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Sample records for mexico generated widespread

  1. Designing Distributed Generation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linvill, Carl [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montepelier, VT (United States); Brutkoski, Donna [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montepelier, VT (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Mexico's energy reform will have far-reaching effects on how people produce and consume electricity in the country. Market liberalization will open the door to an increasing number of options for Mexican residential, commercial, and industrial consumers, and distributed generation (DG), which for Mexico includes generators of less than 500 kilowatts (kW) of capacity connected to the distribution network. Distributed generation is an option for consumers who want to produce their own electricity and provide electricity services to others. This report seeks to provide guidance to Mexican officials on designing DG economic and regulatory policies.

  2. Widespread survey finds no evidence of Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) in Gulf of Mexico oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Susan E; Paterno, Jenny; Scarpa, Emily; Stokes, Nancy A; Kim, Yungkul; Powell, Eric N; Bushek, David

    2011-02-22

    The advent of molecular detection assays has provided a set of very sensitive tools for the detection of pathogens in marine organisms, but it has also raised problems of how to interpret positive signals that are not accompanied by visual confirmation. PCR-positive results have recently been reported for Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX), a pathogen of the oyster Crassostrea virginica in 31 of 40 oysters from 6 sites in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Histological confirmation of the PCR results was not undertaken, and no haplosporidian has been reported from the numerous histological studies and surveys of oysters in the region. To further investigate the possibility that H. nelsoni is present in this region, we sampled 210 oysters from 40 sites around the Gulf of Mexico and Puerto Rico using PCR and 180 of these using tissue-section histology also. None of the oysters showed evidence of H. nelsoni by PCR or of any haplosporidian by histology. We cannot, therefore, confirm that H. nelsoni is present and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Our results do not prove that H. nelsoni is absent from the region, but taken together with results from previous histological surveys, they suggest that for the purposes of controlling oyster importation, the region should continue to be considered free of the parasite.

  3. Spontaneous and Widespread Electricity Generation in Natural Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nakamura, Ryuhei; Kasaya, Takafumi; Kumagai, Hidenori; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Takai, Ken

    2017-05-15

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents discharge abundant reductive energy into oxidative seawater. Herein, we demonstrated that in situ measurements of redox potentials on the surfaces of active hydrothermal mineral deposits were more negative than the surrounding seawater potential, driving electrical current generation. We also demonstrated that negative potentials in the surface of minerals were widespread in the hydrothermal fields, regardless of the proximity to hydrothermal fluid discharges. Lab experiments verified that the negative potential of the mineral surface was induced by a distant electron transfer from the hydrothermal fluid through the metallic and catalytic properties of minerals. These results indicate that electric current is spontaneously and widely generated in natural mineral deposits in deep-sea hydrothermal fields. Our discovery provides important insights into the microbial communities that are supported by extracellular electron transfer and the prebiotic chemical and metabolic evolution of the ocean hydrothermal systems. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Chores, Medicine for a Widespread Lack of Gratitude in the One-Child Generations of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi

    2016-01-01

    "Little emperors" and "little princesses" are not new terms for describing the young generations of China after the 36-years' implementation of its one-child policy from 1979 that has triggered the launch of wave upon wave of massive and long-lasting campaigns of gratitude education at all levels of schools cross China from…

  5. Co-generation and reality Potential in Mexico; Potencial de cogeneracion y realidad en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    This document deals with the Mexican use of co-generation -the efficient use of the energy- through the support offered by the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), since this is the agency in charge of fomenting the efficient use of energy by means of actions coordinated with diverse dependencies and organizations of the Administracion Publica Federal and with the governments of the federal entities as well as municipalities, social and private sectors. Among the subjects to be dealt are quality of the electrical and thermal energy, types of fuels that can be used in the co-generation project, the present situation of the co-generation in Mexico and the conditions for their development. [Spanish] Este documento analiza el uso de la cogeneracion en Mexico es decir, el uso eficiente de la energia a traves del apoyo que brinda la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) ya que es el organo encargado de fomentar la eficiencia en el uso de la energia mediante acciones coordinadas con las diversas dependencias y entidades de la Administracion Publica Federal y con los gobiernos de las entidades federativas y los municipios y, a traves de acciones concertadas, con los sectores social y privado. Se trataran temas como calidad de la energia electrica y termica, los tipos de combustibles que pueden utilizarse en el proyecto de cogeneracion, la situacion actual de la cogeneracion en Mexico y las ccondiciones para su desarrollo.

  6. A new aeolian generator for Mexico; Un nuevo generador eolico para Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voronin, Boris; Gomez Reyna, Jose Antonio; Zerquera Izquierdo, Mariano David; Cardenas Grajales, Juan Jose; Zamora Quintana, Laura Angelica [Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The use of wind kinetic energy to produce electrical energy is one of the most powerful alternatives for the human being, to avoid the risk of being in the threshold of the age of stone. In the present work, different types from aero generators are analyzed and a new generator developed by one of the authors of this article is presented. Its high efficiency is presented in comparison with the helical generators that at the moment are dominant in the construction of Aeolian mills. Perspectives of exploitation of the kinetic energy of the wind in Mexico are analyzed. A resolution model of the problem of obtaining constant parameters of electrical output, to conditions of variable mechanical parameters of entrance is shown. An example is shown of the construction of Aeolian parks that can cover all the needs of electrical energy in Mexico. [Spanish] El uso de la energia cinetica del viento para la obtencion de la energia electrica, es una de las alternativas mas poderosas para el ser humano, para evitar el riesgo de estar al umbral de la edad de piedra. En el trabajo presente, se analizan diferentes tipos de aerogeneradores y se presenta un nuevo generador desarrollado por uno de los autores de este articulo. Se muestra su alta eficiencia en comparacion con los generadores helicoidales que actualmente son dominantes en la construccion de molinos eolicos. Se analizan perspectivas de aprovechamiento de la energia cinetica del viento en Mexico. Se muestra un modelo de resolucion del problema de la obtencion de parametros de salida electricos constantes, a condiciones de los parametros mecanicos de entrada variables. Se muestra un ejemplo de la construccion de parques eolicos que pueden cubrir todas las necesidades de energia electrica en Mexico.

  7. Life cycle assessment of electricity generation in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoyo-Castelazo, E.; Gujba, H.; Azapagic, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents for the first time a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study of electricity generation in Mexico. The electricity mix in Mexico is dominated by fossil fuels, which contribute around 79% to the total primary energy; renewable energies contribute 16.5% (hydropower 13.5%, geothermal 3% and wind 0.02%) and the remaining 4.8% is from nuclear power. The LCA results show that 225 TWh of electricity generate about 129 million tonnes of CO 2 eq. per year, of which the majority (87%) is due to the combustion of fossil fuels. The renewables and nuclear contribute only 1.1% to the total CO 2 eq. Most of the other LCA impacts are also attributed to the fossil fuel options. The results have been compared with values reported for other countries with similar electricity mix, including Italy, Portugal and the UK, showing good agreement. -- Highlights: → This paper presents for the first time a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study of electricity generation in Mexico. → 129 million tonnes of CO 2 eq. per year are emitted from 225 TWh of electricity generated per year of which 87% is due to the combustion of fossil fuels. → Coal technologies generate 1094 g CO 2 eq./kWh, heavy fuel oil 964 g CO 2 eq./kWh, and gas 468 g CO 2 eq./kWh; by contrast, nuclear and hydro emit 12 g CO 2 eq./kWh. → Heavy fuel oil contributes most to the life cycle environmental impacts (59-97%). → The results show good agreement with values reported for other countries with similar electricity mix, including Italy, Portugal and the UK.

  8. The air quality and regional climate effects of widespread solar power generation under a changing regulatory environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, D.; Zhai, P.; Menon, S.

    2011-12-01

    used to investigate the effects of the various solar generation scenarios given emissions projections that account for changing regulatory environment, economic and population growth, and technological change. The results will help to quantify the potential air quality benefits of promotion of solar electricity generation in regions containing high penetration of coal-fired power generation. Note current national solar incentives that are based only on solar generation capacity. Further investigation of changes to regional climate due to emission reductions of aerosols and relevant precursors will provide insight into the environmental effects that may occur if solar power generation becomes widespread.

  9. Widespread Trypanosoma cruzi infection in government working dogs along the Texas-Mexico border: Discordant serology, parasite genotyping and associated vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa C Meyers

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, caused by the vector-borne protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is increasingly recognized in the southern U.S. Government-owned working dogs along the Texas-Mexico border could be at heightened risk due to prolonged exposure outdoors in habitats with high densities of vectors. We quantified working dog exposure to T. cruzi, characterized parasite strains, and analyzed associated triatomine vectors along the Texas-Mexico border.In 2015-2016, we sampled government working dogs in five management areas plus a training center in Texas and collected triatomine vectors from canine environments. Canine serum was tested for anti-T. cruzi antibodies with up to three serological tests including two immunochromatographic assays (Stat-Pak and Trypanosoma Detect and indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA test. The buffy coat fraction of blood and vector hindguts were tested for T. cruzi DNA and parasite discrete typing unit was determined. Overall seroprevalence was 7.4 and 18.9% (n = 528 in a conservative versus inclusive analysis, respectively, based on classifying weakly reactive samples as negative versus positive. Canines in two western management areas had 2.6-2.8 (95% CI: 1.0-6.8 p = 0.02-0.04 times greater odds of seropositivity compared to the training center. Parasite DNA was detected in three dogs (0.6%, including TcI and TcI/TcIV mix. Nine of 20 (45% T. gerstaeckeri and T. rubida were infected with TcI and TcIV; insects analyzed for bloodmeals (n = 11 fed primarily on canine (54.5%.Government working dogs have widespread exposure to T. cruzi across the Texas-Mexico border. Interpretation of sample serostatus was challenged by discordant results across testing platforms and very faint serological bands. In the absence of gold standard methodologies, epidemiological studies will benefit from presenting a range of results based on different tests/interpretation criteria to encompass uncertainty. Working dogs are highly trained in security

  10. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Leslie

    The text explores Mexico's history, geography, art, religion, and lifestyles in the context of its complex economy. The text focuses on Mexico's economy and reasons for its current situation. Part I of this teaching unit includes: Teacher Overview, Why Study Mexico, Mexico Fact Sheet, Map of Mexico, the Land and Climate, History, Government,…

  11. Comparative assessment of electricity generation options for Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecilia, Martin Del Campo; Francois, Juan Luis

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the evaluation of sustainability of energy options for the electricity generation in Mexico. The study evaluated technologies that could be planned in the short term because their high maturity. The purpose was to rank the energy options based on the evaluation of a set of criteria grouped in impact areas for each dimension of the sustainability: economic, environmental and social. Obviously, no single technology exhibited superior performance on the basis of all the criteria and it was necessary to apply a mult criteria decision analysis (MCDA). In total this study all the decision elements were combined and integrated in an inference fuzzy logic system that takes into account the weights of different indicators. The methodology was applied to compare five technologies based on wind, nuclear, natural gas, coal, hydro and oil resources under the current Mexican conditions. In view of the features of the energy options, oil and gas are subject to limited energy resources. Coal and oil show relatively unfavorable ecological and accident risk characteristics. Gas is by far the option with the best performance among the fossil fuel options. In the case of nuclear energy, the economic, environmental and health indicators are highly favorable, however, social indicators for nuclear energy are unfavorable but they are also very controversial and additional studies must be carried out. The global sustainability of hydro, nuclear, wind and natural gas resulted very close; so these energy options must be considered in the generation expansion planning studies to search the expansion plans with the better combination of generation, energetic diversification and emissions, between other criteria

  12. Extreme Hurricane-Generated Waves in Gulf of Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alberto, Carlos; Fernandes, Santos

    2005-01-01

    .... Data from seven National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoys in the Gulf of Mexico, together with an array of pressure and pressure-velocity sensors deployed on the Florida Panhandle shelf during the Office of Naval Research (ONR...

  13. Why Have Economic Reforms in Mexico Not Generated Growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Kehoe; Kim J. Ruhl

    2010-01-01

    Following its opening to trade and foreign investment in the mid-1980s, Mexico's economic growth has been modest at best, particularly in comparison with that of China. Comparing these countries and reviewing the literature, we conclude that the relation between openness and growth is not a simple one. Using standard trade theory, we find that Mexico has gained from trade, and by some measures, more so than China. We sketch out a theory in which developing countries can grow faster than the U...

  14. Widespread neural oscillations in the delta band dissociate rule convergence from rule divergence during creative idea generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, N.; Baas, M.; Mühlfeld, E.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; van Gaal, S.

    Critical to creative cognition and performance is both the generation of multiple alternative solutions in response to open-ended problems (divergent thinking) and a series of cognitive operations that converges on the correct or best possible answer (convergent thinking). Although the neural

  15. 78 FR 17652 - Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. v. Public Service Company of New Mexico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. v. Public Service Company of New Mexico; Notice of Complaint... CFR 385.206 and 18 CFR 385.212, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. (Complainant), filed a complaint against the Public Service Company of New Mexico (Respondent or PNM) alleging that...

  16. Foresight of nuclear generation at long term in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guadarrama L, R.; Sanchez R, O. E.; Martin del Campo M, C.

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the nuclear generation expansion for the period 2008-2030. The main objective is to plan the expansion of electrical generation system at long term taking into account four decision criteria. These are, the total cost of generation, the risk associated whit changes in fuel prices, the diversity of the generation park and polluting emissions of global impact (greenhouse effect gases) and local effects (acid rain and suspended particles). The analyzed expansion plans were developed using a model of uni nodal planning called WASP-IV. The analysis methodology was based on four steps. The first consisted in developing, with model WASP-IV, different expansion plans of the electrical generation system that fulfill the energy demand and certain conditions of the study in which was optimized the additions program of generator units searching the minimal cost of electrical generation. The second step was to calculate the generation costs of each plan for two scenarios of fuel prices, also with model WASP-IV. Later was calculated the diversity index and the accumulated emissions during the expansion and the avoided emission of CO 2 when units of combined cycle that burn natural gas are replaced by nuclear power units. (Author)

  17. An Approach to Litter Generation and Littering Practices in a Mexico City Neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia E. Muñoz-Cadena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban litter is generated by human societies everywhere. Some litter is recyclable waste. In this study, the acronym RMSW is used to refer to recyclable municipal solid waste generated in streets. Public attitude towards RMSW generation, generators’ perceptions, and quantification of RMSW in streets were examined in a Mexico City neighborhood, where litter presence causes major environmental problems affecting the population year after year. Interviews with neighborhood residents and item counts were carried out from 2010 to 2011. In all, 58% of interviewees reported generating RMSW at variable frequencies while 42% said they did not generate this kind of waste. Laziness, lack of vigilance by municipal authorities, no litter bins in streets, and imitation were the main causes identified by interviewees as reasons for littering. Potential litter generators may be of any age, educational level or income. Interviewees’ perception of RMSW generation was compared with item counts in the neighborhood studied.

  18. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US. The 1992 population is estimated at 89 million of which 60% are mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% are American Indian, 9% are Caucasian, and 1% are other. 90% are Roman Catholic. There are 8 years of compulsory education. Infant mortality is 30/1000 live births. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females. The labor force is comprised of 30% in services, 24% in agriculture and fishing, 19% in manufacturing, 13% in commerce, 7% in construction, 4% in transportation and communication, and .4% in mining. There are 31 states and a federal district. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $3200 in 1991. Military expenditures were .5% of GDP in 1991. The average inflation rate is 19%. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3.6% in 1991 from 2% in 1987. Dependence on oil exports has decreased. There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of .8% in 1992. Mexico's foreign debt has been reduced from its high in 1987 of $107 billion. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly. Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations.

  19. ABWR, an option for the electric generation in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez T, A.M.; Ramirez S, J.R.; Xolocostli M, J.V.

    2005-01-01

    The A BWR reactor (Advanced Boiling Water Reactor) it was developed in a project group among the Company TEPCO, (Tokyo Electric Power Company), Hitachi, Toshiba and General Electric. The A BWR is the first nuclear reactor of the type BWR third generation that entered in commercial operation in the 90 Th decade. One of those main characteristics of the A BWR are that the system of external recirculation has been eliminated, that is to say, the pumps and external recirculation pipes have been replaced by 10 internal recirculation pumps mounted in the inferior part of the pressure vessel, for that external recirculation systems neither the use of jet pumps are not needed. Another important characteristic of the A BWR is the simplification of the activation of the safety systems. The simplifications in the design of the A BWR and the use of new technologies have reduced the quantity of equipment and the time of construction compared with the previous designs of BWRs. The construction project for the A BWR consists of a period of construction from 48 to 54 months, measured since that the first concrete structure is placed until that it enters in commercial operation, in accordance with the documents liberated by G E. (Author)

  20. Estimating maquiladora hazardous waste generation on the U.S./Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Mace M.; Kontuly, Thomas; Hepner, George F.

    1995-03-01

    Maquiladoras, manufacturing plants that primarily assemble foreign components for reexport, are located in concentrations along the northern frontier of the US/Mexico border. These plants process a wide variety of materials using modern industrial technologies within the context of developing world institutions and infrastructure. Hazardous waste generation by maquiladoras represents a critical environmental management issue because of the spatial concentration of these plants in border municipalities where the infrastructure for waste management is nonexistent or poor. These border municipalities contain rapidly increasing populations, which further stress their waste handling infrastructure capacities while exposing their populations to greater contaminant risks. Limited empirical knowledge exists concerning hazardous waste types and generation rates from maquiladorsas. There is no standard reporting method for waste generation or methodology for estimating generation rates at this time. This paper presents a method that can be used for the rapid assessment of hazardous waste generation. A first approximation of hazardous waste generation is produced for maquiladoras in the three municipalities of Nogales, Sonora, Mexicali, Baja California, and Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua, using the INVENT model developed by the World Bank. In addition, our intent is to evaluate the potential of the INVENT model for adaptation to the US/Mexico border industrial situation. The press of border industrial development, especially with the recent adoption of the NAFTA, make such assessments necessary as a basis for the environmental policy formulation and management needed in the immediate future.

  1. Renewable energies in electricity generation for reduction of greenhouse gases in Mexico 2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas, Jorge; Manzini, Fabio; Martínez, Manuel

    2002-02-01

    This study presents 4 scenarios relating to the environmental futures of electricity generation in Mexico up to the year 2025. The first scenario emphasizes the use of oil products, particularly fuel oil, and represents the historic path of Mexico's energy policy. The second scenario prioritizes the use of natural gas, reflecting the energy consumption pattern that arose in the mid-1990s as a result of reforms in the energy sector. In the third scenario, the high participation of renewable sources of energy is considered feasible from a technical and economic point of view. The fourth scenario takes into account the present- and medium-term use of natural-gas technologies that the energy reform has produced, but after 2007 a high and feasible participation of renewable sources of energy is considered. The 4 scenarios are evaluated up to the year 2025 in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG) and acid rain precursor gases (ARPG).

  2. Powering Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines Mexico's demand for electricity and the market for independent power generation. The topics discussed in the article include the outlook for the 1990s for growth in Mexico's economy and energy demand, renewable energy, energy conservation, small-scale, off-grid renewable energy systems, and estimates of Mexico's market for electric power generating equipment

  3. Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes the key energy data for Mexico: 1 - energy organizations and policy: Ministry of energy (SENER), Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE), Ministry of Finances, Ministry of trade and industrial development (SECOFI), national commission for energy savings (CONAE); 2 - companies: federal commission of electricity (CFE), Minera Carbonifera Rio Escondido (MICARE - coal), Pemex (petroleum); 3 - energy production: resources, electric power, petroleum, natural gas; 4 - energy consumption; 5 - stakes and perspectives. Some economic and energy indicators are summarized in a series of tables: general indicators, supply indicators (reserves, refining and electric capacity, energy production, foreign trade), demand indicators (consumption trends, end use, energy independence, energy efficiency, CO 2 emissions), energy status per year and per energy source. (J.S.)

  4. Preliminary assessment of biodiesel generation from meat industry residues in Baja California, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toscano, Lydia; Montero, Gisela; Stoytcheva, Margarita; Campbell, Hector; Lambert, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Oil derived fuels constituted a main energy source during the last fifty years, although their high price limited their accessibility. Prospective studies indicated that economic and environmental problems promoted biodiesel production using biomass and residues like animal fat, along with meat and bones, among others. The regional inventory of the available fat in meat industry, as well as the estimation of the biodiesel potential production demonstrated that the biodiesel generated from animal fat, combined with diesel from oil in a 2% biodiesel blend could power 25% of the trucks and passenger vehicles registered in 2007 in Baja California, Mexico. (author)

  5. Present technologies and the next future in Mexico for the power generation starting from fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez S, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    A brief analysis is done of the expected evolution of the world energy and electrical energy demand and a projection of the Mexican electrical demand is presented. Typical data for electric power generation technologies that currently in use or under development are presented and a discussion is made of the factors that influence technology selection, particularly for fossil fuel technologies. Taking into account the current expansion plans of the Mexican electrical sector, and proposing some reasonable hypotheses about the behavior of the factors that were identified, the evolution of the electrical demand in Mexico up to the year 2020 is presented, showing the installed capacity expected for each fuel and for each technology. At the end the needs for research and development in the area of power generation, emphasizing the Mexican R and D Programs, are discussed. (Author)

  6. Forecasting generation of urban solid waste in developing countries--a case study in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenrostro, O; Bocco, G; Vence, J

    2001-01-01

    Based on a study of the composition of urban solid waste (USW) and of socioeconomic variables in Morelia, Mexico, generation rates were estimated. In addition, the generation of residential solid waste (RSW) and nonresidential solid waste (NRSW) was forecasted by means of a multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. For residential sources, the independent variables analyzed were monthly wages, persons per dwelling, age, and educational level of the heads of the household. For nonresidential sources, variables analyzed were number of employees, area of facilities, number of working days, and working hours per day. The forecasted values for residential waste were similar to those observed. This approach may be applied to areas in which available data are scarce, and in which there is an urgent need for the planning of adequate management of USW.

  7. Consumption patterns and household hazardous solid waste generation in an urban settlement in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado Otoniel, Buenrostro; Liliana, Marquez-Benavides; Gaona Francelia, Pinette

    2008-01-01

    Mexico is currently facing a crisis in the waste management field. Some efforts have just commenced in urban and in rural settlements, e.g., conversion of open dumps into landfills, a relatively small composting culture, and implementation of source separation and plastic recycling strategies. Nonetheless, the high heterogeneity of components in the waste, many of these with hazardous properties, present the municipal collection services with serious problems, due to the risks to the health of the workers and to the impacts to the environment as a result of the inadequate disposition of these wastes. A generation study in the domestic sector was undertaken with the aim of finding out the composition and the generation rate of household hazardous waste (HHW) produced at residences. Simultaneously to the generation study, a socioeconomic survey was applied to determine the influence of income level on the production of HHW. Results from the solid waste generation analysis indicated that approximately 1.6% of the waste stream consists of HHW. Correspondingly, it was estimated that in Morelia, a total amount of 442 ton/day of domestic waste are produced, including 7.1 ton of HHW per day. Furthermore, the overall amount of HHW is not directly related to income level, although particular byproducts do correlate. However, an important difference was observed, as the brands and the presentation sizes of goods and products used in each socioeconomic stratum varied

  8. Implementation of portfolio theory to the analysis of electricity generation in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel E, J.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Palacios H, J. C.

    2014-10-01

    As part of the activities of economic analysis to the National Energy Strategy 2013-2027 of Mexico has been developed a computational platform to support decision-making based on the risk and performance in obtaining the optimum combination of technologies involved in the electricity generation. To this end, they consider five technologies: combined cycle, thermal coal, nuclear, hydro and wind. Each technology has been analyzed independently based on the total cost of generation level (given in dl s/KWh or dl s/MWh), leaning on documents as the Poise 2012-2026 and COPAR 2013. Subsequently by portfolio theory proposed by Markowitz, that combination of technologies that provide a greater benefit in the electricity generation is determined. In this study we consider two base work areas on which the proposed portfolios are reflected. The conformation of work areas is derived from the National Energy Strategy 2013-2027, considering a scenario with fossil technologies (combined cycle, thermal coal and nuclear) and other, making greater emphasis on the use of renewable technologies (combined cycle, hydro and wind). Finally, four portfolios are presented, each one with different percentages of ownership of technology in electricity generation, verifying the risk and performance of each combination. Of the analyzed portfolios, one corresponds to the mix of technologies which are currently in the country. The remaining derive the percentage share of combined-cycle technology, by subtracting 10% of their contribution and distributing it in three ways: by increasing the 10% share of nuclear technology; increasing 10% contribution of thermal coal technology and finally, extending the 5% of the electricity generation of nuclear technology and 5% increase in the electricity generation by wind technology. (Author)

  9. Urban solid waste generation and disposal in Mexico: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenrostro, O; Bocco, G; Bernache, G

    2001-04-01

    The adequate management of municipal solid waste in developing countries is difficult because of the scarcity of studies about their composition. This paper analyses the composition of urban solid waste (USW) in the city of Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico. Residential and non-residential waste sources were sampled, and a structured interview was made to evaluate the socioeconomic characteristics of the studied area. Also, to determine the seasonal patterns of solid waste generation and the efficiency level of the collection service, quantification of solid waste deposited in the dumping ground was measured. Our results show that the recorded amount of SW deposited in the municipal dumping-ground is less than the estimated amount of SW generated; for this reason, the former amount is not recommended as an unbiased indicator for planning public waste collection services. It is essential that dumping-grounds are permanently monitored and that the incoming waste be weighed in order to have a more efficient record of USW deposited in the dumping-ground per day; these data are fundamental for developing adequate managing strategies.

  10. Generation projection of solid and liquid radioactive wastes and spent radioactive sources in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia A, E.; Hernandez F, I. Y.; Fernandez R, E.; Monroy G, F.; Lizcano C, D.

    2014-10-01

    This work is focused to project the volumes of radioactive aqueous liquid wastes and spent radioactive sources that will be generated in our country in next 15 years, solids compaction and radioactive organic liquids in 10 years starting from the 2014; with the purpose of knowing the technological needs that will be required for their administration. The methodology involves six aspects to develop: the definition of general objectives, to specify the temporary horizon of projection, data collection, selection of the prospecting model and the model application. This approach was applied to the inventory of aqueous liquid wastes, as well as radioactive compaction organic and solids generated in Mexico by non energy applications from the 2001 to 2014, and of the year 1997 at 2014 for spent sources. The applied projection models were: Double exponential smoothing associating the tendency, Simple Smoothing and Lineal Regression. For this study was elected the first forecast model and its application suggests that: the volume of the compaction solid wastes, aqueous liquids and spent radioactive sources will increase respectively in 152%, 49.8% and 55.7%, while the radioactive organic liquid wastes will diminish in 13.15%. (Author)

  11. Hydrothermal bitumen generated from sedimentary organic matter of rift lakes - Lake Chapala, Citala Rift, western Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarate del Valle, Pedro F. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Guadalajara - CUCEI, Ap. Postal 4-021, Guadalajara, Jalisco CP 44410 (Mexico); Simoneit, Bernd R.T. [Environmental and Petroleum Geochemistry Group, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Building 104, Corvallis, OR 97331-5503 (United States)]. E-mail: simoneit@coas.oregonstate.edu

    2005-12-15

    Lake Chapala is in the Citala Rift of western Mexico, which in association with the Tepic-Zacoalco and Colima Rifts, form the well-known neotectonic Jalisco continental triple junction. The rifts are characterized by evidence for both paleo- and active hydrothermal activity. At the south shore of the lake, near the Los Gorgos sublacustrine hydrothermal field, there are two tar emanations that appear as small islands composed of solid, viscous and black bitumen. Aliquots of tar were analyzed by GC-MS and the mixtures are comprised of geologically mature biomarkers and an UCM. PAH and n-alkanes are not detectable. The biomarkers consist mainly of hopanes, gammacerane, tricyclic terpanes, carotane and its cracking products, steranes, and drimanes. The biomarker composition and bulk C isotope composition ({delta} {sup 13}C = -21.4%) indicate an organic matter source from bacteria and algae, typical of lacustrine ecosystems. The overall composition of these tars indicates that they are hydrothermal petroleum formed from lacustrine organic matter in the deeper sediments of Lake Chapala exceeding 40 ka ({sup 14}C) in age and then forced to the lakebed by tectonic activity. The absence of alkanes and the presence of an UCM with mature biomarkers are consistent with rapid hydrothermal oil generation and expulsion at temperatures of 200-250 deg. C. The occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum in continental rift systems is now well known and should be considered in future energy resource exploration in such regions.

  12. Foresight of nuclear generation at long term in Mexico;Prospectiva de la generacion nucleoelectrica en Mexico a largo plazo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guadarrama L, R.; Sanchez R, O. E.; Martin del Campo M, C., E-mail: rodrigoguadarrama28@hotmail.co [UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents an analysis of the nuclear generation expansion for the period 2008-2030. The main objective is to plan the expansion of electrical generation system at long term taking into account four decision criteria. These are, the total cost of generation, the risk associated whit changes in fuel prices, the diversity of the generation park and polluting emissions of global impact (greenhouse effect gases) and local effects (acid rain and suspended particles). The analyzed expansion plans were developed using a model of uni nodal planning called WASP-IV. The analysis methodology was based on four steps. The first consisted in developing, with model WASP-IV, different expansion plans of the electrical generation system that fulfill the energy demand and certain conditions of the study in which was optimized the additions program of generator units searching the minimal cost of electrical generation. The second step was to calculate the generation costs of each plan for two scenarios of fuel prices, also with model WASP-IV. Later was calculated the diversity index and the accumulated emissions during the expansion and the avoided emission of CO{sub 2} when units of combined cycle that burn natural gas are replaced by nuclear power units. (Author)

  13. Widespread tsunami-like waves of 23-27 June in the Mediterranean and Black Seas generated by high-altitude atmospheric forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šepić, Jadranka; Vilibić, Ivica; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Monserrat, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    A series of tsunami-like waves of non-seismic origin struck several southern European countries during the period of 23 to 27 June 2014. The event caused considerable damage from Spain to Ukraine. Here, we show that these waves were long-period ocean oscillations known as meteorological tsunamis which are generated by intense small-scale air pressure disturbances. An unique atmospheric synoptic pattern was tracked propagating eastward over the Mediterranean and the Black seas in synchrony with onset times of observed tsunami waves. This pattern favoured generation and propagation of atmospheric gravity waves that induced pronounced tsunami-like waves through the Proudman resonance mechanism. This is the first documented case of a chain of destructive meteorological tsunamis occurring over a distance of thousands of kilometres. Our findings further demonstrate that these events represent potentially dangerous regional phenomena and should be included in tsunami warning systems. PMID:26119833

  14. Gas solubilities widespread applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, William

    1980-01-01

    Gas Solubilities: Widespread Applications discusses several topics concerning the various applications of gas solubilities. The first chapter of the book reviews Henr's law, while the second chapter covers the effect of temperature on gas solubility. The third chapter discusses the various gases used by Horiuti, and the following chapters evaluate the data on sulfur dioxide, chlorine data, and solubility data for hydrogen sulfide. Chapter 7 concerns itself with solubility of radon, thoron, and actinon. Chapter 8 tackles the solubilities of diborane and the gaseous hydrides of groups IV, V, and

  15. Emerging Threat to America: Non-State Entities Fighting Fourth Generation Warfare in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    warfare in Juarez, Mexico contrasts with the “peaceful” cities of Ciudad Acuña and Piedras Negras controlled by the Zetas who demonstrate 4GW tactics...Vulliamy, 2009). Within the cities of Acuna and Piedra Negras where one Pack Virus (the Zetas) has effective control of these limited geographic

  16. Proposal for the diagnosis and monitoring of quality, based on key performance indicators, that may lead to generate improvements in the Servicio de Radiologia of Hospital Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenes Acosta, Carolina; Cortes Barquero, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Key performance indicators are proposed for the diagnosis, monitoring of quality and to generate improvements in the Servicio de Radiologia of Hospital Mexico. Critical performance key indicators are identified for service improvement. A method for collection of information is proposed of the individual production of medical assistants from Servicio de Radiologia of Hospital Mexico. Waiting times for patients in the ultrasound are measured in the Radiology Service, as indicator of patient experience and level of service. The satisfaction of treating physicians and their perception about the level quality of the service provided are identified with respect to the reports generated by the Departamento de Radiologia of Hospital Mexico. A peer review system is established to measure the clinical performance of the studies. A structured radiological report template is proposed for radiological practice in the Hospital Mexico, to facilitate its reading and guarantee a minimum standard of quality in information [es

  17. ABWR, an option for the electric generation in Mexico; ABWR, una opcion para la generacion electrica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez T, A.M.; Ramirez S, J.R.; Xolocostli M, J.V. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: amgt@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The A BWR reactor (Advanced Boiling Water Reactor) it was developed in a project group among the Company TEPCO, (Tokyo Electric Power Company), Hitachi, Toshiba and General Electric. The A BWR is the first nuclear reactor of the type BWR third generation that entered in commercial operation in the 90 Th decade. One of those main characteristics of the A BWR are that the system of external recirculation has been eliminated, that is to say, the pumps and external recirculation pipes have been replaced by 10 internal recirculation pumps mounted in the inferior part of the pressure vessel, for that external recirculation systems neither the use of jet pumps are not needed. Another important characteristic of the A BWR is the simplification of the activation of the safety systems. The simplifications in the design of the A BWR and the use of new technologies have reduced the quantity of equipment and the time of construction compared with the previous designs of BWRs. The construction project for the A BWR consists of a period of construction from 48 to 54 months, measured since that the first concrete structure is placed until that it enters in commercial operation, in accordance with the documents liberated by G E. (Author)

  18. Generation projection of solid and liquid radioactive wastes and spent radioactive sources in Mexico; Proyeccion de generacion de desechos radiactivos solidos, liquidos y fuentes radiactivas gastadas en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia A, E.; Hernandez F, I. Y.; Fernandez R, E. [Universidad Politecnica del Valle de Toluca, Km 5.7 Carretera Almoloya de Juarez, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy G, F.; Lizcano C, D., E-mail: fabiola.monroy@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    This work is focused to project the volumes of radioactive aqueous liquid wastes and spent radioactive sources that will be generated in our country in next 15 years, solids compaction and radioactive organic liquids in 10 years starting from the 2014; with the purpose of knowing the technological needs that will be required for their administration. The methodology involves six aspects to develop: the definition of general objectives, to specify the temporary horizon of projection, data collection, selection of the prospecting model and the model application. This approach was applied to the inventory of aqueous liquid wastes, as well as radioactive compaction organic and solids generated in Mexico by non energy applications from the 2001 to 2014, and of the year 1997 at 2014 for spent sources. The applied projection models were: Double exponential smoothing associating the tendency, Simple Smoothing and Lineal Regression. For this study was elected the first forecast model and its application suggests that: the volume of the compaction solid wastes, aqueous liquids and spent radioactive sources will increase respectively in 152%, 49.8% and 55.7%, while the radioactive organic liquid wastes will diminish in 13.15%. (Author)

  19. Analysis of the financial task generated by the construction of a nuclear power plant in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, G.; Ramirez, R.; Palacios, J.; Delfin, A.

    2011-11-01

    The construction of new nuclear reactors requires of a high investment making them intensive projects in capital and that require as minimum of 5 years for its construction. The financial task that represents for the electric company is of vital importance, since in the case of privates in other countries prevents them of entering in this type of projects if they do not have its Government support. In the case of Mexico, being an electric company integrated vertically can have financing to carry out this investment type. In this study is analyzed the construction viability of new nuclear reactors in Mexico based on the financial task that represents for the Electric Company its construction. (Author)

  20. Effect of climate change on wind waves generated by anticyclonic cold front intrusions in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appendini, Christian M.; Hernández-Lasheras, Jaime; Meza-Padilla, Rafael; Kurczyn, Jorge A.

    2018-01-01

    Anticyclonic cold surges entering the Gulf of Mexico (Nortes) generate ocean waves that disrupt maritime activities. Norte derived waves are less energetic than the devastating waves from tropical cyclones, but more frequent ( 22 events/year) and with larger spatial influence. Despite their importance, few studies characterize Nortes derived waves and assess the effects of climate change on their occurrence. This study presents a method to identify and characterize Nortes with relation to their derived waves in the Gulf of Mexico. We based the identification of Nortes on synoptic measurements of pressure differences between Yucatan and Texas and wind speed at different buoy locations in the Gulf of Mexico. Subsequently, we identified the events in the CFSR reanalysis (present climate) and the CNRM-M5 model for the present climate and the RCP 8.5 scenario. We then forced a wave model to characterize the wave power generated by each event, followed by a principal component analysis and classification by k-means clustering analysis. Five different Nortes types were identified, each one representing a characteristic intensity and area of influence of the Norte driven waves. Finally, we estimated the occurrence of each Norte type for the present and future climates, where the CNRM-M5 results indicate that the high-intensity events will be less frequent in a warming climate, while mild events will become more frequent. The consequences of such changes may provide relief for maritime and coastal operations because of reduced downtimes. This result is particularly relevant for the operational design of coastal and marine facilities.

  1. Generating a National Land Cover Dataset for Mexico at 30m Spatial Resolution in the Framework of the NALCMS Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, R. M.; Colditz, R. R.; Ressl, R.; Jurado Cruz, D. A.; Argumedo, J.; Victoria, A.; Meneses, C.

    2017-12-01

    The North American Land Change Monitoring System (NALCMS) is a tri-national initiative for mapping land cover across Mexico, United States and Canada, integrating efforts of institutions from the three countries. At the continental scale the group released land cover and change maps derived from MODIS image mosaics at 250m spatial resolution for 2005 and 2010. Current efforts are based on 30m Landsat images for 2010 ± 1 year. Each country uses its own mapping approach and sources for ancillary data, while ensuring that maps are produced in a coherent fashion across the continent. This paper presents the methodology and final land cover map of Mexico for the year 2010 that was later integrated into a continental map. The principal input for Mexico was the Monitoring Activity Data for Mexico (MAD-MEX) land cover map (version 4.3), derived from all available mostly cloud-free images for the year 2010. A total of 35 classes were regrouped to 15 classes of the NALCMS legend present in Mexico. Next, various issues of the automatically generated MAD-MEX land cover mosaic were corrected, such as: filling areas of no data due no cloud-free observation or gaps in Landsat 7 ETM+ images, filling inland water bodies which were left unclassified due to masking issues, relabeling isolated unclassified of falsely classified pixels, structural mislabeling due to data gaps, reclassifying areas of adjacent scenes with significant class disagreements and correcting obvious misclassifications, mostly of water and urban areas. In a second step minor missing areas and rare class snow and ice were digitized and a road network was added. A product such as NALCMS land cover map at 30m for North America is an unprecedented effort and will be without doubt an important source of information for many users around the world who need coherent land cover data over a continental domain as an input for a wide variety of environmental studies. The product release to the general public is expected

  2. Geodetic proof of vertical recent movements at the seism generating zone of Acambay, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Espinosa-Rodríguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The central territorial belt oriented west-east and located along the parallel 19 in the Mexican Republic, is composed of a complex system of faults, that respond to the consequent morphology of a tension arched system, which has been erected to the Volcanic Transmexican or Transversal Belt. This region evidences the dynamics and evolution of a graben and horst tectonic system, as well as volcanic manifestations characterized by stratovolcanoes, monogenetic fields and fisural flows, among others. In particular, in the center of the Mexican regional complex, the fault system which delimits the region of Acambay in the state of Mexico, had showed evidences of seismogenerating activity during a century until the present time. According to the above and based on the geomorphological analysis and the geodetic measurements, the dynamic presented by these morphostructures in a multitemporal comparative study (1998/2003 o 2011 is showed. The rates of vertical tectonic movements reflect recent rise values ranging from + 7,3 to 12,8 mm/year in the northern horst of Santa María Tixmadejé, while in the central graben of Acambay are very weak, of the order of + 0,4 to + 0,5 mm/year.

  3. Renewable technologies for generation systems in islands and their application to Cozumel Island, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Vizcaino, Javier; Sumper, Andreas; Sudrià Andreu, Antoni; Ramirez, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The electric generation systems on islands are based generally on fossil fuel. This fact and its supply make the electricity cost higher than in systems used in the continent. In this article, we present a review of the renewable energy generation systems on islands. To do it we analysed 77 islands from 45 different countries. This work will allow us to know how the implementation of renewable energy sources could help these islands in developing a renewable and sustainable energy sector, inc...

  4. Evidence-based health policy: three generations of reform in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, Julio; Sepúlveda, Jaime; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia

    2003-11-15

    The Mexican health system has evolved through three generations of reform. The creation of the Ministry of Health and the main social security agency in 1943 marked the first generation of health reforms. In the late 1970s, a second generation of reforms was launched around the primary health-care model. Third-generation reforms favour systemic changes to reorganise the system through the horizontal integration of basic functions-stewardship, financing, and provision. The stability of leadership in the health sector is emphasised as a key element that allowed for reform during the past 60 years. Furthermore, there has been a transition in the second generation of reforms to a model that is increasingly based on evidence; this has been intensified and extended in the third generation of reforms. We also examine policy developments that will provide social protection in health for all. These developments could be of interest for countries seeking to provide their citizens with universal access to health care that incorporates equity, quality, and financial protection.

  5. Remote sensing estimation of isoprene and monoterpene emissions generated by natural vegetation in Monterrey, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastelum, Sandra L; Mejía-Velázquez, G M; Lozano-García, D Fabián

    2016-06-01

    In addition to oxygen, hydrocarbons are the most reactive chemical compounds produced by plants into the atmosphere. These compounds are part of the family of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and are discharged in a great variety of forms. Among the VOCs produced by natural sources such as vegetation, the most studied until today are the isoprene and monoterpene. These substances can play an important role in the chemical balance of the atmosphere of a region. In this project, we develop a methodology to estimate the natural (vegetation) emission of isoprene and monoterpenes and applied it to the Monterrey Metropolitan Area, Mexico and its surrounding areas. Landsat-TM data was used to identify the dominant vegetation communities and field work to determine the foliage biomass density of key species. The studied communities were submontane scrub, oak, and pine forests and a combination of both. We carried out the estimation of emissions for isoprene and monoterpenes compounds in the different plant communities, with two different criteria: (1) taking into account the average foliage biomass density obtained from the various sample point in each vegetation community, and (2) using the foliage biomass density obtained for each transect, associated to an individual spectral class within a particular vegetation type. With this information, we obtained emission maps for each case. The results show that the main producers of isoprene are the communities that include species of the genus Quercus, located mainly on the Sierra Madre Oriental and Sierra de Picachos, with average isoprene emissions of 314.6 ton/day and 207.3 ton/day for the two methods utilized. The higher estimates of monoterpenes were found in the submontane scrub areas distributed along the valley of the metropolitan zone, with an estimated average emissions of 47.1 ton/day and 181.4 tons for the two methods respectively.

  6. Microwave Photonics: current challenges towards widespread application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Li, Guifang; Lim, Christina; Yao, Jianping

    2013-09-23

    Microwave Photonics, a symbiotic field of research that brings together the worlds of optics and radio frequency is currently facing several challenges in its transition from a niche to a truly widespread technology essential to support the ever-increasing values for speed, bandwidth, processing capability and dynamic range that will be required in next generation hybrid access networks. We outline these challenges, which are the subject of the contributions to this focus issue.

  7. Comparative analysis of the street generation of inorganic urban solid waste (IUSW) in two neighborhoods of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Cadena, C E; Arenas-Huertero, F J; Ramón-Gallegos, E

    2009-03-01

    Inorganic urban solid waste (IUSW) is a serious problem in developing countries, and IUSW in the street that does not have adequate final disposal is responsible for serious environmental effects. The aim of this work was to determine the dynamics of the generation of IUSW in the streets of two neighborhoods of different socioeconomic strata in Mexico City during 5 weeks in 2006. The amount of IUSW was recorded every day from 9:00 to 12:00 h, separated, classified, and registered. It was found that plastic (50%) and paper (44.5%) wastes were found most frequently, whereas, textiles (0.4%) and glass (0.5%) wastes were present less frequently in all samples. The IUSWs without commercial brands were more abundant. Branded plastic wrappers of PepsiCo and Bimbo, as well as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers of Coca Cola, registered the highest values, while Gatorade, Barrilitos, and Peñafiel registered the lowest. The neighborhood with a higher income and more vegetation on sidewalks or in jardinières, which are used to hide solid waste, had more IUSW than the neighborhood with lower income, where IUSW was thrown out directly into the street. The knowledge of the real generation and composition of IUSW will contribute to the prevention of its negative environmental and social impacts, as well as guarantee the efficiency of its sustainable management.

  8. Study for the selection of optimal site in northeastern, Mexico for wind power generation using genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, T.; Ruvalcaba, A.; Oliver, L.

    2016-12-01

    The electricity generation from renewable resources has acquired a leading role. Mexico particularrly it has great interest in renewable natural resources for power generation, especially wind energy. Therefore, the country is rapidly entering in the development of wind power generators sites. The development of a wind places as an energy project, does not have a standardized methodology. Techniques vary according to the developer to select the best place to install a wind turbine system. Generally to install the system the developers consider three key factors: 1) the characteristics of the wind, 2) the potential distribution of electricity and 3) transport access to the site. This paper presents a study with a different methodology which is carried out in two stages: the first at regional scale uses "space" and "natural" criteria in order to select a region based on its cartographic features such as politics and physiographic division, location of conservation natural areas, water bodies, urban criteria; and natural criteria such as the amount and direction of the wind, the type and land use, vegetation, topography and biodiversity of the site. The result of the application of these criteria, gives a first optimal selection area. The second part of the methodology includes criteria and variables on detail scale. The analysis of all data information collected will provide new parameters (decision variables) for the site. The overall analysis of the information, based in these criteria, indicates that the best location that the best location of the field would be the southern Coahuila and the central part of Nuevo Leon. The wind power site will contribute to the economy grow of important cities including Monterrey. Finally, computational model of genetic algorithm will be used as a tool to determine the best site selection depending on the parameters considered.

  9. Hybrid system of generating electricity, solar eolic diesel San Juanico, Baja California Sur, Mexico; Sistema hibrido de generacion electrica, eolico solar diesel San Juanico, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta, Javier [Comision Federal de Electricidad, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico); Johnston, Peter [Technology Development, Arizona (United States); Napikoski, Chester [Generation Engineering, Arizona (United States); Escutia, Ricardo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Baja California Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), and the northamerican electric company Arizona Public Service (APS), made an agreement of collaboration to develop a project of generating electricity with the use of renewable resources. The premises that where agreed on are the following: 1. Focus the project a rural community. 2. The cost of the whole project should be lower than compared to the interconnection to a conventional system. 3. Acceptance of the community, and the governmental authorities. 4. Sustentability of the operation of the system. Several technical and economical analysis where done, such as the evaluation of the solar and eolic resources, study of the environmental impact, negotiation agreements so it would be possible to obtain de economical resources from Niagara Mohawk (NIMO), and the USAID, all of this thru the supervising of the Sandia National Laboratories. After the anemometric and solar radiation measures where made, it was considered that the community of San Juanico, en Baja California Sur, Mexico, was the most feasible one, it was necessary also to consider the aspects of logistics, socials, size of the community and as a detonator for the economic activities of tourism and fishing. The APS formulated the executive project in accordance with the recommendations of the different areas of CFE. The project consists basically in the installation of 10 wind generators of 10 Kw, a battery bank for 432 KWh, plus a diesel generator for emergencies of 80 Kw. Besides the civil and electromechanical installation. It was necessary to involve the community in the knowledge and followup of the project form it's, considering that this factor would be essential, so it could be successful. Lamps of low consumption where installed on the houses and street lightning, to optimize the system. The patronato that is a civil association of the community, is in charge of the administration of the system, it receives support from personnel of CFE. The income

  10. Hybrid system of generating electricity, solar eolic diesel San Juanico, Baja California Sur, Mexico; Sistema hibrido de generacion electrica, eolico solar diesel San Juanico, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta, Javier [Comision Federal de Electricidad, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico); Johnston, Peter [Technology Development, Arizona (United States); Napikoski, Chester [Generation Engineering, Arizona (United States); Escutia, Ricardo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Baja California Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), and the northamerican electric company Arizona Public Service (APS), made an agreement of collaboration to develop a project of generating electricity with the use of renewable resources. The premises that where agreed on are the following: 1. Focus the project a rural community. 2. The cost of the whole project should be lower than compared to the interconnection to a conventional system. 3. Acceptance of the community, and the governmental authorities. 4. Sustentability of the operation of the system. Several technical and economical analysis where done, such as the evaluation of the solar and eolic resources, study of the environmental impact, negotiation agreements so it would be possible to obtain de economical resources from Niagara Mohawk (NIMO), and the USAID, all of this thru the supervising of the Sandia National Laboratories. After the anemometric and solar radiation measures where made, it was considered that the community of San Juanico, en Baja California Sur, Mexico, was the most feasible one, it was necessary also to consider the aspects of logistics, socials, size of the community and as a detonator for the economic activities of tourism and fishing. The APS formulated the executive project in accordance with the recommendations of the different areas of CFE. The project consists basically in the installation of 10 wind generators of 10 Kw, a battery bank for 432 KWh, plus a diesel generator for emergencies of 80 Kw. Besides the civil and electromechanical installation. It was necessary to involve the community in the knowledge and followup of the project form it's, considering that this factor would be essential, so it could be successful. Lamps of low consumption where installed on the houses and street lightning, to optimize the system. The patronato that is a civil association of the community, is in charge of the administration of the system, it receives support from personnel of CFE. The income that

  11. The distributed generation in Mexico: Which are the new perspectives associated to the institutional reforms of the electrical sector?; La generacion distribuida en Mexico: Cuales son las nuevas perspectivas asociadas a las reformas institucionales del sector electrico?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas Samperio, Jorge [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Menanteau, Philippe [Departamento de Economia y Politica de la Energia, Universidad Pierre Mendes France (France)

    2004-06-15

    Historically, the electrical systems were constituted from local networks of small scale that were added together progressively to benefit from the effects of a more abundant demand and of the economies of scale in generation, that authorize the large interconnected systems. This logic at the moment seems to show certain limits, the factors that influence these technologies can vary greatly from one country to another, but nevertheless it is found in different degrees certain constants such as the search for a greater reliability in the electrical supply, the putting into work prevention policies of climatic change or the reforms of the electrical sector. In this work the influence of these factors was examined insisting particularly on the consequences of the opening of the electrical sector, departing from an analysis of the international experience in a first time and later examining the case of Mexico in the context of the present energy situation and the debate of the energy reform. The distributed generation: a new vector of technological opportunities in the electrical sector, the barriers for the diffusion of the distributed generation: the lessons of the international experience, the institutional problematic of the distributed generation within the effective legal framework of Mexico. [Spanish] Historicamente, los sistemas electricos se constituyeron a partir de redes locales de pequena escala que se fueron agregando progresivamente para beneficiarse de los efectos de una demanda mas abundante y de las economias de escala en generacion que autorizan los grandes sistemas interconectados. Esta logica parece actualmente mostrar ciertos limites, los factores que influyen sobre estas tecnologias pueden variar grandemente de un pais al otro, pero se encuentra, sin embargo, a grados diferentes ciertas constantes tales como la busqueda de una confiabilidad mas grande en el aprovisionamiento electrico, la puesta en obra de politicas de prevencion de cambio

  12. Use Of Renewable Energy In The Electric Power Generation Sector In Mexico: Political, Regulatory, Economic And Technical Issues From 1965 To 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizalde-Baltierra, Alberto; Sasse, Diana; Zeferino-Abundis, Yolanda; Quiroz-Juarez, Carolina; Lopez-Satow, Edgar; Beltran-Mora, Hector; Crisostomo-Ramirez, David

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this work is to analyze the political, regulatory, economic and technical issues that have determined the use of primary energies for power generation in Mexico from 1965 to 2008, and its perspectives for the next 10 years, in particular the prospects of using renewable energies. In the 60's, hydro was the preferred source of energy to produce electricity for economical and technical reasons. Under the 'oil boom' in the 70s, transition to hydrocarbons resources (fuel oil) was progressive. As a result of implementing environmental policies, electricity has mainly been generated with natural gas since the early 2000.

  13. Phytophthora capsici - Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH): A Widespread Mechanism for Rapid Adaptation (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, Joanne

    2012-06-01

    Joanne Mudge on "Phytophthora capsici - Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH): A Widespread Mechanism for Rapid Mutation" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  14. Widespread marrow necrosis during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knickerbocker, W.J.; Quenville, N.F.

    1982-01-01

    Recently, a 22-year-old Caucasian female was referred to our Hospital two days post-partum. She had been feeling unwell during the last few days of her pregnancy and complained of multiple aches and pains, worst in the abdomen and lower back. Her admission platelet count was severely depressed and a bone biopsy showed extensive marrow necrosis with viable bony trabeculae. There was no evidence of vasculitis, vascular thrombosis, or malignancy. Widespread marrow necrosis in pregnancy followed by recovery, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported. (orig.)

  15. Chronic widespread pain in spondyloarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Atzeni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pain associated with spondyloarthritis (SpA can be intense, persistent and disabling. It frequently has a multifactorial, simultaneously central and peripheral origin, and may be due to currently active inflammation, or joint damage and tissue destruction arising from a previous inflammatory condition. Inflammatory pain symptoms can be reduced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but many patients continue to experience moderate pain due to alterations in the mechanisms that regulate central pain, as in the case of the chronic widespread pain (CWP that characterises fibromyalgia (FM. The importance of distinguishing SpA and FM is underlined by the fact that SpA is currently treated with costly drugs such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF inhibitors, and direct costs are higher in patients with concomitant CWP or FM than in those with FM or SpA alone. Optimal treatment needs to take into account symptoms such as fatigue, mood, sleep, and the overall quality of life, and is based on the use of tricyclic antidepressants or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as fluoxetine, rather than adjustments in the dose of anti-TNF agents or disease-modifying drugs.

  16. The electric power generation in Mexico and its environmental impacts: Past, present and future; La generacion electrica en Mexico y sus impactos ambientales: Pasado, presente y futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [Programa Universitario de Energia (PUE), Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the historical evolution, past and present of the installed capacity and of the electric power generation, as well as the fuel consumption and the associated green-house gases emission. Also, under the technique of economic scenarios and future towns (in short and mediate terms) the potential needs of installed capacity, generation, mix and fuel consumption and associated green gases emissions is analyzed. Later on a comment is made on the energy implications of the substitution of fuels policies and the environmental Standards. Finally, a series of comments is established on the possible technological directions for the sector, from the stand point of generation efficiency and its effects in the reduction of emissions [Espanol] El proposito del presente trabajo es analizar la evolucion historica, pasada y presente, de la capacidad instalada y de la generacion electrica, asi como el consumo de combustibles y las emisiones de gases de invernadero asociadas. Tambien se analiza bajo la tecnica de escenarios economicos y poblaciones a futuro (en el corto y mediano plazo) las posibles necesidades de capacidad instalada, generacion, mezcla y consumo de combustibles y emisiones de gases de invernadero asociadas. Posteriormente se comenta sobre las implicaciones energeticas de las politicas de sustitucion de combustibles y estandares ambientales. Por ultimo se establecen una serie de comentarios sobre las posibles direcciones tecnologicas para el sector, desde el punto de vista de la eficiencia de generacion y sus efectos en la reduccion de las emisiones

  17. Implementation of portfolio theory to the analysis of electricity generation in Mexico; Implementacion de la teoria del portafolio para el analisis de la generacion de energia electrica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel E, J.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Palacios H, J. C., E-mail: jaime.esquivel@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    As part of the activities of economic analysis to the National Energy Strategy 2013-2027 of Mexico has been developed a computational platform to support decision-making based on the risk and performance in obtaining the optimum combination of technologies involved in the electricity generation. To this end, they consider five technologies: combined cycle, thermal coal, nuclear, hydro and wind. Each technology has been analyzed independently based on the total cost of generation level (given in dl s/KWh or dl s/MWh), leaning on documents as the Poise 2012-2026 and COPAR 2013. Subsequently by portfolio theory proposed by Markowitz, that combination of technologies that provide a greater benefit in the electricity generation is determined. In this study we consider two base work areas on which the proposed portfolios are reflected. The conformation of work areas is derived from the National Energy Strategy 2013-2027, considering a scenario with fossil technologies (combined cycle, thermal coal and nuclear) and other, making greater emphasis on the use of renewable technologies (combined cycle, hydro and wind). Finally, four portfolios are presented, each one with different percentages of ownership of technology in electricity generation, verifying the risk and performance of each combination. Of the analyzed portfolios, one corresponds to the mix of technologies which are currently in the country. The remaining derive the percentage share of combined-cycle technology, by subtracting 10% of their contribution and distributing it in three ways: by increasing the 10% share of nuclear technology; increasing 10% contribution of thermal coal technology and finally, extending the 5% of the electricity generation of nuclear technology and 5% increase in the electricity generation by wind technology. (Author)

  18. Airborne particulate matter PM2.5 from Mexico City affects the generation of reactive oxygen species by blood neutrophils from asthmatics: an in vitro approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceballos Guillermo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mexico City Metropolitan Area is densely populated, and toxic air pollutants are generated and concentrated at a higher rate because of its geographic characteristics. It is well known that exposure to particulate matter, especially to fine and ultra-fine particles, enhances the risk of cardio-respiratory diseases, especially in populations susceptible to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fine particles on the respiratory burst of circulating neutrophils from asthmatic patients living in Mexico City. Methods In total, 6 subjects diagnosed with mild asthma and 11 healthy volunteers were asked to participate. Neutrophils were isolated from peripheral venous blood and incubated with fine particles, and the generation of reactive oxygen species was recorded by chemiluminescence. We also measured plasma lipoperoxidation susceptibility and plasma myeloperoxidase and paraoxonase activities by spectrophotometry. Results Asthmatic patients showed significantly lower plasma paraoxonase activity, higher susceptibility to plasma lipoperoxidation and an increase in myeloperoxidase activity that differed significantly from the control group. In the presence of fine particles, neutrophils from asthmatic patients showed an increased tendency to generate reactive oxygen species after stimulation with fine particles (PM2.5. Conclusion These findings suggest that asthmatic patients have higher oxidation of plasmatic lipids due to reduced antioxidant defense. Furthermore, fine particles tended to increase the respiratory burst of blood human neutrophils from the asthmatic group. On the whole, increased myeloperoxidase activity and susceptibility to lipoperoxidation with a concomitant decrease in paraoxonase activity in asthmatic patients could favor lung infection and hence disrupt the control of asthmatic crises.

  19. Renewable energies: A real option for the electrical generation in Mexico?; Energias renovables: opcion real para la generacion electrica en Mexico?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz V, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The renewable energies offer additional benefits to the kilowatts (kW) and kilowatts-hour (kWh) that they produce, because they include the creation of new jobs, a cleaner mean of generation and power assurance, among others. In view of this, most of the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and several developing nations have established goals for the renewable energies in their power plans. Many of these countries also have fomented the local development of industries of renewable energy and are penetrating aggressively in this new technology market. [Spanish] Las energias renovables ofrecen beneficios adicionales a los kilowatts (kW) y kilowatts-hora (kWh) que producen, pues incluyen la creacion de nuevos empleos, un medio mas limpio de generacion y seguridad energetica, entre otros. En vista de ello, la mayoria de los paises de la Organizacion de Cooperacion para el Desarrollo Economico (OCDE) y varias naciones en desarrollo han establecido metas para las energias renovables en sus planes energeticos. Muchos de estos paises tambien han fomentado el desarrollo local de industrias de energia renovable y estan penetrando agresivamente en este nuevo mercado de la tecnologia.

  20. Mexico Geoid Heights (MEXICO97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Mexico, and North-Central America, is the MEXICO97 geoid model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine gravity...

  1. Widespread EEG changes precede focal seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Perucca

    Full Text Available The process by which the brain transitions into an epileptic seizure is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the transition to seizure is associated with changes in brain dynamics detectable in the wideband EEG, and whether differences exist across underlying pathologies. Depth electrode ictal EEG recordings from 40 consecutive patients with pharmacoresistant lesional focal epilepsy were low-pass filtered at 500 Hz and sampled at 2,000 Hz. Predefined EEG sections were selected immediately before (immediate preictal, and 30 seconds before the earliest EEG sign suggestive of seizure activity (baseline. Spectral analysis, visual inspection and discrete wavelet transform were used to detect standard (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma and high-frequency bands (ripples and fast ripples. At the group level, each EEG frequency band activity increased significantly from baseline to the immediate preictal section, mostly in a progressive manner and independently of any modification in the state of vigilance. Preictal increases in each frequency band activity were widespread, being observed in the seizure-onset zone and lesional tissue, as well as in remote regions. These changes occurred in all the investigated pathologies (mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis, local/regional cortical atrophy, and malformations of cortical development, but were more pronounced in mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis. Our findings indicate that a brain state change with distinctive features, in the form of unidirectional changes across the entire EEG bandwidth, occurs immediately prior to seizure onset. We postulate that these changes might reflect a facilitating state of the brain which enables a susceptible region to generate seizures.

  2. Mexico: a solar future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Immersed in the global price instability of fossil fuels and with an upsurge in renewables as the agent for development, countries like Mexico, that largely depend on this resource to generate income and whose national electrical energy generation mainly comes from these fuels, find themselves obliged to take decisions that allow them to maintain their appeal compared to other emerging markets. In this decision-making process, Mexico has been slow to implement its long-awaited Energy Reform that incentivises direct foreign investment and avoids the monopolies that have until recently prevailed in the Mexican energy and electricity sector. (Author)

  3. History of nonnative Monk Parakeets in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Elizabeth A; Smith-Vidaurre, Grace; Salinas-Melgoza, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Nonnative Monk Parakeets have been reported in increasing numbers across many cities in Mexico, and were formally classified as an invasive species in Mexico in late 2016. However, there has not been a large-scale attempt to determine how international pet trade and national and international governmental regulations have played a part in colonization, and when the species appeared in different areas. We describe the changes in regulations that led the international pet trade market to shift to Mexico, then used international trade data to determine how many parakeets were commercially imported each year and where those individuals originated. We also quantified the recent increases in Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) sightings in Mexico in both the scientific literature and in citizen science reports. We describe the timeline of increased reports to understand the history of nonnative Monk Parakeets in Mexico. As in other areas where the species has colonized, the main mode of transport is through the international pet trade. Over half a million Monk Parakeets were commercially imported to Mexico during 2000-2015, with the majority of importation (90%) occurring in 2008-2014, and almost all (98%) were imported from Uruguay. The earliest record of a free-flying Monk Parakeet was observed during 1994-1995 in Mexico City, but sightings of the parakeets did not become geographically widespread in either the scientific literature or citizen science databases until 2012-2015. By 2015, parakeets had been reported in 97 cities in Mexico. Mexico City has consistently seen steep increases in reporting since this species was first reported in Mexico. Here we find that both national and international legal regulations and health concerns drove a rise and fall in Monk Parakeet pet trade importations, shortly followed by widespread sightings of feral parakeets across Mexico. Further monitoring of introduced Monk Parakeet populations in Mexico is needed to understand the

  4. Widespread pain: is an improved classification possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, G J; Croft, P R; Schollum, J; Silman, A J

    1996-09-01

    The classification of widespread pain, proposed by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) for use in the clinic as a screen for fibromyalgia, as described, does not require truly widespread pain. Studies considering the epidemiology of widespread pain per se may therefore require a definition with greater face validity, which might also show enhanced associations with other physical and psychological measures. We aimed to develop a more coherent definition of widespread pain for use in epidemiological studies and to compare performance in identifying individuals with significant morbidity. A group of 172 subjects who had participated in a community based study on the occurrence of pain were identified and categorized by their pain experience as indicated on line drawings of the body according to ACR definition and to a new, more stringent definition that required the presence of more diffuse limb pain. A number of other clinical and psychological measures were recorded for these individuals and the association between their pain status measures and these other variables was assessed and compared. Persons satisfying the newly proposed definition for chronic widespread pain, in comparison with those who satisfied only the present ACR definition, had a significantly higher score on the General Health Questionnaire [median difference (MD) 7.95% CI 1.13], a higher score on the Health and Fatigue Questionnaire (MD 10.95% CI 0.15), and greater problems with sleep (sleep problem score MD 4.95% CI 0.9). Those satisfying the new definition also had a greater number of tender points on examination (MD 3.95% CI -1.7). The morbidity of those satisfying only the present ACR definition was closer to persons who had regional pain. A redefinition of widespread pain has produced a group of subjects whose pain is (a) likely to be more "widespread" and (b) is associated more strongly with factors such as psychological disturbance, fatigue, sleep problems, and tender points, and

  5. NASA Applied Sciences Disasters Program Support for the September 2017 Mexico Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasscoe, M. T.; Kirschbaum, D.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Yun, S. H.; Owen, S. E.; Hua, H.; Fielding, E. J.; Liang, C.; Bekaert, D. P.; Osmanoglu, B.; Amini, R.; Green, D. S.; Murray, J. J.; Stough, T.; Struve, J. C.; Seepersad, J.; Thompson, V.

    2017-12-01

    The 8 September M 8.1 Tehuantepec and 19 September M 7.1 Puebla earthquakes were among the largest earthquakes recorded in Mexico. These two events caused widespread damage, affecting several million people and causing numerous casualties. A team of event coordinators in the NASA Applied Sciences Program activated soon after these devastating earthquakes in order to support decision makers in Mexico, using NASA modeling and international remote sensing capabilities to generate decision support products to aid in response and recovery. The NASA Disasters Program promotes the use of Earth observations to improve the prediction of, preparation for, response to, and recovery from natural and technological disasters. For these two events, the Disasters Program worked with Mexico's space agency (Agencia Espacial Mexico, AEM) and the National Center for Prevention of Disasters (Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres, CENAPRED) to generate products to support response, decision-making, and recovery. Products were also provided to academic partners, technical institutions, and field responders to support response. In addition, the Program partnered with the US Geological Survey (USGS), Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), and other partners in order to provide information to federal and domestic agencies that were supporting event response. Leveraging the expertise of investigators at NASA Centers, products such as landslide susceptibility maps, precipitation models, and radar based damage assessments and surface deformation maps were generated and used by AEM, CENAPRED, and others during the event. These were used by AEM in collaboration with other government agencies in Mexico to make appropriate decisions for mapping damage, rescue and recovery, and informing the population regarding areas prone to potential risk. We will provide an overview of the response activities and data products generated in support of the earthquake response, partnerships with

  6. Financing options in Mexico`s energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, J.J. [PricewaterhouseCoopers Securities, Houston, TX (United States)

    1999-10-01

    A series of brief notes accompanied this presentation which was divided into seven sections entitled: (1) capital markets update, (2) Mexican financial market update, (3) financing options in the energy industry, (4) the Venezuelan experience at La Apertura, (5) private and strategic equity alternatives, (6) Pricewaterhouse Coopers Securities, and (7) Mexico energy 2005 prediction. The paper focused on how the financial crisis and merger activity in Latin America will impact electricity reform in Mexico. It was noted that under Mexico`s Policy Proposal for Electricity Reform of the Mexican Electricity Industry, the financial community will seek to back companies in power generation, transportation and distribution. The difficulty of financing government businesses undergoing privatization was also discussed with particular emphasis on the challenge of accepting political and regulatory risks. The Latin private equity market and Canadian investment in Mexico was also reviewed. Since NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) went into affect in 1994, Canadian investment in Mexico has more than tripled. Canadian companies have invested more than C$1.7 billion in Mexico since NAFTA. Pricewaterhouse Coopers Securities is a global investment bank which sees large opportunities in the Mexican energy market. They predict that in five years, Mexico will experience a gradual liberalization of the oil and gas sector, and a full liberalization of the gas pipeline and distribution business and the power generation, transmission and distribution business. 3 figs.

  7. TRANSFERS BETWEEN GENERATIONS AND GENDERS. THE CASE OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2 IN A POOR URBAN CONTEXT OF CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Zapata-Martelo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transfer between generations of populations with diabetes mellitus type 2, play an important role in adherence to the treatment or disease control. The objective of the present study is to identify the magnitude, characteristics and reasons of the intergenerational transfers, and their effect on the absence of medical control from those who have diabetes mellitus type 2. The present study is inserted into the project: prevalence of chronic diseases in Chiapas. Epidemiology, social barriers and attention needs in the adult population (ECPA, in the city of Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas; the information was obtained from September 2005 to April 2006. For purposes of the present study were considered people of 40 years and older with diabetes mellitus type 2 previously diagnosed, resulting in the selection of 125 people with those characteristics: 43 men and 82 women. The results showed that approximately 90% of the people received any type of economical or emotional transfer, there is greater support from children to mothers, and the reasons for transfers were mainly voluntary. The effect of emotional support in women it’s greater than in men in the adherence to treatment and disease control.

  8. Citizen participation, indispensable factor in the generation of urban design projects that respond to the needs of users in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Franco Muñoz

    2015-09-01

    reflected in these programs planning of urban spaces really required citizenship also will access the urban design projects of these spaces, provided with sufficient basis to meet the needs of the population. The work done at the stage of urban planning in conjunction with the granting of citizenship will allow to build the urban space, structure, characteristics and performance that generate people to develop their urban activities properly in the field of city also expressed by the public would provide information that would give the necessary steps bases, studies to substantiate the project, zoning, and the draft scheme, which will be essential stages in the process of realization and implementation of the design project Urban performed.

  9. Ultraviolet vision may be widespread in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Bonaccorso, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Insectivorous bats are well known for their abilities to find and pursue flying insect prey at close range using echolocation, but they also rely heavily on vision. For example, at night bats use vision to orient across landscapes, avoid large obstacles, and locate roosts. Although lacking sharp visual acuity, the eyes of bats evolved to function at very low levels of illumination. Recent evidence based on genetics, immunohistochemistry, and laboratory behavioral trials indicated that many bats can see ultraviolet light (UV), at least at illumination levels similar to or brighter than those before twilight. Despite this growing evidence for potentially widespread UV vision in bats, the prevalence of UV vision among bats remains unknown and has not been studied outside of the laboratory. We used a Y-maze to test whether wild-caught bats could see reflected UV light and whether such UV vision functions at the dim lighting conditions typically experienced by night-flying bats. Seven insectivorous species of bats, representing five genera and three families, showed a statistically significant ‘escape-toward-the-light’ behavior when placed in the Y-maze. Our results provide compelling evidence of widespread dim-light UV vision in bats.

  10. Infrequent widespread microsatellite instability in hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H; Itoh, F; Fukushima, H; Kaneto, H; Sasaki, S; Ohmura, T; Satoh, T; Karino, Y; Endo, T; Toyota, J; Imai, K

    2000-03-01

    Widespread or high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI) due to the defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) occurs in the majority of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer and a subset of sporadic malignant tumors. The incidence of MSI and underlying DNA MMR defects have been well characterized in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis, but not in hepatocarcinogenesis. To address the issue, we analyzed 55 Japanese hepatocellular carcinomas using several indicators of DNA MMR defects, such as microsatellite analysis, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and mutation analysis of MMR genes, methylation of hMLH1 promoter, and frameshift mutations of mononucleotide repeat sequences within possible target genes. Mutation of beta2-microglobulin gene, which is presumably involved in MSI-positive tumor cell escape from immune surveillance was also examined. Some of these analyses were also carried out in 9 human liver cancer cell lines. None of the 3 quasi-monomorphic mononucleotide markers sensitive for MSI, BAT26, BAT25, and BAT34C4 presented shortened unstable alleles in any of the carcinoma, cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis tissues, or cell lines. LOH at MMR genes was infrequent (4.4 approximately 7.1%), and no mutations were detected. Neither hMLH1 hypermethylation nor frameshift mutation in the target genes was detected. No mutations were found in beta2-microglobulin. Widespread MSI due to the defective DNA MMR appears to play little if any part in Japanese hepatocarcinogenesis.

  11. From DNS to RANS: A Multi-model workflow to understand the Influence of Hurricanes on Generating Turbidity Currents in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvitski, J. P.; Arango, H.; Harris, C. K.; Meiburg, E. H.; Jenkins, C. J.; Auad, G.; Hutton, E.; Kniskern, T. A.; Radhakrishnan, S.

    2016-12-01

    A loosely coupled numerical workflow is developed to address land-sea pathways for sediment routing from terrestrial and coastal sources, across the continental shelf and ultimately down the continental slope canyon system of the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Model simulations represent a range of environmental conditions that might lead to the generation of turbidity-currents. The workflow comprises: 1) A simulator for the water and sediment discharged from rivers into the GOM with WMBsedv2 with calibration using USGS and USACE gauged river data; 2) Domain grids and bathymetry (ETOPO2) for the ocean models and realistic seabed sediment texture grids (dbSEABED) for the sediment transport models; 3) A spectral wave action simulator (10 km resolution) (WaveWatch III) driven by GFDL - GFS winds; 4) A simulator for ocean dynamics (ROMS) forced with ECMWF ERA winds; 5) A simulator for seafloor resuspension and transport (CSTMS); 6) Simulators (HurriSlip) of seafloor failure and flow ignition locations for boundary input to a turbidity current model; and 7) A RANS turbidity current model (TURBINS) to route sediment flows down GOM canyons, providing estimates of bottom shear stresses. TURBINS was developed first as a DNS model and then converted to an LES model wherein a dynamic turbulence closure scheme was employed. Like most DNS to LES model comparisons (these being done by the UCSB team), turbulence scaling allowed for higher Re applications but were found still not capable of simulating field scale (GOM continental canyons) environments. The LES model was next converted to a non-hydrostatic RANS model capable of field scale applications but only with a daisy-chain approach to multiple model runs along the simulated canyon floor. These model adaptations allowed the workflow to be tested for the year 1-Oct-2007 to 30-Sep-2008 that included two domain Hurricanes (Ike and Gustav). The RANS-TURBINS employed further boundary simplifications on both sediment erosion and

  12. Information networks that generate economic value: A study on clusters of adopters of new or improved technologies and practices among oil palm growers in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar-Gallegos, N.; Muñoz-Rodríguez, M.; Santoyo-Cortés, H.; Aguilar-Ávila, J.; Klerkx, L.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    The area under cultivation of oil palm has undergone considerable growth in Mexico, but yields are far below their potential. This is related to the low rate of adoption of new or improved technologies and practices in areas such as plantation management and farm administration. This study

  13. Comparative phylogeography of two widespread magpies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ruiying; Song, Gang; Qu, Yanhua

    2012-01-01

    Historical geological events and climatic changes are believed to have played important roles in shaping the current distribution of species. However, sympatric species may have responded in different ways to such climatic fluctuations. Here we compared genetic structures of two corvid species......, the Azure-winged Magpie Cyanopica cyanus and the Eurasian Magpie Pica pica, both widespread but with different habitat dependence and some aspects of breeding behavior. Three mitochondrial genes and two nuclear introns were used to examine their co-distributed populations in East China and the Iberian...... Peninsula. Both species showed deep divergences between these two regions that were dated to the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene. In the East Chinese clade of C. cyanus, populations were subdivided between Northeast China and Central China, probably since the early to mid-Pleistocene, and the Central...

  14. International arrivals: widespread bioinvasions in European Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galil, B S; Marchini, A; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A; Minchin, D; Narščius, A; Ojaveer, H; Olenin, S

    2014-04-01

    The European Union lacks a comprehensive framework to address the threats posed by the introduction and spread of marine non-indigenous species (NIS). Current efforts are fragmented and suffer substantial gaps in coverage. In this paper we identify and discuss issues relating to the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of introductions in European Seas (ES), based on a scientifically validated information system of aquatic non-indigenous and cryptogenic species, AquaNIS. While recognizing the limitations of the existing data, we extract information that can be used to assess the relative risk of introductions for different taxonomic groups, geographic regions and likely vectors. The dataset comprises 879 multicellular NIS. We applied a country-based approach to assess patterns of NIS richness in ES, and identify the principal introduction routes and vectors, the most widespread NIS and their spatial and temporal spread patterns. Between 1970 and 2013, the number of recorded NIS has grown by 86, 173 and 204% in the Baltic, Western European margin and the Mediterranean, respectively; 52 of the 879 NIS were recorded in 10 or more countries, and 25 NIS first recorded in European seas since 1990 have since been reported in five or more countries. Our results highlight the ever-rising role of shipping (commercial and recreational) as a vector for the widespread and recently spread NIS. The Suez Canal, a corridor unique to the Mediterranean, is responsible for the increased introduction of new thermophilic NIS into this warming sea. The 2020 goal of the EU Biodiversity Strategy concerning marine Invasive Alien Species may not be fully attainable. The setting of a new target date should be accompanied by scientifically robust, sensible and pragmatic plans to minimize introductions of marine NIS and to study those present.

  15. Widespread Natural Occurrence of Hydroxyurea in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, David I; Liu, Kyle T; Reid, Bryan J; Hawkins, Emily; Sevier, Andrew; Pyle, Michelle; Robinson, Jacob W; Ouellette, Pierre H R; Ballantyne, James S

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the widespread natural occurrence of a known antibiotic and antineoplastic compound, hydroxyurea in animals from many taxonomic groups. Hydroxyurea occurs in all the organisms we have examined including invertebrates (molluscs and crustaceans), fishes from several major groups, amphibians and mammals. The species with highest concentrations was an elasmobranch (sharks, skates and rays), the little skate Leucoraja erinacea with levels up to 250 μM, high enough to have antiviral, antimicrobial and antineoplastic effects based on in vitro studies. Embryos of L. erinacea showed increasing levels of hydroxyurea with development, indicating the capacity for hydroxyurea synthesis. Certain tissues of other organisms (e.g. skin of the frog (64 μM), intestine of lobster (138 μM) gills of the surf clam (100 μM)) had levels high enough to have antiviral effects based on in vitro studies. Hydroxyurea is widely used clinically in the treatment of certain human cancers, sickle cell anemia, psoriasis, myeloproliferative diseases, and has been investigated as a potential treatment of HIV infection and its presence at high levels in tissues of elasmobranchs and other organisms suggests a novel mechanism for fighting disease that may explain the disease resistance of some groups. In light of the known production of nitric oxide from exogenously applied hydroxyurea, endogenous hydoxyurea may play a hitherto unknown role in nitric oxide dynamics.

  16. Widespread Natural Occurrence of Hydroxyurea in Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Fraser

    Full Text Available Here we report the widespread natural occurrence of a known antibiotic and antineoplastic compound, hydroxyurea in animals from many taxonomic groups. Hydroxyurea occurs in all the organisms we have examined including invertebrates (molluscs and crustaceans, fishes from several major groups, amphibians and mammals. The species with highest concentrations was an elasmobranch (sharks, skates and rays, the little skate Leucoraja erinacea with levels up to 250 μM, high enough to have antiviral, antimicrobial and antineoplastic effects based on in vitro studies. Embryos of L. erinacea showed increasing levels of hydroxyurea with development, indicating the capacity for hydroxyurea synthesis. Certain tissues of other organisms (e.g. skin of the frog (64 μM, intestine of lobster (138 μM gills of the surf clam (100 μM had levels high enough to have antiviral effects based on in vitro studies. Hydroxyurea is widely used clinically in the treatment of certain human cancers, sickle cell anemia, psoriasis, myeloproliferative diseases, and has been investigated as a potential treatment of HIV infection and its presence at high levels in tissues of elasmobranchs and other organisms suggests a novel mechanism for fighting disease that may explain the disease resistance of some groups. In light of the known production of nitric oxide from exogenously applied hydroxyurea, endogenous hydoxyurea may play a hitherto unknown role in nitric oxide dynamics.

  17. Widespread ectopic expression of olfactory receptor genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanai Itai

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olfactory receptors (ORs are the largest gene family in the human genome. Although they are expected to be expressed specifically in olfactory tissues, some ectopic expression has been reported, with special emphasis on sperm and testis. The present study systematically explores the expression patterns of OR genes in a large number of tissues and assesses the potential functional implication of such ectopic expression. Results We analyzed the expression of hundreds of human and mouse OR transcripts, via EST and microarray data, in several dozens of human and mouse tissues. Different tissues had specific, relatively small OR gene subsets which had particularly high expression levels. In testis, average expression was not particularly high, and very few highly expressed genes were found, none corresponding to ORs previously implicated in sperm chemotaxis. Higher expression levels were more common for genes with a non-OR genomic neighbor. Importantly, no correlation in expression levels was detected for human-mouse orthologous pairs. Also, no significant difference in expression levels was seen between intact and pseudogenized ORs, except for the pseudogenes of subfamily 7E which has undergone a human-specific expansion. Conclusion The OR superfamily as a whole, show widespread, locus-dependent and heterogeneous expression, in agreement with a neutral or near neutral evolutionary model for transcription control. These results cannot reject the possibility that small OR subsets might play functional roles in different tissues, however considerable care should be exerted when offering a functional interpretation for ectopic OR expression based only on transcription information.

  18. Ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages from Mexico (tequila, mezcal, bacanora, sotol) and Guatemala (cuxa): market survey and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kanteres, Fotis; Kuballa, Thomas; López, Mercedes G; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a recognized genotoxic carcinogen, with widespread occurrence in fermented foods and beverages. No data on its occurrence in alcoholic beverages from Mexico or Central America is available. Samples of agave spirits including tequila, mezcal, bacanora and sotol (n=110), and of the sugarcane spirit cuxa (n=16) were purchased in Mexico and Guatemala, respectively, and analyzed for EC. The incidence of EC contamination was higher in Mexico than in Guatemala, however, concentrations were below international guideline levels (Mexico.

  19. Use of Medicinal Plants in Monterrey, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Enrique GONZÁLEZ-STUART

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mexico has a rich tradition in medicinal plant use within its diverse traditional healing practices. Many people have used medicinal herbs to treat a variety of diseases and ailments for many generations. Located in the northeast, Monterrey is Mexico’s third largest city and one of the most industrialized cities in Latin America. In spite of widespread use of modern pharmaceuticals, and the availability of "scientific" or mainstream medicine in this city, many people still rely on traditional healers, as well as the use medicinal plants to combat illness. This study was undertaken in order to obtain information regarding the most popular medicinal plants used in Monterrey, as well as their uses, forms of application, and origin. Thirteen herbal providers voluntarily accepted to be interviewed within 2 of the city’s largest popular herbal marketplaces. A questionnaire written in the Spanish language was provided to all interviewees, regarding their years in business, their source of information or expertise in recommending herbs, as well as the type of herbs employed for the treatment of various diseases or afflictions. Fifty-six medicinal plants belonging to 27 botanical families, mostly sold as crude herbs, were mentioned by the herbal providers as being the most commonly used to treat various ailments.

  20. Radioactive waste management in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, L.; Reyes L, J.; Jimenez D, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the radioactive waste management in Mexico, particularly the activities that the National Institute of Nuclear Research (NINR) is undertaking in this field. Classification and annual generation of radioactive waste, together with practices and facilities relating to the management of radioactive waste are addressed. The respective national legal framework and policy are outlined. (author)

  1. DNA-based identification of Armillaria isolates from peach orchards in Mexico state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben Damian Elias Roman; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Dionicio Alvarado Rosales; Mee-Sook Kim; Anna E. Case; Sara M. Ashiglar; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; Remigio A. Guzman Plazola

    2012-01-01

    A collaborative project between the Programa de Fitopatología, Colegio de Postgraduados, Texcoco, Estado de Mexico and the USDA Forest Service - RMRS, Moscow Forest Pathology Laboratory has begun this year (2011) to assess which species of Armillaria are causing widespread and severe damage to the peach orchards from México state, Mexico. We are employing a DNA-based...

  2. September 1985 Mexico City, Mexico Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.1 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Mexico. The damage was concentrated in a 25 square km area of Mexico City, 350 km from the epicenter....

  3. Interest Groups and Trade Reform in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Sanchez-Mier

    2005-01-01

    Mexico experienced widespread economic reform in the last two decades. From being a protectionist economy with a policy of import substitution, it has turned into an export-oriented open economy. Why was protectionism a stable policy, and how was it overturned by a reform that went against entrenched interests? I apply a game theoretic model of political influence and economic reform to answer these questions using data to calculate the payoffs for the relevant interest groups. In the underly...

  4. Spatial and temporal variability in fire occurrence within the Las Bayas Forestry Reserve, Durango, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. A. Drury; T. T. Veblen

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of fire occurrence within the Las Bayas Forestry Reserve, Mexico are analyzed in relation to variability in climate, topography, and human land-use. Significantly more fires with shorter fire return intervals occurred from 1900 to 1950 than from 1950 to 2001. However, the frequency of widespread fire years (25% filter) was unchanged over time, as widespread...

  5. Natural gas in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on various aspects of the natural gas industry in Mexico. Some of the viewgraphs depicted statistics from 1998 regarding natural gas throughput from various companies in North America, natural gas reserves around the world, and natural gas reserves in Mexico. Other viewgraphs depicted associated and non-associated natural gas production from 1988 to 1998 in million cubic feet per day. The Burgos Basin and the Cantarell Basin gas production from 1997 to 2004 was also depicted. Other viewgraphs were entitled: (1) gas processing infrastructure for 1999, (2) cryogenic plant at Cd. PEMEX, (3) average annual growth of dry natural gas production for 1997-2004 is estimated at 5.2 per cent, (4) gas flows for December 1998, (5) PGPB- interconnect points, (6) U.S. Mexico gas trade for 1994-1998, (7) PGPB's interconnect projects with U.S., and (8) natural gas storage areas. Technological innovations in the industry include more efficient gas turbines which allow for cogeneration, heat recovery steam generators which reduce pollutant emissions by 21 per cent, cold boxes which increase heat transfer efficiency, and lateral reboilers which reduce energy consumption and total costs. A pie chart depicting natural gas demand by sector shows that natural gas for power generation will increase from 16 per cent in 1997 to 31 per cent in 2004. The opportunities for cogeneration projects were also reviewed. The Comision Federal de Electricidad and independent power producers represent the largest opportunity. The 1997-2001 investment program proposes an 85 per cent sulphur dioxide emission reduction compared to 1997 levels. This presentation also noted that during the 1998-2001 period, total ethane production will grow by 58 tbd. 31 figs

  6. Mexico; Mexique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes the key energy data for Mexico: 1 - energy organizations and policy: Ministry of energy (SENER), Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE), Ministry of Finances, Ministry of trade and industrial development (SECOFI), national commission for energy savings (CONAE); 2 - companies: federal commission of electricity (CFE), Minera Carbonifera Rio Escondido (MICARE - coal), Pemex (petroleum); 3 - energy production: resources, electric power, petroleum, natural gas; 4 - energy consumption; 5 - stakes and perspectives. Some economic and energy indicators are summarized in a series of tables: general indicators, supply indicators (reserves, refining and electric capacity, energy production, foreign trade), demand indicators (consumption trends, end use, energy independence, energy efficiency, CO{sub 2} emissions), energy status per year and per energy source. (J.S.)

  7. Best Practices for Mudweight Window Generation and Accuracy Assessment between Seismic Based Pore Pressure Prediction Methodologies for a Near-Salt Field in Mississippi Canyon, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannon, Timothy Patrick, Jr.

    Improving well design has and always will be the primary goal in drilling operations in the oil and gas industry. Oil and gas plays are continuing to move into increasingly hostile drilling environments, including near and/or sub-salt proximities. The ability to reduce the risk and uncertainly involved in drilling operations in unconventional geologic settings starts with improving the techniques for mudweight window modeling. To address this issue, an analysis of wellbore stability and well design improvement has been conducted. This study will show a systematic approach to well design by focusing on best practices for mudweight window projection for a field in Mississippi Canyon, Gulf of Mexico. The field includes depleted reservoirs and is in close proximity of salt intrusions. Analysis of offset wells has been conducted in the interest of developing an accurate picture of the subsurface environment by making connections between depth, non-productive time (NPT) events, and mudweights used. Commonly practiced petrophysical methods of pore pressure, fracture pressure, and shear failure gradient prediction have been applied to key offset wells in order to enhance the well design for two proposed wells. For the first time in the literature, the accuracy of the commonly accepted, seismic interval velocity based and the relatively new, seismic frequency based methodologies for pore pressure prediction are qualitatively and quantitatively compared for accuracy. Accuracy standards will be based on the agreement of the seismic outputs to pressure data obtained while drilling and petrophysically based pore pressure outputs for each well. The results will show significantly higher accuracy for the seismic frequency based approach in wells that were in near/sub-salt environments and higher overall accuracy for all of the wells in the study as a whole.

  8. Mexico: Imports or exports?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, J.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of Mexico's energy sector. Proven oil reserves place Mexico in ninth position in the world and fourth largest in natural gas reserves. Energy is one of the most important economic activities of the country, representing 3 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Oil exports represent 8.4 per cent of total exports. Approximately 40 per cent of total public investment is earmarked for energy projects. The author discusses energy resources and energy sector limitations. The energy sector plan for the period 2001-2006 is discussed. Its goals are to ensure energy supply, to develop the energy sector, to stimulate participation of Mexican enterprises, to promote renewable energy sources, and to strengthen international energy cooperation. The regulatory framework is being adapted to increase private investment. Some graphs are presented, displaying the primary energy production and primary energy consumption. Energy sector reforms are reviewed, as are electricity and natural gas reforms. The energy sector demand for 2000-2010 and investment requirements are reviewed, as well as fuel consumption for power generation. The author discusses the National Pipeline System (SNG) and the bottlenecks caused by pressure efficiency in the northeast, flow restriction on several pipeline segments, variability of the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) own use, and pressure drop on central regions. The entire prospect for natural gas in the country is reviewed, along with the Strategic Gas Program (PEG) consisting of 20 projects, including 4 non-associated natural gas, 9 exploration and 7 optimization. A section dealing with multiple service contracts is included in the presentation. The authors conclude by stating that the priority is a national energy policy to address Mexico's energy security requirements, to increase natural gas production while promoting the diversification of imports, and a regulatory framework to be updated in light of current

  9. Analysis of the generation of electric energy through the use of biogas obtained from sanitary fillings in Mexico; Analisis de la generacion de energia electrica a traves de biogas procedente de rellenos sanitarios en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda Sauvage, Tania Kalinka [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    Through this work a theoretical analysis conducted for the use of biogas obtained from sanitary landfills for the generation of electrical energy is presented, as well as the evaluation of the main elements that limit or favor the development of this technology in our country. In the introductory part of this work are presented some causes considered have favored the development of technologies as the one proposed here. In the first part it is exposed what the biogas is and what conditions are necessary for its production, which explains the production of biogas in the sanitary landfills, in addition, describes the distribution of the solid residues that give raise to the present situation of the sanitary landfills and the biogas production process in these. The work continues with a description of the electrical energy generation process through the gas originated in sanitary landfills, indicating the necessary conditions in order that the filling complies with its basic functions; following our process until obtaining the final item, electrical energy. For the description of the process and to analyze some factors that take part, it is advisable to include the main aspects of a plant located in Monterrey that occupies this technology. This project shows project shows off in a tangible form the barriers that this technology faces, as well as its main advantages and disadvantages. Are exposed the limiting factors of this technology in technological, economic, political and social aspects, the barriers that can and must overcome as well as the reasons that justify the effort to overcome them. Finally are presented the conclusions it arrives, as well as the commentaries and suggestions in respect to the subject. [Spanish] A traves de este trabajo se expone un analisis teorico efectuado al uso de biogas extraido de rellenos sanitarios para la generacion de energia electrica, asi como evaluar los principales elementos que limitan o favorecen el desarrollo de esta

  10. Electric power and environment in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintanilla, J.

    1997-01-01

    This volume is one of the three resulting volumes about the project named Document analysis and prospective organized by the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) through it University Energy Program (PUE). It is a non-periodical publication collection of the variable content and extent that as a whole constitutes an information heritage and an original contribution about the energy problematic as International level as at the country context and the University activities. In this book the manners of producing electrical energy are discussed, so how satisfying the growing necessities of this energy in Mexico without contaminating environment and how doing rational and efficient use of energy. The content of each document of this book is however exclusive responsibility of authors, as in the information as in their told opinions. The following papers were presented: 1) Hydroelectricity, soils use and water management. 2) The electric generation in Mexico and its environmental impacts: Past, present and future. 3) The nucleo electricity and the radioactive materials management. 4) Exposure to electromagnetic fields and its association with leukemia in children. 5) The electric power in Mexico and the supportable development. 6) Potential of electric generation at great scale with eolic energy in Mexico. 7) Toward an electric generation scheme distributed with non-conventional energies. 8) Renewable sources of energy in Mexico at the Century 21. (Author)

  11. isoenzyme analysis of five endemic and one widespread kniphofia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ISOENZYME ANALYSIS OF FIVE ENDEMIC AND ONE WIDESPREAD ... plants. The over all mean inbreeding coefficient (F) was positive indicating slight deficiency in the number of ...... populations, indicates rather recent speciation.

  12. Personality disparity in chronic regional and widespread pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Chung; Chen, Po-Fei; Lung, For-Wey

    2017-08-01

    Chronic pain has high comorbidity with psychiatric disorders, therefore, better understanding of the relationship between chronic pain and mental illness is needed. This study aimed to investigate the pathway relationships among parental attachment, personality characteristics, alexithymic trait and mental health in patients with chronic widespread pain, those with chronic regional pain, and controls. Two hundred and thirty participants were recruited. The parental Bonding Inventory, Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI), 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Chinese Health Questionnaire, and Short-Form 36 were filled out. The pathway relationships revealed that patients of mothers who were more protective were more neurotic, had more difficulty identifying feelings (DIF), worse mental health, and a higher association with chronic widespread pain. No differences were found between patients with chronic regional pain and the controls. The predisposing factors for chronic widespread pain, when compared with chronic regional pain, may be more closely related to psychiatric disorders. The pathways to chronic regional pain and chronic widespread pain differ, with neuroticism and the alexithymic DIF trait being the main factors defining chronic widespread pain. Therefore, besides therapies targeting pain symptoms, psychiatric consultation, medication and psychotherapy are also recommended for those with chronic widespread pain to alleviate their mental health conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Opportunity for America: Mexico`s coal future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, V.W.

    1993-09-01

    This study examines the history, current status and future prospects for increased coal use in Mexico. Environmental implications of the power-generation capacity expansion plans are examined in general terms. Mexican environmental law and regulations are briefly reviewed along with the new sense of urgency in the cleanup of existing environmental problems and avoidance of new problems as clearly mandated in recent Mexican government policy initiatives. It is expected that new capital facilities will need to incorporate the latest in process and technology to comply with existing environmental regulation. Technology developments which address these issues are identified. What opportunities have new initiatives caused by the recent diversification of Mexico`s energy economy offered US firms? This report looks at the potential future use of coal in the Mexican energy economy, examining this issue with an eye toward identifying markets that might be available to US coal producers and the best way to approach them. Market opportunities are identified by examining new developments in the Mexican economy generally and the energy economy particularly. These developments are examined in light of the current situation and the history which brought Mexico to its present status.

  14. New Mexico Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of parks in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data from a...

  15. New Mexico State Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the generalized physical boundaries of New Mexico State Parks, in polygonal form with limited attributes, compiled using...

  16. New Mexico Ghost Towns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data provides locations and non-spatial attributes of many ghost towns in the State of New Mexico, compiled from various sources. Locations provided with...

  17. Mexico: one of the last great emerging markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.J.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Mexican government's proposed reform of the electricity industry and its efforts to raise capital from the private sector are examined. The restructuring of the industry, the expansion of the natural gas projects in the Frontera US/Mexico border region, and the market potential along the border are discussed. Details of Mexico's electricity generation projects are tabulated, and Mexico/US electricity and natural gas prices for 1998-1999 are plotted. (UK)

  18. English Teaching in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Discusses teaching English in Mexico, a country with important social, cultural, and economic ties to the United States. Looks at the various English teaching situations as well as teacher education for teachers in Mexico. Concludes that the English teaching situation in Mexico reflects great diversity and growth, and that the knowledge of English…

  19. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  20. Mexico: swapping crude for atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, B.

    1982-01-01

    Mexico, considered the Saudi Arabia of the Western Hemisphere because of its proven and potential petroleum reserves, has surprised the world: it has embarked on the biggest nuclear-electric program in the Third World, only to postpone it days before scheduled approval of an international bidding (on which the atomic energy industry had pinned its hopes). A graph shows Mexican supplies of electricity by source with official projections to 1990. The point of entrance of the first nuclear reactor, originally scheduled for 1982, won't come onstream until 1983; and how nuclear-generated electricity grows close to 5% of the total in 1990. The big question is, will the future President of Mexico give the green light to the atomic megaproject. And if he does, how will Mexico deal with the serious logistics problems and grave ecological implications confronting the industry worldwide. In this issue, the author and Energy Detente touch on these questions and review the nuclear power status of Mexico, as well as addressing some of its global problems. Also presented in this issue is an update of the fuel price/tax series for the Western Hemisphere countries

  1. The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peach, James; Starbuck, C.

    2009-06-01

    The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. The analysis is based on economic multipliers derived from an input-output model of the New Mexico economy. The direct, indirect, and induced impacts of coal mining in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment, and labor income for calendar year 2007. Tax, rental, and royalty income to the State of New Mexico are also presented. Historical coal production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. The impacts of coal-fired electricity generation will be examined in a separate report.

  2. The wind power of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Escobedo, Q.; Manzano-Agugliaro, F.; Zapata-Sierra, A.

    2010-01-01

    The high price of fossil fuels and the environmental damage they cause have encouraged the development of renewable energy resources, especially wind power. This work discusses the potential of wind power in Mexico, using data collected every 10 min between 2000 and 2008 at 133 automatic weather stations around the country. The wind speed, the number of hours of wind useful for generating electricity and the potential electrical power that could be generated were estimated for each year via the modelling of a wind turbine employing a logistic curve. A linear correlation of 90.3% was seen between the mean annual wind speed and the mean annual number of hours of useful wind. Maps were constructed of the country showing mean annual wind speeds, useful hours of wind, and the electrical power that could be generated. The results show that Mexico has great wind power potential with practically the entire country enjoying more than 1700 h of useful wind per year and the potential to generate over 2000 kW of electrical power per year per wind turbine installed (except for the Chiapas's State). Indeed, with the exception of six states, over 5000 kW per year could be generated by each turbine. (author)

  3. Electric power and environment in Mexico; Energia electrica y medio ambiente en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla, J. [ed.] [UNAM IIE-PUE, Ciudad Universitaria (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    This volume is one of the three resulting volumes about the project named Document analysis and prospective organized by the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) through it University Energy Program (PUE). It is a non-periodical publication collection of the variable content and extent that as a whole constitutes an information heritage and an original contribution about the energy problematic as International level as at the country context and the University activities. In this book the manners of producing electrical energy are discussed, so how satisfying the growing necessities of this energy in Mexico without contaminating environment and how doing rational and efficient use of energy. The content of each document of this book is however exclusive responsibility of authors, as in the information as in their told opinions. The following papers were presented: 1) Hydroelectricity, soils use and water management. 2) The electric generation in Mexico and its environmental impacts: Past, present and future. 3) The nucleo electricity and the radioactive materials management. 4) Exposure to electromagnetic fields and its association with leukemia in children. 5) The electric power in Mexico and the supportable development. 6) Potential of electric generation at great scale with eolic energy in Mexico. 7) Toward an electric generation scheme distributed with non-conventional energies. 8) Renewable sources of energy in Mexico at the Century 21. (Author)

  4. Interdisciplinary rehabilitation of patients with chronic widespread pain:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amris, Kirstine; Wæhrens, Eva E; Christensen, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the functional and psychological outcomes of a 2-week, group-based multicomponent treatment course that targeted patients with chronic widespread pain. Patients (192 included in the intention-to-treat population), all fulfilling the 1990 American College of Rheumatology...

  5. Are neonicotinoid insecticides driving declines of widespread butterflies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre S. Gilburn

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been widespread concern that neonicotinoid pesticides may be adversely impacting wild and managed bees for some years, but recently attention has shifted to examining broader effects they may be having on biodiversity. For example in the Netherlands, declines in insectivorous birds are positively associated with levels of neonicotinoid pollution in surface water. In England, the total abundance of widespread butterfly species declined by 58% on farmed land between 2000 and 2009 despite both a doubling in conservation spending in the UK, and predictions that climate change should benefit most species. Here we build models of the UK population indices from 1985 to 2012 for 17 widespread butterfly species that commonly occur at farmland sites. Of the factors we tested, three correlated significantly with butterfly populations. Summer temperature and the index for a species the previous year are both positively associated with butterfly indices. By contrast, the number of hectares of farmland where neonicotinoid pesticides are used is negatively associated with butterfly indices. Indices for 15 of the 17 species show negative associations with neonicotinoid usage. The declines in butterflies have largely occurred in England, where neonicotinoid usage is at its highest. In Scotland, where neonicotinoid usage is comparatively low, butterfly numbers are stable. Further research is needed urgently to show whether there is a causal link between neonicotinoid usage and the decline of widespread butterflies or whether it simply represents a proxy for other environmental factors associated with intensive agriculture.

  6. Thermal Non-equilibrium Consistent with Widespread Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, A.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J.; Mok, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Time correlation analysis has been used to show widespread cooling in the solar corona; this cooling has been interpreted as a result of impulsive (nanoflare) heating. In this work, we investigate wide-spread cooling using a 3D model for a solar active region which has been heated with highly stratified heating. This type of heating drives thermal non-equilibrium solutions, meaning that though the heating is effectively steady, the density and temperature in the solution are not. We simulate the expected observations in narrowband EUV images and apply the time correlation analysis. We find that the results of this analysis are qualitatively similar to the observed data. We discuss additional diagnostics that may be applied to differentiate between these two heating scenarios.

  7. Diversity of two widespread Indo-Pacific demosponge species revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Erpenbeck, D.; Aryasari, R.; Benning, S.; Debitus, Cécile; Kaltenbacher, E.; Al-Aidaroos, A. M.; Schupp, P.; Hall, K.; Hooper, J. N. A.; Voigt, O.; de Voogd, N. J.; Worheide, G.

    2017-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific is the world's largest marine biogeographic region, covering the tropical and subtropical waters from the Red Sea in the Western Indian Ocean to the Easter Islands in the Pacific. It is characterized by a vast degree of biogeographic connectivity in particular in its marine realm. So far, usage of molecular tools rejected the presence of cosmopolitan or very widespread sponge species in several cases, supporting hypotheses on a higher level of endemism among marine invertebra...

  8. Widespread Usutu virus outbreak in birds in the Netherlands, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijks, JM; Kik, ML; Slaterus, R; Foppen, RPB; Stroo, A; IJzer, J; Stahl, J; Gröne, A; Koopmans, MGP; van der Jeugd, HP; Reusken, CBEM

    2016-01-01

    We report a widespread Usutu virus outbreak in birds in the Netherlands. Viral presence had been detected through targeted surveillance as early as April 2016 and increased mortality in common blackbirds and captive great grey owls was noticed from August 2016 onwards. Usutu virus infection was confirmed by post-mortem examination and RT-PCR. Extensive Usutu virus activity in the Netherlands in 2016 underlines the need to monitor mosquito activity and mosquito-borne infections in 2017 and beyond. PMID:27918257

  9. Widespread plant species: natives vs. aliens in our changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Pyšek, Petr; Kartesz, John; Nishino, Misako; Pauchard, Aníbal; Winter, Marten; Pino, Joan; Richardson, David M.; Wilson, John R.U.; Murray, Brad R.; Phillips, Megan L.; Ming-yang, Li; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Font, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments.

  10. Widespread plant species: Natives versus aliens in our changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Pysek, P.; Kartesz, J.; Nishino, M.; Pauchard, A.; Winter, M.; Pino, J.; Richardson, D.M.; Wilson, J.R.U.; Murray, B.R.; Phillips, M.L.; Ming-yang, L.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Font, X.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  11. [Aging in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras de Lehr, E

    1986-01-01

    Demographic social and economic aspects of the situation of the elderly in Mexico are described with special emphasis upon education programmes and types of care in nursing homes. Considering the future trends of an increase in Mexico's elderly population, the author calls for more efforts in research and training in the field of gerontology. First results in this area are reported.

  12. Options for rural electrification in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes a study which examined 19 commercially available options for electrifying remote communities in Mexico. Characteristics of a typical community are defined and, using 7 of the technologies, power systems are designed capable of supporting this community. The performance of these systems is evaluated with respect to their ability to satisfy 11 technical design objectives, 5 socioeconomic objectives, and their impact on the environment. A photovoltaic- diesel generator hybrid system with wind generator option is recommended for the typical community

  13. Widespread hematogenous metastases and Trousseau's syndrome in gastric adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Vitorino Modesto dos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of widespread hematogenous metastases and Trousseau's syndrome is reported in a 40 year-old white housewife with gastric cancer, presenting subdural hematoma, ecchymoses, epistaxis, stomach and uterine bleeding. After undergoing hematoma drainage, she was unsuccessfully treated with platelets, red blood cells, plasma cryoprecipitate transfusions, and antibiotics. Necropsy disclosed gastric ring-signet adenocarcinoma invading the serous layer, with massive disseminated intravascular coagulation and systemic neoplastic embolism. Multiple old and recent hyaline (rich in fibrin and platelets microthrombi, and tumor emboli were observed in the bone marrow, meninges, liver, lungs, kidneys, lymph nodes, adrenals, thyroid, heart, pancreas, and ovaries (Krukenberg tumor.

  14. The tad locus: postcards from the widespread colonization island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomich, Mladen; Planet, Paul J; Figurski, David H

    2007-05-01

    The Tad (tight adherence) macromolecular transport system, which is present in many bacterial and archaeal species, represents an ancient and major new subtype of type II secretion. The tad genes are present on a genomic island named the widespread colonization island (WCI), and encode the machinery that is required for the assembly of adhesive Flp (fimbrial low-molecular-weight protein) pili. The tad genes are essential for biofilm formation, colonization and pathogenesis in the genera Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus), Haemophilus, Pasteurella, Pseudomonas, Yersinia, Caulobacter and perhaps others. Here we review the structure, function and evolution of the Tad secretion system.

  15. Reform in Mexico: imports, exports and investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, J.

    1997-01-01

    Terms of the policy and regulatory reform for the natural gas sector in Mexico since 1993 were described, and major changes taking place in the structure, organization and operations of the sector since the introduction of reforms were reviewed. Consequences that the structural changes are likely to have on the long-term balance of natural gas supply and demand in Mexico, have been assessed. The goal of full open access by November of 1997 was reiterated. Reforms to the electric power industry also have been undertaken. As with natural gas, the objective is to eliminate the State monopoly and to allow private power producers to participate in the expansion of the sector's generating capacity. Public investment will be directed towards the improvement of transmission and distribution networks. Over time, independent power producers are expected to become the principal source of funds for the expansion of electric power availability in Mexico. 3 tabs., 29 figs

  16. The electric energy and the environment in Mexico. Volume 3; Energia electrica y medio ambiente en Mexico. Volumen 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [eds.] [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document is the third one of three volumes of the 1. Seminar on the Current Conditions and Perspectives of the Electric Sector in Mexico, organized by the Programa Universitario de Energia and the Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas (University Program of Energy and the Institute of Economic Research), both of them agencies of the Universidad Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). The titles of the three volumes are the following: Volume 1.- The opening of the Mexican Electric Sector to foreign investment. Volume 2.- Concrete innovation and technological learning experiences at the Luz y Fuerza del Centro enterprise. Volume 3.- The Electric Energy and the Environment in Mexico. This third volume covers the following subjects: Hydroelectricity, land use and water managing; the electric generation in Mexico and its environmental impact, the nuclear electricity and the handling of radioactive materials; the exposure to electromagnetic fields and its association with children`s leukemia; the energy in Mexico and the sustainable development; potential of electricity generation in large scale with wind power in Mexico; towards a scheme of distributed electric power generation with non-conventional energies and renewable energy sources in Mexico in the 21Century. These documents were elaborated by specialists of the electric sector, from the sector itself as well as from private and public academic entities [Espanol] Este documento constituye el tercero de tres volumenes del Primer Seminario sobre Situacion y Perspectivas del Sector Electrico en Mexico, organizado por el Programa Universitario de Energia y el Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, ambas dependencias de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). Los titulos de los tres volumenes son los siguientes: volumen 1: La apertura externa del sector electrico mexicano, volumen 2: Experiencias concretas de innovacion y aprendizaje tecnologico en la empresa Luz y Fuerza del Centro, volumen 3: Energia electrica

  17. Growth, survival and generative reproduction in a population of a widespread annual hemiparasite Melampyrum pratense

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Průšová, M.; Lepš, Jan; Štěch, M.; Těšitel, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2013), s. 65-73 ISSN 0006-3088 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) IAA601410805; GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/12/1390; Grant Agency of the University of South Bohemia(CZ) 138/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : demography * hemiparasitism * Melampyrum Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.696, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.2478%2Fs11756-012-0130-x

  18. Mexico and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfman, M

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration and HIV/AIDS in Mexico and Central America, including Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama. Most migrants travel to the US through Mexico. US-Mexico trade agreements created opportunities for increased risk of HIV transmission. The research literature focuses on Mexico. Most countries, with the exception of Belize and Costa Rica, are sending countries. Human rights of migrants are violated in transit and at destination. Migration policies determine migration processes. The Mexican-born population in the US is about 3% of US population and 8% of Mexico's population. About 22% arrived during 1992-97, and about 500,000 are naturalized US citizens. An additional 11 million have a Mexican ethnic background. Mexican migrants are usually economically active men who had jobs before leaving and were urban people who settled in California, Texas, Illinois, and Arizona. Most Mexican migrants enter illegally. Many return to Mexico. The main paths of HIV transmission are homosexual, heterosexual, and IV-drug-injecting persons. Latino migrants frequently use prostitutes, adopt new sexual practices including anal penetration among men, greater diversity of sexual partners, and use of injectable drugs.

  19. Widespread Wolbachia infection in terrestrial isopods and other crustaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Cordaux

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia bacteria are obligate intracellular alpha-Proteobacteria of arthropods and nematodes. Although widespread among isopod crustaceans, they have seldom been found in non-isopod crustacean species. Here, we report Wolbachia infection in fourteen new crustacean species. Our results extend the range of Wolbachia infections in terrestrial isopods and amphipods (class Malacostraca. We report the occurrence of two different Wolbachia strains in two host species (a terrestrial isopod and an amphipod. Moreover, the discovery of Wolbachia in the goose barnacle Lepas anatifera (subclass Thecostraca establishes Wolbachia infection in class Maxillopoda. The new bacterial strains are closely related to B-supergroup Wolbachia strains previously reported from crustacean hosts. Our results suggest that Wolbachia infection may be much more widespread in crustaceans than previously thought. The presence of related Wolbachia strains in highly divergent crustacean hosts suggests that Wolbachia endosymbionts can naturally adapt to a wide range of crustacean hosts. Given the ability of isopod Wolbachia strains to induce feminization of genetic males or cytoplasmic incompatibility, we speculate that manipulation of crustacean-borne Wolbachia bacteria might represent potential tools for controlling crustacean species of commercial interest and crustacean or insect disease vectors.

  20. Mexico's nuclear paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redclift, M.

    1989-01-01

    Opposition to Mexico's nuclear reactors at Laguna Verde has grown during the last two years. The nuclear programme is blamed for being expensive and wasteful, and the decision to rely on the USA contradicts Mexico's espoused policy of greater independence from the USA. The way in which petroleum revenues were used to precipitate the nuclear option is compared with the lack of urgency given to renewable energy and greater energy efficiency. From a social and environmental perspective, as well as an economic one, Mexico's nuclear programme is judged expensive and irrelevant. (author)

  1. Trends in marine debris in the U.S. Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico, 1996-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribic, Christine; Seba B. Sheavly,; Rugg, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Marine debris is a widespread and globally recognized problem. Sound information is necessary to understand the extent of the problem and to inform resource managers and policy makers about potential mitigation strategies. Although there are many short-term studies on marine debris, a longer-term perspective and the ability to compare among regions has heretofore been missing in the U.S. Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. We used data from a national beach monitoring program to evaluate and compare amounts, composition, and trends of indicator marine debris in the U.S. Caribbean (Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands) and the Gulf of Mexico from 1996 to 2003. Indicator items provided a standardized set that all surveys collected; each was assigned a probable source: ocean-based, land-based, or general-source. Probable ocean-based debris was related to activities such as recreational boating/fishing, commercial fishing and activities on oil/gas platforms. Probable land-based debris was related to land-based recreation and sewer systems. General-source debris represented plastic items that can come from either ocean- or land-based sources; these items were plastic bags, strapping bands, and plastic bottles (excluding motor oil containers). Debris loads were similar between the U.S. Caribbean and the western Gulf of Mexico; however, debris composition on U.S. Caribbean beaches was dominated by land-based indicators while the western Gulf of Mexico was dominated by ocean-based indicators. Beaches along the eastern Gulf of Mexico had the lowest counts of debris; composition was dominated by land-based indicators, similar to that found for the U.S. Caribbean. Debris loads on beaches in the Gulf of Mexico are likely affected by Gulf circulation patterns, reducing loads in the eastern Gulf and increasing loads in the western Gulf. Over the seven years of monitoring, we found a large linear decrease in total indicator debris, as well as all source categories, for the U

  2. Electric Power Regulation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landa, J V [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The history of the electrical power sector in Mexico, the prominent role that government plays in the generation, transformation, distribution and supply of electrical power, and the implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for this sector were summarized. The slow pace of the Mexican electricity sector in achieving cost efficiency through pricing policy was criticized, and the issue of regulation versus deregulation of the electricity sector was examined in the context of NAFTA, emphasizing the contradiction between the idea of international trade and a highly regulated industry. Revisions of the original constitutional article to exclude electrical power generation from governmental control and to allow market mechanisms and competition to lower costs and increase efficiency was recommended.It was considered a pre-condition to a stable balance between competition and energy efficient environmentally friendly practices.

  3. Aerial remote sensing survey of Fusarium wilt of cotton in New Mexico and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt of cotton, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV), is a widespread cotton disease, but the more virulent FOV race 4 (FOV4) has recently been identified in the New Mexico-Texas border area near El Paso, Texas. A preliminary aerial remote sensing survey was cond...

  4. THE DEMAND FOR PRIVATE PROPERTY RIGHTS: LAND TITLING, CREDIT, AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY IN MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Nancy L.

    1998-01-01

    Land titles can increase agricultural productivity by increasing access to collateralized credit. However, increased credit use depends on the assumption that farmers face asset-based credit rationing. This assumption is tested using data from Mexico's voluntary land titling program. The results do not support the existence of widespread credit rationing.

  5. Silencing criticism in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Suárez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Journalists and human rights defenders in Mexico are being attacked in an attempt to silence their criticism. Many are forced to flee or risk being assassinated. The consequences are both personal and of wider social significance.

  6. New Mexico State Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census MAF/TIGER database. The Census MAF/TIGER database...

  7. New Mexico Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  8. New Mexico Mountain Ranges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  9. Mexico - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mexican Surface Daily Observations taken at 94 observatories located throughout Mexico, beginning in 1872 and going up through 1981. The data resided on paper...

  10. Psicopatología en familiares de tres generaciones: un estudio epidemiológico en la Ciudad de México Psychopathology across three family generations: an epidemiological study in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge J. Caraveo-Anduaga

    2005-02-01

    three family generations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The research design corresponds to a "family history study" and is based upon a household survey conducted in 1995, on a representative sample of Mexico City's adult population aged 18 - 65 years (n=1 932. Briefly, a standardized assessment of adults' lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders was obtained using an amended version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI. In addition, all respondents provided information on their parents' psychiatric history of anxiety, affective disorders, and substance-use disorders. Also, respondents who had 4-16 year old children living in the same household were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire that included specific questions on their children's psychiatric symptoms (n=925 parents, corresponding to 1 686 children and adolescents. Familial psychopathology across generations was defined as follows: a history of psychiatric disorders only in grandparents; b history of psychiatric disorders in one parent only (mother or father; and, c history of psychiatric disorders history in grandparents and in parent. The risk of psychiatric morbidity was estimated via odds ratios obtained from logistic regression models with and without random-effects and using Generalized Estimation Equations with robust variance estimation. RESULTS: The risk for psychopathology in the offspring across generations was estimated to be two to three times higher when psychiatric disorders occurred among the parents. The risk of psychiatric disorders was estimated to be higher when comorbidity among different types of disorders was present. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the risk for developing psychopathology across generations is at least moderate and relatively stable. Familial transmission of psychopathology across three generations seems to resemble a genetic mixed model.

  11. Financing options in Mexico's energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, J.J. (PricewaterhouseCoopers Securities, Houston, TX (United States))

    1999-01-01

    A series of brief notes accompanied this presentation which was divided into seven sections entitled: (1) capital markets update, (2) Mexican financial market update, (3) financing options in the energy industry, (4) the Venezuelan experience at La Apertura, (5) private and strategic equity alternatives, (6) Pricewaterhouse Coopers Securities, and (7) Mexico energy 2005 prediction. The paper focused on how the financial crisis and merger activity in Latin America will impact electricity reform in Mexico. It was noted that under Mexico's Policy Proposal for Electricity Reform of the Mexican Electricity Industry, the financial community will seek to back companies in power generation, transportation and distribution. The difficulty of financing government businesses undergoing privatization was also discussed with particular emphasis on the challenge of accepting political and regulatory risks. The Latin private equity market and Canadian investment in Mexico was also reviewed. Since NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) went into affect in 1994, Canadian investment in Mexico has more than tripled. Canadian companies have invested more than C$1.7 billion in Mexico since NAFTA. Pricewaterhouse Coopers Securities is a global investment bank which sees large opportunities in the Mexican energy market. They predict that in five years, Mexico will experience a gradual liberalization of the oil and gas sector, and a full liberalization of the gas pipeline and distribution business and the power generation, transmission and distribution business. 3 figs.

  12. Doing Business in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Thomas A.

    2002-01-01

    On 1 July 2001, a far-reaching free trade agreement between the EFTA States and Mexico entered into force. ”Doing Business in Mexico” provides targeted assistance to Swiss Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME) that wish to tap the potential of Mexico as both an export destination and investment location. This comprehensive guide contains information and advice on market research, market entry, and investment in this fascinating country. Part I introduces the reader to this fascinating ...

  13. Mexico tornado climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Macías Medrano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A brief introduction on some features of tornado database in Mexico is exposed showing its substantive criteria. We resent a brief analysis about main Mexican tornadoes´ characteristics, based on data collected between 2000 to 2010, talking about spatial and temporal expressions (historical, seasonal and horary in order to show the importance of it destruction capacity and also the people´s vulnerability in Mexico.

  14. Occupational health in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón, Tania; Santos-Burgoa, Carlos; Baron, Sherry; Hernández, Sendy

    2002-01-01

    The authors discuss the maquiladoras and child labor, and offer an overview of the history of occupational safety and health in Mexico that covers laws and regulations, social security, unions, and enforcement of legislation. The organization and structure of the various institutions responsible for occupational safety and health (OSH), as well as administrative procedures, are described. This article concludes with a list of the new challenges for OSH in Mexico.

  15. Developing a Scenario for widespread use: Best practices, lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S.; Jones, L.; Cox, D.

    2011-01-01

    The ShakeOut Scenario is probably the most widely known and used earthquake scenario created to date. Much of the credit for its widespread dissemination and application lies with scenario development criteria that focused on the needs and involvement of end users and with a suite of products that tailored communication of the results to varied end users, who ranged from emergency managers to the general public, from corporations to grassroots organizations. Products were most effective when they were highly visual, when they emphasized the findings of social scientists, and when they communicated the experience of living through the earthquake. This paper summarizes the development criteria and the products that made the ShakeOut Scenario so widely known and used, and it provides some suggestions for future improvements. ?? 2011, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  16. Repeated and Widespread Evolution of Bioluminescence in Marine Fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P Davis

    Full Text Available Bioluminescence is primarily a marine phenomenon with 80% of metazoan bioluminescent genera occurring in the world's oceans. Here we show that bioluminescence has evolved repeatedly and is phylogenetically widespread across ray-finned fishes. We recover 27 independent evolutionary events of bioluminescence, all among marine fish lineages. This finding indicates that bioluminescence has evolved many more times than previously hypothesized across fishes and the tree of life. Our exploration of the macroevolutionary patterns of bioluminescent lineages indicates that the present day diversity of some inshore and deep-sea bioluminescent fish lineages that use bioluminescence for communication, feeding, and reproduction exhibit exceptional species richness given clade age. We show that exceptional species richness occurs particularly in deep-sea fishes with intrinsic bioluminescent systems and both shallow water and deep-sea lineages with luminescent systems used for communication.

  17. Gendered histories: garment production and migration in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    F Wilson

    1999-01-01

    The author's impetus to write this paper stems from reflections on the history of clothing production in a mosaic of localities in western-central Mexico. In the 1990s, in addition to generating the largest flows of, mostly male, transnational migrants, these areas have become the most important garment producers in Mexico. Exploring the interconnectedness of industrial change, gendered patterns of migration, and gendered relations of production, the author provides a short history of garment...

  18. Update of Geothermics in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Negrin, Luis C.A.; Quijano Leon, Jose Luis [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2004-12-01

    Four geothermal fields are currently operating in Mexico (Cerro Prieto, Los Azufres, Los Humeros and Las Tres Virgenes), with a total installed geothermal-electric capacity of 953 megawatts (MW). This means the country is located in third place, worldwide, just behind the USA and Philippines. Thirty-six power plants of several types (condensing, back pressure and binary cycle), between 1.5 and 110 MW, operate in the fields, fed by 197 wells with a combined production of 7,700 metric tons of steam per hour (t/h). These production wells have depths between 600 and 4,400 meters. Steam comes with 8,750 t/h of brine that is injected through 19 injection wells or treated in a solar evaporation pond of 14 km2 in Cerro Prieto. During 2003, steam produced in those fields equaled 67.5 million metric tons, and the power plants generated 6,282 gigawatt-hours (GWh), which represented 3.1% of the electric energy produced in Mexico. All the power plants and the geothermal fields are operated bye the public utility, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE)). [Spanish] Actualmente se operan en Mexico cuatro campos geotermicos (Cerro Prieto, Los Azufres, Los Humeros y Las Tres Virgenes), con una capacidad geotermoelectrica total de 953 megawatts (MW). Esto coloca al pais en el tercer lugar mundial, detras de Estados Unidos y Filipinas. En esos campos operan treinta y seis unidades de tipos diversos (a condensacion, a contrapresion y de ciclo binario), entre 1.5 y 110 MW, alimentadas por 197 pozos con una produccion combinada de 7,700 toneladas de vapor por hora (t/h). Estos pozos productores tienen profundidades entre 600 y 4,400 metros. El vapor sale acompanado por 8,750 t/h de salmuera, que se inyecta en 19 pozos inyectores o se trata en una laguna de evaporacion solar de 14 km2 en Cerro Prieto. Durante 2003 el vapor producido en los campos sumo 67.5 millones de toneladas y las unidades generaron 6,282 gigawatts-hora (GWh), lo que represento el

  19. Gulf of Mexico forecasts : the dead sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good Abbott, C.

    1999-01-01

    The future gas supply potential from the offshore Gulf of Mexico region was discussed with particular emphasis on the issue of whether there is enough growth potential to satisfy the anticipated growth in power generation markets. In 1980, a forecasted decrease in gas supply proved to be wrong. In fact, supply actually increased and productivity in the Gulf of Mexico has been relatively stable since 1982. A significant growth has been forecasted for 1997 to 2010. This growth will coincide with a large growth in gas demand in the northeastern U.S. The fact that electric power generation is changing hands adds to the opportunities in the northeast. It was emphasized that Canadian supply must be present to compete. 1 tab., 16 figs

  20. Status of geothermal resources in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le-Bert, G.

    1990-01-01

    Except for some isolated instances with tourist or therapeutic objectives and some attempts in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, there are no projects for direct heat utilization of geothermal resources in Mexico. Therefore, all places that are studied are studied with geothermal-electric objectives. It is convenient to keep in mind that in Mexico, by law, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is the public utility in charge of electrical energy service. This institution is directly responsible for the exploration, development and commercial use of geothermal energy for electrical generation. Therefore, this paper includes the present and planned exploration and utilization of geothermal resources only for electricity generation for the period 1985 to the present. Likewise, starting 5 years ago, the CFE efforts have been directed toward the development of high enthalpy fields

  1. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  2. New Mexico State Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries of the New Mexico Forestry Districts, plus the names of the district offices. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a...

  3. HSIP Hospitals in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Hospitals in New Mexico The term "hospital" ... means an institution which- (1) is primarily engaged in providing, by or under the supervision of physicians, to...

  4. SOVT analysis of the nuclear industry in Mexico; Analisis FODA de la industria nuclear en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez R, E.; Hernandez B, M. C., E-mail: edelmiraf@yahoo.com [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Av. Instituto Tecnologico s/n, Ex-rancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    In this work the analysis of strengths, opportunities, vulnerabilities and threats (SOVT) of the nuclear industry in Mexico is presented. This industry presents among its strengths that Mexico is a highly electrified country and has a good established normative mark of nuclear security. Although the Secretaria de Energia in Mexico, with base to the exposed in the Programa Sectorial de Energia 2007-2012, is analyzing the convenience of the generation starting from this source, considering the strong technological dependence of the exterior and the limited federal budget dedicated to this field. As a result of the analysis of the SOVT matrix, were found a great number of strengths that threats, although the vulnerabilities list is major to the strengths, the opportunities list is the bigger. Therefore, the nuclear industry can be a sustainable industry, taking the necessary decisions and taking advantage of the detected opportunities. (Author)

  5. Widespread occurrence of (per)chlorate in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Davila, Alfonso F; Sears, Derek W. G.; Coates, John D.; McKay, Christopher P.; Brundrett, Meaghan; Estrada, Nubia; Böhlke, John Karl

    2015-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO− 4 ) and chlorate (ClO− 3 ) are ubiquitous on Earth and ClO− 4 has also been found on Mars. These species can play important roles in geochemical processes such as oxidation of organic matter and as biological electron acceptors, and are also indicators of important photochemical reactions involving oxyanions; on Mars they could be relevant for human habitability both in terms of in situ resource utilization and potential human health effects. For the first time, we extracted, detected and quantified ClO− 4 and ClO− 3 in extraterrestrial, non-planetary samples: regolith and rock samples from the Moon, and two chondrite meteorites (Murchison and Fayetteville). Lunar samples were collected by astronauts during the Apollo program, and meteorite samples were recovered immediately after their fall. This fact, together with the heterogeneous distribution of ClO− 4 and ClO− 3 within some of the samples, and their relative abundance with respect to other soluble species (e.g., NO− 3 ) are consistent with an extraterrestrial origin of the oxychlorine species. Our results, combined with the previously reported widespread occurrence on Earth and Mars, indicate that ClO− 4 and ClO− 3 could be present throughout the Solar System.

  6. Widespread episodic thiamine deficiency in Northern Hemisphere wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Lennart; Hägerroth, Per-Åke; Gustavsson, Hanna; Sigg, Lisa; Åkerman, Gun; Ruiz Muñoz, Yolanda; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Tjärnlund, Ulla; Oliveira, Kenneth; Ström, Karin; McCormick, Stephen D.; Karlsson, Simon; Ström, Marika; van Manen, Mathijs; Berg, Anna-Lena; Halldórsson, Halldór P.; Strömquist, Jennie; Collier, Tracy K.; Börjeson, Hans; Mörner, Torsten; Hansson, Tomas

    2016-12-01

    Many wildlife populations are declining at rates higher than can be explained by known threats to biodiversity. Recently, thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency has emerged as a possible contributing cause. Here, thiamine status was systematically investigated in three animal classes: bivalves, ray-finned fishes, and birds. Thiamine diphosphate is required as a cofactor in at least five life-sustaining enzymes that are required for basic cellular metabolism. Analysis of different phosphorylated forms of thiamine, as well as of activities and amount of holoenzyme and apoenzyme forms of thiamine-dependent enzymes, revealed episodically occurring thiamine deficiency in all three animal classes. These biochemical effects were also linked to secondary effects on growth, condition, liver size, blood chemistry and composition, histopathology, swimming behaviour and endurance, parasite infestation, and reproduction. It is unlikely that the thiamine deficiency is caused by impaired phosphorylation within the cells. Rather, the results point towards insufficient amounts of thiamine in the food. By investigating a large geographic area, by extending the focus from lethal to sublethal thiamine deficiency, and by linking biochemical alterations to secondary effects, we demonstrate that the problem of thiamine deficiency is considerably more widespread and severe than previously reported.

  7. Widespread episodic thiamine deficiency in Northern Hemisphere wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Lennart; Hägerroth, Per-Åke; Gustavsson, Hanna; Sigg, Lisa; Akerman, Gun; Ruiz Muñoz, Yolanda; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Tjarnlund, Ulla; Oliveira, Kenneth; Strom, Karin; McCormick, Stephen D.; Karlsson, Simon; Strom, Marika; van Manen, Mathijs; Berg, Anna-Lena; Halldórsson, Halldór P.; Stromquist, Jennie; Collier, Tracy K.; Borjeson, Hans; Morner, Torsten; Hansson, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Many wildlife populations are declining at rates higher than can be explained by known threats to biodiversity. Recently, thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency has emerged as a possible contributing cause. Here, thiamine status was systematically investigated in three animal classes: bivalves, ray-finned fishes, and birds. Thiamine diphosphate is required as a cofactor in at least five life-sustaining enzymes that are required for basic cellular metabolism. Analysis of different phosphorylated forms of thiamine, as well as of activities and amount of holoenzyme and apoenzyme forms of thiamine-dependent enzymes, revealed episodically occurring thiamine deficiency in all three animal classes. These biochemical effects were also linked to secondary effects on growth, condition, liver size, blood chemistry and composition, histopathology, swimming behaviour and endurance, parasite infestation, and reproduction. It is unlikely that the thiamine deficiency is caused by impaired phosphorylation within the cells. Rather, the results point towards insufficient amounts of thiamine in the food. By investigating a large geographic area, by extending the focus from lethal to sublethal thiamine deficiency, and by linking biochemical alterations to secondary effects, we demonstrate that the problem of thiamine deficiency is considerably more widespread and severe than previously reported.

  8. Widespread abnormalities of radiocolloid distribution in patients with mucopolysaccharidoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingensmith, W.C. III; Eikman, E.A.; Maumenee, I.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are inherited disorders of lysosomal enzymes. We have examined the sites of accumulation of intravenously injected /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid in order to assess the regional distribution of phagocytic function in ten patients with MPS: three with Type I (Hurler), five with Type II (Hunter), one with Type III (Sanfilippo), and one with Type VI (Maroteaux-Lamy). Increased lung uptake was observed in 22 of 40 studies (55 percent) on the five patients with MPS Type II but in none of the 38 studies on patients with other MPS types. All MPS patients had diffuse recticuloendothelial (RE) marrow hypoplasia, despite normal or nearly normal hematocrits and hemoglobin levels, suggesting dissociation of the phagocytic and erythropoietic elements of the marrow. The eight patients with MPS Types I and II all had hepatomegaly and increased splenic uptake. Seven of these patients also had splenomegaly. The two patients with MPS Types III and VI did not have hepatosplenomegaly. These studies indicate that the lysosomal enzymic defect of MPS results in widespread abnormalities of the distribution of phagocytic function in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and probably the lung as well

  9. Widespread cortical thinning in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S-H; Kwak, K; Hyun, J-W; Jeong, I H; Jo, H-J; Joung, A; Kim, J-H; Lee, S H; Yun, S; Joo, J; Lee, J-M; Kim, H J

    2016-07-01

    Studies on cortical involvement and its relationship with cognitive function in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) remain scarce. The objective of this study was to compare cortical thickness on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between patients with NMOSD and multiple sclerosis (MS) and to investigate its relationship with clinical features and cognitive function. This observational clinical imaging study of 91 patients with NMOSD, 52 patients with MS and 44 healthy controls was conducted from 1 December 2013 to 30 April 2015 at the institutional referral center. Three tesla MRI of the brain and neuropsychological tests were performed. Cortical thickness was measured using three-dimensional surface-based analysis. Both sets of patients exhibited cortical thinning throughout the entire brain cortex. Patients with MS showed a significantly greater reduction in cortical thickness over broad regions of the bilateral frontal and parieto-temporal cortices and the left precuneus compared to those with NMOSD. Memory functions in patients with MS were correlated with broad regional cortical thinning, whereas no significant associations were observed between cortical thickness and cognitive function in patients with NMOSD. Widespread cortical thinning was observed in patients with NMOSD and MS, but the extent of cortical thinning was greater in patients with MS. The more severe cortical atrophy may contribute to memory impairment in patients with MS but not in those with NMOSD. These results provide in vivo evidence that the severity and clinical relevance of cortical thinning differ between NMOSD and MS. © 2016 EAN.

  10. Widespread local chronic stressors in Caribbean coastal habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollett, Iliana; Collin, Rachel; Bastidas, Carolina; Cróquer, Aldo; Gayle, Peter M H; Jordán-Dahlgren, Eric; Koltes, Karen; Oxenford, Hazel; Rodriguez-Ramirez, Alberto; Weil, Ernesto; Alemu, Jahson; Bone, David; Buchan, Kenneth C; Creary Ford, Marcia; Escalante-Mancera, Edgar; Garzón-Ferreira, Jaime; Guzmán, Hector M; Kjerfve, Björn; Klein, Eduardo; McCoy, Croy; Potts, Arthur C; Ruíz-Rentería, Francisco; Smith, Struan R; Tschirky, John; Cortés, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems and the livelihoods they support are threatened by stressors acting at global and local scales. Here we used the data produced by the Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity program (CARICOMP), the longest, largest monitoring program in the wider Caribbean, to evidence local-scale (decreases in water quality) and global-scale (increases in temperature) stressors across the basin. Trend analyses showed that visibility decreased at 42% of the stations, indicating that local-scale chronic stressors are widespread. On the other hand, only 18% of the stations showed increases in water temperature that would be expected from global warming, partially reflecting the limits in detecting trends due to inherent natural variability of temperature data. Decreases in visibility were associated with increased human density. However, this link can be decoupled by environmental factors, with conditions that increase the flush of water, dampening the effects of human influence. Besides documenting environmental stressors throughout the basin, our results can be used to inform future monitoring programs, if the desire is to identify stations that provide early warning signals of anthropogenic impacts. All CARICOMP environmental data are now available, providing an invaluable baseline that can be used to strengthen research, conservation, and management of coastal ecosystems in the Caribbean basin.

  11. Widespread Distribution of Trypodendron laeve in the Carpathian Mountains (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai Olenici

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Trypodendron laeve Eggers, 1939 is a species of ambrosia beetle much less known than the other three Trypodendron species occurring in Europe. Its status (native or alien in Central Europe has been a subject of debate over the past two decades. In Romania, the species was discovered in 2008 and the aim of the research presented in this paper was to investigate its distribution in the Carpathians, mainly at high altitudes (>800 m, in tree stands with Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] H. Karst. Panel intercept traps baited with synthetic pheromone for Trypodendron lineatum (Olivier, 1795 were used in the spring of 2015, at 31 locations. Adults of T. laeve were caught in 20 of them. Additional observations were made within some studies using similar baits and T. laeve specimens were caught in eight locations. T. laeve was always trapped together with T. lineatum, and at some locations also together with T. domesticum (Linnaeus, 1758 and T. signatum (Fabricius, 1787. In all traps, fewer specimens of T. laeve were caught compared to T. lineatum. The species has a widespread distribution in the mountain regions, within forests composed of native tree species and generally located far away from commercial routes. There, it occurs together with other native species of the same taxonomic genus. It seems to be more abundant at high altitudes, but overall its populations are less abundant than those of T. lineatum.

  12. Widespread erosion on high plateaus during recent glaciations in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jane L.; Egholm, David L.; Knudsen, Mads F.

    2018-01-01

    Glaciers create some of Earth's steepest topography; yet, many areas that were repeatedly overridden by ice sheets in the last few million years include extensive plateaus. The distinct geomorphic contrast between plateaus and the glacial troughs that dissect them has sustained two long-held hypo......Glaciers create some of Earth's steepest topography; yet, many areas that were repeatedly overridden by ice sheets in the last few million years include extensive plateaus. The distinct geomorphic contrast between plateaus and the glacial troughs that dissect them has sustained two long......-held hypotheses: first, that ice sheets perform insignificant erosion beyond glacial troughs, and, second, that the plateaus represent ancient pre-glacial landforms bearing information of tectonic and geomorphic history prior to Pliocene-Pleistocene global cooling (similar to 3.5 Myr ago). Here we show...... that the Fennoscandian ice sheets drove widespread erosion across plateaus far beyond glacial troughs. We apply inverse modelling to 118 new cosmogenic Be-10 and Al-26 measurements to quantify ice sheet erosion on the plateaus fringing the Sognefjorden glacial trough in western Norway. Our findings demonstrate...

  13. Recent widespread tree growth decline despite increasing atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lucas C R; Anand, Madhur; Leithead, Mark D

    2010-07-21

    The synergetic effects of recent rising atmospheric CO(2) and temperature are expected to favor tree growth in boreal and temperate forests. However, recent dendrochronological studies have shown site-specific unprecedented growth enhancements or declines. The question of whether either of these trends is caused by changes in the atmosphere remains unanswered because dendrochronology alone has not been able to clarify the physiological basis of such trends. Here we combined standard dendrochronological methods with carbon isotopic analysis to investigate whether atmospheric changes enhanced water use efficiency (WUE) and growth of two deciduous and two coniferous tree species along a 9 degrees latitudinal gradient across temperate and boreal forests in Ontario, Canada. Our results show that although trees have had around 53% increases in WUE over the past century, growth decline (measured as a decrease in basal area increment--BAI) has been the prevalent response in recent decades irrespective of species identity and latitude. Since the 1950s, tree BAI was predominantly negatively correlated with warmer climates and/or positively correlated with precipitation, suggesting warming induced water stress. However, where growth declines were not explained by climate, WUE and BAI were linearly and positively correlated, showing that declines are not always attributable to warming induced stress and additional stressors may exist. Our results show an unexpected widespread tree growth decline in temperate and boreal forests due to warming induced stress but are also suggestive of additional stressors. Rising atmospheric CO2 levels during the past century resulted in consistent increases in water use efficiency, but this did not prevent growth decline. These findings challenge current predictions of increasing terrestrial carbon stocks under climate change scenarios.

  14. Widespread decline of Congo rainforest greenness in the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liming; Tian, Yuhong; Myneni, Ranga B; Ciais, Philippe; Saatchi, Sassan; Liu, Yi Y; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Haishan; Vermote, Eric F; Song, Conghe; Hwang, Taehee

    2014-05-01

    Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of climate change, and are mainly constrained by rainfall patterns. The severe short-term droughts that occurred recently in Amazonia have drawn attention to the vulnerability of tropical forests to climatic disturbances. The central African rainforests, the second-largest on Earth, have experienced a long-term drying trend whose impacts on vegetation dynamics remain mostly unknown because in situ observations are very limited. The Congolese forest, with its drier conditions and higher percentage of semi-evergreen trees, may be more tolerant to short-term rainfall reduction than are wetter tropical forests, but for a long-term drought there may be critical thresholds of water availability below which higher-biomass, closed-canopy forests transition to more open, lower-biomass forests. Here we present observational evidence for a widespread decline in forest greenness over the past decade based on analyses of satellite data (optical, thermal, microwave and gravity) from several independent sensors over the Congo basin. This decline in vegetation greenness, particularly in the northern Congolese forest, is generally consistent with decreases in rainfall, terrestrial water storage, water content in aboveground woody and leaf biomass, and the canopy backscatter anomaly caused by changes in structure and moisture in upper forest layers. It is also consistent with increases in photosynthetically active radiation and land surface temperature. These multiple lines of evidence indicate that this large-scale vegetation browning, or loss of photosynthetic capacity, may be partially attributable to the long-term drying trend. Our results suggest that a continued gradual decline of photosynthetic capacity and moisture content driven by the persistent drying trend could alter the composition and structure of the Congolese forest to favour the spread of drought-tolerant species.

  15. Widespread exploitation of the honeybee by early Neolithic farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Regert, Martine; Evershed, Richard P; Outram, Alan K; Cramp, Lucy J E; Decavallas, Orestes; Dunne, Julie; Gerbault, Pascale; Mileto, Simona; Mirabaud, Sigrid; Pääkkönen, Mirva; Smyth, Jessica; Šoberl, Lucija; Whelton, Helen L; Alday-Ruiz, Alfonso; Asplund, Henrik; Bartkowiak, Marta; Bayer-Niemeier, Eva; Belhouchet, Lotfi; Bernardini, Federico; Budja, Mihael; Cooney, Gabriel; Cubas, Miriam; Danaher, Ed M; Diniz, Mariana; Domboróczki, László; Fabbri, Cristina; González-Urquijo, Jesus E; Guilaine, Jean; Hachi, Slimane; Hartwell, Barrie N; Hofmann, Daniela; Hohle, Isabel; Ibáñez, Juan J; Karul, Necmi; Kherbouche, Farid; Kiely, Jacinta; Kotsakis, Kostas; Lueth, Friedrich; Mallory, James P; Manen, Claire; Marciniak, Arkadiusz; Maurice-Chabard, Brigitte; Mc Gonigle, Martin A; Mulazzani, Simone; Özdoğan, Mehmet; Perić, Olga S; Perić, Slaviša R; Petrasch, Jörg; Pétrequin, Anne-Marie; Pétrequin, Pierre; Poensgen, Ulrike; Pollard, C Joshua; Poplin, François; Radi, Giovanna; Stadler, Peter; Stäuble, Harald; Tasić, Nenad; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Vuković, Jasna B; Walsh, Fintan; Whittle, Alasdair; Wolfram, Sabine; Zapata-Peña, Lydia; Zoughlami, Jamel

    2015-11-12

    The pressures on honeybee (Apis mellifera) populations, resulting from threats by modern pesticides, parasites, predators and diseases, have raised awareness of the economic importance and critical role this insect plays in agricultural societies across the globe. However, the association of humans with A. mellifera predates post-industrial-revolution agriculture, as evidenced by the widespread presence of ancient Egyptian bee iconography dating to the Old Kingdom (approximately 2400 BC). There are also indications of Stone Age people harvesting bee products; for example, honey hunting is interpreted from rock art in a prehistoric Holocene context and a beeswax find in a pre-agriculturalist site. However, when and where the regular association of A. mellifera with agriculturalists emerged is unknown. One of the major products of A. mellifera is beeswax, which is composed of a complex suite of lipids including n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and fatty acyl wax esters. The composition is highly constant as it is determined genetically through the insect's biochemistry. Thus, the chemical 'fingerprint' of beeswax provides a reliable basis for detecting this commodity in organic residues preserved at archaeological sites, which we now use to trace the exploitation by humans of A. mellifera temporally and spatially. Here we present secure identifications of beeswax in lipid residues preserved in pottery vessels of Neolithic Old World farmers. The geographical range of bee product exploitation is traced in Neolithic Europe, the Near East and North Africa, providing the palaeoecological range of honeybees during prehistory. Temporally, we demonstrate that bee products were exploited continuously, and probably extensively in some regions, at least from the seventh millennium cal BC, likely fulfilling a variety of technological and cultural functions. The close association of A. mellifera with Neolithic farming communities dates to the early onset of agriculture and may provide

  16. Widespread Rickettsia spp. Infections in Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Full body illusion is associated with widespread skin temperature reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy eSalomon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A central feature of our consciousness is the experience of the self as a unified entity residing in a physical body, termed bodily self-consciousness. This phenomenon includes aspects such as the sense of owning a body (also known as body ownership and has been suggested to arise from the integration of sensory and motor signals from the body. Several studies have shown that temporally synchronous tactile stimulation of the real body and visual stimulation of a fake or virtual body can induce changes in bodily self-consciousness, typically resulting in a sense of illusory ownership over the fake body. The present study assessed the effect of anatomical congruency of visuo-tactile stimulation on bodily self-consciousness. A virtual body was presented and temporally synchronous visuo-tactile stroking was applied simultaneously the participants’ body and to the virtual body. We manipulated the anatomical locations of the visuo-tactile stroking (i.e. on the back, on the leg, resulting in congruent stroking (stroking was felt and seen on the back or the leg or incongruent stroking (i.e. stroking was felt on the leg and seen on the back. We measured self-identification with the virtual body and self-location as well as skin temperature. Illusory self-identification with the avatar as well as changes in self-localization were experienced in the congruent stroking conditions. Participants showed a decrease in skin temperature across several body locations during congruent stimulation. These data establish that the full-body illusion alters bodily self-consciousness and instigates widespread physiological changes in the participant’s body.

  18. A longitudinal study of delirium phenomenology indicates widespread neural dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Maeve; Adamis, Dimitrios; Saunders, Jean; Trzepacz, Paula; Meagher, David

    2015-04-01

    Delirium affects all higher cortical functions supporting complex information processing consistent with widespread neural network impairment. We evaluated the relative prominence of delirium symptoms throughout episodes to assess whether impaired consciousness is selectively affecting certain brain functions at different timepoints. Twice-weekly assessments of 100 consecutive patients with DSM-IV delirium in a palliative care unit used the Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98 (DRS-R98) and Cognitive Test for Delirium (CTD). A mixed-effects model was employed to estimate changes in severity of individual symptoms over time. Mean age = 7 0.2 ± 10.5 years, 51% were male, and 27 had a comorbid dementia. A total of 323 assessments (range 2-9 per case) were conducted, but up to 6 are reported herein. Frequency and severity of individual DRS-R98 symptoms was very consistent over time even though the majority of patients (80%) experienced fluctuation in symptom severity over the course of hours or minutes. Over time, DRS-R98 items for attention (88-100%), sleep-wake cycle disturbance (90-100%), and any motor disturbance (87-100%), and CTD attention and vigilance were most frequently and consistently impaired. Mixed-effects regression modeling identified only very small magnitudes of change in individual symptoms over time, including the three core domains. Attention is disproportionately impaired during the entire episode of delirium, consistent with thalamic dysfunction underlying both an impaired state of consciousness and well-known EEG slowing. All individual symptoms and three core domains remain relatively stable despite small fluctuations in symptom severity for a given day, which supports a consistent state of impaired higher cortical functions throughout an episode of delirium.

  19. Widespread occurrence of bd in French Guiana, South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie A Courtois

    Full Text Available The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd is a purported agent of decline and extinction of many amphibian populations worldwide. Its occurrence remains poorly documented in many tropical regions, including the Guiana Shield, despite the area's high amphibian diversity. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of Bd in French Guiana in order to (1 determine its geographical distribution, (2 test variation of Bd prevalence among species in French Guiana and compare it to earlier reported values in other South American anuran species (http://www.bd-maps.net; 123 species from 15 genera to define sentinel species for future work, (3 track changes in prevalence through time and (4 determine if Bd presence had a negative effect on one selected species. We tested the presence of Bd in 14 species at 11 sites for a total of 1053 samples (306 in 2009 and 747 in 2012. At least one Bd-positive individual was found at eight out of 11 sites, suggesting a wide distribution of Bd in French Guiana. The pathogen was not uniformly distributed among the studied amphibian hosts, with Dendrobatidae species displaying the highest prevalence (12.4% as compared to Bufonidae (2.6 % and Hylidae (1.5%. In contrast to earlier reported values, we found highest prevalence for three Dendrobatidae species and two of them displayed an increase in Bd prevalence from 2009 to 2012. Those three species might be the sentinel species of choice for French Guiana. For Dendrobates tinctorius, of key conservation value in the Guiana Shield, smaller female individuals were more likely to be infected, suggesting either that frogs can outgrow their chytrid infections or that the disease induces developmental stress limiting growth. Generally, our study supports the idea that Bd is more widespread than previously thought and occurs at remote places in the lowland forest of the Guiana shield.

  20. Teledermatology in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Megan

    2016-12-01

    The Health Frontiers in Tijuana (HFiT) clinic is a binational partnership between the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine (San Diego, California); the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California School of Medicine (Tijuana, Mexico); and Desayunador Salesiano Padre Chava, a community grassroots organization in Tijuana, Mexico. Health Frontiers in Tijuana provides accessible quality health care for the underserved in Tijuana's Zona Norte. This article is a narrative meant to share my clinical experience as a dermatology resident who worked with HFiT to establish teledermatology services at this clinic.

  1. Bioseguridad in Mexico: Pursuing Security between Local and Global Biologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderer, Emily Mannix

    2017-09-01

    In the aftermath of the 2009 outbreak of H1N1 influenza, scientists in Mexico sought to develop bioseguridad, that is, to protect biological life in Mexico by safely conducting research on infectious disease. Drawing on ethnographic research in laboratories and with scientists in Mexico, I look at how scientists make claims about local differences in regulations, infrastructure, bodies, and culture. The scientists working with infectious microbes sought to establish how different microbial ecologies, human immune systems, and political and regulatory systems made the risks of research different in Mexico from other countries. In developing bioseguridad, the idea of globalized biology that animates many public health projects was undermined as scientists attended to the elements of place that affected human health and safety. Scientists argued for the importance of local biologies, generating tension with global public health projects and regulations premised on the universality of biology. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  2. Defective modernization and health in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli, J M

    1987-01-01

    This paper uses data gathered in a semi-arid, mountain region of the border state of Sonora, Mexico to illustrate that modernization and the importation of urban ideas and values can influence health status in unexpected ways. It traces the historic process of modernization in a rural municipio, relating this to social promises and economic cycles in Mexico. Modernization is seen to encompass life standard improvements and access to medical care; extension of road and transportation systems; and the widespread availability of information and education, as well as lifestyle changes required to incorporate these 'urban' influences. Reviewing the link between climate and health in arid lands, the paper notes that such modernization can be a well-meaning intrusion upon a set of cultural and social practices which had proved adaptive in dealing with climatic extremes. Initial modernization produces impressive declines in mortality and morbidity, as illustrated in an analysis of mortality figures and causes in relation to age cohorts and decades for the years 1955-1984. However, reductions in epidermic-related infant mortality are shown to be offset by increases in deaths due to trauma, chronic conditions and endemic disease. An analysis of morbidity for the year 1983-84 indicates that continuing high rates of infectious disease are related to conditions which result from increasingly defective modernization. To maintain technology, including water, electrical, and sewage systems, continual capital expenditure on both the public and private level is required. The economic crisis in Mexico is reducing available funds at a time when the community has adjusted its traditional lifestyle to incorporate technological improvements. In light of this, it is likely that inroads against infectious disease will not just continue to be stalemated, but could actually be reversed. This finding has implications for towns and villages on both sides of the Mexican-American border.

  3. Leptospirosis in Mexico: Epidemiology and Potential Distribution of Human Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Montes, Sokani; Espinosa-Martínez, Deborah V.; Ríos-Muñoz, César A.; Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Becker, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is widespread in Mexico, yet the potential distribution and risk of the disease remain unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We analysed morbidity and mortality according to age and gender based on three sources of data reported by the Ministry of Health and the National Institute of Geography and Statics of Mexico, for the decade 2000–2010. A total of 1,547 cases were reported in 27 states, the majority of which were registered during the rainy season, and the most affected age group was 25–44 years old. Although leptospirosis has been reported as an occupational disease of males, analysis of morbidity in Mexico showed no male preference. A total number of 198 deaths were registered in 21 states, mainly in urban settings. Mortality was higher in males (61.1%) as compared to females (38.9%), and the case fatality ratio was also increased in males. The overall case fatality ratio in Mexico was elevated (12.8%), as compared to other countries. We additionally determined the potential disease distribution by examining the spatial epidemiology combined with spatial modeling using ecological niche modeling techniques. We identified regions where leptospirosis could be present and created a potential distribution map using bioclimatic variables derived from temperature and precipitation. Our data show that the distribution of the cases was more related to temperature (75%) than to precipitation variables. Ecological niche modeling showed predictive areas that were widely distributed in central and southern Mexico, excluding areas characterized by extreme climates. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, an epidemiological surveillance of leptospirosis is recommended in Mexico, since 55.7% of the country has environmental conditions fulfilling the criteria that favor the presence of the disease. PMID:26207827

  4. Evidence for Widespread Associations between Neotropical Hymenopteran Insects and Actinobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal Matarrita-Carranza

    2017-10-01

    taxa and ranging from the American temperate to the Neotropical region. Our work thus provides important insights into the widespread distribution of Actinobacteria and hymenopteran insects associations, while also pointing at novel resources that could be targeted for the discovery of active natural products with great potential in medical and biotechnological applications.

  5. Evidence for Widespread Associations between Neotropical Hymenopteran Insects and Actinobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarrita-Carranza, Bernal; Moreira-Soto, Rolando D.; Murillo-Cruz, Catalina; Mora, Marielos; Currie, Cameron R.; Pinto-Tomas, Adrián A.

    2017-01-01

    ranging from the American temperate to the Neotropical region. Our work thus provides important insights into the widespread distribution of Actinobacteria and hymenopteran insects associations, while also pointing at novel resources that could be targeted for the discovery of active natural products with great potential in medical and biotechnological applications. PMID:29089938

  6. Protection gaps in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Villasenor

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With Mexico a major destination – and transit – country for people displaced by violence in the Northern Triangle of Central America, the Mexican government needs urgently to improve its asylum systems and procedures if they are to be fit for purpose.

  7. The Art of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccardi, Marianne

    1997-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of books for grades K and up which explores the folklore, poetry, fiction, and art of Mexico, and focuses on the Mayans and Aztecs and Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo. Also suggests various research, reading, drama, music, social studies, physical education, and art activities and lists related videos and Internet…

  8. [Food security in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance.

  9. Christmas in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    The Christmas season in Mexico starts on December 16 with "las posadas," a series of religious processions in which families or neighbors reenact Joseph's search for shelter for Mary en route to Bethlehem. Those representing pilgrims travel from home to home until they are finally accepted by those representing innkeepers at a home with…

  10. A Comprehensive Analysis for Widespread use of Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Zhou; Zhaoyang Dong; Xiaomei Zhao

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly investigates the environmental and economic impacts of worldwide use of electric vehicles. It can be concluded that governments have good reason to promote the use of electric vehicles. First, the global vehicles population is evaluated with the help of grey forecasting model and the amount of oil saving is estimated through approximate calculation. After that, based on the game theory, the amount and types of electricity generation needed by electronic ...

  11. Measurements of VOCs in Mexico City during the MILAGRO Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. K.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, N. J.; Meinardi, S.; Atlas, E.; Rowland, F.; Blake, D. R.

    2006-12-01

    During March of 2006 we participated in MILAGRO (Megacities Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations), a multi-platform campaign to measure pollutants in and in outflow from the Mexico City metropolitan area. As part of MILAGRO we collected whole air canister samples at two Mexico City ground sites: the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, located in the city, northeast of the center, and the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac, a suburban site approximately 50 km northeast of the city center. Samples were also collected in various other locations throughout Mexico City. Over 300 whole air samples were collected and analyzed for a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including methane, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and halocarbons. Propane was the most abundant NMHC at both the urban and suburban locations, with mixing ratios frequently in excess of 10 parts per billion at both locations. This is likely the result of the widespread use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) of which propane is the major component. For most species, median mixing ratios at the urban sites were significantly greater than at the suburban site. Here we compare results from both urban and suburban locations and also examine the influence of transport on the composition of outflow from Mexico City.

  12. Petroleum exploration and development opportunities in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.; Daschle, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a historical overview of the energy sector in Mexico, an important player in the world energy market, whose trade and market policies support economic development and foreign investment. Trade, commerce and investment between Canada and Mexico has been increasing steadily ever since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) came into effect in January 1994. TransAlta Corporation and Westcoast Energy Inc. are two very active investors in the energy sector. Westcoast has invested in increasing natural gas and oil production from the Cantarell field in the Gulf of Mexico through the Campeche Natural Gas Compression Service Project and the Cantarell Nitrogen Plant. TransAlta has invested in two natural gas fired power plants which are both expected to be in service for the second quarter of 2003. These include the 252 MW Campeche facility and the 259 MW Chihuahua facility. Mexico has proven crude oil reserves of 27 billion barrels, proven natural gas reserves of 30 tcf, and in 2000 had a crude oil production of 3.4 mmbl/d, of which half was exported. The energy sector in Mexico may need about $120 billion of investment by 2010, of which half will be used for crude oil exploration and production, transportation and refining and the other half for natural gas exploration and production, transportation and distribution and power generation. Recently, the Mexican government embarked on two initiatives. The first to increase the productivity and profitability of PEMEX, the largest corporation in Mexico and one of the largest in the world, and to allow a form of private investment in the development of non-associated natural gas fields. This paper discussed the significance of the Multiple Service Contracts (MSC) program which involves domestic and international petroleum exploration and development. It also discussed forms of business organizations, taxation and structuring, financial issues, employment and the North American Free Trade Agreement

  13. Connecting Urbanization to Precipitation: the case of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Matei

    2017-04-01

    Considerable evidence exists illustrating the influence of urban environments on precipitation. We revisit this theme of significant interest to a broad spectrum of disciplines ranging from urban planning to engineering to urban numerical modeling and climate, by detailing the simulated effect of Mexico City's built environment on regional precipitation. Utilizing the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) system to determine spatiotemporal changes in near-surface air temperature, precipitation, and boundary layer conditions induced by the modern-day urban landscape relative to presettlement conditions, I mechanistically link the built environment-induced increase in air temperature to simulated increases in rainfall during the evening hours. This simulated increase in precipitation is in agreement with historical observations documenting observed rainfall increase. These results have important implications for understanding the meteorological conditions leading to the widespread and recurrent urban flooding that continues to plague the Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

  14. Mexico: a solar future; M@xico: un futuro solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-07-01

    Immersed in the global price instability of fossil fuels and with an upsurge in renewables as the agent for development, countries like Mexico, that largely depend on this resource to generate income and whose national electrical energy generation mainly comes from these fuels, find themselves obliged to take decisions that allow them to maintain their appeal compared to other emerging markets. In this decision-making process, Mexico has been slow to implement its long-awaited Energy Reform that incentivises direct foreign investment and avoids the monopolies that have until recently prevailed in the Mexican energy and electricity sector. (Author)

  15. Geothermal energy from deep sedimentary basins: The Valley of Mexico (Central Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Nils; Götz, Annette E.

    2015-04-01

    The geothermal potential of the Valley of Mexico has not been addressed in the past, although volcaniclastic settings in other parts of the world contain promising target reservoir formations. A first assessment of the geothermal potential of the Valley of Mexico is based on thermophysical data gained from outcrop analogues, covering all lithofacies types, and evaluation of groundwater temperature and heat flow values from literature. Furthermore, the volumetric approach of Muffler and Cataldi (1978) leads to a first estimation of ca. 4000 TWh (14.4 EJ) of power generation from Neogene volcanic rocks within the Valley of Mexico. Comparison with data from other sedimentary basins where deep geothermal reservoirs are identified shows the high potential of the Valley of Mexico for future geothermal reservoir utilization. The mainly low permeable lithotypes may be operated as stimulated systems, depending on the fracture porosity in the deeper subsurface. In some areas also auto-convective thermal water circulation might be expected and direct heat use without artificial stimulation becomes reasonable. Thermophysical properties of tuffs and siliciclastic rocks qualify them as promising target horizons (Lenhardt and Götz, 2015). The here presented data serve to identify exploration areas and are valuable attributes for reservoir modelling, contributing to (1) a reliable reservoir prognosis, (2) the decision of potential reservoir stimulation, and (3) the planning of long-term efficient reservoir utilization. References Lenhardt, N., Götz, A.E., 2015. Geothermal reservoir potential of volcaniclastic settings: The Valley of Mexico, Central Mexico. Renewable Energy. [in press] Muffler, P., Cataldi, R., 1978. Methods for regional assessment of geothermal resources. Geothermics, 7, 53-89.

  16. New Mexico Math Pathways Taskforce Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Higher Education Department, 2016

    2016-01-01

    In April 2015 New Mexico faculty, Dana Center staff, and New Mexico Higher Education (NMHED) co-presented the need for better math pathways statewide. Faculty from 6 institutions (New Mexico State University, New Mexico Highlands University, Dine College, Eastern New Mexico University, El Paso Community College, and San Juan College) participated…

  17. Mexico's energy dilemmas in an interdependent world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.

    2008-01-01

    Mexico's energy system is overwhelmingly dependent on hydrocarbons. Although a significant producer of oil and gas, and a considerable exporter of crude oil, it is increasingly dependent on imports of oil products and natural gas for its internal energy demand. In a World where free trade is increasing the interdependence of the industrialized economies, Mexico's energy policy dilemma is basically between maintaining as much as possible its self sufficiency; or relying on imports, while generating oil revenues through exports to invest in developing a diversified economy. Energy demand projections to 2030 are carried out that exhibit the limitations of present available oil and gas proved reserves under past policies. Alternative energy policy scenarios are then examined. (authors)

  18. Social-ecological dynamics of change and restoration attempts in the Chihuahuan Desert grasslands of Janos Biosphere Reserve, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrub encroachment and grassland loss are widespread throughout the US-Mexico borderlands with negative consequences for production of livestock and ecosystem services. In this paper we detail the complex social and ecological phenomena associated with this pattern of degradation in a large area in ...

  19. Widespread alternative and aberrant splicing revealed by lariat sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepankiw, Nicholas; Raghavan, Madhura; Fogarty, Elizabeth A.; Grimson, Andrew; Pleiss, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing is an important and ancient feature of eukaryotic gene structure, the existence of which has likely facilitated eukaryotic proteome expansions. Here, we have used intron lariat sequencing to generate a comprehensive profile of splicing events in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, amongst the simplest organisms that possess mammalian-like splice site degeneracy. We reveal an unprecedented level of alternative splicing, including alternative splice site selection for over half of all annotated introns, hundreds of novel exon-skipping events, and thousands of novel introns. Moreover, the frequency of these events is far higher than previous estimates, with alternative splice sites on average activated at ∼3% the rate of canonical sites. Although a subset of alternative sites are conserved in related species, implying functional potential, the majority are not detectably conserved. Interestingly, the rate of aberrant splicing is inversely related to expression level, with lowly expressed genes more prone to erroneous splicing. Although we validate many events with RNAseq, the proportion of alternative splicing discovered with lariat sequencing is far greater, a difference we attribute to preferential decay of aberrantly spliced transcripts. Together, these data suggest the spliceosome possesses far lower fidelity than previously appreciated, highlighting the potential contributions of alternative splicing in generating novel gene structures. PMID:26261211

  20. Radon availability in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLemore, V.T.

    1995-01-01

    The New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources (NMBMMR) in cooperation with the Radiation Licensing and Registration Section of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been evaluating geologic and soil conditions that may contribute to elevated levels of indoor radon throughout New Mexico. Various data have been integrated and interpreted in order to determine areas of high radon availability. The purpose of this paper is to summarize some of these data for New Mexico and to discuss geologic controls on the distribution of radon. Areas in New Mexico have been identified from these data as having a high radon availability. It is not the intent of this report to alarm the public, but to provide data on the distribution of radon throughout New Mexico

  1. U.S.-Mexico energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports that while Mexico's petrochemical industry has grown rapidly, it now faces shortages both in investment funds and in supplies of basic petrochemicals due to a financial crisis in the 1980s. Mexico has undertaken a series of policy reforms aimed at encouraging foreign and private investment, but these efforts have generally failed to entice U.S. investment in Mexico. U.S. petrochemical companies have cited unfavorable market conditions, insufficient basic petrochemical capacity in Mexico, concern about the reversibility of Mexican reforms, inadequate Mexican protection of intellectual property rights, and lack of investment protection for U.S. businesses as impediments to investment in Mexico. Cooperation between the two nations in overcoming these obstacles could help U.S. petrochemical companies maintain their positions in a competitive global market, while at the same time provide Mexico with much needed capital investment and technological expertise

  2. ALARA development in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, M.A.M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Col Lomas de Barrilaco (Mexico)

    1995-03-01

    Even though the ALARA philosophy was formally implemented in the early 1980`s, to some extent, ALARA considerations already had been incorporated into the design of most commercial equipment and facilities based on experience and engineering development. In Mexico, the design of medical and industrial facilities were based on international recommendations containing those considerations. With the construction of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station, formal ALARA groups were created to review some parts of its design, and to prepare the ALARA Program and related procedures necessary for its commercial operation. This paper begins with a brief historical description of ALARA development in Mexico, and then goes on to discuss our regulatory frame in Radiation Protection, some aspects of the ALARA Program, efforts in controlling and reducing of sources of radiation, and finally, future perspectives in the ALARA field.

  3. Neuropsychology in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky Shejet, Feggy; Velez Garcia, Alicia

    2016-11-01

    This invited paper explores the diverse pathways that have led to the development of neuropsychology in Mexico. The authors conducted a review of the literature and their own experiences to describe the seminal events and people relevant to the development of this area of research and practice. The master's degree is the usual level of educational attainment for those who wish to practice clinical neuropsychology. As of now, there is not a board certification process in neuropsychology, although there is one in clinical psychology. Neuropsychology and other mental health disciplines in Mexico and Latin America have historically been poorly funded, and have lacked optimal means of communication as to research findings and clinical initiatives and standards. However, there is reason to think that this will be improved upon in coming years.

  4. Dust storm, northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    This large dust storm along the left side of the photo, covers a large portion of the state of Coahuila, Mexico (27.5N, 102.0E). The look angle of this oblique photo is from the south to the north. In the foreground is the Sierra Madre Oriental in the states Coahuila and Nuevo Leon with the Rio Grande River, Amistad Reservoir and Texas in the background.

  5. Seismology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, C.

    1982-01-01

    Mexico is situated at the intersection of four major crustal Plates: the Americas Plate, the Pacific Plate, the Caribbean Plate, and the Cocos Plate. The interaction of these four plates is very complex. The pattern of earthquake risk is, therefore, among the most complicated in the world. The average release of seismic energy each is 55x1021 ergs-more than twice the figure for California. 

  6. Mexico and the CTBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre G, J.; Martinez L, J.; Ruiz E, L. J.; Aragon M, I. B.

    2013-10-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) is a treaty that prohibits all the nuclear explosions by anybody and in any place, either on the terrestrial surface, in the atmosphere, under the sea or underground. From the adoption of this Treaty by the United Nations, Mexico has had interest for its entrance in vigor, as integral part to assure the international peace. For this reason, our country signed the Treaty since it was open in September 24, 1996 and three years later ratified it, due to Mexico is part of the group of necessary countries for their entrance in vigor. During 13 years, the country has been committed and helped to the installation of monitoring stations, actions that allow the strengthening of the International System of Surveillance. The purpose of this work is to divulge the Treaty,its technologies and benefits; and also to diffuse the works realized by Mexico regarding the radionuclides monitoring station and noble gases both certified ones for the CTBT. Besides the radionuclides technology, Mexico has taken charge of the installation and operation of the seismic stations and hydro-acoustics that have been certified too. The radionuclides station Rn-44 located in Guerrero Negro, BCS has two technologies, an automated sampler of suspended particles in air brand Cinderella/ARAME and a noble gases system Sauna used for the particles detection of radioactive material gamma emitting and Xenon radioisotopes product of nuclear assays. Both technologies are transmitting data in real time to the International Center of Data. These technologies are shown in this work. (Author)

  7. [Obesity in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Torres, Javier; González-Izquierdo, José Jesús; Barrera-Cruz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Excess body weight (overweight and obesity) is currently recognized as one of the most important challenges of public health in the world, given its size, speed of growth and the negative effect it has on the health of the population that suffers. Overweight and obesity significantly increases the risk of chronic no communicable diseases, premature mortality and the social cost of health. An estimated 90 % of cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus attributable to overweight and obesity. Today, Mexico is second global prevalence of obesity in the adult population, which is ten times higher than that of countries like Japan and Korea. With regard to children, Mexico ranks fourth worldwide obesity prevalence, behind Greece, USA and Italy. In our country, over 70 % of the adult population, between 30 and 60 years are overweight. The prevalence of overweight is higher in men than females, while the prevalence of obesity is higher in women than men. Until 2012, 26 million Mexican adults are overweight and 22 million obese, which represents a major challenge for the health sector in terms of promoting healthy lifestyles in the population and development of public policies to reverse this scenario epidemiology. Mexico needs to plan and implement strategies and action cost effective for the prevention and control of obesity of children, adolescents and adults. Global experience shows that proper care of obesity and overweight, required to formulate and coordinate multisectoral strategies and efficient for enhancing protective factors to health, particularly to modify individual behavior, family and community.

  8. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  9. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  10. Youth programmes in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez De Macias, G

    1990-12-01

    Research indicates that in-school adolescents in Mexico have their first sexual contact at the average age of 15.5 years. In 50% of cases, such contact is with a boyfriend or girlfriend, 28.1% with a fiance, and 18.3% with a prostitute. First sexual intercourse occurs with a spouse in only 1.3% of cases. Since only one in six young people in Mexico use a form of contraception, many unwanted pregnancies outside of marriage result. 450,000 births in 1989 were to mothers below 20 years old, with 15% of births annually being among teenage mothers. An estimated three million abortions occur annually in Mexico, and abortions are the fifth major cause of death at the national level. Teen pregnancy is decisively linked with poor living conditions and life expectancy, a relatively lower level of education, and rural residence. As for psychological and anthropological variables, most teens who become pregnant belong to large, unstable families with poor family communication, and are characterized as submissive, highly dependent, and of low self-esteem. Targeting students, workers, and other youths, the MEXFAM Youth Program selects and trains program coordinators over age 21 and volunteer promoters of both sexes aged 16-20 in urban/marginal communities. Promoters offer information to their peers and other youths in their local communities, distribute barrier contraceptives, and channel medical, psychological, and legal services to young people in need. Program procedure is described.

  11. New Mexico Clean Energy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation addresses New Mexico oil and gas development, brownfields, mining development, renewable energy development, renewable resources, renewable standards, solar opportunities, climate change, and energy efficiency.

  12. Multibeam Mapping of Pulley Ridge, Gulf of Mexico, Key West, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format high-resolution bathymetry data generated from the 2003, 2007, and 2009 combined multibeam sonar survey of Pulley Ridge, Gulf of Mexico, Key West,...

  13. Multibeam Mapping of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Twin Ridges Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format high-resolution bathymetry data generated from the 2002 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico.

  14. Bathymetry Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Steamboat Lumps), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  15. Backscatter Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Southern Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  16. Multibeam Mapping of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Madison Swanson Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format high-resolution bathymetry data generated from the 2002 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico.

  17. Multibeam Mapping of the West Florida Shelf-The Edges, Gulf of Mexico, Appalachicola, Florida.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format high-resolution bathymetry data generated from the 2010 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf-The Edges, Gulf of Mexico, Appalachicola,...

  18. Institutional innovations required for widespread use of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    The social and economic benefits of additional electrical generating capacity in lesser developed countries are unquestioned, and a case can be made from economic and environmental considerations that much of this capacity should be nuclear powered. Obstacles to the introduction of nuclear power in the developing world include lack of a technical infrastructure and capital cost. Manpower shortage also detracts from a country's ability to effectively regulate a nuclear power enterprise. Two variations on the traditional institutional methods for supplying and regulating nuclear electric power are proposed. The first would be independent international companies that would design, finance, build, operate and maintain nuclear power stations, and sell electricity to local systems. The second would be an international safety regulatory system that could offer uniform, effective regulations and enforcement of the entire nuclear power enterprise at a level consistent with accepted world standards. These proposals coupled with the modular Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor based on Integral Fast Reactor technology would make possible a safe, economically feasible nuclear power operation that could be located anywhere in the world. (author). 7 refs

  19. Evidence for widespread convergent evolution around human microsatellites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J Vowles

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites are a major component of the human genome, and their evolution has been much studied. However, the evolution of microsatellite flanking sequences has received less attention, with reports of both high and low mutation rates and of a tendency for microsatellites to cluster. From the human genome we generated a database of many thousands of (AC(n flanking sequences within which we searched for common characteristics. Sequences flanking microsatellites of similar length show remarkable levels of convergent evolution, indicating shared mutational biases. These biases extend 25-50 bases either side of the microsatellite and may therefore affect more than 30% of the entire genome. To explore the extent and absolute strength of these effects, we quantified the observed convergence. We also compared homologous human and chimpanzee loci to look for evidence of changes in mutation rate around microsatellites. Most models of DNA sequence evolution assume that mutations are independent and occur randomly. Allowances may be made for sites mutating at different rates and for general mutation biases such as the faster rate of transitions over transversions. Our analysis suggests that these models may be inadequate, in that proximity to even very short microsatellites may alter the rate and distribution of mutations that occur. The elevated local mutation rate combined with sequence convergence, both of which we find evidence for, also provide a possible resolution for the apparently contradictory inferences of mutation rates in microsatellite flanking sequences.

  20. Revealing the Determinants of Widespread Alternative Splicing Perturbation in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly appreciated that alternative splicing plays a key role in generating functional specificity and diversity in cancer. However, the mechanisms by which cancer mutations perturb splicing remain unknown. Here, we developed a network-based strategy, DrAS-Net, to investigate more than 2.5 million variants across cancer types and link somatic mutations with cancer-specific splicing events. We identified more than 40,000 driver variant candidates and their 80,000 putative splicing targets deregulated in 33 cancer types and inferred their functional impact. Strikingly, tumors with splicing perturbations show reduced expression of immune system-related genes and increased expression of cell proliferation markers. Tumors harboring different mutations in the same gene often exhibit distinct splicing perturbations. Further stratification of 10,000 patients based on their mutation-splicing relationships identifies subtypes with distinct clinical features, including survival rates. Our work reveals how single-nucleotide changes can alter the repertoires of splicing isoforms, providing insights into oncogenic mechanisms for precision medicine.

  1. Widespread Mitochondrial Depletion via Mitophagy Does Not Compromise Necroptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W.G. Tait

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Programmed necrosis (or necroptosis is a form of cell death triggered by the activation of receptor interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3. Several reports have implicated mitochondria and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS generation as effectors of RIPK3-dependent cell death. Here, we directly test this idea by employing a method for the specific removal of mitochondria via mitophagy. Mitochondria-deficient cells were resistant to the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, but efficiently died via tumor necrosis factor (TNF-induced, RIPK3-dependent programmed necrosis or as a result of direct oligomerization of RIPK3. Although the ROS scavenger butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA delayed TNF-induced necroptosis, it had no effect on necroptosis induced by RIPK3 oligomerization. Furthermore, although TNF-induced ROS production was dependent on mitochondria, the inhibition of TNF-induced necroptosis by BHA was observed in mitochondria-depleted cells. Our data indicate that mitochondrial ROS production accompanies, but does not cause, RIPK3-dependent necroptotic cell death.

  2. Economic and Environmental Consequences of Widespread Expansion of Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Gaurav

    The purpose of the thesis is to examine the sustainability of an expansion in solar energy subject to resource constraints of Indium. Coal and natural gas are taken as competitors for solar in the energy market. The consumer electronics market also competes with solar PV production because of Indium's use in the manufacturing of LCD screens. A partial equilibrium model is made which determines the rate of extraction of indium, coal and natural gas endogenously. Consumer demand is modeled by the use of cost shares. Generation of electricity and production of LCDs are modeled using Constant Elasticity of Substitution functions. Initial production capacity for both electricity and LCD is considered in the model. The model then endogenously determines the level of investment required. Model simulations are performed to predict the extraction paths and production levels for a timeline of 100 years. A sensitivity analysis is performed to see the reaction of the model to changes in consumer demand and learning rates in solar energy. The response of the model to imposition of various emission caps is also shown. Results of the model show that indium scarcity prevents solar from expanding significantly to a level where it can take over from non-renewable sources of energy. Increased research in solar technologies would not be of much help unless more Indium is available, either by recycling of solar PVs and LCDs or searching for alternate technologies to manufacture LCD screes. Emission caps are able to control excessive usage of fossil fuels and preserve them for a longer time.

  3. Fast Mechanically Driven Daughter Cell Separation Is Widespread in Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoxue; Halladin, David K; Theriot, Julie A

    2016-08-30

    among the Actinobacteria, a diverse group that includes significant pathogens as well as bacteria that generate medically important antibiotics. Copyright © 2016 Zhou et al.

  4. Mexico: Rasgos de Su Historia. (Mexico: Highlights of Its History).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Cecilio

    Intended for both teachers and students, this publication, written in Spanish, briefly traces Mexico's history from its Conquest in 1519 to the overthrow of Porfirio Diaz in 1910. The following are briefly discussed: Mexico's Conquest in 1519; events immediately after the fall of Tenochtitlan; the War for Independence; Texas' separation from…

  5. Education, Science and Technology in Mexico: Challenges for Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Merino, Fernando Carlos; Trejo-Téllez, Libia Iris; Méndez-Cadena, María Esther; Hernández-Cázares, Aleida Selene

    2017-01-01

    The innovation process is founded on a high-quality education system at all levels, which trains scientists and technologists capable of generating innovations. Education is the most decisive factor in human development, yet in Mexico current statistics reveal a critical situation at every educational level, as only 1 out of every 10 children…

  6. Free Trade and Regional Development in Northern Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leendert de Bell

    2010-01-01

    The impressive economic performance of Mexico during the first years after signing the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with Canada and the United States has generated much interest as an example for other Latin American countries in their transition towards market-led economies. However,

  7. Nuclear energy an opportunity for Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, H. J.; Fernandez de la Garza, R.; Cardenas, J. B.; Castaneda, M. A.; Mercado, J. J.

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this document is to present, in a clear and concrete way, the results presented in the book -Nuclear energy an opportunity for Mexico- this book was prepared to evaluate the feasibility of constructing a new nuclear power plant in Mexico considering the evident worldwide rise of the nuclear energy as a way to produce electricity. The worldwide nuclear power renaissance is based on several factors, some of the most important are the uncertainty about the availability and behavior of fossil fuels, the impacts of the green house gases over the environment; improvements in the design and construction process that allow to reduce the construction periods; the competitiveness of nuclear power with other clean technologies and the experience of the nuclear power plant fleet that has shown performance indicators that exceed other technologies. Also, the competitiveness of the nuclear power as base load to satisfy the electricity demand. This book include the actual situation of the nuclear power in the world and the challenges and opportunities to incorporate additional nuclear power plants in Mexico, with the aim of satisfy the future electricity demand, in harmony with the environment and in a secure and safety way. Nonetheless, by itself a nuclear power plant is not the entire or only solution for the environmental and security of supply issues, but nuclear power is a main part of the integral solution where renewable and new clean technologies (e.g. carbon capture and storage and integrated gasification combined cycle) plays an important role. Nowadays, several countries go forward for the use or nuclear power, reinforcing and in some cases restarting their nuclear power programs, Mexico should not be the exception, nuclear power deserves to be included in the portfolio of generation technologies in the future years. The main advantages of nuclear power, as well as the most questionable issues are deeply discussed in the book. (Author)

  8. Intelligence in childhood and chronic widespread pain in middle age: the National Child Development Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Catharine R; Deary, Ian J; Cooper, Cyrus; Batty, G David

    2012-12-01

    Psychological factors are thought to play a part in the aetiology of chronic widespread pain. We investigated the relationship between intelligence in childhood and risk of chronic widespread pain in adulthood in 6902 men and women from the National Child Development Survey (1958 British Birth Cohort). Participants took a test of general cognitive ability at age 11 years; and chronic widespread pain, defined according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, was assessed at age 45 years. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using log-binomial regression, adjusting for sex and potential confounding or mediating factors. Risk of chronic widespread pain, defined according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, rose in a stepwise fashion as intelligence fell (P for linear trend intelligence quotient, the RR of chronic widespread pain was 1.26 (95% CI 1.17-1.35). In multivariate backwards stepwise regression, lower childhood intelligence remained as an independent predictor of chronic widespread pain (RR 1.10; 95% CI 1.01-1.19), along with social class, educational attainment, body mass index, smoking status, and psychological distress. Part of the effect of lower childhood intelligence on risk of chronic widespread pain in midlife was significantly mediated through greater body mass index and more disadvantaged socioeconomic position. Men and women with higher intelligence in childhood are less likely as adults to report chronic widespread pain. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Widespread Amazon forest tree mortality from a single cross-basin squall line event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I.; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Guimaraes, Giuliano; Zeng, Hongcheng; Raupp, Carlos F. M.; Marra, Daniel M.; Ribeiro, Gabriel H. P. M.; Saatchi, Sassan S.; Nelson, Bruce W.; Higuchi, Niro

    2010-08-01

    Climate change is expected to increase the intensity of extreme precipitation events in Amazonia that in turn might produce more forest blowdowns associated with convective storms. Yet quantitative tree mortality associated with convective storms has never been reported across Amazonia, representing an important additional source of carbon to the atmosphere. Here we demonstrate that a single squall line (aligned cluster of convective storm cells) propagating across Amazonia in January, 2005, caused widespread forest tree mortality and may have contributed to the elevated mortality observed that year. Forest plot data demonstrated that the same year represented the second highest mortality rate over a 15-year annual monitoring interval. Over the Manaus region, disturbed forest patches generated by the squall followed a power-law distribution (scaling exponent α = 1.48) and produced a mortality of 0.3-0.5 million trees, equivalent to 30% of the observed annual deforestation reported in 2005 over the same area. Basin-wide, potential tree mortality from this one event was estimated at 542 ± 121 million trees, equivalent to 23% of the mean annual biomass accumulation estimated for these forests. Our results highlight the vulnerability of Amazon trees to wind-driven mortality associated with convective storms. Storm intensity is expected to increase with a warming climate, which would result in additional tree mortality and carbon release to the atmosphere, with the potential to further warm the climate system.

  10. Ultra Deep Sequencing of a Baculovirus Population Reveals Widespread Genomic Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Chateigner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Viruses rely on widespread genetic variation and large population size for adaptation. Large DNA virus populations are thought to harbor little variation though natural populations may be polymorphic. To measure the genetic variation present in a dsDNA virus population, we deep sequenced a natural strain of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus. With 124,221X average genome coverage of our 133,926 bp long consensus, we could detect low frequency mutations (0.025%. K-means clustering was used to classify the mutations in four categories according to their frequency in the population. We found 60 high frequency non-synonymous mutations under balancing selection distributed in all functional classes. These mutants could alter viral adaptation dynamics, either through competitive or synergistic processes. Lastly, we developed a technique for the delimitation of large deletions in next generation sequencing data. We found that large deletions occur along the entire viral genome, with hotspots located in homologous repeat regions (hrs. Present in 25.4% of the genomes, these deletion mutants presumably require functional complementation to complete their infection cycle. They might thus have a large impact on the fitness of the baculovirus population. Altogether, we found a wide breadth of genomic variation in the baculovirus population, suggesting it has high adaptive potential.

  11. Widespread failure to complete meiosis does not impair fecundity in parthenogenetic whiptail lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Aracely A; Schnittker, Robert R; Yu, Zulin; Munday, Sarah S; Baumann, Diana P; Neaves, William B; Baumann, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Parthenogenetic species of whiptail lizards in the genus Aspidoscelis constitute a striking example of speciation by hybridization, in which first-generation hybrids instantly attain reproductive isolation and procreate as clonal all-female lineages. Production of eggs containing a full complement of chromosomes in the absence of fertilization involves genome duplication prior to the meiotic divisions. In these pseudo-tetraploid oocytes, pairing and recombination occur exclusively between identical chromosomes instead of homologs; a deviation from the normal meiotic program that maintains heterozygosity. Whether pseudo-tetraploid cells arise early in germ cell development or just prior to meiosis has remained unclear. We now show that in the obligate parthenogenetic species A. neomexicana the vast majority of oocytes enter meiosis as diploid cells. Telomere bouquet formation is normal, but synapsis fails and oocytes accumulate in large numbers at the pairing stage. Pseudo-tetraploid cells are exceedingly rare in early meiotic prophase, but they are the only cells that progress into diplotene. Despite the widespread failure to increase ploidy prior to entering meiosis, the fecundity of parthenogenetic A. neomexicana is similar to that of A. inornata, one of its bisexual ancestors. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Magnetoencephalography Reveals a Widespread Increase in Network Connectivity in Idiopathic/Genetic Generalized Epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adham Elshahabi

    Full Text Available Idiopathic/genetic generalized epilepsy (IGE/GGE is characterized by seizures, which start and rapidly engage widely distributed networks, and result in symptoms such as absences, generalized myoclonic and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Although routine magnetic resonance imaging is apparently normal, many studies have reported structural alterations in IGE/GGE patients using diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry. Changes have also been reported in functional networks during generalized spike wave discharges. However, network function in the resting-state without epileptiforme discharges has been less well studied. We hypothesize that resting-state networks are more representative of the underlying pathophysiology and abnormal network synchrony. We studied functional network connectivity derived from whole-brain magnetoencephalography recordings in thirteen IGE/GGE and nineteen healthy controls. Using graph theoretical network analysis, we found a widespread increase in connectivity in patients compared to controls. These changes were most pronounced in the motor network, the mesio-frontal and temporal cortex. We did not, however, find any significant difference between the normalized clustering coefficients, indicating preserved gross network architecture. Our findings suggest that increased resting state connectivity could be an important factor for seizure spread and/or generation in IGE/GGE, and could serve as a biomarker for the disease.

  13. Final Report: Connecting genomic capabilities to physiology and response: Systems biology of the widespread alga Micromonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worden, Alexandra Z. [Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), Moss Landing, CA (United States); Callister, Stephen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stuart, Joshua [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Smith, Richard [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Increased stratification, less mixing and reduced nutrient concentrations in marine surface waters are predicted under a number of climate-change scenarios. These conditions are considered favorable for tiny photosynthetic algae (picophytoplankton), shaping their role in mediating future CO2 conditions. One possibility is that picophytoplankton such as Micromonas that have broad geographical ranges will more successfully adapt to changing environmental conditions. However, their capacity to thrive under the multi-factorial impacts of low pH, low nutrients, increasing temperature and changes in community composition is not known. Here, we developed the dual-Micromonas model system, which entailed generating optimized genomic information for two Micromonas species and developing a highperformance chemostat system in which both CO2 and nutrients could be consistently manipulated. This system is now fully operational. Project results are available in several publications will others are still in the analysis phase. Overall, our results show that Micromonas primary production will likely decrease under predicted future climate conditions. Furthermore, our studies on Micromonas provide new insights to the land plant ancestor, including the discovery of conserved signaling mechanisms (known to be essential to plant development) as well as the discovery of widespread chemical-sensing molecular switches. Collectively, this research highlights Micromonas as an important new model green alga for understanding plant gene networks and evolution as well as for investigating perturbation effects on marine primary production.

  14. Sustainable Transportation: Accelerating Widespread Adoption of Energy Efficient Vehicles & Fuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-12-01

    While energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously slash oil consumption and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a truly sustainable solution will require more than just putting drivers behind the wheels of new fuel-efficient cars. As the only national laboratory dedicated 100% to renewable energy and energy efficiency, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) accelerates widespread adoption of high-performance, low-emission, energy-efficient passenger and freight vehicles, as well as alternative fuels and related infrastructure. Researchers collaborate closely with industry, government, and research partners, using a whole-systems approach to design better batteries, drivetrains, and engines, as well as thermal management, energy storage, power electronic, climate control, alternative fuel, combustion, and emission systems. NREL's sustainable transportation research, development, and deployment (RD&D) efforts are not limited to vehicles, roads, and fueling stations. The lab also explores ways to save energy and reduce GHGs by integrating transportation technology advancements with renewable energy generation, power grids and building systems, urban planning and policy, and fleet operations.

  15. (Un)sustainable wind: Renewable energy, politics and ontology in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Zanotelli

    2017-01-01

    The Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, southern Mexico, has recently become a sight of political struggle between, on the one hand, multinational corporations and the state, and on the other, some sectors of the indigenous population and regional and national social movements. The conflict involves several wind farm projects to be located on the communal land base and lagoons inhabited by Ikojts Indians and Zapotecos. This case highlights an urgent and widespread discussion about sustainable ene...

  16. Conflicting energy, environment, economy policies in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.; Quintanilla, J.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental concerns, both at the local and global levels, have been present in Mexico's energy planning and national and international commitments. However, deregulation policies and financial constraints in the public sector seem to come in conflict with respect to greenhouse gas emissions in the development of the Mexican energy system. This is specially noticeable in the power sector where expansion of non fossil fuel generation has been essentially postponed at present and only the substitution of fuel oil and diesel by natural gas is contemplated. (Author)

  17. Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages from Mexico (Tequila, Mezcal, Bacanora, Sotol and Guatemala (Cuxa: Market Survey and Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rehm

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl carbamate (EC is a recognized genotoxic carcinogen, with widespread occurrence in fermented foods and beverages. No data on its occurrence in alcoholic beverages from Mexico or Central America is available. Samples of agave spirits including tequila, mezcal, bacanora and sotol (n=110, and of the sugarcane spirit cuxa (n=16 were purchased in Mexico and Guatemala, respectively, and analyzed for EC. The incidence of EC contamination was higher in Mexico than in Guatemala, however, concentrations were below international guideline levels (<0.15 mg/L. Risk assessment found the Margin of Exposure (MOE in line with that of European spirits. It is therefore unlikely that EC plays a role in high rates of liver cirrhosis reported in Mexico.

  18. Capturing spatial and temporal patterns of widespread, extreme flooding across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Kathryn; Raven, Emma; Liu, Ye

    2013-04-01

    Statistical characterisation of physical hazards is an integral part of probabilistic catastrophe models used by the reinsurance industry to estimate losses from large scale events. Extreme flood events are not restricted by country boundaries which poses an issue for reinsurance companies as their exposures often extend beyond them. We discuss challenges and solutions that allow us to appropriately capture the spatial and temporal dependence of extreme hydrological events on a continental-scale, which in turn enables us to generate an industry-standard stochastic event set for estimating financial losses for widespread flooding. By presenting our event set methodology, we focus on explaining how extreme value theory (EVT) and dependence modelling are used to account for short, inconsistent hydrological data from different countries, and how to make appropriate statistical decisions that best characterise the nature of flooding across Europe. The consistency of input data is of vital importance when identifying historical flood patterns. Collating data from numerous sources inherently causes inconsistencies and we demonstrate our robust approach to assessing the data and refining it to compile a single consistent dataset. This dataset is then extrapolated using a parameterised EVT distribution to estimate extremes. Our method then captures the dependence of flood events across countries using an advanced multivariate extreme value model. Throughout, important statistical decisions are explored including: (1) distribution choice; (2) the threshold to apply for extracting extreme data points; (3) a regional analysis; (4) the definition of a flood event, which is often linked with reinsurance industry's hour's clause; and (5) handling of missing values. Finally, having modelled the historical patterns of flooding across Europe, we sample from this model to generate our stochastic event set comprising of thousands of events over thousands of years. We then briefly

  19. Gulf of Mexico development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenz, D.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has seen significant deepwater growth. An overview of the GOM deepwater leaseholds by Shell and developments by competing companies is presented. Deepwater GOM developments, total production from the shelf and from deepwater wells, new offshore pipeline capacity and ownership, and processing plant capacity are also discussed. Significant deepwater growth in the Gulf is anticipated. Despite significant economic and technological challenges, the area is judged to be the prime exploration and production opportunity in the lower 48 states of the USA. tabs., figs

  20. E-Waste Supply Chain in Mexico: Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha E. Cruz-Sotelo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste is a widespread environmental problem. From all waste streams, e-waste is registering one of the largest growing rates (between 3% and 5%. In Mexico, the e-waste recovery system comprises a mix of formal and informal sectors not well known to date. The goal of this article was to analyze electronic waste in Mexico through the active actors in the recovery chain. This article presents the evolution of studies on electronic waste in Mexico. The legal regulations and public policies were analyzed, as were the existing practices of electronic waste handling, and some challenges facing this country for waste flow management. A management model is proposed which highlights components that must be considered in the model and the opportunities and challenges to transition from an unbundled handling, which still has practices that lack environmental and technical support, to sustainable management.

  1. 21 CFR 808.81 - New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false New Mexico. 808.81 Section 808.81 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.81 New Mexico. The following New Mexico medical device requirement is... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: New Mexico Statutes Annotated, section 67-36-16(F...

  2. Quaternary Geochronology, Paleontology, and Archaeology of the Upper San Pedro River Valley, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, E. P.

    2013-12-01

    This poster presents the results of multi-disciplinary investigations of the preservation and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing strata in the San Pedro River Valley in Sonora, Mexico. Geologic deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in southern Arizona contain one of the best late Cenozoic fossil records known in North America and the best record of early humans and extinct mammals on the continent. The basin in the U.S. is one of the type locations for the Blancan Land Mammal Age. Hemiphilian and Irvingtonian fossils are common. Rancholabrean remains are widespread. Strata in the valley adjacent to the international border with Mexico have yielded the densest concentration of archaeological mammoth-kill sites known in the western hemisphere. Despite more than 60 years of research in the U.S., however, and the fact that over one third of the San Pedro River lies south of the international boundary, little has been known about the late Cenozoic geology of the valley in Mexico. The study reported here utilized extensive field survey, archaeological documentation, paleontological excavations, stratigraphic mapping and alluvial geochronology to determine the nature and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in Sonora, Mexico. The results demonstrate that the Plio-Pleistocene fossil -bearing formations known from the valley in Arizona extend into the uppermost reaches of the valley in Mexico. Several new fossil sites were discovered that yielded the remains of Camelids, Equus, Mammuthus, and other Proboscidean species. Late Pleistocene archaeological remains were found on the surface of the surrounding uplands. AMS radiocarbon dating demonstrates the widespread preservation of middle- to late- Holocene deposits. However, the late Pleistocene deposits that contain the archaeological mammoth-kill sites in Arizona are absent in the valley in Mexico, and are now known to be restricted to relatively small portions of

  3. Nuclear energy in the near future in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, L.; Palacios, J., E-mail: lydia.paredes@inin.gob.mx, E-mail: javier.palacios@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    'Full text:' The main sources of electricity generation in Mexico are fossil fuels, mainly gas. At the end of 2013, nearly 50% of total electricity generated in Mexico, was generated by gas and 12% using coal. The Mexican 2012-2026 National Strategy for Energy (ENE-2012) proposes a diversification of generating sources in the electricity sector. Also states an objective indicating that by 2026, at least 35% of the total electricity produced should be by means of non-fossil fuels. Currently, Mexico has one nuclear power plant (Laguna Verde) consisting of two BWR units, with a combined capacity of de 1,610 MW. This power represents 3.08% as total installed capacity in the country, and represents 4.6% of the country's generated electrical energy on 2013. This work analyzes ENE-2012, considering different scenarios for nuclear energy in order to comply with the participation of clean energy sources by 2026. From this analysis we can conclude that nuclear energy should have more participation in the Mexican electricity generation mix for the near future. (author)

  4. SOVT analysis of the nuclear industry in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez R, E.; Hernandez B, M. C.

    2011-11-01

    In this work the analysis of strengths, opportunities, vulnerabilities and threats (SOVT) of the nuclear industry in Mexico is presented. This industry presents among its strengths that Mexico is a highly electrified country and has a good established normative mark of nuclear security. Although the Secretaria de Energia in Mexico, with base to the exposed in the Programa Sectorial de Energia 2007-2012, is analyzing the convenience of the generation starting from this source, considering the strong technological dependence of the exterior and the limited federal budget dedicated to this field. As a result of the analysis of the SOVT matrix, were found a great number of strengths that threats, although the vulnerabilities list is major to the strengths, the opportunities list is the bigger. Therefore, the nuclear industry can be a sustainable industry, taking the necessary decisions and taking advantage of the detected opportunities. (Author)

  5. [Migration expectations among nursing students in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Martínez, Yetzi; Nigenda, Gustavo; Galárraga, Omar; Ruiz-Larios, José Arturo

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the factors associated with the expectations to migrate abroad among nursing students in Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a non-random sample of 420 students. A logistic regression model was estimated. A total of 69% of the informants expressed their intention to move abroad, to look for employment (65%) and/or to continue their studies (26%). Of those, 50% would choose Canada as their destination, followed by Spain and the United States. The variables associated with migration expectations were: age, income, having relatives abroad, and perception of poor labor conditions and low wages in Mexico. Results are consistent with international literature. Low wages, poor labor conditions and the limited possibilities for professional development in Mexico are factors that contribute to generate migration expectations among nursing students. Additionally, optimistic perceptions about the job market and the labor demand in more developed countries heighten expectations to migrate.

  6. Manufacture of reconstruction-bricks in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Valencia, Ma. Neftalí; Penagos, Armando Aguilar; Rojas, Denise Y. Fernández; López, Alberto López; Gálves, David Morillón

    2017-12-01

    In Mexico, around 33.600 tons of construction wastes are generated every day, Mexico City contributing for around tons/day, with fewer than 1.000 tons/day being sent to be recycled. For that reason the purpose of this study was to manufacture sustainable bricks, based on three types of wastes generated in the building industry: wood cutting residues, wastes from the excavation process (From Coapa and Cuautlancingo, Puebla, Mexico) and recycled aggregates. Water was added as kneading material, and Opuntia ficus-indica (mucilage) was supplemented as natural additive to improve the workability of the mixtures. Conventional firing process was substituted by drying in a solar drying chamber. Nine mixtures were prepared using 62% excavation wastes, 4% wood cutting residues and 11%, 17% and 34% recycled aggregates. These mixtures were classified in two groups depending on their granulometry: the first one denominated cementitious recycled aggregates only having granulometry from 25.4 mm, 9.52 mm to 6.35 mm to fines and the second group denominated all in one recycled aggregates having granulometry of 6.35 mm to fines. The quality of the sustainable bricks was evaluated according to compressive strength and water absorption parameters. The results of nine mixtures showed that the reconstruction-bricks manufactured with the mixture seven consisting of 9.52 mm and 6.35 mm construction residues (all in one) fines presented the highest strength values, lowest maximum initial absorption (4 g/min) compared to the norm NMX-C-037-ONNCCE-2013 which establishes that the maximum limit for walls exposed to the outside is 5 g/min. Using a solar desiccator made from construction residues, the bricks were dried in 11 days, the maximum temperature was 76 °C and the maximum solar radiation captured was 733.4 W/m2.

  7. Mexico Wind Resource Assessment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.N.; Elliott, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    A preliminary wind energy resource assessment of Mexico that produced wind resource maps for both utility-scale and rural applications was undertaken as part of the Mexico-U.S. Renewable Energy Cooperation Program. This activity has provided valuable information needed to facilitate the commercialization of small wind turbines and windfarms in Mexico and to lay the groundwork for subsequent wind resource activities. A surface meteorological data set of hourly data in digital form was utilized to prepare a more detailed and accurate wind resource assessment of Mexico than otherwise would have been possible. Software was developed to perform the first ever detailed analysis of the wind characteristics data for over 150 stations in Mexico. The hourly data set was augmented with information from weather balloons (upper-air data), ship wind data from coastal areas, and summarized wind data from sources in Mexico. The various data were carefully evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. The preliminary assessment has identified many areas of good-to-excellent wind resource potential and shows that the wind resource in Mexico is considerably greater than shown in previous surveys.

  8. Texas-Mexico multimodal transportation: developments in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boske, Leigh B.

    1994-03-01

    This presentation highlights the results of a recently completed study that examines the Texas- Mexico multimodal transport system already in place, current plans for improvements or expansion, and opportunities and constraints faced by each transport mode -- motor carriage, rail, maritime, and air. Particular emphasis is given to findings regarding transportation developments in Mexico. The study concludes that in Mexico, all modes are working at establishing new services and strategic alliances, intermodal arrangements are on the rise, and private-sector participation in infrastructure improvements is growing daily at Mexican seaports and airports as well as within that nation's highway and rail systems. This presentation looks at developments that concern privatization, deregulation, infrastructure improvements, financing arrangements, and new services in Mexico.

  9. Predictors of outcome of multidisciplinary treatment in chronic widespread pain: an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, A.; van der Leeden, M.; Roorda, L.D.; Steultjens, M.P.M.; Dekker, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The effectiveness of multidisciplinary treatment in chronic widespread pain (CWP) is limited. The considerable heterogeneity among patients is a likely explanation. Knowledge on predictors of the outcome of multidisciplinary treatment can help to optimize treatment effectiveness. The

  10. Vitamin D inadequacy is widespread in Tunisian active boys and is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin D inadequacy is widespread in Tunisian active boys and is related to diet but not to adiposity or insulin resistance. Ikram Bezrati, Mohamed Kacem Ben Fradj, Nejmeddine Ouerghi, Moncef Feki, Anis Chaouachi, Naziha Kaabachi ...

  11. Intergenerational Exchanges in Mexico: Types and Intensity of Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Cristina

    2007-07-01

    This article analyses exchanges of support between the elderly and adult generations and by gender, based on data from the United Nations household survey in Mexico City (SABE, 2000), and the National Study of Ageing and Health (ENASEM, 2001). Results indicate that in Mexico both generations - elderly parents and adult children - provide support, such as money, services, care or gifts for grandchildren, according to gender roles and the generation's resources. Men provide monetary support and reproduce their role as family providers, but this role depends on having an income from work and, in later years, a pension, a more common situation among men than among women. Women develop their female domestic role as caregivers. They do not have a formal income, but receive informal economic support and offer services and care to their relatives, reproducing their invisible and unpaid work during their life course. Both types of support are widely exchanged between elderly parents and adult children and children-in-law.

  12. Mexico City aerosol study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcon, Y.I.; Ramirez, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    A major task in the field of air pollution monitoring is the development of devices for determining the mass and composition of airborne particulate matter as a function of size - and time. The sample collection device must be designed giving consideration to the nature of the aerosol and to the effects of the aerosol on human health. It has been established that particles smaller than 3.5 μm in diameter can penetrate deeply into the human respiratory system, and that larger particles are trapped in the upper respiratory passages. For these reasons, it is desirable to use a dichotomous sampler to collect particles in two size ranges, rather than to collect total particulates on a single filter. The authors discuss a study in Mexico City using a dichotomous sampler

  13. Mexico introduces pentavalent vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Combination vaccines have been introduced in Mexico. The national immunization program has incorporated the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines in 1998, and the pentavalent vaccine in 1999. The two categories of antigen composition in combination vaccines are: 1) multiple different antigenic types of a single pathogen, such as the 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and 2) antigens from different pathogens causing different diseases, such as the DPT and MMR vaccines. Pentavalent vaccines are included in the second category. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and other diseases produced by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenza type b (DTP-HB/Hib) vaccine has been distributed to 87% of Mexican children under 1 year of age. Over 800,000 doses of pentavalent vaccine have been administered.

  14. Emplacement of Widespread Fe/Mg Phyllosilicate Layer in West Margaritifer Terra, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelos, K. D.; Maxwell, R. E.; Seelos, F. P.; Buczkowski, D.; Viviano-Beck, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    West Margaritifer Terra is located at the eastern end of Valles Marineris at the complex intersection of chaos terrains, cratered highlands, and multiple generations of outflow channels. Adjacent regions host layered phyllosilicates thought to indicate early Mars pedogenic and/or ground water-based alteration (e.g., Le Deit et al., 2012), and indeed, hydrologic modeling supports prolonged aqueous activity in the Noachian and Hesperian eras (Andrews-Hanna and Lewis, 2011). The remnant high-standing plateaus in West Margaritifer (0-15°S, 325-345°E) host numerous phyllosilicate-bearing outcrops as well and are the focus of this study. Here, we performed a systematic mapping and characterization of mineralogy and morphology of these deposits in order to assess similarity to other layered phyllosilicates and evaluate potential formation mechanisms. Utilizing multiple remote sensing datasets, we identified three types of phyllosilicate exposures distributed throughout the region: 1) along upper chaos fracture walls, 2) in erosional windows on the plains, and 3) in crater walls and ejecta. Outcrops are spectrally indicative of Fe/Mg smectite (most similar to saponite) and only rare, isolated occurrences of Al-phyllosilicate were observed. Morphologically, the layer is a few to 10 m thick, light-toned, polygonally fractured at decameter scales, and vertical subparallel banding is evident in places. These characteristics were used along with spatial distribution, elevation, and geologic context to evaluate 4 potential formation mechanisms: fluvio-lacustrine, pedogenesis, diagenesis, and hydrothermal alteration. We find that the widespread distribution and spectral homogeneity of the layer favors formation via groundwater alteration and/or pedogenic weathering. This is consistent with interpretations of similar layered phyllosilicates in NW Noachis Terra and the Valles Marineris plains to the west, and significantly extends the area over which these aqueous processes

  15. A Synoptic- and Planetary-Scale Analysis of Widespread North American Ice Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, C.; Gyakum, J. R.; Atallah, E.

    2017-12-01

    Freezing rain can have devastating impacts, particularly when it persists for many hours. Predicting the precise temperature stratification necessary for long duration freezing rain events remains an important forecast challenge. To better elucidate the conditions responsible for the most severe events, we concentrate on surface observations of long-duration (6 or more hours) freezing rain events over North America from 1979-2016. Furthermore, we analyze cases in which multiple stations observe long-duration events simultaneously. Following these cases over successive days allows us to generate maps of freezing rain "tracks." We then categorize recurring geographic patterns to examine the meteorological conditions leading to these events. While freezing rain is most frequently observed in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, long-duration events have affected areas as far south as the Gulf Coast. Notably, a disproportionately large number of very long duration (18 or more hours) events have occurred in the Southern Plains states relative to the climatological annual frequency of freezing rain there. Classification of individual cases shows that most of these very long duration events are associated with a recurring pattern which produces freezing rain along a southwest-northeast swath from Texas/Oklahoma into the northeastern U.S. and eastern Canada. Storms classified within this pattern include the January 1998 and December 2013 ice storms. While this pattern is the most widespread, additional spatially extensive patterns occur. One of these areas extends from the Southern Plains eastward along the Gulf Coast to Georgia and the Carolinas. A third category of events extends from the Upper Midwest into the northeastern U.S. and southeastern Canada. The expansive areal extent and long duration of these events make them especially problematic. An analysis of the planetary- to synoptic-scale settings responsible for these cases and the differences

  16. New Mexico, 2010 Census Place

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  17. New Mexico, 2010 Congressional Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  18. New Mexico Urban Areas - Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census MAF/TIGER database. The Census MAF/TIGER database...

  19. August 1973 Veracruz, Mexico Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — South of Veracruz, southeastern Mexico. Damage: Severe. The earthquake caused heavy damage in the states of Morelos, Puebla, and Veracruz. Thousands were left...

  20. United States Strategy for Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Centner, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    The security and stability of Mexico is of national interest to the United States, and a strong, effective alliance between the two countries is pivotal to our national defense strategy and economic prosperity...

  1. The Cambrian-Ordovician rocks of Sonora, Mexico, and southern Arizona, southwestern margin of North America (Laurentia): chapter 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Harris, Alta C.; Repetski, John E.; Derby, James R.; Fritz, R.D.; Longacre, S.A.; Morgan, W.A.; Sternbach, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cambrian and Ordovician shelf, platform, and basin rocks are present in Sonora, Mexico, and southern Arizona and were deposited on the southwestern continental margin of North America (Laurentia). Cambrian and Ordovician rocks in Sonora, Mexico, are mostly exposed in scattered outcrops in the northern half of the state. Their discontinuous nature results from extensive Quaternary and Tertiary surficial cover, from Tertiary and Mesozoic granitic batholiths in western Sonora, and from widespread Tertiary volcanic deposits in the Sierra Madre Occidental in eastern Sonora. Cambrian and Ordovician shelf rocks were deposited as part of the the southern miogeocline on the southwestern continental margin of North America.

  2. Transportation energy use in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum, C.; Meyers, S.; Sathaye, J.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents data on passenger travel and freight transport and analysis of the consequent energy use in Mexico during the 1970--1971 period. We describe changes in modal shares for passenger travel and freight transport, and analyze trends in the energy intensity of different modes. We look in more detail at transportation patterns, energy use, and the related environmental problems in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, and also discuss policies that have been implemented there to reduce emissions from vehicles.

  3. Uranium resources in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLemore, V.T.; Chenoweth, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    For nearly three decades (1951-1980), the Grants uranium district in northwestern New Mexico produced more uranium than any other district in the world. The most important host rocks containing economic uranium deposits in New Mexico are sandstones within the Jurassic Morrison Formation. Approximately 334,506,000 lb of U 3 O 8 were produced from this unit from 1948 through 1987, accounting for 38% of the total uranium production from the US. All of the economic reserves and most of the resources in New Mexico occur in the Morrison Formation. Uranium deposits also occur in sandstones of Paleozoic, Triassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary formations; however, only 468,680 lb of U 3 O 8 or 0.14% of the total production from New Mexico have been produced from these deposits. Some of these deposits may have a high resource potential. In contrast, almost 6.7 million lb of U 3 O 8 have been produced from uranium deposits in the Todilto Limestone of the Wanakah Formation (Jurassic), but potential for finding additional economic uranium deposits in the near future is low. Other uranium deposits in New Mexico include those in other sedimentary rocks, vein-type uranium deposits, and disseminated magmatic, pegmatitic, and contact metasomatic uranium deposits in igneous and metamorphic rocks. Production from these deposits have been insignificant (less than 0.08% of the total production from New Mexico), but there could be potential for medium to high-grade, medium-sized uranium deposits in some areas. Total uranium production from New Mexico from 1948 to 1987 amounts to approximately 341,808,000 lb of U 3 O 8 . New Mexico has significant uranium reserves and resources. Future development of these deposits will depend upon an increase in price for uranium and lowering of production costs, perhaps by in-situ leaching techniques

  4. Measuring the importance of oil-related revenues in total fiscal income for Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Loya, Manuel Lorenzo; Blanco, Lorenzo [Facultad de Economia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Loma Redonda 1515 Pte., Col. Loma Larga, C.P. 64710, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2008-09-15

    Revenues from oil exports are an important part of government budgets in Mexico. A time-series analysis is conducted using monthly data from 1990 to 2005 examining three different specifications to determine how international oil price fluctuations and government income generated from oil exports influence fiscal policy in Mexico. The behavior of government spending and taxation is consistent with the spend-tax hypothesis. The results show that there is an inverse relationship between oil-related revenues and tax revenue from non-oil sources. Fiscal policy reform is urgently needed in order to improve tax collection as oil reserves in Mexico become more and more depleted. (author)

  5. Measuring the importance of oil-related revenues in total fiscal income for Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Loya, Manuel Lorenzo; Blanco, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Revenues from oil exports are an important part of government budgets in Mexico. A time-series analysis is conducted using monthly data from 1990 to 2005 examining three different specifications to determine how international oil price fluctuations and government income generated from oil exports influence fiscal policy in Mexico. The behavior of government spending and taxation is consistent with the spend-tax hypothesis. The results show that there is an inverse relationship between oil-related revenues and tax revenue from non-oil sources. Fiscal policy reform is urgently needed in order to improve tax collection as oil reserves in Mexico become more and more depleted. (author)

  6. Prospects for an Accelerator Program in Mexico Focused on Photon Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Hernandez-Garcia, Mauro Napsuciale

    2011-05-01

    Recent interest in developing an accelerator-based light source in Mexico has driven several actions by the Division of Particles and Fields in Mexico, and by the electron accelerator community in the United States. We report on activities over the past two years that are very encouraging and offer a variety of possibilities to start the development of an accelerator program in Mexico. A suggested path towards this goal that would eventually lead to building, commissioning and operating a third or fourth generation light source will also be presented

  7. The future of fuel cell in Mexico in the third millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Salgado, J.; Marín-Cruz, J.; Estrada-Martínez, A.

    The warming of the earth due to green house gas emission is mainly produced by CO 2. In Mexico City, 71% of the total harmful emissions is from internal combustion engines of car and buses. Benefits from the use of fuel cells (FCs) in transportation and stationary power generating sectors will achieve satisfactory air quality standards not only in Mexico City but also throughout the country. This paper suggests a scenario for FC technology penetration in Mexico. There are two potential markets for FCs: (i) FC transportation; and (ii) stationary power plant for electrical production. In Mexico City, 3.2 million vehicles are in circulation and represent 19.5% (16.3 million) of the country's total vehicles, and 9.02 million of natural gas users are a potential market for acquiring stationary power generation by FC systems.

  8. Prospective of the Technology of Wind Power Generation (Annexe 5 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Prospectiva de la Tecnologia de Generacion Eoloelectrica (Anexo 5 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja Diaz, Marco A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    At present, it is recognized that the advantage of the energy of the wind to generate electricity is an innovating activity of high technology that is being integrated to the electrical sectors of several countries in the context of the energy diversification. The basic concept of the wind power generators suggests simplicity; nevertheless, the enormous machines that nowadays turn the wind energy to electricity, are complex systems since they are integrated by aerodynamic, mechanical, electrical, hydraulic and electronic subsystems, whose development and integration have presented important challenges in the matter of investigation and technological development. It is for this reason that in the last 10 years several governments of industrialized countries and of some developing ones, have remarkably progressed in the restoration of elements of legislation, regulation, and fiscal measures that have opened and impelled the wind power market, in such a way that in those countries the wind power industry has become a very productive activity. [Spanish] En la actualidad, se reconoce que el aprovechamiento de la energia del viento para generar electricidad es una actividad innovadora de alta tecnologia que se esta integrando a los sectores electricos de varios paises en el contexto de la diversificacion energetica. El concepto basico de los aerogeneradores sugiere sencillez; sin embargo, las enormes maquinas que hoy en dia convierten la energia del viento en electricidad, son sistemas complejos ya que estan integrados por subsistemas aerodinamicos, mecanicos, electricos, hidraulicos y electronicos, cuyo desarrollo e integracion ha presentado retos importantes en materia de investigacion y desarrollo tecnologico. Es por ello que en los ultimos 10 anos varios gobiernos de paises industrializados y de algunos en vias de desarrollo, han progresado notablemente en la instauracion de elementos de legislacion, regulacion, y medidas fiscales que han abierto e impulsado el

  9. Prospective of the Technology of Wind Power Generation (Annexe 5 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Prospectiva de la Tecnologia de Generacion Eoloelectrica (Anexo 5 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja Diaz, Marco A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    At present, it is recognized that the advantage of the energy of the wind to generate electricity is an innovating activity of high technology that is being integrated to the electrical sectors of several countries in the context of the energy diversification. The basic concept of the wind power generators suggests simplicity; nevertheless, the enormous machines that nowadays turn the wind energy to electricity, are complex systems since they are integrated by aerodynamic, mechanical, electrical, hydraulic and electronic subsystems, whose development and integration have presented important challenges in the matter of investigation and technological development. It is for this reason that in the last 10 years several governments of industrialized countries and of some developing ones, have remarkably progressed in the restoration of elements of legislation, regulation, and fiscal measures that have opened and impelled the wind power market, in such a way that in those countries the wind power industry has become a very productive activity. [Spanish] En la actualidad, se reconoce que el aprovechamiento de la energia del viento para generar electricidad es una actividad innovadora de alta tecnologia que se esta integrando a los sectores electricos de varios paises en el contexto de la diversificacion energetica. El concepto basico de los aerogeneradores sugiere sencillez; sin embargo, las enormes maquinas que hoy en dia convierten la energia del viento en electricidad, son sistemas complejos ya que estan integrados por subsistemas aerodinamicos, mecanicos, electricos, hidraulicos y electronicos, cuyo desarrollo e integracion ha presentado retos importantes en materia de investigacion y desarrollo tecnologico. Es por ello que en los ultimos 10 anos varios gobiernos de paises industrializados y de algunos en vias de desarrollo, han progresado notablemente en la instauracion de elementos de legislacion, regulacion, y medidas fiscales que han abierto e impulsado el

  10. Governability in Contemporary Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Curzio Gutiérrez

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the difficulties to establish a concept of governability and the frequent ideological usage of the term, it is much more operative to turn to the principle of governability, in the broad sense, which supports itself on five pillars: the political legitimacy of the government, the governmental efficiency to attend to the demands of society, the existence of shared social project, the agreement with the principle special interest groups, and international viability. The analysis of the structure and relevance of these five points during the long period of political transition that Mexico underwent between 1988 and 1997 shows how it was possible for this country to play off certain factors against each other in order to secure governability and safeguard against the consequences of any resultant imbalances. Between 1998-1993, the government of Salinas de Gotari based itself on the viability of a neoliberal project within an international context, and on this projectís attention to domestic demands as well as on the governmentís pact with elites. Institutional integration and legitimacy made up, then, for a process of discreet liberalization and the lack of democratic electoral commitment, which culminated in the PRI’s 1994 elections victory.The assassination of Colosia, though, and the appearance of the EZLN and the subsequent crisis surrounding the peso’s devaluation that accompanied Ernesto Zedilloís rise to power soon led to the collapse of those pillars of support. Crowning the process of the silenttransition were the elections of 1997, which makes it possible to say that in Mexico today there are now smooth elections, but that reform of the State is still unresolved —a subject that includes the reduction of the president’s competence. Seen in the short term, the most direct threats to Mexico’s governability will come as a result of the lack of attention to those demands of society’s underprivileged and the ill

  11. Estimating black bear density in New Mexico using noninvasive genetic sampling coupled with spatially explicit capture-recapture methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Matthew J.; Cain, James W.; Roemer, Gary W.; Gould, William R.

    2016-01-01

    During the 2004–2005 to 2015–2016 hunting seasons, the New Mexico Department of Game and Fish (NMDGF) estimated black bear abundance (Ursus americanus) across the state by coupling density estimates with the distribution of primary habitat generated by Costello et al. (2001). These estimates have been used to set harvest limits. For example, a density of 17 bears/100 km2 for the Sangre de Cristo and Sacramento Mountains and 13.2 bears/100 km2 for the Sandia Mountains were used to set harvest levels. The advancement and widespread acceptance of non-invasive sampling and mark-recapture methods, prompted the NMDGF to collaborate with the New Mexico Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and New Mexico State University to update their density estimates for black bear populations in select mountain ranges across the state.We established 5 study areas in 3 mountain ranges: the northern (NSC; sampled in 2012) and southern Sangre de Cristo Mountains (SSC; sampled in 2013), the Sandia Mountains (Sandias; sampled in 2014), and the northern (NSacs) and southern Sacramento Mountains (SSacs; both sampled in 2014). We collected hair samples from black bears using two concurrent non-invasive sampling methods, hair traps and bear rubs. We used a gender marker and a suite of microsatellite loci to determine the individual identification of hair samples that were suitable for genetic analysis. We used these data to generate mark-recapture encounter histories for each bear and estimated density in a spatially explicit capture-recapture framework (SECR). We constructed a suite of SECR candidate models using sex, elevation, land cover type, and time to model heterogeneity in detection probability and the spatial scale over which detection probability declines. We used Akaike’s Information Criterion corrected for small sample size (AICc) to rank and select the most supported model from which we estimated density.We set 554 hair traps, 117 bear rubs and collected 4,083 hair

  12. Thinking critically about the occurrence of widespread participation in poor nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Marc; Ion, Robin

    2015-04-01

    A discussion of how Arendt's work can be productively re-contextualized to provide a critical analysis of the occurrence of widespread participation in poor nursing care and what the implications of this are for the providers of nursing education. While the recent participation of nurses in healthcare failings, such as that detailed in the Francis report, has been universally condemned, there has been an absence of critical analyses in the literature that attempt to understand the occurrence of such widespread participation in poor nursing care. This is a significant omission in so far as such analyses will form an integral part of the strategy to limit the occurrence of such widespread participation of nurses in future healthcare failings. Discussion paper. Arendt's 'Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil' and 'Thinking and Moral Considerations: A Lecture'. In addition, a literature search was conducted and articles published in English relating to the terms care, compassion, ethics, judgement and thinking between 2004-2014 were included. It is anticipated that this discussion will stimulate further critical debate about the role of Arendt's work for an understanding of the occurrence of poor nursing care, and encouraging additional detailed analyses of the widespread participation of nurses in healthcare failings more generally. This article provides a challenging analysis of the widespread participation of nurses in poor care and discusses the opportunities confronting the providers of nursing education in limiting future healthcare failings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. 75 FR 28555 - Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Trade Mission to Mexico City, Mexico AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce... Trade Mission to Mexico City from September 27-29, 2010. This Executive led mission will focus on... & Energy Efficiency conference will take place at the World Trade Center in Mexico City. Relevant issues on...

  14. DNA barcoding in Mexico: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elías-Gutiérrez, M; León-Regagnon, V

    2013-11-01

    DNA barcoding has become an important current scientific trend to the understanding of the world biodiversity. In the case of mega-diverse hot spots like Mexico, this technique represents an important tool for taxonomists, allowing them to concentrate in highlighted species by the barcodes instead of analyzing entire sets of specimens. This tendency resulted in the creation of a national network named Mexican Barcode of Life (MEXBOL) which main goals are to train students, and to promote the interaction and collective work among researchers interested in this topic. As a result, the number of records in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) for some groups, such as the Mammalia, Actinopterygii, Polychaeta, Branchiopoda, Ostracoda, Maxillopoda, Nematoda, Pinophyta, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota place Mexico among the top ten countries in the generation of these data. This special number presents only few of the many interesting findings in this region of the world, after the use of this technique and its integration with other methodologies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Considerations to the nuclear safety in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas M, B.

    2006-01-01

    The uncertain future of the hydrocarbons like main source of energy, force us to think on the nuclear energy as the suitable substitute that we can inherit to those future generations. Mexico therefore should multiply the number of nuclear power centrals and to be in this way prepared for the new challenges, however, it is necessary and advisable, to restate the mexican nuclear plan that includes mainly the transparency. The 'WANO Report' (World Association of Nuclear Operators - for their initials in English), result of a technical audit to the Nuclear Power station of Laguna Verde (CNLV), it is a polemic topic, because in accordance with David Lochbaum of 'The Union of Concerned Scientists' of the United States of America and of John Large of 'Large and Associates' of the Great Britain, the security in the CNLV is questionable. The pronouncements of concern of Abel J. Gonzalez and Ken E. Brockman, high officials of the International Atomic Energy Agency who took knowledge of diverse irregularities in the CNLV, should be analysis reason for to take actions in pro of the future of the nuclear energy in Mexico. (Author)

  16. Mexico's critical choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, E.

    1990-01-01

    In Mexico, the 1982 fall in international oil prices shook the national conscience and pushed the Mexican people in search of a new national image and toward the choices they must make to attain that image. But, according to the author of this paper, the country as a whole has already made critical choices for overall strategy and there are reasons for optimism. In the current economic environment of growing domestic demand and enhanced international competitiveness, the author sees PEMEX (the Mexican national oil company) facing not only the challenge of responding to the rapid changes taking place in the Mexican economy, but also making a significant contribution toward the solid and stable growth of the country. The relevant question is how PEMEX will live up to these expectations. This paper describes several steps PEMEX has taken already or is preparing to take in order to meet this challenge, including: investment in the domestic petrochemical industry; entry into the Eurobond market; development of new methods of project financing

  17. New Mexico HUC-10 Boundaries - 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the watershed (10-digit) 10th level for the State of New Mexico. This data set consists of...

  18. New Mexico Museums and Cultural Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of museums and cultural centers in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using...

  19. Mexico Terrain Corrected Free Air Anomalies (97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' gravity anomaly grid for Mexico, North-Central America and the Western Caribbean Sea is NOT the input data set used in the development of the MEXICO97 model....

  20. New Mexico HUC-8 Boundaries - 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subbasin (8-digit) 8th level for the State of New Mexico. This data set consists of...

  1. HSIP Fire Stations in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Fire Stations in New Mexico Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  2. Becker muscular dystrophy with widespread muscle hypertrophy and a non-sense mutation of exon 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Duno, M; Vissing, J

    2013-01-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy features progressive proximal weakness, wasting and often focal hypertrophy. We present a patient with pain and cramps from adolescence. Widespread muscle hypertrophy, preserved muscle strength and a 10-20-fold raised CPK were noted. Muscle biopsy was dystrophic......, and Western blot showed a 95% reduction of dystrophin levels. Genetic analyses revealed a non-sense mutation in exon 2 of the dystrophin gene. This mutation is predicted to result in a Duchenne phenotype, but resulted in a mild Becker muscular dystrophy with widespread muscle hypertrophy. We suggest...

  3. A widespread allergic reaction to black tattoo ink caused by laser treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Eric F

    2015-02-01

    This is the first reported case of a local and widespread reaction in a 39 year old woman, to black tattoo ink, induced by Q-switched laser treatment. A 39 year old woman was treated with the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for removal of a decorative tattoo of her lower back. Subsequent to laser treatment, a severe, widespread allergic reaction developed within and surrounding the treated tattoo. Tattoo reactions subsequent to laser treatment should be considered in addition to reactions to topical antibiotics or wound dressings, following laser treatment of tattoos. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Working without a Union in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adele, Niame; Rack, Christine

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide a description of the academic climate in New Mexico. Like many other places in the world today, New Mexico is trying to find an identity in an environment that the authors label "increasingly privatized, corporatized, and militarized." New Mexico's higher education salaries are lower than those in…

  5. New Mexico Charter Schools Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Public Education Department, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the New Mexico legislature passed changes to the Charter School Act that provided more accountability for both charters and authorizers in New Mexico. As part of that law, the Public Education Department (PED) is asked to submit an annual report on the status of charter schools in New Mexico. This is the first report submitted under that…

  6. California-Mexico gas exports eyed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that two California utilities have proposed providing natural gas transportation services to Mexico. The arrangement would provide a second U.S. export sales point at the U.S.-Mexico border and perhaps help alleviate an expected surplus of gas pipeline capacity available to California. Mexico currently imports about 200 MMcfd of U.S. gas via pipelines in Texas

  7. Digital Geologic Map of New Mexico - Formations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The geologic map was created in GSMAP at Socorro, New Mexico by Orin Anderson and Glen Jones and published as the Geologic Map of New Mexico 1:500,000 in GSMAP...

  8. CERN servers go to Mexico

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    On Wednesday, 26 August, 384 servers from the CERN Computing Centre were donated to the Faculty of Science in Physics and Mathematics (FCFM) and the Mesoamerican Centre for Theoretical Physics (MCTP) at the University of Chiapas, Mexico.   CERN’s Director-General, Rolf Heuer, met the Mexican representatives in an official ceremony in Building 133, where the servers were prepared for shipment. From left to right: Frédéric Hemmer, CERN IT Department Head; Raúl Heredia Acosta, Deputy Permanent Representative of Mexico to the United Nations and International Organizations in Geneva; Jorge Castro-Valle Kuehne, Ambassador of Mexico to the Swiss Confederation and the Principality of Liechtenstein; Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General; Luis Roberto Flores Castillo, President of the Swiss Chapter of the Global Network of Qualified Mexicans Abroad; Virginia Romero Tellez, Coordinator of Institutional Relations of the Swiss Chapter of the Global Network of Qualified Me...

  9. Health technology assessment in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Frenk, Julio

    2009-07-01

    The history of health technology assessment (HTA) in Mexico is examined, starting with the efforts to incorporate this topic into the policy agenda and culminating with the recent creation of a specialized public agency. Information was gathered through a bibliographic search and interviews with actors involved in HTA in Mexico. HTA efforts were developed in Mexico since the mid-1980s with the participation both of academics and of policy makers, a relationship that eventually led to the creation of the Center for Technological Excellence within the Ministry of Health. Institutionalization of HTA in resource-constrained settings requires the development of a critical mass of researchers involved in this field, the implementation of information efforts, and the establishment of strong relationships between HTA experts and policy makers.

  10. Country watch: Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel Aguirre, E

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the program activities of the Mexican National Commission on Human Rights (CNDH), which in 1994 created a program to address human rights issues of HIV-infected victims. The aim was to answer complaints of discrimination against HIV-infected persons and to modify confrontational attitudes of groups that feel infringed upon by the rights of HIV-infected persons. CNDH formed a task force of HIV/AIDS medical experts, which recommended actions for three types of discriminatory practices. Persons with HIV/AIDS (PWHA) who were confined in prison filed complaints about the lack of necessary medications or medical attention. The Official Mexican Norm for the Prevention and Control of HIV stipulates, in its Manual for the Attention of Complaints Regarding HIV/AIDS, protocols for treatment of PWHA. This manual was distributed to 31 State Human Rights Commissions in Mexico. CNDH implemented an outreach program to educate the public about HIV/AIDS, to offer training courses, and to publish written materials about discrimination against PWHA. The CNDH conducted conferences and training sessions for workers in the health services, where most violations of human rights take place. CNDH works closely with the National Board for the Prevention and Control of AIDS to assess clinical records, train staff handling complaints, and channel complaints that require CNDH intervention. CNDH conducts training workshops for nongovernmental organizations. CNDH is constrained by bureaucratic procedures that slow the process of resolving complaints and by the small CNDH staff responsible for handling the more complex cases. However, CNDH has successfully resolved a number of complaints and improved the prison conditions of PWHA.

  11. EDUCATION VERSUS INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL, MEXICO CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Alarcón Ortiz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes and reflects on some indicators of nonsense like "enough to know that on one hand the country's Political Constitution enshrines the right to receive a salary range for a living and the other, for those who manage statistics fixing daily wage in a ridiculous amount, which can be compared with the cost of just over six liters of bottled water or a gallon of gasoline, "built on the current  model where social and economic strategies are sustained, that should influence education. The proposal builds on what we consider the changes in the Mexican education system should focus on the meaning of work skills, but currently do not impact the performance of the individual as a goal. In Mexico, living in a state of inequality in which there are few, extremely wealthy who have generated their fortunes for favors granted by the rulers and others very poor who receive poverty wages when they work.

  12. Adult obesity, disease and longevity in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palloni, Alberto; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Novak, Beatriz; Pinto, Guido; Wong, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    To obtain estimates of the effects of overweight and obesity on the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and adult mortality. We use three waves (2000, 2002, 2012) of the Mexican Health and Aging Survey (MHAS).We employ parametric hazard models to estimate mortality and conventional logistic models to estimate incidence of T2D. Obesity and overweight have a strong effect on the incidence of T2D;this, combined with the large impact of diabetes on adult mortality, generates increases in mortality that translate into losses of 2 to 3 years of life expectancy at age 50. If increasing trends in obesity in Mexico continue as in the past, progress in adult survival may be slowed down considerably and the incidence of T2D will continue to increase.

  13. Social Entrepreneurship and Tourism Development in Mexico

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Helene Balslev

    2017-01-01

    the process of mobilising collective interaction, trust and collaborate activities within networks. This case study considers the increasing flow of North Americans settling in Mexico to be social entrepreneurs. Their tourism-related business often has a social aim, not only generating economic growth......Enacting social entrepreneurship is about individual engagement, innovative ideas and creating social change. This article challenges this proposition of the individual social entrepreneur, rather social entrepreneurship is to be understood within the facilitating roles of networks through...... but also addressing emerging socio-cultural needs in the Mexican communities. Through their non-profit organizations these transnational social entrepreneurs gain acknowledgment to the extent that they challenge the authorities’ power and even shape the meaning and nature of development. Here network ties...

  14. New Mexico Geothermal Data Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witcher, J.C.; Whittier, J.; Morgan, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the New Mexico Geothermal Data Base (NMGDB) which is a comprehensive public-domain data base of low-temperature geothermal resource information for New Mexico that is designed to assist researchers and developers. A broad range of geoscience, engineering, climatic, economic, and land status information are complied in the dBASE III PLUS data base management system for use on an IBM or IBM-compatible personal computer. A user friendly menu format with on-screen prompts allows easy and convenient use

  15. Local trauma in human patellar tendon leads to widespread changes in the tendon gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Lorentzen, Marc P; Kildevang Jensen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Low cellular activity and slow tissue turnover in human tendon may prolong resolution of tendinopathy. This may be stimulated by moderate localized traumas such as needle penetrations, but whether this results in a widespread cellular response in tendons is unknown. In an initial hypothesis-gener...

  16. Diet, Lifestyle and Chronic Widespread Pain: Results from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G VanDenKerkhof

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between diet and lifestyle, and chronic widespread pain (CWP. If persons with CWP have dietary and lifestyle habits consistent with an increased risk of cancer or cardiovascular disease, it may partially explain evidence in the literature suggesting an association between CWP and these diseases.

  17. Reanalyzing Head et al. : Investigating the robustness of widespread p-hacking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartgerink, C.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Head et al. (2015) provided a large collection of p-values that, from their perspective, indicates widespread statistical significance seeking (i.e., p-hacking). This paper inspects this result for robustness. Theoretically, the p-value distribution should be a smooth, decreasing function, but the

  18. Achieving Widespread, Democratic Education in the United States Today: Dewey's Ideas Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Elizabeth; Blatchford, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Excellent, democratic education that furthers each person's potential, success and happiness for her own and others' well-being is not yet widespread in the U.S. today. Dewey's The Public and Its Problems has much to say about the possibilities and challenges of achieving this goal. This paper examines Dewey's ideas about how a public for…

  19. Widespread reductions of white matter integrity in patients with long-term remission of Cushing's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J.A. van der Werff

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Patients with a history of endogenous hypercortisolism in present remission show widespread changes of white matter integrity in the brain, with abnormalities in the integrity of the uncinate fasciculus being related to the severity of depressive symptoms, suggesting persistent structural effects of hypercortisolism.

  20. Sacrococcygeal chordomas with wide-spread metastases: report of two cases and review of literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Hyun Suk; Shin, Young Ju; Joo, Mee; Kim, Byung Jik [College of Medicine, Inje Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    Chordomas are rare tumors arising from the primitive notochord. The commonest affected segment is the sacrum and these chordomas frequently follow a progressive course with multiple recurrences and metastases and eventual death due to tumor. This report describes two cases of sacrococcygeal chordomas with widespread metastases treated by surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy.

  1. Sacrococcygeal chordomas with wide-spread metastases: report of two cases and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Hyun Suk; Shin, Young Ju; Joo, Mee; Kim, Byung Jik

    1999-01-01

    Chordomas are rare tumors arising from the primitive notochord. The commonest affected segment is the sacrum and these chordomas frequently follow a progressive course with multiple recurrences and metastases and eventual death due to tumor. This report describes two cases of sacrococcygeal chordomas with widespread metastases treated by surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy

  2. Preoperative widespread pain sensitization and chronic pain after hip and knee replacement: a cohort analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Sayers, Adrian; Lenguerrand, Erik; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael; Pyke, Mark; Beswick, Andrew D.; Dieppe, Paul; Blom, Ashley W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chronic pain after joint replacement is common, affecting approximately 10% of patients after total hip replacement (THR) and 20% of patients after total knee replacement (TKR). Heightened generalized sensitivity to nociceptive input could be a risk factor for the development of this pain. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether preoperative widespread pain sensitivity was associated with chronic pain after joint replacement. Data were analyzed from 254 patients receiving THR and 239 patients receiving TKR. Pain was assessed preoperatively and at 12 months after surgery using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Pain Scale. Preoperative widespread pain sensitivity was assessed through measurement of pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at the forearm using an algometer. Statistical analysis was conducted using linear regression and linear mixed models, and adjustments were made for confounding variables. In both the THR and TKR cohort, lower PPTs (heightened widespread pain sensitivity) were significantly associated with higher preoperative pain severity. Lower PPTs were also significantly associated with higher pain severity at 12 months after surgery in the THR cohort. However, PPTs were not associated with the change in pain severity from preoperative to 12 months postoperative in either the TKR or THR cohort. These findings suggest that although preoperative widespread pressure pain sensitivity is associated with pain severity before and after joint replacement, it is not a predictor of the amount of pain relief that patients gain from joint replacement surgery, independent of preoperative pain severity. PMID:25599300

  3. Climate change and forest fires synergistically drive widespread melt events of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Kaitlin M; Albert, Mary R; McConnell, Joseph R; Baker, Ian

    2014-06-03

    In July 2012, over 97% of the Greenland Ice Sheet experienced surface melt, the first widespread melt during the era of satellite remote sensing. Analysis of six Greenland shallow firn cores from the dry snow region confirms that the most recent prior widespread melt occurred in 1889. A firn core from the center of the ice sheet demonstrated that exceptionally warm temperatures combined with black carbon sediments from Northern Hemisphere forest fires reduced albedo below a critical threshold in the dry snow region, and caused the melting events in both 1889 and 2012. We use these data to project the frequency of widespread melt into the year 2100. Since Arctic temperatures and the frequency of forest fires are both expected to rise with climate change, our results suggest that widespread melt events on the Greenland Ice Sheet may begin to occur almost annually by the end of century. These events are likely to alter the surface mass balance of the ice sheet, leaving the surface susceptible to further melting.

  4. Applying ecological concepts to the management of widespread grass invasions [Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carla M. D' Antonio; Jeanne C. Chambers; Rhonda Loh; J. Tim Tunison

    2009-01-01

    The management of plant invasions has typically focused on the removal of invading populations or control of existing widespread species to unspecified but lower levels. Invasive plant management typically has not involved active restoration of background vegetation to reduce the likelihood of invader reestablishment. Here, we argue that land managers could benefit...

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of vitamin D deficiency in patients with widespread musculoskeletal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Çidem

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide common health problems. Vitamin D deficiency in adults has been associated with proximal muscle weakness, skeletal mineralization defect, and an increased risk of falling. Patients with vitamin D deficiency commonly complain of widespread pain in the body. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in patients complaining of widespread musculoskeletal pain. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 8457 patients with widespread musculoskeletal pain (7772 females, 685 males, aged 46.7 (range 20-100 years were included. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured with ELISA method. Patients were classified into two groups: 1 Patients with vitamin D deficiency (20 ng/ml. Results: Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was found to be 71.7%. A binary logistic regression model showed that low 25(OHVit D level was associated with gender, age and month in which 25(OH hypovitaminosis was determined. The risk of low 25(OH Vit D was found to be 2.15 times higher in female patients and 1.52 times higher on March and 1.55 times higher on April. Conclusion: This study indicates that Vitamin D deficiency should be taken into consideration in patients with widespread musculoskeletal pain, and some precautions such as sunbathe during summer should be recommended patients having risk of vitamin D deficiency. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (4: 48-491

  6. The origin of widespread species in a poor dispersing lineage (diving beetle genus Deronectes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David García-Vázquez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In most lineages, most species have restricted geographic ranges, with only few reaching widespread distributions. How these widespread species reached their current ranges is an intriguing biogeographic and evolutionary question, especially in groups known to be poor dispersers. We reconstructed the biogeographic and temporal origin of the widespread species in a lineage with particularly poor dispersal capabilities, the diving beetle genus Deronectes (Dytiscidae. Most of the ca. 60 described species of Deronectes have narrow ranges in the Mediterranean area, with only four species with widespread European distributions. We sequenced four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes of 297 specimens of 109 different populations covering the entire distribution of the four lineages of Deronectes, including widespread species. Using Bayesian probabilities with an a priori evolutionary rate, we performed (1 a global phylogeny/phylogeography to estimate the relationships of the main lineages within each group and root them, and (2 demographic analyses of the best population coalescent model for each species group, including a reconstruction of the geographical history estimated from the distribution of the sampled localities. We also selected 56 specimens to test for the presence of Wolbachia, a maternally transmitted parasite that can alter the patterns of mtDNA variability. All species of the four studied groups originated in the southern Mediterranean peninsulas and were estimated to be of Pleistocene origin. In three of the four widespread species, the central and northern European populations were nested within those in the northern areas of the Anatolian, Balkan and Iberian peninsulas respectively, suggesting a range expansion at the edge of the southern refugia. In the Mediterranean peninsulas the widespread European species were replaced by vicariant taxa of recent origin. The fourth species (D. moestus was proven to be a composite of unrecognised

  7. Las Tierras de Nuevo Mexico. [The Lands of New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadesh, Frances Leon; And Others

    New Mexico was inhabited thousands of years ago. Each group of settlers saw the land in distinct ways. For some, its beauty consisted of its quality, the abundance of water, and the hope of a good harvest. For others, its beautiful sites were of more importance. Thus, each group established its own manner of living on the land and of using it.…

  8. New Mexico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The New Mexico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New Mexico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Mexico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Mexico

  9. Reanalyzing Head et al. (2015): investigating the robustness of widespread p-hacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartgerink, Chris H J

    2017-01-01

    Head et al. (2015) provided a large collection of p -values that, from their perspective, indicates widespread statistical significance seeking (i.e., p -hacking). This paper inspects this result for robustness. Theoretically, the p -value distribution should be a smooth, decreasing function, but the distribution of reported p -values shows systematically more reported p -values for .01, .02, .03, .04, and .05 than p -values reported to three decimal places, due to apparent tendencies to round p -values to two decimal places. Head et al. (2015) correctly argue that an aggregate p -value distribution could show a bump below .05 when left-skew p -hacking occurs frequently. Moreover, the elimination of p  = .045 and p  = .05, as done in the original paper, is debatable. Given that eliminating p  = .045 is a result of the need for symmetric bins and systematically more p -values are reported to two decimal places than to three decimal places, I did not exclude p  = .045 and p  = .05. I conducted Fisher's method .04 hacking remains when we look at the entire range between .04 hacking is widespread. Given the far-reaching implications of supposed widespread p -hacking throughout the sciences Head et al. (2015), it is important that these findings are robust to data analysis choices if the conclusion is to be considered unequivocal. Although no evidence of widespread left-skew p -hacking is found in this reanalysis, this does not mean that there is no p -hacking at all. These results nuance the conclusion by Head et al. (2015), indicating that the results are not robust and that the evidence for widespread left-skew p -hacking is ambiguous at best.

  10. Distributed generation hits market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The pace at which vendors are developing and marketing gas turbines and reciprocating engines for small-scale applications may signal the widespread growth of distributed generation. Loosely defined to refer to applications in which power generation equipment is located close to end users who have near-term power capacity needs, distributed generation encompasses a broad range of technologies and load requirements. Disagreement is inevitable, but many industry observers associate distributed generation with applications anywhere from 25 kW to 25 MW. Ten years ago, distributed generation users only represented about 2% of the world market. Today, that figure has increased to about 4 or 5%, and probably could settle in the 20% range within a 3-to-5-year period, according to Michael Jones, San Diego, Calif.-based Solar Turbines Inc. power generation marketing manager. The US Energy Information Administration predicts about 175 GW of generation capacity will be added domestically by 2010. If 20% comes from smaller plants, distributed generation could account for about 35 GW. Even with more competition, it's highly unlikely distributed generation will totally replace current market structures and central stations. Distributed generation may be best suited for making market inroads when and where central systems need upgrading, and should prove its worth when the system can't handle peak demands. Typical applications include small reciprocating engine generators at remote customer sites or larger gas turbines to boost the grid. Additional market opportunities include standby capacity, peak shaving, power quality, cogeneration and capacity rental for immediate demand requirements. Integration of distributed generation systems--using gas-fueled engines, gas-fired combustion engines and fuel cells--can upgrade power quality for customers and reduce operating costs for electric utilities

  11. Juvenile Justice in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Frías Armenta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first tribunal in Mexico was established in the central state of San Luis Potosi in 1926. The Law Regarding Social Prevention and Juvenile Delinquency for the Federal District and Mexican territories was promulgated in 1928. In 2005, Article 18 of the Mexican Constitution was modified to establish a comprehensive system (“Sistema Integral de justicia” in Spanish of justice for juveniles between 12 and 18 years old who had committed a crime punishable under criminal law. Its objective was to guarantee juveniles all the due process rights established for adults, in addition to the special ones recognized for minors. The constitutional reform also provides a framework that includes special tribunals as well as alternative justice options for juveniles. With these reforms, institutionalization of minors was to be considered an extreme measure applicable only to felonies and to juveniles older than 14. In 2006, all states within the Mexican federation enacted the “Law of justice for adolescents”. This system, at both the federal and state levels, formalizes a new global paradigm with regard to the triangular relationship between children, the State and the Law. It recognizes that children are also bearers of the inherent human rights recognized for all individuals, instead of simply objects in need of protection. However, despite formally aligning Mexican juvenile justice law with the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC, issues of actual substantive rights remained and new ones have appeared. For example, juveniles younger than 14 who have not committed a felony are released from institutions without any rehabilitation or treatment options, and alternative forms of justice were included without evaluating their possibilities of application or their conditions for success. In addition, the economic status of most juvenile detainees continues to be one of the most important determining factors in the administration of justice

  12. ( Didelphis virginiana ) from Yucatan, Mexico

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite recognized as a causal agent of toxoplasmosis; zoonotic disease endemic in many countries worldwide, including Mexico. Different species of animals participate in the wild cycle infection, including opossums of the species Didelphis virginiana. Thirteen D. virginiana ...

  13. Shell Trumpets from Western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Novella

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine shells have been used as musical instruments in almost all parts of the world (Izikowitz 1935, including Mesoamerica, where large univalves, also called conch shells in the literature, had a utilitarian function as trumpets. Their use is well documented in most cultural areas of Mesoamerica, as in Western Mexico, through their various occurrences in archaeological contexts and museums collections.

  14. Pemex and Mexico's mixed emotions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombey, D.

    1997-01-01

    Pemex, Mexico's state owned oil company, has long been a byword for overmanning, inefficiency, disregard for the environment and for having all the ills of state incorporation, with few of the benefits. Matters, however, are changing. Pemex wants to be normal. (author)

  15. Alternative Education Spaces in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Chloe

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the architecture of the Red de Innovacion y Aprendizaje (RIA), or Learning and Innovation Network, which is a group of education centres that provide access to computers, the Internet and quality education to low-income communities in Mexico. The RIA began in May 2009 when ten pilot centres were opened in four municipalities…

  16. Village Dogs in Coastal Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, Eliza; Hebinck, P.G.M.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Village dogs are important for households in coastal Mexico, yet they are seen as out of place by etic stakeholders (public health and wildlife experts, and animal welfarists). Caregivers of village dogs are considered irresponsible, a view that is reinforced by Mexican policy. We describe two

  17. Structural Damage in Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, John F.; Beck, James L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the structural damage in Mexico City caused by the September 19, 1985 earthquake. Photographs which illustrate various features of structural behavior are included. One explanation is presented as to why buildings with fundamental periods of elastic vibration considerably below the predominant two‐second period of the ground motion were most vulnerable to damage.

  18. "Mexico in Transition." Curriculum Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Foreign Language Resource Center.

    These curriculum units were developed in a National Endowment for the Humanities 1994 summer seminar "Mexico in Transition." The 23 lessons are written in Spanish. Lessons are entitled: (1) "La Migracion Mexicana Vista a Traves del Cuento 'Paso del Norte' de Juan Rulfo" (Jose Jorge Armendariz); (2) "Los Grupos Indigenas de…

  19. Transmitting Renewable Energy to the Grid : The Case of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Madrigal, Marcelino; Jordan, Rhonda Lenai

    2014-01-01

    Mexico's 2010 national energy strategy aims to promote sustainability and simultaneously increase energy access by increasing the share of renewable resources used to generate energy. The wind farms of La Ventosa, a windy area in the southeastern state of Oaxaca, are a key part of that strategy, which aims to raise the share of renewables in generation to 35 percent by 2024, up from 23.7 percent in 2008. The open season process was a major breakthrough that made possible several agreements to...

  20. Barriers to clean development mechanism renewable energy projects in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokey, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Mexico is not reaching its full potential to capture benefits from clean development mechanism (CDM) projects because of its limited market for independent power producers (IPPs) and the barriers imposed on these entities by the state-run electric utility that controls most of the country's generation and transmission. This state-run entity has pursued CDM revenues only in isolated cases where international financial assistance was given because it is bound by law to pursue the least-cost generation option for its customers. Recent changes in Mexican legislation that provide incentives for renewable energy development could open the marketplace for these types of projects. (author)

  1. Results of Geothermal Exploitation in Mexico During 1996; Resultados de la explotacion geotermica en Mexico en 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Negrin, Luis C. A. [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1997-01-01

    During 1996, 56.2 million tons of steam were produced, at an average annual rate of 6,416 tons per hour (t/h), to supply enough steam to operate of 26 geothermal-electric plants in three geothermal fields, which represent an installed capacity of 743 MW. To accomplish that production, 177 geothermal wells were operated at an average annual production of 36 t/h of steam. Electricity generation was 5,737 gigawatts-hour, which represent 3.8% of the whole electrical energy generated in Mexico in 1996. Production of steam and generation of electricity were increased in 1996, comparing with 1994 and 1995. However, unitary costs were practically the same between 1995 and 1996. The Comision Federal de Electricidad (Federal Commission for Electricity, or CFE) has programmed several geothermal- electric projects to increase the installed capacity in the fields under exploitation in new fields. Also, the CFE has some non electrical projects to reach an integral use of geothermics in Mexico. [Espanol] A fin de suministrar el vapor necesario para la generacion de 26 plantas geotermoelectricas instaladas en tres campos geotermicos, con una capacidad total de 743 megawatts (MW) durante 1996 se produjeron 56.2 millones de toneladas de vapor, a una tasa media anual de 6,416 toneladas por hora (t/h). Ello implico la operacion de 177 pozos productores, con una produccion de la energia electrica generada en Mexico en 1996. Tanto la produccion de vapor como la generacion de electricidad en 1996 se incrementaron con respecto a los anos precedentes de 1994 y 1995, pese a que los costos unitarios se mantuvieron practicamente constantes entre 1995 y 1996. La Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) tiene en programa varios proyectos geotermoelectricos para incrementar la capacidad instalada en los campos en explotacion y para iniciar el aprovechamiento en campos nuevos, asi como proyectos no electricos para conseguir un aprovechamiento integral de la geotermia en Mexico.

  2. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) as a pre-Columbian domesticate in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, David L.; Pohl, Mary DeLand; Alvarado, José Luis; Tarighat, Somayeh; Bye, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Mexico has long been recognized as one of the world's cradles of domestication with evidence for squash (Cucurbita pepo) cultivation appearing as early as 8,000 cal B.C. followed by many other plants, such as maize (Zea mays), peppers (Capsicum annuum), common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). We present archaeological, linguistic, ethnographic, and ethnohistoric data demonstrating that sunflower (Helianthus annuus) had entered the repertoire of Mexican domesticates by ca. 2600 cal B.C., that its cultivation was widespread in Mexico and extended as far south as El Salvador by the first millennium B.C., that it was well known to the Aztecs, and that it is still in use by traditional Mesoamerican cultures today. The sunflower's association with indigenous solar religion and warfare in Mexico may have led to its suppression after the Spanish Conquest. The discovery of ancient sunflower in Mexico refines our knowledge of domesticated Mesoamerican plants and adds complexity to our understanding of cultural evolution. PMID:18443289

  3. Extreme Hurricane-Generated Waves in Gulf of Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alberto, Carlos; Fernandes, Santos

    2005-01-01

    .... Although WaveWatchIII (WW3) is used by many operational forecasting centers around the world, there is a lack of field studies to evaluate its accuracy in regional applications and under extreme conditions, such as Hurricanes...

  4. POWER GENERATION IN AN ORGANIZATION OF WOMEN ARTISAN PUEBLA, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Figueroa-Rodríguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous women artisans from Puebla state, facing poverty of their domestic groups through craft production as a breeding strategies that ensure their survival; for this reason a group of women leaders representing local groups, has formed a regional organization, "SIUAMEJ, AC", to address the lack of income. This research focuses on the study of the organization in question, in order to meet changes in gender relations and the effects of the participation of women artisans in this organization, the formation of democratic leadership and the construction of individual and collective empowerment. In the research were used theoretical and methodological from a gender perspective tools, Participatory Research and Popular Education. The techniques used were group workshops, questionnaires, interviews and participant observation. Was applied a questionnaire for women leaders of local organizations of the organization, both as participant observation group workshops were conducted with 14 local organizations covering just over 437 members applied. Among the identified results highlight the participation in collective decision-making through consensus, administrative management and access to training content that has allowed the individual and collective development of both leaders and women members of the local groups.

  5. The relative frequencies of causes of widespread ground-glass opacity: A retrospective cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt, Michael G.; Miller, Wallace T.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Simpson, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The most common cause of widespread ground-glass opacities is hydrostatic pulmonary edema. • Associated findings such as air-trapping and centrilobular nodules are highly specific for hypersensitivity pneumonitis. • The clinical setting (outpatient versus inpatient) will alter the order of the differential diagnosis. - Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of our study was to determine the relative frequencies of causes of widespread ground-glass opacity (GGO) in an unselected, consecutive patient population and to identify any associated imaging findings that can narrow or reorganize the differential. Materials and methods: The study was approved by the center's IRB and is HIPPA compliant. Cases with widespread GGO in the radiology report were identified by searching the Radiology Information System. Medical records and CT scan examinations were reviewed for the causes of widespread GGO. Associations between a less dominant imaging finding and a particular diagnosis were analyzed with the chi square test. Our study group consisted of 234 examinations with 124 women and 110 men and a mean age of 53.7 years. Results: A cause was established in 204 (87.2%) cases. Hydrostatic pulmonary edema was most common with 131 cases (56%). Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) were the next most common, most often hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) (n = 12, 5%) and connective tissue disease related ILD (n = 7, 3%). Infection accounted for 5% (12 cases). A few miscellaneous diseases accounted for 5 cases (2.1%). The combination of septal thickening and pleural effusions had a specificity of 0.91 for hydrostatic pulmonary edema (P < .001) while centrilobular nodules and air trapping had a specificity of 1.0 for HP. In 24 (10.2%) patients, increased opacification from expiration was incorrectly interpreted as representing widespread ground glass opacity. The relative frequency of disease dramatically changed according to the setting. In the inpatient setting, diffuse

  6. The relative frequencies of causes of widespread ground-glass opacity: A retrospective cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewitt, Michael G., E-mail: Mike_hewitt@me.com; Miller, Wallace T., E-mail: Wallace.miller@uphs.upenn.edu; Reilly, Thomas J., E-mail: thomasjreilly@comcast.net; Simpson, Scott, E-mail: Simpson80@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The most common cause of widespread ground-glass opacities is hydrostatic pulmonary edema. • Associated findings such as air-trapping and centrilobular nodules are highly specific for hypersensitivity pneumonitis. • The clinical setting (outpatient versus inpatient) will alter the order of the differential diagnosis. - Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of our study was to determine the relative frequencies of causes of widespread ground-glass opacity (GGO) in an unselected, consecutive patient population and to identify any associated imaging findings that can narrow or reorganize the differential. Materials and methods: The study was approved by the center's IRB and is HIPPA compliant. Cases with widespread GGO in the radiology report were identified by searching the Radiology Information System. Medical records and CT scan examinations were reviewed for the causes of widespread GGO. Associations between a less dominant imaging finding and a particular diagnosis were analyzed with the chi square test. Our study group consisted of 234 examinations with 124 women and 110 men and a mean age of 53.7 years. Results: A cause was established in 204 (87.2%) cases. Hydrostatic pulmonary edema was most common with 131 cases (56%). Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) were the next most common, most often hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) (n = 12, 5%) and connective tissue disease related ILD (n = 7, 3%). Infection accounted for 5% (12 cases). A few miscellaneous diseases accounted for 5 cases (2.1%). The combination of septal thickening and pleural effusions had a specificity of 0.91 for hydrostatic pulmonary edema (P < .001) while centrilobular nodules and air trapping had a specificity of 1.0 for HP. In 24 (10.2%) patients, increased opacification from expiration was incorrectly interpreted as representing widespread ground glass opacity. The relative frequency of disease dramatically changed according to the setting. In the inpatient setting, diffuse

  7. Experimental infection of Contracaecum multipapillatum (Nematoda: Anisakinae) from Mexico in the domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Martínez, V M; Osorio-Sarabia, D; Overstreet, R M

    1994-08-01

    Juveniles of Contracaecum multipapillatum infected the Mayan cichlid (Cichlasoma urophthalmus) and adults infected the olivaceous cormorant (Phalacrocorax olivaceus) and the great egret (Casmerodius albus) in the coastal lagoon at Celestun, State of Yucatan, Mexico. All are new host records, and, even though the geographic locality record of Mexico for the species has not been published, unidentified but presumably conspecific specimens have been reported from there. When juveniles of C. multipapillatum were fed to a kitten, but not rats, ducks, or chickens, they developed into adults. Measurements and morphological data are provided on the specimens from the kitten. Development of an avian ascaridoid in the intestine of a mammal increases the potential of this widespread species to infect other mammals, including humans.

  8. Nuclear electric capacity expansion in Mexico: system effects of reactor size and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, G.R.; Abbey, D.S.; Hardie, R.W.; Enriquez, R.P.; Uria, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    Mexico's electrical generation capacity could more than double over the next ten years - from about 15 GWe currently to as much as 35 GWe in 1990. While new capacity additions will be predominantly oil-fired in the 1980's, nuclear power will become increasingly important in the 1990's. This study investigated the appropriate size of new, nuclear capacity additions by assessing the implications of installing different size reactors into Mexico's electrical grid. Included in the assessments of reactor sizes are estimates of electrical generation costs and comparisons of the effective load-carrying capability of a 10 GWe nuclear capacity expansion

  9. ARIA Mexico 2014 Adaptation of the Clinical Practice Guide ARIA 2010 for Mexico. Methodology ADAPTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Larenas-Linnemann

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global prevalence of allergic rhinitis is high. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC Phase III reports a total estimated prevalence of 4.6% in Mexico. There is evidence based on allergic rhinitis Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG, but its promotion, acceptance and application is not optimal or adequate in Mexico. Objective: To generate a guideline for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma by adaptating the 2010 ARIA Guideline to Mexican reality, through a transculturation process applying the ADAPTE methodology. Material and method: Using the ADAPTE Methodology, the original 2010 ARIA CPG recommendations were evaluated by the guideline development group (GDG into which multiple medical specialities managing patients with allergic rhinitis were incoorporated. The GDG valorated the quality of 2010 ARIA, checked and translated key clinical questions. Moreover, the GDG adjusted recommendations, patient preferences and included comments in the context of the Mexican reality (safety, costs and cultural issues. To accomplish this, we ran Delphi panels with as many rounds as necessary to reach agreement. One extra question, not included in the original 2010 ARIA, on the use of Nasal Lavages for AR was created sustained by a systematic literature review. Results: A total of 45 questions from the original 2010 ARIA were included and divided into six groups covering prevention, medical treatment, immunotherapy and alternative medicine to treat patients with allergic rhinitis with or without asthma. Most of the questions reached agreement in one or two rounds; one question required three rounds. Conclusions: An easy-to-use, adaptated, up-to-date and applicable allergic rhinitis guideline for Mexico is now available.

  10. [ARIA Mexico 2014. Adaptation of the Clinical Practice Guide ARIA 2010 for Mexico. Methodology ADAPTE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larenas-Linnemann, Désirée; Mayorga-Butrón, José Luis; Sánchez-González, Andrés; Ramírez-García, Arturo; Medina-Ávalos, Miguel; Figueroa-Morales, Marco Antonio; Montaño-Velázquez, B Beatriz; Montes-Narváez, Gabriel; Romero-Tapia, Sergio; Stone-Aguilar, Héctor; Xochihua-Díaz, Luis; Salas-Hernández, Jorge; Hernán-Ruiz, Héctor; Betancourt-Suárez, Miguel A; Cano-Salas, María Carmen; Curiel-Aceves, Lorenzo; Dibildox-Martínez, Javier; Fernández-Vega, Margarita; García-Bolaños, Carlos; Iduñate-Palacios, Fernando; Jiménez-Chobillon, M Alejandro; López-Lizárraga, Doris N; Matta-Campos, Juan José; Olvera-Salinas, Jorge; Rivera-Gómez, María Antonia; Virgen-Ortega, César; Sienra-Monge, Juan José; Del Río-Navarro, Blanca; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Sacre-Hazouri, Antonio; Aguilar-Aranda, Ambrocio; Vásquez Del Mercado-Cordero, Rodrigo; Barnica, Raúl Humberto; Velasco-Hidalgo, Liliana; Solís-Galicia, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The global prevalence of allergic rhinitis is high. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase III reports a total estimated prevalence of 4.6% in Mexico. There is evidence based on allergic rhinitis Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG), but its promotion, acceptance and application is not optimal or adequate in Mexico. To generate a guideline for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma by adaptating the 2010 ARIA Guideline to Mexican reality, through a transculturation process applying the ADAPTE methodology. Using the ADAPTE Methodology, the original 2010 ARIA CPG recommendations were evaluated by the guideline development group (GDG) into which multiple medical specialities managing patients with allergic rhinitis were incoorporated. The GDG valorated the quality of 2010 ARIA, checked and translated key clinical questions. Moreover, the GDG adjusted recommendations, patient preferences and included comments in the context of the Mexican reality (safety, costs and cultural issues). To accomplish this, we ran Delphi panels with as many rounds as necessary to reach agreement. One extra question, not included in the original 2010 ARIA, on the use of Nasal Lavages for AR was created sustained by a systematic literature review. A total of 45 questions from the original 2010 ARIA were included and divided into six groups covering prevention, medical treatment, immunotherapy and alternative medicine to treat patients with allergic rhinitis with or without asthma. Most of the questions reached agreement in one or two rounds; one question required three rounds. An easy-to-use, adaptated, up-to-date and applicable allergic rhinitis guideline for Mexico is now available.

  11. Political Agroecology in Mexico: A Path toward Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. Toledo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The biocultural richness of Mexico is among the highest worldwide. A history of over 7000 years of agriculture, and a persistent tradition of peasant social resistance movements that climaxed during the agrarian revolution in the early 20th century, continued in the indigenous resistance in Chiapas leading to the Zapatista uprising in 1992, and continues to be expressed in present local and regional confrontations for the defense of territory. Scholars agree that agroecology conceptually includes ecological and agricultural scientific research activity, empirical practices applied for agriculture, and the nuclear goal of numerous rural social movements. What has not been sufficiently established is how these three spheres of agroecology interact with each other and what emergent synergies they generate. Taking as an example the production in Mexico of three key agricultural goods—maize, coffee, and honey—our paper briefly reviews the existing relations between knowledge generation, agroecological practices, and rural social processes. We conclude by reflecting on the role of agroecological research in the context of an agrarian sustainability committed to helping reduce social inequity, marginality, and exploitation, as much as reverting the severe deterioration of the natural environment: both common issues in contemporary Mexico.

  12. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from Mexico. 93.427 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for immediate return to Mexico or...

  13. 7 CFR 319.8-13 - From Northwest Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false From Northwest Mexico. 319.8-13 Section 319.8-13... for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-13 From Northwest Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of Northwest Mexico and of the West Coast of Mexico from infestations of the pink bollworm...

  14. Becker muscular dystrophy with widespread muscle hypertrophy and a non-sense mutation of exon 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witting, N; Duno, M; Vissing, J

    2013-01-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy features progressive proximal weakness, wasting and often focal hypertrophy. We present a patient with pain and cramps from adolescence. Widespread muscle hypertrophy, preserved muscle strength and a 10-20-fold raised CPK were noted. Muscle biopsy was dystrophic, and Western blot showed a 95% reduction of dystrophin levels. Genetic analyses revealed a non-sense mutation in exon 2 of the dystrophin gene. This mutation is predicted to result in a Duchenne phenotype, but resulted in a mild Becker muscular dystrophy with widespread muscle hypertrophy. We suggest that this unusual phenotype is caused by translation re-initiation downstream from the mutation site. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. On the occurrence of a widespread contamination by herbicides of coral reef biota in French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvat, Bernard; Roche, Hélène; Ramade, François

    2016-01-01

    Research has been conducted within the framework of the French Initiative for Coral Reefs (IFRECOR) to assess pesticide pollution levels in the coral reef trophic webs in French Polynesia. Unexpected widespread contamination by herbicides was found in algae, fishes and macro-invertebrates located at various levels of the reef trophic web. Concentrations in organisms investigated were for the majority below the lowest observable effect level and do not pose a dietary risk to native population who subsist on these fish. However, the widespread contamination may affect the reef ecosystem in the future as coral symbiotic algae, Symbidinium sp. (Dinophyta) are particularly sensitive to photosystem II herbicides, particularly the substituted urea and triazine derivatives.

  16. Public perception of nuclear power in Mexico after Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, J. C.; Alonso, G.; Ramirez, R.

    2015-09-01

    This section presents some of the results of four studies on international public opinion about nuclear energy, the first one made several years before the Fukushima accident, conducted in 2005 by the IAEA through the company Globe Scan Inc. The second study was conducted by the same company in 2011 a few months after the Fukushima accident, including also corresponding results to two studies conducted by the British firm Ipsos Mori (of years 2011 and 2012 respectively). Finally three studies conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in 2006, 2008 and 2013 are presented. From the results of these studies was determined that the Fukushima accident itself had a negative effect on public opinion in Mexico, as throughout the world, but this trend is reversing. Also it found that public opinion in Mexico on using reactors to generate electricity is favorable, although not still has much support from the government for the construction of new nuclear power plants. (Author)

  17. Wind speed forecasting in the South Coast of Oaxaca, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadenas, Erasmo [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Santiago Tapia No. 403, Centro (Mexico); Rivera, Wilfrido [Centro de Investigacion en Energia of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apartado Postal 34, Temixco 62580, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    Comparison of two techniques for wind speed forecasting in the South Coast of the state of Oaxaca, Mexico is presented in this paper. The Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) methods are applied to a time series conformed by 7 years of wind speed measurements. Six years were used in the formulation of the models and the last year was used to validate and compare the effectiveness of the generated prediction by the techniques mentioned above. Seasonal ARIMA models present a better sensitivity to the adjustment and prediction of the wind speed for this case in particular. Nevertheless, it was shown both developed models can be used to predict in a reasonable way, the monthly electricity production of the wind power stations in La Venta, Oaxaca, Mexico to support the operators of the Electric Utility Control Centre. (author)

  18. Pollution by organochlorine pesticides in Navachiste-Macapule, Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Adriana M; González-Farias, Fernando A; Botello, Alfonso V

    2012-03-01

    The lagoon system of Navachiste-Macapule is located in northern Mexico, in the state of Sinaloa, with an area of 24,000 ha. The main economic activity in the area is agriculture, and the lagoon lies next to the irrigation district ID-063 which covers 116,615 ha. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the levels of pollution generated by organochlorine pesticides (OC) in the surface sediments of the lagoon and in the agricultural drains of the ID-063 that are supposedly transported into the system as a result of agricultural activities and runoff from adjacent land. For this, between 2006 and 2007, 45 surface sediment samples were collected (warm dry, rainy and cold dry) from 15 sampling sites, during the three climatic seasons. Of these, eight were located inside the lagoon in marine conditions (salinity >31 PSU) and seven in the agricultural drains of the ID-063 in freshwater conditions (salinity Mexico.

  19. Registered report: Widespread potential for growth-factor-driven resistance to anticancer kinase inhibitors2

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Edward Greenfield, Erin Griner, The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology† ### Abstract The [Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology](https://osf.io/e81xl/wiki/home/) seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by conducting replications of 50 papers in the field of cancer biology published between 2010 and 2012. This Registered Report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from “Widespread potential for growth-factor-d...

  20. Widespread osteolytic lesions of the long bones in basal cell nevus syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinder, G.; Barki, Y.; Bar-Ziv, J.; Pezt, M.

    1984-01-01

    Three members of a family, father, daughter, and son, with the basal cell nevus syndrome are presented. A very unusual manifestation of widespread cyst-like osteolytic lesions in all the tubular bones was observed in the father, together with osteoblastic spotty 'osteopoikilotic' lesions in the skull and the mandible of the same patient. Cyst-like osteolytic lesions have been described previously in this syndrome, mainly in the phalanges. We believe that such lesions can occur in any bone. (orig.)

  1. Thermal Tolerance in Widespread and Tropical Drosophila Species: Does Phenotypic Plasticity Increase with Latitude?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Johannes; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Mitchell, Katherin A

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of insects can often be related to variation in their response to thermal extremes, which in turn may reflect differences in plastic responses or innate variation in resistance. Species with widespread distributions are expected to have evolved higher levels of plasticity than....... The results do not support the hypothesis that widely distributed species have larger phenotypic plasticity for thermal tolerance limits, and Drosophila species distributions are therefore more closely linked to differences in innate thermal tolerance limits....

  2. Added value of second biopsy target in screen-detected widespread suspicious breast calcifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, Nathalie M; Hince, Dana; Porter, Gareth; Dessauvagie, Ben; Jeganathan, Sanjay; Bulsara, Max; Lo, Glen

    2018-06-01

    There is controversy on the optimal work-up of screen-detected widespread breast calcifications: whether to biopsy a single target or multiple targets. This study evaluates agreement between multiple biopsy targets within the same screen-detected widespread (≥25 mm) breast calcification to determine if the second biopsy adds value. Retrospective observational study of women screened in a statewide general population risk breast cancer mammographic screening program from 2009 to 2016. Screening episodes recalled for widespread calcifications where further views indicated biopsy, and two or more separate target areas were sampled within the same lesion were included. Percentage agreement and Cohen's Kappa were calculated. A total of 293317 women were screened during 761124 separate episodes with recalls for widespread calcifications in 2355 episodes. In 171 women, a second target was biopsied within the same lesion. In 149 (86%) cases, the second target biopsy result agreed with the first biopsy (κ = 0.6768). Agreement increased with increasing mammography score (85%, 86% and 92% for score 3, 4 and 5 lesions). Same day multiple biopsied lesions were three times more likely to yield concordant results compared to post-hoc second target biopsy cases. While a single target biopsy is sufficient to discriminate a benign vs. malignant diagnosis in most cases, in 14% there is added value in performing a second target biopsy. Biopsies performed prospectively are more likely to yield concordant results compared to post-hoc second target biopsy cases, suggesting a single prospective biopsy may be sufficient when results are radiological-pathological concordant; discordance still requires repeat sampling. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  3. Is temporomandibular pain in chronic whiplash-associated disorders part of a more widespread pain syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Corine; Hofman, Nico; Mes, Carola; Lousberg, Richel; Naeije, Machiel

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder is a controversial issue that may be influenced by the widespread pain character and psychologic distress frequently observed in patients with chronic pain. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain, widespread pain, and psychologic distress in persons with chronic whiplash-associated disorder pain, using a controlled, single blind study design. The prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in the chronic whiplash-associated disorder pain group was compared with 2 control groups: a chronic neck pain group and a no neck pain group. From 65 persons, a standardized oral history was taken, a physical examination of the neck and the masticatory system was performed, widespread pain was investigated by tender point palpation, and psychologic distress was measured with a questionnaire (SCL-90). Because the recognition of temporomandibular disorder pain and neck pain remains a matter of debate, 3 well-defined classification systems were used: one based on the oral history, a second on a combination of oral history and pain on active movements and palpation, and a third one based on a combination of oral history and function tests. Irrespective of the classification system used, the chronic whiplash-associated disorder pain group more often suffered from temporomandibular disorder pain (0.001neck pain group. Moreover, patients with whiplash-associated disorder showed more psychologic distress (0.000disorder suggests that the higher prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in these patients is part of a more widespread chronic pain disorder.

  4. Kosovo : Poverty assessment, Volume 1. Accelerating Inclusive Growth to Reduce Widespread Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Poverty in Kosovo is widespread and has remained persistent in the first half of this decade. The evidence suggests that poverty is higher among those who live in families that are large, have many unemployed members, and have low education levels. The poor are also geographically concentrated in rural areas and a few regions. The main message of this report is that the slow and volatile g...

  5. THE WIDESPREAD OF Fe(III)-REDUCING BACTERIA IN NATURAL ECOSYSTEMS OF ECUADOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashyrev, O B; Govorukha, V M

    2015-01-01

    The widespread of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms in natural ecosystems of Ecuador of La Favorita, Tungurahua volcano and Papallacta areas was experimentally proved. High efficiency of microbial precipitation of soluble iron compounds was also demonstrated. Obtained results indicate the potential ability of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms to influence the formation of carbon and iron vector fluxes in ecosystems, as well as development of effective biotechnologies of water purification from iron compounds.

  6. Widespread abundance of functional bacterial amyloid in Mycolata and other Gram-positive bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordal, Peter Bruun; Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; Larsen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    extracellular fibrils were also produced. In three cases, FuBA was only revealed after extensive removal of extracellular material by saponification, indicating an integrated attachment within the cellular envelope. Spores from species within the genera Streptomyces, Bacillus and Nocardia were all coated...... analysis. We conclude that amyloid is widespread among Gram-positive bacteria and may in many species constitute a hitherto overlooked integral part of the spores and the cellular envelope....

  7. Widespread osteonecrosis of the foot in systemic lupus erythematosus: Radiographic and gross pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnick, D; Pineda, C; Trudell, D

    1985-01-01

    A patient with systemic lupus erythematosus required an amputation of the foot related to the presence of vascular disease and infection. Radiographs obtained prior to amputation revealed osteonecrosis in virtually every bone of the foot. Radiographic-pathologic correlation documented this widespread osseous involvement. Although ischemic necrosis of bone is a well-known feature of systemic lupus erythematosus, its localization in the small bones of the foot is rare.

  8. Widespread osteonecrosis of the foot in systemic lupus erythematosus: Radiographic and gross pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnick, D.; Pineda, C.; Trudell, D.; California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla

    1985-01-01

    A patient with systemic lupus erythematosus required an amputation of the foot related to the presence of vascular disease and infection. Radiographs obtained prior to amputation revealed osteonecrosis in virtually every bone of the foot. Radiographic-pathologic correlation documented this widespread osseous involvement. Although ischemic necrosis of bone is a well-known feature of systemic lupus erythematosus, its localization in the small bones of the foot is rare. (orig.)

  9. Prevalence of widespread pain and associations with work status: a population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriksson KG

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This population study based on a representative sample from a Swedish county investigates the prevalence, duration, and determinants of widespread pain (WSP in the population using two constructs and estimates how WSP affects work status. In addition, this study investigates the prevalence of widespread pain and its relationship to pain intensity, gender, age, income, work status, citizenship, civil status, urban residence, and health care seeking. Methods A cross-sectional survey using a postal questionnaire was sent to a representative sample (n = 9952 of the target population (284,073 people, 18–74 years in a county (Östergötland in the southern Sweden. The questionnaire was mailed and followed by two postal reminders when necessary. Results The participation rate was 76.7% (n = 7637; the non-participants were on the average younger, earned less money, and male. Women had higher prevalences of pain in 10 different predetermined anatomical regions. WSP was generally chronic (90–94% and depending on definition of WSP the prevalence varied between 4.8–7.4% in the population. Women had significantly higher prevalence of WSP than men and the age effect appeared to be stronger in women than in men. WSP was a significant negative factor – together with age 50–64 years, low annual income, and non-Nordic citizen – for work status in the community and in the group with chronic pain. Chronic pain but not the spreading of pain was related to health care seeking in the population. Conclusion This study confirms earlier studies that report high prevalences of widespread pain in the population and especially among females and with increasing age. Widespread pain is associated with prominent effects on work status.

  10. Thermic solar plants for the production of electricity in Mexico: present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almanza, R.

    1990-01-01

    During the last decade, there are have been some important achievements in generating electricity using solar concentrators. The Instituto de Ingenieria, of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), has started the design and construction of solar thermic plants for generating electricity , capable of reaching 1 Kw and 10 Kw. The Instituto continues developing the research and testing of new materials, because this way of generating electricity has become economically feasible: besides, it constitutes a non polluting alternative. (Author)

  11. Subjects with Knee Osteoarthritis Exhibit Widespread Hyperalgesia to Pressure and Cold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Moss

    Full Text Available Hyperalgesia to mechanical and thermal stimuli are characteristics of a range of disorders such as tennis elbow, whiplash and fibromyalgia. This study evaluated the presence of local and widespread mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in individuals with knee osteoarthritis, compared to healthy control subjects. Twenty-three subjects with knee osteoarthritis and 23 healthy controls, matched for age, gender and body mass index, were recruited for the study. Volunteers with any additional chronic pain conditions were excluded. Pain thresholds to pressure, cold and heat were tested at the knee, ipsilateral heel and ipsilateral elbow, in randomized order, using standardised methodology. Significant between-groups differences for pressure pain and cold pain thresholds were found with osteoarthritic subjects demonstrating significantly increased sensitivity to both pressure (p = .018 and cold (p = .003 stimuli, compared with controls. A similar pattern of results extended to the pain-free ipsilateral ankle and elbow indicating widespread pressure and cold hyperalgesia. No significant differences were found between groups for heat pain threshold, although correlations showed that subjects with greater sensitivity to pressure pain were also likely to be more sensitive to both cold pain and heat pain. This study found widespread elevated pain thresholds in subjects with painful knee osteoarthritis, suggesting that altered nociceptive system processing may play a role in ongoing arthritic pain for some patients.

  12. Bilateral widespread mechanical pain hypersensitivity as sign of central sensitization in patients with cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Cuadrado, María L; López-de-Silanes, Carlos; Pareja, Juan A

    2011-03-01

    To investigate bilateral widespread pressure pain hyperalgesia in deep tissues over symptomatic (trigemino-cervical) and nonsymptomatic (distant pain-free) regions in patients with cluster headache (CH). Central sensitization is claimed to play a relevant role in CH. No study has previously searched for widespread pressure hyperalgesia in deep tissues over both symptomatic (trigemino-cervical) and nonsymptomatic (distant pain-free) regions in patients with CH. Sixteen men (mean age: 43 ± 11 years) with CH in a remission phase and 16 matched controls were recruited. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were bilaterally measured over the supra-orbital (V1), infra-orbital (V2), mental (V3), median (C5), radial (C6), and ulnar (C7) nerves, C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, mastoid process, and tibialis anterior muscle by an assessor blinded to the subjects' condition. The results showed that PPT levels were significantly decreased bilaterally in patients with CH as compared with healthy controls (all sites, P < .001). A greater degree of sensitization over the mastoid process (P < .001) and a lower degree of sensitization over the tibialis anterior muscle (P < .01) was found. Our findings revealed bilateral widespread pressure pain hypersensitivity in patients with CH confirming the presence of central sensitization mechanisms in this headache condition. © 2010 American Headache Society.

  13. Bilateral widespread mechanical pain sensitivity in carpal tunnel syndrome: evidence of central processing in unilateral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Cuadrado, María Luz; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilateral widespread pressure hypersensitivity exists in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. A total of 20 females with carpal tunnel syndrome (aged 22-60 years), and 20 healthy matched females (aged 21-60 years old) were recruited. Pressure pain thresholds were assessed bilaterally over median, ulnar, and radial nerve trunks, the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, the carpal tunnel and the tibialis anterior muscle in a blinded design. The results showed that pressure pain threshold levels were significantly decreased bilaterally over the median, ulnar, and radial nerve trunks, the carpal tunnel, the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, and the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome as compared to healthy controls (all, P < 0.001). Pressure pain threshold was negatively correlated to both hand pain intensity and duration of symptoms (all, P < 0.001). Our findings revealed bilateral widespread pressure hypersensitivity in subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome, which suggest that widespread central sensitization is involved in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. The generalized decrease in pressure pain thresholds associated with pain intensity and duration of symptoms supports a role of the peripheral drive to initiate and maintain central sensitization. Nevertheless, both central and peripheral sensitization mechanisms are probably involved at the same time in carpal tunnel syndrome.

  14. Intra-arterial cis-diamminedichloroplatinum infusion treatment for widespread hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Il; Yang, Hee Chul; Lee, Do Yon; Shim, Yong Woon; Kim, Sang Heum; Kim, Myeong Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of intra-arterial infusion of Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (C-DDP) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinomas with widespread involvement. We retrospectively analyzed 22 patients who between July 1994 and June 1996 had undergone intra-arterial c-DDP infusion therapy for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinomas with widespread involvement. The hepatomas involved both lobes in ten, portal venous obstructions in fourteen, arterio-portal shunts in nine, and arterio-venous shunts in two. Proper hepatic artery was selected for infusion of 100 mg/BSA of C-DDP. The same procedure was repeated every 3 to 4 weeks, and the total number of infusions was 65. On the basis of WHO criteria, response was classified as complete remission, partial remission, stable, or progression of the disease. Six-month and one-year survival rates were estimated, and adverse reactions were evaluated. Although the response rate is not high, intra-arterial C-DDP infusion therapy can be used as an alternative treatment for hepatocellular carcinomas with widespread involvement; adverse reactions are tolerable. (author). 16 refs., 3 figs

  15. 76 FR 64248 - Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery; Closure of the 2011 Gulf of Mexico Commercial Sector for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    .... 040205043-4043-01] RIN 0648-XA766 Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery; Closure of the 2011 Gulf of Mexico... the commercial sector for greater amberjack in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Gulf of Mexico... Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico (FMP). The FMP was prepared by the Gulf of Mexico Fishery...

  16. Mexico and the CTBT; Mexico y el CTBT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre G, J.; Martinez L, J.; Ruiz E, L. J.; Aragon M, I. B., E-mail: jaguirre@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) is a treaty that prohibits all the nuclear explosions by anybody and in any place, either on the terrestrial surface, in the atmosphere, under the sea or underground. From the adoption of this Treaty by the United Nations, Mexico has had interest for its entrance in vigor, as integral part to assure the international peace. For this reason, our country signed the Treaty since it was open in September 24, 1996 and three years later ratified it, due to Mexico is part of the group of necessary countries for their entrance in vigor. During 13 years, the country has been committed and helped to the installation of monitoring stations, actions that allow the strengthening of the International System of Surveillance. The purpose of this work is to divulge the Treaty,its technologies and benefits; and also to diffuse the works realized by Mexico regarding the radionuclides monitoring station and noble gases both certified ones for the CTBT. Besides the radionuclides technology, Mexico has taken charge of the installation and operation of the seismic stations and hydro-acoustics that have been certified too. The radionuclides station Rn-44 located in Guerrero Negro, BCS has two technologies, an automated sampler of suspended particles in air brand Cinderella/ARAME and a noble gases system Sauna used for the particles detection of radioactive material gamma emitting and Xenon radioisotopes product of nuclear assays. Both technologies are transmitting data in real time to the International Center of Data. These technologies are shown in this work. (Author)

  17. Considerations to the nuclear safety in Mexico; Consideraciones a la seguridad nuclear en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas M, B. [UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Fisica, Laboratorio de Analisis Radiologicos de Muestras Ambientales, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: salasmarb@yahoo.com.mx

    2006-07-01

    The uncertain future of the hydrocarbons like main source of energy, force us to think on the nuclear energy as the suitable substitute that we can inherit to those future generations. Mexico therefore should multiply the number of nuclear power centrals and to be in this way prepared for the new challenges, however, it is necessary and advisable, to restate the mexican nuclear plan that includes mainly the transparency. The 'WANO Report' (World Association of Nuclear Operators - for their initials in English), result of a technical audit to the Nuclear Power station of Laguna Verde (CNLV), it is a polemic topic, because in accordance with David Lochbaum of 'The Union of Concerned Scientists' of the United States of America and of John Large of 'Large and Associates' of the Great Britain, the security in the CNLV is questionable. The pronouncements of concern of Abel J. Gonzalez and Ken E. Brockman, high officials of the International Atomic Energy Agency who took knowledge of diverse irregularities in the CNLV, should be analysis reason for to take actions in pro of the future of the nuclear energy in Mexico. (Author)

  18. Public perception of nuclear power in Mexico after Fukushima; Percepcion publica de la energia nuclear en Mexico despues de Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, J. C.; Alonso, G.; Ramirez, R., E-mail: javier.palacios@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    This section presents some of the results of four studies on international public opinion about nuclear energy, the first one made several years before the Fukushima accident, conducted in 2005 by the IAEA through the company Globe Scan Inc. The second study was conducted by the same company in 2011 a few months after the Fukushima accident, including also corresponding results to two studies conducted by the British firm Ipsos Mori (of years 2011 and 2012 respectively). Finally three studies conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in 2006, 2008 and 2013 are presented. From the results of these studies was determined that the Fukushima accident itself had a negative effect on public opinion in Mexico, as throughout the world, but this trend is reversing. Also it found that public opinion in Mexico on using reactors to generate electricity is favorable, although not still has much support from the government for the construction of new nuclear power plants. (Author)

  19. Georeferenced Population Datasets of Mexico (GEO-MEX): Urban Place GIS Coverage of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Urban Place GIS Coverage of Mexico is a vector based point Geographic Information System (GIS) coverage of 696 urban places in Mexico. Each Urban Place is...

  20. Reanalyzing Head et al. (2015: investigating the robustness of widespread p-hacking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris H.J. Hartgerink

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Head et al. (2015 provided a large collection of p-values that, from their perspective, indicates widespread statistical significance seeking (i.e., p-hacking. This paper inspects this result for robustness. Theoretically, the p-value distribution should be a smooth, decreasing function, but the distribution of reported p-values shows systematically more reported p-values for .01, .02, .03, .04, and .05 than p-values reported to three decimal places, due to apparent tendencies to round p-values to two decimal places. Head et al. (2015 correctly argue that an aggregate p-value distribution could show a bump below .05 when left-skew p-hacking occurs frequently. Moreover, the elimination of p = .045 and p = .05, as done in the original paper, is debatable. Given that eliminating p = .045 is a result of the need for symmetric bins and systematically more p-values are reported to two decimal places than to three decimal places, I did not exclude p = .045 and p = .05. I conducted Fisher’s method .04 < p < .05 and reanalyzed the data by adjusting the bin selection to .03875 < p ≤ .04 versus .04875 < p ≤ .05. Results of the reanalysis indicate that no evidence for left-skew p-hacking remains when we look at the entire range between .04 < p < .05 or when we inspect the second-decimal. Taking into account reporting tendencies when selecting the bins to compare is especially important because this dataset does not allow for the recalculation of the p-values. Moreover, inspecting the bins that include two-decimal reported p-values potentially increases sensitivity if strategic rounding down of p-values as a form of p-hacking is widespread. Given the far-reaching implications of supposed widespread p-hacking throughout the sciences Head et al. (2015, it is important that these findings are robust to data analysis choices if the conclusion is to be considered unequivocal. Although no evidence of widespread left-skew p

  1. Early warning and response system (EWARS) for dengue outbreaks: Recent advancements towards widespread applications in critical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain-Alkhateeb, Laith; Kroeger, Axel; Olliaro, Piero; Rocklöv, Joacim; Sewe, Maquins Odhiambo; Tejeda, Gustavo; Benitez, David; Gill, Balvinder; Hakim, S Lokman; Gomes Carvalho, Roberta; Bowman, Leigh; Petzold, Max

    2018-01-01

    Dengue outbreaks are increasing in frequency over space and time, affecting people's health and burdening resource-constrained health systems. The ability to detect early emerging outbreaks is key to mounting an effective response. The early warning and response system (EWARS) is a toolkit that provides countries with early-warning systems for efficient and cost-effective local responses. EWARS uses outbreak and alarm indicators to derive prediction models that can be used prospectively to predict a forthcoming dengue outbreak at district level. We report on the development of the EWARS tool, based on users' recommendations into a convenient, user-friendly and reliable software aided by a user's workbook and its field testing in 30 health districts in Brazil, Malaysia and Mexico. 34 Health officers from the 30 study districts who had used the original EWARS for 7 to 10 months responded to a questionnaire with mainly open-ended questions. Qualitative content analysis showed that participants were generally satisfied with the tool but preferred open-access vs. commercial software. EWARS users also stated that the geographical unit should be the district, while access to meteorological information should be improved. These recommendations were incorporated into the second-generation EWARS-R, using the free R software, combined with recent surveillance data and resulted in higher sensitivities and positive predictive values of alarm signals compared to the first-generation EWARS. Currently the use of satellite data for meteorological information is being tested and a dashboard is being developed to increase user-friendliness of the tool. The inclusion of other Aedes borne viral diseases is under discussion. EWARS is a pragmatic and useful tool for detecting imminent dengue outbreaks to trigger early response activities.

  2. Early warning and response system (EWARS for dengue outbreaks: Recent advancements towards widespread applications in critical settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith Hussain-Alkhateeb

    Full Text Available Dengue outbreaks are increasing in frequency over space and time, affecting people's health and burdening resource-constrained health systems. The ability to detect early emerging outbreaks is key to mounting an effective response. The early warning and response system (EWARS is a toolkit that provides countries with early-warning systems for efficient and cost-effective local responses. EWARS uses outbreak and alarm indicators to derive prediction models that can be used prospectively to predict a forthcoming dengue outbreak at district level.We report on the development of the EWARS tool, based on users' recommendations into a convenient, user-friendly and reliable software aided by a user's workbook and its field testing in 30 health districts in Brazil, Malaysia and Mexico.34 Health officers from the 30 study districts who had used the original EWARS for 7 to 10 months responded to a questionnaire with mainly open-ended questions. Qualitative content analysis showed that participants were generally satisfied with the tool but preferred open-access vs. commercial software. EWARS users also stated that the geographical unit should be the district, while access to meteorological information should be improved. These recommendations were incorporated into the second-generation EWARS-R, using the free R software, combined with recent surveillance data and resulted in higher sensitivities and positive predictive values of alarm signals compared to the first-generation EWARS. Currently the use of satellite data for meteorological information is being tested and a dashboard is being developed to increase user-friendliness of the tool. The inclusion of other Aedes borne viral diseases is under discussion.EWARS is a pragmatic and useful tool for detecting imminent dengue outbreaks to trigger early response activities.

  3. Manufacturing real wages in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López V Antonia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the recent evolution and determinants of real wages in Mexico?s manufacturing sector, using theories based on the assumption of imperfect competition both in the product and in the labour markets, especially wage-bargain theory, insider-outsider and mark-up models. We show evidence that the Mexican labour market does not behave as a traditional competitive market. The proposed explanation for this fact is that some workers benefit from advantages when compared with others, so that they can get a greater share of the proceedings of the productive process. Also, we find that changes in the degree of competition in the market for output influence the behaviour of real wages.

  4. Significance of Hemispheric Security for Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    La Seguridad Internacional, la Nueva Geopolitica Continental y Mexico ,” Seminario Internacional sobre Misiones de Paz, Seguridad y Defensa, Rio de...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT SIGNIFICANCE OF HEMISPHERIC SECURITY FOR MEXICO by LTC Enrique Garcia Jaramillo Cavalry, Mexican Army COL Joseph R...xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Significance of Hemispheric Security for Mexico Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  5. The Hybrid Threat: Crime, Terrorism and Insurgency in Mexico. Proceedings of the Joint Policy and Research Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    to name a few. Drug trafficking in Mexico is big, if illicit, business. The most notorious players include the Sinaloa Cartel, the Gulf Cartel...091311.pdf. A Joint CSL-HSPI Study12 problem didn’t originate in Mexico, but migrated there in force after Colombia cracked down on its own drug lords...four’ – Jua´rez, Gulf, Sinaloa , and Tijuana – which operate generally in the north. But, perhaps foreshadowing a fourth generation in the gangs

  6. Binational Teacher Development: Teacher Ambassador Exchange Program, New Mexico, USA and Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, Mary Jean

    The report describes the rationale for and history of an exchange program for Nuevo Leon (Mexico) and New Mexico bilingual education teachers. The program evolved from the need to help Spanish-speaking students maintain their own language and culture while in the United States. New Mexico's state policy concerning language-minority children and…

  7. Elimination of Onchocerciasis from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A.; Fernández-Santos, Nadia A.; Orozco-Algarra, María E.; Rodríguez-Atanacio, José A.; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Morales, Kristel B.; Real-Najarro, Olga; Prado-Velasco, Francisco G.; Cupp, Eddie W.; Richards, Frank O.; Hassan, Hassan K.; González-Roldán, Jesús F.; Kuri-Morales, Pablo A.; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mexico is one of the six countries formerly endemic for onchocerciasis in Latin America. Transmission has been interrupted in the three endemic foci of that country and mass drug distribution has ceased. Three years after mass drug distribution ended, post-treatment surveillance (PTS) surveys were undertaken which employed entomological indicators to check for transmission recrudescence. Methodology/Principal findings In-depth entomologic assessments were performed in 18 communities in the three endemic foci of Mexico. None of the 108,212 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from the three foci were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA), resulting in a maximum upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI) of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.035/2,000 flies examined. This is an order of magnitude below the threshold of a 95%-ULCI of less than one infective fly per 2,000 flies tested, the current entomological criterion for interruption of transmission developed by the international community. The point estimate of seasonal transmission potential (STP) was zero, and the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval for the STP ranged from 1.2 to 1.7 L3/person/season in the different foci. This value is below all previous estimates for the minimum transmission potential required to maintain the parasite population. Conclusions/Significance The results from the in-depth entomological post treatment surveillance surveys strongly suggest that transmission has not resumed in the three foci of Mexico during the three years since the last distribution of ivermectin occurred; it was concluded that transmission remains undetectable without intervention, and Onchocerca volvulus has been eliminated from Mexico. PMID:26161558

  8. The outer Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henery, D. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij BV, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    This paper deals with the offshore activity in the Gulf of Mexico. Up to the end of 1995 there have been close to 300 exploratory wells drilled in water depths beyond 450 metres, and over 50 development wells. In addition approximately 1.500 leases have been awarded in the deep water. Themes discussed are deep water discoveries, average well rates, and key learnings points

  9. Elimination of Onchocerciasis from Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A Rodríguez-Pérez

    Full Text Available Mexico is one of the six countries formerly endemic for onchocerciasis in Latin America. Transmission has been interrupted in the three endemic foci of that country and mass drug distribution has ceased. Three years after mass drug distribution ended, post-treatment surveillance (PTS surveys were undertaken which employed entomological indicators to check for transmission recrudescence.In-depth entomologic assessments were performed in 18 communities in the three endemic foci of Mexico. None of the 108,212 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from the three foci were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA, resulting in a maximum upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.035/2,000 flies examined. This is an order of magnitude below the threshold of a 95%-ULCI of less than one infective fly per 2,000 flies tested, the current entomological criterion for interruption of transmission developed by the international community. The point estimate of seasonal transmission potential (STP was zero, and the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval for the STP ranged from 1.2 to 1.7 L3/person/season in the different foci. This value is below all previous estimates for the minimum transmission potential required to maintain the parasite population.The results from the in-depth entomological post treatment surveillance surveys strongly suggest that transmission has not resumed in the three foci of Mexico during the three years since the last distribution of ivermectin occurred; it was concluded that transmission remains undetectable without intervention, and Onchocerca volvulus has been eliminated from Mexico.

  10. Early radioisotope uses in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Tejera, A.; Bulbulian, S.; Palma, F.

    1991-10-01

    Mexico is traditionally a mining country and the first information about the presence of uranium is related to mine exploitation. Around 1945 when uranium became economically important, a rumor had spread that large amounts of black ceramics from Oaxaca were being purchased and sent abroad because of its assumed high uranium content. It was only in 1949 when minerals containing thorium and uranium were declared by law as 'National Reserves'. In those years a radium emanation plant was installed at the 'Hospital General' in Mexico City with the main purpose of carrying out radon seed implantation in tumors. In the fifties a radium dial painting facility was operating in the city of Toluca some 70 km from Mexico City. In 1955, when the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) was founded by a government decree, two main activities were in sight: a training program on 'Radioisotope Techniques and Nuclear Instrumentation' and the creation of specialized laboratories. In this paper a general description of these events and undertakings spanning the decades 1940 to 1970 is given. (Author)

  11. Early radioisotope uses in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N; Tejera, A; Bulbulian, S; Palma, F

    1991-10-15

    Mexico is traditionally a mining country and the first information about the presence of uranium is related to mine exploitation. Around 1945 when uranium became economically important, a rumor had spread that large amounts of black ceramics from Oaxaca were being purchased and sent abroad because of its assumed high uranium content. It was only in 1949 when minerals containing thorium and uranium were declared by law as 'National Reserves'. In those years a radium emanation plant was installed at the 'Hospital General' in Mexico City with the main purpose of carrying out radon seed implantation in tumors. In the fifties a radium dial painting facility was operating in the city of Toluca some 70 km from Mexico City. In 1955, when the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) was founded by a government decree, two main activities were in sight: a training program on 'Radioisotope Techniques and Nuclear Instrumentation' and the creation of specialized laboratories. In this paper a general description of these events and undertakings spanning the decades 1940 to 1970 is given. (Author)

  12. Yes… Mexico is a racist country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrales, Juan Carlos Finck

    2017-01-01

    According to recent official statistics, in Mexico there is a relation between people’s privileges and their skin color: The lighter, the more privilege. However, social exclusion by racist practices in Mexico has been common practically since its Spanish conquest between 1519 and 1521, in which...... privileges where absorbed and monopolized by European settlers in Mexico (Spanish people: peninsulares) and their descendants (creole: criollos). As a consequence, currently in Mexico, the color of skin affects people’s economic and political privileges and powers in individual and social levels related...

  13. Multimodal and widespread somatosensory abnormalities in persistent shoulder pain in the first 6 months after stroke: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosink, M.; van Dongen, R.T.; Buitenweg, J.R.; Renzenbrink, G.J.; Geurts, A.C.H.; IJzerman, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Roosink M, Van Dongen RT, Buitenweg JR, Renzenbrink GJ, Geurts AC, IJzerman MJ. Multimodal and widespread somatosensory abnormalities in persistent shoulder pain in the first 6 months after stroke: an exploratory study. OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of multimodal and widespread somatosensory

  14. Genetic Diversity and Distribution of Blastocystis Subtype 3 in Human Populations, with Special Reference to a Rural Population in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rojas-Velázquez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Blastocystis subtype 3 (ST3 is a parasitic protist found in the digestive tract of symptomatic and asymptomatic humans around the world. While this parasite exhibits a high prevalence in the human population, its true geographic distribution and global genetic diversity are still unknown. This gap in knowledge limits the understanding of the spread mechanisms, epidemiology, and impact that this parasite has on human populations. Herein, we provided new data on the geographical distribution and genetic diversity of Blastocystis ST3 from a rural human population in Mexico. To do so, we collected and targeted the SSU-rDNA region in fecal samples from this population and further compared its genetic diversity and structure with that previously observed in populations of Blastocystis ST3 from other regions of the planet. Our analyses reveled that diversity of Blastocystis ST3 showed a high haplotype diversity and genetic structure to the world level; however, they were low in the Morelos population. The haplotype network revealed a common widespread haplotype from which the others were generated recently. Finally, our results suggested a recent expansion of the diversity of Blastocystis ST3 worldwide.

  15. Establishment of a tamoxifen-inducible Cre-driver mouse strain for widespread and temporal genetic modification in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichise, Hirotake; Hori, Akiko; Shiozawa, Seiji; Kondo, Saki; Kanegae, Yumi; Saito, Izumu; Ichise, Taeko; Yoshida, Nobuaki

    2016-07-29

    Temporal genetic modification of mice using the ligand-inducible Cre/loxP system is an important technique that allows the bypass of embryonic lethal phenotypes and access to adult phenotypes. In this study, we generated a tamoxifen-inducible Cre-driver mouse strain for the purpose of widespread and temporal Cre recombination. The new line, named CM32, expresses the GFPneo-fusion gene in a wide variety of tissues before FLP recombination and tamoxifen-inducible Cre after FLP recombination. Using FLP-recombined CM32 mice (CM32Δ mice) and Cre reporter mouse lines, we evaluated the efficiency of Cre recombination with and without tamoxifen administration to adult mice, and found tamoxifen-dependent induction of Cre recombination in a variety of adult tissues. In addition, we demonstrated that conditional activation of an oncogene could be achieved in adults using CM32Δ mice. CM32Δ;T26 mice, which harbored a Cre recombination-driven, SV40 large T antigen-expressing transgene, were viable and fertile. No overt phenotype was found in the mice up to 3 months after birth. Although they displayed pineoblastomas (pinealoblastomas) and/or thymic enlargement due to background Cre recombination by 6 months after birth, they developed epidermal hyperplasia when administered tamoxifen. Collectively, our results suggest that the CM32Δ transgenic mouse line can be applied to the assessment of adult phenotypes in mice with loxP-flanked transgenes.

  16. Strontium-89 in palliative treatment of widespread painful bone metastases: Response rate and duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Peiman; Ghadiri, Farhad

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Intravenous injection of Strontium-89 (Sr-89) is an accepted palliative treatment for bone metastases. We evaluated the pain relief achieved with this radiopharmaceutical in patients with widespread painful bone metastases from prostate and breast cancers. Pain intensity on a 9-grade scale and use of narcotics was recorded before and after Sr-89 injection, and the ensuing palliative effect was divided into complete, partial and no response. The duration of response was also recorded. Thirty-five patients with widespread painful bone metastases were treated with Sr-89, of whom 22 had prostate and 13 breast cancers. Mean follow-up was 227 days, during which death was recorded for 32 patients. Fourteen patients (40%) had a complete response, 9 (26%) partial and 12 (34%) no response. In the 23 responding patients, mean duration of response was 6 months. In 17 patients the response was present until death. There was no significant relationship between pain response and patients' age or type of primary cancer. No side effects were recorded other than mild and temporary drop in white blood cell and platelet counts. Three patients with a complete response had a second injection of Sr-89 after progression of pain. One of these patients had a second partial response; the other 2 did not show a response to the second injection. The use of Sr-89 for treatment of widespread painful bone metastases from prostate and breast cancers in our department showed a 66% rate of response and a mean response duration of 6 months, with no significant side effects. (author)

  17. Widespread changes in white matter microstructure after a day of waking and sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torbjørn Elvsåshagen

    Full Text Available Elucidating the neurobiological effects of sleep and waking remains an important goal of the neurosciences. Recently, animal studies indicated that sleep is important for cell membrane and myelin maintenance in the brain and that these structures are particularly susceptible to insufficient sleep. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a day of waking and sleep deprivation would be associated with changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI indices of white matter microstructure sensitive to axonal membrane and myelin alterations.Twenty-one healthy adult males underwent DTI in the morning [7:30AM; time point (TP1], after 14 hours of waking (TP2, and then after another 9 hours of waking (TP3. Whole brain voxel-wise analysis was performed with tract based spatial statistics.A day of waking was associated with widespread increases in white matter fractional anisotropy, which were mainly driven by radial diffusivity reductions, and sleep deprivation was associated with widespread fractional anisotropy decreases, which were mainly explained by reductions in axial diffusivity. In addition, larger decreases in axial diffusivity after sleep deprivation were associated with greater sleepiness. All DTI changes remained significant after adjusting for hydration measures.This is the first DTI study of sleep deprivation in humans. Although previous studies have observed localized changes in DTI indices of cerebral microstructure over the course of a few hours, further studies are needed to confirm widespread DTI changes within hours of waking and to clarify whether such changes in white matter microstructure serve as neurobiological substrates of sleepiness.

  18. Evidence of small-fiber polyneuropathy in unexplained, juvenile-onset, widespread pain syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaklander, Anne Louise; Klein, Max M

    2013-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that acquired small-fiber polyneuropathy (SFPN), previously uncharacterized in children, contributes to unexplained pediatric widespread pain syndromes. Forty-one consecutive patients evaluated for unexplained widespread pain beginning before age 21 had medical records comprehensively analyzed regarding objective diagnostic testing for SFPN (neurodiagnostic skin biopsy, nerve biopsy, and autonomic function testing), plus histories, symptoms, signs, other tests, and treatments. Healthy, demographically matched volunteers provided normal controls for SFPN tests. Age at illness onset averaged 12.3 ± 5.7 years; 73% among this poly-ethnic sample were female (P = .001). Sixty-eight percent were chronically disabled, and 68% had hospitalizations. Objective testing diagnosed definite SFPN in 59%, probable SFPN in 17%, and possible SFPN in 22%. Only 1 of 41 had entirely normal SFPN test results. Ninety-eight percent of patients had other somatic complaints consistent with SFPN dysautonomia (90% cardiovascular, 82% gastrointestinal, and 34% urologic), 83% reported chronic fatigue, and 63% had chronic headache. Neurologic examinations identified reduced sensation in 68% and vasomotor abnormalities in 55%, including 23% with erythromelalgia. Exhaustive investigations for SFPN causality identified only history of autoimmune illnesses in 33% and serologic markers of disordered immunity in 89%. Treatment with corticosteroids and/or intravenous immune globulin objectively and subjectively benefited 80% of patients (12/15). More than half among a large series of patients with childhood-onset, unexplained chronic widespread pain met rigorous, multitest, diagnostic criteria for SFPN, which extends the age range of acquired SFPN into early childhood. Some cases appeared immune-mediated and improved with immunomodulatory therapies.

  19. Regional pest suppression associated with widespread Bt maize adoption benefits vegetable growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dively, Galen P; Venugopal, P Dilip; Bean, Dick; Whalen, Joanne; Holmstrom, Kristian; Kuhar, Thomas P; Doughty, Hélène B; Patton, Terry; Cissel, William; Hutchison, William D

    2018-03-27

    Transgenic crops containing the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes reduce pests and insecticide usage, promote biocontrol services, and economically benefit growers. Area-wide Bt adoption suppresses pests regionally, with declines expanding beyond the planted Bt crops into other non-Bt crop fields. However, the offsite benefits to growers of other crops from such regional suppression remain uncertain. With data spanning 1976-2016, we demonstrate that vegetable growers benefit via decreased crop damage and insecticide applications in relation to pest suppression in the Mid-Atlantic United States. We provide evidence for the regional suppression of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), European corn borer, and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), corn earworm, populations in association with widespread Bt maize adoption (1996-2016) and decreased economic levels for injury in vegetable crops [peppers ( Capsicum annuum L.), green beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and sweet corn ( Zea mays L., convar. saccharata )] compared with the pre-Bt period (1976-1995). Moth populations of both species significantly declined in association with widespread Bt maize (field corn) adoption, even as increased temperatures buffered the population reduction. We show marked decreases in the number of recommended insecticidal applications, insecticides applied, and O. nubilalis damage in vegetable crops in association with widespread Bt maize adoption. These offsite benefits to vegetable growers in the agricultural landscape have not been previously documented, and the positive impacts identified here expand on the reported ecological effects of Bt adoption. Our results also underscore the need to account for offsite economic benefits of pest suppression, in addition to the direct economic benefits of Bt crops.

  20. ReEDS-Mexico: A Capacity Expansion Model of the Mexican Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Jonathan L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Spyrou, Evangelia [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-29

    This report documents the ReEDS-Mexico capacity expansion model, which is an extension of the ReEDS model to the Mexican power system. In recent years Mexico’s power sector has undergone considerable reform that has significant potential to impact the future electricity mix (Alpizar–Castro and Rodríguez–Monroy 2016). Day-ahead and real-time trading in Mexico’s power markets opened in early 2016. In addition to this reform, Mexico is striving to ensure that 35% of its electricity is generated from clean energy sources by 2024, 40% by 2035, and 50% by 2050 (Presidencia de la República 2016). These rapid changes in both the market and the generation mix create a need for robust tools that can help electricity sector stakeholders make informed decisions. The purpose of this report is to document the extension of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model (Eurek et al. 2016) to cover the Mexico power system. This extension, which we will refer to throughout this paper as ReEDS-Mexico, provides a model of the Mexico power sector using a system-wide, least-cost optimization framework.

  1. Transboundary pollution: Persistent organochlorine pesticides in migrant birds of the Southwestern United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A.

    1997-01-01

    The hypothesis that migratory birds accumulate persistent organochlorine pesticides (POPs) during the winter in Latin America has been prevalent for many years, particularly since 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2–bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) was banned in the United States in 1972. It has been suggested that peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus), black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), white-faced ibises (Plegadis chihi), various migratory waterfowl and shorebirds, and other avian species accumulate higher concentrations of POPs while on migration or on their wintering grounds in Latin America. Nonetheless, the data obtained thus far are limited, and there is no clear pattern to suggest that such accumulation occurs on a widespread basis. In this review wildlife contaminant studies conducted along the U.S.-Mexico border and throughout Mexico are discussed. The results for the most part seem to indicate that no major accumulation of 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene) (DDE), the most persistent organochlorine compound, has occurred or been reported for most parts of Mexico. The majority of the DDE values in birds from Mexico were similar to those reported in birds from the southwestern United States during the same years. More work needs to be done, particularly in those cotton-producing areas of Mexico where DDT was applied heavily in the past (e.g., Chiapas and Michoacan). Because DDT is still used for malaria control and may still be used in agriculture in Chiapas, this state is probably the one where most migrant species would still be at a significant risk of increased accumulation of DDE and DDT.

  2. City of Camden, New Jersey Program offering widespread energy recovery (power): Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witkowski, Stanley [City of Camden, NJ (United States). Dept. of Development and Planning Bureau of Housing Services

    2013-12-31

    The Camden Residential POWER Program, Program Offering Widespread Energy Recovery, is a program designed to benefit Camden homeowners, stabilize neighborhoods and put local contractors to work. Camden POWER granted up to $18,600 to fund energy efficient home improvements and necessary life/safety rehabilitation repairs. The program was designed as a self-sustaining, neighborhood approach to bringing long-term energy and financial savings to the community. Valuable home upgrades were completed, including high-efficiency furnaces, hot water heaters, insulation, insulated roofs and blower door guided air-sealing. The goal of all improvements were to reduce energy consumption, lower utility bills, improve property values and promote neighborhood stabilization.

  3. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  4. Internal migration and occupational achievement in Mexico city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Santiago Hernández

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to analyze the effect of migration status on labor market insertion and occupational achievement. It is of interest to know whether the observed differences between people with a different migration status (from first-generation rural migrants to natives are due to their migratory condition per se or other sociodemographic variables associated with their status that could put migrants at disadvantage in the labor market of Mexico City. We elaborate on this by using data from the Survey on Inequality and Social Mobility in Mexico City, 2009. Unlike studies of major Mexican cities during the import substitution model, wich as sumed that upward occupational mobility rates benefited almost equally the born and raised in the city and the rural migrants our results suggest the opposite: that migrants do poorly, but not for the fact that they are migrants, but because they tend to have lower economic, cultural and social capital attributes in their families of origin due to certain factors that leave them unable to capitalize on their efforts to achieve an educational and occupational performance similar or superior to that of the natives. A suggestive finding is that, even after controlling for the disadvantageous social background, female rural migrants show a consistently unfavorable performance when compared to the native women of Mexico City.

  5. Ventilation potential during the emissions survey in Toluca Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Angulo, A.; Peralta, O.; Jurado, O. E.; Ortinez, A.; Grutter de la Mora, M.; Rivera, C.; Gutierrez, W.; Gonzalez, E.

    2017-12-01

    During the late-spring early-summer measurements of emissions and pollutants were carried out during a survey campaign at four different locations within the Toluca Valley. The current emissions inventory typically estimates the generation of pollutants based on pre-estimated values representing an entire sector function of their activities. However, those factors are not always based direct measurements. The emissions from the Toluca Valley are rather large and they could affect the air quality of Mexico City Valley. The air masses interchange between those two valleys is not very well understood; however, based on the measurements obtained during the 3 months campaign we looked carefully at the daily variability of the wind finding a clear signal for mountain-valley breeze. The ventilation coefficient is estimated and the correlations with the concentrations at the 4 locations and in a far away station in Mexico City are addressed in this work. Finally, we discuss the implication of the ventilation capacity in air quality for the system of Valleys that include Mexico City.

  6. Trends in electricity markets and international investment in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohigas, N.

    1999-01-01

    A review of current market trends in the energy sector around the world was presented. There is a global movement towards the restructuring of public utility companies. The Americas are opening new energy markets, integrating gas and electricity, privatising public utilities and making mass investments. Mexico has made a proposal to liberalize the market since extensive restructuring is needed to encourage foreign investment. Over the next ten years, energy needs are expected to reach 22,000 MW. Much of this paper focused on how Hydro-Quebec International would be a partner of choice in the Mexican energy market. Hydro-Quebec International is a wholly owned subsidiary of Hydro-Quebec. It has a wide range of expertise in hydroelectric power. The utility has completed more than 300 contracts in 80 countries. Their projects in Mexico include the ECOMEX NGV project which involves the construction of compressed stations, and the CLOROTEC project which includes the construction of a thermal generating station and cogeneration with a capacity of 105 MW. This paper also described the ideal conditions for investing as being political stability, a defined regulatory structure, an established legal system, complementary partners, and acceptable rate of return. It was determined that in order to promote a more favourable investment climate, Mexico must approve the structural reform proposed to the electrical sector

  7. Elemental composition of the PM{sub 1}0 fraction in the Mezquital Valley, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran-Hernandez, I.; Martinez-Resendiz, G.; Solis Rosales, C.; Ramirez, A.; Sastre Conde, I.

    2009-07-01

    The Mezquital Valley has been receiving for nearly 100 years the residual waters of Mexico City to produce corn, alfalfa, oat, beans and barley among others. The information generated on the metal concentration in water, soils and agricultural products is vast. There are nevertheless limit's studies of other sources of heavy metal, like atmospheric wastes. (Author)

  8. Elemental composition of the PM10 fraction in the Mezquital Valley, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran-Hernandez, I.; Martinez-Resendiz, G.; Solis Rosales, C.; Ramirez, A.; Sastre Conde, I.

    2009-01-01

    The Mezquital Valley has been receiving for nearly 100 years the residual waters of Mexico City to produce corn, alfalfa, oat, beans and barley among others. The information generated on the metal concentration in water, soils and agricultural products is vast. There are nevertheless limit's studies of other sources of heavy metal, like atmospheric wastes. (Author)

  9. CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE AND ROLES OF SPANISH-AMERICAN FAMILIES OF NORTHERN NEW MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KNOWLTON, CLARK S.

    DATA FOR THIS PAPER WERE OBTAINED FROM EXAMINATION OF AVAILABLE LITERATURE AND FROM FIELD WORK IN SAN MIGUEL AND MORA COUNTIES OF NORTHERN NEW MEXICO. THE EXTENDED PATRIARCHAL FAMILY WAS THE PRIMARY SOCIAL SYSTEM AMONG THE SPANISH AMERICANS, OFTEN CONSISTING OF MEMBERS OF THREE OR FOUR GENERATIONS HEADED BY THE GRANDFATHER. THIS FAMILY COOPERATED…

  10. Hazard maps of Colima volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Escudero Ayala, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    Colima volcano, also known as Volcan de Fuego (19° 30.696 N, 103° 37.026 W), is located on the border between the states of Jalisco and Colima and is the most active volcano in Mexico. Began its current eruptive process in February 1991, in February 10, 1999 the biggest explosion since 1913 occurred at the summit dome. The activity during the 2001-2005 period was the most intense, but did not exceed VEI 3. The activity resulted in the formation of domes and their destruction after explosive events. The explosions originated eruptive columns, reaching attitudes between 4,500 and 9,000 m.a.s.l., further pyroclastic flows reaching distances up to 3.5 km from the crater. During the explosive events ash emissions were generated in all directions reaching distances up to 100 km, slightly affected nearby villages as Tuxpan, Tonila, Zapotlán, Cuauhtemoc, Comala, Zapotitlan de Vadillo and Toliman. During the 2005 this volcano has had an intense effusive-explosive activity, similar to the one that took place during the period of 1890 through 1900. Intense pre-plinian eruption in January 20, 1913, generated little economic losses in the lower parts of the volcano due to low population density and low socio-economic activities at the time. Shows the updating of the volcanic hazard maps published in 2001, where we identify whit SPOT satellite imagery and Google Earth, change in the land use on the slope of volcano, the expansion of the agricultural frontier on the east and southeast sides of the Colima volcano, the population inhabiting the area is approximately 517,000 people, and growing at an annual rate of 4.77%, also the region that has shown an increased in the vulnerability for the development of economic activities, supported by the construction of highways, natural gas pipelines and electrical infrastructure that connect to the Port of Manzanillo to Guadalajara city. The update the hazard maps are: a) Exclusion areas and moderate hazard for explosive events

  11. Modernization of the Electric Power Systems (transformers, rods and switches) in the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Solarzano, J. J.; Gabaldon Martin, M. A.; Pallisa Nunez, J.; Florez Ordeonez, A.; Fernandez Corbeira, A.; Prieto Diez, I.

    2010-01-01

    Description of the changes made in the Electric Power Systems as a part of the power increase project in the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (Mexico). The main electrical changes to make, besides the turbo group, are the main generation transformers, the isolated rods and the generation switch.

  12. GRIIDC: A Data Repository for Gulf of Mexico Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, S.; Gibeaut, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information & Data Cooperative (GRIIDC) system is a data management solution appropriate for any researcher sharing Gulf of Mexico and oil spill science data. Our mission is to ensure a data and information legacy that promotes continual scientific discovery and public awareness of the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem. GRIIDC developed an open-source software solution to manage data from the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI). The GoMRI program has over 2500 researchers from diverse fields of study with a variety of attitudes, experiences, and capacities for data sharing. The success of this solution is apparent through new partnerships to share data generated by RESTORE Act Centers of Excellence Programs, the National Academies of Science, and others. The GRIIDC data management system integrates dataset management planning, metadata creation, persistent identification, and data discoverability into an easy-to-use web application. No specialized software or program installations are required to support dataset submission or discovery. Furthermore, no data transformations are needed to submit data to GRIIDC; common file formats such as Excel, csv, and text are all acceptable for submissions. To ensure data are properly documented using the GRIIDC implementation of the ISO 19115-2 metadata standard, researchers submit detailed descriptive information through a series of interactive forms and no knowledge of metadata or xml formats are required. Once a dataset is documented and submitted the GRIIDC team performs a review of the dataset package. This review ensures that files can be opened and contain data, and that data are completely and accurately described. This review does not include performing quality assurance or control of data points, as GRIIDC expects scientists to perform these steps during the course of their work. Once approved, data are made public and searchable through the GRIIDC data discovery portal and the Data

  13. Widespread ground motion distribution caused by rupture directivity during the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, Kazuki; Miyake, Hiroe; Guo, Yujia; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Masuda, Tetsu; Davuluri, Srinagesh; Bhattarai, Mukunda; Adhikari, Lok Bijaya; Sapkota, Soma Nath

    2016-06-01

    The ground motion and damage caused by the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake can be characterized by their widespread distributions to the east. Evidence from strong ground motions, regional acceleration duration, and teleseismic waveforms indicate that rupture directivity contributed significantly to these distributions. This phenomenon has been thought to occur only if a strike-slip or dip-slip rupture propagates to a site in the along-strike or updip direction, respectively. However, even though the earthquake was a dip-slip faulting event and its source fault strike was nearly eastward, evidence for rupture directivity is found in the eastward direction. Here, we explore the reasons for this apparent inconsistency by performing a joint source inversion of seismic and geodetic datasets, and conducting ground motion simulations. The results indicate that the earthquake occurred on the underthrusting Indian lithosphere, with a low dip angle, and that the fault rupture propagated in the along-strike direction at a velocity just slightly below the S-wave velocity. This low dip angle and fast rupture velocity produced rupture directivity in the along-strike direction, which caused widespread ground motion distribution and significant damage extending far eastwards, from central Nepal to Mount Everest.

  14. Analysis of the Barriers to Widespread Adoption of Electric Vehicles in Shenzhen China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa-Ping Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available China promoted the large-scale adoption of Electric Vehicles (EVs in its 13th five-year plan; however, this target faces many obstacles. This paper analyzes the main barriers to widespread adoption of EVs through a survey in Shenzhen, which has the biggest EVs market share out of China’s major cities. Based on previous research, this paper conducted a new study using 406 approved questionnaires among 500 participants. Our study proposed five hypotheses to examine the main barriers to widespread adoption of EVs. The analysis was conducted using statistical method that included two-way frequency tables, chi-square test, and factor analysis. The results indicated that perception of advantages of EVs and access to recharging EVs remained the main barriers in large-scale penetration. Furthermore, our study revealed that a drop in financial incentives would not cause a significant decline in the future adoption of EVs. The study provides suggestions to car manufacturers and government policy advisors based on our analysis and discussion.

  15. Geophysical evidence for widespread reversely magnetised pyroclastics in the western Taupo Volcanic Zone (New Zealand)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soengkono, S.; Hochstein, M.P.; Smith, I.E.M.; Itaya, T.

    1992-01-01

    Low-altitude aeromagnetic data show that negative residual anomalies are widespread over the western Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Paleomagnetic study of eight rhyolitic ignimbrite units and two lava flows which are exposed in this area, together with new K-Ar dates of four of the ignimbrite units, indicate that the two lava units and seven of the ignimbrite units were erupted during the Matuyama geomagnetic epoch (>0.73 Ma B.P.) and suggest that rhyolitic volcanism in the western Taupo Volcanic Zone began as early as 1.6 Ma B.P. These results provide the basis for an interpretation of our aeromagnetic data which confirms the hypothesis that the magnetic anomalies observed in the western Taupo Volcanic Zone are caused by widespread, thick, reversely magnetised pyroclastic and lava flows. Magnetic modelling also allows thickness estimates of the younger, normally magnetised cover rocks which reach a maximum thickness of the order of 0.5 km in the Mangakino area. The magnetic structure of these volcanic rocks defines approximately the lateral extent of the Mangakino Volcanic Centre. (author). 41 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  16. HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance in Honduras after a Decade of Widespread Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Ríos, Santiago; García-Morales, Claudia; Tapia-Trejo, Daniela; Meza, Rita I; Nuñez, Sandra M; Parham, Leda; Flores, Norma A; Valladares, Diana; Pineda, Luisa M; Flores, Dixiana; Motiño, Roxana; Umanzor, Víctor; Carbajal, Candy; Murillo, Wendy; Lorenzana, Ivette; Palou, Elsa Y; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    We assessed HIV drug resistance (DR) in individuals failing ART (acquired DR, ADR) and in ART-naïve individuals (pre-ART DR, PDR) in Honduras, after 10 years of widespread availability of ART. 365 HIV-infected, ART-naïve, and 381 ART-experienced Honduran individuals were enrolled in 5 reference centres in Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula, La Ceiba, and Choluteca between April 2013 and April 2015. Plasma HIV protease-RT sequences were obtained. HIVDR was assessed using the WHO HIVDR mutation list and the Stanford algorithm. Recently infected (RI) individuals were identified using a multi-assay algorithm. PDR to any ARV drug was 11.5% (95% CI 8.4-15.2%). NNRTI PDR prevalence (8.2%) was higher than NRTI (2.2%) and PI (1.9%, p500 vs. Honduras remains at the intermediate level, after 10 years of widespread availability of ART. Evidence of ADR influencing the presence of PDR was observed by phylogenetic analyses and ADR/PDR mutation frequency correlations.

  17. Widespread Inhibition of Posttranscriptional Splicing Shapes the Cellular Transcriptome following Heat Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reut Shalgi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During heat shock and other proteotoxic stresses, cells regulate multiple steps in gene expression in order to globally repress protein synthesis and selectively upregulate stress response proteins. Splicing of several mRNAs is known to be inhibited during heat stress, often meditated by SRp38, but the extent and specificity of this effect have remained unclear. Here, we examined splicing regulation genome-wide during heat shock in mouse fibroblasts. We observed widespread retention of introns in transcripts from ∼1,700 genes, which were enriched for tRNA synthetase, nuclear pore, and spliceosome functions. Transcripts with retained introns were largely nuclear and untranslated. However, a group of 580+ genes biased for oxidation reduction and protein folding functions continued to be efficiently spliced. Interestingly, these unaffected transcripts are mostly cotranscriptionally spliced under both normal and stress conditions, whereas splicing-inhibited transcripts are mostly spliced posttranscriptionally. Altogether, our data demonstrate widespread repression of splicing in the mammalian heat stress response, disproportionately affecting posttranscriptionally spliced genes.

  18. Amphibian Chytrid Fungus in Madagascar neither Shows Widespread Presence nor Signs of Certain Establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, Jonathan E; Skerratt, Lee F

    2015-01-01

    The global spread of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) is associated with amphibian mass mortality, population decline, and extinction. Over the past decade, concern has been expressed for the potential introduction of Bd to Madagascar, a global hotspot of amphibian biodiversity. Following years without detection, widespread Bd presence in Madagascar has now been reported (Bletz et al. 2015a), raising international conservation concern. Before reacting to this finding with a significant management response, the accuracy and context of the data warrant cautious review. Re-examination of a 10-year dataset together with results from more recent surveillance (Kolby et al. 2015) does not yet demonstrate widespread Bd presence. Detection of Bd at "positive" locations in Madagascar has been inconsistent for unknown reasons. Whether Bd is established in Madagascar (i.e. populations are self-sustaining) or instead requires continued introduction to persist also remains uncertain. The deployment of emergency conservation rescue initiatives is expected to target areas where the distribution of Bd and the risk of chytridiomycosis endangering amphibians is believed to overlap. Thus, erroneous description of Bd presence would misdirect limited conservation resources. Standardized surveillance and confirmatory surveys are now imperative to reliably characterize the distribution, potential spread, virulence and overall risk of Bd to amphibians in Madagascar.

  19. Amphibian Chytrid Fungus in Madagascar neither Shows Widespread Presence nor Signs of Certain Establishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Kolby

    Full Text Available The global spread of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd is associated with amphibian mass mortality, population decline, and extinction. Over the past decade, concern has been expressed for the potential introduction of Bd to Madagascar, a global hotspot of amphibian biodiversity. Following years without detection, widespread Bd presence in Madagascar has now been reported (Bletz et al. 2015a, raising international conservation concern. Before reacting to this finding with a significant management response, the accuracy and context of the data warrant cautious review. Re-examination of a 10-year dataset together with results from more recent surveillance (Kolby et al. 2015 does not yet demonstrate widespread Bd presence. Detection of Bd at "positive" locations in Madagascar has been inconsistent for unknown reasons. Whether Bd is established in Madagascar (i.e. populations are self-sustaining or instead requires continued introduction to persist also remains uncertain. The deployment of emergency conservation rescue initiatives is expected to target areas where the distribution of Bd and the risk of chytridiomycosis endangering amphibians is believed to overlap. Thus, erroneous description of Bd presence would misdirect limited conservation resources. Standardized surveillance and confirmatory surveys are now imperative to reliably characterize the distribution, potential spread, virulence and overall risk of Bd to amphibians in Madagascar.

  20. Assessing biological invasions in European Seas: Biological traits of the most widespread non-indigenous species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardeccia, Alice; Marchini, Agnese; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Galil, Bella; Gollasch, Stephan; Minchin, Dan; Narščius, Aleksas; Olenin, Sergej; Ojaveer, Henn

    2018-02-01

    The biological traits of the sixty-eight most widespread multicellular non-indigenous species (MWNIS) in European Seas: Baltic Sea, Western European Margin of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea were examined. Data for nine biological traits was analyzed, and a total of 41 separate categories were used to describe the biological and ecological functions of these NIS. Our findings show that high dispersal ability, high reproductive rate and ecological generalization are the biological traits commonly associated with MWNIS. The functional groups that describe most of the 68 MWNIS are: photoautotrophic, zoobenthic (both sessile and motile) and nektonic predatory species. However, these 'most widespread' species comprise a wide range of taxa and biological trait profiles; thereby a clear "identikit of a perfect invader" for marine and brackish environments is difficult to define. Some traits, for example: "life form", "feeding method" and "mobility", feature multiple behaviours and strategies. Even species introduced by a single pathway, e.g. vessels, feature diverse biological trait profiles. MWNIS likely to impact community organization, structure and diversity are often associated with brackish environments. For many traits ("life form", "sociability", "reproductive type", "reproductive frequency", "haploid and diploid dispersal" and "mobility"), the categories mostly expressed by the impact-causing MWNIS do not differ substantially from the whole set of MWNIS.

  1. Widespread microplastic ingestion by fish assemblages in tropical estuaries subjected to anthropogenic pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendel, A.L.; Bessa, F.; Alves, V.E.N.; Amorim, A.L.A.; Patrício, J.; Palma, A.R.T.

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to quantify microplastic ingestion by fish assemblages in two tropical Brazilian estuaries and to evaluate whether biological and ecological factors influence the ingestion of microplastics by fish species. Of 2233 fish from both estuaries (from 69 species) examined in this study, 9% of the individuals (24 species) had microplastics in their gut contents. Microplastic ingestion occurred irrespective of fish size and functional group. The diet of fish species was analyzed based on prey items identified in the fish's full stomach contents and five feeding guilds were defined. Microplastics were common throughout all feeding guilds. Low (average ingestion values 1.06 ± 0.30 items/total fish) but widespread occurrence among estuaries also indicates proliferation of microplastic pollution. Our findings highlight the need to focus on assemblage level studies to understand the real magnitude of the problem and emphasize the urgency of mitigation measures directed at microplastic pollution in estuarine ecosystems. - Highlights: • We analyzed microplastic ingestion in 69 fish species collected along two estuaries. • Microplastic ingestion was widespread in fish assemblages in two tropical estuaries. • Microplastic ingestion was independent of fish size and fish functional groups. • Microplastics were observed in fish from five different feeding guilds. • The level of anthropogenic pressures did not influence microplastic ingestion.

  2. On some birds from southern Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1970-01-01

    In the years 1962/64 our museum purchased from Mr. Otto Epping, now of Pittsburgh, U.S.A., a collection of 700 bird-specimens from southern Mexico (mainly from Vera Cruz and Oaxaca, a few specimens from Puebla). As our museum was poorly provided with material from Mexico, this was a very welcome

  3. Facing NAFTA: Literacy and Work in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gloria Hernandez; Lankshear, Colin

    2000-01-01

    Outlines the deep and complex challenge faced by Mexico in its quest for closer economic integration with so-called advanced economies. Discusses extensive poverty and illiteracy, and the systematic exclusion of many people from access to the very kinds of learning required by Mexico's economic project. Argues that extraordinary efforts and…

  4. Interdisciplinary Education and Research in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Soto, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss interdisciplinary teaching and research in Latin America through the lens of Mexican perspectives, in particular the experiences at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The history of these experiences goes back to the creation of the frst interdisciplinary education programs in Mexico in the 1970s and…

  5. LCA of road infrastructure in Mexico City.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosales Carreon, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    Vehicular traffic is a major problem in metropolitan areas and Mexico City is no exception. Located in a pollutant-trapping valley, Mexico City (one of the largest cities in the world) is famous for its size, its history, and the warmth of its people. Nev

  6. Plutonium in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.R.; Salter, P.F.

    The geochemistry of fallout plutonium in the sediments of the Gulf of Mexico was studied. A series of sediment cores was collected in a traverse from the deep Gulf of Mexico to the Mississippi Delta. The cores were sliced into 1 cm intervals and analyzed for plutonium. Explanations for the variations in concentration are presented

  7. New Mexico English Remediation Taskforce Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Higher Education Department, 2016

    2016-01-01

    In March, 2016, the state of New Mexico established a Remediation Task Force to examine remediation reform efforts across the state's higher education institutions. On March 11, the Task Force met for the "New Mexico Corequisite Remediation at Scale Policy Institute" in order to learn about the results of the latest national reform…

  8. 50 CFR 32.50 - New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New Mexico. 32.50 Section 32.50 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... § 32.50 New Mexico. The following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing, and are...

  9. 40 CFR 81.332 - New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New Mexico. 81.332 Section 81.332... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.332 New Mexico. New Mexico—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards...

  10. 40 CFR 81.421 - New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New Mexico. 81.421 Section 81.421 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.421 New Mexico. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land...

  11. New Mexico Known Mineral Deposit Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains all Known Mineral Deposit Areas in the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a 1:500,000 scale map of the...

  12. Postgraduate Professional Pedagogical Education in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhyzhko, Olena

    2015-01-01

    This article is the result of scientific comparative-pedagogical research, which purpose was to highlight the main features of postgraduate professional pedagogical education in Mexico. The author found that the postgraduate professional pedagogical education in Mexico is performed by public and private higher education institutions: higher…

  13. Generational diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions.

  14. Authigenic carbonates in sediments from the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botz, R.; Brooks, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of diagenetic dolomite and calcite in some sediments of the Gulf of Mexico varies between 'normal-marine' (δ 13 C ca. 0per mille) and - 14.6per mille which suggests that biogenic CO 2 contributed to the carbonate formations. The δ 18 O values of dolomite and coexisting calcite are very similar but variable down-core. Dolomite and calcite precipitated early from pore water where SO 4 2- was not reduced. However, during (and after?) SO 4 2- reduction dolomite and calcite still formed and there are at least two generations of carbonate minerals present. (orig.)

  15. MOSAICKING MEXICO - THE BIG PICTURE OF BIG DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hruby

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The project presented in this article is to create a completely seamless and cloud-free mosaic of Mexico at a resolution of 5m, using approximately 4,500 RapidEye images. To complete this project in a timely manner and with limited operators, a number of processing architectures were required to handle a data volume of 12 terabytes. This paper will discuss the different operations realized to complete this project, which include, preprocessing, mosaic generation and post mosaic editing. Prior to mosaic generation, it was necessary to filter the 50,000 RapidEye images captured over Mexico between 2011 and 2014 to identify the top candidate images, based on season and cloud cover. Upon selecting the top candidate images, PCI Geomatics’ GXL system was used to reproject, color balance and generate seamlines for the output 1TB+ mosaic. This paper will also discuss innovative techniques used by the GXL for color balancing large volumes of imagery with substantial radiometric differences. Furthermore, post-mosaicking steps, such as, exposure correction, cloud and cloud shadow elimination will be presented.

  16. The nuclear power electricity an opportunity for Mexico. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez de la Garza, R.; Garcia, C. F.; Trejo R, S.; Zazueta R, T.; Castaneda G, M. A.; Cruz B, H. J.; Mercado V, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    Inside this document the outstanding information is presented included in the report that develops the technical, financial, environmental and social aspects to consider for the incorporation from a new power plant to the national interconnected system, which was elaborated and presented to the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde in August of 2009. The treated topics are: the nuclear power electricity, the experience of Laguna Verde, advanced reactors to consider for a new nuclear power plant, environmental aspects, costs of a new nuclear power plant, financing, socioeconomic impact. This work was prepared to evaluate the feasibility of building a new unit of nuclear power plant in Mexico before the evident resurgence at world level of use of nuclear energy to generate electricity. It is important that Mexico maintains inside its development programs and construction, to the nuclear power electricity like a viable and sure alternative of generating electricity, being able to take advantage of experience won with the operation of Laguna Verde, allowing that the country has diverse technologies for electricity generation and have technical capacity to manage the tip technology. (Author)

  17. Electrification and Decarbonization: Exploring U.S. Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Scenarios with Widespread Electrification and Power Sector Decarbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bielen, Dave [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eurek, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McMillan, Colin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Parker, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-19

    Electrification of end-use services in the transportation, buildings, and industrial sectors coupled with decarbonization of electricity generation has been identified as one of the key pathways to achieving a low-carbon future in the United States. By lowering the carbon intensity of the electricity generation and substituting electricity for higher-emissions fossil fuels in end-use sectors, significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions can be achieved. This report describes a preliminary analysis that examines the potential impacts of widespread electrification on the U.S. energy sector. We develop a set of exploratory scenarios under which electrification is aggressively pursued across all end-use sectors and examine the impacts of achieving these electrification levels on electricity load patterns, total fossil energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, and the evolution of the U.S. power system.

  18. Clean generation of electric energy; Generacion limpia de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Juan M.; Torres, Emmanuel [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Unidad Guadalajara (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    This article deals on the existing alternatives of renewable energy for generation of electricity free from polluting sequels within the Mexican territory and presents a global overview on the electricity generation in Mexico. Wind power, hydraulic energy, biomass, photovoltaic and fuel cells are sources of renewable energy that could contribute to Mexico's sustainable development, for this reason it is discussed on the main sources of renewable energy in Mexico - solar and wind energy, mini-hydraulic, biomass and geothermal -, on their development and evolution, cost, insertion projects and obstacles for their correct development in this country. [Spanish] Este articulo versa sobre las alternativas de energia renovable existentes para una generacion de electricidad libre de secuelas contaminantes dentro del territorio mexicano y presenta un panorama global sobre la generacion de electricidad en Mexico. La energia eolica, hidraulica, biomasa, fotovoltaica y las celdas de combustible son fuentes de energia renovable que podrian contribuir al desarrollo sustentable de Mexico, por esto se arguye sobre las principales fuentes de energia renovable en Mexico -energia solar, eolica, minihidraulica, biomasa y geotermia-, sobre su desarrollo y evolucion, costo, proyectos de insercion y obstaculos para su correcto desarrollo en ese pais.

  19. Advisable alternative fuels for Mexico; Combustibles alternativos convenientes para Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Gonzalez, Jorge Luis [ICA Fluor (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    The alternative fuels are born with the goal of not damaging the environment; biodiesel, electricity, ethanol, hydrogen, methanol, natural gas, LP gas, are the main alternative fuels. However, the biodiesel and bioetanol are the only completely renewable ones, this makes them ideal to be developed in Mexico, since the agricultural sector could be fortified, the technological independence be favored, improve the conservation of the oil resources and by all means not to affect the environment. On the other hand, also efficient cultivation techniques should be developed to guarantee the economy of the process. [Spanish] Los combustibles alternativos nacen con la meta de no danar el medio ambiente; el biodiesel, electricidad, etanol, hidrogeno, metanol, gas natural, gas LP, son los principales combustibles alternativos. No obstante, el biodiesel y el bioetanol son los unicos completamente renovables, esto los hace ideales para desarrollarse en Mexico, ya que se podria fortalecer el sector agricola, favorecer la independencia tecnologica, mejorar la administracion de los recursos petroleros y por supuesto no afectar al medio ambiente. Por otro lado tambien se tendrian que desarrollar tecnicas de cultivo eficientes para garantizar la economia del proceso.

  20. Evidence of Incipient Forest Transition in Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca, Raúl Abel; Golicher, Duncan John; Cayuela, Luis; Hewson, Jenny; Steininger, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Case studies of land use change have suggested that deforestation across Southern Mexico is accelerating. However, forest transition theory predicts that trajectories of change can be modified by economic factors, leading to spatial and temporal heterogeneity in rates of change that may take the form of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). This study aimed to assess the evidence regarding potential forest transition in Southern Mexico by classifying regional forest cover change using Landsat imagery from 1990 through to 2006. Patterns of forest cover change were found to be complex and non-linear. When rates of forest loss were averaged over 342 municipalities using mixed-effects modelling the results showed a significant (p<0.001) overall reduction of the mean rate of forest loss from 0.85% per year in the 1990–2000 period to 0.67% in the 2000–2006 period. The overall regional annual rate of deforestation has fallen from 0.33% to 0.28% from the 1990s to 2000s. A high proportion of the spatial variability in forest cover change cannot be explained statistically. However analysis using spline based general additive models detected underlying relationships between forest cover and income or population density of a form consistent with the EKC. The incipient forest transition has not, as yet, resulted in widespread reforestation. Forest recovery remains below 0.20% per year. Reforestation is mostly the result of passive processes associated with reductions in the intensity of land use. Deforestation continues to occur at high rates in some focal areas. A transition could be accelerated if there were a broader recognition among policy makers that the regional rate of forest loss has now begun to fall. The changing trajectory provides an opportunity to actively restore forest cover through stimulating afforestation and stimulating more sustainable land use practices. The results have clear implications for policy aimed at carbon sequestration through reducing

  1. Evidence of incipient forest transition in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca, Raúl Abel; Golicher, Duncan John; Cayuela, Luis; Hewson, Jenny; Steininger, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Case studies of land use change have suggested that deforestation across Southern Mexico is accelerating. However, forest transition theory predicts that trajectories of change can be modified by economic factors, leading to spatial and temporal heterogeneity in rates of change that may take the form of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). This study aimed to assess the evidence regarding potential forest transition in Southern Mexico by classifying regional forest cover change using Landsat imagery from 1990 through to 2006. Patterns of forest cover change were found to be complex and non-linear. When rates of forest loss were averaged over 342 municipalities using mixed-effects modelling the results showed a significant (p<0.001) overall reduction of the mean rate of forest loss from 0.85% per year in the 1990-2000 period to 0.67% in the 2000-2006 period. The overall regional annual rate of deforestation has fallen from 0.33% to 0.28% from the 1990s to 2000s. A high proportion of the spatial variability in forest cover change cannot be explained statistically. However analysis using spline based general additive models detected underlying relationships between forest cover and income or population density of a form consistent with the EKC. The incipient forest transition has not, as yet, resulted in widespread reforestation. Forest recovery remains below 0.20% per year. Reforestation is mostly the result of passive processes associated with reductions in the intensity of land use. Deforestation continues to occur at high rates in some focal areas. A transition could be accelerated if there were a broader recognition among policy makers that the regional rate of forest loss has now begun to fall. The changing trajectory provides an opportunity to actively restore forest cover through stimulating afforestation and stimulating more sustainable land use practices. The results have clear implications for policy aimed at carbon sequestration through reducing

  2. Evidence of incipient forest transition in Southern Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Abel Vaca

    Full Text Available Case studies of land use change have suggested that deforestation across Southern Mexico is accelerating. However, forest transition theory predicts that trajectories of change can be modified by economic factors, leading to spatial and temporal heterogeneity in rates of change that may take the form of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC. This study aimed to assess the evidence regarding potential forest transition in Southern Mexico by classifying regional forest cover change using Landsat imagery from 1990 through to 2006. Patterns of forest cover change were found to be complex and non-linear. When rates of forest loss were averaged over 342 municipalities using mixed-effects modelling the results showed a significant (p<0.001 overall reduction of the mean rate of forest loss from 0.85% per year in the 1990-2000 period to 0.67% in the 2000-2006 period. The overall regional annual rate of deforestation has fallen from 0.33% to 0.28% from the 1990s to 2000s. A high proportion of the spatial variability in forest cover change cannot be explained statistically. However analysis using spline based general additive models detected underlying relationships between forest cover and income or population density of a form consistent with the EKC. The incipient forest transition has not, as yet, resulted in widespread reforestation. Forest recovery remains below 0.20% per year. Reforestation is mostly the result of passive processes associated with reductions in the intensity of land use. Deforestation continues to occur at high rates in some focal areas. A transition could be accelerated if there were a broader recognition among policy makers that the regional rate of forest loss has now begun to fall. The changing trajectory provides an opportunity to actively restore forest cover through stimulating afforestation and stimulating more sustainable land use practices. The results have clear implications for policy aimed at carbon sequestration through

  3. SANDIA MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, D.C.; Kness, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations in the Sandia Mountains in New Mexico indicate that a small part of the area has a probable mineral-resource potential. Most of the mineral occurrences are small barite-fluorite veins that occur along faults on the eastern slope of the range. The barite veins in the Landsend area and in the Tunnel Spring area are classed as having a probable mineral-resource potential. Fluorite veins which occur at the La Luz mine contain silver-bearing galeana and the area near this mine is regarded as having a probable resource potential for silver. No energy resources were identified in this study.

  4. An Analysis of Stakeholder Engagement in Tourism Development in Mexico's Chiapas Region

    OpenAIRE

    Amaya Loustaunau, Rodolfo

    2007-01-01

    Tourism activity in Mexico has been one of the most important components of revenue generation as a proportion of GDP. Moreover, tourism has shown to increase economic growth, but the unmeasured exploitation of resources and inefficient planning of tourism development could lead to dyer consequences affecting local communities. The Mexican public and private sectors have to consider these limitations if they want to continue generating revenues from the tourism industry. Therefore, sustainabl...

  5. Wind Power in Mexico: Simulation of a Wind Farm and Application of Probabilistic Safety Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    C. Martín del Campo–Márquez; P.F. Nelson–Edelstein; M.Á. García–Vázquez

    2009-01-01

    The most important aspects of wind energy in Mexico, including the potential for generating electricity and the major projects planned are presented here. Inparticular, the generation costs are compared to those of other energy sources. The results from the simulation of a 100 MWwind farm in the Tehuantepec Isthmus are also presented. In addition, the environmental impacts related to the wind farm in the mentioned zone are analyzed. Finally, some benefits of using Probabilistic Safety Analysi...

  6. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry from Mexico shall be inspected as provided in §§ 93.306 and 93.323; shall be accompanied by a...

  7. Occurrence and amount of microplastic ingested by fishes in watersheds of the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Melissa B; Bonner, Timothy H

    2015-11-15

    Ingestion of microplastics by fishes could be an emerging environmental crisis because of the proliferation of plastic pollution in aquatic environments. Microplastics in marine ecosystems are well documented, however only one study has reported percent occurrence of microplastics in freshwater fishes. The purpose of this study was to quantify the occurrences and types of microplastics ingested by fishes within several freshwater drainages of the Gulf of Mexico and an estuary of the Gulf of Mexico. Among 535 fishes examined in this study, 8% of the freshwater fishes and 10% of the marine fishes had microplastics in their gut tract. Percentage occurrence of microplastics ingested by fishes in non-urbanized streams (5%) was less than that of one of the urbanized streams (Neches River; 29%). Percent occurrence of microplastics by habitat (i.e., benthic, pelagic) and trophic guilds (herbivore/omnivore, invertivore, carnivore) were similar. Low but widespread occurrences among drainages, habitat guilds, and trophic guilds indicate proliferation of plastic pollution within watersheds of the Gulf of Mexico, but consequences to fish health are unknown at this time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The SHOCT domain: a widespread domain under-represented in model organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Y Eberhardt

    Full Text Available We have identified a new protein domain, which we have named the SHOCT domain (Short C-terminal domain. This domain is widespread in bacteria with over a thousand examples. But we found it is missing from the most commonly studied model organisms, despite being present in closely related species. It's predominantly C-terminal location, co-occurrence with numerous other domains and short size is reminiscent of the Gram-positive anchor motif, however it is present in a much wider range of species. We suggest several hypotheses about the function of SHOCT, including oligomerisation and nucleic acid binding. Our initial experiments do not support its role as an oligomerisation domain.

  9. Federal policies to promote the widespread utilization of photovoltaic systems. Supplement: review and critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.L.

    1980-04-15

    This document is intended as a supplement to the two-volume report entitled Federal Policies to Promote the Widespread Utilization of Photovoltaic Systems that was submitted to Congress by the Department of Energy in February and April of 1980. This supplement contains review comments prepared by knowledgeable experts who reviewed early drafts of the Congressional report. Responses to the review comments by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, preparer of the Congressional report, are also included in this supplement. The Congressional report, mandated in the Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590), discusses various issues related to promoting the deployment of photovoltaic systems through the Federal Photovoltaic Program. Various program strategies and funding levels are examined.

  10. Cognitive tutoring induces widespread neuroplasticity and remediates brain function in children with mathematical learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuculano, Teresa; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Richardson, Jennifer; Tenison, Caitlin; Fuchs, Lynn; Supekar, Kaustubh; Menon, Vinod

    2015-09-30

    Competency with numbers is essential in today's society; yet, up to 20% of children exhibit moderate to severe mathematical learning disabilities (MLD). Behavioural intervention can be effective, but the neurobiological mechanisms underlying successful intervention are unknown. Here we demonstrate that eight weeks of 1:1 cognitive tutoring not only remediates poor performance in children with MLD, but also induces widespread changes in brain activity. Neuroplasticity manifests as normalization of aberrant functional responses in a distributed network of parietal, prefrontal and ventral temporal-occipital areas that support successful numerical problem solving, and is correlated with performance gains. Remarkably, machine learning algorithms show that brain activity patterns in children with MLD are significantly discriminable from neurotypical peers before, but not after, tutoring, suggesting that behavioural gains are not due to compensatory mechanisms. Our study identifies functional brain mechanisms underlying effective intervention in children with MLD and provides novel metrics for assessing response to intervention.

  11. Mapping Rural Areas with Widespread Plastic Covered Vineyards Using True Color Aerial Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eufemia Tarantino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plastic covering is used worldwide to protect crops against damaging growing conditions. This agricultural practice raises some controversial issues. While it significantly impacts on local economic vitality, plasticulture also shows several environmental affects. In the Apulia Region (Italy the wide-spreading of artificial plastic coverings for vineyard protection has showed negative consequences on the hydrogeological balance of soils as well as on the visual quality of rural landscape. In order to monitor and manage this phenomenon, a detailed site mapping has become essential. In this study an efficient object-based classification procedure from Very High Spatial Resolution (VHSR true color aerial data was developed on eight test areas located in the Ionian area of the Apulia Region in order to support the updating of the existing land use database aimed at plastic covered vineyard monitoring.

  12. Amyloid-β Peptide Induces Prion Protein Amyloid Formation: Evidence for Its Widespread Amyloidogenic Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ryo

    2018-04-12

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy is associated with misfolding of prion protein (PrP) into an amyloid β-rich aggregate. Previous studies have indicated that PrP interacts with Alzheimer's disease amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), but it remains elusive how this interaction impacts on the misfolding of PrP. This study presents the first in vitro evidence that Aβ induces PrP-amyloid formation at submicromolar concentrations. Interestingly, systematic mutagenesis of PrP revealed that Aβ requires no specific amino acid sequences in PrP, and induces the misfolding of other unrelated proteins (insulin and lysozyme) into amyloid fibrils in a manner analogous to PrP. This unanticipated nonspecific amyloidogenic effect of Aβ indicates that this peptide might be involved in widespread protein aggregation, regardless of the amino acid sequences of target proteins, and exacerbate the pathology of many neurodegenerative diseases. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Human dignity as a component of a long-lasting and widespread conceptual construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertschi, Bernard

    2014-06-01

    For some decades, the concept of human dignity has been widely discussed in bioethical literature. Some authors think that this concept is central to questions of respect for human beings, whereas others are very critical of it. It should be noted that, in these debates, dignity is one component of a long-lasting and widespread conceptual construct used to support a stance on the ethical question of the moral status of an action or being. This construct has been used from Modernity onward to condemn slavery and torture as violations of human dignity. In spelling it out, we can come to a better understanding of what "dignity" means and become aware that there exists a quite useful place for this notion in our ethical thought, albeit a modest one.

  14. Observation-based assessment of functional ability in patients with chronic widespread pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amris, Kirstine; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen; Jespersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about functional ability, including activities of daily living (ADL), in patients with chronic widespread pain (CWP) and fibromyalgia (FMS) is largely based on self-report. The purpose of this study was to assess functional ability by using standardised, observation-based assessment...... of ADL performance and to examine the relationship between self-reported and observation-based measures of disability. A total of 257 women with CWP, 199 (77%) fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology tender point criteria for FMS, were evaluated with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills...... (AMPS), an observation-based assessment providing linear measures of ADL motor and ADL process skill ability (unit: logits). A cutoff for effortless and independent ADL task performance is set at 2.0 for the motor scale and 1.0 for the process scale. A total of 248 (96.5%) had ability measures below...

  15. Position-dependent termination and widespread obligatory frameshifting in Euplotes translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobanov, Alexei V.; Heaphy, Stephen M.; Turanov, Anton A.; Gerashchenko, Maxim V.; Pucciarelli, Sandra; Devaraj, Raghul R.; Xie, Fang; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Smith, Richard D.; Klobutcher, Lawrence A.; Atkins, John F.; Miceli, Cristina; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Baranov, Pavel V.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2016-11-21

    The ribosome can change its reading frame during translation in a process known as programmed ribosomal frameshifting. These rare events are supported by complex mRNA signals. However, we found that the ciliates Euplotes crassus and Euplotes focardii exhibit widespread frameshifting at stop codons. 47 different codons preceding stop signals resulted in either +1 or +2 frameshifts, and +1 frameshifting at AAA was the most frequent. The frameshifts showed unusual plasticity and rapid evolution, and had little influence on translation rates. The proximity of a stop codon to the 3' mRNA end, rather than its occurrence or sequence context, appeared to designate termination. Thus, a ‘stop codon’ is not a sufficient signal for translation termination, and the default function of stop codons in Euplotes is frameshifting, whereas termination is specific to certain mRNA positions and probably requires additional factors.

  16. Widespread Chromatin Accessibility at Repetitive Elements Links Stem Cells with Human Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas C. Gomez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin regulation is critical for differentiation and disease. However, features linking the chromatin environment of stem cells with disease remain largely unknown. We explored chromatin accessibility in embryonic and multipotent stem cells and unexpectedly identified widespread chromatin accessibility at repetitive elements. Integrating genomic and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that these sites of increased accessibility are associated with well-positioned nucleosomes marked by distinct histone modifications. Differentiation is accompanied by chromatin remodeling at repetitive elements associated with altered expression of genes in relevant developmental pathways. Remarkably, we found that the chromatin environment of Ewing sarcoma, a mesenchymally derived tumor, is shared with primary mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Accessibility at repetitive elements in MSCs offers a permissive environment that is exploited by the critical oncogene responsible for this cancer. Our data demonstrate that stem cells harbor a unique chromatin landscape characterized by accessibility at repetitive elements, a feature associated with differentiation and oncogenesis.

  17. Weathering-related origin of widespread monazite in S-type granites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawka, W N; Banfield, J F; Chappell, B W

    1986-01-01

    The S-type granite suites comprising more than a quarter of the extensively developed granites in the Lachlan Fold Belt, Australia, contain monazite which may be related to the chemical weathering of the sedimentary source rocks. We report a process whereby chemical weathering fixes mobile rare-earth elements (REE) in hydrous phosphate phases such as florencite and rhabdophane. This material contains up to 50 wt.% LREE and occurs as very small particles (approx. 3 ..mu..m). Dehydration of these hydrous REE phases during anatexis directly yields monazite. The low solubility of phosphorus in S-type granite melts inhibits dissolution of both monazite and apatite. Refractory monazite may be thus entrained and transported in S-type granites in a manner similar to processes resulting in inherited zircon. Since both Th and the light REE are major components in monazite, materials containing this minute phase may be of widespread geochemical significance in both granites and metamorphic rocks.

  18. The potential behavioral and economic impacts of widespread HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendle, Mathew H

    2016-12-01

    Dyslipidemia is a common pathology throughout the industrialized world, and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are often administered to treat elevated lipid levels. Substantial concern has been raised regarding the aggressive clinical lowering of cholesterol, particularly in light of a growing body of research linking low circulating lipid levels with negative behavioral outcomes in both human samples and non-human primate models. In 2009, Goldstein and colleagues tentatively speculated that the greed, impulsiveness, and lack of foresight that lead to the worldwide economic collapse in 2007-2008 could have been caused (in part) by depressed population cholesterol levels resulting from the widespread use of statins by workers in the financial services industry. This paper reviews the literature that links low circulating lipid levels with neurobehavioral dysfunction, develops Goldstein and colleagues' initial speculation into a formal hypothesis, and proposes several specific studies that could rigorously empirically evaluate this hypothesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Alternative normalization methods demonstrate widespread cortical hypometabolism in untreated de novo Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berti, Valentina; Polito, C; Borghammer, Per

    2012-01-01

    , recent studies suggested that conventional data normalization procedures may not always be valid, and demonstrated that alternative normalization strategies better allow detection of low magnitude changes. We hypothesized that these alternative normalization procedures would disclose more widespread...... metabolic alterations in de novo PD. METHODS: [18F]FDG PET scans of 26 untreated de novo PD patients (Hoehn & Yahr stage I-II) and 21 age-matched controls were compared using voxel-based analysis. Normalization was performed using gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) reference regions and Yakushev...... normalization. RESULTS: Compared to GM normalization, WM and Yakushev normalization procedures disclosed much larger cortical regions of relative hypometabolism in the PD group with extensive involvement of frontal and parieto-temporal-occipital cortices, and several subcortical structures. Furthermore...

  20. A Widespread, Clumpy Starburst in the Isolated Ongoing Dwarf Galaxy Merger dm1647+21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privon, G. C. [Instituto de Astrofśica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Stierwalt, S.; Johnson, K. E.; Kallivayalil, N.; Liss, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Patton, D. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9L 0G2 (Canada); Besla, G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Pearson, S.; Putman, M., E-mail: gprivon@astro.puc.cl [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Collaboration: TiNy Titans

    2017-09-01

    Interactions between pairs of isolated dwarf galaxies provide a critical window into low-mass hierarchical, gas-dominated galaxy assembly and the build-up of stellar mass in low-metallicity systems. We present the first Very Large Telescope/Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (VLT/MUSE) optical integral field unit (IFU) observations of the interacting dwarf pair dm1647+21 selected from the TiNy Titans survey. The H α emission is widespread and corresponds to a total unobscured star formation rate (SFR) of 0.44 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, which is 2.7 times higher than the SFR inferred from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data. The implied specific SFR (sSFR) for the system is elevated by more than an order of magnitude above non-interacting dwarfs in the same mass range. This increase is dominated by the lower-mass galaxy, which has a sSFR enhancement of >50. Examining the spatially resolved maps of classic optical line diagnostics, we find that the interstellar medium (ISM) excitation can be fully explained by star formation. The velocity field of the ionized gas is not consistent with simple rotation. Dynamical simulations indicate that the irregular velocity field and the stellar structure is consistent with the identification of this system as an ongoing interaction between two dwarf galaxies. The widespread, clumpy enhancements in the star formation in this system point to important differences in the effect of mergers on dwarf galaxies, compared to massive galaxies; rather than the funneling of gas to the nucleus and giving rise to a nuclear starburst, starbursts in low-mass galaxy mergers may be triggered by large-scale ISM compression, and thus may be more distributed.

  1. The importance of safety in achieving the widespread use of hydrogen as a fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edeskuty, F.J.

    1997-09-01

    The advantages of hydrogen fuel have been adequately demonstrated on numerous occasions. However, two major disadvantages have prevented any significant amount of corresponding development. These disadvantages have been in the economics of producing sufficient quantities of hydrogen and in the safety (both real and perceived) of its use. To date work has mostly been properly centered on solving the economic problems. However, a greater effort on the safety of new hydrogen systems now being proposed also deserves consideration. To achieve the greatest safety in the expansion of the use of hydrogen into its wide-spread use as a fuel, attention must be given to four considerations. These are, obtaining knowledge of all the physical principles involved in the new uses, having in place the regulations that allow the safe interfacing of the new systems, designing and constructing the new systems with safety in mind, and the training of the large number of people that will become the handlers of the hydrogen. Existing organizations that produce, transport, or use hydrogen on a large scale have an excellent safety record. This safety record comes as a consequence of dedicated attention to the above-mentioned principles. However, where these principles were not closely followed, accidents have resulted. Some examples can be cited. As the use of hydrogen becomes more widespread, there must be a mechanism for assuring the universal application of these principles. Larger and more numerous fleet operations with hydrogen fuel may be the best way to begin the indoctrination of the general public to the more general use of hydrogen fuel. Demonstrated safe operation with hydrogen is vital to its final acceptance as the fuel of choice.

  2. Diurnal adjustment in ultraviolet sunscreen protection is widespread among higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Paul W; Flint, Stephan D; Tobler, Mark A; Ryel, Ronald J

    2016-05-01

    The accumulation of ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (flavonoids and related phenylpropanoids) in the epidermis of higher plants reduces the penetration of solar UV radiation to underlying tissues and is a primary mechanism of acclimation to changing UV conditions resulting from ozone depletion and climate change. Previously we reported that several herbaceous plant species were capable of rapid, diurnal adjustments in epidermal UV transmittance (T UV), but how widespread this phenomenon is among plants has been unknown. In the present study, we tested the generality of this response by screening 37 species of various cultivated and wild plants growing in four locations spanning a gradient of ambient solar UV and climate (Hawaii, Utah, Idaho and Louisiana). Non-destructive measurements of adaxial T UV indicated that statistically significant midday decreases in T UV occurred in 49 % of the species tested, including both herbaceous and woody growth forms, and there was substantial interspecific variation in the magnitude of these changes. In general, plants in Louisiana exhibited larger diurnal changes in T UV than those in the other locations. Moreover, across all taxa, the magnitude of these changes was positively correlated with minimum daily air temperatures but not daily UV irradiances. Results indicate that diurnal changes in UV shielding are widespread among higher plants, vary both within and among species and tend to be greatest in herbaceous plants growing in warm environments. These findings suggest that plant species differ in their UV protection "strategies" though the functional and ecological significance of this variation in UV sunscreen protection remains unclear at present.

  3. Intrastriatal convection-enhanced delivery results in widespread perivascular distribution in a pre-clinical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barua Neil U

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Convection-enhanced delivery (CED, a direct method for drug delivery to the brain through intraparenchymal microcatheters, is a promising strategy for intracerebral pharmacological therapy. By establishing a pressure gradient at the tip of the catheter, drugs can be delivered in uniform concentration throughout a large volume of interstitial fluid. However, the variables affecting perivascular distribution of drugs delivered by CED are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether the perivascular distribution of solutes delivered by CED into the striatum of rats is affected by the molecular weight of the infused agent, by co-infusion of vasodilator, alteration of infusion rates or use of a ramping regime. We also wanted to make a preliminary comparison of the distribution of solutes with that of nanoparticles. Methods We analysed the perivascular distribution of 4, 10, 20, 70, 150 kDa fluorescein-labelled dextran and fluorescent nanoparticles at 10 min and 3 h following CED into rat striatum. We investigated the effect of local vasodilatation, slow infusion rates and ramping on the perivascular distribution of solutes. Co-localisation with perivascular basement membranes and vascular endothelial cells was identified by immunohistochemistry. The uptake of infusates by perivascular macrophages was quantified using stereological methods. Results Widespread perivascular distribution and macrophage uptake of fluorescein-labelled dextran was visible 10 min after cessation of CED irrespective of molecular weight. However, a significantly higher proportion of perivascular macrophages had taken up 4, 10 and 20 kDa fluorescein-labelled dextran than 150 kDa dextran (p Conclusions This study suggests that widespread perivascular distribution and interaction with perivascular macrophages is likely to be an inevitable consequence of CED of solutes. The potential consequences of perivascular distribution of

  4. Tool to address green roof widespread implementation effect in flood characteristics for water management planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tassi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, new approaches were adopted to manage stormwater as close to its source as possible through technologies and devices that preserve and recreate natural landscape features. Green Roofs (GR are examples of these devices that are also incentivized by city's stormwater management plans. Several studies show that GR decreases on-site runoff from impervious surfaces, however, the analysis of the effect of widespread implementation of GR in the flood characteristics at the urban basin scale in subtropical areas are little discussed, mainly because of the absence of data. Thereby, this paper shows results related to the monitoring of an extensive modular GR under subtropical weather conditions, the development of a rainfall–runoff model based on the modified Curve Number (CN and SCS Triangular Unit Hydrograph (TUH methods and the analysis of large-scale impact of GR by modelling different basins. The model was calibrated against observed data and showed that GR absorbed almost all the smaller storms and reduced runoff even during the most intense rainfall. The overall CN was estimated in 83 (consistent with available literature with the shape of hydrographs well reproduced. Large-scale modelling (in basins ranging from 0.03 ha to several square kilometers showed that the widespread use of GRs reduced peak flows (volumes around 57% (48% at source and 38% (32% at the basin scale. Thus, this research validated a tool for the assessment of structural management measures (specifically GR to address changes in flood characteristics in the city's water management planning. From the application of this model it was concluded that even if the efficiency of GR decreases as the basin scale increase they still provide a good option to cope with urbanization impact.

  5. Gravel sediment routing from widespread, low-intensity landscape disturbance, Current River basin, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Gran, K.B.

    1999-01-01

    During the last 160 years, land-use changes in the Ozarks have had the potential to cause widespread, low-intensity delivery of excess amounts of gravel-sized sediment to stream channels. Previous studies have indicated that this excess gravel bedload is moving in wave-like forms through Ozarks drainage basins. The longitudinal, areal distribution of gravel bars along 160 km of the Current River, Missouri, was evaluated to determine the relative effects of valley-scale controls, tributary basin characteristics, and lagged sediment transport in creating areas of gravel accumulations. The longitudinal distribution of gravel-bar area shows a broad scale wave-like form with increases in gravel-bar area weakly associated with tributary junctions. Secondary peaks of gravel area with 1·8–4·1 km spacing (disturbance reaches) are superimposed on the broad form. Variations in valley width explain some, but not all, of the short-spacing variation in gravel-bar area. Among variables describing tributary drainage basin morphometry, present-day land use and geologic characteristics, only drainage area and road density relate even weakly to gravel-bar areal inventories. A simple, channel network-based sediment routing model shows that many of the features of the observed longitudinal gravel distribution can be replicated by uniform transport of sediment from widespread disturbances through a channel network. These results indicate that lagged sediment transport may have a dominant effect on the synoptic spatial distribution of gravel in Ozarks streams; present-day land uses are only weakly associated with present-day gravel inventories; and valley-scale characteristics have secondary controls on gravel accumulations in disturbance reaches.

  6. Linking global climate and temperature variability to widespread amphibian declines putatively caused by disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Jason R; Raffel, Thomas R

    2010-05-04

    The role of global climate change in the decline of biodiversity and the emergence of infectious diseases remains controversial, and the effect of climatic variability, in particular, has largely been ignored. For instance, it was recently revealed that the proposed link between climate change and widespread amphibian declines, putatively caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), was tenuous because it was based on a temporally confounded correlation. Here we provide temporally unconfounded evidence that global El Niño climatic events drive widespread amphibian losses in genus Atelopus via increased regional temperature variability, which can reduce amphibian defenses against pathogens. Of 26 climate variables tested, only factors associated with temperature variability could account for the spatiotemporal patterns of declines thought to be associated with Bd. Climatic predictors of declines became significant only after controlling for a pattern consistent with epidemic spread (by temporally detrending the data). This presumed spread accounted for 59% of the temporal variation in amphibian losses, whereas El Niño accounted for 59% of the remaining variation. Hence, we could account for 83% of the variation in declines with these two variables alone. Given that global climate change seems to increase temperature variability, extreme climatic events, and the strength of Central Pacific El Niño episodes, climate change might exacerbate worldwide enigmatic declines of amphibians, presumably by increasing susceptibility to disease. These results suggest that changes to temperature variability associated with climate change might be as significant to biodiversity losses and disease emergence as changes to mean temperature.

  7. The importance of safety in achieving the widespread use of hydrogen as a fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edeskuty, F.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The advantages of hydrogen fuel have been adequately demonstrated on numerous occasions. However, two major disadvantages have prevented any significant amount of corresponding development. These disadvantages have been in the economics of producing sufficient quantities of hydrogen and in the safety (both real and perceived) of its use. To date, work has mostly been properly centered on solving the economic problems. However, a greater effort on the safety of new hydrogen systems now being proposed also deserves consideration. To achieve the greatest safety in the expansion of the use of hydrogen into its wide-spread use as a fuel, attention must be given to four considerations. These are, obtaining knowledge of all the physical principles involved in the new uses, using that knowledge to put in place the regulations that allow the safe interfacing of the new systems, designing and constructing the new systems with safety in mind, and the training of the large number of people that will become the handlers of the hydrogen. Existing organizations that produce, transport, or use hydrogen on a large scale have an excellent safety record. This safety record comes as a consequence of dedicated attention to the above-mentioned principle. However, where these principles were not closely followed, accidents have resulted. Some examples are cited. As the use of hydrogen becomes more wide-spread, there must be a mechanism for assuring the universal application of these principles. Larger and more numerous fleet operations with hydrogen fuel may be the best way to begin the indoctrination of the general public to the more general use of hydrogen fuel. Demonstrated safe operation with hydrogen is vital to its final acceptance as the fuel of choice. 18 refs.

  8. Isolation of polymorphic microsatellite markers and tests of cross-amplification in four widespread European calcicole ferns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de G.A.; Korpelainen, H.; Wubs, E.R.J.; Erkens, R.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Premise of the study: Studies on the biogeography and population genetics of the widespread European rock ferns Asplenium scolopendrium , A. trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens , Polystichum setiferum , and P. aculeatum would potentially yield interesting new insights into the colonization capacities of

  9. 78 FR 14983 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... the Gulf of Mexico; Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine... of Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council Spanish Mackerel and Cobia Stock Assessment Review Workshop. SUMMARY: Independent peer review of Gulf of Mexico Spanish Mackerel and Cobia stocks will be...

  10. 77 FR 56168 - Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Gulf of Mexico Individual Fishing Quota Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    .... 090206140-91081-03] RIN 0648-XC227 Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Gulf of Mexico Individual... red snapper and grouper/tilefish components of the reef fish fishery in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf), the... INFORMATION: The reef fish fishery of the Gulf of Mexico is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for Reef...

  11. Sustainability of nuclear energy in Mexico: comparison with other sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-del-Campo, C.; Francois, J. L.

    2006-01-01

    Because of the importance of energy to sustainable development of Mexico, it is necessary to develop a tool which permits to make a comparative assessment of energy alternative options. This tool must take into a count their characteristics in terms of their economic, health, environmental and social impacts, both, positive and negative, local, regional and global. This paper describes a methodology to measure the sustainability of nuclear and other different sources for electricity generation. The first step consists on the search of common indicators to be compared. These indicators take into account the great variety of economic, social, and environmental impacts to be considered in the specific Mexican country. A total of fourteen indicators were considered grouped in three dimensions: economic, environmental and social. The second step is to obtain the values of all the indicators for each of the alternative options being compared. These values must be calculated taking into account the economic and technological characteristics of the country. The third step is to utilize an aggregation method to integrate all the indicators in an overall sustainable qualification. Fuzzy Logic was applied for the aggregation of indicators and was used to make sensitive analyses. Finally this paper presents the results for the case of the Mexican power system generation. The main result of the comparison is that nuclear energy in Mexico is an option more sustainable than gas, coal, and hydroelectric. Some sensitive analyses were also made to investigate the implication of the uncertainties in the indicator's values. Coal was in all cases the least sustainable option with largest environmental impacts. Wind energy was also included in a study case, the results of this assessment comparison showed that wind option in Mexico has an overall qualification very close to nuclear option when a backup power system is not included

  12. Hydrogen production through nuclear energy, a sustainable scenario in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega V, E.; Francois L, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    The energy is a key point in the social and economic development of a country, for such motive to assure the energy supply in Mexico it is of vital importance. The hydrogen it is without a doubt some one of the alternating promising fuels before the visible one necessity to decentralize the energy production based on hydrocarbons. The versatility of their applications, it high heating power and having with the more clean fuel cycle of the energy basket with which count at the moment, they are only some examples of their development potential. However the more abundant element of the universe it is not in their elementary form in our planet, it forms molecules like in the hydrocarbons or water and it stops their use it should be extracted. At the present time different methods are known for the extraction of hydrogen, there is thermal, electric, chemical, photovoltaic among others. The election of the extraction method and the primary energy source to carry out it are decisive to judge the sustainability of the hydrogen production. The sustainable development is defined as development that covers the present necessities without committing the necessity to cover the necessities of the future generations, and in the mark of this definition four indicators of the sustainable development of the different cycles of fuel were evaluated in the hydrogen production in Mexico. These indicators take in consideration the emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (environment), the readiness of the energy resources (technology), the impacts in the floor use (social) and the production costs of the cycles (economy). In this work the processes were studied at the moment available for the generation of hydrogen, those that use coal, natural gas, hydraulic, eolic energy, biomass and nuclear, as primary energy sources. These processes were evaluated with energy references of Mexico to obtain the best alternative for hydrogen production. (Author)

  13. Lidar Monitoring of Mexico City's Atmosphere During High Air Pollution Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, C. R., Jr.; Archuleta, F. L.; Hof, D. E.; Karl, R. R., Jr.; Tiee, J. J., Jr.; Eichinger, W. E.; Holtkamp, D. B.; Tellier, L.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Mexico City, like many large industrial and populous urban areas, has developed a serious air pollution problem, especially during the winter months when there are frequent temperature inversions and weak winds. The deteriorating air quality is the result of several factors. The basin within which Mexico City lies in Mexico's center of political, administrative and economic activity, generating 34 percent of the gross domestic product and 42 percent of the industrial revenue, and supporting a population which is rapidly approaching the 20 million mark. The basin is surrounded by mountains on three sides which end up preventing rapid dispersal of pollutants. Emissions from the transportation fleet (more than 3 million vehicles) are one of the primary pollution sources, and most are uncontrolled. Catalytic converters are just now working their way into the fleet. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative in an international collaboration project between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are dedicated to the investigation of the air quality problem in Mexico City. The main objective of the project is to identify and assess the cost and benefits of major options being proposed to improve the air quality. The project is organized into three main activity areas: (1) modeling and simulation; (2) characterization and measurements; and (3) strategic evaluation.

  14. Motivation Factors for Female Entrepreneurship in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cantú Cavada

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to analyse motivation factors for female entrepreneurship in Mexico. In the proposed article, the authors discuss the factors which compelled women to start their enterprises in Mexico. Research Design & Methods: Based on in-depth interviews with female entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship experts, the authors show which factors motivated women to start their own business in Mexico. Findings: The study proves that women in Mexico are motivated by a combination of push and pull factors, where the majority of the factors are pull factors. The findings of the study help to conclude that female entrepreneurship development is influenced by different factors including the entrepreneurs’ personal traits, social and economic factors. Due to their conservative traditional attitude, risk adverse tendency, and non-cooperation of family members, etc. women entrepreneurs are sometimes deterred to start a business in Mexico. Implications & Recommendations: It is necessary to raise the awareness of different factors that promote female entrepreneurship in Mexico. Governmental programmes which support female entrepreneurship, business incubators, and networking could be very helpful for women when starting their own business. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in studying motivational factors for female entrepreneurship in Mexico. The Mexican society faces a big revolution towards female entrepreneurship. Based on the change of family structure and traditions, women nowadays are having more opportunities to develop as entrepreneurs.

  15. Perception of the nuclear energy in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xolocostli M, J.V.; Alonso V, G.; Gomez T, A.M.; Palacios H, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    From their beginnings the Nuclear Energy has generated a lot of polemic, since on one hand it was seen as something completely harmful, due to the making of atomic weapons and those effects of the radiation (Hiroshima and Nagasaki). But on the other hand it has been saying that it could be the 'Panacea' of the humanity like an inexhaustible source of energy, this brought that a countless of reactors was built for the electric power production at world level, unfortunately some accidents as that of Chernobyl (Former Soviet Union 1986) as well as the contribution of the media of the fear toward the nuclear energy made that it was formed a barrier of the public opinion toward all that has to do with the nuclear energy, the construction of new power stations one came below and even in some countries the environmentalist organizations achieved their governments to close some power stations. In the last years the concern for the global heating and the climatic change has put in the world calendar the use of the nuclear energy again, by means of the new designs of advanced reactors with more safety measures, more efficient and economic. In several countries the public opinion is looking to the nuclear energy with good eyes, reason by a resurgence is glimpsed from the nuclear energy to great scale, so it is so several countries they have already begun the construction of new advanced reactors ones (Japan, China, Finland) and some included one already has them in operation. In Mexico, it is ignored to certain science which is the real posture of the public opinion with regard to this topic so controversial, reason why it was carried out this study to know the perception of the public in general with regard to this topic, as well as the convenience of enlarging the infrastructure of electric power generation in our country by means of this energy type. (Author)

  16. Nuclear desalination for the northwest of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega C, R. F.

    2008-01-01

    The IMPULSA project of the Engineering Institute of UNAM, it has dedicated from the year 2005 to the study and development of new desalination technologies of seawater with renewable energies. The objective is to form a group of expert engineers and investigators in the desalination topics able to transform their scientific knowledge in engineering solutions, with a high grade of knowledge of the environment and the renewable energies. In the middle of 2007 was took the initiative in the IMPULSA project to study the nuclear desalination topic. It is evident that before the high cost of the hydrocarbons and its high environmental impact, the nuclear generation alternative of energy becomes extremely attractive, mainly for desalination projects of seawater of great size. The Northwest of Mexico is particularly attractive as the appropriate site for one nuclear desalination plant of great size given its shortage of drink water and the quick growth of its population; as well as its level of tourist, agricultural and industrial activity. In this study was revised the state of the art of the nuclear desalination on the world and it is simulated some couplings and operation forms of nuclear reactors and desalination units, from the thermodynamic and economic viewpoint with the purpose of identifying the main peculiarities of this technology. The objective of the study was to characterize several types and sizes of nuclear reactors of the last generation that could be couple to a desalination technology as multi-stage distillation, type flash distillation or inverse osmosis. It is used for this effect the DEEP 3.1 program of the IAEA to simulate the coupling and to carry out an economic preliminary evaluation. Was found cost very competitive of 0.038-0.044 US$/kWh for the electric power production and 0.60 to 0.77 US$/m 3 for the drink water produced, without including the water transport cost or the use of carbon certificates. (Author)

  17. Characterization, Distribution, Sources and Origins of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons from Surface Sediment of Prai Strait, Penang, Malaysia: A Widespread Anthropogenic Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyar Sakari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons are one of the most serious and important class of pollutants that face to many countries including Malaysia. Aliphatic hydrocarbons contain straight chain alkane; derive from anthropogenic and natural sources to the marine environment. The multi-purpose strait of Prai is located in the Northwest of Peninsular Malaysia plays an important economic role in the Southeast Asia. Twenty surface sediment samples were collected using Eckman dredge to measure the concentration and determine the characterization, sources and origins of the aliphatic hydrocarbons in December 2006. Samples (top 4 cm were extracted with Soxhlet, treated with activated copper and subjected to 2 steps column chromatography for purification and fractionation. Alkane fraction injected into Gas Chromatography–Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID for instrumental analysis. The results showed that total n-alkane concentrations are ranging from 512 to 10770 ng/mg d. w. Carbon Preferences Index (CPI revealed an extreme widespread anthropogenic input and naturally derived (CPI= 0 to 4.88 hydrocarbons in the study area. The ratio of C31/C19 indicated that natural hydrocarbons are generating from terrestrial vascular plants and transferring by rivers. The characteristics of Major Hydrocarbons provided evidences that oil and its derivatives either fresh or degraded are the major contributors of the pollution in the study area. Statistical approaches also confirmed that 85% of study area affected by oil sources of pollution. It is seen that aliphatic hydrocarbons mostly transfer by lateral input to the marine environment than atmospheric movements.

  18. Widespread molecular patterns associated with drug sensitivity in breast cancer cell lines, with implications for human tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad J Creighton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent landmark studies have profiled cancer cell lines for molecular features, along with measuring the corresponding growth inhibitory effects for specific drug compounds. These data present a tool for determining which subsets of human cancer might be more responsive to particular drugs. To this end, the NCI-DREAM-sponsored DREAM7: Drug Sensitivity Prediction Challenge (sub-challenge 1 set out to predict the sensitivities of 18 breast cancer cell lines to 31 previously untested compounds, on the basis of molecular profiling data and a training subset of cell lines. METHODS AND RESULTS: With 47 teams submitting blinded predictions, team Creighton scored third in terms of overall accuracy. Team Creighton's method was simple and straightforward, incorporated multiple expression data types (RNA-seq, gene array, RPPA, and incorporated all profiled features (not only the "best" predictive ones. As an extension of the approach, cell line data, from public datasets of expression profiling coupled with drug sensitivities (Barretina, Garnett, Heiser were used to "predict" the drug sensitivities in human breast tumors (using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Drug sensitivity correlations within human breast tumors showed differences by expression-based subtype, with many associations in line with the expected (e.g. Lapatinib sensitivity in HER2-enriched cancers and others inviting further study (e.g. relative resistance to PI3K inhibitors in basal-like cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular patterns associated with drug sensitivity are widespread, with potentially hundreds of genes that could be incorporated into making predictions, as well as offering biological clues as to the mechanisms involved. Applying the cell line patterns to human tumor data may help generate hypotheses on what tumor subsets might be more responsive to therapies, where multiple cell line datasets representing various drugs may be used, in order to assess consistency of

  19. Isotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The patent describes an isotope generator incorporating the possibility of stopping elution before the elution vessel is completely full. Sterile ventilation of the whole system can then occur, including of both generator reservoir and elution vessel. A sterile, and therefore pharmaceutically acceptable, elution fluid is thus obtained and the interior of the generator is not polluted with non-sterile air. (T.P.)

  20. Instant Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Elaina

    2017-01-01

    Generation Z students (born between 1995-2010) have replaced millennials on college campuses. Generation Z students are entrepreneurial, desire practical skills with their education, and are concerned about the cost of college. This article presents what need to be known about this new generation of students.

  1. Optimising generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, E.J.; Garcia, A.O.; Graffigna, F.M.; Verdu, C.A. (IMPSA (Argentina). Generators Div.)

    1994-11-01

    A new computer tool, the ARGEN program, has been developed for dimensioning large hydroelectric generators. This results in better designs, and reduces calculation time for engineers. ARGEN performs dimensional tailoring of salient pole synchronous machines in generators, synchronous condensers, and generator-motors. The operation and uses of ARGEN are explained and its advantages are listed in this article. (UK)

  2. The environmental policy in Mexico: Crisis and perspectives; La politica ambiental en Mexico: Crisis y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquidi, Victor [Colegio de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper some aspects of the environmental situation in Mexico are condensed. The main roll performed by the modality of the energy resources consumption and the evolution of the environmental policy in Mexico from 1971 to 1996 is analyzed. It is concluded that in Mexico it has not been able to define the environmental policy in all its extension requiring, therefore, a greater participation of all the sectors to protect Nature and fight against the industrial and municipal pollution [Espanol] En esta ponencia se resumen algunos aspectos de la situacion ambiental actual de Mexico. Se analiza el papel central desempenado por la modalidad del consumo de energeticos y la evolucion de la politica ambiental en Mexico desde 1971 hasta 1996. Se concluye en que la politica ambiental en Mexico no se ha podido definir todavia en todos sus alcances por lo que se requiere una mayor participacion de todos los sectores para proteger la naturaleza y combatir la contaminacion industrial y municipal

  3. The environmental policy in Mexico: Crisis and perspectives; La politica ambiental en Mexico: Crisis y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquidi, Victor [Colegio de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper some aspects of the environmental situation in Mexico are condensed. The main roll performed by the modality of the energy resources consumption and the evolution of the environmental policy in Mexico from 1971 to 1996 is analyzed. It is concluded that in Mexico it has not been able to define the environmental policy in all its extension requiring, therefore, a greater participation of all the sectors to protect Nature and fight against the industrial and municipal pollution [Espanol] En esta ponencia se resumen algunos aspectos de la situacion ambiental actual de Mexico. Se analiza el papel central desempenado por la modalidad del consumo de energeticos y la evolucion de la politica ambiental en Mexico desde 1971 hasta 1996. Se concluye en que la politica ambiental en Mexico no se ha podido definir todavia en todos sus alcances por lo que se requiere una mayor participacion de todos los sectores para proteger la naturaleza y combatir la contaminacion industrial y municipal

  4. First report of myxomatosis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licón Luna, R M

    2000-07-01

    An outbreak of myxomatosis occurred between September and October 1993 on a rabbit farm in Punta Colnett (Ensenada, Baja California in northwestern Mexico, Transpeninsular Highway, km 128) and was confirmed by the Mexico-USA Commission for Prevention of Foreign Diseases of Animals (CPA). This represents the first officially confirmed case of the disease in Mexico. Like the cases in California (USA), the brush rabbit (Sylvilagus bachmani) seems to be the carrier of the virus, since serum samples from wild rabbits from different areas of the peninsula of Baja California were found to contain antibodies against the myxoma virus.

  5. NAFTA and Mexico's Tax Policy Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Martinez-Vazquez; Duanje Chen

    2001-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has had a significant effect on Mexico’s economy and institutions. The ongoing consideration of tax reform in Mexico requires an evaluation of the role of NAFTA in Mexico’s economy, including its tax structure; it also requires an assessment of the impact of the Mexico’s tax system on the trade and capital flows between Mexico and its NAFTA partners, the United States and Canada. Clearly, no good tax reform in Mexico can ignore the role of NAFTA...

  6. Evaluating the impacts of power plant emissions in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Villegas, M.T.; Tzintzun Cervantes, M.G.; Iniestra Gomez, R.; Garibay Bravo, V.; Zuk, M.; Rojas Bracho, L.; Fernandez Bremautz, A. [Direccion de Investigacion sobre Calidad del Aire, Inst. Nacional de Ecologia (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Mexican electricity generation has proven to be a large source of air pollution nationwide. According to the Energy Secretariat, electricity generation in Mexico accounts for 68% of SO{sub 2} emissions, 24% of PM{sub 10} emissions and 20% of NO{sub x} emissions nationwide. The country's total effective installed capacity is 42,067 MW, of which 67% corresponds to thermoelectric power plants. Heavy fuel oil, known as 'combustoleo', is used in many thermoelectric plants primarily for regular operation. The typical sulphur content of 'combustoleo' is approximately 2.5 to 4%. As a first step to determine the potential impacts of Mexican power plants on regional air pollution and health, we conducted a case study on the Adolfo Lopez Mateos power plant, located in the town of Tuxpan in the eastern state of Veracruz. The plant is located on the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico; therefore greatly influenced by the weather of the region. We used the CALPUFF Lagrangian puff model (Earth Tech, Concord, MA) to simulate the dispersion of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and primary PM{sub 10} emissions from the power plant stacks and the formation of secondary particulate matter. We considered a 120km x 120km grid, with a resolution of 2km x 2km and height of 2500 km. This area comprises approximately 791,000 inhabitants, including rural and urban populations. (orig.)

  7. The Man Who Tamed Mexico's Tiger: General Joaquin Amaro and the Professionalization of Mexico's Revolutionary Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carriedo, Robert

    2005-01-01

    .... While effective in overthrowing Diaz, Mexico's revolutionary armies neither disbanded nor submitted themselves to civilian rule, but instead retained their character as undisciplined and fiercely...

  8. The unstudied barriers to widespread renewable energy deployment: Fossil fuel price responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Edward; Contestabile, Marcello; Blazquez, Jorge; Manzano, Baltasar; Workman, Mark; Shah, Nilay

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy policy focuses on supporting the deployment of renewable power generators so as to reduce their costs through scale economies and technological learning. It is expected that, once cost parity with fossil fuel generation is achieved, a transition towards renewable power should continue without the need for further renewable energy subsidies. However, this reasoning implicitly assumes that the cost of fossil fuel power generation does not respond to the large scale penetration of renewable power. In this paper we build a standard economic framework to test the validity of this assumption, particularly in the case of coal and gas fired power generation. We find that it is likely that the cost of fossil fuel power generation will respond to the large scale penetration of renewables, thus making the renewable energy transition slower or more costly than anticipated. More analysis is needed in order to be able to quantify this effect, the occurrence of which should be considered in the renewable energy discourse. - Highlights: • Renewables are increasingly competing with fossil fuel power generation. • This may have various effects on the fossil fuel generation value chain. • One such possible effect is a response of fossil fuel prices to renewables deployment. • We have tested this hypothesis using a supply-demand analytical framework. • We found that the effect is likely to occur and should be further investigated.

  9. Exposure to widespread environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals and human sperm sex ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Michał; Sobala, Wojciech; Radwan, Paweł; Jakubowski, Lucjusz; Wielgomas, Bartosz; Ligocka, Danuta; Brzeźnicki, Sławomir; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a trend toward a declining proportion of male births has been noted in several, but not all, industrialized countries. The underlying reason for the drop in the sex ratio is unclear, but one theory states that widespread environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals affecting the male reproductive system in a negative manner could be part of the explanation. The present study was designed to investigate whether the urinary phthalate, pyrethroids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites concentrations were associated with sperm Y:X ratio. The study population consisted of 194 men aged under 45 years of age who attended infertility clinic in Lodz, Poland for diagnostic purposes with normal semen concentration of 20–300 mln/ml or with slight oligozoospermia (semen concentration of 15–20 mln/ml) (WHO, 1999). The Y:X ratio was assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Urinary concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene were measured by high performance liquid chromatography, phthalate metabolites were analyzed using a procedure based on the LC-MS/MS methods and metabolites of synthetic pyrethroids were assessed by gas chromatography ion-tap mass spectrometry method. After adjustment for potential confounders (past diseases, age, abstinence, smoking, alcohol consumption, sperm concentration, motility, morphology) 5OH MEHP, CDCCA to TDCCA and 1-OHP was negatively related to Y:X sperm chromosome ratio (p = 0.033, p < 0.001, p = 0.047 respectively). As this is the first study to elucidate the association between the level of metabolites of widespread environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (phthalates, synthetic pyrethroids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) on sex chromosome ratio in sperm therefore, these findings require further replication in other populations. - Highlights: • Urinary phthalate metabolites levels were significantly associated with a decrease in Y/X chromosome bearing sperm. • The levels of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine

  10. Impact of Moving From a Widespread to Multisite Pain Definition on Other Fibromyalgia Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Linda E; Arnold, Lesley; Crofford, Leslie; Bennett, Robert; Goldenberg, Don; Fitzcharles, Mary-Ann; Paiva, Eduardo S; Staud, Roland; Clauw, Dan; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Jones, Gareth T; Ayorinde, Abimbola; Flüß, Elisa; Beasley, Marcus; Macfarlane, Gary J

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether associations between pain and the additional symptoms associated with fibromyalgia are different in persons with chronic widespread pain (CWP) compared to multisite pain (MSP), with or without joint areas. Six studies were used: 1958 British birth cohort, Epidemiology of Functional Disorders, Kid Low Back Pain, Managing Unexplained Symptoms (Chronic Widespread Pain) in Primary Care: Involving Traditional and Accessible New Approaches, Study of Health and its Management, and Women's Health Study (WHEST; females). MSP was defined as the presence of pain in ≥8 body sites in adults (≥10 sites in children) indicated on 4-view body manikins, conducted first to include joints (positive joints) and second without (negative joints). The relationship between pain and fatigue, sleep disturbance, somatic symptoms, and mood impairment was assessed using logistic regression. Results are presented as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). There were 34,818 participants across the study populations (adults age range 42-56 years, male 43-51% [excluding WHEST], and CWP prevalence 12-17%). Among those reporting MSP, the proportion reporting CWP ranged between 62% and 76%. Among those reporting the symptoms associated with fibromyalgia, there was an increased likelihood of reporting pain, the magnitude of which was similar regardless of the definition used. For example, within WHEST, reporting moderate/severe fatigue (Chalder fatigue scale 4-11) was associated with a >5-fold increase in likelihood of reporting pain (CWP OR 5.2 [95% CI 3.9-6.9], MSP-positive joints OR 6.5 [95% CI 5.0-8.6], and MSP-negative joints OR 6.5 [95% CI 4.7-9.0]). This large-scale study demonstrates that regardless of the pain definition used, the magnitude of association between pain and other associated symptoms of fibromyalgia is similar. This finding supports the continued collection of both when classifying fibromyalgia, but highlights the fact that pain may

  11. Widespread structural brain changes in OCD: a systematic review of voxel-based morphometry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Federica; Piras, Fabrizio; Chiapponi, Chiara; Girardi, Paolo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    The most widely accepted model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) assumes brain abnormalities in the "affective circuit", mainly consisting of volume reduction in the medial orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate and temporolimbic cortices, and tissue expansion in the striatum and thalamus. The advent of whole-brain, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) has provided increasing evidence that regions outside the "affective" orbitofronto-striatal circuit are involved in OCD. Nevertheless, potential confounds from the different image analysis methods, as well as other factors, such as patients' medication and comorbidity status, may limit generalization of results. In the present paper, we systematically reviewed the whole-brain VBM literature on OCD by focussing specifically on degree of consistency between studies, extent to which findings have been replicated and interrelation between clinical variables and OCD anatomy, a potentially crucial factor that has been systematically examined only in a limited number of studies. The PubMed database was searched through February 2012. A total of 156 studies were identified; 18 of them fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria and included 511 patients and 504 controls. Results support the notion that the brain alterations responsible for OCD are represented at the network level, and that widespread structural abnormalities may contribute to neurobiological vulnerability to OCD. Apart from defects in regions within the classic "affective" circuit, volume reduction of the cortical source of the dorsolateral (DL) prefronto-striatal "executive" circuit (dorsomedial, DL, ventrolateral and frontopolar prefrontal cortices), and of reciprocally connected regions (temporo-parieto-occipital associative areas) is consistently described in OCD patients. Moreover, increased volume of the internal capsule and reduced frontal and parietal white matter volumes may account for altered anatomical connectivity in fronto-subcortical circuitry

  12. Mexico: perspectives in school health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allensworth, D M; Greene, A G

    1990-09-01

    The school health program in Mexico, directed by the Office of School Hygiene (la Unidad de Higiene Escolar), is in a state of flux. The program will change substantially if an initiative between the national offices of health and education is enacted. The initiative would establish a national commission to be replicated at state, county, and district levels. Commissions would oversee integration of the health services component, social participation, and research into the school health program which currently only focuses on health instruction and a healthy school environment. The initiative would restore and improve a former model that incorporated health services as a part of the school health program. The history of the school health program, which can trace its roots to 1861 and President Benito Juarez, is provided.

  13. An Energy Overview of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Mexico. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  14. Gamma irradiation service in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liceaga C, G.; Martinez A, L.; Mendez T, D.; Ortiz A, G.; Olvera G, R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1980 it was installed in Mexico, on the National Institute of Nuclear Research, an irradiator model J S-6500 of a canadian manufacture. Actually, this is the greatest plant in the Mexican Republic that offers a gamma irradiation process at commercial level to diverse industries. However, seeing that the demand for sterilize those products were not so much as the irradiation capacity it was opted by the incursion in other types of products. During 17 years had been irradiated a great variety of products grouped of the following form: dehydrated foods, disposable products for medical use, cosmetics, medicaments, various. Nowadays the capacity of the irradiator is saturated virtue of it is operated the 24 hours during the 365 days of the year and only its operation is suspended by the preventive and corrective maintenance. However, the fresh food market does not be attended since this irradiator was designed for doses greater than 10 kGy (1.0 Mrad)

  15. [Fertility and health in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina-Fuentes, M; Echánove-Fernández, E

    1989-01-01

    Fertility, health, and family planning are not independent factors, but rather involve a series of biological and social mechanisms in close interaction with one another. The impact that a high fertility rate has on health is reflected mainly in a rise in the rates of maternal and child mortality. Similarly, fertility has a greater negative effect upon the health of groups characterized by high reproductive risk, high parity, short intergenesic intervals, and unwanted pregnancies. On the other hand, family planning -and specifically the use of contraceptive methods-helps to achieve a lowering of the fertility rate and also has a positive effect on maternal-child health. This situation can be observed in the case of Mexico, where fertility rates and tendencies, as well as maternal and child mortality, have been reduced during the past decade.

  16. [Migratory circuits in western Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, J

    1986-11-01

    The author examines patterns of internal and international migration in western Mexico. "Drawing on data from different sources and statistics, the essay demonstrates the importance of both types of migration, the changes in endogenous and exogenous factors which have affected the life and the migratory patterns of the population of this region. The migratory circuit being a flow not only of persons, but of goods and capital as well, the cities, specifically that of Guadalajara, have a strategic importance. They fulfill various functions and have become the backbone of the migratory process: they serve as centers for attracting and 'hosting' internal migrants as well as places of origin for other migrants; jumping-off points for international migrants; and the milieu in which many returning migrants of rural origin settle." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, A. O.; Rojas, R.; Barrios, F. A.

    2001-10-01

    MR imaging has experienced an important growth worldwide and in particular in the USA and Japan. This imaging technique has also shown an important rise in the number of MR imagers in Mexico. However, the development of MRI has followed a typical way of Latin American countries, which is very different from the path shown in the industrialised countries. Despite the fact that Mexico was one the very first countries to install and operate MR imagers in the world, it still lacks of qualified clinical and technical personnel. Since the first MR scanner started to operate, the number of units has grown at a moderate space that now sums up approximately 60 system installed nationwide. Nevertheless, there are no official records of the number of MR units operating, physicians and technicians involved in this imaging modality. The MRI market is dominated by two important companies: General Electric (approximately 51%) and Siemens (approximately 17.5%), the rest is shared by other five companies. According to the field intensity, medium-field systems (0.5 Tesla) represent 60% while a further 35% are 1.0 T or higher. Almost all of these units are in private hospitals and clinics: there is no high-field MR imagers in any public hospital. Because the political changes in the country, a new public plan for health care is still in the process and will be published soon this year. This plan will be determined by the new Congress. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and president Fox. Experience acquired in the past shows that the demand for qualified professionals will grow in the new future. Therefore, systematic training of clinical and technical professionals will be in high demand to meet the needs of this technique. The National University (UNAM) and the Metropolitan University (UAM-Iztapalapa) are collaborating with diverse clinical groups in private facilities to create a systematic training program and carry out research and development in MRI

  18. Protected Areas Database for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US) is a geodatabase, managed by USGS GAP, that illustrates and describes public land ownership, management...

  19. Mexico East-West Deflections (DMEX97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Mexico, and North-Central is the DMEX97 model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine...

  20. Building the gas sector in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrocarbon reserves in Mexico, ranked 8th in the world, were discussed. On January 1, 1996, Mexico's hydrocarbon proven reserves were 62.1 billion barrels ( a decline of some 10 billion barrels since 1984). Of this 48.8 billion corresponded to crude oil and 13.3 billion to natural gas. Mexico's natural gas pipeline network includes 10,280 kilometres in transmission and 2,211 kilometres in distribution, concentrated along the Gulf of Mexico and in the central and northern regions of the country. A new regulatory framework for natural gas, passed in Congress in 1995, was outlined. The new amendments were designed to strengthen the natural gas industry through private investment in the storage, transportation and distribution of natural gas. Stages for third party access were identified. Increased North American regional integration by interconnections between Mexican, American and Canadian pipeline networks, and the effects of such integration on investments, were examined. figs

  1. West Nile virus infection of birds, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Sánchez, Sergio; Cuevas-Romero, Sandra; Nemeth, Nicole M; Trujillo-Olivera, María Teresa Jesús; Worwa, Gabriella; Dupuis, Alan; Brault, Aaron C; Kramer, Laura D; Komar, Nicholas; Estrada-Franco, José Guillermo

    2011-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has caused disease in humans, equids, and birds at lower frequency in Mexico than in the United States. We hypothesized that the seemingly reduced virulence in Mexico was caused by attenuation of the Tabasco strain from southeastern Mexico, resulting in lower viremia than that caused by the Tecate strain from the more northern location of Baja California. During 2006-2008, we tested this hypothesis in candidate avian amplifying hosts: domestic chickens, rock pigeons, house sparrows, great-tailed grackles, and clay-colored thrushes. Only great-tailed grackles and house sparrows were competent amplifying hosts for both strains, and deaths occurred in each species. Tecate strain viremia levels were higher for thrushes. Both strains produced low-level viremia in pigeons and chickens. Our results suggest that certain avian hosts within Mexico are competent for efficient amplification of both northern and southern WNV strains and that both strains likely contribute to bird deaths.

  2. Migratory Bird Joint Ventures of New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — A joint venture is a self-directed partnership of agencies, organizations, corporations, tribes, or individuals that has formally accepted the responsibility of...

  3. New Mexico Populated Places (GNIS), 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  4. Mexico North-South Deflections (DMEX97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Mexico, and North-Central is the DMEX97 model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine...

  5. HSIP New Mexico State Government Buildings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset includes buildings occupied by the headquarters of cabinet level state government executive departments, legislative offices buildings outside of the...

  6. Landscape Conservative Cooperatives for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Landscape conservation cooperatives (LCCs) are conservation-science partnerships between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and other...

  7. Level III Eco Regions for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  8. Sustainability analysis of agave production in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibarrola Rivas, Maria Jose

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide food production is done in different types of agricultural production systems. The main difference is whether it is an intensive or extensive system. The agave production in Mexico has been developed in these two different ways. Firstly, agave f

  9. Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Status Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most ecologically and economically valuable marine ecosystems in the world and is affected by a variety of natural and anthropogenic...

  10. Gulf of Mexico Nutrient, carbon, CTD data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Gulf of Mexico cruise, nearshore and CTD data collected by the USEPA during 2002 - 2008. This dataset is associated with the following publications: Pauer , J., T....

  11. New Mexico County Boundaries (2010 Census)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  12. HSIP Correctional Institutions in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Jails and Prisons (Correctional Institutions). The Jails and Prisons sub-layer is part of the Emergency Law Enforcement Sector and the Critical Infrastructure...

  13. HSIP Law Enforcement Locations in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Law Enforcement Locations Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law Enforcement agencies "are publicly...

  14. Relations between Mexico and the European Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Alonso

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Mexico-EC bilateral relations must be considered within the general relation ECLatin America which -as the author remarks, do not appear among EC's preferential relations.Latin America can benefit from the Generalized Preference System which is not discriminatory, without reciprocity and generalized, but has some restrictions: for some products as textile, leather or oil. This affects some Latin American countries and specifically Mexico.Mexico initiates its relation with the EC in 1960; in 1975 both parts sign the Agreement on Economic and Trade Cooperation which has been substituted by the new General Agreement on Cooperation signed on April26, 1991. A new factor that will condition this relation is the Free Trade Agreement recently signed between USA, Canada and Mexico.

  15. Level IV Eco Regions for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  16. A new Proposal to Mexico Valley Zonification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Estrella, H. C.; Yussim, S.; Lomnitz, C.

    2004-12-01

    The effects of the Michoacan earthquake (19th September, 1985, Mw 8.1) in Mexico City caused a significant change in the political, social and scientific history, as it was considered the worst seismic disaster ever lived in Mexico. Since then, numerous efforts have been made to understand and determine the parameters that caused the special features registered. One of these efforts had began on 1960 with the work by Marsal and Masari, who published the Mexico Valley seismological and geotechnical zonification (1969), based on gravimetric and shallow borehole data. In this work, we present a revision of the studies that proposed the zonification, a description of the valley geology, and basing on it we propose a new zonification for Mexico Valley.

  17. 2013 Gulf of Mexico SPCE angler survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This survey provides economic data related to marine recreational fishing in the Gulf of Mexico. The data collected include preference and opinion information...

  18. Southeast Gulf of Mexico Sperm Whale Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large vessel surveys were conducted during the summers of 2012 and 2014 in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico north of the Dry Tortugas. Data were collected on the...

  19. Historical account of venereal diseases in Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Conde-Glez, C J; Calderón, E; Juárez-Figueroa, L; Hernández-Avila, M

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of sexually acquired diseases in Mexico. It is divided into four major chronological sections which discuss social attitudes and values, the development of services and of official policy, and historical epidemiology.

  20. New Mexico, 2010 Census American Indian

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  1. Widespread hybridization and bidirectional introgression in sympatric species of coral reef fish

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.; Berumen, Michael L.; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Salas, Eva; Williamson, David H.; Jones, Geoffrey P.

    2017-01-01

    interspecific hybrids from a collection of 2,991 coral trout sampled in inshore and mid-shelf reefs of the southern Great Barrier Reef. Hybrids were ubiquitous among reefs, fertile and spanned multiple generations suggesting both ecological and evolutionary

  2. Unprompted generation of obesity stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsburgh-McLeod, G; Latner, J D; O'Brien, K S

    2009-01-01

    Prejudice towards obese people is widespread and has negative consequences for individuals with obesity. The present study covertly examined whether participants spontaneously generate different written transcript content (i.e., more negative stereotypes) when presented with a picture of an obese person or a normal-weight person. Two pictures of young women were computer generated to appear identical in all features except for body shape, which was either obese or normal-weight. Forty-nine women blind to the nature of the study were randomized to receive either the obese or normal-weight picture and asked to write a free-response description of a typical "day in the life" of the woman depicted. Independent coding of the transcripts revealed more frequent negative stereotypes and more negative valence generated by participants asked to describe a typical day of the obese target. These differences are consistent with the prevalent negative stereotypes of obese individuals.

  3. Wind Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  4. Genetic divergence across habitats in the widespread coral Seriatopora hystrix and its associated Symbiodinium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pim Bongaerts

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are hotspots of biodiversity, yet processes of diversification in these ecosystems are poorly understood. The environmental heterogeneity of coral reef environments could be an important contributor to diversification, however, evidence supporting ecological speciation in corals is sparse. Here, we present data from a widespread coral species that reveals a strong association of host and symbiont lineages with specific habitats, consistent with distinct, sympatric gene pools that are maintained through ecologically-based selection.Populations of a common brooding coral, Seriatopora hystrix, were sampled from three adjacent reef habitats (spanning a approximately 30 m depth range at three locations on the Great Barrier Reef (n = 336. The populations were assessed for genetic structure using a combination of mitochondrial (putative control region and nuclear (three microsatellites markers for the coral host, and the ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA for the algal symbionts (Symbiodinium. Our results show concordant genetic partitioning of both the coral host and its symbionts across the different habitats, independent of sampling location.This study demonstrates that coral populations and their associated symbionts can be highly structured across habitats on a single reef. Coral populations from adjacent habitats were found to be genetically isolated from each other, whereas genetic similarity was maintained across similar habitat types at different locations. The most parsimonious explanation for the observed genetic partitioning across habitats is that adaptation to the local environment has caused ecological divergence of distinct genetic groups within S. hystrix.

  5. Response to a widespread, unauthorized dispersal of radioactive waste in the public domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenslawski, F.A.; North, H.S.

    1979-01-01

    In March 1976 State of Nevada radiological health officials became aware that radioactive items destined for disposal at a radioactive waste burial facility near Beatty, Nevada had instead been distributed to wide segments of the public domain. Because the facility was jointly licensed by the State of Nevada and the Federal Nuclear Regulatory Commission, both agencies quickly responded. It was learned that over a period of several years a practice existed at the disposal facility of opening containers, removing contents and allowing employees to take items of worth or fancy. Numerous items such as hand tools, electric motors, laboratory instruments, shipping containers, etc., had received widespread and uncontrolled distribution in the town of Beatty as well as lesser distributions to other locations. Because the situation might have had the potential for a significant health and safety impact, a comprehensive recovery operation was conducted. During the course of seven days of intense effort, thirty-five individuals became involved in a comprehensive door by door survey and search of the town. Aerial surveys were performed using a helicopter equipped with sensitive radiation detectors, while ground level scans were conducted using a van containing similar instrumentation. Aerial reconnaissance photographs were taken, a special town meeting was held and numerous persons were interviewed. The recovery effort resulted in a retrieval of an estimated 20 to 25 pickup truck loads of radioactively contaminated equipment as well as several loads of large items returned on a 40-foot flatbed trailer

  6. Widespread polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) contamination of urban soils in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Thomas J; Morrison, Paul D; Sandiford, Christopher J; Ball, Andrew S; Clarke, Bradley O

    2016-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants in a variety of materials and products. PBDEs have been shown to accumulate in the environment and human populations while exhibiting a range of toxic effects. In this study, surface soil samples from 30 sites in the city of Melbourne, Australia, were analysed for PBDEs. Eight congeners of environmental concern (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154 -183 and -209) were assessed using selective pressurized liquid extraction (S-PLE) and gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). PBDEs were detected in 29/30 samples with Σ 8 PBDE soil concentrations ranging nd-13,200 ng/g dw and Σ 7 PBDEs (excluding BDE-209) levels of nd-70.5 ng/g dw. Soils from waste disposal sites (n = 6) contained the highest median Σ 7 PBDE and Σ 8 PBDE concentrations, followed by manufacturing sites (n = 18) and then non-source sites (n = 6). Electronics recycling facilities contained the greatest levels of Σ 8 PBDEs by a significant margin (p production, with the most significant congener correlation existing between BDE-47 and BDE-99 (p < 0.001, r = 0.943). This first assessment of PBDEs in Melbourne soils indicates widespread contamination of the urban environment, including locations where direct sources to soil are not clear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence for widespread degradation of gene control regions in hominid genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D Keightley

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Although sequences containing regulatory elements located close to protein-coding genes are often only weakly conserved during evolution, comparisons of rodent genomes have implied that these sequences are subject to some selective constraints. Evolutionary conservation is particularly apparent upstream of coding sequences and in first introns, regions that are enriched for regulatory elements. By comparing the human and chimpanzee genomes, we show here that there is almost no evidence for conservation in these regions in hominids. Furthermore, we show that gene expression is diverging more rapidly in hominids than in murids per unit of neutral sequence divergence. By combining data on polymorphism levels in human noncoding DNA and the corresponding human-chimpanzee divergence, we show that the proportion of adaptive substitutions in these regions in hominids is very low. It therefore seems likely that the lack of conservation and increased rate of gene expression divergence are caused by a reduction in the effectiveness of natural selection against deleterious mutations because of the low effective population sizes of hominids. This has resulted in the accumulation of a large number of deleterious mutations in sequences containing gene control elements and hence a widespread degradation of the genome during the evolution of humans and chimpanzees.

  8. Widespread hypermetabolism in symptomatic and asymptomatic episodes in Kleine-Levin syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Dauvilliers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: No reliable biomarkers are identified in KLS. However, few functional neuroimaging studies suggested hypoactivity in thalamic and hypothalamic regions during symptomatic episodes. Here, we investigated relative changes in regional brain metabolism in Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS during symptomatic episodes and asymptomatic periods, as compared to healthy controls. METHODS: Four drug-free male patients with typical KLS and 15 healthy controls were included. 18-F-fluorodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography (PET was obtained in baseline condition in all participants, and during symptomatic episodes in KLS patients. All participants were asked to remain fully awake during the whole PET procedure. RESULTS: Between state-comparisons in KLS disclosed higher metabolism in paracentral, precentral, and postcentral areas, supplementary motor area, medial frontal gyrus, thalamus and putamen during symptomatic episodes, and decreased metabolism in occipital and temporal gyri. As compared to healthy control subjects, KLS patients in the asymptomatic phase consistently exhibited significant hypermetabolism in a wide cortical network including frontal and temporal cortices, posterior cingulate and precuneus, with no detected hypometabolism. In symptomatic KLS episodes, hypermetabolism was additionally found in orbital frontal and supplementary motor areas, insula and inferior parietal areas, and right caudate nucleus, and hypometabolism in the middle occipital gyrus and inferior parietal areas. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated significant hypermetabolism and few hypometabolism in specific but widespread brain regions in drug-free KLS patients at baseline and during symptomatic episodes, highlighting the behavioral state-dependent nature of changes in regional brain activity in KLS.

  9. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus and a sympatric widespread carnivore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Figueiredo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes, in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from both species were collected monthly in several transects distributed throughout the study area. All samples were submitted to several coprological techniques. In total, 6 helminth parasites (Crenosoma vulpis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, Toxascaris leonina, and a protozoa (Balantidium coli were identified based on size and morphology. The red fox was infected by seven different parasites while the Iberian wolf was infected by four. All parasites present in wolf were also present in the red fox. C. vulpis had the higher prevalence in red fox, while Ancylostomatidae were the most prevalent parasites in wolf. To our knowledge, this is the first study in this isolated subpopulation of the Iberian wolf. Our results show that both carnivores carry parasites that are of concern as they are pathogenic to humans and other wild and domestic animals. We suggest that surveillance programs must also include monitoring protocols of wildlife; particularly endangered species.

  10. Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie

    2015-04-01

    In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice-core record (793-1989 AD) from the high altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the pre-colonial period (i.e., pre-1532 AD), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (1438-1532 AD) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after 1540 AD, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, 240 years prior to the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (1572 AD), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history.

  11. Trace element structure of the most widespread plants of genus PulmonariaFNx01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Kruglov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this work was a comparative research of trace element structure of various organs of three Pulmonaria species. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of the most widespread plants of genus Pulmonaria such as Pulmonaria officinalis L., Pulmonaria obscura Dumort. and Pulmonaria mollis Wulf. ex Hornem., which were collected in ending of flowering and were used as the research objects. The amount of trace elements (B, K, P, V, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Si, Zn, Ag, Al, Ba, Br, Cr, I, Ni, Se, Sr, and Ti was determined by means of mass spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma. Results: The data clustering has shown that floral shoots and rosellate leaves possess essentially various trace element status. At the same time, the trace elements′ status of organs of researched plants poorly depends on a taxonomic position of the plant. Thereupon, it is obvious that pharmacological activity is defined by organs of plants from which medicines were made, but not by a species of the used plant. Conclusions: The significant distinction in pharmacological activity of preparations depends on the trace elements′ status of used medicinal vegetative raw materials.

  12. Widespread ecomorphological convergence in multiple fish families spanning the marine-freshwater interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Aaron M; Betancur-R, Ricardo

    2017-05-17

    The theoretical definition and quantification of convergence is an increasingly topical focus in evolutionary research, with particular growing interest on study scales spanning deep phylogenetic divergences and broad geographical areas. While much progress has recently been made in understanding the role of convergence in driving terrestrial (e.g. anole lizards) and aquatic (e.g. cichlids) radiations, little is known about its macroevolutionary effects across environmental gradients. This study uses a suite of recently developed comparative approaches integrating diverse aspects of morphology, dietary data, habitat affiliation and phylogeny to assess convergence across several well-known tropical-temperate fish families in the percomorph suborder Terapontoidei, a clade with considerable phenotypic and ecological diversity radiating in both marine and freshwater environments. We demonstrate significant widespread convergence across many lineages occupying equivalent trophic niches, particularly feeding habits such as herbivory and biting of attached prey off hard substrates. These include several examples of convergent morphotypes evolving independently in marine and freshwater clades, separated by deep evolutionary divergences (tens of millions of years). The Terapontoidei present a new example of the macroevolutionary dynamics of morphological and ecological coevolution in relation to habitat and trophic preferences, at a greater phylogenetic and habitat scale than most well-studied adaptive radiations. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Intraspecific trait variation and covariation in a widespread tree species (Nothofagus pumilio) in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Alex; Piper, Frida I

    2011-01-01

    • The focus of the trait-based approach to study community ecology has mostly been on trait comparisons at the interspecific level. Here we quantified intraspecific variation and covariation of leaf mass per area (LMA) and wood density (WD) in monospecific forests of the widespread tree species Nothofagus pumilio to determine its magnitude and whether it is related to environmental conditions and ontogeny. We also discuss probable mechanisms controlling the trait variation found. • We collected leaf and stem woody tissues from 30-50 trees of different ages (ontogeny) from each of four populations at differing elevations (i.e. temperatures) and placed at each of three locations differing in soil moisture. • The total variation in LMA (coefficient of variation (CV) = 21.14%) was twice that of WD (CV = 10.52%). The total variation in traits was never less than 23% when compared with interspecific studies. Differences in elevation (temperature) for the most part explained variation in LMA, while differences in soil moisture and ontogeny explained the variation in WD. Traits covaried similarly in the altitudinal gradient only. • Functional traits of N. pumilio exhibited nonnegligible variation; LMA varied for the most part with temperature, while WD mostly varied with moisture and ontogeny. We demonstrate that environmental variation can cause important trait variation without species turnover. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  14. Widespread distribution of OH/H2O on the lunar surface inferred from spectral data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandfield, Joshua L; Poston, Michael J; Klima, Rachel L; Edwards, Christopher S

    2018-01-01

    Remote sensing data from lunar orbiters have revealed spectral features consistent with the presence of OH or H 2 O on the lunar surface. Analyses of data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper spectrometer onboard the Chandryaan-1 spacecraft have suggested that OH/H 2 O is recycled on diurnal timescales and persists only at high latitudes. However, the spatial distribution and temporal variability of the OH/H 2 O, as well as its source, remain uncertain. Here we incorporate a physics-based thermal correction into analysis of reflectance spectra from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper and find that prominent absorption features consistent with OH/H 2 O can be present at all latitudes, local times, and surface types examined. This suggests the widespread presence of OH/H 2 O on the lunar surface without significant diurnal migration. We suggest that the spectra are consistent with the production of OH in space weathered materials by the solar wind implantation of H + and formation of OH at crystal defect sites, as opposed to H 2 O sourced from the lunar interior. Regardless of the specific composition or formation mechanism, we conclude that OH/H 2 O can be present on the Moon under thermal conditions more wide-ranging than previously recognized.

  15. Phylogenetic disassembly of species boundaries in a widespread group of Australian skinks (Scincidae: Ctenotus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabosky, Daniel L; Hutchinson, Mark N; Donnellan, Stephen C; Talaba, Amanda L; Lovette, Irby J

    2014-08-01

    Scincid lizards in the genus Ctenotus represent one of Australia's most species-rich vertebrate clades, with more than 100 recognized species. Formal diagnoses of many species have relied on qualitative assessments of adult color pattern, but the validity of many such species has not been tested in a phylogenetic framework. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to perform the first phylogenetic analysis of species in the Ctenotus inornatus group, a complex of at least 11 nominal forms that are distributed widely across the Australian continent. Mitochondrial and nuclear gene phylogenies support the presence of multiple species in the group, but these clades largely fail to match species boundaries as currently defined. Multivariate analyses of color pattern indicate that extreme intraspecific morphological variation in this character has created a significant impediment to understanding taxonomic diversity in the group. Our results suggest that nearly all species in the C. inornatus group require substantial taxonomic revision, and several geographically widespread forms ("C. saxatilis" and "C. robustus") appear to be polyphyletic taxa drawn from phenotypically similar but genetically distinct lineages. We describe one new species and provide redescriptions for three additional species. We synonymize names applied to a number of genetically incoherent or otherwise poorly-defined forms. The results of our study highlight an acute need for population genetic studies of species boundaries in Australian skinks, many of which are recognized by morphological traits that vary greatly within and between populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Widespread occurrence of lysine methylation in Plasmodium falciparum proteins at asexual blood stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Inderjeet; Zeeshan, Mohammad; Saini, Ekta; Kaushik, Abhinav; Mohmmed, Asif; Gupta, Dinesh; Malhotra, Pawan

    2016-10-20

    Post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications play a major role in Plasmodium life cycle regulation. Lysine methylation of histone proteins is well documented in several organisms, however in recent years lysine methylation of proteins outside histone code is emerging out as an important post-translational modification (PTM). In the present study we have performed global analysis of lysine methylation of proteins in asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum development. We immunoprecipitated stage specific Plasmodium lysates using anti-methyl lysine specific antibodies that immunostained the asexual blood stage parasites. Using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis, 570 lysine methylated proteins at three different blood stages were identified. Analysis of the peptide sequences identified 605 methylated sites within 422 proteins. Functional classification of the methylated proteins revealed that the proteins are mainly involved in nucleotide metabolic processes, chromatin organization, transport, homeostatic processes and protein folding. The motif analysis of the methylated lysine peptides reveals novel motifs. Many of the identified lysine methylated proteins are also interacting partners/substrates of PfSET domain proteins as revealed by STRING database analysis. Our findings suggest that the protein methylation at lysine residues is widespread in Plasmodium and plays an important regulatory role in diverse set of the parasite pathways.

  17. Quantifying widespread aqueous surface weathering on Mars: The plateaus south of Coprates Chasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizeau, D.; Quantin-Nataf, C.; Carter, J.; Flahaut, J.; Thollot, P.; Lozac'h, L.; Millot, C.

    2018-03-01

    Pedogenesis has been previously proposed on the plateaus around Coprates Chasma, Valles Marineris to explain the presence of widespread clay sequences with Al-clays and possible hydrated silica over Fe/Mg-clays on the surface of the plateaus (Le Deit et al., 2012; Carter et al., 2015). We use previous observations together with new MRO targeted observations and DEMs to constrain the extent and thickness of the plateau clay unit: the Al-clay unit is less than 3 m thick, likely ∼1 m, while the Fe/Mg-clays underneath are few tens of meters thick. We also refine the age of alteration by retrieving crater retention ages of the altered plateau and of later deposits: the observed clay sequence was created by surface pedogenesis between model ages of 4.1 Ga and 3.75 Ga. Using a leaching model from Zolotov and Mironenko (2016), we estimate the quantity of atmospheric precipitations needed to create such a clay sequence, that strongly depends on the chemistry of the precipitating fluid. A few hundreds of meters of cumulated precipitations of highly acidic fluids could explain the observed clay sequence, consistent with estimates based on late Noachian valley erosion for example (Rosenberg and Head, 2015). We show finally that the maximum quantity of sulfates potentially formed during this surface weathering event can only contribute minimally to the volume of sulfates deposited in Valles Marineris.

  18. Identification of subgroups of patients with tension type headache with higher widespread pressure pain hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Benito-González, Elena; Palacios-Ceña, María; Wang, Kelun; Castaldo, Matteo; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-12-01

    Identification of subgroups of patients with different levels of sensitization and clinical features can help to identify groups at risk and the development of better therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of patients with tension type headache (TTH) with different levels of sensitization, clinical pain features, and psychological outcomes. A total of 197 individuals with TTH participated. Headache intensity, frequency, and duration and medication intake were collected with a 4-weeks diary. Pressure pain thresholds were assessed bilaterally over the temporalis muscle, C5-C6 joint, second metacarpal and tibialis anterior muscle to determine widespread pressure pain hyperalgesia. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale assessed anxiety and depression. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory evaluated the state and trait levels of anxiety. The Headache Disability Inventory evaluated the burden of headache. Health-related quality of life was determined with the SF-36 questionnaire. Groups were considered as positive (three or more criteria) or negative (less than three criteria) on a clinical prediction rule: headache duration patients with TTH with higher sensitization, higher chronicity of headaches and worse quality of life but lower frequency and duration of headache episodes. This subgroup of individuals with TTH may need particular attention and specific therapeutic programs for avoiding potential chronification.

  19. On the relationship between tropospheric conditions and widespread hot days in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakereh, Hossein; Shadman, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated how the tropospheric conditions relate to the occurrence of widespread hot days (WHD) in Iran using the data of maximum daily temperature and other tropospheric variables. To better understand the tropospheric conditions during WHD, different patterns of tropospheric circulation were examined systematically. Four tropospheric types were identified based on sea level pressure (SLP). SLP, 500 hPa height, anomaly patterns, and warm advection maps were constructed for typical days of each group. The tropospheric conditions associated with hot days occurred simultaneously with a low-pressure system at sea level, a ridge at middle troposphere over Iran, and a pronounced trough over the Mediterranean Sea at 500 hPa. These conditions caused air mass from subtropical regions toward Iran. That is, northward, northeastward, and even eastward winds injected heat with warm origins toward the country. Hot days compounded by drought conditions have affected many parts of the country in different ways such as decrease in the agricultural products in numerous areas and significant discharge reduction in many rivers. The society is also very likely to face considerable challenges to cope with hot days. The findings of the study can be utilized in climate modeling and climate prediction of hot days in the country. Accordingly, water and electricity consumption can be planned with further precision and water consumption can be managed in crises.

  20. Urban Heat Island Over Delhi Punches Holes in Widespread Fog in the Indo-Gangetic Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Ritesh; Singh, Manoj K.

    2018-01-01

    Persistent and widespread fog affects several densely populated and agriculturally fertile basins around the world. Dense and polluted fog is especially known to impact transportation, air quality, and public health. Here we report a striking observation of holes in fog over urban areas in satellite imagery. The extent of fog holes appear highly correlated with city populations in fog-prevalent regions of Asia, Europe, and the United States. We find the highest frequency and largest extent of fog holes over Delhi along with suppressed fog fraction, amidst increased fog occurrence over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, based on 17 years of satellite data (2000-2016). This apparent urban heat impact is characterized in sharp urban-rural gradients in surface temperatures and fog thickness. Urban heating seems to have already amplified the long-term fog decline in Europe and the United States and should be assessed over regions undergoing urban expansion including India, where no previous linkages are reported between urban heating and fog.