurigae, for which relative abundance was negatively correlated (ρ=-0.59). Parasite richness and diversity were highest in French Polynesia and the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) and lowest in Palau. Three biogeographic regions were identified based on dactylogyrid dissimilarities: French Polynesia, characterised by the dominance of H. angelopterum, the western Pacific region dominated by H. aurigae, and Ningaloo Reef (Australia), dominated by Euryhaliotrema berenguelae. Structure of host assemblages was the main factor explaining the dissimilarity (turnover and nestedness components of the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and overall Bray-Curtis dissimilarity) of parasite communities between localities, while environment was only significant in the turnover of parasite communities and overall dissimilarity. Spatial structure of localities explained only 10% of the turnover of parasite communities. The interaction of the three factors (host assemblages, environment and spatial structure), however, explained the highest amounts of variance of the dactylogyrid communities, indicating a strong colinearity between the factors. Our findings

  15. Trade and the Development of the Pacific Alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Armando Hernández Bernal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Alliance is a process of deep integration among Colombia, Chile, Peru and Mexico, which aims to build a free trade area and to project into the Asia-Pacific region, in order to enhance existing trade agreements among the members. There is no deep trade relationships among these four countries, despite having regional agreements since the 1990s, as demonstrated by the low volume of reciprocal exports and imports, in addition to the low indicator of intra-industrial trade. In this paper, intra-regional trade index is calculated among the countries of the Pacific Alliance, evidencing low indicators, but with a growth, encouraged by reciprocal or unilateral policies of commercial opening, and by an environment favoring economic growth throughout the region.

  16. Diabetic dyslipidaemia in Asian populations in the Western Pacific Region: what we know and don't know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Juliana C N; Chan, Siew Pheng; Deerochanawong, Chaicharn; Go, Ruby T; Lee, Kok-Onn; Ma, Ronald Ching-Wan; Pan, Chang-Yu; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Barter, Philip

    2011-10-01

    Approximately 77 million persons with diabetes reside in the Western Pacific Region. This number is estimated to rise to 113 million in 2030 with increasing burden of cardio-renal disease, affecting an increasingly young population. Randomized clinical trials have confirmed the benefits of using statins to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Caucasians, although similar data are lacking in Asia. Experts from the Western Pacific Region met and reviewed evidence regarding risk association of diabetic dyslipidaemia with cardio-renal disease, effects of lipid lowering, recommended guidelines and clinical practices in Asian populations. There is strong evidence supporting the role of diabetic dyslipidaemia in cardio-renal disease and the benefits of lipid lowering in these populations. The high rate of diabetic kidney disease, its close links with CVD, and the benefits of lipid lowering on renal function are particularly relevant to this population. While most national guidelines use criteria similar to the West in management of diabetic dyslipidaemia, there are consistently low rates of use of lipid-lowering drugs and attaining treatment goals in the region. The group recommends conducting randomized studies, strengthening of the health care system to promote early detection, and intervention of diabetic dyslipidaemia to prevent end organ damage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model of the Rio Grande transboundary region of New Mexico and Texas, USA, and northern Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2017-09-08

    As part of a U.S. Geological Survey study in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, a digital three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model was constructed for the Rio Grande transboundary region of New Mexico and Texas, USA, and northern Chihuahua, Mexico. This model was constructed to define the aquifer system geometry and subsurface lithologic characteristics and distribution for use in a regional numerical hydrologic model. The model includes five hydrostratigraphic units: river channel alluvium, three informal subdivisions of Santa Fe Group basin fill, and an undivided pre-Santa Fe Group bedrock unit. Model input data were compiled from published cross sections, well data, structure contour maps, selected geophysical data, and contiguous compilations of surficial geology and structural features in the study area. These data were used to construct faulted surfaces that represent the upper and lower subsurface hydrostratigraphic unit boundaries. The digital three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model is constructed through combining faults, the elevation of the tops of each hydrostratigraphic unit, and boundary lines depicting the subsurface extent of each hydrostratigraphic unit. The framework also compiles a digital representation of the distribution of sedimentary facies within each hydrostratigraphic unit. The digital three-dimensional hydrogeologic model reproduces with reasonable accuracy the previously published subsurface hydrogeologic conceptualization of the aquifer system and represents the large-scale geometry of the subsurface aquifers. The model is at a scale and resolution appropriate for use as the foundation for a numerical hydrologic model of the study area.

  18. Key Learning Styles of Teaching English to Students from the Asian-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko Natalia A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines key styles of learning English as the second language, particularly for students from Asian-Pacific countries. It deals with the methods of improving their learning skills and abilities. The most traditional and popular ways of learning styles are pointed out. The authors also discuss teaching approaches for matching and interaction of learning styles in different cultures. The authors also discuss teaching approaches to matching and interaction of learning styles in different cultures.

  19. Teaching Neuro-Ophthalmology in the Asia-Pacific Region and China: A Personal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, John

    2015-12-01

    Over the last 30 years, I have been involved in a number of projects helping to educate and train local ophthalmologists in many parts of Asia and the Pacific Islands, which lack adequate training and service in neuro-ophthalmology. In this article, I offer an overview of a number of different teaching initiatives and offer practical suggestions to anyone who might wish to become involved.

  20. Effectiveness of a regional self-study perinatal education programme: a successful adaptation in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorno, Lorenzo R; Campos, Miriam C; Cook, Lynn J; Vela, Gabriela R; Dávila, Jorge R

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the Perinatal Continuing Education Programme (PCEP) in a Latin American country. We carried out a study within secondary and tertiary care, and rural Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) hospitals on the Yucatan Peninsula. Participants were doctors, nurses and nursing assistants working with pregnant women and newborns at each hospital. The PCEP was translated into Spanish and then implemented between January 1998 and December 2001. Two nurses at each hospital were trained to co-ordinate the programme and the personnel were invited to participate. Participation involved purchasing the self-teaching books, study outside work hours and participation in skills demonstration and practice sessions. Evaluation included the percentage of personnel who participated in and those who completed the programme, an opinion survey of the programme, level of pre- and post-intervention knowledge, and the quality of neonatal care according to expert-recommended routines. Results were analysed with chi-square and Student's t-tests. A total of 65.3% of the 1421 people in the study population began the programme and 72% of those completed it. Improvement was observed in 14 of 23 (Pevaluated neonatal care practices. Participants rated the written material as very clear and useful in daily practice. The PCEP is an effective strategy for improving the level of knowledge and perinatal care in all regional hospitals on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. This initial application of the PCEP in a Spanish-speaking country was successful.

  1. A representative survey of indoor radon in the sixteen regions in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, G; Gammage, R B

    2003-01-01

    Mexico City, also called Federal District, covers an area of 1504 km(2), and has more than 8 million inhabitants. It is located more than 2200 m above sea level in a zone of high seismic activity, and founded on an ancient lake. At present it is one of the most crowded and contaminated cities in the world, with thermal inversions. Chemical contaminants and aerosol particles in the environmental air are high most of the year. Due to these geological, environmental and socioeconomic conditions, Federal District presents very peculiar characteristics, which are important for understanding the distribution and measurements of indoor radon concentration. In this work the results of 3 year (1998-2000) measurements of indoor radon levels in the Federal District are presented. For the detector distribution and measurements, the actual political administrative divisions of the Federal District, consisting of 16 very well defined zones, was used. Nuclear track detection methodology was selected for the measurement, with a passive device close-end-cup system with CR-39 (Lantrack) polycarbonate as the detection material, with one step chemical etching, following a very well established protocol developed at the Instituto de Física, UNAM. Calibration was carried out at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and verification at the Instituto de Física chamber. The results show that the arithmetical mean values of the indoor radon concentration for each region of the Federal District follow a non-homogenous distribution.

  2. A representative survey of indoor radon in the sixteen regions in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.; Gammage, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Mexico City, also called Federal District, covers an area of 1504 km 2 , and has more than 8 million inhabitants. It is located more than 2200 m above sea level in a zone of high seismicactivity, and founded on an ancient lake. At present it is one of the most crowded and contaminated cities in the world with thermal inversions. Chemical contaminants and aerosol particles in the environmental air are high most of the year. Due to these geological, environmental and socioeconomic conditions, Federal District presents very peculiar characteristics, which are important for understanding the distribution and measurement zone of high seismic activity of indoor radon concentration. In this work the results of 3 year (1998-2000) measurements of indoor radon levels in the Federal District are presented. For the detector distribution and measurements, the actual political administrative divisions of the Federal District, consisting of 16 very well defined zones was used. Nuclear track detection methodology was selected for the measurement, with a passive device close-end-cup system with CR-39 (Lantrack(r)) polycarbonate as the detection material, with one step chemical etching, following a very well established protocol developed at the Instituto de Fisica, UNAM. Calibration was carried out at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and verification at the Instituto de Fisica chamber. The results show that the arithmetical mean values of the indoor radon concentration for each region of the Federal District follow a non-homogeneous distribution. (author)

  3. Traditional Coping Strategies and Disaster Response: Examples from the South Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Fletcher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Islands are vulnerable to climate change and increased risk of disasters not only because of their isolated and often low lying geographical setting but because of their economic status which renders them reliant on donor support. In a qualitative study exploring the adaptive capacity of Pacific Island Countries (PICs across four countries, Cook Islands, Fiji, Samoa, and Vanuatu, it was clear that traditional coping strategies are consistently being applied as part of response to disasters and climate changes. This paper describes five common strategies employed in PICs as understood through this research: recognition of traditional methods; faith and religious beliefs; traditional governance and leadership; family and community involvement; and agriculture and food security. While this study does not trial the efficacy of these methods, it provides an indication of what methods are being used and therefore a starting point for further research into which of these traditional strategies are beneficial. These findings also provide important impetus for Pacific Island governments to recognise traditional approaches in their disaster preparedness and response processes.

  4. Arsenic in drinking water in the Los Altos de Jalisco region of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Jiménez, Roberto; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2006-10-01

    To establish the degree of contamination by arsenic in drinking water in the Los Altos de Jalisco (LAJ) region of west-central Mexico, and to estimate the levels of exposure that residents of the area face. Total arsenic concentration (the sum of all arsenic forms, organic and inorganic) was determined for 129 public water wells in 17 municipal capitals (cabeceras municipales) of the LAJ region, using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. For most of the wells, water samples were taken in both November 2002 and October 2003. The levels of exposure to arsenic were estimated for babies (10 kg), children (20 kg), and adults (70 kg). Mean concentrations of arsenic higher than the Mexican national guideline value of 25 micro g/L were found in 44 (34%) of the 129 wells. The mean concentration of total arsenic for the 129 wells ranged from 14.7 micro g/L to 101.9 micro g/L. The highest concentrations were found in well water samples collected in the cities of Mexticacán (262.9 micro g/L), Teocaltiche (157.7 micro g/L), and San Juan de los Lagos (113.8 micro g/L). Considering the global mean concentration for all the wells in each of the 17 cities, the mean concentration of arsenic exceeded the Mexican guideline value in 7 of the cities. However, the global mean concentration in all 17 cities was higher than the World Health Organization guideline value of 10 micro g/L for arsenic. The range of the estimated exposure doses to arsenic in drinking water was 1.1-7.6 micro g/kg/d for babies, 0.7-5.1 micro g/kg/d for children, and 0.4-2.7 micro g/kg/d for adults. At the exposure doses estimated in the LAJ region, the potential health effects from chronic arsenic ingestion include skin diseases, gastrointestinal effects, neurological damage, cardiovascular problems, and hematological effects. While all the residents may not be affected, an important fraction of the total population of the LAJ region is under potential health risk due to the ingestion of high

  5. Reflections on the Rural Land under Flexible Accumulation:the Case of the Coffee Producing Region of Coatepec, Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián González Luna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a debate about the territorial changes occurred in the coffee producing region of Coatepec, Veracruz, induced by the restructuring of the international agrifood market and by the change of agricultural policies in Mexico since the eighties, within the context of the new regime of flexible accumulation. Our work argues that the concept of territory is important to explain new realities in rural areas, particularly in a region of long coffee growing tradition, shaped by the regime of flexible accumulation. For this purpose, we use the results and experiences yielded by fieldwork in the region.

  6. Regional and Seasonal Differences in Species Composition and Trophic Groups for Tidepool Fishes of a Western Pacific Island – Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin K. C. Wen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variations in the species composition of assemblages are common in many marine organisms, including fishes. Variations in the fish species composition of subtidal coral reefs have been well documented, however much less is known about such differences for intertidal fish assemblages. This is surprising, given that intertidal fishes are more vulnerable to terrestrial human disturbances. It is critical to evaluate the ecology and biology of intertidal fishes before they are severely impacted by coastal development, especially in developing countries such as those in the tropical western Pacific region where coastal development is rapidly increasing. In this study, we investigated the species composition, abundance, biomass and species number (richness for intertidal fish assemblages in subtropical (northern and tropical (southern Taiwan across four seasons by collecting fishes from tidepools using clove oil. We also examined the gut contents of collected fishes to identify their trophic functional groups in order to investigate regional and seasonal variations for different trophic groups. We found significant differences in the species composition of tidepool fish assemblages between subtropical and tropical Taiwan. Bathygobius fuscus, Abudefduf vaigiensis and Istiblennius dussumieri were dominant species in subtropical Taiwan, whereas Bathygobius coalitus, Abudefduf septemfasciatus and Istiblennius lineatus were dominant in tropical Taiwan. Other species such as Bathygobius cocosensis, Abudefduf sordidus and Istiblennius edentulus were common in both regions. For trophic groups, omnivores and detritivores had or showed trends towards higher species numbers and abundances in the subtropical region, whereas herbivores, planktivores and general carnivores had or showed trends towards higher species numbers and biomass in the tropical region. Overall, many intertidal fish species and trophic groups showed differences in

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening in the US–Mexico Border Region: A Binational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefelbein, Emily L.; Smith, Ruben; Rojas, Rosalba; Mirchandani, Gita G.; McDonald, Jill A.

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer mortality is high along the US–Mexico border. We describe the prevalence of a recent Papanicolaou screening test (Pap) among US and Mexican border women. We analyzed 2006 cross-sectional data from Mexico’s National Survey of Health and Nutrition and the US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Women aged 20–77 years in 44 US border counties (n = 1,724) and 80 Mexican border municipios (n = 1,454) were studied. We computed weighted proportions for a Pap within the past year by age, education, employment, marital status, health insurance, health status, risk behaviors, and ethnicity and adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) for the US, Mexico, and the region overall. Sixty-five percent (95 %CI 60.3–68.6) of US women and 32 % (95 %CI 28.7–35.2) of Mexican women had a recent Pap. US residence (APR = 2.01, 95 %CI 1.74–2.33), marriage (APR = 1.31, 95 %CI 1.17–1.47) and insurance (APR = 1.38, 95 %CI 1.22–1.56) were positively associated with a Pap test. Among US women, insurance and marriage were associated (APR = 1.21, 95 %CI 1.05–1.38 and 1.33, 95 %CI 1.10–1.61, respectively), and women aged 20–34 years were about 25 % more likely to have received a test than older women. Insurance and marriage were also positively associated with Pap testing among Mexican women (APR = 1.39, 95 %CI 1.17–1.64 and 1.50; 95 %CI 1.23–1.82, respectively), as were lower levels of education (≤8th grade or 9th–12th grade versus some college) (APR = 1.74; 95 %CI 1.21–2.52 and 1.60; 95 %CI 1.03–2.49, respectively). Marriage and insurance were associated with a recent Pap test on both sides of the border. Binational insurance coverage increases and/or cost reductions might bolster testing among unmarried and uninsured women, leading to earlier cervical cancer diagnosis and potentially lower mortality. PMID:22965734

  8. Magnitude and extent of land subsidence in central Mexico revealed by regional InSAR ALOS time-series survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaussard, E.; Wdowinski, S.; Amelung, F.; Cabral-Cano, E.

    2013-05-01

    Massive groundwater extraction is very common in Mexico and is well known to result in land subsidence. However, most surveys dedicated to land subsidence focus on one single city, mainly Mexico City, and thus fail to provide a comprehensive picture of the problem. Here we use a space-based radar remote sensing technique, known as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) to detect land subsidence in the entire central Mexico area. We used data from the Japanese satellite ALOS, processed over 600 SAR images acquired between 2007-2011 and produced over 3000 interferograms to cover and area of 200,000 km2 in central Mexico. We identify land subsidence in twenty-one areas, including seventeen cities, namely from east to west, Puebla, Mexico city, Toluca de Lerdo, Queretaro, San Luis de la Paz, south of San Luis de la Paz, Celaya, south of Villa de Reyes, San Luis Potosi, west of Villa de Arista, Morelia, Salamanca, Irapuato, Silao, Leon, Aguascalientes, north of Aguascalientes, Zamora de Hidalgo, Guadalajara, Ahuacatlan, and Tepic. Subsidence rates of 30 cm/yr are observed in Mexico City, while in the other locations typical rates of 5-10 cm/yr are noticed. Regional surveys of this type are necessary for the development of hazard mitigation plans and efficient use of ground-based monitoring. We additionally correlate subsidence with land use, surface geology, and faults distribution and suggest that groundwater extraction for agricultural, urban, and industrial uses are the main causes of land subsidence. We also reveal that the limits of the subsiding areas often correlate with existing faults, motion on these faults being driven by water extraction rather than by tectonic activity. In all the subsiding locations we observe high ground velocity gradients emphasizing the significant risks associated with land subsidence in central Mexico. Averaged 2007-2011 ground velocity map from ALOS InSAR time-series in central Mexico, revealing land subsidence in 21

  9. Relationships between the occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium and physicochemical properties of marine waters of the Pacific Coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magana-Ordorica, Dalia; Mena, Kristina; Valdez-Torres, Jose B; Soto-Beltran, Marcela; Leon-Felix, Josefina; Chaidez, Cristobal

    2010-12-01

    Untreated sewage has adversely affected the quality of marine recreational waters worldwide. Exposure to marine recreational water with poor microbial quality may pose a threat to bathers. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of physicochemical parameters on Cryptosporidium and Giardia presence in marine recreational water of Sinaloa, Mexico, by Logistic Regression Analyses. Thirty-two 10-litre water samples were collected from two tourist beaches, Altata and Mazatlan, between November 2006 and May 2007. Water samples were processed by the EPA 1623 method and pH, temperature, salinity and turbidity were also determined. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were present in 71 and 57% of the samples collected from Altata, respectively. In Mazatlan, Cryptosporidium and Giardia were found in 83 and 72% of the samples, respectively. The overall concentration of Cryptosporidium ranged from 150 to 2,050 oocysts/10 L with an average of 581 oocysts/10 L and Giardia ranged from 10 to 300 cysts/10 L with an average of 73 cysts/10 L. The occurrence of both parasites increased in water with decreasing temperatures and increasing turbidity of the water.

  10. Disability-Adjusted Life Years for Cancer in 2010–2014: A Regional Approach in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrén Murillo-Zamora

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The disability-adjusted life years (DALYs were used to estimate the regional (state of Colima, Mexico cancer burden in 2010–2014. The years of life lost (YLL were estimated with mortality data and years lived with disability (YLD using incidence data. The DALYs were calculated as the arithmetic addition of YLL and YLD. Sex and cancer site-specific estimations were made and DALY rates were used to identify the leading causes of disease burden. Data from 2532 deaths were analyzed and, for all malignant tumors combined, 18,712.9 DALYs and 20,243.3 DALYs were estimated in males and females respectively. The overall contribution of YLL in DALY estimates was higher among females (93.7% vs. 87.4%. Age-standardized DALY rates (and 95% confidence intervals, CI per 100,000 inhabitants were used to rank the leading causes of disease burden and, among males, malignant tumors from the prostate, lower respiratory tract, and colon and rectum accounted the highest rates (45.7, 95% CI 32.7–59.3; 37.6, 95% CI 25.7–49.9; and 25.9, 95% CI 16.0–36.1 DALYs. Breast, cervix uteri, and lower respiratory tract cancer showed the highest burden in females (66.0, 95% CI 50.3–82.4; 44.4, 95% CI 31.5–57.7; and 20.9, 95% CI 12.0–30.0 DALYs. The present study provides an indication of the burden of cancer at the regional level, underscoring the need to expand cancer prevention, screening, and awareness programs, as well as to improve early diagnosis and medical treatment.

  11. Miocene to Recent structural evolution of the Nevado de Toluca volcano region, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Palomo, A.; Macías, J. L.; Garduño, V. H.

    2000-03-01

    Based on aerial photography, satellite imagery, and detailed field work, a geological and structural model of Nevado de Toluca and its surroundings is presented. The Nevado de Toluca volcano is built upon the intersection of three complex fault systems of different age, orientation, and kinematics. These systems from the older to the younger are: (a) The Taxco-Querétaro Fault System (NNW-SSE) with clear expression south of the volcano; (b) The San Antonio Fault System (NE-SW) that runs between the San Antonio and Nevado de Toluca volcanoes; and (c) The Tenango Fault System (E-W) located to the east of Nevado de Toluca volcano. Our field data, supported by previous studies, suggest that these systems have coexisted since the late Miocene. In addition, the stratigraphy, chronology, and kinematics of fault planes point to the existence of at least three main deformation events that have affected the region since the late Miocene. During the early Miocene, an extensional phase with the same deformation style as the Basin and Range tectonics of northern Mexico caused the formation of horsts and grabens south of Nevado de Toluca and allowed the intrusion of sub-vertical dikes oriented NW-SE and NNW-SSE. During the middle Miocene, a transcurrent episode generated NE-SW faults that presented two main motions: the first movement was left-lateral with a σ3 oriented NW-SE and later turned into normal through a counter-clockwise rotation of σ3 up to a N-S position. The latest deformation phase started during the late Pliocene and produced oblique extension ( σ3 oriented NE-SW) along E-W-trending faults that later changed to pure extension by shifting of σ3 to a N-S orientation. These faults appear to control the late Pleistocene to Holocene monogenetic volcanism, the flank collapses of Nevado de Toluca volcano and the seismic activity of the region.

  12. Oceanic, Latitudinal, and Sex-Specific Variation in Demography of a Tropical Deepwater Snapper across the Indo-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley J. Williams

    2017-12-01

    information on the life history of E. carbunculus contributes to the broader sustainable management and improved food security for deepwater snapper fisheries in the Indo-Pacific region.

  13. Crustal deformation and seismic measurements in the region of McDonald Observatory, West Texas. [Texas and Northern Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    The arrival times of regional and local earthquakes and located earthquakes in the Basin and Range province of Texas and in the adjacent areas of Chihuahua, Mexico from January 1976 to August 1980 at the UT'NASA seismic array are summarized. The August 1931 Texas earthquake is reevaluated and the seismicity and crustal structure of West Texas is examined. A table of seismic stations is included.

  14. Intercomparisons of Prognostic, Diagnostic, and Inversion Modeling Approaches for Estimation of Net Ecosystem Exchange over the Pacific Northwest Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. P.; Jacobson, A. R.; Nemani, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    The recent development of large spatially-explicit datasets for multiple variables relevant to monitoring terrestrial carbon flux offers the opportunity to estimate the terrestrial land flux using several alternative, potentially complimentary, approaches. Here we developed and compared regional estimates of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) over the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. using three approaches. In the prognostic modeling approach, the process-based Biome-BGC model was driven by distributed meteorological station data and was informed by Landsat-based coverages of forest stand age and disturbance regime. In the diagnostic modeling approach, the quasi-mechanistic CFLUX model estimated net ecosystem production (NEP) by upscaling eddy covariance flux tower observations. The model was driven by distributed climate data and MODIS FPAR (the fraction of incident PAR that is absorbed by the vegetation canopy). It was informed by coarse resolution (1 km) data about forest stand age. In both the prognostic and diagnostic modeling approaches, emissions estimates for biomass burning, harvested products, and river/stream evasion were added to model-based NEP to get NEE. The inversion model (CarbonTracker) relied on observations of atmospheric CO2 concentration to optimize prior surface carbon flux estimates. The Pacific Northwest is heterogeneous with respect to land cover and forest management, and repeated surveys of forest inventory plots support the presence of a strong regional carbon sink. The diagnostic model suggested a stronger carbon sink than the prognostic model, and a much larger sink that the inversion model. The introduction of Landsat data on disturbance history served to reduce uncertainty with respect to regional NEE in the diagnostic and prognostic modeling approaches. The FPAR data was particularly helpful in capturing the seasonality of the carbon flux using the diagnostic modeling approach. The inversion approach took advantage of a global

  15. Expert recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of iron-deficiency anemia during pregnancy and the postpartum period in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breymann, Christian; Bian, Xu-Ming; Blanco-Capito, Lourdes R; Chong, Christopher; Mahmud, Ghazala; Rehman, Rakhshanda

    2011-03-01

    Anemia during pregnancy and the postpartum period is commonly caused by iron deficiency and is a significant worldwide issue with severe consequences for both mother and developing fetus. From a worldwide perspective, iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) during pregnancy is highest in the Asia-Pacific region; however, there has been little guidance in this region for safe and effective treatment. An expert panel was convened to develop a concise and informative set of recommendations for the treatment of IDA in pregnant and postpartum women in the Asia-Pacific region. This manuscript provides these recommendations and aims to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with IDA in pregnant and postpartum women in the Asia-Pacific region. The consensus recommendations define anemia as a hemoglobin (Hb) level iron, intravenous iron or red blood cell transfusion.

  16. Report on Symposium on Pacific Energy Cooperation 2001. Energy Security in Asian Region; Taiheiyo energy kyoryoku kaigi 2001 hokokusho. Asia chiiki no energy anzen hosho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-20

    The Symposium on Pacific Energy Cooperation (SPEC), which started in 1986 to discuss energy problems and international cooperation on energy in the Pacific region, met for 2001 in Tokyo on February 20 and 21, 2001, to discuss Energy Security in Asian Region. The conference comprised two keynote addresses, four sessions, and a panel discussion. Twenty-four countries and an international organization were represented by a total of 785 participants who actively exchanged views and opinions. With Director Tsutomu Toichi, The Institute of Energy Economics, Japan, acting as chairman, two keynote addresses were delivered. Minister of Oil Bijan Namdar Zanganeh of Iran reported on The Role of I. R. Iran in Meeting the Growing Oil and Gas Demand in the Asia-Pacific Region and Potential Cooperation with the Region's Consumers. Managing Director Phil Watts of the Royal Dutch/Shell Group reported on Security in Trust - Meeting Asian Energy Needs in the 21st Century. (NEDO)

  17. Integrating male sexual diversity into violence prevention efforts with men and boys: evidence from the Asia-Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedema, Stephanie S; Yount, Kathryn M; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin; Fulu, Emma

    2017-02-01

    Men's perpetration of gender-based violence remains a global public health issue. Violence prevention experts call for engagement of boys and men to change social norms around masculinity in order to prevent gender-based violence. Yet, men do not comprise a homogenous category. Drawing on probability estimates of men who report same-sex practices and preferences captured in a multi-country gender-based violence prevention survey in the Asia-Pacific region, we test the effects of sexuality-related factors on men's adverse life experiences. We find that sexual minority men face statistically higher risk of lifetime adversity related to gender-based violence, stemming from gender inequitable norms in society. Sexuality is thus a key axis of differentiation among men in the Asia-Pacific region, influencing health and wellbeing and reflecting men's differential engagement with dominant norms of masculinity. Integrating awareness of male sexual diversity into gender-based violence prevention interventions, particularly those that work with boys and men, and bridging violence prevention programming between sexual minority communities and women, are essential to tackle the root drivers of violence.

  18. Setting effective mandatory energy efficiency standards and labelling regulations: A review of best practices in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xunpeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • S and L regulations are needed to materialize the various benefits of energy efficiency. • S and L regulations can appear in various formats as in the Asia–Pacific region. • Effective regime has to be clear, authoritative, open, and enforceable. • Clear policy, customisation, inclusiveness, transparency and flexibility are desirable. - Abstract: This paper attempts to inform policy makers and legislators on how to set energy efficiency standards and labelling (S and L) regulations. It draws lessons from the literature on S and L regulations in the Asia–Pacific region and from practical experience in drafting the S and L regulations for Brunei Darussalam. The paper proposes necessary components for effective S and L regulations, as follows: clear liabilities, authoritative administration, open principles for technical systems, and enforceable mechanisms. It also recommends some key issues in good practice toward effective S and L regulations, such as policy making in advance, customised legislation, inclusive and transparent legislative procedure, and flexibility in the legislation

  19. Regional Specialization. The Middle Americas: Mexico, Panama, Central America and the Caribbean Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owen, Mark H; Inman, Kenneth A

    1997-01-01

    .... Generally viewed as lagging in efforts to develop stable governments and self-sustaining economies, Mexico, Central America to include Panama and the Caribbean, henceforth Middle America, have in the...

  20. Bottlenose dolphin age structure and growth in the Mississippi Sound region of the Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Teeth were collected from bottlenose dolphins that stranded within the north-central Gulf of Mexico between 1986-2003. These teeth were sectioned and growth rings...

  1. Backscatter Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Southern Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  2. Shrimp by-catch reduction using a short funnel net, in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, South Pacific, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Sarmiento-Náfate

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of the by-catch in shrimp fishery is an important goal worldwide. In order to compare by-catch using the conventional trawling net and a newly designed short funnel net, nine cruises were carried out by the commercial fleet operating in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. A total of 480 trawls were done (mean duration: 85 min. The experimental trawls using the modified net produced a 21.13-28.86 % by-catch reduction (confidence interval 95 %, a 3 % increase of shrimp catch, and a significant reduction on net recovery time. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (3-4: 889-897. Epub 2007 December, 28.La reducción de la fauna de acompañamiento del camarón (FAC es uno de los temas de discusión más importantes en la pesca mundial. Con la finalidad de contribuir en este tópico, se diseñó y utilizó una red de arrastre variando la longitud del túnel, y se comparó su efecto con el de una red tradicional; durante 9 cruceros de la flota comercial en el Golfo de Tehuantepec, México. Se realizó un total de 480 lances con promedio de 85 min cada uno. Los arrastres de la red modificada mostraron mejores resultados, con variación entre 21.13 a 28.86 %, con un 95 % de confianza de reducción de FAC, un incremento de 3 % en la captura de camarón, y una disminución del tiempo de recuperación, lo que sugiere un incremento en la eficiencia gracias al nuevo diseño.

  3. Comparisons of metabolic syndrome definitions in four populations of the Asia-Pacific region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, C.M.; Huxley, R.R.; Woodward, M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) by four MetS definitions in four Asia-Pacific populations, and to compare the prevalence of individual metabolic components. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional studies from Australia, Japan, Korea, and Samoa were used...... for EGIR. There were marked differences in the prevalence of MetS between the sexes, with no systematic pattern, and between the prevalences of individual metabolic components. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in the prevalence of MetS and its components, using the various definitions, both within and between...

  4. RCA and its regional office for cooperative activities in the applications of nuclear techniques in Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-Sol

    2008-01-01

    The Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA) is an intergovernmental agreement among 17 Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in South Asia, South East Asia, Far East and the Pacific, established for promoting regional cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. Established in 1972, the RCA is a unique development within the technical cooperation framework coordinated by IAEA is support of the regional cooperation in the applications of nuclear technology to the benefit of its Member States. It has a well established network of scientists trained in the use of nuclear technologies in the agricultural, medical, industrial, and environmental sectors, with a good potentiality to use its regional technical and scientific resources to contribute to the solution of some of the significant problems in the region. The achievements recorded in the several decades of RCA history cover a wide spectrum of areas and these achievements have been published a Success Stories. Having recognized a need to enhance ownership of the region, the RCA Member States had wished to establish its Regional Office (RCARO). The Regional Office which is hosted by the Government of Republic of Korea was established in 2002. Located in Daejeon, the RCARO has been active in its endeavors toward increasing visibility of the RCA and establishing cooperative partnership between RCA and other international organizations. The RCARO has also played a key role in successfully implementing an RCA Project on Post-Tsunami Environment Impact Assessment in partnership with UNDP (Republic of Korea) with the participation of 14 RCA Member States. A number of projects for capacity building in the region are also being implemented by RCARO, mostly by providing training opportunities for young professionals in the region. The RCA community welcomes any contacts from potential end-users or

  5. A Source Manual of Raptors Occurring on Corps of Engineers Lands in the Pacific Northwest Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    Oregon. The Murrelet 28: 41. Meserve, P. L. 1977. Food habits of a white-tailed kite population in 4. . central Chile . Condor 79(2): 263-265. Miles, M. L...and F. M. Taksic. 1980. Diet and *-" - weight of American kestrels in central Chile . Auk 97(3): 629-631. Young, C. M., and C. G. Blomme. 1975. Summer...Fridriksson and E. L. Belardo. 1977. Peregrine breeding behavior at the Agua Dulce Eyrie, Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico: a successful transplant of

  6. Geochemistry and hydrodynamics of the Paradox Basin region, Utah, Colorado and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanshaw, B.B.; Hill, G.A.

    1969-01-01

    The Paradox Basin region is approximately bounded by the south flank of the Uinta Basin to the north, the Uncompahgre uplift and San Juan Mountains to the east, the Four Corners structural platform to the southeast, the north rim of the Black Mesa Basin and the Grand Canyon to the south and southwest, and the Wasatch Plateau and Hurricane fault system to the west. Some of these geologic features are areas of ground-water recharge or discharge whereas others such as the Four Corners platform do not directly influence fluid movement. The aquifer systems studied were: (1) Mississippian rocks; (2) Pinkerton Trail Limestone of Wengerd and Strickland, 1954; (3) Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation; (4) Honaker Trail Formation of Wengerd and Matheny, 1958; (5) Permian rocks. Recharge in the Paradox Basin occurs on the west flank of the San Juan Mountains and along the west side of the Uncompahgre uplift. The direction of ground-water movement in each analyzed unit is principally southwest-ward toward the topographically low outcrop areas along the Colorado River in Arizona. However, at any point in the basin, flow may be in some other direction owing to the influence of intrabasin recharge areas or local obstructions to flow, such as faults or dikes. A series of potentiometric surface maps was prepared for the five systems studied. Material used in construction of the maps included outcrop altitudes of springs and streams, drill-stem tests, water-well records, and an electric analog model of the entire basin. Many structurally and topographically high areas within the basin are above the regional potentiometric surface; recharge in these areas will drain rapidly off the high areas and adjust to the regional water level. With a few exceptions, most wells in formations above the Pennsylvanian contain fresh ( 35,000 mg/l T.D.S.) reported. Most water samples from strata below the Permian are brines of the sodium chloride type but with large amounts of calcium sulfate or

  7. Depression literacy and health-seeking attitudes in the Western Pacific region: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Grace W K; Bressington, D; Leung, S F; Lam, K K C; Leung, A Y M; Molassiotis, A; Ligot, J; Ranoco, C; Sophal, C; Valimaki, M

    2018-06-02

    Depression literacy refers to the ability to recognize depression and make informed decisions about its treatment. To date, relatively little research has been done to examine depression literacy in the Western Pacific region. Given the pervasiveness of depression and the need to enhance mental health care in this region, it is important to gain a better understanding of depression literacy and health-seeking behaviors in this part of the world. This mixed-methods study utilized a convergent parallel design to examine depression literacy and the associated health-seeking attitudes among urban adults from three countries-Cambodia, Philippines, and Fiji. A total of 455 adults completed a quantitative survey on depression knowledge, attitudes, and professional help seeking. Separately, 56 interviewees from 6 focus groups provided qualitative data on their impression and knowledge of depression and mental illness within the context of their local communities. Overall, results showed that depression knowledge was comparatively lower in this region. Controlling for differences across countries, higher knowledge was significantly associated with more positive attitudes towards mental illness (B = - 0.28, p = 0.025) and professional help seeking (B = 0.20, p < 0.001). Financial stability, such as employment, was also a salient factor for help seeking. This study was the first to provide a baseline understanding on depression literacy and highlights the need to increase public knowledge on depression in the Western Pacific. Culturally congruent recommendations on enhancing depression literacy in this region, such as anti-stigma campaigns, use of financial incentives, and family-based approach in health education, are discussed.

  8. Using Food Flow Data to Assess Sustainability: Land Use Displacement and Regional Decoupling in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Millones

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Food flow data provide unique insights into the debates surrounding the sustainability of land based production and consumption at multiple scales. Trade flows disguise the spatial correspondence of production and consumption and make their connection to land difficult. Two key components of this spatial disjuncture are land use displacement and economic regional decoupling. By displacing the environmental impact associated with food production from one region to another, environmental trajectories can falsely appear to be sustainable at a particular site or scale. When regional coupling is strong, peripheral areas where land based production occurs are strongly linked and proximate to consumption centers, and the environmental impact of production activities is visible. When food flows occur over longer distances, regional coupling weakens, and environmental impact is frequently overlooked. In this study, we present an analysis of a locally collected food flow dataset containing agricultural and livestock products transported to and from counties in Quintana Roo (QRoo. QRoo is an extensively forested border state in southeast Mexico, which was fully colonized by the state and non-native settlers only in the last century and now is home to some of the major tourist destinations. To approximate land displacement and regional decoupling, we decompose flows to and from QRoo by (1 direction; (2 product types and; (3 scale. Results indicate that QRoo is predominantly a consumer state: incoming flows outnumber outgoing flows by a factor of six, while exports are few, specialized, and with varied geographic reach (Yucatan, south and central Mexico, USA. Imports come predominantly from central Mexico. Local production in QRoo accounts for a small portion of its total consumption. In combining both subsets of agricultural and livestock products, we found that in most years, land consumption requirements were above 100% of the available land not under

  9. PRACTICAL BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTATION OF THYROID CANCER GUIDELINES IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Samantha Peiling; Ying, Lee Suat; Saw, Stephanie; Tuttle, R Michael; Venkataraman, Kavita; Su-Ynn, Chia

    2015-11-01

    Numerous published guidelines have described the optimal management of thyroid cancer. However, these rely on the clinical availability of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. We hypothesized that the availability of medical resources and economic circumstances vary in Asia-Pacific countries, making it difficult to implement guideline recommendations into clinical practice. We surveyed participants at the 2009 and 2013 Congresses of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Federation of Endocrine Societies by distributing questionnaires to attendees at registration. Responses were obtained from 268 respondents in 2009 and 163 respondents in 2013. Similar to the high prevalence of low-risk thyroid cancer observed in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, across the Asia-Pacific countries surveyed in 2009 and 2013, 50 to 100% of the respondents from the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Hong Kong, Korea, and Sri Lanka reported that more than 50% of the patients had low-risk thyroid cancer on follow-up. Importantly, there was much variation with regards to the perceived availability of investigation and treatment modalities. We found a wide variation in clinicians' perception of availability of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities in the face of a rise in thyroid cancer incidence and thyroid cancer management guidelines that emphasized their importance. The lack of availability of management tools and treatments will prove to be a major barrier to the implementation of thyroid cancer management guidelines in Southeast Asia, and likely in other parts of the world as well.

  10. Evaporative concentration of arsenic in groundwater: health and environmental implications, La Laguna Region, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Guerrero, Adrián

    2017-10-01

    High arsenic concentrations in groundwater have been documented in La Laguna Region (LLR) in arid northern Mexico, where arsenic poisoning is both chronic and endemic. A heated debate has continued for decades on its origin. LLR consisted of a series of ancient connected lakes that developed at the end of a topographic depression under closed basin conditions. This study addresses the isotopic, chemical composition of the groundwater and geochemical modeling in the southeasternmost part of the LLR to determine the origin of arsenic. Groundwater samples were obtained from a carbonate and granular aquifers and from a clayey aquitard at terminal Viesca Lake. Results show that groundwater originated as meteoric water that reached the lakes mainly via abundant springs in the carbonate aquifer and perennial flooding of the Nazas-Aguanaval Rivers. Paleo-lake water underwent progressive evaporation as demonstrated by the enrichment of δ 18 O, δ 2 H and characteristic geochemical patterns in the granular aquifer and aquitard that resulted in highly saline (>90,000 mS/cm), arsenic-rich (up to 5000 μg/L) paleo-groundwater (>30,000 years BP). However, adsorption or co-precipitation on iron oxides, clay-mineral surfaces and organic carbon limited arsenic concentration in the groundwater. Arsenic-rich groundwater and other solutes are advancing progressively from the lacustrine margins toward the main granular aquifer, due to reversal of hydraulic gradients caused by intensive groundwater exploitation and the reduction in freshwater runoff provoked by dam construction on the main rivers. Desorption of arsenic will incorporate additional concentrations of arsenic into the groundwater and continue to have significant negative effects on human health and the environment.

  11. Adaptation of rainfed agriculture to climatic variability in the Mixteca Alta Region of Oaxaca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogé, P.; Friedman, A. R.; Astier, M.; Altieri, M.

    2015-12-01

    The traditional management systems of the Mixteca Alta Region of Oaxaca, Mexico offer historical lessons about resilience to climatic variability. We interviewed small farmers to inquire about the dynamics of abandonment and persistence of a traditional management systems. We interpret farmers' narratives from a perspective of general agroecological resilience. In addition, we facilitated workshops in small farmers described their adaptation to past climate challenges and identified 14 indicators that they subsequently used to evaluate the condition of their agroecosystems. The most recent years presented increasingly extreme climatic and socioeconomic hardships: increased temperatures, delayed rainy seasons, reduced capacity of soils to retain soil moisture, changing cultural norms, and reduced rural labor. Farmers reported that their cropping systems were changing for multiple reasons: more drought, later rainfall onset, decreased rural labor, and introduced labor-saving technologies. Examination of climate data found that farmers' climate narratives were largely consistent with the observational record. There have been increases in temperature and rainfall intensity, and an increase in rainfall seasonality that may be perceived as later rainfall onset. Farmers ranked landscape-scale indicators as more marginal than farmer management or soil quality indicators. From this analysis, farmers proposed strategies to improve the ability of their agroecosystems to cope with climatic variability. Notably, they recognized that social organizing and education are required for landscape-level indicators to be improved. Transformative change is required to develop novel cropping systems and complementary activities to agriculture that will allow for farming to be sustained in the face of these challenges. Climate change adaptation by small farmers involves much more than just a set of farming practices, but also community action to tackle collective problems.

  12. Community resilience and Chagas disease in a rural region of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Santana Rangel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To explore the pillars of community resilience in a region where Chagas disease is endemic, with the aim of promoting participatory processes to deal with this condition from the resilience of the population. METHODS Qualitative study using ethnographic record and six interviews of focus groups with young people, women and men. The research was carried out in a rural area of the state of Morelos, Mexico, between 2006 and 2007. We carried out educational sessions with the population in general, so that residents could identify the relationship between the vector Triatoma pallidipennis, the parasite (Trypanosoma cruzi, symptoms, and preventive actions for Chagas disease. The ethnographic record and groups were analyzed based on Taylor and Bogdan’s modification, and the focus was to understand the socio-cultural meanings that guide the speeches and activities of residents in relation to the pillars of community resilience. RESULTS The population felt proud of belonging to that location and three pillars of community resilience were clearly identified: collective self-esteem, cultural identity, and social honesty. Having these pillars as bases, we promoted the participation of the population concerning Chagas disease, and a Community Action Group was formed with young people, adult men and women, and social leaders. This Group initiated actions of epidemiological and entomological surveillance in the community to deal with this problem. CONCLUSIONS It is necessary to create more experiences that deepen the understanding of the pillars of community resilience, and how they contribute to enhance participation in health to deal with Chagas disease.

  13. Overview of surface ozone variability in East Asia-North Pacific region during IGAC/APARE (1994--1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, K S; Wang, T J; Wang, T; Tang, J; Kajii, Y; Liu, C M; Shim, S G

    2004-01-01

    Surface ozone (O3) was measured at Oki Island (Japan), Cheju Island (South Korea), Lanyu Island (Taiwan Province, China), Cape D'Aguilar (Hong Kong SAR) and Lin'an, Longfenshan, Waliguan (China mainland) during January 1994--December 1996 as a component of IGAC/APARE (International Global Atmospheric Chemistry/East Asia-North Pacific Regional Experiment). This paper gave a joint discussion on the observational results at these stations over the study region. Investigations showed that the average of surface O3 mixing ratios at the seven sites are 47.9+/-15.8, 48.1+/-17.9, 30.2+/-16.4, 31.6+/-17.5, 36.3+/-17.5, 34.8+/-11.5 and 48.2+/-9.5 ppbv, respectively. Significant diurnal variations of surface O3 have been observed at Oki, Cheju, D'Aguilar, Lin'an and Longfenshan. Their annual averaged diurnal differences range from 8 to 23 ppbv and differ in each season. Surface O3 at Lanyu and Waliguan do not show strong diurnal variability. Seasonal cycles of surface O3 showed difference at the temperate and the subtropical remote sites. Oki has a summer minimum-spring maximum, while Lanyu has a summer minimum-autumn maximum. The suburban sites at D'Aguilar and Lin'an report high-level O3 in autumn and low level O3 in summer. Surface O3 remains-high in autumn and low in winter at the rural site Longfenshan. For the global background station Waliguan, surface O3 exhibits a broad spring-summer maximum and autumn-winter minimum. The backward air trajectories to these sites have shown different pathways of long-range transport of air pollution from East Asia Continent to North Pacific Ocean. Surface O3 was found to be strongly and positively correlated with CO at Oki and Lanyu, especially in spring and autumn, reflecting the substantial photochemical buildup of O3 on a regional scale. It is believed that the regional sources of pollution in East Asia have enhanced the average surface O3 concentrations in the background atmosphere of North Pacific.

  14. Servicio de Mapas en Internet para la Salud Ambiental en la Region Fronteriza Entre los Estados Unidos y Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckler, Denny; Stefanov, Jim

    2004-01-01

    La region fronteriza de los Estados Unidos y Mexico abarca una gran diversidad de ambientes fisicos y habitaciones, entre los cuales estan los humedales, desiertos, pastos, montanas, y bosques. Estos a su vez son unicos en cuanto a su diversidad de recursos acuaticos minerales, y biologicos. La region se interconecta economica, politica, y socialmente debido a su herencia binacional. En 1995, cerca de 11 millones de habitantes vivian en la zona adyacente a la frontera. Un estudio sugiere que esa poblacion podria doblarse antes del ano 2020.

  15. Demand curves of electric energy in domestic sector in two regions of Mexico; Curvas de demanda de energia electrica en sector domestico de dos regiones de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqueda Zamora, Martin Roberto; Sanchez Viveros, Luis Agustin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    In this work, is presented the analysis of residential consumption, regarding the temperature of two areas and types of electrical appliances. A shape characteristic of the load of the electrical energy is obtained for two geographical areas in Mexico. The consumption information was obtained from measurements in residential consumers and from the Mexican Utility. It is also shown the demand profile of the main residential appliances, obtained from smart metering equipment to separate the residential users' load profiles. It is shown the effect of the different variables analyzed on the electrical power consumption, mainly the type of equipment, the geographical localization, the weather (temperature, humidity and vegetation type). With the results attained, the definition of effective energy-saving programs and its effectiveness can be obtained. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el analisis del consumo residencial considerando la temperatura de las dos areas y tipos de aparatos electricos. Se obtiene una forma caracteristica de la carga de energia electrica de dos areas geograficas de Mexico. La informacion sobre el consumo se obtuvo de mediciones en consumidores residenciales y de una empresa electrica mexicana. Tambien se muestra el perfil de demanda de los principales aparatos residenciales, derivado de equipos de medicion inteligentes para separar los perfiles de carga de usuarios residenciales. Se muestra el efecto de diferentes variables analizadas en el consumo de energia electrica, principalmente el tipo de equipo, la localizacion geografica, el clima (temperatura, humedad y tipo de vegetacion). Con los resultados alcanzados pueden definirse programas de ahorro de energia efectivos y lograr implantarlos.

  16. Role of sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific region in the northeast Asia severe drought in summer 2014: month-to-month perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqing; Fan, Ke; Wang, HuiJun

    2017-09-01

    The severe drought over northeast Asia in summer 2014 and the contribution to it by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific region were investigated from the month-to-month perspective. The severe drought was accompanied by weak lower-level summer monsoon flow and featured an obvious northward movement during summer. The mid-latitude Asian summer (MAS) pattern and East Asia/Pacific teleconnection (EAP) pattern, induced by the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and western North Pacific summer monsoon (WNPSM) rainfall anomalies respectively, were two main bridges between the SST anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific region and the severe drought. Warming in the Arabian Sea induced reduced rainfall over northeast India and then triggered a negative MAS pattern favoring the severe drought in June 2014. In July 2014, warming in the tropical western North Pacific led to a strong WNPSM and increased rainfall over the Philippine Sea, triggering a positive EAP pattern. The equatorial eastern Pacific and local warming resulted in increased rainfall over the off-equatorial western Pacific and triggered an EAP-like pattern. The EAP pattern and EAP-like pattern contributed to the severe drought in July 2014. A negative Indian Ocean dipole induced an anomalous meridional circulation, and warming in the equatorial eastern Pacific induced an anomalous zonal circulation, in August 2014. The two anomalous cells led to a weak ISM and WNPSM, triggering the negative MAS and EAP patterns responsible for the severe drought. Two possible reasons for the northward movement of the drought were also proposed.

  17. Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA). Volume III. Institutional barriers to developing power generation facilities in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F. A.; Sawyer, C. H.; Maxwell, J. H.

    1979-10-01

    The Regional Assessments Division in the US Department of Energy (DOE) has undertaken a program to assess the probable consequences of various national energy policies in regions of the United States and to evaluate the constraints on national energy policy imposed by conditions in these regions. The program is referred to as the Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) Program. Currently the RIIA Program is evaluating the Trendlong Mid-Mid scenario, a pattern of energy development for 1985 and 1990 derived from the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES) model. This scenario assumes a medium annual growth rate in both the national demand for and national supply of energy. It has been disaggregated to specify the generating capacity to be supplied by each energy source in each state. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has the responsibility for evaluating the scenario for the Federal Region 10, consisting of Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. PNL is identifying impacts and constraints associated with realizing the scenario in a variety of categories, including air and water quality impacts, health and safety effects, and socioeconomic impacts. This report summarizes the analysis of one such category: institutional constraints - defined to include legal, organizational, and political barriers to the achievement of the scenario in the Northwest.

  18. Regional difference of the vertical structure of seasonal thermocline and its impact on sea surface temperature in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, R.; Suga, T.

    2016-12-01

    Recent observational studies show that, during the warming season, a large amount of heat flux is penetrated through the base of thin mixed layer by vertical eddy diffusion, in addition to penetration of solar radiation [1]. In order to understand this heat penetration process due to vertical eddy diffusivity and its contribution to seasonal variation of sea surface temperature, we investigated the evolution of thermal stratification below the summertime thin mixed layer (i.e. evolution of seasonal thermocline) and its vertical structure in the North Pacific using high vertical resolution temperature profile observed by Argo floats. We quantified the vertical structure of seasonal thermocline as deviations from the linear structure where the vertical gradient of temperature is constant, that is, "shape anomaly". The shape anomaly is variable representing the extent of the bend of temperature profiles. We found that there are larger values of shape anomaly in the region where the seasonal sea surface temperature warming is relatively faster. To understand the regional difference of shape anomalies, we investigated the relationship between time changes in shape anomalies and net surface heat flux and surface kinetic energy flux. From May to July, the analysis indicated that, in a large part of North Pacific, there's a tendency for shape anomalies to develop strongly (weakly) under the conditions of large (small) downward net surface heat flux and small (large) downward surface kinetic energy flux. Since weak (strong) development of shape anomalies means efficient (inefficient) downward heat transport from the surface, these results suggest that the regional difference of the downward heat penetration below mixed layer is explained reasonably well by differences in surface heat forcing and surface wind forcing in a vertical one dimensional framework. [1] Hosoda et al. (2015), J. Oceanogr., 71, 541-556.

  19. Collapse risk of buildings in the Pacific Northwest region due to subduction earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Meera; Liel, Abbie B.; Luco, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Subduction earthquakes similar to the 2011 Japan and 2010 Chile events will occur in the future in the Cascadia subduction zone in the Pacific Northwest. In this paper, nonlinear dynamic analyses are carried out on 24 buildings designed according to outdated and modern building codes for the cities of Seattle, Washington, and Portland, Oregon. The results indicate that the median collapse capacity of the ductile (post-1970) buildings is approximately 40% less when subjected to ground motions from subduction, as compared to crustal earthquakes. Buildings are more susceptible to earthquake-induced collapse when shaken by subduction records (as compared to crustal records of the same intensity) because the subduction motions tend to be longer in duration due to their larger magnitude and the greater source-to-site distance. As a result, subduction earthquakes are shown to contribute to the majority of the collapse risk of the buildings analyzed.

  20. Blood lead concentrations in wild birds from a polluted mining region at Villa de La Paz, San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa-Vargas, Leonardo; Mejia-Saavedra, Jose J; Monzalvo-Santos, Karina; Puebla-Olivares, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the concentrations of lead in bird blood samples from a mining region in central Mexico and to compare concentrations among several different feeding guilds. The study took place in the Mexican state of San Luis Potosi in a region known as "Villa de la Paz." This is one of the most intensely exploited mining regions in central Mexico and has been actively mined for over four centuries. Lead concentrations from bird blood samples taken from four polluted sites were significantly higher than those from a control, unpolluted site (F = 6.3, P birds from a highly polluted site were higher than those from a site that has intermediate pollution levels (P birds had significantly lower lead concentrations compared to granivores, frugivores-insectivores, and omnivores (F = 4.86, P = 0.004), and a large proportion of all individuals had blood lead concentrations indicative of low, sub-lethal toxic effects. Finally, in two polluted sites, remarkably small numbers of insectivore-frugivores, and granivores were trapped, and in one polluted site a large number of insectivores was trapped (X(2) = 29.9, P = 0.03), and no differences in proportions of migrants and non-migrants were found among sampling sites (X(2) = 0.6, P = 0.96). To date, it has not been determined to what extent constant exposure to these levels of pollution can influence health at the individual level, lifespan, and, therefore, population demography of birds from this region.

  1. Detection of residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Antonio; Hernández, Sergio; Ramírez, Martha; Ortíz, Irmene

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides were intensively used in Mexico from 1950 until their ban and restriction in 1991. However, the presence of these compounds is commonly reported in many regions of the country. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region, San Luis Potosi state, which has been identified as possibly polluted by pesticides. Composed samples from 24 zones covering an area of approximately 5,440 ha were analyzed. The most frequently found pesticides were p,p'-DDT followed by ,p,p'-DDE, heptachlor, endosulfan and γ-HCH whose frequency rates were 100, 91, 83 and 54%, respectively. The concentration of p,p'-DDT in the crops grown in these soils was in the following order: chili > maize > tomato > alfalfa. The results obtained in this study show that p,p'-DDT values are lower or similar to those found in other agricultural regions of Mexico. Methyl and ethyl parathion were the most frequent organophosphate pesticide detected in 100% and 62.5% of the samples with average concentrations of 25.20 and 47.48 μg kg(-1), respectively. More research is needed to establish the background levels of pesticides in agricultural soils and their potential ecological and human health effects in this region.

  2. Prospects and challenges of nuclear science and technology education in secondary schools in the Asia-pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Takaki, Rieko; Kakefu, Tomohisa; Toda, Takehiro; Takahashi, Itaru

    2017-01-01

    The progress and results of the Technical Cooperation Programme on nuclear science and technology education for the secondary schools in the Asia-Pacific region by the IAEA over five years from 2012 were introduced. Assembling laboratory instruments accompanying the observation of trajectories of radiation in the classroom, the history of the discovery of radiation and radioactivity timely described in the process, the mechanism and the concept of radiation measurement etc., which were explained and introduced by Team Japan, were all really effective. It is concluded that further development of these activities will become one of the cores of STEM education in Asian countries and play an important role in the expansion and deepening of NST education. (author)

  3. THE CHINA’S ENERGY SECURITY IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Sergeevich Krasantsov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article was to determine the level of the Chinese energy security that was built up for last several decades. In order to reach the set aim the author figured the current condition of the energy sector within the leading states of the Asia-Pacific Region and compared it with a similar condition ofChina. The condition’s characteristics included the following: Chinese energy balance, oil production, import and consumption, energy efficiency, CO2 emissions, electricity amount produced by using the renewable energy sources (hydropower, wind energy, sun energy and nuclear energy. In addition the authorities’ plans for the expansion of the mentioned renewable and nuclear energy production were as well discovered. The probable threats of the energy security and possible obstacles for the extensive means of sustaining the country’s energy security were also brought up.Statistical, comparative and analytical methods were applied in the process of the current research. As a result the PRC was found to be at a threshold to energetic crisis. In order to avoid the scenario two innovative methods were proposed as the means of avoiding the possible future crisis and sustaining energy security.The research results can be applied in determining the domestic and foreign policy of China as well as the foreign policies of the PRC’s energetic partners both within the Asia-Pacific Region and beyond its borders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-39

  4. Pharmacodynamic profiling of doripenem, imipenem and meropenem against prevalent Gram-negative organisms in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Keel, Rebecca A; Nicolau, David P

    2013-01-01

    Carbapenems are increasingly being utilised owing to the escalating prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative bacteria from community and hospital settings. In this study, pharmacodynamic profiles of doripenem, imipenem and meropenem were evaluated against Gram-negative bacteria isolated from hospitalised patients. MICs for carbapenems were determined for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii obtained from the COMPACT II programme conducted in the Asia-Pacific region. Monte Carlo simulations were undertaken to assess the pharmacodynamic profile of carbapenems against each of the pathogens. All carbapenem regimens achieved optimal exposures [cumulative fraction of response (CFR) ≥90%] against E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Against P. aeruginosa, doripenem achieved 81.3-95.3% CFR, imipenem achieved 55.2-77.9% CFR and meropenem achieved 71.9-91.3% CFR; only doripenem regimens of 4-h infusion of 1000 mg every 8h (q8h) and 1-h and 4-h infusion of 2000 mg q8h and a meropenem regimen of 3-h infusion of 2000 mg q8h obtained optimal exposures; all carbapenem regimens showed slight (1-7%) improvement in CFRs in favour of isolates collected from ICU sources. Against A. baumannii, CFRs were much lower (25.9-46.7% CFR) and no carbapenem regimens achieved optimal exposure in or outside the ICU. Owing to the high potency of carbapenems against these Enterobacteriaceae populations, standard regimens are likely to perform well in the Asia-Pacific region. However, larger doses combined with prolonged infusions will be required to increase the CFR for these carbapenems against resistant non-fermenting Gram-negatives such as P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii that are prevalent in these countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  5. Concentration and Viability of Airborne Bacteria Over the Kuroshio Extension Region in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean: Data From Three Cruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Murata, Kotaro; Fukuyama, Shinichiro; Kawai, Yoshimi; Oka, Eitarou; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Zhang, Daizhou

    2017-12-01

    Airborne bacteria have been shown to act as condensation and ice nuclei in mixed-phase clouds and are consequently hypothesized to have significant effects on atmospheric processes and even the global climate. However, few data are available regarding their concentration and variation in the air over the open ocean. Aerosol samples were collected during three cruises in the early summers of 2013, 2014, and 2016 over the Kuroshio Extension region of the northwest Pacific Ocean. The concentrations of viable and nonviable bacterial cells in the marine surface air were quantified using epifluorescence enumeration with the LIVE/DEAD BacLight stain. The concentrations of total bacteria varied between 1.0 × 104 and 2.5 × 105 cells m-3 and averaged 5.2 × 104, 1.0 × 105, and 7.5 × 104 cells m-3 in the three respective cruises. The viabilities, i.e., the ratios of the concentration of viable bacterial cells to that of total bacterial cells, ranged from 80% to 100% (average 93%), and the respective means were 93%, 89%, and 96% in the cruises. The total bacterial concentration had a close correlation with the wind speed near the sea surface, and the bacterial viability correlated negatively with the air temperature, sea surface temperature, and concentration of coarse particles (size > 1 μm). The deposition and sea spray fluxes of bacteria were roughly estimated as hundreds of cells m-2 s-1 on average. The limited data on bacterial concentration and viability from the three cruises indicate the rapid air-sea exchange of bacteria over the Kuroshio Extension region of the northwest Pacific Ocean.

  6. Mortality trends and risk of dying from breast cancer in the 32 states and 7 socioeconomic regions of Mexico, 2002-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Sánchez-Barriga

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine mortality trends from breast cancer in Mexico nationwide, by state, by socioeconomic region, and to establish an association between education, state of residence, and socioeconomic region with mortality from breast cancer in 2002–2011.Methods. Records of mortality associated with breast cancer were obtained. Rates of mortality nationwide, by state, and by socioeconomic region were calculated. The strength of association between states where women resided, socioeconomic regions, and education with mortality from breast cancer was determined.Results. Women who completed elementary school had a higher risk of dying from breast cancer than people with more education [relative risk (RR 2.58, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.49–2.67]. Mexico City had the strongest association with dying from breast cancer as state and as socioeconomic region 7 [Mexico City: RR 3.47, CI95% 2.7-4.46 (2002 and RR 3.33, CI95% 2.66-4.15 (2011 and region 7: RR 3.72, CI 95%: 3.15-4.38 (2002 and RR 2.87, CI 95%: 2.51-3.28 (2011].Conclusions. In Mexico, the raw mortality rates per 100 000 women who died from breast cancer increased. Mortality was higher in women who had elementary school than in those with more education. The strongest association was in Mexico City as state and as region 7. 

  7. Financial analysis of brucellosis control for small-scale goat farming in the Bajio Region, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.; Bruce, M.; Frankena, K.; Udo, H.M.J.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Rushton, J.

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in small-scale goat husbandry systems in Mexico. It is a zoonosis and the economic consequences can be large, although estimates are not available for the Mexican goat sector. Our objective was to conduct a financial analysis of brucellosis control in a prominent

  8. A review of accessibility of administrative healthcare databases in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milea, Dominique; Azmi, Soraya; Reginald, Praveen; Verpillat, Patrice; Francois, Clement

    2015-01-01

    We describe and compare the availability and accessibility of administrative healthcare databases (AHDB) in several Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, China, Thailand, and Malaysia. The study included hospital records, reimbursement databases, prescription databases, and data linkages. Databases were first identified through PubMed, Google Scholar, and the ISPOR database register. Database custodians were contacted. Six criteria were used to assess the databases and provided the basis for a tool to categorise databases into seven levels ranging from least accessible (Level 1) to most accessible (Level 7). We also categorised overall data accessibility for each country as high, medium, or low based on accessibility of databases as well as the number of academic articles published using the databases. Fifty-four administrative databases were identified. Only a limited number of databases allowed access to raw data and were at Level 7 [Medical Data Vision EBM Provider, Japan Medical Data Centre (JMDC) Claims database and Nihon-Chouzai Pharmacy Claims database in Japan, and Medicare, Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), Centre for Health Record Linkage (CHeReL), HealthLinQ, Victorian Data Linkages (VDL), SA-NT DataLink in Australia]. At Levels 3-6 were several databases from Japan [Hamamatsu Medical University Database, Medi-Trend, Nihon University School of Medicine Clinical Data Warehouse (NUSM)], Australia [Western Australia Data Linkage (WADL)], Taiwan [National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD)], South Korea [Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA)], and Malaysia [United Nations University (UNU)-Casemix]. Countries were categorised as having a high level of data accessibility (Australia, Taiwan, and Japan), medium level of accessibility (South Korea), or a low level of accessibility (Thailand, China, Malaysia, and Singapore). In some countries, data may be available but accessibility was restricted

  9. Forecast simulation of rapidly-intensified typhoon in the Eddy-Rich Northwest Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Ok; Yuk, Jin-Hee; Jung, Kyung Tae; Kuh Kang, Suk

    2017-04-01

    The real-time typhoon predictions in the Northwest Pacific (NWP) are being distributed by various agencies (for example, KMA, JMA, JTWC, NMC, CWB, HKO and PAGASA). Currently the movement of the typhoon can be predicted with an error of less than 100 km in 48 hours, however it is difficult to the predict of the intensity of the typhoon especially the Rapidly Intensified (RI) Typhoons. The mean occurrence of RI typhoon amounts to 5.4 times a year during 39 years (1977-2015), occupying 21% of typhoons in NWP. Especially the RI typhoon in the Eddy-Rich Northwest Pacific (ER-NWP) occurred 1.8 times a year, covering 29% of typhoons in ER-NWP. A RI typhoon, NEPARTAK (T201601), occurred in July 2016. It was formed in Caroline Islands and moved northwest, straightly heading for Taiwan. However, at the beginning stage many forecasting agencies predicts as move to the Yellow Sea. The accuracy of prediction data of the Typhoon NEPARTAK (T201601) from KMA, JMA and JTWC was compared with the adjusted best-track data from Digital-Typhoon (JMA-RSMC). The sequential prediction data are summarized with 6-hour interval from 3th to 10th July 2016.The JMA prediction of the typhoon track and the JTWC predictions of the maximum wind speed were found to be best. The numerical simulations using WRF model forced with NCEP GFS prediction data and microwave SST is compared. The simulations using one domain (D1), two domains (D2) using a moving nest scheme, and with or without the spectral nudging (-SN) are compared. Comparison of the errors on the track shows the differences of 100 km in 48-hour prediction and200 km in 72-hour prediction on average. The best results on the track prediction are shown in the D2 case of WRF model. However, underestimation of the maximum wind speed of WRF prediction still exists, obviously requiring better understanding of RI-related processes to improve the model prediction.

  10. A review of accessibility of administrative healthcare databases in the Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milea, Dominique; Azmi, Soraya; Reginald, Praveen; Verpillat, Patrice; Francois, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Objective We describe and compare the availability and accessibility of administrative healthcare databases (AHDB) in several Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, China, Thailand, and Malaysia. Methods The study included hospital records, reimbursement databases, prescription databases, and data linkages. Databases were first identified through PubMed, Google Scholar, and the ISPOR database register. Database custodians were contacted. Six criteria were used to assess the databases and provided the basis for a tool to categorise databases into seven levels ranging from least accessible (Level 1) to most accessible (Level 7). We also categorised overall data accessibility for each country as high, medium, or low based on accessibility of databases as well as the number of academic articles published using the databases. Results Fifty-four administrative databases were identified. Only a limited number of databases allowed access to raw data and were at Level 7 [Medical Data Vision EBM Provider, Japan Medical Data Centre (JMDC) Claims database and Nihon-Chouzai Pharmacy Claims database in Japan, and Medicare, Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), Centre for Health Record Linkage (CHeReL), HealthLinQ, Victorian Data Linkages (VDL), SA-NT DataLink in Australia]. At Levels 3–6 were several databases from Japan [Hamamatsu Medical University Database, Medi-Trend, Nihon University School of Medicine Clinical Data Warehouse (NUSM)], Australia [Western Australia Data Linkage (WADL)], Taiwan [National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD)], South Korea [Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA)], and Malaysia [United Nations University (UNU)-Casemix]. Countries were categorised as having a high level of data accessibility (Australia, Taiwan, and Japan), medium level of accessibility (South Korea), or a low level of accessibility (Thailand, China, Malaysia, and Singapore). In some countries, data may be available but

  11. Risk Factors Associated with Triatomines and Its Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in Rural Communities from the Southern Region of the State of Mexico, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Torres, Imelda; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan C.; Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger I.; de Oca-Jiménez, Roberto Montes

    2010-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi prevalence in triatomines and risk factors associated to the presence of the insect were studied in 990 rural houses in the southern region of the State of Mexico, Mexico. In each house, triatomines were collected, and information related to house construction material was obtained. T. cruzi infection was diagnosed in all triatomines. A primary screening was performed using 2 × 2 contingency tables of exposure variables. All variables with P ≤ 0.20 were analyzed by logistic regression. Triatomines (N = 125) were collected from 822 houses and analyzed for T. cruzi infection. Triatoma pallidipennis (97.4%) and Triatoma dimidiata (2.6%) were identified in 52.1% of the localities and in 6.1% of the houses. Infection was found in 28.0% of triatomines, from which 28.9% were nymphs. Factors associated with triatomine infestation were flooring construction material (dirt floor: odds ratio [OR], 10.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.31–18.04; P = 0.0001), house rooms (at least three rooms: OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.07–3.86; P = 0.028), and ceiling construction material (cardboard lamina tile: OR, 6.84; 95% CI, 1.49–31.31; P = 0.013). This study shows T. cruzi circulation in triatomines in the area of study, and because triatomines are adapted for living and reproducing in the domestic environment, there is a potential risk of Chagas disease transmission to humans. Also, we can conclude that the construction materials and house inhabitants are risk factors of triatomines infestation. PMID:20064995

  12. Population study of the Hawksbill Turtle eretmochelys imbricata (Cheloniidae) in the southern pacific region of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobon Lopez, Alexander; Amorocho Llanos, Diego Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine biological and ecological population characteristics of the hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) found in the southern Colombian Pacific Department of Cauca. Morphometric measurements were recorded, the health status of individuals was reviewed, and blood samples were taken for a biochemistry assessment. During the seven months of the investigation, 25 hawksbill turtles were caught (16 different individuals) on the reefs of Gorgona Natural National Park. Forty-six percent of the total numbers of turtles assessed were recaptured during the study period. While no obvious health problems were noted, most animals possessed epibionts and filamentous algae covering the carapace, some parts of the limbs, as well as on their neck. Curved carapace length (CCL) showed the highest proportion of individuals were between 37 and 45 cm. Sixteen individuals captured in Gorgona Natural National Park were compared with 11 individuals captured in the coastal zone of the Department of Cauca. Using the Mann-Whitney U test, a significant difference in CCL was found between these two groups; the animals from Gorgona National Park were larger than those present on the coast of the mainland (Z = -2.59, p = 0.007). Uric acid concentrations were found to be higher than previously referenced values.

  13. Leadership, entrepreneurship and collective action: A case study from the Colombian Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván D. Lobo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Building upon case-based evidence this paper explores the role of leaders in Ecomanglar, a community-based enterprise in the Black collective territory of La Plata-Bahía Málaga in the Colombian Pacific Basin, whose purpose is to provide eco and ethno-tourism services. This purpose is inextricably bound up with the region’s biophysical and institutional characteristics, both of which make management of common-pool resources a key strategic task for Ecomanglar. We propose an analytical framework to understand the role of these leaders based on the interaction of two dimensions: institutional transfer channels and operational capacity. We further analyse the role of leaders as essential ‘brokers’ to initialise and sustain collective action, a role that brings about entrepreneurial solutions for sustainable development but also creates, or exacerbates, conflicts within the community. Our findings challenge approaches which view collective action as an emergent decentralised group-oriented outcome. The paper contributes to the literature on leadership, entrepreneurship and collective action by identifying missing links and potential points of convergence. It also sheds light on some of the challenges in promoting entrepreneurship as a means to advance sustainable development in rural communities.

  14. Forensic parameters and admixture in Mestizos from five geographic regions of Mexico based on 20 autosomal STRs (Powerplex 21 system).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Velázquez, J A; Martínez-Cortés, G; Inclán-Sánchez, A; Favela-Mendoza, A F; Velarde-Félix, J S; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2018-03-01

    We analyzed Mestizo (admixed) population samples from different geographic regions of Mexico (n = 1283) with 20 autosomal STRs (PowerPlex® 21, Promega Corp.). Allele frequencies and forensic parameters from the Northwest, Northeast, West, Center, and Southeast regions are reported, as well as from the pooled Mexican population sample. The combined PD and PE for this 20 STR system were > 0.9999999999 and > 0.99999996593% in all five population samples, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of these Mexican population samples, plus Monterrey (Northeast) and Mexico (Center) Cities, showed low but significant differences among Mexican-Mestizos from the seven populations (Fst = 0.20%; p = 0.0000). Structure analysis showed the highest proportion of Native American ancestry in Mexico City, Center, and Southeast regions, respectively, which was in agreement with the estimated genetic distances represented in a MDS plot and a NJ tree. The best fit of population clusters (K = 4) obtained with the Structure software indicates that Mexican-Mestizos are mainly composed by European, African, and two Native American ancestries. The European and Native American ancestries displayed a contrary gradient, increasing toward the North-West and South-Southeast, respectively. These 20 autosomal STR loci improved the admixture estimation regarding previous studies with the 13 CODIS-STRs, as supported by the higher similarity with previous estimates based on genome-wide SNP. In brief, this study validates the confident use of the PowerPlex® 21 system for human identification purposes in Mestizo populations throughout the Mexican territory.

  15. Structural and Tectonic Map Along the Pacific-North America Plate Boundary in Northern Gulf of California, Sonora Desert and Valle de Mexicali, Mexico, from Seismic Reflection Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Escobar, M.; Suarez-Vidal, F.; Mendoza-Borunda, R.; Martin Barajas, A.; Pacheco-Romero, M.; Arregui-Estrada, S.; Gallardo-Mata, C.; Sanchez-Garcia, C.; Chanes-Martinez, J.

    2012-12-01

    Between 1978 and 1983, Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) carried on an intense exploration program in the northern Gulf of California, the Sonora Desert and the southern part of the Mexicali Valley. This program was supported by a seismic reflection field operation. The collected seismic data was 2D, with travel time of 6 s recording, in 48 channels, and the source energy was: dynamite, vibroseis and air guns. Since 2007 to present time, the existing seismic data has been re-processing and ire-interpreting as part of a collaboration project between the PEMEX's Subdirección de Exploración (PEMEX) and CICESE. The study area is located along a large portion of the Pacific-North America plate boundary in the northern Gulf of California and the Southern part of the Salton Trough tectonic province (Mexicali Valley). We present the result of the processes reflection seismic lines. Many of the previous reported known faults were identify along with the first time described located within the study region. We identified regions with different degree of tectonic activity. In structural map it can see the location of many of these known active faults and their associated seismic activity, as well as other structures with no associated seismicity. Where some faults are mist placed they were deleted or relocated based on new information. We included historical seismicity for the region. We present six reflection lines that cross the aftershocks zone of the El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake of April 4, 2010 (Mw7.2). The epicenter of this earthquake and most of the aftershocks are located in a region where pervious to this earthquake no major earthquakes are been reported. A major result of this study is to demonstrate that there are many buried faults that increase the seismic hazard.

  16. Future of Pacific salmon in the face of environmental change: Lessons from one of the world's remaining productive salmon regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Erik R.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Trammell, Jamie; Rinella, Daniel J.; Floyd, Angelica L.; Grunblatt, Jess; McCarthy, Molly D.; Meyer, Benjamin E.; Morton, John M.; Powell, James E.; Prakash, Anupma; Reimer, Matthew N.; Stuefer, Svetlana L.; Toniolo, Horacio; Wells, Brett M.; Witmer, Frank D. W.

    2017-01-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. face serious challenges from climate and landscape change, particularly in the southern portion of their native range. Conversely, climate warming appears to be allowing salmon to expand northwards into the Arctic. Between these geographic extremes, in the Gulf of Alaska region, salmon are at historically high abundances but face an uncertain future due to rapid environmental change. We examined changes in climate, hydrology, land cover, salmon populations, and fisheries over the past 30–70 years in this region. We focused on the Kenai River, which supports world-famous fisheries but where Chinook Salmon O. tshawytscha populations have declined, raising concerns about their future resilience. The region is warming and experiencing drier summers and wetter autumns. The landscape is also changing, with melting glaciers, wetland loss, wildfires, and human development. This environmental transformation will likely harm some salmon populations while benefiting others. Lowland salmon streams are especially vulnerable, but retreating glaciers may allow production gains in other streams. Some fishing communities harvest a diverse portfolio of fluctuating resources, whereas others have specialized over time, potentially limiting their resilience. Maintaining diverse habitats and salmon runs may allow ecosystems and fisheries to continue to thrive amidst these changes.

  17. Residues of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of Alpine and Saanen goats from the central region of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Beatriz; Gutiérrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Urban, Georgina; Ramírez, Acacia

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated a suite of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of two breeds of goats raised in the central region of Mexico, where this agricultural production is of national (Mexican) economic importance. Forty milk samples from Alpine and Saanen goats were assessed. It was found that the concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides in milk samples were lower than those stipulated in Mexican and international regulation. The values in both breeds of goat exceeded the upper permissible limits of Codex Alimentarius for delta hexachloro cyclohexane (HCH) (17.3 of samples of Saanen) and heptachlor plus heptachlor epoxide (50 % and 13 % of samples). It may be concluded that milk from these goat breeds from central Mexico showed some risks of contamination in certain times of the year (dry season). However, under further assessment and use of pesticides the goat's milk will likely be safe for human consumption and for use in products such as cheeses, regional candies and desserts (cajeta). In recent years, goat milk production has increased in the central regions and it is an economic alternative to milk from livestock. It is necessary to continue the monitoring of goat's milk to assess the presence and control of HCHs through best management practices.

  18. Pricing appraisal of anti-cancer drugs in the South East Asian, Western Pacific and East Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Shahrzad; Lee, Kah Seng; Ming, Long Chiau; Neoh, Chin Fen; Elrggal, Mahmoud E; Babar, Zaheer-Ud- Din; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Hadi, Muhammad Abdul

    2017-12-28

    Globally, cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality. High treatment cost, partly owing to higher prices of anti-cancer drugs, presents a significant burden on patients and healthcare systems. The aim of the present study was to survey and compare retail prices of anti-cancer drugs between high, middle and low income countries in the South-East Asia, Western Pacific and Eastern Mediterranean regions. Cross-sectional survey design was used for the present study. Pricing data from ten counties including one from South-East Asia, two from Western Pacific and seven from Eastern Mediterranean regions were used in this study. Purchasing power parity (PPP)-adjusted mean unit prices for 26 anti-cancer drug presentations (similar pharmaceutical form, strength, and pack size) were used to compare prices of anti-cancer drugs across three regions. A structured form was used to extract relevant data. Data were entered and analysed using Microsoft Excel®. Overall, Taiwan had the lowest mean unit prices while Oman had the highest prices. Six (23.1%) and nine (34.6%) drug presentations had a mean unit price below US$100 and between US$100 and US$500 respectively. Eight drug presentations (30.7%) had a mean unit price of more than US$1000 including cabazitaxel with a mean unit price of $17,304.9/vial. There was a direct relationship between income category of the countries and their mean unit price; low-income countries had lower mean unit prices. The average PPP-adjusted unit prices for countries based on their income level were as follows: low middle-income countries (LMICs): US$814.07; high middle income countries (HMICs): US$1150.63; and high income countries (HICs): US$1148.19. There is a great variation in pricing of anticancer drugs in selected countires and within their respective regions. These findings will allow policy makers to compare prices of anti-cancer agents with neighbouring countries and develop policies to ensure accessibility and affordability of

  19. In vitro activity of doripenem and other carbapenems against contemporary Gram-negative pathogens isolated from hospitalised patients in the Asia-Pacific region: results of the COMPACT Asia-Pacific Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, K J; Ip, M; Ker, H B; Mendoza, M; Hsu, L; Kiratisin, P; Chongthaleong, A; Redjeki, I S; Quintana, A; Flamm, R; Garcia, J; Cassettari, M; Cooper, D; Okolo, P; Morrissey, I

    2010-12-01

    The Comparative Activity of Carbapenems Testing (COMPACT) Study was designed to determine the in vitro potency of doripenem compared with imipenem and meropenem against a large number of contemporary Gram-negative pathogens from more than 100 centres across Europe and the Asia-Pacific region and to assess the reliability of Etest methodology for doripenem minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination against these pathogens. Data from eight countries within the Asia-Pacific region, which collected 1612 bacterial isolates, are presented here. Etest methodology was found to be a reliable method for MIC determination. Doripenem showed in vitro activity similar to or better than meropenem and at least four-fold better than imipenem against Enterobacteriaceae. Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, doripenem was also the most active of the three carbapenems in vitro. However, in vitro results do not necessarily correlate with clinical outcome. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  20. Implications for U.S. trade and nonindigenous species risk resulting from increased economic integration of the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda M. Countryman; Travis Warziniack; Erin Grey

    2018-01-01

    This work investigates how potential changes in trade patterns resulting from increased economic integration in the Asia-Pacific region may affect the risk for nonindigenous species spread to the United States. We construct an invasion risk index utilizing the results from a global economic modeling framework in tandem with data for climate similarities between trade...

  1. Complete mtDNA genomes of Filipino ethnolinguistic groups: a melting pot of recent and ancient lineages in the Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfin, Frederick; Min-Shan Ko, Albert; Li, Mingkun; Gunnarsdóttir, Ellen D; Tabbada, Kristina A; Salvador, Jazelyn M; Calacal, Gayvelline C; Sagum, Minerva S; Datar, Francisco A; Padilla, Sabino G; De Ungria, Maria Corazon A; Stoneking, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The Philippines is a strategic point in the Asia-Pacific region for the study of human diversity, history and origins, as it is a cross-road for human migrations and consequently exhibits enormous ethnolinguistic diversity. Following on a previous in-depth study of Y-chromosome variation, here we provide new insights into the maternal genetic history of Filipino ethnolinguistic groups by surveying complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes from a total of 14 groups (11 groups in this study and 3 groups previously published) including previously published mtDNA hypervariable segment (HVS) data from Filipino regional center groups. Comparison of HVS data indicate genetic differences between ethnolinguistic and regional center groups. The complete mtDNA genomes of 14 ethnolinguistic groups reveal genetic aspects consistent with the Y-chromosome, namely: diversity and heterogeneity of groups, no support for a simple dichotomy between Negrito and non-Negrito groups, and different genetic affinities with Asia-Pacific groups that are both ancient and recent. Although some mtDNA haplogroups can be associated with the Austronesian expansion, there are others that associate with South Asia, Near Oceania and Australia that are consistent with a southern migration route for ethnolinguistic group ancestors into the Asia-Pacific, with a timeline that overlaps with the initial colonization of the Asia-Pacific region, the initial colonization of the Philippines and a possible separate post-colonization migration into the Philippine archipelago. PMID:23756438

  2. A stochastic approach to the reconstruction of prehistoric human diet in the Pacific region from bone isotope signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, B.F.; Quinn, C.J.; Lyon, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical constraint on dietary reconstructions using isotope analyses of human bones is that for a given number of isotopes, N, one cannot calculate the proportions of more than N+1 food types. This strict algebraic limitation can be relaxed by adopting a stochastic approach, recommended by Mingawa (1992). This strategy is investigated for prehistoric diet in the South Pacific region, focusing on seven of the main food types available to these people: C3 plants, C4 plants, land herbivores, marine shellfish, coral reef fish, non-reef fish, and marine mammals. Sixty-three underlying assumptions were identified and examined in detail. These consist of the mean values for each food type of protein, energy δ 1 3C, δ 1 5N, 3 4S; the offset values for each isotope from the food to human bone collagen; fractionation effects from flesh to collagen in animals; and acceptable daily intake ranges for protein and energy in human diet. Because of the complexity of the environmental regimes in the Pacific it was also found necessary to tabulate these assumptions into tow groups: one set of assumptions relevant to prehistoric people whose environment is dominated by maritime conditions, such as atolls, and a second set where the land is the dominant influence. . A computer simulation algorithm is developed which is based on Mingawa's method. This was tested using a 'Reverse Experiment' procedure. By taking a diet of known percentage weight composition the isotope composition of human bone was forward calculated from this diet. The algorithm was then employed on this isotope signature to see if the original food composition could be calculated in reverse. The differences between real and calculated food weight percentages for the seven foods were 4.8, 0.1, 4.5, 1.8, 1.5, 1.8 and 1.4% respectively. These were all within aceptable statistical limits. Using the full set of assumptions it was then tested on isotope results for δ 1 3C, δ 1 5N and 3 4S for a prehistoric Pacific

  3. Long term persistence of clonal malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum lineages in the Colombian Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverry, Diego F; Nair, Shalini; Osorio, Lyda; Menon, Sanjay; Murillo, Claribel; Anderson, Tim J C

    2013-01-07

    Resistance to chloroquine and antifolate drugs has evolved independently in South America, suggesting that genotype - phenotype studies aimed at understanding the genetic basis of resistance to these and other drugs should be conducted in this continent. This research was conducted to better understand the population structure of Colombian Plasmodium falciparum in preparation for such studies. A set of 384 SNPs were genotyped in blood spot DNA samples from 447 P. falciparum infected subjects collected over a ten year period from four provinces of the Colombian Pacific coast to evaluate clonality, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD). Most infections (81%) contained a single predominant clone. These clustered into 136 multilocus genotypes (MLGs), with 32% of MLGs recovered from multiple (2 - 28) independent subjects. We observed extremely low genotypic richness (R = 0.42) and long persistence of MLGs through time (median = 537 days, range = 1 - 2,997 days). There was a high probability (>5%) of sampling parasites from the same MLG in different subjects within 28 days, suggesting caution is needed when using genotyping methods to assess treatment success in clinical drug trials. Panmixia was rejected as four well differentiated subpopulations (FST = 0.084 - 0.279) were identified. These occurred sympatrically but varied in frequency within the four provinces. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed more rapidly (r2 = 0.17 for markers Colombian populations have several advantages for association studies, because multiple clone infections are uncommon and LD decays over the scale of one or a few genes. However, the extensive population structure and low genotype richness will need to be accounted for when designing and analyzing association studies.

  4. Long term persistence of clonal malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum lineages in the Colombian Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echeverry Diego F

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resistance to chloroquine and antifolate drugs has evolved independently in South America, suggesting that genotype - phenotype studies aimed at understanding the genetic basis of resistance to these and other drugs should be conducted in this continent. This research was conducted to better understand the population structure of Colombian Plasmodium falciparum in preparation for such studies. Results A set of 384 SNPs were genotyped in blood spot DNA samples from 447 P. falciparum infected subjects collected over a ten year period from four provinces of the Colombian Pacific coast to evaluate clonality, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD. Most infections (81% contained a single predominant clone. These clustered into 136 multilocus genotypes (MLGs, with 32% of MLGs recovered from multiple (2 – 28 independent subjects. We observed extremely low genotypic richness (R = 0.42 and long persistence of MLGs through time (median = 537 days, range = 1 – 2,997 days. There was a high probability (>5% of sampling parasites from the same MLG in different subjects within 28 days, suggesting caution is needed when using genotyping methods to assess treatment success in clinical drug trials. Panmixia was rejected as four well differentiated subpopulations (FST = 0.084 - 0.279 were identified. These occurred sympatrically but varied in frequency within the four provinces. Linkage disequilibrium (LD decayed more rapidly (r2 = 0.17 for markers Conclusions We conclude that Colombian populations have several advantages for association studies, because multiple clone infections are uncommon and LD decays over the scale of one or a few genes. However, the extensive population structure and low genotype richness will need to be accounted for when designing and analyzing association studies.

  5. Nuclear power in the Asia-Pacific region. Current status and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Jia; Otsuki, Takashi; Irie, Kazutomo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the current status and future perspective of nuclear power in the APEC region. We design three scenarios, including Low-nuclear Scenario, Business-as-Usual Scenario (BAU) as well as High-nuclear Scenario, in order to quantitatively evaluate contribution of nuclear power to the low-carbon energy system. Preliminary results from the modeling are presented in the paper, and the drivers and challenges for nuclear power development in the APEC region are discussed. (author)

  6. The genus Pirenella Gray, 1847 (= Cerithideopsilla Thiele, 1929) (Gastropoda: Potamididae) in the Indo-West Pacific region and Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David G; Ozawa, Tomowo

    2016-02-05

    Members of the genus Pirenella are abundant inhabitants of intertidal sedimentary shores, often found in association with mangroves, on the continental margins of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans, and eastern Mediterranean Sea. Until recently, four morphological species were recognised in the tropical Indo-West Pacific region and classified in the genus Cerithideopsilla, while another species occupying the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean was classified as Pirenella conica. Molecular phylogenetic analysis has demonstrated that all these species are congeneric and here it is shown that the valid name for the genus is Pirenella. A recently published molecular study recognised a total of 16 species and the present work is a systematic account of these species. Of the 16, nine are described as new. Other significant nomenclatural acts are: fixation of type species of Pirenella as Pirenella mammillata J.E. Gray, 1847; designation of neotypes for Cerithium alatum Philippi, 1849, Cerithium microptera Kiener, 1841, Cerithium conicum Blainville, 1829, Pirenella mammillata J.E. Gray, 1847 and Murex cingulatus Gmelin, 1791; designation of lectotype for Cerithium retiferum G.B. Sowerby II, 1855. The species accounts include full synonymies, detailed descriptions of shells (based on 831 museum samples), distribution records and maps, reviews of life history, of habitat and of ecology, and some images of radulae. Details of shell sculpture are adequate for the diagnosis of most species. Distorted shells are common in some populations and are suggested to represent parasitised individuals. Some species are pests of fishponds in Southeast Asia and P. conica is the intermediate host of a trematode responsible for the human disease heterophyiasis, while others are threatened by habitat destruction.

  7. 20 Years of Developing Capacity for Action-Oriented Collaborative Regional Research in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupas, L. M.; Stevenson, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    During its 3rd strategic phase, which ran from 2010 to 2015, the APN provided support for 123 projects through its competitive collaborative regional research and capacity development programmes. With over 250 peer-reviewed papers and the underlying philosophy that the regional research it undertakes engages at least two developing countries, the 3rd strategic phase is not only improving the research capabilities of nations in the region, but is engaging the developing country community in underpinning policy-relevant research. The extent to which science is contributing to policy is further evident in that 69% of the activities conducted had some form of science-policy mechanism built in to the project activities. The period of the 3rd Strategic Phase has been witness to significant changes in the make-up of the "conventional" global change arena, with the transition of some global change programmes into the new "Future Earth" initiative. At the same time, major events such as the Rio+20 Summit, the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, the establishment of an IPCC-related platform for biodiversity, i.e. IPBES, and the evolving engagement of science and policy communities has kept the APN busy at what it does best - networking and partnering with the international community. The APN has embraced these changes through its dynamism, allowing the APN to meet not only the needs of the scientists and decision makers its serves in the region but those of the international science communities as well. The challenge for the APN in its next two decades will be to ensure alignment with the transforming global change arena. With key phrases such as "policy-relevant science" and "science-policy interactions" being adopted broadly by the community at large these days, the APN's niche in the global community has received considerable recognition, particularly as other institutions strive to adopt similar practices that the APN has built over the last 20 years.

  8. An Analysis of Stakeholder Engagement in Tourism Development in Mexico's Chiapas Region

    OpenAIRE

    Amaya Loustaunau, Rodolfo

    2007-01-01

    Tourism activity in Mexico has been one of the most important components of revenue generation as a proportion of GDP. Moreover, tourism has shown to increase economic growth, but the unmeasured exploitation of resources and inefficient planning of tourism development could lead to dyer consequences affecting local communities. The Mexican public and private sectors have to consider these limitations if they want to continue generating revenues from the tourism industry. Therefore, sustainabl...

  9. Modeling of Trans-boundary Transport of Air Pollutants in the California-Mexico Border Region during Cal-Mex 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, N.; Zavala, M. A.; Lei, W.; Li, G.; Molina, L. T.

    2010-12-01

    The US and Mexico share a common air basin along the ~200 km border between California and Baja California. The economical activities in this region are heavily influenced by the international trade and commerce between Mexico and the US that mainly occurs through the borders of the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali. The diversity and differences in the characteristics of emissions sources of air pollutants in the California-Mexico border region make this an important area for the study of the chemistry and trans-boundary transport of air pollutants. During May-June of 2010, the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign included a series of measurements aimed at characterizing the emissions from major sources in the California-Mexico border region and assessing the possible impacts of these emissions on local and regional air quality. In this work we will present the results of the use of the Comprehensive Air quality model with extensions (CAMx) in a modeling domain that includes the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali for studying events of trans-boundary transport of air pollutants during Cal-Mex 2010. The measurements obtained during the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign are used in the evaluation of the model performance and in the design of air quality improvement policies in the California-Mexico border region.

  10. The Role of Public Health Nutrition in Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Colin; Lee, Mi Kyung; Low, Wah Yun; Zerfas, Alfred

    2017-10-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) replaced the Millennium Development Goals (MDCs) in 2015, which included several goals and targets primarily related to nutrition: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger and to reduce child mortality and improve maternal health. In the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (APACPH) member countries as a group, infant and child mortality were reduced by more than 65% between 1990 and 2015, achieving the MDG target of two-thirds reduction, although these goals were not achieved by several smaller countries. The SDGs are broader in focus than the MDGs, but include several goals that relate directly to nutrition: 2 (zero hunger-food), 3 (good health and well-being-healthy life), and 12 (responsible consumption and production-sustainability). Other SDGs that are closely related to nutrition are 4 and 5 (quality education and equality in gender-education and health for girls and mothers, which is very important for infant health) and 13 (climate action). Goal 3 is "good health and well-being," which includes targets for child mortality, maternal mortality, and reducing chronic disease. The Global Burden of Disease Project has confirmed that the majority of risk for these targets can be attributed to nutrition-related targets. Dietary Guidelines were developed to address public health nutrition risk in the Asia Pacific region at the 48th APACPH 2016 conference and they are relevant to the achievement of the SDGs. Iron deficiency increases the risk of maternal death from haemorrhage, a cause of 300000 deaths world-wide each year. Improving diets and iron supplementation are important public health interventions in the APACPH region. Chronic disease and obesity rates in the APACPH region are now a major challenge and healthy life course nutrition is a major public health priority in answering this challenge. This article discusses the role of public health nutrition in achieving the SDGs. It also examines the role of

  11. Spatial distribution of fall out 137Cs in the marine environment of Kudankulam and its comparison with Indian and Asia Pacific Regional sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, B.; Thomas, G.; Selvi, B.S.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking the fallout 137 Cs in the coastal marine environment assumes significance in view of expansion of nuclear power plants in India and the Asia-Pacific region. This paper presents a snapshot of 137 Cs activity in marine coastal water samples collected around Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant site across a 50 km stretch from Kanyakumari to Uvari and attempts to compare with the 137 Cs concentration observed across Indian coastal region and Asia Pacific regional sea water. 137 Cs activity of the Kudankulam coast ranges from ≤ 0.40 - 1.92 mBq/L with a GM value of 1.0 mBq/L. In general, 137 Cs activity in sea water of the entire Indian coastal region varies from 0.30 - 1.25 mBq/L, which may be considered as global fallout. (author)

  12. Geology of the region of Guadalajara, Mexico, and its relationships with processes of subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Delgado-Argote, L. A.; Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.; Sanchez, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    The city of Guadalajara, Mexico, began an accelerated urban growth in early 1950. During a span of 25 years a large number of gullies were artificially filled, with the aim of incorporating new areas for urbanization, particularly in the areas north and west of the city. These gullies originally formed a complex dendritic-type system, whose evolution may be associated with faults or fracture zones whose current identification are only possible based on escarpments along the Canyon of the Rio Grande de Santiago (CRGS), north of Guadalajara. Reports of affectations documented in the 80's described subsidence in buildings and infrastructure, a process that has been continued during 2008. We present the results of work done in the CRGS, which is a tectonic erosive-depression with an average depth of 500 m and exhibits a sequence of volcanic and sedimentary deposits with rapid lateral facies changes. The stratigraphic column spans a 15 km-long section along the Matatlán-Arcediano road, and, from top to bottom contains: 1) Unconsolidated pumice and tuffs with an average thickness of 12 m; 2) basaltic lavas with average thickness of 60 m; 3) the San Gaspar ignimbrite; 4) fluvial- sedimentary deposits with a thickness of approximately 20 meters that include both sub-rounded and angular volcanic clasts, with sizes up to 0.15 m; 5) a thick sequence of ignimbrites and dacitic lavas. At a depth of 1200 m.a.s.l. in the town of Arcediano, the basal sequence is composed of dacites and andesites with interbedded pumice-rich ignimbrites with 10-20 m thickness. The Rio Grande de Santiago talweg to 1018 m.a.s.l. (apparently the base of the sequence) is formed by andesite lava. In the area of San Gaspar we identified oblique-normal left-lateral faults in lavas, with a strike 191° and a dip 89°. In the Colimilla dam, 1297 m.a.s.l., we observed normal faulting (strike 267° and dip 81°), with 20-30 m jumps with reference to a unit of tephra of 3-10 m thickness. The lavas in this

  13. Community resilience and Chagas disease in a rural region of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, José Antonio Santana; Monreal, Luz Arenas; Ramsey, Janine M

    2016-08-04

    To explore the pillars of community resilience in a region where Chagas disease is endemic, with the aim of promoting participatory processes to deal with this condition from the resilience of the population. Qualitative study using ethnographic record and six interviews of focus groups with young people, women and men. The research was carried out in a rural area of the state of Morelos, Mexico, between 2006 and 2007. We carried out educational sessions with the population in general, so that residents could identify the relationship between the vector Triatoma pallidipennis, the parasite (Trypanosoma cruzi), symptoms, and preventive actions for Chagas disease. The ethnographic record and groups were analyzed based on Taylor and Bogdan's modification, and the focus was to understand the socio-cultural meanings that guide the speeches and activities of residents in relation to the pillars of community resilience. The population felt proud of belonging to that location and three pillars of community resilience were clearly identified: collective self-esteem, cultural identity, and social honesty. Having these pillars as bases, we promoted the participation of the population concerning Chagas disease, and a Community Action Group was formed with young people, adult men and women, and social leaders. This Group initiated actions of epidemiological and entomological surveillance in the community to deal with this problem. It is necessary to create more experiences that deepen the understanding of the pillars of community resilience, and how they contribute to enhance participation in health to deal with Chagas disease. Explorar los pilares de la resiliencia comunitaria en una región en la que la enfermedad de Chagas es endémica, con la finalidad de partir de la resiliencia de la población para impulsar procesos participativos para enfrentar este padecimiento. Estudio cualitativo que utilizó registro etnográfico y seis entrevistas de grupos focales con j

  14. Assessing the health care system of services for non-communicable diseases in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands: a Pacific regional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitaoto, Nia; Ichiho, Henry M

    2013-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been recognized as a major health threat in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) and health officials declared it an emergency.1 In an effort to address this emergent pandemic, the Pacific Chronic Disease Council (PCDC) conducted an assessment in all six USAPI jurisdictions which include American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Guam, the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and the Republic of Palau to assess the capacity of the administrative, clinical, support, and data systems to address the problems of NCD. Findings reveal significant gaps in addressing NCDs across all jurisdictions and the negative impact of lifestyle behaviors, overweight, and obesity on the morbidity and mortality of the population. In addition, stakeholders from each site identified and prioritized administrative and clinical systems of service needs.

  15. Species of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) collected from natural reserves in the Pacific and Darien regions of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivero, Rafael J; Contreras, María Angélica; Suaza, Juan D; Vélez, Iván D; Porter, Charles; Uribe, Sandra

    2017-03-29

    The departments of Chocó and Antioquia in Colombia show climatic and vegetation conditions favoring the establishment of vector species of the genus Lutzomyia and the transmission of Leishmania spp. to human populations entering conserved forest environments. To report the species of Phlebotomine sandflies present in three natural reserves in the Darien and Pacific regions of Colombia. Sand flies were collected specifically in the natural reserves El Aguacate (Acandí, Chocó), Nabugá (Bahía Solano, Chocó) and Tulenapa (Carepa, Antioquia). Sand flies were collected with CDC light traps, active search in resting places and Shannon traps. The taxonomic determination of species was based on taxonomic keys. For some species of taxonomic interest, we evaluated the partial sequences of the 5' region of COI gene. A total of 611 adult sand flies were collected: 531 in Acandí, 45 in Carepa and 35 in Bahía Solano. Seventeen species of the genus Lutzomyia, three of the genus Brumptomyia and one of the genus Warileya were identified. The genetic distances (K2P) and grouping supported (>99%) in the neighbor joining dendrogram were consistent for most established molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU) of the Aragaoi group and clearly confirmed the identity of Lu. coutinhoi. Species that have importance in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Acandí, Bahía Solano and Carepa were identified. The presence of Lu. coutinhoi was confirmed and consolidated in Colombia.

  16. Interannual Variability of Regional Hadley Circulation Intensity Over Western Pacific During Boreal Winter and Its Climatic Impact Over Asia-Australia Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruping; Chen, Shangfeng; Chen, Wen; Hu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates interannual variability of boreal winter regional Hadley circulation over western Pacific (WPHC) and its climatic impacts. A WPHC intensity index (WPHCI) is defined as the vertical shear of the divergent meridional winds. It shows that WPHCI correlates well with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). To investigate roles of the ENSO-unrelated part of WPHCI (WPHCIres), variables that are linearly related to the Niño-3 index have been removed. It reveals that meridional sea surface temperature gradient over the western Pacific plays an essential role in modulating the WPHCIres. The climatic impacts of WPHCIres are further investigated. Below-normal (above-normal) precipitation appears over south China (North Australia) when WPHCIres is stronger. This is due to the marked convergence (divergence) anomalies at the upper troposphere, divergence (convergence) at the lower troposphere, and the accompanied downward (upward) motion over south China (North Australia), which suppresses (enhances) precipitation there. In addition, a pronounced increase in surface air temperature (SAT) appears over south and central China when WPHCIres is stronger. A temperature diagnostic analysis suggests that the increase in SAT tendency over central China is primarily due to the warm zonal temperature advection and subsidence-induced adiabatic heating. In addition, the increase in SAT tendency over south China is primarily contributed by the warm meridional temperature advection. Further analysis shows that the correlation of WPHCIres with the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is weak. Thus, this study may provide additional sources besides EAWM and ENSO to improve understanding of the Asia-Australia climate variability.

  17. Perturbations to the Lower Ionosphere by Tropical Cyclone Evan in the South Pacific Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Sushil; Amor, Samir Nait; Chanrion, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    of the reflecting boundary of the lower ionosphere which is located in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, and their analysis is, therefore, a way to study processes in these remote regions. Here we present a study on amplitude perturbations of local origin on the VLF transmitter signals (NPM, NLK, NAA and JJI...

  18. Prospects for natural world heritage sites in the Northwest Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Thorsell

    2007-01-01

    Alaska, northern British Columbia (BC), and the western portion of the Yukon Territory have extensive areas of wildlands that are matched by protected area systems covering some 20 percent of the land area of the region. One of the most outstanding of these is the Kluane/Wrangell-St. Elias/Glacier Bay/Tatshenshini-Alsek Park complex that is shared by all three...

  19. Short-term outcomes of small incision cataract surgery provided by a regional population in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhikoo, Riyaz; Vellara, Hans; Lolokabaira, Salome; Murray, Neil; Sikivou, Biu; McGhee, Charles

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to describe patient demographics, visual and surgical outcomes of a cohort undergoing small incision cataract surgery at a Pacific regional ophthalmic training facility. This is a prospective, longitudinal study conducted at the Pacific Eye Institute, Fiji. One hundred fifty-six patients underwent small incision cataract surgery. Preoperatively, a complete ophthalmic examination, including pachymetry and macular optical coherence tomography performed by two independent investigators. Temporal small incision cataract surgery with intraocular lens insertion was performed by ophthalmologists, and trainee ophthalmologists. Follow-up occurred at day one, four weeks and 3 months. Patient characteristics, visual outcomes including surgically induced astigmatism and complications. Ninety-one per cent (142/156) attended 3-month follow-up with median age 63 years (range 19-82), 52% female (81/156) and 58% (90/156) Fijian ethnicity. In 37% (57/156), the contralateral eye was pseudophakic. Mean preoperative best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was logMAR 1.44 (6/165). At 3 months, 74% (105/142) achieved ≥6/18 unaided vision (94% [133/142] best spectacle-corrected visual acuity). Mean postoperative spherical equivalent was -0.78 (SD 0.95) D and mean surgically induced astigmatism 1.04 (0.57) D. Complications included posterior capsular rupture with vitreous loss (4% [6/156]), optical coherence tomography confirmed macular oedema (8% [12/152] at 4 weeks), significant posterior capsular opacity (23% [31/136]) and >5% increase in preoperative pachymetry (1% [1/142]) at 3 months. Reduction in preoperative best spectacle-corrected visual acuity occurred in 2% (3/142). No cases of endophthalmitis. Small incision cataract surgery provided to a regional population is effective with 94% achieving the World Health Organisation's definition of 'Good Vision' (≥6/18). Refinements in biometric and surgical techniques may allow a greater proportion of patients to

  20. Population structure analyses and demographic history of the malaria vector Anopheles albimanus from the Caribbean and the Pacific regions of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conn Jan E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles albimanus is an important malaria vector in some areas throughout its distribution in the Caribbean and the Pacific regions of Colombia, covering three biogeographic zones of the neotropical region, Maracaibo, Magdalena and Chocó. Methods This study was conducted to estimate intra-population genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and demographic history of An. albimanus populations because knowledge of vector population structure is a useful tool to guide malaria control programmes. Analyses were based on mtDNA COI gene sequences and four microsatellite loci of individuals collected in eight populations from the Caribbean and the Pacific regions of Colombia. Results Two distinctive groups were consistently detected corresponding to COI haplotypes from each region. A star-shaped statistical parsimony network, significant and unimodal mismatch distribution, and significant negative neutrality tests together suggest a past demographic expansion or a selective sweep in An. albimanus from the Caribbean coast approximately 21,994 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Overall moderate to low genetic differentiation was observed between populations within each region. However, a significant level of differentiation among the populations closer to Buenaventura in the Pacific region was observed. The isolation by distance model best explained genetic differentiation among the Caribbean region localities: Los Achiotes, Santa Rosa de Lima and Moñitos, but it could not explain the genetic differentiation observed between Turbo (Magdalena providence, and the Pacific region localities (Nuquí, Buenaventura, Tumaco. The patterns of differentiation in the populations from the different biogeographic provinces could not be entirely attributed to isolation by distance. Conclusion The data provide evidence for limited past gene flow between the Caribbean and the Pacific regions, as estimated by mtDNA sequences and current gene

  1. Regional-scale airborne electromagnetic surveying of the Yucatan karst aquifer (Mexico): geological and hydrogeological interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondwe, Bibi Ruth Neuman; Ottowitz, David; Supper, Robert

    2012-01-01

    -spectral remote sensing imagery, shuttle radar topography data and frequency-domain airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey data were used to map karst-aquifer structure on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Anomalous AEM responses correlated with topographic features and anomalous spectral reflectance of the terrain...... as ejecta from the Chicxulub impact (Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary), based on similar resistivity signatures found in borehole logs. Due to limited sensitivity of the AEM survey, the subsurface configuration beneath the low-resistivity layer could not be unambiguously determined. AEM measurements combined...

  2. Analysis of the Gran Desierto, Pinacte Region, Sonora, Mexico, via shuttle imaging radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Christensen, P. R.; Mchone, J. F.; Asmerom, Y.; Zimbelman, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The radar discriminability of geolian features and their geological setting as imaged by the SIR-A experiment is examined. The Gran Desierto and Pincate volcanio field of Sonora, Mexico was used to analyze the radar characteristics of the interplay of aeolian features and volcano terrain. The area in the Gran Desierto covers 4000 sq. km. and contains sand dunes of several forms. The Pincate volcanio field covers more than 2.000 sq. km. and consists primarily of basaltic lavas. Margins of the field, especially on the western and northern sides, include several maar and maar-like craters; thus obtaining information on their radar characteristics for comparison with impact craters.

  3. Potential for Zika virus introduction and transmission in resource-limited countries in Africa and the Asia-Pacific region: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Brady, Oliver J; Kraemer, Moritz U G; German, Matthew; Creatore, Maria I; Brent, Shannon; Watts, Alexander G; Hay, Simon I; Kulkarni, Manisha A; Brownstein, John S; Khan, Kamran

    2016-11-01

    As the epidemic of Zika virus expands in the Americas, countries across Africa and the Asia-Pacific region are becoming increasingly susceptible to the importation and possible local spread of the virus. To support public health readiness, we aim to identify regions and times where the potential health, economic, and social effects from Zika virus are greatest, focusing on resource-limited countries in Africa and the Asia-Pacific region. Our model combined transportation network analysis, ecological modelling of mosquito occurrences, and vector competence for flavivirus transmission, using data from the International Air Transport Association, entomological observations from Zika's primary vector species, and climate conditions using WorldClim. We overlaid monthly flows of airline travellers arriving to Africa and the Asia-Pacific region from areas of the Americas suitable for year-round transmission of Zika virus with monthly maps of climatic suitability for mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus within Africa and the Asia-Pacific region. An estimated 2·6 billion people live in areas of Africa and the Asia-Pacific region where the presence of competent mosquito vectors and suitable climatic conditions could support local transmission of Zika virus. Countries with large volumes of travellers arriving from Zika virus-affected areas of the Americas and large populations at risk of mosquito-borne Zika virus infection include India (67 422 travellers arriving per year; 1·2 billion residents in potential Zika transmission areas), China (238 415 travellers; 242 million residents), Indonesia (13 865 travellers; 197 million residents), Philippines (35 635 travellers; 70 million residents), and Thailand (29 241 travellers; 59 million residents). Many countries across Africa and the Asia-Pacific region are vulnerable to Zika virus. Strategic use of available health and human resources is essential to prevent or mitigate the health, economic, and social

  4. Feasibility survey of the introduction of new energy/renewable energy in Pacific island countries. Agreed record. Regional Energy Meeting (REM 2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-20

    The Regional Energy Meeting (REM 2000) was held in Tarawa, Kiribati, from September 20 to September 26, 2000. This meeting was sponsored by the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission. Countries present in the meeting were the Cook Islands, Micronesia, the Fiji Islands, Kiribati, Nauru, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn, Samoa, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Japan. In the meeting, a draft Regional Energy Logical Framework Matrix was recognized, and it was advised that the plan should be achieved by June 2001 by cooperation of CROP-EWG (the Committee of the Regional Organizations of the Pacific Working Group). In the meeting, the report on hydrogen fuel and solar energy power generation was presented by CROP-EWG. For the hydrogen fuel and solar energy power generation, efforts have been made, but they are still in a stage of the laboratory level. There is arising a feeling of unrest because the commercial exhibition is being made only in the Pacific region. To advise the order of priority in the energy field, CROP-EWG started the investigation into activities/plans of regional energy organizations. (NEDO)

  5. Perturbations to the lower ionosphere by tropical cyclone Evan in the South Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; NaitAmor, Samir; Chanrion, Olivier; Neubert, Torsten

    2017-08-01

    Very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic signals from navigational transmitters propagate worldwide in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide formed by the Earth and the electrically conducting lower ionosphere. Changes in the signal properties are signatures of variations in the conductivity of the reflecting boundary of the lower ionosphere which is located in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, and their analysis is, therefore, a way to study processes in these remote regions. Here we present a study on amplitude perturbations of local origin on the VLF transmitter signals (NPM, NLK, NAA, and JJI) observed during tropical cyclone (TC) Evan, 9-16 December 2012 when TC was in the proximity of the transmitter-receiver links. We observed a maximum amplitude perturbation of 5.7 dB on JJI transmitter during 16 December event. From Long Wave Propagation Capability model applied to three selected events we estimate a maximum decrease in the nighttime D region reference height (H') by 5.2 km (13 December, NPM) and maximum increase in the daytime D region H' by 6.1 km and 7.5 km (14 and 16 December, JJI). The results suggest that the TC caused the neutral densities of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere to lift and sink (bringing the lower ionosphere with it), an effect that may be mediated by gravity waves generated by the TC. The perturbations were observed before the storm was classified as a TC, at a time when it was a tropical depression, suggesting the broader conclusion that severe convective storms, in general, perturb the mesosphere and the stratosphere through which the perturbations propagate.

  6. Beyond the Continent: Creating an Independent Scientific Assessment Process for the Hawai`i and U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecni, Z. N.; Keener, V. W.

    2017-12-01

    An external evaluation found that the inclusion of users of climate information and diverse regional experts in developing the 2012 Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment was a key factor in the report's perceived credibility and usefulness (Moser 2013). The 2012 assessment is seen as a foundational summary for Hawai`i and the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands and is still used in vulnerability assessments and to support decisions by public- and private-sector actors. Recently, lessons learned from the 2012 assessment process were applied in engaging technical experts and potential future users in developing a chapter for the U.S. National Climate Assessment, as a regional update that builds on previous assessment activities. In the absence of downscaled climate projection scenarios and products available to the contiguous U.S., the Pacific Islands chapter continued to draw on projections from regional climate models and extensive user engagement. Through surveys, webinars, technical sectoral workshops, and peer review networks, the regional author team received input from a range of stakeholders. In particular, engagement aimed to identify key risks in sectors of importance to the Hawai`i and U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands region and cases in which stakeholder groups are already implementing measures toward resilience and adaptation. Data collection began during the chapter development process and will continue at the release of the 4th National Climate Assessment in 2018, with the aim of evaluating how stakeholder engagement affects the assessment's usefulness in assisting island communities to understand risks and vulnerabilities and review potential adaptation strategies.

  7. Assessment of Natural Stream Sites for Hydroelectric Dams in the Pacific Northwest Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Hall; Kristin L. Verdin; Randy D. Lee

    2012-03-01

    This pilot study presents a methodology for modeling project characteristics using a development model of a stream obstructing dam. The model is applied to all individual stream reaches in hydrologic region 17, which encompasses nearly all of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Project site characteristics produced by the modeling technique include: capacity potential, principal dam dimensions, number of required auxiliary dams, total extent of the constructed impoundment boundary, and the surface area of the resulting reservoir. Aggregated capacity potential values for the region are presented in capacity categories including total, that at existing dams, within federal and environmentally sensitive exclusion zones, and the balance which is consider available for greenfield development within the limits of the study. Distributions of site characteristics for small hydropower sites are presented and discussed. These sites are screened to identify candidate small hydropower sites and distributions of the site characteristics of this site population are presented and discussed. Recommendations are made for upgrading the methodology and extensions to make the results more accessible and available on a larger scale.

  8. International Council of Ophthalmology: Refocusing Ophthalmic Education in the Asia-Pacific Region and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnik, Karl; Mayorga, Eduardo; Spivey, Bruce; Ritch, Robert; Gauthier, Tina-Marie

    2012-01-01

    The International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) is a global organization with a regional focus. Working in partnership with supranational and ICO member societies, the ICO is building a "World Alliance for Sight" to improve access to the highest-quality eye care worldwide. Designed to preserve and restore vision on an international scale, the ICO initiative, "Refocusing Ophthalmic Education," enhances ophthalmic education of residents, subspecialists, medical students, and allied eye care personnel by redefining the most effective ways to teach and in creating beneficial educational opportunities. The "Teaching the Teachers" program helps ophthalmic educators incorporate more effective methods of training and continuing professional development to meet societal needs, achieved in part through regional courses for residency program directors; symposia, and keynote talks presented by ICO's World Ophthalmology Educational Colloquium, Conferences for Ophthalmic Educators, and ophthalmic surgical competency rubrics. Recognizing that standardized curricula are essential for consistent ophthalmic education, the ICO has developed a curricular framework whereby goals, expectations, knowledge base, competencies, and technical training are delineated. The ICO is defining worldwide models of team training and compiling best practice, which will include training-program accreditation to ensure improvement in the education of ophthalmologists. International Council of Ophthalmology Web-based teaching courses, a Webinar Network, and a technology blog further support information and communication technologies for teaching and learning. At the ICO's Center for Ophthalmic Educators (educators.icoph.org), trainers will find valuable teaching resources in multiple languages as well as ways to share ideas and collaborate with peers and other ophthalmic educators.

  9. History and current activities of the International Diabetes Federation-Western Pacific Region (IDF-WPR).