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  1. 75 FR 22207 - Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    .... APHIS-2008-0050] RIN 0579-AC95 Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador AGENCY: Animal and Plant... Colombia and Ecuador into the continental United States. The conditions for the importation of papayas from Colombia and Ecuador include requirements for field sanitation, hot water treatment, and fruit fly trapping...

  2. Osornophryne, genero nuevo de anfibios bufonidos de Colombia y Ecuador Osornophryne, genero nuevo de anfibios bufonidos de Colombia y Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruíz Carranza Pedro M.

    1976-09-01

    Full Text Available A brief abridgement of the taxonomic history of the "Atelopodidae" is presented, and it is concluded that this group must be included in the Bufonidae, confirming the criteria of recent authors. OSORNOPHRYNE is proposed as a new genus, characterized mainly by external, osteologicaland myological features, with O. percrassa, sp, nov. (loc. typ.: Páramo de Herveo, Tolima, Colombia as type species, and O. bufoniformis, comb. nov. (= Atelopus bufoniformis PERACCA,1904 from the Andes of southern Colombia and northern Ecuador, as a referred species. The functional and adaptative significance of the main characters is discussed indetail. It is concluded that the genus presents several primitive characters of remarkable interest, i.a. the inguinal amplexus, previously unknownin the family, which strengthens the thesis that the Bufonidae are derived from the Leptodactylidae, as well as several other highly especialized skeletal and myological features (i. a . a total number of 6 presacral vertebrae, only  shared by two other recent anuran genera: Hymenochirus [Pipidae] and Oreophrynella [Bufonidae]. It is concluded also thatOsornophryne, although shows several remarkable phenetic similitudes with Oreophrynella (monotypic endemic genus of the Mount Roraima, Bolivar, Venezuela, such similitudes are due to an extraordinary instance of evolutionary convergence. Osornophryne is regarded as a genus probablyderived from the same encestral phyletic line that gives origin to Atelopus, invading the high Andean "páramos", specializing and acquiring by adaptative paralellism several resemblances, such as the "bufonoid" aspect, with the high Andean species of Atelopus.Se plantea una breve reseña del historial taxonómico de los "Atelopodidae" concluyendo que el grupo debe incluirse dentro de la familia Bufonidae ratificando la opinión de autores recientes. Se propone el nuevo género OSORNOPHRYNE, fundamentándolo principalmente mediante caracteres morfol

  3. Contrasting patterns of urban expansion in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia between 1992 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Berríos, Nora L; Parés-Ramos, Isabel K; Aide, T Mitchell

    2013-02-01

    The global urban population is increasing rapidly, but patterns of urban expansion differ greatly among countries. Urban transition theory predicts that the shift from low to high urbanization depends on a country's history and level of economic development. This study describes urban expansion in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia between 1992 and 2009. Urban dynamics were analyzed by combining nighttime lights and census data from 4032 municipalities. High-lit areas (>52-63 pixel values) were correlated with urban populations across municipalities and years (R (2) > 0.90). Analyses showed that between 1992 and 2009 Bolivia and Ecuador had rapid population growth and rapidly increasing high-lit areas, while Peru and Colombia had lower rates of population growth and urbanization (i.e., expansion of high-lit areas). We demonstrate how nighttime lights can be a useful tool, providing a homogeneous platform for multi-scale analyses of urban growth.

  4. Prevalence of Marijuana Use among University Students in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Marya; Demarco, Maria; Araneda, Juan Carlos; Cumsille, Francisco

    2015-05-15

    Young adults 18 to 25 years old show the highest prevalence of marijuana use in Latin America. This study analyzes the changes in prevalence of marijuana use among university students in the Andean Community (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru) from two studies carried out in 2009 and in 2012. Data were collected through representative two-stage samples of universities and students in the Andean Community. An online survey was administered using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalence was calculated for lifetime, past year, and past month. Marijuana was the most widely used illicit substance consumed among university students, in 2009 and in 2012. Past month prevalence among university students in 2009 in Colombia was 5.27%, in Peru 1.00%, in Ecuador 1.68%, and in Bolivia 0.76%. Past month prevalence in 2012 in Colombia was 7.14%, in Ecuador 3.67%, in Peru 1.62%, and in Bolivia 1.45% in 2012. Among university students in the Andean Community, past month prevalence increased among both males and females between 2009 and 2012 in most countries. Marijuana continues to be the most commonly used illicit drug in Latin American countries. Increases in prevalence among young adults could have important implications for national drug policy.

  5. Prevalence of Marijuana Use among University Students in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya Hynes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Young adults 18 to 25 years old show the highest prevalence of marijuana use in Latin America. This study analyzes the changes in prevalence of marijuana use among university students in the Andean Community (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru from two studies carried out in 2009 and in 2012. Data were collected through representative two-stage samples of universities and students in the Andean Community. An online survey was administered using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalence was calculated for lifetime, past year, and past month. Marijuana was the most widely used illicit substance consumed among university students, in 2009 and in 2012. Past month prevalence among university students in 2009 in Colombia was 5.27%, in Peru 1.00%, in Ecuador 1.68%, and in Bolivia 0.76%. Past month prevalence in 2012 in Colombia was 7.14%, in Ecuador 3.67%, in Peru 1.62%, and in Bolivia 1.45% in 2012. Among university students in the Andean Community, past month prevalence increased among both males and females between 2009 and 2012 in most countries. Marijuana continues to be the most commonly used illicit drug in Latin American countries. Increases in prevalence among young adults could have important implications for national drug policy.

  6. War Without Borders: The Colombia-Ecuador Crisis of 2008

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcella, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    .... For Colombia, the attack demonstrated the new professionalism of its armed forces and police and the continuing success of the strategy of democratic security enunciated by President Alvaro Uribe...

  7. War Without Borders: The Colombia-Ecuador Crisis of 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    manipulating promotions among senior admirals of the Ecuadorean Navy. Minister of Defense Wellington Sandoval stated to El Comercio on March 30 that...in Aruba and El Salvador. The Municipality of Quito spon- sored the event. Funding support apparently came from the Venezuelan government. Press...not enlisted the support of Ecuador.14 According to Bogotá’s El Tiempo, Colombia’s intelligence service, the Department of Administrative Security

  8. A long source area of the 1906 Colombia-Ecuador earthquake estimated from observed tsunami waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Yusuke; Tanioka, Yuichiro; Shiina, Takahiro

    2017-12-01

    The 1906 Colombia-Ecuador earthquake induced both strong seismic motions and a tsunami, the most destructive earthquake in the history of the Colombia-Ecuador subduction zone. The tsunami propagated across the Pacific Ocean, and its waveforms were observed at tide gauge stations in countries including Panama, Japan, and the USA. This study conducted slip inverse analysis for the 1906 earthquake using these waveforms. A digital dataset of observed tsunami waveforms at the Naos Island (Panama) and Honolulu (USA) tide gauge stations, where the tsunami was clearly observed, was first produced by consulting documents. Next, the two waveforms were applied in an inverse analysis as the target waveform. The results of this analysis indicated that the moment magnitude of the 1906 earthquake ranged from 8.3 to 8.6. Moreover, the dominant slip occurred in the northern part of the assumed source region near the coast of Colombia, where little significant seismicity has occurred, rather than in the southern part. The results also indicated that the source area, with significant slip, covered a long distance, including the southern, central, and northern parts of the region.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Genetic and other diseases in the pottery of Tumaco-La Tolita culture in Colombia-Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, J E; Briceno, I

    2006-09-01

    The people of Tumaco-La Tolita culture inhabited the borders of present-day Colombia and Ecuador. Already extinct by the time of the Spaniards arrival, they left a huge collection of pottery artifacts depicting everyday life; among these, disease representations were frequently crafted. In this article, we present the results of the personal examination of the largest collections of Tumaco-La Tolita pottery in Colombia and Ecuador; cases of Down syndrome, achondroplasia, mucopolysaccharidosis I H, mucopolysaccharidosis IV, a tumor of the face and a benign tumor in an old woman were found. We believe these to be among the earliest artistic representations of disease.

  10. Western Amazonian Ticapimpla (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae): Four New Species from Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, with a Key to Species of the Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Edgard Palacio; Gavin R. Broad; Ilari E. Sääksjärvi; Anu Veijalainen

    2010-01-01

    Ticapimpla is a small genus closely related to the New World genera Acrotaphus and Hymenoepimecis. It has been previously reported from Costa Rica and Brazil. In this paper, we describe four new species: T. amazonica from Ecuador and Peru, T. carinata from Colombia and Peru, T. matamatae from Colombia, and T. soinii from Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. All have been collected in Western Amazonia, suggesting a South American origin for the genus. A key to the known species of the genus is provided.

  11. Consecuencias de las medidas no arancelarias impuestas a Colombia por Ecuador y Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Perez Giraldo, Johanna Sembelly; Vargas, William

    2016-01-01

    Con la apertura económica y comercial ha aumentado la negociación de acuerdos comerciales por medio de los cuales los países han logrado tener acceso preferencial libre de aranceles aduaneros. Esta dinámica ha incrementado el uso de medidas no arancelaria como instrumentos para controlar y restringir el acceso a los mercados de los países. Por lo expuesto, esta investigación presenta y analiza las medidas no arancelarias que fueron aplicadas a Colombia por Ecuador y Argentina desde el año 201...

  12. All projects related to Colombia | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, ... Violence in three Latin American cities: A comparative study between Bogota, Lima, ... Topic: Natural disasters, CLIMATOLOGY, Economic and social development, ... SOCIAL STRATIFICATION, CASE STUDIES, RESEARCH NETWORKS, ...

  13. Edouard Andre (1840-1911, Jardinero-Naturalista y sus viajes por Colombia y el Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardon Carlos E.

    1947-06-01

    Full Text Available En la literatura botánica de Colombia y el Ecuador figura ocasionalmente con tono de notable indiferencia el nombre de EDOUARD ANDRÉ, célebre jardinero-naturalista francés, que visitó estos dos países allá por los años de 1875-1876. Por esta razón, los datos biográficos que se incluyen a continuación pueden ser de interés. Los debo principalmente a la exquisita gentileza de MADAME DUPRAT, bibliotecaria del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, de París, quien recientemente me ha suministrado copia de los datos biográficos de ANDRE, publicados en la Revue horticote (numero del 1o de noviembre de 1911, agotado.

  14. [Mutant alleles associated to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethanime resistance in Plasmodium falciparum of the Ecuador-Peru and Ecuador-Colombia borders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arróspide, Nancy; Hijar-Guerra, Gisely; de Mora, Doménica; Diaz-Cortéz, César Eduardo; Veloz-Perez, Raúl; Gutierrez, Sonia; Cabezas-Sánchez, César

    2014-04-01

    The frequency of mutations in pfCRT and DHFR/DHPS genes of Plasmodium falciparum associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine was evaluated in 83 strains from the districts of Esmeralda and Machala, located on the borders of Ecuador-Peru and Ecuador-Colombia in 2002. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), conventional and its variants, was used. Mutations in the pfCRT gene were found in more than 90% of the samples from Esmeralda and Machala. For the DHFR gene, 90% of the strains were mutant samples from Esmeralda, 3 were double mutations and 1 was a triple mutation. In Machala, 25% were simple mutant forms and 75% mixed mutant forms (wild forms/mutant). In conclusion, resistance to chloroquine has been fixed in strains carrying K76T pfCRT mutation, whereas genetic imprinting for resistance to pyrimethamine is evolving, particularly in the district of Esmeralda.

  15. Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Background notes and statistics on Ecuador are provided in the document. 271,000 sq. km. of jungle are encompassed by the country, with a 1990 population of 11 million growing at the annual rate of 2.4%. The work force total 3.4 million. Ecuador claims a population comprised of 4 ethnic groups, predominantly Roman Catholic, and speaking Spanish in addition to Indian languages. 6 years of education are compulsory, with the country overall enjoying 88% literacy. The infant mortality rate is 51/1,000, while life expectancy is 66 years. 1990 GDP was $10.9 billion, and was growing at the rate of 1.5%. Per capita income was $1,043, while 1990 figures reported 50% inflation. Agriculture accounts for 17% of GNP, industry for 16%; 1990 international trade surplus totalled $0.7 billion. Additional data are provided on Ecuador's people, government, economy, international affiliations, history, political conditions, principal government officials, foreign relations, and bilateral relations with the United States. Structural reform brought economic improvement in 1989. Public sector spending was tightened, monetary growth slowed, and external accounts improved. While progress stalled in 1990, additional steps combined with higher oil prices were expected to reduce the deficit and moderate inflation. Further reductions in government control over the economy, movement toward free-market interest rates, privatization of selected companies, trade liberalization, labor law reform, and the promotion of domestic and foreign private investment are called for.

  16. IMPACTO DE LAS REDES SOCIALES EN LOS INGRESOS DE LOS HOTELES EN COLOMBIA, ECUADOR Y PERÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOAQUIM MAJÓ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente investigación es analizar la influencia de las valoraciones de los hoteles en las redes sociales y cómo estas afectan los ingresos de los hoteles. A partir de los datos mensuales (entre agosto de 2014 y julio de 2015 de 48 hoteles de Colombia, Ecuador y Perú se analizaron principalmente las variables: GRI (Global Review Index, Oferta, Demanda, Venta, RevPAR (Reve - nue Per Avalable Room y Ubicación; mediante análisis de conglomerados y un modelo lineal. Se encontró que un mejor GRI favorece a una mejor ratio entre las ventas y la oferta. En concreto, observamos que cuando el GRI se incrementa en una unidad, el RevPAR crece en 0,49%, mante - niendo el resto de variables constantes. Es la primera investigación realizada en Sudamérica para analizar la incidencia de las redes sociales en los ingresos de los ho teles.

  17. Communication of 4 July 1995 received from the permanent mission of Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    On 12 July 1995, the Director General received from the Permanent Missions of Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru a Statement of 4 July 1995 by the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Member States of the Permanent South Pacific Commission in response to the announcement by the President of the Republic of France regarding the resumption of nuclear testing by France in the South Pacific. As requested by the Permanent Missions of Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, the text of the Statement is being circulated for the information of Member States of the Agency

  18. Alelos mutantes asociados a la resistencia a cloroquina y sulfadoxina-pirimetamina en Plasmodium falciparum de las fronteras Ecuador-Perú y Ecuador-Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Arróspide

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la frecuencia de mutaciones en los genes pfCRT y DHFR/DHPS del Plasmodium falciparum asociados a la resistencia a cloroquina y sulfadoxina-pirimetamina en 83 cepas provenientes de los distritos Esmeralda y Machala ubicados en las fronteras entre Ecuador-Perú y Ecuador-Colombia durante el año 2002. Se empleó la reacción en cadena de polimerasa (PCR convencional y sus variantes. El gen pfCRT presentó más de 90% de muestras mutantes en Esmeralda y Machala. Para el gen DHFR, el 90% de las cepas fueron muestras mutantes en Esmeralda, tres fueron mutaciones dobles y una triple; en Machala se encontró 25% de formas mutantes simples y 75% de formas mixtas (formas silvestres/mutantes. En conclusión, la resistencia a cloroquina se ha fijado en las cepas portadoras de la mutación K76T pfCRT, mientras que la impronta genética a la resistencia a pirimetamina está en evolución, principalmente en el distrito de Esmeralda

  19. New Ways of Interaction in Social Media: Political Participation of Young People in Mexico and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barredo-Ibáñez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The media crisis is linked to the crisis of public institutions. This shows the emergence of social practices focused on user activation and consequently, we can observe a decline of vertical mediation. However, these phenomena do not extend horizontally at a global level. With this study, we compare the results of a survey of more than two thousand university students from Mexico and Ecuador, in which we question the perceptions of these strategic groups about phenomena such as political participation on and offline, and political information consumption.

  20. [New changes, old systems: health policies in Mexico and Colombia in the 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe-Gómez, Monica

    2017-07-27

    Recent years have witnessed discussion on the need for changes in the health systems of Latin America. This initiative, spearheaded once again by the World Bank as Universal Health Coverage, focuses on strategies for protection against financial risks and unified access to essential services and medicines. Although the World Bank approaches have been incorporated in different ways by the region's countries since the 1980s, there have also been important breaks with this trend, for example in Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, and Ecuador, which have sought at different times to implement policies and programs emphasizing non-market-driven values. Nevertheless, recent political changes with the crisis of the so-called progressive governments have meant that the market-driven view of health has reappeared insistently on the public agendas. Middle-income countries like Mexico and Colombia have implemented changes based on this model, and in both cases different stakeholders have pushed the readjustment of the health systems towards the perspective of the international financial agencies. The current study contends that these changes, promoted as a "renewed" alternative to respond to the problems resulting from the transformations, conducted for slightly more than twenty years, actually maintain the basis of the neoliberal model for health care.

  1. Confirmation of Anopheles (Anopheles) calderoni Wilkerson, 1991 (Diptera: Culicidae) in Colombia and Ecuador Through Molecular and Morphological Correlation with Topotypic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Ministerio Salud Publica , Guayaquil, Ecuador 4Natural History Museum, London, England 5Programa Centroamericano de Maestría en Entomología...principales especies de Colombia, DCD, Ministe- rio de Salud , Bogotá, 120 pp. Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, Kumar S 2007. MEGA4: Molecular Evo- lutionary

  2. Intense Seismic Activity at Chiles and Cerro Negro Volcanoes on the Colombia-Ecuador Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, R. A.; Cadena, O.; Gomez, D.; Ruiz, M. C.; Prejean, S. G.; Lyons, J. J.; White, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    The region of Chiles and Cerro Negro volcanoes, located on the Colombian-Ecuadorian border, has experienced an ongoing seismic swarm beginning in Aug. 2013. Based on concern for local residents and authorities, a cooperative broadband monitoring network was installed by the Servicio Geológico Colombiano in Colombia and the Instituto Geofísico of the Escuela Politécnica Nacional in Ecuador. Since November 2013 more than 538,000 earthquakes were recorded; although since May 2015 the seismicity has decreased significantly to an average of 70 events per day. Three large earthquake swarms with increasing energy occurred in Aug.-Oct. 2013, March-May 2014, and Sept.-Dec. 2014. By the end of 2014, roughly 400 earthquakes greater than M 3 had occurred with a maximum rate of 8000 earthquakes per day. The largest earthquake was a 5.6 ML on Oct. 20, 2014. This event produced an InSAR coseismic deformation of ~23 cm (S. Ebmeier, personal communication). Most events are typical brittle failure volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes that are located in a cluster beneath the southern flank of Chiles volcano, with depths between 1.5 and 10 km. Although the great majority of earthquakes are VT, some low-frequency (LF, ~0.5 Hz) and very-low-frequency (VLF) events have occurred. Particle motion analysis suggests that the VLF source migrated with time. While a VLF on Oct. 15, 2014 was located south of Chiles volcano, near the InSAR source, the VLF registered on Feb. 14, 2015 was likely located very close to Chiles Volcano. We infer that magma intrusion and resulting fluid exsolution at depths greater than 5 km are driving seismicity in the Chiles-Cerro Negro region. However earthquakes are failing in a manner consistent with regional tectonics. Relative relocations reveal a structure consistent with mapped regional faults. Thus seismicity is likely controlled by an interaction of magmatic and tectonic processes. Because the regional stress field is highly compressional and the volcanoes

  3. Response to Martinez-Novack et al. Comments on Hynes et al. Prevalence of Marijuana Use among University Students in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2015, 12, 5233-5240

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya Hynes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have read with great interest the Comments related to the article entitled “Prevalence of marijuana use among university 20 students in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru” and appreciate the readers’ feedback [1]. [...

  4. A new species of nectar-feeding bat, genus Lonchophylla, from western Colombia and western Ecuador (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N.

    2007-01-01

    The twelve recognized species of nectar-feeding bats of the genus Lonchophylla occur in low- and middle-elevation, humid, Neotropical forests. Morphological and morphometrical analyses of specimens formerly lumped with Lonchophylla mordax O. Thomas (1903) support recognition of Lonchophylla concava Goldman (1914) as a separate species and reveal a third species from the western Pacific lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador that I describe herein as Lonchophylla jornicata. This new species is morphologically similar to Lonchophylla concava but is distinctively larger than that species. Tests for sexual dimorphism within these and other species of Lonchophyllini suggest a tendency for females to have slightly longer, narrower skulls, higher coronoid processes of the mandible, and longer forearms than males.

  5. Genotypic and bioinformatic evaluation of the alpha-l-iduronidase gene and protein in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type I from Colombia, Ecuador and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Tatiana; Marie, Sulie; Gonzalez, Janneth; García, Ana L; Acosta, Amparo; Morales, Manuel; Correa, Luz N; Vivas, Ricardo; Escobar, Xiomara; Protzel, Ana; Barba, Maria; Ospina, Sandra; Corredor, Clara; Mansilla, Sandra; Velasco, Harvy M

    2014-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPSI) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the lysosomal enzyme α-l-iduronidase (IDUA), which is instrumental in the hydrolysis of the glycosaminoglycans, dermatan and heparan sulfate. The accumulation of unhydrolyzed glycosaminoglycans leads to pathogenesis in multiple tissue types, especially those of skeletal, nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal origin. Although molecular diagnostic tools for MPSI have been available since the identification and characterization of the IDUA gene in 1992, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru have lacked such methodologies. Therefore, the mutational profile of the IDUA gene in these countries has largely been unknown. The goal of this study was to characterize genotypes in 14 patients with MPSI from Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The most common mutation found at a frequency of 42.8% was W402X. Six patients presented with seven novel mutations, a high novel mutational rate in this population (32%). These novel mutations were validated using bioinformatic techniques. A model of the IDUA protein resulting from three of the novel missense mutations (Y625C, P385L, R621L) revealed that these mutations alter accessible surface area values, thereby reducing the accessibility of the enzyme to its substrates. This is the first characterization of the mutational profile of the IDUA gene in patients with MPSI in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The findings contribute to our understanding of IDUA gene expression and IDUA enzyme function, and may help facilitate early and improved diagnosis and management for patients with MPSI.

  6. Crustal block motion model and interplate coupling along Ecuador-Colombia trench based on GNSS observation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, T.; Mora-Páez, H.; Peláez-Gaviria, J. R.; Kimura, H.; Sagiya, T.

    2017-12-01

    IntroductionEcuador-Colombia trench is located at the boundary between South-America plate, Nazca Plate and Caribrian plate. This region is very complexes such as subducting Caribrian plate and Nazca plate, and collision between Panama and northern part of the Andes mountains. The previous large earthquakes occurred along the subducting boundary of Nazca plate, such as 1906 (M8.8) and 1979 (M8.2). And also, earthquakes occurred inland, too. So, it is important to evaluate earthquake potentials for preparing huge damage due to large earthquake in near future. GNSS observation In the last decade, the GNSS observation was established in Columbia. The GNSS observation is called by GEORED, which is operated by servicing Geologico Colomiano. The purpose of GEORED is research of crustal deformation. The number of GNSS site of GEORED is consist of 60 continuous GNSS observation site at 2017 (Mora et al., 2017). The sampling interval of almost GNSS site is 30 seconds. These GNSS data were processed by PPP processing using GIPSY-OASYS II software. GEORED can obtain the detailed crustal deformation map in whole Colombia. In addition, we use 100 GNSS data at Ecuador-Peru region (Nocquet et al. 2014). Method We developed a crustal block movements model based on crustal deformation derived from GNSS observation. Our model considers to the block motion with pole location and angular velocity and the interplate coupling between each block boundaries, including subduction between the South-American plate and the Nazca plate. And also, our approach of estimation of crustal block motion and coefficient of interplate coupling are based on MCMC method. The estimated each parameter is obtained probably density function (PDF). Result We tested 11 crustal block models based on geological data, such as active fault trace at surface. The optimal number of crustal blocks is 11 for based on geological and geodetic data using AIC. We use optimal block motion model. And also, we estimate

  7. An individual-centered approach to multidimensional poverty: The cases of Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco-Correa, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of selecting the unit of analysis in multidimensional poverty analyses, which is a central decision to take, both from academic and normative points of view. The paper compares the results of an individual-level Multidimensional Poverty Index for Chile, Colombia,

  8. Sincronización de los Ciclos Económicos: el Caso de Colombia, Ecuador y Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamanca Lugo Andrés

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    En este documento se investiga acerca de la existencia y la identificación de un ciclo 
    económico común entre Colombia, Ecuador y Venezuela. Se busca una evidencia de la
    sincronización de los ciclos económicos de estos países, a través de diferentes medidas 
    no paramétricas, en conformidad con los ciclos y mediante la construcción de un ciclo 
    común de referencia. De acuerdo con esto, se ajusta un modelo de Markov-Switching
    autoregresivo multivariado (MS-VAR que confirma la existencia de dicho ciclo. 
    Finalmente, la cronología del ciclo común es reconstruida a partir de las probabilidades 
    suavizadas del modelo y es contrastada con el ciclo común de referencia.

  9. Unrest of Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex: A binational Ecuador - Colombia effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M. C.; Gomez, D.; Torres, R.; Cadena, O.; Mothes, P. A.; Anzieta, J. C.; Pacheco, D. A.; Bernard, B.; Acero, W.; Hidalgo, S.; Enriquez, W.; Cordova, A.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing seismic activity at the area of Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex, located at the Ecuador-Colombian border, has been jointly monitored by the Instituto Geofisico - Ecuador and the Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Pasto OVSP, a division of the Servicio Geologico Colombiano. Since April 2013, three seismic swarms have been detected in this area and more than 100.000 events are recorded since November 2013. The largest and more recent swarm has a daily average of 676 events between March and June 2014. Currently a seismic network of 8 seismic stations (5 in the Colombian and 3 in Ecuadorean side) are deployed in this area. Epicenters of more than 315 seismic events with magnitudes Ml>2.0 and 10 or more phases are located in an area 1-4 km south of Chiles volcano with shallow depths (up to 14 km). Most of events have magnitudes between 1.0 to 4.0. Nine events have magnitudes larger than 4.0 and the largest event occurred on April 30. 2014 with a local magnitude of 4.7 and inverse-transcurrent component focal mechanism. Waveforms and spectral patterns define these events as volcano-tectonic. Events with large magnitudes (above 3.0) show a very long-period component. Hot spring and deformation measurements also show signals of volcanic unrest.

  10. Comparing Pyroclastic Density Current (PDC) deposits at Colima (Mexico) and Tungurahua (Ecuador) volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Fabian; Varley, Nick; Bustillos, Jorge; Kueppers, Ulrich; Lavallee, Yan; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2010-05-01

    Sudden transitions from effusive to explosive eruptive behaviour have been observed at several volcanoes. As a result of explosive activity, pyroclastic density currents represent a major threat to life and infrastructure, mostly due to their unpredictability, mass, and velocity. Difficulties in direct observation force us to deduce crucial information from their deposits. Here, we present data from field work performed in 2009 on primary deposits from recent explosive episodes at Volcán de Colima (Mexico) and Tungurahua (Ecuador). Volcán de Colima, located 40km away from the Capital city Colima with 300,000 inhabitants, has been active since 1999. Activity has been primarily characterized by the slow effusion of lava dome with the daily occurrence of episodic gas (and sometimes ash) explosion events. During a period of peak activity in 2005, explosive eruptions repeatedly destroyed the dome and column collapse resulted in several PDCs that travelled down the W, S, and SE flanks. Tungurahua looms over the 20,000 inhabitants of the city of Baños, located 5km away, and is considered one of the most active volcanoes in Ecuador. The most recent eruptive cycle began in 1999 and climaxed in July and August of 2006 with the eruptions of several PDCs that traveled down the western flanks, controlled by the hydrological network. During two field campaigns, we collected an extensive data set of porosity and grain size distribution on PDCs at both volcanoes. The deposits have been mapped in detail and the porosity distribution of clasts across the surface of the deposits has been measured at more than 30 sites (> 3.000 samples). Our porosity distribution data (mean porosity values range between 17 and 24%) suggests an influence of run out distance and lateral position. Preliminary results of grain size analysis of ash and lapilli (structures such as dunes, grain size distribution, and the observed damage to vegetation help depict the progression of the flow and its

  11. Puntos de quiebre entre el régimen internacional de refugiados y su implementación por parte de Colombia y Ecuador (2002 – 2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Plata Vergara, Mayra Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación analiza la incompatibilidad entre los mandatos del régimen internacional de refugiados y su implementación por parte de Colombia y Ecuador, en el periodo 2002 – 2014. A este respecto se sostiene que los Estados privilegian sus intereses en materia de seguridad nacional, por encima de los compromisos humanitarios pactados en este marco jurídico internacional, situación que acentúa el ambiente de vulnerabilidad de los refugiados. La falta de capacidad de ejecución de ...

  12. Los modelos de explotación petrolera de Ecuador y de Colombia: Un análisis desde el extractivismo y el neoextractivismo (segunda parte)

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Hernando Portillo Riascos

    2015-01-01

    En la primera parte de este trabajo se describieron los elementos conceptuales alrededor de los dos tipos o estilos de extractivismo. A la vez, se realizó una exposición de los principales cambios en el marco regulatorio del sector petrolero en los dos países analizados: Ecuador y Colombia. La segunda parte, que aquí se presenta, tiene como objetivo, hacer una revisión empírica de los dos modelos de explotación petrolera. En el análisis cuantitativo se encontró diferencias importantes en la e...

  13. Territorios en disputa: Tensiones entre «extractivismo», derechos étnicos, gobiernos locales y medio ambiente en Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador y Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo Botero, Darío Indalecio; Peña Galeano, Camilo Andrés

    2018-01-01

    Este capítulo estudia las tensiones subyacentes entre «extractivismo», procesos de descentralización, reconocimiento de derechos étnicos y protección del medio ambiente en cuatro países de América del Sur. Dos de ellos, Bolivia y Ecuador, se adhieren al llamado «socialismo del siglo XXI», mientras que los otros dos, Colombia y Perú, aplican políticas impulsadas por el neoliberalismo. Sin embargo, esta «importante fisura ideológica» no implica diferencias significativas en términos de dependen...

  14. Colombia, España, Uruguay, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador: Seguridad Social para el adulto mayor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar José Dueñas Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio de tres bloques de derechos necesarios para el adulto mayor: salud, pensiones y servicios sociales. Se analizan dentro de un marco conceptual jurídico e histórico, acudiéndose a un lenguaje sencillo y entendible. Este artículo es corolario de un proyecto investigativo ya terminado elaborado por la Universidad del Rosario y la Organización Iberoamericana de la Seguridad Social (OISS. Se estudiaron esos tres derechos en el escenario colombiano, con base en la normatividad, la jurisprudencia y la praxis. Para tener una visión del ámbito iberoamericano se investigó el tratamiento que se les da en otros países: España, Ecuador, Cuba, Costa Rica, Uruguay, destacándose los rasgos más importantes. Varios capítulos fueron desarrollados con base en el método holístico dialéctico configuracional. Las conclusiones se ubican preferencialmente en un espacio jurídico. La principal consiste en que sea cual fuere el modelo de seguridad social, es indispensable una visión humanista.

  15. Especies nuevas del género Berberis de Colombia, Ecuador y Venezuela

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    Camargo G. Luis A.

    1966-06-01

    Full Text Available EI presente estudio es la primicia de una revisión taxonómica del género Berberis que hice en U. S. National Museum (Department of Botany, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. Una parte de él fue presentado a la Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C., en 1960, como requisito parcial para tesis del grado "Master of Science". Las numerosas colecciones indeterminadas de este género procedentes de Suramérica y existentes en los Herbarios de National Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. c.; Chicago Natural History Museum; Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, Great Britain; Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris, e Instituto de Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, en Bogotá, me animaron a investigar sobre este género.

  16. Confirmation of Anopheles (Anopheles calderoni Wilkerson, 1991 (Diptera: Culicidae in Colombia and Ecuador through molecular and morphological correlation with topotypic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranulfo González

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphologically similar taxa Anopheles calderoni, Anopheles punctimacula, Anopheles malefactor and Anopheles guarao are commonly misidentified. Isofamilies collected in Valle de Cauca, Colombia, showed morphological characters most similar to An. calderoni, a species which has never previously been reported in Colombia. Although discontinuity of the postsubcostal pale spots on the costa (C and first radial (R1 wing veins is purportedly diagnostic for An. calderoni, the degree of overlap of the distal postsubcostal spot on C and R1 were variable in Colombian specimens (0.003-0.024. In addition, in 98.2% of larvae, seta 1-X was located off the saddle and seta 3-C had 4-7 branches in 86.7% of specimens examined. Correlation of DNA sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer and mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI barcodes (658 bp of the COI gene generated from Colombian progeny material and wild-caught mosquitoes from Ecuador with those from the Peruvian type series of An. calderoni confirmed new country records. DNA barcodes generated for the closely related taxa, An. malefactor and An. punctimacula are also presented for the first time. Examination of museum specimens at the University of the Valle, Colombia, revealed the presence of An. calderoni in inland localities across Colombia and at elevations up to 1113 m.

  17. Comments on Hynes et al. Prevalence of Marijuana Use among University Students in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 5233-5240.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Novack, Maria Claudia; Ortiz-Ortiz, Maria Teresa; Castañeda-Carbajal, Bruno; Alvarado, German F

    2015-09-17

    We have read and analyzed the article entitled "Prevalence of marijuana use among university students in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru". We propose some objective points which could enhance the internal validity of the study (i.e., we suggest to report participation proportions).

  18. Comments on Hynes et al. Prevalence of Marijuana Use among University Students in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 5233–5240

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Novack, Maria Claudia; Ortiz-Ortiz, Maria Teresa; Castañeda-Carbajal, Bruno; Alvarado, German F.

    2015-01-01

    We have read and analyzed the article entitled “Prevalence of marijuana use among university students in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru”. We propose some objective points which could enhance the internal validity of the study (i.e., we suggest to report participation proportions). PMID:26393629

  19. U.S. Economic Assistance to Colombia: A Model for U.S. Economic Assistance to Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    chronologically and territorially speaking); with Plan Colombia (2000– 2006) as the major program for U.S.-Colombia relations and the Merida Initiative...Ecuador 24.3 19.8 21.3 Peru 96.6 83.6 73.7 Venezuela 5.0 5.0 3.0 Total 621.0 519.7 452.0 Table 2. U.S. assistance to the Andean Region, FY2011–FY2013...Office of National Drug Control (ONDC) policy, Colombia’s potential cocaine production capabilities have once again fallen below those of Peru and

  20. PROVING SOLUTIONS FOR A BETTER TOMORROW: A PROGRESS REPORT ON U.S. EPA'S DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATIONS IN ECUADOR, MEXICO AND CHINA (EPA/600/F-98/008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication describes the progress of USEPA's Drinking Water Treatment Demonstration projects currently underway in Ecuador, Mexico and China. Material includes descriptions of problems faced and approaches used to improve water quality.

  1. Snake venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops atrox venoms from Colombia and the Amazon regions of Brazil, Perú and Ecuador suggest the occurrence of geographic variation of venom phenotype by a trend towards paedomorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Vitelbina; Cid, Pedro; Sanz, Libia; De La Torre, Pilar; Angulo, Yamileth; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J

    2009-11-02

    The venom proteomes of Bothrops atrox from Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Perú were characterized using venomic and antivenomic strategies. Our results evidence the existence of two geographically differentiated venom phenotypes. The venom from Colombia comprises at least 26 different proteins belonging to 9 different groups of toxins. PI-metalloproteinases and K49-PLA(2) molecules represent the most abundant toxins. On the other hand, the venoms from Brazilian, Ecuadorian, and Peruvian B. atrox contain predominantly PIII-metalloproteinases. These toxin profiles correlate with the venom phenotypes of adult and juvenile B. asper from Costa Rica, respectively, suggesting that paedomorphism represented a selective trend during the trans-Amazonian southward expansion of B. atrox through the Andean Corridor. The high degree of crossreactivity of a Costa Rican polyvalent (Bothrops asper, Lachesis stenophrys, Crotalus simus) antivenom against B. atrox venoms further evidenced the close evolutionary kinship between B. asper and B. atrox. This antivenom was more efficient immunodepleting proteins from the venoms of B. atrox from Brazil, Ecuador, and Perú than from Colombia. Such behaviour may be rationalized taking into account the lower content of poorly immunogenic toxins, such as PLA(2) molecules and PI-SVMPs in the paedomorphic venoms. The immunological profile of the Costa Rican antivenom strongly suggests the possibility of using this antivenom for the management of snakebites by B. atrox in Colombia and the Amazon regions of Ecuador, Perú and Brazil.

  2. Star Parties in Mexico extended to Colombia and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Peimbert, Silvia; Franco, José

    2016-10-01

    The preparation for The International Year of Astronomy 2009 stirred our interest in preparing star parties in Mexico. The lunar eclipse of February 20th 2008 was the perfect event for the first massive observation in Mexico City that attracted over 25,000 people. To accompany this event there were additional attractions: a massive astronomical lecture, more than 100 telescopes were set up for people to watch the sky, exhibits of astronomical images, children hands-on projects, rock concert, dance performance, and chats with astronomers. Already in 2009 a collective program was organized to involve more than 30 sites in Mexico to hold star parties at the same time once a year. These star parties were more in the spirit of science fairs, that include lectures, astronomy exhibits, children projects, as well as concerts and other cultural displays. The scope of each one of them depended on the local support from volunteers and from the local authorities. After the International Year of Astronomy the group that organized these star parties decided to continue its activities. The main attraction in these fairs has been the opportunity to see the Moon, Jupiter and Saturn (if observable) through a telescope. For this program the presence of the amateur astronomers has been crucial. They have brought their instruments to the sites and have generously taught the public how to look through the telescopes and pointed out to the interesting features on the sky.

  3. Latin American World War I Historiography: the Cases of Argentina, Mexico and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Ramírez Bacca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17227/01234870.41folios187.204 The text provides a critical review of the Latin American historiography during the First World War. The author focuses on Argentina, Mexico and Colombia in order to account for the lines of work, categories of analysis and the recent contributions on the issue. In the same way, it takes into account the Western historiographical context, poses questions and dialogues based on recent studies as well as highlights the limitations and explains the reason for the identified historiographical gaps.

  4. Los modelos de explotación petrolera de Ecuador y de Colombia: Un análisis desde el extractivismo y el neoextractivismo (segunda parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hernando Portillo Riascos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En la primera parte de este trabajo se describieron los elementos conceptuales alrededor de los dos tipos o estilos de extractivismo. A la vez, se realizó una exposición de los principales cambios en el marco regulatorio del sector petrolero en los dos países analizados: Ecuador y Colombia. La segunda parte, que aquí se presenta, tiene como objetivo, hacer una revisión empírica de los dos modelos de explotación petrolera. En el análisis cuantitativo se encontró diferencias importantes en la evolución del sector petrolero de los dos países. En el caso ecuatoriano, el Estado fue capaz de desarrollar una política activa centrada en capturar una mayor parte de la renta petrolera. En Colombia, por su parte, se estructuró un marco regulatorio orientado a la atracción de capital, que en un contexto de subida de los precios, hizo posible un incremento significativo de la producción petrolera. Ahora bien, haciendo la comparación de los referentes conceptuales en torno a los dos tipos de extractivismo y la evolución de la dinámica productiva y fiscal, las divergencias ya no son tan evidentes.

  5. The Putumayo-Oriente-Maranon Province of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru; Mesozoic-Cenozoic and Paleozoic petroleum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, D.K.

    2001-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of oil and gas resources for petroleum systems of the Putumayo-Oriente-Maranon province of Columbia, Ecuador, and Peru. This assessment is a product of the World Energy Project of the U.S. Geological Survey, under the direction of Thomas Ahlbrandt. Described in this explanation of the petroleum geology of the Putumayo-Oriente-Maranon province are thermal maturation of hydrocarbon source rocks, primary reservoir formations, areas and volumes of oil and (or) gas production, and the history of exploration. Complete oil and gas resource assessment results are planned for a later publication, although some data and results are contained in this report.

  6. Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    This report of background notes for Colombia concentrates on political history, but also summarizes geography, people, economy, defense and foreign relations. Colombia, linking Panama to the northwest tip of South America, has 26.5 million people, growing at 1.3% per year, expected to be the third most populous nationon the continent soon. Infant mortality rate is 65/1000 and life expectancy is 62 years. Literacy is reported at 80% although less than 40% of children complete 2.5 years of school. Geographically, Colombia has flat coastal areas, several mountain ranges, highlands and hot eastern plains. 70% of the population live in cities. There are 2 major political parties, in existence since the early 19th century. Recently there have been violent inter-party differences, punctuated by even more contentious guerrilla attacks. Colombia possesses resources of oil, gas coal, nickel, gold, emeralds, platinum, iron. Agricultural products are dominated by coffee, but also include a wide variety of tropical and temperate grains, fruits, vegetables, dairy and meat products, timber and flowers.

  7. Inequality and Fiscal Redistribution in Middle Income Countries: Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Indonesia, Mexico, Peru and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Lustig

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the redistributive impact of fiscal policy for Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Indonesia, Mexico, Peru and South Africa using comparable fiscal incidence analysis with data from around 2010. The largest redistributive effect is in South Africa and the smallest in Indonesia. Success in fiscal redistribution is driven primarily by redistributive effort (share of social spending to GDP in each country) and the extent to which transfers/subsidies are targeted to the poor and direct t...

  8. Consideraciones para la adopción de energía nucleoeléctrica a la matriz energética del Ecuador e interconexión a Colombia y Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Amancha Proaño, Pablo Israel

    2014-01-01

    El consumo mundial de energía eléctrica ha tenido un considerable crecimiento, con mayor penetración de tecnologías fósiles, aumentando las concentraciones globales de CO2 y CH4, que exceden valores medios de los últimos milenios, lo cual provocará problemas en el clima global. Urge adoptar tecnologías sustentables en diferentes países y sectores. Ecuador, Perú y Colombia, con tasas similares de crecimiento en lo económico y energético, han visto en la hidroenergía su principal fuente de gene...

  9. Origin of a crustal splay fault and its relation to the seismogenic zone and underplating at the erosional north Ecuador-south Colombia oceanic margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collot, J.-Y.; Agudelo, W.; Ribodetti, A.; Marcaillou, B.

    2008-12-01

    Splay faults within accretionary complexes are commonly associated with the updip limit of the seismogenic zone. Prestack depth migration of a multichannel seismic line across the north Ecuador-south Colombia oceanic margin images a crustal splay fault that correlates with the seaward limit of the rupture zone of the 1958 (Mw 7.7) tsunamogenic subduction earthquake. The splay fault separates 5-6.6 km/s velocity, inner wedge basement rocks, which belong to the accreted Gorgona oceanic terrane, from 4 to 5 km/s velocity outer wedge rocks. The outer wedge is dominated by basal tectonic erosion. Despite a 3-km-thick trench fill, subduction of 2-km-high seamount prevented tectonic accretion and promotes basal tectonic erosion. The low-velocity and poorly reflective subduction channel that underlies the outer wedge is associated with the aseismic, décollement thrust. Subduction channel fluids are expected to migrate upward along splay faults and alter outer wedge rocks. Conversely, duplexes are interpreted to form from and above subducting sediment, at ˜14- to 15-km depths between the overlapping seismogenic part of the splay fault and the underlying aseismic décollement. Coeval basal erosion of the outer wedge and underplating beneath the apex of inner wedge control the margin mass budget, which comes out negative. Intraoceanic basement fossil listric normal faults and a rift zone inverted in a flower structure reflect the evolution of the Gorgona terrane from Cretaceous extension to likely Eocene oblique compression. The splay faults could have resulted from tectonic inversion of listric normal faults, thus showing how inherited structures may promote fluid flow across margin basement and control seismogenesis.

  10. Detrital Zircon Provenance Record of Pre-Andean to Modern Tectonics in the Northern Andes: Examples from Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, S. W. M.; Jackson, L. J.; Horton, B. K.

    2015-12-01

    Detrital zircon U-Pb age distributions from modern rivers and Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin fill in the northern Andes provide insights into pre-Andean, Andean, and active uplift and exhumation of distinctive sediment source regions. Diagnostic age signatures enable straightforward discrimination of competing sediment sources within the Andean magmatic arc (Western Cordillera-Central Cordillera), retroarc fold-thrust belt (Eastern Cordillera-Subandean Zone), and Amazonian craton (composed of several basement provinces). More complex, however, are the mid/late Cenozoic provenance records generated by recycling of basin fill originally deposited during early/mid Mesozoic extension, late Mesozoic thermal subsidence, and early Cenozoic shortening. Although subject to time-transgressive trends, regionally significant provenance patterns in Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia reveal: (1) Triassic-Jurassic growth of extensional subbasins fed by local block uplifts (with commonly unimodal 300­-150 Ma age peaks); (2) Cretaceous deposition in an extensive postrift setting fed by principally cratonic sources (with common 1800-900 Ma ages); and (3) Cenozoic growth of a broad flexural basin fed initially fed by magmatic-arc rocks (100-0 Ma), then later dominance by thrust-belt sedimentary rocks with progressively greater degrees of basin recycling (yielding diverse and variable age populations from the aforementioned source regions). U-Pb results from modern rivers and smaller subbasins prove useful in evaluating source-to-sink relationships, downstream mixing relationships, hinterland-foreland basin connectivity, paleodrainage integration, and tectonic/paleotopographic reconstructions. Most but not all of the elevated intermontane basins in the modern hinterland of the northern Andes contain provenance records consistent with genesis in a broader foreland basin developed at low elevation. Downstream variations within modern axial rivers and Cenozoic axial basins inform predictive models of

  11. High temperature (>350 °C) thermal histories of the long lived (>500 Ma) active margin of Ecuador and Colombia: Apatite, titanite and rutile U-Pb thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Andre N.; Spikings, Richard A.; Ulianov, Alexey; Ovtcharova, Maria

    2018-05-01

    Quantitative reconstruction of thermal histories can be a powerful tool to study numerous natural processes such as tectonic plate interaction, cratonic stability and extra-terrestrial phenomena such as asteroid ejection. A majority of thermochronological studies have focused on temperatures lower than 300 °C. Few previous studies have demonstrated that U-Pb data from apatite and other accessory phases can be used to recover thermal history information at T > 350 °C. We present U-Pb data from apatite, to constrain the thermal histories of Triassic peralluminous anatectites from the Northern Andes between the temperatures of ∼350-550 °C. The accuracy of the thermal history models is assessed by comparisons with previous geological models, and comparisons with pre-existing and newly acquired U/Pb (titanite and rutile), 40Ar/39Ar (muscovite) and low temperature thermochronological data. This study also examines the feasibility of using a large, regionally dispersed apatite U-Pb data set to obtain continuous thermal history paths along a long-lived (>500 Ma) active margin. A second aim of this study is to further test the hypothesis that the dominant mechanism for Pb displacement through apatite is volume diffusion, as opposed to aqueous fluid interaction. The thermal history models derived from the Triassic anatectites exposed in the Andes of Colombia and Ecuador are entirely consistent with lower temperature thermochronological constraints, and previously established geochronological and geochemical constraints. They reveal and quantify trench parallel changes in the amount of Jurassic - Early Cretaceous extension, significantly bolstering and adding to previous tectonic interpretations. Confirmation of the utility of U-Pb thermochronology provides geologists with a powerful tool for investigating the high-temperature thermal evolution of accessory minerals.

  12. Análisis comparativo sobre la afectividad como motivadora del proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje – Casos: Argentina, Colombia y Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Janeth Campoverde Rojas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar de qué manera el factor afectivo en la educación en los países de Ecuador, Colombia y Argentina estimula y motiva a los alumnos a interactuar de manera positiva en la clase y cómo la falta de ésta,  influye en el aprendizaje de los mismos. Método: Durante las últimas décadas, pedagogos, educadores y psicólogos han expuesto sus conocimientos sobre la importancia de tener excelentes relaciones interpersonales dentro del salón de clases, por este motivo se hizo un estudio analítico comparativo entre varios autores pertenecientes a países suramericanos, cuyas ponencias explican el valor  de la afectividad como un requisito primordial en el proceso enseñanza- aprendizaje, además se realizó la caracterización de la afectividad como motivadora e impulsadora de unas excelentes relaciones interpersonales en el ámbito educativo,  para destacar la importancia de este factor a través la metodología empleada. Resultados: Los resultados muestran una posición  positiva de la efectividad como un ente enriquecedor dentro de las aulas entre profesores y estudiantes. Conclusiones: Como conclusión  se confirma que la afectividad motiva a los alumnos a trabajar de forma dinámica a estimular su auto concepto y a sentir seguridad frente a actividades innovadoras.

  13. Tertiary Technical Education and Youth Integration in Brazil, Colombia and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Jacinto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vocational training versus a traditional university education. This chapter seeks to answer the question of whether ‘tertiary technical education’ has contributed to increasing economic and social opportunity for young people in Latin America, using three case studies from Brazil, Colombia and Mexico. It examines the extent to which tertiary technical education has contributed towards democratising access to education through institutional diversification, expanded enrolment and, at least theoretically, improved access to quality employment. The analysis shows that tertiary technical education has contributed to widening of opportunities by offering an alternative form of education to new generations of young people. Tertiary technical education is more accessible, shorter in duration, has a vocational orientation, and tends to be cheaper than a university education. However, the case studies also reveal that while a tertiary technical education diploma is an asset for young people seeking employment, it nonetheless does not have the same perceived value as a traditional university education. Available data appear to indicate that graduates of tertiary technical education earn less on average than university graduates and face several challenges in the labour market. Furthermore, the studies reveal that despite the presence of highly regarded tertiary technical education institutions in all three countries, these carry less prestige and status than universities.

  14. Cross-cultural and site-based influences on demographic, well-being, and social network predictors of risk perception in hazard and disaster settings in Ecuador and Mexico: predictors of risk perception in hazard and disaster settings in Ecuador and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Eric C; Faas, Albert J; Murphy, Arthur D; Tobin, Graham A; Whiteford, Linda M; McCarty, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Although virtually all comparative research about risk perception focuses on which hazards are of concern to people in different culture groups, much can be gained by focusing on predictors of levels of risk perception in various countries and places. In this case, we examine standard and novel predictors of risk perception in seven sites among communities affected by a flood in Mexico (one site) and volcanic eruptions in Mexico (one site) and Ecuador (five sites). We conducted more than 450 interviews with questions about how people feel at the time (after the disaster) regarding what happened in the past, their current concerns, and their expectations for the future. We explore how aspects of the context in which people live have an effect on how strongly people perceive natural hazards in relationship with demographic, well-being, and social network factors. Generally, our research indicates that levels of risk perception for past, present, and future aspects of a specific hazard are similar across these two countries and seven sites. However, these contexts produced different predictors of risk perception-in other words, there was little overlap between sites in the variables that predicted the past, present, or future aspects of risk perception in each site. Generally, current stress was related to perception of past danger of an event in the Mexican sites, but not in Ecuador; network variables were mainly important for perception of past danger (rather than future or present danger), although specific network correlates varied from site to site across the countries.

  15. Continuidades y cambios en las relaciones de Colombia con sus países vecinos: 2008-2009, año crítico con Ecuador y Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ardila

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo hace un balance de las principales características que inciden en los nuevos matices de la inserción de Colombia a nivel vecinal, principalmente con Ecuador y Venezuela, entre los años 2008-2009. Se trata de demostrar que son varios los cambios -y también continuidades- que tienden a aislar a Colombia del escenario regional. Los temas "intermésticos" de la agenda, la política exterior colombiana como instrumento de la política doméstica, la relación con Estados Unidos y sus efectos en la subregión, la ideologización y securitización de la agenda exterior colombiana frente a sus vecinos, la inserción negativa internacional como "país problema", las repercusiones de la regionalización del con- flicto interno, el liderazgo del Ministerio de Defensa en temas de seguridad y la diplomacia paralela; son las tendencias que se studiarán para llegar a proponer escenarios de inserción regional de Colombia como tema prioritario del próximo gobierno.

  16. La integración turística bi-nacional, los aportes de los operadores turístico privados y su impacto en el mercado local: comparaciones Ecuador-Colombia 2008 - 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Jácome Tipán, Edgar Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Para efectos de la investigación, se utilizó el método inductivo a partir de la pregunta ¿Cuáles son las características principales del turismo binacional entre Ecuador y Colombia y los aportes de las operadoras turísticas privadas a la dinámica económica de cada país? Teóricamente, la investigación analiza el entendimiento y el manejo de los ejes centrales de la discusión principal turística bi-nacional y su alcance económico; ya que el tema de investigación pretende entender conceptos teór...

  17. Accessibility and Affordability of Tertiary Education in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru within a Global Context. Policy Research Working Paper 4517

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yuki; Blom, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the financing of tertiary education in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, comparing the affordability and accessibility of tertiary education with that in high-income countries. To measure affordability, the authors estimate education costs, living costs, grants, and loans. Further, they compute the participation rate,…

  18. Las figurillas zoomorfas de cerámica del litoral pacífico ecuatorial: (región de La Tolita, Ecuador y de Tumaco, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Les figurines de céramique zoomorphes provenant de la région du littoral pacifique nord-équatorial, (i.e. Régions de La Tolita, Equateur, et de Tumaco, Colombie, sont pratiquement les seules données archéologiques, (indirectes, qui permettent l'étude de la faune archéologique de cette région puisque les conditions climatiques propres à ce milieu ne favorisent pas la conservation de restes osseux de faune dans les gisements archéologiques. Grâce à la précision dans la reproduction de détails diagnostiques, l'étude d'une sélection de ces figurines a permis l'identification zoologique d'un certain nombre d'animaux représentés. Une constatation importante est la très faible quantité de représentations d'animaux tels que poissons, crustacés ou mollusques, alors que les recherches archéologiques semblent démontrer l'importance de la pêche dans l'économie des groupes précolombiens qui occupaient le littoral. Par ailleurs, les animaux terrestres représentés ne paraissent pas présenter un spécial intérêt alimentaire et il semble douteux que les auteurs de ces figurines aient voulu représenter une faune constituant pour eux une source d'alimentation. Il nous semble donc que, comme c'est d'ailleurs le cas pour les représentations zoomorphes d'autres cultures précolombiennes de Colombie, les figurines zoomorphes de céramique de la région du littoral pacifique nord-équatorial expriment plutôt des préoccupations d'ordre cosmogonique. Puesto que las condiciones climáticas de la región del litoral del Pacífico no permiten la conservación de restos óseos de fauna identificable en los yacimientos arqueológicos, las figurillas zoomorfas de cerámica encontradas en estos yacimientos son prácticamente la única posibilidad ofrecida para reconstruir la fauna arqueológica de esta región, (región de La Tolita, Ecuador y de Tumaco, Colombia. La presencia de rasgos suficientemente diagnósticos en estas representaciones

  19. Dollarization In El Salvador And Ecuador: A Model Worth Following

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    great soil quality ready to be converted to banana plantations, the climate was ideal, plant disease in the area was minimal, and the area was...14, 2016, http://www.imf.org/external/datamapper/index.php?db=FM. Figure 14 graphs the inflation rates of Ecuador, Colombia , Peru, and Bolivia...from 1992–2014. Although Peru and Colombia both had high inflation through the 1990s, prior to 2001 Ecuador clearly had the highest rates. All four

  20. [Burden of mortality due to diabetes mellitus in Latin America 2000-2011: the case of Argentina, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Botero, Marcela; Dávila-Cervantes, Claudio Alberto

    2015-03-05

    To analyze trends in mortality in Argentina, Chile, Colombia and Mexico, between 2000 and 2011, by sex and 5-year age groups (between 20 and 79 years of age). Mortality vital statistics and census data or projected population estimates were used for each country. Age-specific mortality rates and the years of life lost were calculated. Among the countries analyzed, Mexico had the highest mortality rate and lost the most years of life due to diabetes. Between 2000 and 2011, Mexicans lost an average of 1.13 years of life, while Colombia (0.24), Argentina (0.21) and Chile (0.18) lost considerably fewer life years. In general, deaths from diabetes were higher in men than in women except in Colombia. Nearly 80% of years of life lost due to diabetes occurred between 50 and 74 years of age in the four countries. Diabetes is a huge challenge for Latin America, especially in Mexico where mortality due to diabetes is accelerating. Even though the proportion of deaths due to diabetes in Argentina, Chile and Colombia is smaller, this disease figures among the main causes of death in these countries. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Attributes of patient-centered primary care associated with the public perception of good healthcare quality in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Guanais, Frederico C; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Canning, David; Macinko, James; Reich, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated primary care attributes of patient-centered care associated with the public perception of good quality in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and El Salvador. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a Latin American survey on public perceptions and experiences with healthcare systems. The primary care attributes examined were access, coordination, provider-patient communication, provision of health-related information and emotional support. A double-weighted multiple Poisson regression with robust variance model was performed. The study included between 1500 and 1503 adults in each country. The results identified four significant gaps in the provision of primary care: not all respondents had a regular place of care or a regular primary care doctor (Brazil 35.7%, Colombia 28.4%, Mexico 22% and El Salvador 45.4%). The communication with the primary care clinic was difficult (Brazil 44.2%, Colombia 41.3%, Mexico 45.1% and El Salvador 56.7%). There was a lack of coordination of care (Brazil 78.4%, Colombia 52.3%, Mexico 48% and El Salvador 55.9%). Also, there was a lack of information about healthy diet (Brazil 21.7%, Colombia 32.9%, Mexico 16.9% and El Salvador 20.8%). The public's perception of good quality was variable (Brazil 67%, Colombia 71.1%, Mexico 79.6% and El Salvador 79.5%). The primary care attributes associated with the perception of good quality were a primary care provider 'who knows relevant information about a patient's medical history', 'solves most of the health problems', 'spends enough time with the patient', 'coordinates healthcare' and a 'primary care clinic that is easy to communicate with'. In conclusion, the public has a positive perception of the quality of primary care, although it has unfulfilled expectations; further efforts are necessary to improve the provision of patient-centered primary care services in these four Latin American countries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  2. Combating Drug Trafficking: Variation in the United States’ Military Cooperation with Colombia and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    threat to economic stability . Individuals in the U.S. and Colombian militaries, who had 119 Coleman...trafficking that was causing the instability , and target the terrorist groups in Colombia that were threatening future stabilization . This period saw the...concerns, when mutual benefits exist because of economic ties, or when the internal instability of one country creates a reliance on another country

  3. The range of the golden-mantle tamarin, Saguinus tripartitus (Milne Edwards, 1878): distributions and sympatry of four tamarin species in Colombia, Ecuador, and northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matauschek, Christian; Aquino, Rolando; Encarnación, Filomeno; Heymann, Eckhard W.; de la Torre, Stella; Mittermeier, Russell A.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the range of the golden-mantle tamarin, Saguinus tripartitus (Milne Edwards, 1878), in Amazonian Peru and Ecuador is of particular relevance, not only because it is poorly known but also because it was on the basis of its supposed sympatry with the saddleback tamarin (S. fuscicollis lagonotus) that Thorington (Am J Primatol 15:367–371, 1988) argued that it is a distinct species rather than a saddleback tamarin subspecies, as was believed by Hershkovitz (Living new world monkeys, vol I. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1977). A number of surveys have been carried out since 1988 in the supposed range of S. tripartitus, in both Ecuador and Peru. Here we summarize and discuss these issues and provide a new suggestion for the geographic range of this species; that is, between the ríos Napo and Curaray in Peru and extending east into Ecuador. We also review current evidence for the distributions of Spix’s black-mantle tamarin (S. nigricollis nigricollis), Graells’ black-mantle tamarin (S. n. graellsi), and the saddleback tamarin (S. fuscicollis lagonotus), which are also poorly known, and examine the evidence regarding sympatry between them. We conclude that despite the existence of a number of specimens with collecting localities that indicate overlap in their geographic ranges, the fact that the four tamarin species are of similar size and undoubtedly very similar in their feeding habits militates strongly against the occurrence of sympatry among them. PMID:20878203

  4. The range of the golden-mantle tamarin, Saguinus tripartitus (Milne-Edwards, 1878): distributions and sympatry of four tamarins in Colombia, Ecuador, and northern Peru [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylands, Anthony B; Matauschek, Christian; Aquino, Rolando; Encarnación, Filomeno; Heymann, Eckhard W; de la Torre, Stella; Mittermeier, Russell A

    2011-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the range of the golden-mantle tamarin, Saguinus tripartitus (Milne Edwards, 1878), in Amazonian Peru and Ecuador is of particular relevance, not only because it is poorly known but also because it was on the basis of its supposed sympatry with the saddleback tamarin (S. fuscicollis lagonotus) that Thorington (Am J Primatol 15:367-371, 1988) argued that it is a distinct species rather than a saddleback tamarin subspecies, as was believed by Hershkovitz (Living new world monkeys, vol I. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1977). A number of surveys have been carried out since 1988 in the supposed range of S. tripartitus, in both Ecuador and Peru. Here we summarize and discuss these issues and provide a new suggestion for the geographic range of this species; that is, between the ríos Napo and Curaray in Peru and extending east into Ecuador. We also review current evidence for the distributions of Spix's black-mantle tamarin (S. nigricollis nigricollis), Graells' black-mantle tamarin (S. n. graellsi), and the saddleback tamarin (S. fuscicollis lagonotus), which are also poorly known, and examine the evidence regarding sympatry between them. We conclude that despite the existence of a number of specimens with collecting localities that indicate overlap in their geographic ranges, the fact that the four tamarins are [corrected] of similar size and undoubtedly very similar in their feeding habits militates strongly against the occurrence of sympatry among them.

  5. Arbitrage with ADRs: a sectorial case study for companies in Colombia, Mexico, Brazil and Chile Arbitraje con ADRs: un estudio de caso sectorial para empresas de Colombia, México, Brasil y Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mauricio Mora

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research continues the paper “Generalidades de los ADRs: Un estudio de casosectorial para empresas de Colombia, Mexico, Brasil y Chile” [ADRs generalities: a sectorial case study for companies in Colombia, Mexico, Brazil and Chile]. It is organizedin two sections. The first one covers the unique price theory and the efficient markets hypothesis. In the second one, arbitrage conditions with ADRs are empirically evaluated. The objective is to prove the existence of price differentials between stocks and ADRs, which would allow investors to obtain a risk free return.El presente artículo es la continuación del artículo “Generalidades de los ADRs: Un estudio de caso sectorial para empresas de Colombia, México, Brasil y Chile” y al igual que este, es un subproducto de la investigación “Arbitraje con ADRs: Un estudio de caso sectorial para empresas de Colombia, México, Brasil y Chile”. El artículo se divide en dos partes, en la primera se trata la teoría sobre la ley del precio único y la hipótesis de los mercados eficientes, y en la segunda parte se abarca el tema de arbitraje con activos financieros desde la práctica, haciendo un ejercicio econométrico de arbitraje con ADRs. El objetivo de esta investigación es comprobar la existencia de diferenciales de precio entre las acciones y sus respectivos ADRs, lo que permitiría a los inversionistas obtener una ganancia libre de riesgo.Abstract This research continues the paper “Generalidades de los ADRs: Un estudio de caso sectorial para empresas de Colombia, Mexico, Brasil y Chile” [ADRs generalities: a sectorial case study for companies in Colombia, Mexico, Brazil and Chile]. It is organized in two sections. The first one covers the unique price theory and the efficient markets hypothesis. In the second one, arbitrage conditions with ADRs are empirically evaluated. The objective is to prove the existence of price differentials between stocks and ADRs, which would allow

  6. Las relaciones entre Ecuador y Colombia: un ejemplo de la necesidad de una política exterior democrática (Coyuntura)

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce Leiva, Javier

    2005-01-01

    El autor realiza una revisión de las que considera han sido las deficiencias de la política exterior ecuatoriana hacia Colombia. La carencia de consensos básicos, la escasa coordinación civil-militar, la falta de participación ciudadana, la débil vinculación entre política externa e interna y la usencia de una agenda específica para Colombia, son algunos de los aspectos analizados por Ponce, quien finalmente plantea algunos de los elementos que deberían fundamentar la elaboración de una polít...

  7. New country records for five species of Pristimantis Jiménez de la Espada, 1870 from Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Yánez-Muñoz, Mario; Toral-Contreras, Eduardo; Meza-Ramos, Paúl; Reyes-Puig, Juan; Bejarano-Muñoz, E.; Mueses-Cisneros, Jonh; Paucar, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Five new species of frogs from the genus Pristimantis are reported for Ecuador, thus extending the distribution range for these species, previously described only for the southern Andes of Colombia and the northern Andes of Peru. The diversity of Pristimantis in Ecuador increases to 148 species, adding five additional species to the total of 508 anurans already described for Ecuador.

  8. El valor del análisis de discurso en los estudios comparativos de políticas públicas. El caso de aseguramiento de calidad en la educación superior en Colombia y Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Lima Bandeira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Una evaluación de política puede enriquecerse de metodologías cualitativas en aras de profundizar el entendimiento del investigador sobre la política, que muchas veces obedece a criterios positivistas y se concentra en mostrar los avances cuantitativos de sus logros. En este sentido, este artículo declara y muestra evidencia del valor del análisis de discurso en el marco de estudios comparativos de política pública, ampliando la capacidad de entender el contexto histórico, cultural, social y simbólico en el cual la política es construida e implementada. Como ilustración, se examinan las reformas en políticas públicas para el aseguramiento de la calidad de las instituciones de educación superior (IES y sus programas en Colombia y Ecuador, aplicando el método de análisis de discurso para examinar si la política identifica y explica objetivos, problemas, retos y soluciones de maneras similares o no, ayudando a apreciar cómo las palabras representan valores, a entender mejor a las instituciones, y a evaluar la estabilidad o la falta de ella en las políticas públicas. Los resultados sugieren que el método revela diferencias significativas que los datos y estudios cuantitativos ocultan.

  9. Spotlight: Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    This article describes the vital statistics and population growth in Ecuador as of mid-1997. Mid-1997 population numbered about 12 million. Fertility was 3.6 births/woman; deaths were 6/1000 population; and births were 29/1000 population. Ecuador was primarily an agricultural country, until oil was discovered in the early 1970s. The country has worked to increase per capita income and confront environmental consequences. The capital city of Quito is situated in a valley between two mountains and has very high air pollution levels due to cars and factories. In contrast, indigenous populations live in the Andean mountains and farm small plots. Land shortages have pushed these farmers onto higher slopes and more marginal land that is becoming eroded. 22% of Ecuador's forests were cleared for farming during 1980-90. The city of Guayaquil, on the Pacific coast, has serious water pollution problems, sewage problems, and industrial pollution. Shrimp farming relies on high levels of fertilizer, which is damaging coastlines. Oil exploration in the interior of Ecuador, has resulted in disruption of indigenous population, loss of forests, and pollution of rivers. Texaco Oil is accused of spilling about 17 million gallons of crude oil, or 50 times more than the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska. Texaco argues that it met government environmental standards and agreed to a cleanup, which only partially meets the standards of its critics. Oil resources have funded improvements in education and health. About 90% of Ecuador's adult population is literate. Fertility has declined, but the population is still largely young and will be entering their reproductive years by 2025.

  10. Comparison of Health Examination Survey Methods in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, England, Scotland, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jennifer S; Moody, Alison; Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I; Alfaro, Tania; Frenz, Patricia; Scholes, Shaun; Gonzalez, Silvia A; Margozzini, Paula; de Oliveira, Cesar; Sanchez Romero, Luz Maria; Alvarado, Andres; Cabrera, Sebastián; Sarmiento, Olga L; Triana, Camilo A; Barquera, Simón

    2017-09-15

    Comparability of population surveys across countries is key to appraising trends in population health. Achieving this requires deep understanding of the methods used in these surveys to examine the extent to which the measurements are comparable. In this study, we obtained detailed protocols of 8 nationally representative surveys from 2007-2013 from Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, the United Kingdom (England and Scotland), and the United States-countries that that differ in economic and inequity indicators. Data were collected on sampling frame, sample selection procedures, recruitment, data collection methods, content of interview and examination modules, and measurement protocols. We also assessed their adherence to the World Health Organization's "STEPwise Approach to Surveillance" framework for population health surveys. The surveys, which included half a million participants, were highly comparable on sampling methodology, survey questions, and anthropometric measurements. Heterogeneity was found for physical activity questionnaires and biological samples collection. The common age range included by the surveys was adults aged 18-64 years. The methods used in these surveys were similar enough to enable comparative analyses of the data across the 7 countries. This comparability is crucial in assessing and comparing national and subgroup population health, and to assisting the transfer of research and policy knowledge across countries. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Estructura genética y simulaciones de máxima verosimilitud y Estadística Bayesiana aplicada a la conservación genética del Oso andino (Tremarctos ornatus en Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador y Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ruiz-García

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron 115 muestras de oso andino procedentes de Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador yBolivia mediante 5 microsatélites (G1A, G1D, G10B, G10C, G10M, G10P, G10X, UarMu 50,UarMu, 59. Se detectó: (1 No existencia de equilibrio Hardy-Weinberg en ninguna de laspoblaciones analizadas en cada uno de los países, lo que evidencia la existencia de efectoWahlund. (2 Los niveles de variabilidad genética fueron bajos (H=0.40, población total.Alarmantemente bajo fue el nivel de heterocigocidad en la población de Ecuador (H=0.27. (3Los niveles de flujo génico resultaron bajísimos (Nm=0.2-0.3.

  12. Urban Violence Reduction and Citizen Security in Brazil, Colombia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urban Violence Reduction and Citizen Security in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and ... The work will be conducted in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and South Africa, which are ... Minister Bibeau announces appointments of IDRC's President and new ...

  13. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Leslie

    The text explores Mexico's history, geography, art, religion, and lifestyles in the context of its complex economy. The text focuses on Mexico's economy and reasons for its current situation. Part I of this teaching unit includes: Teacher Overview, Why Study Mexico, Mexico Fact Sheet, Map of Mexico, the Land and Climate, History, Government,…

  14. Imagen país de Colombia desde la perspectiva extranjera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echeverri Cañas, Lina María

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Colombia is a country with a negative historical positioning in international markets. Despite efforts by governments and influencers to improve its image, the perception of foreigners remains polarized, being associated with coffee and drug trafficking. This article is the result of a qualitative research conducted on foreign visitors from eight countries in the Americas with the largest number of visitors to Colombia in 2013: The United States, Venezuela, Ecuador, Argentina, Peru, Brazil, Mexico and Chile. The study found that the image of Colombia is not one-dimensional, but multidimensional. It identifies five dimensions that influence country image: knowledge of the country, the industrial orientation, visitor attitudes, perceptions of prospects and preferences and finally interests associated with its image.Colombia es un país con un posicionamiento histórico negativo en mercados internacionales. Si bien los gobiernos y los prescriptores han dedicado esfuerzos por mejorarla, la percepción del extranjero se mantiene polarizada, es decir, todavía el país es asociado con el café y con el narcotráfico. El presente artículo es el resultado de una investigación cualitativa realizada a extranjeros procedentes de ocho países que registran el mayor número de visitantes en Colombia en el 2013 desde el continente americano: Estados Unidos, Venezuela, Ecuador, Argentina, Perú, Brasil, México y Chile. Como resultado del estudio se encontró que la imagen de Colombia no es unidimensional, es multidimensional. Se logran identificar cinco dimensiones que influyen en la imagen país: el conocimiento del país, la orientación industrial, las actitudes de los visitantes, las percepciones de los prospectos y las preferencias e intereses asociado a su imagen.

  15. Comparative study of risk factors related to cardiovascular disease in children from Bogotá, Colombia and Toluca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Devia, Lizeth Johana; Monroy Romero, Paola Andrea; Almonacid Urrego, Carmen Cecilia; Orjuela, Olga Lucía; Huérfano, Myriam Judith; Mendieta Zerón, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Currently, cardiovascular risk factors have not been studied so extensively in young people. To compare the cardiovascular risk factor between Colombian and Mexican children. This was a transversal, descriptive, comparative and clinical study. 30 children of primary school aged 6-12 from Bogotá, Colombia were matched by age with a sample of 30 children from Toluca, Mexico. Cardiovascular risk factors measured were Body Mass Index (BMI), serum lipid profile, glucose and homocystein (Hcy). Besides we applied the validated surveys formats for food (dietary history), physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire, IPAQ), alcohol consumption and smoking. BMI was higher in Mexican children than in Colombian (20.43±3.35 vs 16.92±3.46) (p≤0.001). Among Mexican children, 20% (6) of them had blood glucose concentration greater than 100 mg/dl, 6.6% (2) had triglycerides greater than 200 mg/dl, 36.6% (11) had cholesterol levels greater than 170 mg/dl, 16% (53.3) had HDL lower than the recommended limits, and 60% (18) had LDL above the normal limit. For the Colombian population these percentages were of 0, 3.3, 46.6, 13.33 and 53.3 respectively. Mexican children had a stronger correlation between BMI and atherogenic indices and less physical activity than Colombian. Of the 30 Mexican children enrolled in the study only 13% had none of the cardiovascular risk factors, while in the Colombian this percentage was of 33. Latin American children are not metabolically homogeneous, Mexican children are at high risk of cardiovascular disease.

  16. REVISIÓN DE LAS ESPECIES DEL GÉNERO SPOROBOLUS (POACEAE: CHLORIDOIDEAE: SPOROBOLINAE DEL NOROESTE DE SUDAMÉRICA: PERÚ, ECUADOR, COLOMBIA Y VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo-Cañas Diego

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio taxonómico de las especies de Sporobolus para el noroeste de Sudamérica. Se reconocen once especies para el área de estudio. Se incluyen las claves para determinar las especies así como las descripciones morfológicas y sus ilustraciones. Se discuten para cada una de las especies sus relaciones morfológicas, su distribución geográfica y sus preferencias ecológicas; adicionalmente, se relacionan sus usos y sus nombres comunes. Asimismo, se propone la lectotipificación para Sporobolus lasiophyllus Pilg. Por otra parte, se registran tres especies por primera vez para Colombia [Sporobolus pilifer (Trin. Kunth, Sporobolus tenuissimus (Mart. ex Schrank Kuntze y Sporobolus virginicus (L. Kunth]. Se excluyen de este tratamiento a Sporobolus brasiliensis (Raddi Hack. (=Eragrostis airoides Nees y Sporobolus domingensis (Trin. Kunth. Adicionalmente, se propone la adopción y la unificación de algunos términos morfológicos en agrostología, tales como caña, panoja, espiguilla, lema, antecio y cariopsis, en lugar de culmo, panícula, espícula, lemma, flósculo y cariopse-cariópside, respectivamente.

  17. Cross-national differences in clinically significant cannabis problems: epidemiologic evidence from 'cannabis-only' smokers in the United States, Mexico, and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posada-Villa Jose

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies show wide variability in the occurrence of cannabis smoking and related disorders across countries. This study aims to estimate cross-national variation in cannabis users' experience of clinically significant cannabis-related problems in three countries of the Americas, with a focus on cannabis users who may have tried alcohol or tobacco, but who have not used cocaine, heroin, LSD, or other internationally regulated drugs. Methods Data are from the World Mental Health Surveys Initiative and the National Latino and Asian American Study, with probability samples in Mexico (n = 4426, Colombia (n = 5,782 and the United States (USA; n = 8,228. The samples included 212 'cannabis only' users in Mexico, 260 in Colombia and 1,724 in the USA. Conditional GLM with GEE and 'exact' methods were used to estimate variation in the occurrence of clinically significant problems in cannabis only (CO users across these surveyed populations. Results The experience of cannabis-related problems was quite infrequent among CO users in these countries, with weighted frequencies ranging from 1% to 5% across survey populations, and with no appreciable cross-national variation in general. CO users in Colombia proved to be an exception. As compared to CO users in the USA, the Colombia smokers were more likely to have experienced cannabis-associated 'social problems' (odds ratio, OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 6.3; p = 0.004 and 'legal problems' (OR = 9.7; 95% CI = 2.7, 35.2; p = 0.001. Conclusions This study's most remarkable finding may be the similarity in occurrence of cannabis-related problems in this cross-national comparison within the Americas. Wide cross-national variations in estimated population-level cumulative incidence of cannabis use disorders may be traced to large differences in cannabis smoking prevalence, rather than qualitative differences in cannabis experiences. More research is needed to identify conditions that

  18. Observatorio de los tratados de libre Comercio en Colombia: oportunidades de exportación para Colombia a los países miembros de la comunidad Andina (Perú, Bolivia, Ecuador)

    OpenAIRE

    Páez Murcia, Jenniffer Adriana; Parada Suárez, Karen Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Hoy en día, gracias a la globalización y a los tratados de libre comercio que a través de los años Colombia ha logrado firmar, el país ha conseguido nuevas oportunidades de mercado, y así mismo, ha podido identificar grandes apuestas a futuro,de tal manera que los productos colombianos lleguen a más países y compitan en un mercado donde grandes proveedores mundiales tratan de posicionarse. En este documento se quiere mostrar la relación comercial que mantiene el país Colombiano con los demás ...

  19. Homosexual Liberation Movements in Latin America. Historiographical Contributions from a Comparative Perspective between Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico (1967-1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Simonetto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Between 1967 and 1982, homosexual liberation movements emerged in Latin America that sought to unify strategies of social and sexual revolution. This article proposes a comparative study to rethink the periodization of the distinct selection of cases and analyze the similarities and differences between them. For this, the cases of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico are discussed. The purpose of this paper is to find a different explanation for these movements that avoids viewing them as just a projection of the Stonewall uprising (1969, thereby bringing forward an explanatory variable from within Latin America. In turn, the respective relationships of these movements with the local radical Left and the State are also considered.

  20. The rise of health biotechnology research in Latin America: A scientometric analysis of health biotechnology production and impact in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes the patterns of health biotechnology publications in six Latin American countries from 2001 to 2015. The countries studied were Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba and Mexico. Before our study, there were no data available on HBT development in half of the Latin-American countries we studied, i.e., Argentina, Colombia and Chile. To include these countries in a scientometric analysis of HBT provides fuller coverage of HBT development in Latin America. The scientometric study used the Web of Science database to identify health biotechnology publications. The total amount of health biotechnology production in the world during the period studied was about 400,000 papers. A total of 1.2% of these papers, were authored by the six Latin American countries in this study. The results show a significant growth in health biotechnology publications in Latin America despite some of the countries having social and political instability, fluctuations in their gross domestic expenditure in research and development or a trade embargo that limits opportunities for scientific development. The growth in the field of some of the Latin American countries studied was larger than the growth of most industrialized nations. Still, the visibility of the Latin American research (measured in the number of citations) did not reach the world average, with the exception of Colombia. The main producers of health biotechnology papers in Latin America were universities, except in Cuba were governmental institutions were the most frequent producers. The countries studied were active in international research collaboration with Colombia being the most active (64% of papers co-authored internationally), whereas Brazil was the least active (35% of papers). Still, the domestic collaboration was even more prevalent, with Chile being the most active in such collaboration (85% of papers co-authored domestically) and Argentina the least active (49% of papers). We conclude that the

  1. The rise of health biotechnology research in Latin America: A scientometric analysis of health biotechnology production and impact in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-de la O, Dante Israel; Thorsteinsdóttir, Halla; Calderón-Salinas, José Víctor

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes the patterns of health biotechnology publications in six Latin American countries from 2001 to 2015. The countries studied were Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba and Mexico. Before our study, there were no data available on HBT development in half of the Latin-American countries we studied, i.e., Argentina, Colombia and Chile. To include these countries in a scientometric analysis of HBT provides fuller coverage of HBT development in Latin America. The scientometric study used the Web of Science database to identify health biotechnology publications. The total amount of health biotechnology production in the world during the period studied was about 400,000 papers. A total of 1.2% of these papers, were authored by the six Latin American countries in this study. The results show a significant growth in health biotechnology publications in Latin America despite some of the countries having social and political instability, fluctuations in their gross domestic expenditure in research and development or a trade embargo that limits opportunities for scientific development. The growth in the field of some of the Latin American countries studied was larger than the growth of most industrialized nations. Still, the visibility of the Latin American research (measured in the number of citations) did not reach the world average, with the exception of Colombia. The main producers of health biotechnology papers in Latin America were universities, except in Cuba were governmental institutions were the most frequent producers. The countries studied were active in international research collaboration with Colombia being the most active (64% of papers co-authored internationally), whereas Brazil was the least active (35% of papers). Still, the domestic collaboration was even more prevalent, with Chile being the most active in such collaboration (85% of papers co-authored domestically) and Argentina the least active (49% of papers). We conclude that the

  2. IDRC in Colombia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    oceans, wastewater from poor urban com- munities could be treated and used to gener- ate energy. Mexican researchers lead the testing of wastewater treatment systems in Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Honduras, and. Mexico to identify the most appropriate technologies. Alternative energy (through biogas) could eventually ...

  3. Interrogating Social Sustainability in the Biofuels Sector in Latin America: Tensions Between Global Standards and Local Experiences in Mexico, Brazil, and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfa, Theresa; Bain, Carmen; Moreno, Renata; Eastmond, Amarella; Sweitz, Sam; Bailey, Conner; Pereira, Gustavo Simas; Souza, Tatiana; Medeiros, Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Across the Americas, biofuels production systems are diverse due to geographic conditions, historical patterns of land tenure, different land use patterns, government policy frameworks, and relations between the national state and civil society, all of which shape the role that biofuels play in individual nations. Although many national governments throughout the Americas continue to incentivize growth of the biofuels industry, one key challenge for biofuels sustainability has been concern about its social impacts. In this article, we discuss some of the key social issues and tensions related to the recent expansion of biofuels production in Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil. We argue that a process of "simplification" of ecological and cultural diversity has aided the expansion of the biofuels frontier in these countries, but is also undermining their viability. We consider the ability of governments and non-state actors in multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSI) to address social and environmental concerns that affect rural livelihoods as a result of biofuels expansion. We analyze the tensions between global sustainability standards, national level policies for biofuels development, and local level impacts and visions of sustainability. We find that both government and MSI efforts to address sustainability concerns have limited impact, and recommend greater incorporation of local needs and expertise to improve governance.

  4. Interrogating Social Sustainability in the Biofuels Sector in Latin America: Tensions Between Global Standards and Local Experiences in Mexico, Brazil, and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfa, Theresa; Bain, Carmen; Moreno, Renata; Eastmond, Amarella; Sweitz, Sam; Bailey, Conner; Pereira, Gustavo Simas; Souza, Tatiana; Medeiros, Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Across the Americas, biofuels production systems are diverse due to geographic conditions, historical patterns of land tenure, different land use patterns, government policy frameworks, and relations between the national state and civil society, all of which shape the role that biofuels play in individual nations. Although many national governments throughout the Americas continue to incentivize growth of the biofuels industry, one key challenge for biofuels sustainability has been concern about its social impacts. In this article, we discuss some of the key social issues and tensions related to the recent expansion of biofuels production in Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil. We argue that a process of "simplification" of ecological and cultural diversity has aided the expansion of the biofuels frontier in these countries, but is also undermining their viability. We consider the ability of governments and non-state actors in multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSI) to address social and environmental concerns that affect rural livelihoods as a result of biofuels expansion. We analyze the tensions between global sustainability standards, national level policies for biofuels development, and local level impacts and visions of sustainability. We find that both government and MSI efforts to address sustainability concerns have limited impact, and recommend greater incorporation of local needs and expertise to improve governance.

  5. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US. The 1992 population is estimated at 89 million of which 60% are mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% are American Indian, 9% are Caucasian, and 1% are other. 90% are Roman Catholic. There are 8 years of compulsory education. Infant mortality is 30/1000 live births. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females. The labor force is comprised of 30% in services, 24% in agriculture and fishing, 19% in manufacturing, 13% in commerce, 7% in construction, 4% in transportation and communication, and .4% in mining. There are 31 states and a federal district. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $3200 in 1991. Military expenditures were .5% of GDP in 1991. The average inflation rate is 19%. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3.6% in 1991 from 2% in 1987. Dependence on oil exports has decreased. There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of .8% in 1992. Mexico's foreign debt has been reduced from its high in 1987 of $107 billion. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly. Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations.

  6. Mexico Is Not Colombia: Alternative Historical Analogies for Responding to the Challenge of Violent Drug-Trafficking Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The most glaring omission is an explicit mention of violence. Elsewhere in the world (and in different historical periods in Mexico) the presence of...Hobbesian world in which violence is met with violence, force with force. Part of this opportunity structure is the presence of a sur- plus of...police and judiciary; overpopulated , violent prisons High costs of security with rise of private security rms Reduced support for government

  7. Health Data Concerning Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-01-27

    from Machala to Piedras. A less-than-adequate road connects Piedras to Loja . The age of the automobile has not fully arrived in Ecuador and, although...virus from the arthropod and simian reservoirs is not known. 16. Plague. Plague occurs in two provinces of Ecuador : Lojas and Chim- borazo. The disease is...27-01-1960 1 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Health Data Concerning Ecuador 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  8. A new species of Lonchophylla Thomas (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuja V., Luis; Gardner, Alfred L.

    2005-01-01

    We describe Lonchophylla orcesi, sp. nov., from the Choco, a region of high biotic diversity, endemism, and rainfall along the western Andean slopes and Pacific lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador. One of the largest known Lonchophylla, it occurs sympatrically with at least two other species of Lonchophylla including the similar, but somewhat smaller L. robusta. We also recognize L. concava as a Middle American Province species distinct from L. mordax of Brazil and Bolivia on the basis of cranial and dental features.

  9. [Identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage in Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Patricia; Calvopiña, Karina; Herrera, Diana; Rojas, Carlos; Pérez-Lago, Laura; Grijalva, Marcelo; Guna, Remedios; García-de Viedma, Darío

    2017-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage isolates are considered to be especially virulent, transmissible and prone to acquire resistances. Beijing strains have been reported worldwide, but studies in Latin America are still scarce. The only multinational study performed in the region indicated a heterogeneous distribution for this lineage, which was absent in Chile, Colombia and Ecuador, although further studies found the lineage in Chile and Colombia. To search for the presence of the Beijing lineage in Ecuador, the only country in the region where it remains unreported. We obtained a convenience sample (2006-2012) from two hospitals covering different populations. The isolates were genotyped using 24-MIRU-VNTR. Lineages were assigned by comparing their patterns to those in the MIRU-VNTRplus platform. Isolates belonging to the Beijing lineage were confirmed by allele-specific PCR. We identified the first Beijing isolate in Ecuador in an unexpected epidemiological scenario: A patient was infected in the Andean region, in a population with low mobility and far from the borders of the neighboring countries where Beijing strains had been previously reported. This is the first report of the presence of the Beijing lineage in Ecuador in an unusual epidemiological context that deserves special attention.

  10. Remesas ¿salida de la desigualdad en países latinoamericanos? Un estudio comparativo entre Ecuador y México; Remessas: saída da desigualdade em países latina americana? Um estudo comparativo entre Equador e México; Remittances: exit inequality in Latin American countries? A comparative study between Ecuador and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gaibor Monteros

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Esta investigación va encaminada al análisis del papel de las remesas en los ingresos de los hogares de Ecuador y México para el año 2007– 2014 y 2008-2014 respectivamente, con el objetivo de demostrar que no son significativas en mejorar la distribución de la renta, para esto se utilizan datos de ingresos de los hogares de encuestas de ambos países para posteriormente procesarlos mediante software estadístico  y obtener un índice de Gini por deciles que nos otorgará un mejor contraste de la situación de desigualdad. Se llegó a la conclusión de que las remesas no son representativas para mejorar la situación de desigualdad ya que no existe una variación significativa de los índices de Gini por deciles en ambos países. Palabras clave: Migración, Remesas, Desigualdad, Desarrollo.   Resumo: Esta pesquisa se encaminha pela análise do papel das remesas nos ingressos nos lugares no Equador e no México nos anos de 2007-2014 e 2008-2014 respectivamente, com o objetivo de demonstrar que não são indicativos de melhora na distribuição da renda. Para isso se utilizam dados de ingresso de lugares em pesquisas em ambos os países para posteriormente serem processados em software estatistico e obter um índice de Gini que permitirá um melhor contraste na situação de desigualdade. Chegou-se a conclusão de que as remessas não são representativas para melhorar a situação de desigualdade já que não existe uma variação significativa dos índices de Gini em ambos os países. Palavras-chaves: Migração, Remessas, Desigualdade, Desenvolvimento.   Abstract: This research is aimed at analyzing the role of remittances in the income of households in Ecuador and Mexico for 2007-2014 and 2008-2014, respectively, in order to demonstrate that they are not significant in improving the distribution of income. For this we use income data from the households of surveys of both countries to later process them using statistical

  11. Diversity and distribution of the Caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Ríos-Touma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Aquatic insects and other freshwater animals are some of the most threatened forms of life on Earth. Caddisflies (Trichoptera are highly biodiverse in the Neotropics and occupy a wide variety of freshwater habitats. In Andean countries, including Ecuador, knowledge of the aquatic biota is limited, and there is a great need for baseline data on the species found in these countries. Here we present the first list of Trichoptera known from Ecuador, a country that harbors two global biodiversity “hotspots.” Methods We conducted a literature review of species previously reported from Ecuador and supplemented these data with material we collected during five recent field inventories from about 40 localities spanning both hotspots. Using species presence data for each Ecuadorian province, we calculated the CHAO 2 species estimator to obtain the minimum species richness for the country. Results We recorded 310 species, including 48 new records from our own field inventories for the country. CHAO 2 calculations showed that only 54% of the species have been found. Hydroptilidae and Hydropsychidae were the most species rich families. We report the family Xiphocentronidae for the first time from Ecuador as well as several new records of genera from different families. Discussion As in the neighboring Andean countries of Colombia and Peru, it is common to find undescribed species of caddisflies. There are vast areas of Ecuador and the northern Andes that are completely unexplored, and we expect that hundreds of new species are yet to be discovered.

  12. Stakeholders, responsabilidad social en ecuador Stakeholders, social responsibility in ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Morán

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available La importancia de la responsabilidad social empresarial (RSE radica en el involucramiento y el compromiso de la empresa hacia los diferentes grupos de interés que interactúan. Algunos grupos son afectados a causa de las actividades operacionales de las organizaciones, generando impactos en dimensiones sociales, económicas y ambientales. El enfoque central de la investigación es la determinación de la incidencia de la RSE en los patrones de vida de los grupos que intervienen en la cadena de valor ecuatoriana. En adelante estos son llamados stakeholders. Se precisa como antesala, los hechos y precedentes que marcaron la evolución y participación del modelo de negocio en los diferentes países de Latinoamérica. Sobre esta base, se realiza una revisión conceptual de la responsabilidad social en las empresas, la ISO 26000 y la posición de los stakeholders. El estudio se fundamenta en un análisis comparativo de países como: Chile, Colombia y Ecuador; identificando similitudes de su entorno, particularidades, fortalezas y debilidades en materia de RSE.

  13. La contabilidad ambiental y el impacto financiero de los costos ambientales para el desarrollo sostenible de la empresa multinacional de la industria de bebidas Coca Cola Company en el Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Saavedra, Diego Gabriel; Ehmig Dillon, Gunther Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to analyse the environmental accounting and the financial impact of the environmental costs for sustainable development of a multinational corporation within the beverage company such as Coca Cola Company in Ecuador. Since 2010, Coca Cola Company in Ecuador performs business operations under the name of Arca Ecuador, which is a part of the Mexican group Arca Continental that manages Coca Cola Brand in Mexico, Argentina and Ecuador. Sustainable development is part of the...

  14. Rural energetic troubles in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga, A

    1994-01-01

    The present work presents a general situation of Ecuador, its demand of Energy, programs of electrification rural, energy requirements in the hydroelectric rural sector, central sector built in Ecuador and the priorities of energy use

  15. Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes the key energy data for Mexico: 1 - energy organizations and policy: Ministry of energy (SENER), Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE), Ministry of Finances, Ministry of trade and industrial development (SECOFI), national commission for energy savings (CONAE); 2 - companies: federal commission of electricity (CFE), Minera Carbonifera Rio Escondido (MICARE - coal), Pemex (petroleum); 3 - energy production: resources, electric power, petroleum, natural gas; 4 - energy consumption; 5 - stakes and perspectives. Some economic and energy indicators are summarized in a series of tables: general indicators, supply indicators (reserves, refining and electric capacity, energy production, foreign trade), demand indicators (consumption trends, end use, energy independence, energy efficiency, CO 2 emissions), energy status per year and per energy source. (J.S.)

  16. Where Latin Americans are physically active, and why does it matter? Findings from the IPEN-adult study in Bogota, Colombia; Cuernavaca, Mexico; and Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L; Reis, Rodrigo S; Hino, Adriano A F; Bolivar, Manuel A; Lemoine, Pablo D; Gonçalves, Priscilla B; Pratt, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Latin America (LA) has a unique structural, political, cultural and social environment. This study aimed to identify the places where Latin American adults are physically active; and to determine the association of using public- and restricted-access places with physical activity (PA). We used data from the International PA Environment Network study in Bogota, Colombia (n=1000, accelerometry=249); Cuernavaca, Mexico (n=677, accelerometry=652); and Curitiba, Brazil (n=697, accelerometry=331) (2010-2011). Walking and moderate-to-vigorous PA for leisure were measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Overall PA and PA within 10-minute bouts were measured with accelerometers. Participants reported use of public- and restricted-access places for PA. Mixed-effects regression models were used to determine the association of using public- and restricted-access places with PA. The streets were the most frequently-reported place for PA, and walking was the most common PA in the studied places. 'Informal', non-exercise-or-sports places (e.g., shopping malls) ranked high for use for PA in Bogota and Cuernavaca. In Curitiba, use of 'formal' places for sports/exercise (e.g., gyms) was more prevalent. Using public-access places was directly related to walking for leisure in all cities, and to additional PA outcomes in Bogota and Cuernavaca. In Cuernavaca and Curitiba, using restricted-access places was also associated with PA. Our study highlights the importance of public-access places for PA in LA. In some contexts, places for social interaction may be as important for PA as places for exercise/sport. Strategies increasing the availability, accessibility and quality of these places may effectively promote PA in LA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    years occurred in Peru in the northern departments bordering Ecuador in 1992-1994. Sylvatic plague is endemic in the southern provinces of Loja and... Ecuador ) Micrurus bocourti (Pacific lowlands of western Ecuador ) Micrurus catamayensis (Catamayo Valley, Loja Province) Micrurus dumerilii spp...Disease Vector Ecology Profile Ecuador -~· ""’ -.. ~ """ Defense Pest Management Information Analysis Center’ Armed Forces Pest Management

  18. Medical education in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffre, Carrillo P; Delgado, Belgica; Kosik, Russell Olive; Huang, Lei; Zhao, Xudong; Su, Tung-Ping; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Chen, Qi; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen

    2013-12-01

    Ecuador, the smallest of the Andean countries, is located in the northwest portion of South America. The nation's 14.5 million people have a tremendous need for high quality primary care. To describe the profound advances as well as the persistent needs in medical education in Ecuador that have occurred with globalization and with the modernization of the country. Through an extensive search of the literature; medical school data; reports from the Ecuador Ministry of Public Health and Ministry of Education; and information from the National Secretary of Higher Education, Science, and Innovation (SENESCYT), the medical education system in Ecuador has been thoroughly examined. The National System of Higher Education in Ecuador has experienced significant growth over the last 20 years. As of 2009 the system boasts 19 medical schools, all of which offer the required education needed to obtain the title of Physician, but only 12 of which offer postgraduate clinical training. Of these 19 universities, nine are public, five are private and self-financed, and five are private and co-financed. Post-graduate options for medical students include: (1) Clinical specialization, (2) Higher diploma, (3) Course specialization, (4) Master's degree, and (5) PhD degree. The rapid growth of Ecuador's system of medical education has led to inevitable gaps that threaten its ability to sustain itself. Chief among these is the lack of well-trained faculty to supply its medical schools. To ensure an adequate supply of faculty exists, the creation of sufficient postgraduate, sub-specialization, and PhD training positions must be created and maintained.

  19. Collection for Ecuador

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Following the terrible earthquake in Ecuador on April 16th, 2016, a collection was organized at CERN and sent to the INEPE Institute in Quito to help the victims. CERN has received the following two letters that we want to share with you. We wish our Ecuadorian friends a prompt recovery and keep them in our thoughts! Dear Fabiola and Alessandro, […] As the CERN contact person in Ecuador, and as the Country Representative for Ecuador in the CMS Experiment, I would like to thank you, the offices you precede and, through you, the whole CERN community, for all the concern and generosity after the terrible earthquake in the coast of Ecuador.  Rather slowly, but full of hope, our people are overcoming this difficult situation.  Contributions from different sources abroad, like CERN's, combined with the rapid and generous local intervention, have greatly helped the affected communities cope with the most urgent needs in order to restart their lives. Once again, I express my ...

  20. Los youtubers en Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Quezada-Pinzón, Jesús-Germania

    2017-01-01

    The Ecuadorian youtubers look on the YouTube platform for a space to influence those ones who consume their audiovisual content, where the most important are the ones who make reference to daily activities. In their interest to lead this social network, they have found the reality of Ecuador, which is analyzed and presented in this research.

  1. Time Series Analysis of Onchocerciasis Data from Mexico: A Trend towards Elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Miguel A.; Adeleke, Monsuru A.; Orozco-Algarra, María E.; Arrendondo-Jiménez, Juan I.; Guo, Xianwu

    2013-01-01

    Background In Latin America, there are 13 geographically isolated endemic foci distributed among Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil and Ecuador. The communities of the three endemic foci found within Mexico have been receiving ivermectin treatment since 1989. In this study, we predicted the trend of occurrence of cases in Mexico by applying time series analysis to monthly onchocerciasis data reported by the Mexican Secretariat of Health between 1988 and 2011 using the software R. Results A total of 15,584 cases were reported in Mexico from 1988 to 2011. The data of onchocerciasis cases are mainly from the main endemic foci of Chiapas and Oaxaca. The last case in Oaxaca was reported in 1998, but new cases were reported in the Chiapas foci up to 2011. Time series analysis performed for the foci in Mexico showed a decreasing trend of the disease over time. The best-fitted models with the smallest Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) were Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models, which were used to predict the tendency of onchocerciasis cases for two years ahead. According to the ARIMA models predictions, the cases in very low number (below 1) are expected for the disease between 2012 and 2013 in Chiapas, the last endemic region in Mexico. Conclusion The endemic regions of Mexico evolved from high onchocerciasis-endemic states to the interruption of transmission due to the strategies followed by the MSH, based on treatment with ivermectin. The extremely low level of expected cases as predicted by ARIMA models for the next two years suggest that the onchocerciasis is being eliminated in Mexico. To our knowledge, it is the first study utilizing time series for predicting case dynamics of onchocerciasis, which could be used as a benchmark during monitoring and post-treatment surveillance. PMID:23459370

  2. International comparison of resistance thermometers between NMIs from Spain, Mexico and Andean countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, D.; Ruiz, V. C.; Méndez-Lango, E.; Córdova, L.; von Borries, E.; Sánchez, C. A.; Arévalo, A.; Aguilera, B.; Guillén, E.; Cabrera, C.; Quintana, L.

    2013-09-01

    An international comparison on semi-standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers (PRTs) among the National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) of Spain, Mexico and the Andean Countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela) began in 2004 and was successfully completed in 2005. Two PRTs were circulated (hand carried) and compared from -40 °C up to 250 °C. The Centro Español de Metrología (Spanish NMI), CEM, was the pilot laboratory and the Centro Nacional de Metrología (Mexican NMI), CENAM, was the co-pilot laboratory. This paper shows the details of the comparison and the final results as they were presented in the approved final report of the comparison in September of 2005.

  3. Collection for Ecuador

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    After the violent earthquake that caused the death of hundreds of people, and left thousands wounded and homeless in Ecuador, we appeal to your generosity. We are starting a collection today to help the victims, and the funds will be donated to the INEPE Institute in Quito. This organization, known at CERN for many years as it has been supported by the Long Term Collections of the Staff Association, will be responsible for sending the proceeds of the collection directly to the victims in the field. On behalf of the CERN Management and the CERN Staff Association Fabiola Gianotti, Director General, and Alessandro Raimondo, President of the Staff Association =========================== Bank account details for donations: Bank account holder: Staff Association CERN - 1211 GENEVA 23 Account number: 279-HU106832.1 IBAN: CH85 0027 9279 HU10 6832 1 BIC: UBSWCHZH80A Please mention: Ecuador

  4. Uranium exploration in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severne, B.; Penaherrera, P.F.; Fiallos, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    The 600-km segment of the Andean Cordillera in Ecuador includes zones that can be correlated, geologically, with uranium districts elsewhere in the Andes. It is believed that these essentially unexplored zones have the potential for economic uranium mineralization. Exploration activity to date has been limited, although it has involved both geochemical and radiometric techniques to evaluate geological concepts. Minor uranium occurrences (with chemical analyses up to 100 ppm) have been encountered, which provide further incentive to commence large-scale systematic exploration. It is recognized that a very large exploration budget and considerable technical expertise will be required to ensure exploration success. Consequently, participation by groups of proven capability from other countries will be sought for Ecuador's national exploration programme. (author)

  5. Ecology, Distribution, Harvest, and Conservation of the Amazonian Manatee Trichechus inunguis in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Timm, Robert; Albuja Viteri, Luis Humberto; Clauson, Barbara

    1986-01-01

    Se da aconocer los recientes sumarios de la distribución de los manatíes amazónicos Trichechus inunguis registran especímenes de la mayor parte de la cuenca amazónica en Brasil, el oriente de Perú, y el suroriente de Colombia, pero no de Ecuador. Durante octubre y noviembre de 1983 nosotros fuimos en busca de manatíes en los sistemas de los ríos Aguarico y Cuyabeno de la Provincia del Napo, Ecuador oriental.

  6. Ecuador project closes shop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The US Agency for International Development (AID) has discontinued its contraceptive social marketing project in Ecuador after 2 1/2 years without a sale. USAID had awarded a 3-year US$1.2 million grant to the program's contractor, the John Snow Public Health Group Inc. The project was run by Ecuador's national family planning association. This is only the 3rd time USAID has terminated a social marketing program since entering this field in 1973. Impediments to the program's operation included product price hikes and supply shortages as a result of teh inflation and currency devaluation in Ecuador in recent years. Government opposition to the sales of donated contraceptive supplies further set back the program. The name chosen for the condom distributed by the program, Liber, had to be changed since a company importing sanitary napkins was using the name Liberty and objected. The program's peculiar organizational structur is also considered to have played a role in the program's failure. Rather than having a single authority responsible for the program, a 2-headed organizational design was used. Program funds were controlled by the contractor, but the family planning organization managed day to day operations. Unified management has enabled programs in other countries to survive problems such as inflation, brand registration, and product and price approvals.

  7. Characterization of Phytophthora infestans populations in Colombia: first report of the A2 mating type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Angela M; Quesada Ocampo, Lina M; Céspedes, Maria Catalina; Carreño, Natalia; González, Adriana; Rojas, Alejandro; Zuluaga, A Paola; Myers, Kevin; Fry, William E; Jiménez, Pedro; Bernal, Adriana J; Restrepo, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight in crops of the Solanaceae family, is one of the most important plant pathogens in Colombia. Not only are Solanum lycopersicum, and S. tuberosum at risk, but also several other solanaceous hosts (Physalis peruviana, S. betaceum, S. phureja, and S. quitoense) that have recently gained importance as new crops in Colombia may be at risk. Because little is known about the population structure of Phytophthora infestans in Colombia, we report here the phenotypic and molecular characterization of 97 isolates collected from these six different solanaceous plants in Colombia. All the isolates were analyzed for mating type, mitochondrial haplotypes, genotype for several microsatellites, and sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. This characterization identified a single individual of A2 mating type (from Physalis peruviana) for the first time in Colombia. All isolates had an ITS sequence that was at least 97% identical to the consensus sequence. Of the 97 isolates, 96 were mitochondrial haplotype IIa, with the single A2 isolate being Ia. All isolates were invariant for the microsatellites. Additionally, isolates collected from S. tuberosum and P. peruviana (64 isolates) were tested for: aggressiveness on both hosts, genotype for the isozymes (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and peptidase), and restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprint pattern as detected by RG57. Isolates from S. tuberosum were preferentially pathogenic on S. tuberosum, and isolates from P. peruviana were preferentially pathogenic on P. peruviana. The population from these two hosts was dominated by a single clonal lineage (59 of 64 individuals assayed), previously identified from Ecuador and Peru as EC-1. This lineage was mating type A1, IIa for mitochondrial DNA, invariant for two microsatellites, and invariant for both isozymes. The remaining four A1 isolates were in lineages very closely related to EC-1 (named EC-1.1, CO

  8. Bithoracochaeta Stein: descriptions and first records from Colombia (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia S. Couri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bithoracochaeta Stein is a Neotropical genus of Muscidae, Coenosiinae, known from ten species recorded from Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guyana, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Surinam, Uruguay and Venezuela. The genus is recorded for the first time from Colombia, with the occurrence of the following species: B. annulata Stein, 1911; B. calopus (Bigot, 1885; B. flavicoxa Malloch, 1934; B. leucoprocta (Wiedemann, 1830; B. maricaensis Couri & Motta, 1995 and B. varicornis (Coquilett, 1900. B. nigricoxa, spec. nov. is described from Mexico and Brazil. A brief diagnosis of the known species and a complete description of the new species are given.Bithoracochaeta Stein é um gênero Neotropical de Muscidae, Coenosiinae, com 10 espécies descritas da Argentina, Brasil, Costa Rica, Cuba, Equador, Guiana, Jamaica, México, Panamá, Paraguai, Peru, Porto Rico, Suriname, Uruguai e Venezuela. O gênero é registrado pela primeira vez na Colômbia, com a ocorrência das seguintes espécies: B. annulata Stein, 1911; B. calopus (Bigot, 1885; B. flavicoxa Malloch, 1934; B. leucoprocta (Wiedemann, 1830; B. maricaensis Couri & Motta, 1995 e B. varicornis (Coquilett, 1900. B. nigricoxa spec. nov. é descrita do México e do Brasil. Uma breve diagnose das espécies conhecidas e a descrição completa da nova espécie são apresentadas.

  9. The genus Gnathia Leach (Isopoda) from the Santa Marta area, northern Colombia, with a review of Gnathiidea from the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Hans-Georg

    1988-01-01

    Six species of the genus Gnathia (Crustacea: Isopoda: Gnathiidea) are recorded from the Caribbean Sea of northern Colombia. Gnathia gonzalezi n. sp., Gnathia magdalenensis n. sp., Gnathia samariensis n. sp., and Gnathia vellosa n. sp. are described; Gnathia beethoveni Paul & Menzies, 1971 and

  10. Ecuador: una democracia inestable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Paz y Miño Cepeda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1979, tras una década de dictaduras militares, se inició la fase constitucional más larga en la historia del Ecuador. Ésta se levantó sobre las herencias del pasado y se caracterizó, de manera fundamental, por el tránsito desde un modelo estatal-desarrollista hacia uno de tipo empresarial, por el aparecimiento de nuevos agentes sociales, el multipartidismo político, la regionalización nacional, la presencia multicultural y la inserción del país en nuevas relaciones internacionales. Pero esos procesos trajeron como consecuencias centrales: la edificación de una economía inequitativa, una sociedad tensionada, la desestructuración institucional, la precarización del trabajo y la debilidad con la que la nación ha enfrentado el nuevo mundo unipolar. Todo ello ha configurado un cuadro de riesgos para la incipiente democracia. El Ecuador contemporáneo tiene, por tanto, una serie de desafíos económicos, sociales y políticos para escapar a la inestabilidad que ha acompañado a la construcción de su modernización democrática.___________________ABSTRACT:In 1979, after one decade of military dictatorships, the longest constitutional phase in the history of Ecuador was initiated. It was built upon the inheritance of the past and can be fundamentally characterized by the transition from a model that focused on the state as developing the economy (State-model to a model that focused on private business (enterprise-model. The appearance of new social agents, a multiparty system, national regionalization, multicultural presence and the country´s new international relationships are processes which show some important consequences: the establishment of an unequal economy, a society under tension, the breakdown of institutional structures, the vulnerability of working conditions and the weakness with which the nation faced the new polarized world. All this might put into danger this incipient democracy. And this is why Ecuador in these

  11. All projects related to colombia | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ongoing trade reforms and economic restructuring in Latin America have implications for gender ... Region: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, North and Central America, Uruguay. Program: Employment and Growth.

  12. All projects related to Colombia | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Brazil, South America, Colombia, Haiti, North and Central America, Mexico ... complex knowledge economy demands economic, social and environmental data ... The research network on global administrative law (GAL network) was ...

  13. All projects related to Colombia | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... knowledge and culture, in which intellectual property does not play the role of ... Region: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, North and ... This project aims to facilitate poor people's access to insurance products and ...

  14. Peces del Noroeste del Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Ramiro

    1994-01-01

    La ictiofauna del occidente del Ecuador es poco conocida. Los peces del noroccidente son diferentes a los del suroccidente del Ecuador. 34 familias y 82 especies fueron colectadas que equivale al 11 % de las especies de peces continentales registradas en el Ecuador. Icteogeográficamente se sabe que la costa ecuatoriana posee dos provincias: la del Pacifico Norte y la del Guayas, se determinó que el límite de las dos provincias es el río Santiago ya que las especies del mencionado río so...

  15. Effects of land-use changes on soil properties : volcano watershed in Quito, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Podwojewski, Pascal; Poulenard, J.; Janeau, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    In the highlands of southern Colombia and northern Ecuador, soils developed on volcanic ash deposits have specific properties: high water retention, high hydraulic conductivity and high carbon (C) contents. The main role of the soils is to regulate the water available for the dense population living in the valleys. Soil properties and land use depend on their altitudes. Any important modification of land-use change has a serious effect on soil properties and consequently the ecosystem propert...

  16. Accidente bothrópico en Colombia: estudio multicéntrico de la eficacia y seguridad de Antivipmyn-Tri®, un antiveneno polivalente producido en México Bothrops bites in Colombia: a multicenter study on the efficacy and safety of Antivipmyn-Tri®, a polyvalent antivenom produced in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Fernando Jaramillo Delgado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Colombia es un país con dos productores de antivenenos de IgG, pero hay un mercado insatisfecho por diferentes razones técnicas. Objetivos: evaluar la eficacia y la seguridad de un antiveneno F(ab´2 polivalente (Antivipmyn-Tri® producido en México, y un nuevo esquema de dosis en accidente bothrópico en Colombia. Métodos: se realizaron durante 9 meses un ensayo clínico-terapéutico y cuantificaciones de veneno y antiveneno sérico (ELISA en 53 pacientes. Resultados: cuarenta y cuatro pacientes fueron mordidos por Bothrops asper en Antioquia y Chocó y 9 por B. atrox en Amazonas; todos tenían sangre incoagulable al ingreso, 30 (56,6% con sangrado local y 24 (45,3% con sangrado sistémico. El grado final de envenenamiento fue leve en 13 (24,5%, moderado en 30 (56,6% y grave en 10 pacientes (18,9%. A las dosis recomendadas de 5 frascos para los casos leves o moderados y 10 para los graves, Antivipmyn-Tri® fue 100% eficaz para disminuir significativamente las concentraciones séricas de veneno en la primera hora de tratamiento y para detener el sangrado en las primeras 6-12 horas, 96,2% eficaz para normalizar la coagulación en 24 horas y 100% en 48 horas. Hubo 2 casos (3,8% de recurrencia de coagulopatía sin sangrado y 12 recurrencias de antigenemia sin implicaciones clínicas. Diez pacientes (18,9% presentaron reacciones tempranas adversas (leves a la faboterapia. No hubo muertes, y cuatro pacientes (7,5% tuvieron secuelas. Conclusión: a las dosis utilizadas en este estudio, Antivipmyn-Tri® fue eficaz y seguro para el tratamiento del envenenamiento bothrópico en Colombia. Introduction: Colombia is a country with two whole IgG antivenom producers, but the expectancy of all the market are not fulfilled by different technical reasons. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a F(ab´2 polyvalent antivenom produced in Mexico and of a new dosage regimen for Bothrops bites in Colombia. Methods: A clinical trial

  17. Tracking the Origin and Deciphering the Phylogenetic Relationship of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Barrera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, new Chinese strains of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV, clinically more severe than the classical strains, emerged. These strains were spread to United States in 2013 through an intercontinental transmission from China with further spreading across the world, evidencing the emergent nature of these strains. In the present study, an analysis of PEDV field sequences from Ecuador was conducted by comparing all the PEDV S gene sequences available in the GenBank database. Phylogenetic comparisons and Bayesian phylogeographic inference based on complete S gene sequences were also conducted to track the origin and putative route of PEDV. The sequence from the PED-outbreak in Ecuador was grouped into the clade II of PEDV genogroup 2a together with other sequences of isolates from Mexico, Canada, and United States. The phylogeographic study revealed the emergence of the Chinese PEDV strains, followed by spreading to US in 2013, from US to Korea, and later the introduction of PEDV to Canada, Mexico, and Ecuador directly from the US. The sources of imports of live swine in Ecuador in 2014 were mainly from Chile and US. Thus, this movement of pigs is suggested as the main way for introducing PEDV to Ecuador.

  18. Weavers' Association easing poverty in Ecuador | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-12

    Oct 12, 2010 ... Weavers' Association easing poverty in Ecuador ... frenzy among the 54 members of Ecuador's Chordeleg Agricultural Craft Centre (CACH). ... Investing in Internet access boosts incomes, concludes Latin American study.

  19. INFORME DE COYUNTURA EXPORTACIONES DE COLOMBIA A VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni E. Reyes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La finalidad fundamental de este informe es presentar la situación de exportaciones que originadas en Colombia han tenido como destino Venezuela. Este intercambio comercial es muy importante en términos de la región latinoamericana. En particular, durante los años de mayor intercambio entre los dos países, lo que ha ocurrido en especial en la primera década del Siglo XXI, este comercio llegó a representar casi un 80 por ciento del total de intercambio de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones (CAN –Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú y Venezuela.

  20. 75 FR 34451 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... in Japan, China, Korea, and Pacific Coasts of Mexico, Colombia, and Ecuador. By Order of the Federal... vessel space in the trade between the U.S. Gulf coast and Mexico, Jamaica, Colombia, and Venezuela. The...

  1. Guerrilla Violence in Colombia: Examining Causes and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Ecuador’s Alfaro 27 Walker, Phyllis, "National Security", in Colombia a Country Study, Washington, 1990, p. 300. 28 Registraduria Nacional del Estado Civil...necessary to profoundly transform institutions. On several occasions, the old political 114 Informe Financiero Contraloria General de la Rep~blica, June...Societies, Princeton Press, 1988. Informe Financiero Contraloria General de la Repzblica, Bogota, 1988. Kalmanovitz, Salomon, Economia del

  2. Serious fungal infections in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, J; Denning, D W; Paz-Y-Miño, A; Solís, M B; Arias, L M

    2017-06-01

    There is a dearth of data from Ecuador on the burden of life-threatening fungal disease entities; therefore, we estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Ecuador based on the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases and publications. A full literature search was done to identify all epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates. WHO, ONU-AIDS, Index Mundi, Global Asthma Report, Globocan, and national data [Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC), Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA), Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, Tejidos y Células (INDOT)] were reviewed. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology by LIFE. Ecuador has a variety of climates from the cold of the Andes through temperate to humid hot weather at the coast and in the Amazon basin. Ecuador has a population of 15,223,680 people and an average life expectancy of 76 years. The median estimate of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) population at risk for fungal disease (Ecuador is affected by serious fungal infection.

  3. Estrategia para el fortalecimiento del Sistema de Indicadores Ambientales Marinos y Costeros de Colombia Proyecto SPINCAM Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Establecer un marco de referencias de Indicadores para el Manejo Integrado de Áreas Costeras (MIZC) en cada país de la región del Pacífico Sureste (Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Panamá y Perú), enfocado en las condiciones ambientales, socioeconómicas y de gobernabilidad en el contexto de desarrollo sostenible y manejo integrado del área costera.

  4. Genetic and metabolic biodiversity of Trichoderma from Colombia and adjacent neotropic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos-Carvajal, Lilliana; Orduz, Sergio; Bissett, John

    2009-09-01

    The genus Trichoderma has been studied for production of enzymes and other metabolites, as well as for exploitation as effective biological control agents. The biodiversity of Trichoderma has seen relatively limited study over much of the neotropical region. In the current study we assess the biodiversity of 183 isolates from Mexico, Guatemala, Panama, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil and Colombia, using morphological, metabolic and genetic approaches. A comparatively high diversity of species was found, comprising 29 taxa: Trichoderma asperellum (60 isolates), Trichoderma atroviride (3), Trichoderma brevicompactum (5), Trichoderma crassum (3), Trichoderma erinaceum (3), Trichoderma gamsii (2), Trichoderma hamatum (2), Trichoderma harzianum (49), Trichoderma koningiopsis (6), Trichoderma longibrachiatum (3), Trichoderma ovalisporum (1), Trichoderma pubescens (2), Trichoderma rossicum (4), Trichoderma spirale (1), Trichoderma tomentosum (3), Trichoderma virens (8), Trichoderma viridescens (7) and Hypocrea jecorina (3) (anamorph: Trichoderma reesei), along with 11 currently undescribed species. T. asperellum was the prevalent species and was represented by two distinct genotypes with different metabolic profiles and habitat preferences. The second predominant species, T. harzianum, was represented by three distinct genotypes. The addition of 11 currently undescribed species is evidence of the considerable unresolved biodiversity of Trichoderma in neotropical regions. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of the ribosomal repeat could not differentiate some species, and taken alone gave several misidentifications in part due to the presence of nonorthologous copies of the ITS in some isolates.

  5. Elimination of onchocerciasis from Colombia: first proof of concept of river blindness elimination in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Rubén Santiago; Duque, Sofía; Olaya, Luz Adriana; López, Myriam Consuelo; Sánchez, Sol Beatriz; Morales, Alba Lucía; Palma, Gloria Inés

    2018-04-11

    Onchocerciasis is a chronic parasitic infection originally endemic in 13 discrete regional foci distributed among six countries of Latin America (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela). In Colombia, this disease was discovered in 1965 in the Pacific Coast of the country. The National Onchocerciasis Elimination Program was established in 1993 with the aim of eliminating disease morbidity and infection transmission. In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) verified Colombia as free of onchocerciasis, becoming the first country in the world to reach such a goal. This report provides the empirical evidence of the elimination of Onchocerca volvulus transmission by Simulium exiguum (s.l.) after 12 years of 6-monthly mass drug administration of Mectizan® (ivermectin) to all the eligible residents living in this endemic area. From 1996 onwards, a biannual community-based mass ivermectin administration programme was implemented, complemented by health education and community participation. In-depth parasitological, serological and entomological surveys were conducted periodically between 1998 and 2007 to evaluate the impact of ivermectin treatment according to the 2001 WHO guidelines. When the interruption of parasite transmission was demonstrated, the drug distribution ceased and a three-year post-treatment surveillance (PTS) period (2008-2010) was initiated. After 23 rounds of treatment, parasitological and ophthalmological assessments showed absence of microfilariae in skin and anterior chamber of the eyes. Serological tests proved lack of antibodies against O. volvulus in children under 10 years-old. A total of 10,500 S. exiguum flies tested by PCR had no L3 infection (infectivity rate = 0.0095%; 95% CI: 0.0029-0.049) during 2004, indicating interruption of parasite transmission. However, biannual ivermectin treatments continued until 2007 followed by a 3-year PTS period at the end of which 13,481 flies were analyzed and no infective flies were

  6. List of participants of the VI School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics 17-25 November 2015, Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Lecturers: 1.- Oscar Saavedra San Martín Università di Torino and Istituto Nazionale di FisicaNucleare (INFN, Italy) 2.- Mario Rodríguez Cahuantzi Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (BUAP) 3.- Alberto Carramiñana Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE, Mexico) 4.- Marco Casolino Rikagaku Kenkyusho, Research Institute (RIKEN, Japan) and INFN (Italy) 5.- Paolo Desiati Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center (WIPAC), Department of Astronomy (Madison, USA) 6.- Paolo Lipari Sezione Roma I dell’ INFN, Universita’ degli Studi “La Sapienza” c/o Istituto di Fisica (Italy) 7.- Juan Carlos Arteaga Velázquez Instituto de Física y Matemáticas of Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo (IFM-UMSNH, Mexico) 8.- Karen Salomé Caballero Mora Facultad de Ciencias en Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas (FCFM-UNACH, Mexico) 9.- Pat Harding Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL, USA) 10.- Omar Miranda Romagnoli Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-Mexico) 11.- Pierluigi Belli INFN Roma Tor Vergata (Italy) 12.- Giuseppe Di Sciascio Departament of Physics (INFN, Italy) 13.- César Álvarez Ochoa FCFM-UNACH, Mexico 14.- Luis Villaseñor IFM-UMSNH, Mexico 15.- Jorge Romo FCFM-UNACH, Mexico 16.- Lukas Nellen Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (ICN-UNAM, Mexico) Students: 1.- Ibrahim Torres, INAOE, Mexico 2.-Andrea Correa, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Ecuador 3.- Humberto Martínez Huerta, CINVESTAV, Mexico 4.- Iván Antonio Cárdenas Muñoz, Universidad de Sonora, Mexico 5.- Juan Antonio Salazar Contreras, Escuela de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, USAC, Guatemala 6.- Pravda Linda Flor Cabrera Vogel, USAC, Guatemala 7.- Luis Guillermo García Ordóñez, USAC, Guatemala 8.- Marco Antonio Morales Ovalle, USAC, Guatemala 9.- Joshua Raphael L

  7. El exilio posmoderno. Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Benavides Solís

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aproximadamente hasta hace unas dos generaciones, entendíamos que la tierra de nuestros padres, era nuestra Patria. Ya no. Con la economía globalizada, sobre todo en los países no industrializados, el exilio es cada vez más frecuente, de gran magnitud y va acompañado de dolorosas circunstancias. El exilio es la expatriación legal e ilegal no voluntaria. Ser patriota, entregar la vida por la patria (rezago preindustrial ahora, carece de sentido. Tampoco sirve ser buen ciudadano (objetivo del estado industrial porque, el paradigma postmoderno es ser buen/gran consumidor. Solamente así, será posible disfrutar de la economía con libertad empresarial y de una forma de gobierno con democracia de mercado. La emigración en Europa ha sido un fenómeno natural, una experiencia de cinco siglos; en Hispanoamérica una experiencia de cinco décadas y en el Ecuador, de apenas diez años. En este corto plazo, la exportación de mano de obra no calificada, se ha convertido en la segunda fuente de divisas, después del petróleo. Son las consecuencias de la economía global que prescinde del lugar y prefiere el espacio de los flujos, cuya bonanza depende de los servicios y de las ideas antes que de las máquinas.__________________ABSTRACT:Approximately, until two generations ago, we understood that our parents’ Earth was our Mother country. Not any longer. With the economy globalized, mainly in the countries that are not industrialized, exile becomes more and more frequent, of great magnitude and it goes accompanied of painful circumstances. Exile is the involuntary legal and illegal expatriation. To be patriotic, to give the life by the Mother country (pre-industrial falling behind now, it doesn’t make sense. It is of no use to be a good citizen neither (the industrial state objective because; the post-modern paradigm is to be a good/great consumer. Only like that it is possible to enjoy the economy with enterprise freedom and of a form of

  8. All projects related to bolivia | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-03-16

    End Date: March 16, 2018. Topic: LATIN ... Region: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru. Program: ... Enhancing Women's Economic Empowerment Through Better Policies in Latin America. Project.

  9. 15 CFR 748.14 - Import Certificate for firearms destined for Organization of American States member countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St. Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint...

  10. Culture and creativity in the Otavalo region (Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarda Elisa Pupiales Rueda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses some of the cultural manifestations of the people located in Otavalo (Ecuador, and witnesses the validity of the ancestral traditions of the ethnic groups that make it possible for the creativity to be interconnected with the popular expressions through an innate ability to the development of decorative, utilitarian, mythical or profane objects that constitute the handicrafts, clothing and the popular celebrations. Otavalo’s crafts is related to syncretic culture, sacred and profane, traditional and modern, ritual and playful. In addition, there are some similarities with the region of south Colombia. So, there are clear cultural links, either by the proximity, as well as the cultural roots they share. The study leads to a series of reflections on the traditions of a region with a high indigenous ethnic component and a rich and prolific material culture which evidences complex hybridizations and influences.

  11. Palm oil industry in Ecuador. Good business for small farmers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley P. Potter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador is the second largest producer in Latin America of crude palm oil and is the seventh largest producer worldwide, but with yields per hectare still lower than Colombia and Costa Rica. Although producers with over 1 000 hectares have the leadership in the palm oil industry, 87% of producers produce with less than 50 hectares. Moreover, the deforestation rate in Ecuador is ranked by FAO as the ninth highest in the world and the highest in South America. The African palm plantations have been criticized for causing deforestation and worsening work conditions. However, government sectors see the oil palm companies as a source of employment and development for poor regions. This fieldwork shows that there is a difference in perception among small farmers. Farmers from Quinindé-La Concordia were satisfied with the income they earn and the rising prices of land planted with palm. Farmers in San Lorenzo, in contrast, are not happy since the survey shows that a disease devastated trees and as a result, land prices have fallen in San Lorenzo.

  12. Rural energetic troubles in Ecuador; Problemas de la Energizacion rural en Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, A [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica, Escuela superior politecnica del Litoral, ESPOL, Guayaquil (Ecuador)

    1994-07-01

    The present work presents a general situation of Ecuador, its demand of Energy, programs of electrification rural, energy requirements in the hydroelectric rural sector, central sector built in Ecuador and the priorities of energy use.

  13. Transformation of health system in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Giovanni Jiménez Barbosa; María Luisa Granda Kuffo; Diana Margoth Ávila Guzmán; Leidy Johanna Cruz Díaz; Julián Camilo Flórez Parra; Luisa Silvana Mejía; Diana Carolina Vargas Suárez

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe the transformations of the structure of the health system in Ecuador, taking into account the constitutional and policy context of that country, and to reflect on the historical context in which it occurred and its implications for the welfare of the people from Ecuador. Materials and methods: A bibliographic review was made, beginning with the regulations of Ecuador since the Constitution of 1979, where health is considered as a right, passing by the Organic Law of Hea...

  14. Percepción de competencias en epidemiología en México y Colombia durante la epidemia de influenza A (H1N1 entre estudiantes de salud pública Perception of epidemiological competencies by public health students in Mexico and Colombia during the influenza A (H1N1 epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro J Idrovo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer la percepción que los estudiantes de salud pública en México y en Colombia tuvieron sobre el manejo de la epidemia de influenza A (H1N1, como una forma para indagar qué contenidos curriculares pueden ser mejorados en la formación en epidemiología. MÉTODOS: Encuesta durante la epidemia, entre junio y agosto de 2009, a estudiantes de posgrado. Se evaluaron las 30 competencias epidemiológicas del Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists para "epidemiólogos intermedios". Se describieron los resultados estratificando por covariables, y se identificaron las competencias con menor desarrollo mediante análisis factorial exploratorio. RESULTADOS: Participaron 154 estudiantes, de los cuales 55,8% estaban en México. Se observaron diferencias importantes en el perfil de los estudiantes de ambos países, lo cual explica parcialmente la percepción de respuesta a la epidemia. En el análisis factorial el primer factor, que explica 21,5% de la varianza, presentó menores puntajes y se asoció con competencias relacionadas con el vínculo entre el personal sanitario y la comunidad, donde resultan relevantes conocimientos de ciencias sociales y habilidades de comunicación. CONCLUSIONES: Los estudiantes percibieron que la respuesta frente a la epidemia podría haber sido mejor. Se sugiere incorporar en la educación de los recursos humanos en salud pública temáticas sobre cultura y sus efectos sobre conductas y pensamientos, el reconocimiento de los prejuicios de los expertos, la comunicación efectiva con las comunidades, y la habilidad para adaptarse ante nuevas situaciones. El "experimento natural" de la epidemia facilitó la identificación de áreas de oportunidad para mejorar la enseñanza de la epidemiología ante contingencias sanitarias.OBJECTIVE: Learn about the perception of public health students in Mexico and Colombia regarding the management of the influenza A (H1N1 epidemic to determine which curriculum

  15. Regulatory control of ionizing radiations in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, Manuel

    1996-03-01

    This document deals with legal aspects for controlling ionizing radiations, radiological safety regulations and objectives, scopes and features of the national radioprotection planning in Ecuador. (The author)

  16. Comercio y trabajo: utilidades subjetivas y derechos humanos en la negociación de acuerdos comerciales – los casos de Colombia y Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Dusso, Juan José

    2017-01-01

    En 2004, los gobiernos de Perú y Colombia iniciaron, conjuntamente con Ecuador, la negociación de un acuerdo de libre comercio con el Gobierno de Estados Unidos. Retirado Ecuador del proceso y desligadas las negociaciones de los dos países restantes, el documento negociado entre Perú y Estados Unidos fue ratificado en 2006 y 2007 por los congresos de cada uno respectivamente. Por su parte, el negociado por Colombia vio prolongada su revisión y aprobación por parte del congreso norteamericano....

  17. Plan Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Chomsky

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombia recibe más ayuda militar de Estados Unidos que el resto de América Latina y el Caribe unidos, y esta situación puede profundizarse con la ejecución del Plan Colombia, fundamentado en la lucha antidrogas. Sin embargo, el pais ha sido calificado con el récord en violación de derechos humanos. En este contexto se aplica la reforma económica más significativa en la década de los noventa, generando condicionantes en los procesos de integración con sus vecinos. En concordancia con el secretario de Defensa, Henry Stimson, desde los años 60 Estados Unidos estaba autorizado para controlar su propio sistema regional, mientras todos los demás intenlos serian desmantelados. La presentación ambigua de esta política del gobierno estadounidense en Colombia es cómo disociar esta guerra contra la droga y la lucha irregular contrainsurgente En Estados Unidos hay otra opinión que debe conocerse para comprender las divergencias en e! interior de dicho país. Este artículo del prestigioso profesor universitario del MU, Noam Chomsky, es un referente obligado en términos de opinión pública y académica de dimensión internacional, por el inmenso respeto que infunde tanto en América como en Europa

  18. Offshore Aquaculture Development in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio López Alvarado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador has a long tradition in aquaculture, mainly related to the cultivation of shrimp and tilapia in earthen ponds. Land-based production methods have a large environmental, economic and social impact due to the extensive use of land and its effects on the ecosystems. In order to increase the production of fish without further land use and with a lower environmental impact, a good alternative is the culture of fish in floating cages, adopting technologies used successfully in many other countries. This article analyses the current situation of offshore aquaculture (the production of fish and other aquatic organisms in the open sea in Ecuador, and the prospects for the future of this sector in the country.

  19. Reptilia, Squamata, Iguanidae, Anolis heterodermus Duméril, 1851: Distribution extension, first record for Ecuador and notes on color variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Carvajal, O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first record of A. heterodermus for Ecuador based on four specimens from Chilmá Bajo, province ofCarchi, ca. 120 km NE from the nearest record (departamento Putumayo, municipio de Santiago, Colombia reported in theliterature. Two additional records for Ecuador are listed in the Herpnet database, from specimens deposited at the CarnegieMuseum of Natural History and collected 18 km SE from Maldonado (ca. 8 km NW from Chilmá Bajo. We also presentinformation about color variation in the recently collected specimens.

  20. Characterization of a new tymovirus from Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjilla (Solanum quitoense) is a solanaceous shrub cultivated in Ecuador for fresh fruit and juice production. A naranjilla plant exhibiting stunting and chlorotic spots was sampled near Quito, Ecuador. An infectious agent was transferred to indicator plants by mechanical inoculation, and subsequ...

  1. Developing Intercultural Science Education in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This article traces the recent development of intercultural science education in Ecuador. It starts by situating this development within the context of a growing convergence between Western and indigenous sciences. It then situates it within the larger historical, political, cultural, and educational contexts of indigenous communities in Ecuador,…

  2. Migration decisions, agrarian structure, and gender: the case of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-ureta, B E; Quiroga, R E; Brea, J A

    1996-07-01

    This article briefly reviews the literature on migration in Latin America and examines migration decision making in Ecuador. Aggregate data are obtained from the 1974 census of agriculture and population for cantones. Individual level data are obtained from the 1982 census of population. Migration refers to all census persons who recorded differences in their present and previous place of residence during 1974-82. Migration is modeled as dependent upon gender, age, education, marital status, income at origin and at destination, and population pressure or agrarian reform. Logistic model findings indicate that migration decisions are influenced by individual characteristics of migrants and contextual variables. Migration varied by gender. The results confirm Todaro's hypothesis that the probability of migrating is related to income differences between place of destination and origin, but only for males. Findings suggest that females migrate for primary reasons other than economic ones. The probability of migration was greater with increased levels of education. The decision to migrate was affected by quality of life differences, such as literacy rates and levels of urbanization. The probability of migration was reduced by the effects of land reform. Population pressure had a significant effect in increasing migration. The effects of land reform differ from findings in Mexico by William E. Cole and Richard D. Sanders. Land reforms were initiated in 1964 in Ecuador, but by 1974 there was still considerable inequality in land distribution and increased population pressure. Traditional haciendas were modernized, and peasants increased their dependency on non-farm income.

  3. Loja musical capital of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Rodríguez Guerrero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the slang language of Lojanos, it is said that Loja is the musical capital of Ecuador. thesis or clich´e, which has led to write the present article to find the theoretical empirical support and practices that support it, constituting it in research object and recommend to the future the innovations that need to be introduced in order to sustain and strengthen this place of Loja. This first approach has as a problem What does Loja provides, that distinguish from the rest of the provinces of Ecuador in the musical field, to be considered its capital? This first delivery aims to build a framework of computer concepts that open up posterity to a field of research on music and that translate into policies, plans and programs that empower it. They develop three concepts derived from the thesis: the power to construct music that refers to the generic and specific competences in different instruments and genres, the amount of music that is produced and the human talent in musical formation that is developed in Loja. Empirical evidence is collected to corroborate or reject the hypothesis: Loja is the musical capital of Ecuador. Data are collected on musical skills and compared at the global level, as well as music production and music training scenarios. At the end the hypothesis is checked. The task of the Lojanos is to innovate the capital. Keywords: Music, musical competitions, musical talent in training, amount of music, musicalperformance, musical instrument, songs.

  4. President of Ecuador visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    On Friday, 24 October, Dr. Rafael Correa Delgado, President of the Republic of Ecuador, visited CERN.   Visiting Geneva to deliver a lecture at the UN, Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa Delgado seized the chance to have a short but intense visit of the Laboratory. The President was met at LHC Point 1 by the Director for Research and Scientific Computing Sergio Bertolucci, who gave him an introduction to CERN’s activities.He was also introduced to the Director for Accelerators and Technology, Frédérick Bordry, and Department Heads José Miguel Jiménez (TE), Livio Mapelli (PH) and Roberto Saban (EN). President Correa Delgado also met with Martijn Mulders, co-organiser of the CERN Latin America School of High-Energy Physics, which will be held in Ecuador from 4 to 17 March 2015. Shortly after that, he visited the ATLAS experimental cavern which he toured with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson David Charlton and Fernando Monticelli of t...

  5. VENTAQUEMADA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio D. Fonseca

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de someter los residuos de maíz al proceso termoquímico llamado gasificación, en este trabajo se muestran resultados de diferentes análisis para conocer algunas propiedades físico-químicas que son de gran importancia antes de realizar este proceso. Se determinó el contenido de lignina la cual registro un valor de 14,7%, se determinó el poder calorífico de esta biomasa obteniendo un valor de 17,965 MJ kg-1, análisis TGA con tres velocidades de calentamiento diferentes, se realiza un análisis ultimo para revelar la composición química de la biomasa; estos resultados fueron comparados con estudios realizados en otros países. Los resultados obtenidos contribuyen a la investigación de este tipo de biomasa en Colombia, ya que no se registra información bibliográfica de la caracterización de esta; se debe aprovechar su uso en la utilización en el proceso de gasificación, ya que poseen las características necesarias para obtener un producto como el “syngas”.

  6. colombia : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: MOTIVATION, Gender. Région: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay. Programme: Emploi et croissance. Financement total : CA$ 858,000.00. Transformer les territoires (Amérique latine). Projet. Ce projet vise à appuyer des politiques et des programmes qui créent de meilleures occasions et qui ...

  7. All projects related to colombia | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to support policies and programs that create greater opportunities and improve the well-being of 900,000 people living in poverty in the rural-urban territories of Chile, Colombia, and Mexico. Topic: ECONOMIC GROWTH, RURAL AREAS, EMPLOYMENT, LATIN AMERICA, FOOD, POLICY MAKING. Region: ...

  8. Colombia : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: YOUTH, ADOLESCENTS, VIOLENCE, JUVENILE DELINQUENCY, ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE, CRIME PREVENTION. Région: North and Central America, South America, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico. Programme: Gouvernance et justice. Financement total : CA$ 415,900.00. Données ouvertes aux fins ...

  9. Scorpionism in Ecuador: First report of severe and fatal envenoming cases from northern Manabí by Tityus asthenes Pocock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Adolfo; Morales, Melva; Loor, Wilmer; Delgado, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    The presence in rural areas of western Ecuador of scorpions in the genus Tityus capable of producing pediatric mortality is hereby evidenced. The medical significance of scorpions in Ecuador has been underestimated partly because of the clinically unimportant stings delivered by Centruroides margaritatus and Teuthraustes atramentarius, which have venom with low toxicity to vertebrates. Five intra-domiciliary cases of scorpion envenoming in victims aged between 1.9 and 16 years old, including one fatality, are reported from rural settings in forest areas of Chone (n = 2) and Flavio Alfaro (n = 3) counties, northern Manabí province, western Ecuador. Three cases were graded as Class II (moderate) and two in Class III (severe) envenoming. Manifestations showed characteristic autonomic nervous system hyper-stimulation and the fatality (a 1.9-year-old boy from Flavio Alfaro) was due to cardio-respiratory failure. Marked leukocytosis in four of the cases (21,800-31,800 cells/mm(3)), with notable neutrophilia (58-82%), suggests induction of a venom-mediated systemic inflammatory response-like syndrome. Specimens responsible for cases in Flavio Alfaro County, including the fatality, were classified as Tityus asthenes Pocock, accountable for severe scorpionism in Colombia. These findings demand implementation of control and therapeutic measures in affected areas in Ecuador, including evaluation of available scorpion antivenoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sistema de salud de Ecuador The health system of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Lucio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen las condiciones de salud en Ecuador y, con mayor detalle, las características del sistema ecuatoriano de salud, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone, las tareas de rectoría que desarrolla el Ministerio de Salud Pública, la generación de información en salud, las tareas de investigación, y la participación de los ciudadanos en la operación y evaluación del sistema. También se discuten las innovaciones más recientes que se han implantado en el sistema ecuatoriano de salud dentro de las que destaca la incorporación de un capítulo específico sobre salud a la nueva Constitución que reconoce a la protección de la salud como un derecho humano y la construcción de la Red Pública Integral de Salud.This paper describes the health conditions in Ecuador and, in more detail, the characteristics of the Ecuadorian health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the physical, material and human resources available, and the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Public Health. It also describes the structure and content of its health information system, and the participation of citizens in the operation and evaluation of the health system. The paper ends with a discussion of the most recent policy innovations implemented in the Ecuadorian system, including the incorporation of a chapter on health into the new Constitution which recognizes the protection of health as a human right, and the construction of the Comprehensive Public Health Network.

  11. Ecuador's Presidential Election: Background on Economic Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Weisbrot; Luis Sandoval; Belén Cadena

    2006-01-01

    This paper looks at the biggest economic challenges that Ecuador's new president will need to address, and examines its recent economic history, including the issues of growth, dollarization, and international trade and finance.

  12. Transformation of health system in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Giovanni Jiménez Barbosa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the transformations of the structure of the health system in Ecuador, taking into account the constitutional and policy context of that country, and to reflect on the historical context in which it occurred and its implications for the welfare of the people from Ecuador. Materials and methods: A bibliographic review was made, beginning with the regulations of Ecuador since the Constitution of 1979, where health is considered as a right, passing by the Organic Law of Health, the Social Security Act, among others, including the last reform of the Constitution in 2008. Results: The transformation of the Health System of Ecuador is the result of the action of economic and political forces, both internal and external, that have affected this country throughout the studied period.

  13. en Colombia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Andrés Ocampo Duque

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El Ministerio de Minas y Energía aprobó la comercialización de biogasolina en Colombia a partir del día 1.º de noviembre de 2005. La biogasolina (gasohol o mezcla E10 es una mezcla que contiene 90% de gasolina y 10% de etanol en volumen. El etanol se origina a partir de la fermentación natural, luego de extraer los jugos de cultivos como la caña de azúcar, el maíz, el trigo o la yuca. Tanto el Gobierno nacional como los productores interesados han manifestado que la biogasolina se presenta como una alternativa para reducir los efectos negativos sobre el medio ambiente que producen las grandes ciudades debido a la quema de combustibles fósiles en el sector del transporte. Sin embargo, en la literatura científica especializada la evidencia de efectos ambientales favorables por el uso de gasolina oxigenada con un 10% de etanol es escasa. Por el contrario, hay gran controversia a nivel mundial acerca del uso de este combustible modificado. En este trabajo se hace una extensa revisión científica en la que se muestra que la mezcla etanol-gasolina presenta cuestionables beneficios ambientales ya que puede incrementar la producción de contaminantes altamente tóxicos y smog fotoquímico, ofrece pocos beneficios en cuanto a reducciones de gases de efecto invernadero y sostenibilidad ambiental, además de incrementar el riesgo de la contaminación de las aguas subterráneas.

  14. mexico : tous les projets | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , Mexico, Canada ... Région: North and Central America, South America, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Peru ... Commerce, sexospécificités et équité en Amérique latine : le savoir au service de l'action politique. Projet.

  15. Populismo y neopopulismo en Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Moreano

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo hace una breve descripción de los períodos de Velasco Ibarra, Assad Bucaram, Abdalá Bucaram y Lucio Gutiérrez donde la simbología del líder frente a su pueblo fue esencial dentro de la cultura política ecuatoriana. En sí el objetivo está en describir las diferencias entre populismo y neopopulismo en el Ecuador, y a la vez entender cómo ha funcionado el sistema clientelar y caudillista en cada gobierno; sin dejar de lado, el contexto social y económico por el que se atravezaba.

  16. Populismo y neopopulismo en Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Donoso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo hace una breve descripción de los períodos de Velasco Ibarra, Assad Bucaram, Abdalá Bucaram y Lucio Gutiérrez donde la simbología del líder frente a su pueblo fue esencial dentro de la cultura política ecuatoriana. En sí el objetivo está en describir las diferencias entre populismo y neopopulismo en el Ecuador, y a la vez entender cómo ha funcionado el sistema clientelar y caudillista en cada gobierno; sin dejar de lado, el contexto social y económico por el que se atravezaba

  17. [The health system of Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio, Ruth; Villacrés, Nilhda; Henríquez, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health conditions in Ecuador and, in more detail, the characteristics of the Ecuadorian health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the physical, material and human resources available, and the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Public Health. It also describes the structure and content of its health information system, and the participation of citizens in the operation and evaluation of the health system. The paper ends with a discussion of the most recent policy innovations implemented in the Ecuadorian system, including the incorporation of a chapter on health into the new Constitution which recognizes the protection of health as a human right, and the construction of the Comprehensive Public Health Network.

  18. Ecuador: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that there has been considerable turbulence in Ecuador's E and P sector over the last year. For instance, Energy Minister Diego Tramariz was replaced by the country's Congress after he raised subsidized fuel prices. Ecuadoran and U.S. environmentalists, meanwhile, raised a firestorm of controversy over the on-again, off- again development of Conoco's Block 16 in Yasuni National Park. Finally, Unocal and PetroCanada this spring terminated their respective drilling operations after fruitless multiwell efforts. New Energy Minister Donald Castillo certainly has his work cut out in attempting to maintain stability in upstream activity. To that end, Castillo has stated that one of his top priorities will be to maintain a good working relationship with foreign operators. He also expected a seventh round of exploratory blocks to be offered before summer's end to shore up activity. Castillo reiterated in public statements that he stands by the administration's existing energy policies, including development of Block 16

  19. E-commerce in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Karina Esparza Cruz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, companies have been forced to create new media with their customers that allow them to obtain the sales volume necessary to make a profit, which is why e-commerce is an invaluable tool for the sales department of the Business. Over the years e-commerce has evolved facing major challenges, especially those related to information security and the little Ecuadorian culture of buying online. However, thanks to the fact that in the last decade the number of Internet users has increased, this has allowed online sales to start increasing their amounts annually, however, compared with the rest of South American countries to Ecuador still It lacks much way to go not only in the implementation of secure web portals for Internet purchases, but also in computer culture and security rules in Internet users.

  20. Sending-country violence and receiving-country discrimination: effects on the health of Colombian refugees in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlin, Michele G; Decena, Carlos U; Noboa, Hugo; Betancourt, Óscar

    2014-02-01

    This study explored factors affecting the health and well being of recent refugees from Colombia in Ecuador. Data collection focused on how sending-country violence and structural violence in a new environment affect immigrant health vulnerability and risk behaviors. A qualitative approach included ethnographic observation, media content analysis, focus groups, and individual interviews with refugees (N = 137). The focus groups (5) provided perspectives on the research domains by sex workers; drug users; male and female refugees; and service providers. Social and economic marginalization are impacting the health and well being of this growing refugee population. Data illustrate how stigma and discrimination affect food and housing security, employment and health services, and shape vulnerabilities and health risks in a new receiving environment. Widespread discrimination in Ecuador reflects fears, misunderstanding, and stereotypes about Colombian refugees. For this displaced population, the sequelae of violence, combined with survival needs and lack of support and protections, shape new risks to health and well-being.

  1. Epidemiology of acromegaly in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gavilanez, Enrique; Guerrero Franco, Kempis; Solórzano Zambrano, Narcisa; Navarro Chávez, Manuel; López Estrella, Camilo; Vaca Burbano, Luis; Marriott Díaz, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    To assess the epidemiology of acromegaly in the city of Guayaquil, Ecuador, and to compare our results to those reported in the literature. An analysis was made of retrospective and prospective data from all patients with acromegaly attending endocrinology clinics at the 4 main hospitals of the public health network of Guayaquil from January 2000 to December 2014. Age at diagnosis, estimated delay in diagnosis, imaging studies of pituitary gland, basal growth hormone (GH) level, GH after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT-GH), and serum levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were recorded. Incidence and prevalence of the disease were estimated using information from the 2010 census of population and housing. Forty-eight cases were recorded in the study period in 17 males (35.4%) and 31 females (64.5%); M/F ratio=1.8:1. Mean age at diagnosis was 47.3±16.8 years (range 18-86). Delay in diagnosis was 7.3±6.3 years (range 1-30). Mean age at diagnosis was 47.9±18.2 years in males and 46.3±15.8 years in females. Delay in diagnosis was 10.2±7.9 and 5.7±3.9 years in males and females, respectively. Prevalence of acromegaly is 18.7 cases per million inhabitants, and incidence of acromegaly 1.3 cases per million people per year. Acromegaly predominates in females, and is diagnosed in the fourth decade with a delay of approximately 8 years, usually even longer in males. Incidence and prevalence are lower than reported in international series. The disease is underdiagnosed and underreported in Ecuador. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Fighting Corruption in Mexico: Lessons from Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    from agriculture while only 8.2 percent of Colombia‘s land is dedicated to agriculture. On these lands, Colombians grow bananas, coffee , cut flowers... obsession with dismantling the cartels, but not addressing the conditions that had allowed the drug trade to flourish, would need to be addressed

  3. (Colombia 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Constanza Cañón

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio pretende indagar sobre las prácticas y comportamientos sexuales en una población universitaria, ya que comportamientos positivos pueden desarrollar mejores habilidades para la prevención de conductas de alto riesgo, mayor satisfacción sexual y, por ende, vivir más plenamente. La presente investigación es de tipo transversal y en ella participaron estudiantes de todas las facultades de la Universidad de Manizales (Caldas, Colombia, que estaban cursando entre primero y noveno semestre. La muestra de esta investigación la constituyeron 267 personas sobre una población de 3600 estudiantes regulares; se obtuvo mediante un muestreo probabilístico estratificado por género y facultad. La edad media fue de 21.69 años; la mayor proporción fue de mujeres en un 58.8%; 1.5% eran homosexuales y un 5%, bisexuales, el método de anticoncepción más usado fueron los métodos de barrera en un 41.3%; el 15.2% habían tenido alguna infección de transmisión sexual. En lo que se refiere a las prácticas sexuales el 22.8% realizan todas las prácticas (masturbación, sexo oral, sexo anal, sexo vaginal; en cuanto al promedio de edad de inicio de relaciones sexuales fue de 16.09 años; están de acuerdo con la despenalización total del aborto en un 53.1%; el 73.2% adoptan una posición de aceptación y tolerancia hacia la homosexualidad. El estudio permitió ver la influencia de varias variables como género, familia, religión y formación educativa sobre el comportamiento y la práctica sexual responsable.

  4. Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The main trends of the international scenario for the next third of a century are discussed below. Certain analysts, consider that fundamental changes already took place, and the coming evolution will be driven by forces already present. Main feature in the plot is the globalisation phenomenon. Economic globalisation is considered irreversible by many, like the director of the World Trade Organisation. Also the secretary of the Democratic Confederation of the French Labour Party and an official of the World Bank, hold similar views. Globalisation is a process more than a state, leading to segmentation and planetary distribution of economic activities, as a function of competitive and comparative advantages, available in different locations. The process assumes and reinforces the following conditions: Free flow of goods, services and capital, inside and across boundaries of commercial blocks, aiming to a complete elimination of national, regional and other barriers for trade; Access with decreasing costs, to planetary networks of communications, transport and other services, with practical elimination of overheads due to coordination, transactions, transport of components and so on; General use of (now) advanced technologies, for information handling and progressive automation of complex activities. Rapid incorporation of the results of Research and Development into flexible production, with the result of shorter product lives in the markets and improved turning of their demands. (EHS) 55 refs.

  5. Two new Cystoderma species from high Andean Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saar, I.; Læssøe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Two new agaric species, Cystoderma andinum and C. papallactae are described from high Andean Ecuador.......ABSTRACT: Two new agaric species, Cystoderma andinum and C. papallactae are described from high Andean Ecuador....

  6. Report on Follow-up Visit to Ecuador, Part 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Combs, Gerald F

    1961-01-01

    ...), National Institutes of Health, who visited Ecuador from January 15th to the 21st, 1961. Dr. Gerald F. Combs, PhD, visited Ecuador to discuss the nutritional survey conducted by ICNND in the summer of 1959...

  7. Counterterrorism policy in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Self, Kevin A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to suggest a coherent, credible, and long-term counterterrorism policy in Colombia. The events of September 11, 2001 heightened U.S. awareness of Colombian terrorist organizations, the most powerful being the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). The U.S. counterterror approach in Colombia appears fragmented, with only minor changes to its previous drug control policies. In contrast, the Colombian government has developed and implemented a policy to ...

  8. Lago Agrio (Nueva Loja), Ecuador: A Strategic Black Spot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Lago Agrio (Nueva Loja ), Ecuador : A Strategic Black Spot? by Colonel John A. Conway United States Army...REPORT TYPE STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT .33 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lago Agrio (Nueva Loja ), Ecuador : A...Agrio (Nueva Loja ), Ecuador : A Strategic Black Spot? by Colonel John A. Conway United States Army Colonel Juan C

  9. Actitudes lingüísticas en Ecuador. Una tradición normativa que subsiste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esthela Flores Mejía

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de hablantes nativos de español de Quito, hacia al español del Ecuador y hacia el español de los otros países hispanohablantes. El artículo es parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigación (RCN. La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital del país, entrevistando una muestra de 395 informantes previamente estratificada con las variables de edad, sexo y nivel socioeconómico. El estudio presentado es el primero de esta naturaleza que se realiza en Ecuador; sus resultados muestran, de forma general, la forma de hablar de la provincia de Loja es la que cuenta con mayor prestigio, en contraste con el bajo aprecio por el habla de Guayaquil y Cuenca. Los habitantes de la Capital reconocen como similar la forma de hablar de las provincias aledañas a la suya y diferentes sobre todo a las provincias de la Costa. En líneas generales se puede establecer que, aunque hay algunas variantes del español que les agradan, como las que se hablan en España y en Colombia, el afecto y el prestigio que los ecuatorianos asignan a su propia forma de hablar es muy fuerte. Abstract This article analyzes the linguistic attitudes of native Spanish speakers from Quito, towards Spanish spoken in Ecuador and in the other Spanish-speaking countries. It is a result of the LIAS-Project (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, funded by The Research Council of Norway (RCN. The data were gathered in the capital of the country, interviewing a stratified sample of 395 respondents, based on the variables of age, sex and socioeconomic status. This research study is the first of its kind in Ecuador. Its results show that the Spanish spoken in the Loja province has high prestige, in contrast to the Spanish spoken in Guayaquil and Cuenca. Residents of Quito, the

  10. Las implicaciones del conflicto interno colombiano para las fronteras de Ecuador, Perú, Brasil y Venezuela, 2000-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreano Urigüen, Hernán

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo describe la situación de las distintas zonas limítrofes de Colombia -Ecuador, Perú, Brasil y Venezuela- en relación a la vigencia del Plan Colombia desde agosto de 2000, y cuyo fin es erradicar los cultivos de hoja de coca y a la vez combatir a los grupos alzados en armas FARC, ELN y AUC. Más allá de lo militar, el texto presenta la situación social y medioambiental en las zonas más vulnerables, y describe una escenario caracterizado por un sinnúmero de desplazados y refugiados sin que existan acuerdos comunes para la prevención de conflictos.

  11. New links between Ecuador and CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    A new protocol recently signed in Quito opens the way to stronger links between the Ecuadorian scientific community and CERN. The operational framework provided by the protocol will enable scientists from Ecuador to take part in CERN’s projects, supported by the Ecuadorian authorities.   Picture taken during the signing ceremony at SENESCYT (Quito, Ecuador) on 12 July 2011. From left to right: Guillermo Solórzano, Minister for Coordination of Knowledge and Human Talent, Rene Ramirez Gallegos, National Secretary for Higher Education, Science and Technology - SENECYT, Felicitas Pauss and Jose Salicio from CERN. Ecuador’s involvement with CERN dates back to 1999 when a first International Co-operation Agreement was signed. However, despite these early beginnings,   only a few scientists from Ecuador, affiliated to non-Ecuadorian institutes, have since been directly involved in CERN’s projects, in particular the CMS experiment a...

  12. Characterization of ascaris from ecuador and zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, A M; Betson, M; Oviedo, G; Sandoval, C; Cooper, P J; Stothard, J R

    2015-07-01

    To shed light on the epidemiology of ascariasis in Ecuador and Zanzibar, 177 adult worms retrieved by chemo-expulsion from either people or pigs were collected, measured and subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Upon double digestion with RsaI and HaeIII, PCR-RFLP analysis revealed the presence of A. lumbricoides in people and A. suum in pigs in Ecuador. In contrast, while there are no pigs on Zanzibar, of the 56 worms obtained from people, one was genotyped as A. suum. No additional genetic variation was detected upon further PCR-RFLP analysis with several other restriction enzymes. Upon measurement, worm mass and length differed by location and by species, A. suum being lighter and longer. While there is no evidence to suggest zoonotic transmission in Ecuador, an enduring historical signature of previous zoonotic transmission remains on Zanzibar.

  13. Energy sector in Ecuador: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelaez-Samaniego, M.R.; Garcia-Perez, M.; Cortez, L.A.B.; Oscullo, J.; Olmedo, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the current energy sector in Ecuador, its present structure, the oil industry, subsidies, and renewable energy, focusing on the evolution and reform of the electricity sector. Currently, 86% of the primary energy originates from nonrenewable sources. In 2005, the gross electricity generation was 15 127 GWh (45.5% hydropower, 43.11% thermal, and 11.39% imported). Ecuador is the fifth largest oil producer in South America but lacks sufficient oil refining capacity. Reserves of natural gas (NG) are small, and most of NG is produced from oil fields without energy recovery. Several projects are underway to increase the utilization of NG and renewable energies to meet Ecuador commitments to the Kyoto Protocol

  14. Colombia: Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veillette, Connie

    2005-01-01

    ... into sharper focus after the attacks of September 11, 2001. The United States has made a significant commitment of funds and material support to help Colombia and the Andean region fight drug trafficking since the development of Plan Colombia in 1999...

  15. Arms Trafficking and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    chronology of the intensification of violence in the area, see Noche Y Niebla: Panorama De Derechos Humanos Y Violencia Politica En Colombia, Bogotá...Arms, London, UK: Zed Books, 2000, pp. 155–178. Noche Y Niebla: Panorama De Derechos Humanos Y Violencia Politica En Colombia, Bogotá: Cinep & Justicia

  16. Survey on porcine trichinellosis in Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chávez-Larrea, M. A.; Dorny, P.; Møller, L. N.

    2004-01-01

    A survey on porcine trichinellosis was organised in Ecuador between 2000 and 2003. Blood samples were taken in slaughterhouses (study 1, n = 2000; study 2, n = 331) and in a remote village where pigs are free roaming (study 3, n = 646) and examined by ELISA using excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens...... that Trichinella is present in Ecuador; however, prevalence and parasite burdens are likely to be very low. The likelihood of detecting trichinellosis are higher in traditional settings than in pigs raised on improved farms...

  17. A new alamellate Hygrocybe species from Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Thomas; Boertmann, David

    2008-01-01

    The first known species of Hygrocybe with a smooth hymenophore is described based on material from the eastern slopes of Andean Ecuador. It is considered as incertae sedis in the genus due to a lack of conclusive morphological characters and in the absence of sequence data.......The first known species of Hygrocybe with a smooth hymenophore is described based on material from the eastern slopes of Andean Ecuador. It is considered as incertae sedis in the genus due to a lack of conclusive morphological characters and in the absence of sequence data....

  18. Ecuador: La experiencia de Radio Latacunga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En Latacunga - Ecuador es entrevistada Lucelly Villa, de la comunidad Hijas de San Pablo, "Hermanas Paulinas", ella es directora de la Radio y presidenta de la CORAPE (Coordinadora de Radios Populares y Educativas de Ecuador. En la entrevista comenta la experiencia de las emisoras en las zonas campesinas de la provincia cuya población indígena campesina esta geográficamente dispersa en la provincia de Cotopaxi. Habla de las dificultades y logros en once años de labor, informa de cómo funcionan las cabinas y la programación.

  19. Rabies Epidemiology and Control in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Ponce-Zea, Jorge; Ramirez, Dario; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.; Armijos, Luciana; Yockteng, Jaime; Cárdenas, Washington B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Describe the epidemiology and the control effort for rabies in Ecuador. Methods: This observational study included data from the Ecuadorian National Institute of Census and Statistics (INEC), and mortality and morbidity data reported by the Ministry of Public Health and the National Institute for Social Security. We conducted a phylogeny analyses to compare the N gene from the Challenge Virus Standard (CVS) vaccine strain used in Ecuador with published Cosmopolitan, Asian and Sylvatic strains. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to determine the significance of the data. Results: In 1996 Ecuador suffered the highest rate of rabies per capita in the Americas, with an incidence rate of 0.56 cases per 100 000 people per year. Human and canine rabies showed a sharp decline until 2012. Between 1994 and 2014, we found a correlation of 0.925 (pEcuador. The incidence of human and canine rabies, also known as urban rabies, has clearly decreased due to massive canine vaccination campaigns. Phylogenetic analysis of the prevailing vaccine used in the country showed a clear separation from bat-derived rabies, the source of recent rabies outbreaks. Efforts are ongoing to develop rabies vaccines that are highly specific to the rabies virus genotype circulating in the region, including sylvatic rabies. These efforts include the implementation of reverse genetics to generate recombinant virus coding for the prevailing glycoprotein gene. PMID:26493436

  20. Resolución de Ecuador (UNESCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revista Chasqui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En Quito (Ecuador, entre el 12 y 14 de septiembre de 1994 se realizó el Seminario Taller Regional sobre Mujer y Medios de Comunicación organizado por la UNESCO. A continuación se reseñan las principales resoluciones.

  1. Rabies Epidemiology and Control in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Ponce-Zea, Jorge; Ramirez, Dario; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M; Armijos, Luciana; Yockteng, Jaime; Cardenas, Washington Bolivar

    2015-07-12

    Describe the epidemiology and the control effort for rabies in Ecuador. This observational study included data from the Ecuadorian National Institute of Census and Statistics (INEC), and mortality and morbidity data reported by the Ministry of Public Health and the National Institute for Social Security. We conducted a phylogeny analyses to compare the N gene from the Challenge Virus Standard (CVS) vaccine strain used in Ecuador with published Cosmopolitan, Asian and Sylvatic strains. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to determine the significance of the data. In 1996 Ecuador suffered the highest rate of rabies per capita in the Americas, with an incidence rate of 0.56 cases per 100 000 people per year. Human and canine rabies showed a sharp decline until 2012. Between 1994 and 2014, we found a correlation of 0.925 (pEcuador. The incidence of human and canine rabies, also known as urban rabies, has clearly decreased due to massive canine vaccination campaigns. Phylogenetic analysis of the prevailing vaccine used in the country showed a clear separation from bat-derived rabies, the source of recent rabies outbreaks. Efforts are ongoing to develop rabies vaccines that are highly specific to the rabies virus genotype circulating in the region, including sylvatic rabies. These efforts include the implementation of reverse genetics to generate recombinant virus coding for the prevailing glycoprotein gene.

  2. Directly dated starch residues document early formative maize (Zea mays L.) in tropical Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrillo, Sonia; Pearsall, Deborah M; Raymond, J Scott; Tisdale, Mary Ann; Quon, Dugane J

    2008-04-01

    The study of maize (Zea mays L.) domestication has advanced from questions of its origins to the study-and debate-of its dietary role and the timing of its dispersal from Mexico. Because the investigation of maize's spread is hampered by poor preservation of macrobotanical remains in the Neotropics, research has focused on microbotanical remains whose contexts are often dated by association, leading some to question the dates assigned. Furthermore, some scholars have argued that maize was not introduced to southwestern Ecuador until approximately 4150-3850 calendar years before the present (cal B.P.), that it was used first and foremost as a fermented beverage in ceremonial contexts, and that it was not important in everyday subsistence, challenging previous studies based on maize starch and phytoliths. To further investigate these questions, we analyzed every-day cooking vessels, food-processing implements, and sediments for starch and phytoliths from an archaeological site in southwestern Ecuador constituting a small Early Formative village. Employing a new technique to recover starch granules from charred cooking-pot residues we show that maize was present, cultivated, and consumed here in domestic contexts by at least 5300-4950 cal B.P. Directly dating the residues by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon measurement, our results represent the earliest direct dates for maize in Early Formative Ecuadorian sites and provide further support that, once domesticated approximately 9000 calendar years ago, maize spread rapidly from southwestern Mexico to northwestern South America.

  3. First case of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase in Klebsiella pneumoniae from Ecuador: An update for South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Romero-Alvarez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe a clinical case of Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring a New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM plasmid in Ecuador and to present a map of reports of NDM isolates in South America. Methods: The modified Hodge test, carbapenem inactivation method, imipenem–EDTA disk method (synergy, and Rapidec Carba NP test were used to identify antibiotic resistance mechanisms. The presence of resistance genes was explored with a conjugation assay, and molecular confirmation of NDM was performed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Plasmid characterization was conducted by PCR-based replicon typing. A literature review was performed in Google Scholar and PubMed to identify reports from South America. Results: An HIV-infected patient, who had never traveled abroad, developed a bloodstream infection caused by K. pneumoniae ST147 harboring the NDM-1 resistance gene in a plasmid from the IncA/C group. Local circulation of NDM has also been described in other South American countries, in particular in Colombia and Brazil, although published scientific records were not found for other countries. Conclusions: This report presents the first evidence of autochthonous circulation of the NDM-1 resistance gene harbored by an IncA/C plasmid isolated from a K. pneumoniae ST147 in Ecuador. Efforts should be implemented to monitor and characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of NDM in Ecuador and other countries of South America. Keywords: NDM, South America, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Antibiotic resistance, Plasmid

  4. First case of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase in Klebsiella pneumoniae from Ecuador: An update for South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Reyes, Jorge; Quezada, Viviana; Satán, Carolina; Cevallos, Nelson; Barrera, Sofía; Trueba, Gabriel; Escobar, Luis E; Villacís, José E

    2017-12-01

    To describe a clinical case of Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring a New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) plasmid in Ecuador and to present a map of reports of NDM isolates in South America. The modified Hodge test, carbapenem inactivation method, imipenem-EDTA disk method (synergy), and Rapidec Carba NP test were used to identify antibiotic resistance mechanisms. The presence of resistance genes was explored with a conjugation assay, and molecular confirmation of NDM was performed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Plasmid characterization was conducted by PCR-based replicon typing. A literature review was performed in Google Scholar and PubMed to identify reports from South America. An HIV-infected patient, who had never traveled abroad, developed a bloodstream infection caused by K. pneumoniae ST147 harboring the NDM-1 resistance gene in a plasmid from the IncA/C group. Local circulation of NDM has also been described in other South American countries, in particular in Colombia and Brazil, although published scientific records were not found for other countries. This report presents the first evidence of autochthonous circulation of the NDM-1 resistance gene harbored by an IncA/C plasmid isolated from a K. pneumoniae ST147 in Ecuador. Efforts should be implemented to monitor and characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of NDM in Ecuador and other countries of South America. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic characterization of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus from Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru: identification of a new subtype ID lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Patricia V; Adams, A Paige; Suárez, Victor; Beingolea, Luis; Vargas, Jorge; Manock, Stephen; Freire, Juan; Espinoza, Willan R; Felices, Vidal; Diaz, Ana; Liang, Xiaodong; Roca, Yelin; Weaver, Scott C; Kochel, Tadeusz J

    2009-09-15

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been responsible for hundreds of thousands of human and equine cases of severe disease in the Americas. A passive surveillance study was conducted in Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador to determine the arboviral etiology of febrile illness. Patients with suspected viral-associated, acute, undifferentiated febrile illness of Peru, and more recently (2005), in Madre de Dios, Peru. We performed phylogenetic analyses with VEEV from Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru and compared their relationships to strains from other parts of South America. We found that VEEV subtype ID Panama/Peru genotype is the predominant one circulating in Peru. We also demonstrated that VEEV subtype ID strains circulating in Ecuador belong to the Colombia/Venezuela genotype and VEEV from Madre de Dios, Peru and Cochabamba, Bolivia belong to a new ID genotype. In summary, we identified a new major lineage of enzootic VEEV subtype ID, information that could aid in the understanding of the emergence and evolution of VEEV in South America.

  6. Verificación del cumplimiento de los criterios CPS de la NERC en el SNI del Ecuador; Verification of the execution of the CPS approachies of NEPC in the national interconnected System of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Arias Castañeda

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe el procedimiento utilizado para la evaluación del controlautomático de la generación en el Sistema Nacional Interconectado (SNI del Ecuador,tomando como marco de referencia los criterios CPS-1 y CPS-2 (Control PerformanceStandars por sus siglas en inglés. de la NERC. El artículo está dividido en secciones queexplican en detalle en qué consisten los criterios CPS de la NERC, cómo se calculan loslímites de estos criterios teniendo en consideración las condiciones específicas del sistemaeléctrico ecuatoriano (sección 2, y cómo se aplican los criterios en la evaluación del controlautomático de la generación en el SNI del Ecuador teniendo en cuenta la interconexión conColombia (sección 3. Además se sugiere el valor mínimo de BIAS a fijar en el sistemaecuatoriano para el cumplimiento del criterio CPS-2. This paper presents an analytic framework for the formulation and evaluation of automaticgeneration control in the Ecuadorian Electrical System (SNI taking like reference mark theapproaches CPS-1 and CPS-2 of NERC. The article is divided in sections that they explain indetail the approaches CPS of NERC, how the limits of these approaches are calculated havingin consideration the specific conditions of the electric Ecuadorian system (section 2, and howthe approaches are applied in the evaluation of the automatic control of the generation in SNIof Ecuador keeping in mind the interconnection with Colombia (section 3. The minimum valueof BIAS is also suggested to fix in the Ecuadorian system for the execution of the approachCPS-2.

  7. Applications of geographic information systems and remote sensing techniques to conservation of amphibians in northwestern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Palacios González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity of the Andean Chocó in western Ecuador and Colombia is threatened by anthropogenic changes in land cover. The main goal of this study was to contribute to conservation of 12 threatened species of amphibians at a cloud forest site in northwestern Ecuador, by identifying and proposing protection of critical areas. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS and remote sensing techniques to quantify land cover changes over 35 years and outline important areas for amphibian conservation. We performed a supervised classification of an IKONOS satellite image from 2011 and two aerial photographs from 1977 and 2000. The 2011 IKONOS satellite image classification was used to delineate areas important for conservation of threatened amphibians within a 200 m buffer around rivers and streams. The overall classification accuracy of the three images was ≥80%. Forest cover was reduced by 17% during the last 34 years. However, only 50% of the study area retained the initial (1977 forest cover, as land was cleared for farming and eventually reforested. Finally, using the 2011 IKONOS satellite image, we delineated areas of potential conservation interest that would benefit the long term survival of threatened amphibian species at the Ecuadorian cloud forest site studied.

  8. 78 FR 764 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia... the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. Unless the...

  9. Strategic ecosystems of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez Calle German

    2002-01-01

    The author relates the ecosystems in Colombia, he makes a relationship between ecosystems and population, utility of the ecosystems, transformation of the ecosystems and poverty and he shows a methodology of identification of strategic ecosystems

  10. Shadow Toll in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    González Ruiz, Juan David; Botero Botero, Sergio; Arboleda, Carlos Alejandro; Duque Grisales, Eduardo Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The growing development in infrastructure projects in Colombia has been linked to legal adjustments and capital markets. These two last factors have provided important elements for project developers to design funding strategies. Based on the shadow toll scheme, this paper proposes a new financing strategy for funding highway projects. This strategy may be implemented in Colombia. Finally, the paper proposes future research on shadow toll schemes as a financial mechanism.

  11. Cockroaches (Blattaria) of Ecuador-checklist and history of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidlička, Lubomír

    2013-01-09

    Cockroaches are an understudied group and the total number of described taxa increases every year. The last checklist of Ecuador species was published in 1926. The main aim of this study was to complete a new checklist of cockroach species recorded in Ecuador supplemented with a research history of cockroaches (Blattaria) on the territory of continental Ecuador. In addition, the checklist contains comments on Ecuadorian faunistic records, including the Galápagos Islands. A total of 114 species (105 in continental Ecuador and 18 in Galápagos Islands) belonging to 6 families and 44 genera are listed. Forty species (38.1 %) occur solely in continental Ecuador and five (27.8 %) are endemic on Galápagos Islands. The results indicate that further research on the cockroach fauna of Ecuador as well as determination of museum collections from this territory is needed.

  12. Percepción de competencias en epidemiología en México y Colombia durante la epidemia de influenza A (H1N1) entre estudiantes de salud pública Perception of epidemiological competencies by public health students in Mexico and Colombia during the influenza A (H1N1) epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro J Idrovo; Julián A Fernández-Niño; Ietza Bojórquez-Chapela; Myriam Ruiz-Rodríguez; Carlos A Agudelo; Oscar E Pacheco; Néstor Buitrago; Gustavo Nigenda

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Conocer la percepción que los estudiantes de salud pública en México y en Colombia tuvieron sobre el manejo de la epidemia de influenza A (H1N1), como una forma para indagar qué contenidos curriculares pueden ser mejorados en la formación en epidemiología. MÉTODOS: Encuesta durante la epidemia, entre junio y agosto de 2009, a estudiantes de posgrado. Se evaluaron las 30 competencias epidemiológicas del Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists para "epidemiólogos intermedios"...

  13. The Use of Terrorism by Drug Trafficking Organizations’ Paramilitary Groups in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    robber and kidnapper who began in drugs by buying coca paste in Ecuador and transporting it by himself to Bogota (Adolfo Aterhotua, 2008). According to...Press. Bernecker, W. (1993). Contrabando , ilegalidad y corrupcion en el Mexico Decimononico. (Contraband, illegality and corruption in the 19th

  14. Genetic characterization of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus from Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru: identification of a new subtype ID lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia V Aguilar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV has been responsible for hundreds of thousands of human and equine cases of severe disease in the Americas. A passive surveillance study was conducted in Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador to determine the arboviral etiology of febrile illness. Patients with suspected viral-associated, acute, undifferentiated febrile illness of <7 days duration were enrolled in the study and blood samples were obtained from each patient and assayed by virus isolation. Demographic and clinical information from each patient was also obtained at the time of voluntary enrollment. In 2005-2007, cases of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE were diagnosed for the first time in residents of Bolivia; the patients did not report traveling, suggesting endemic circulation of VEEV in Bolivia. In 2001 and 2003, VEE cases were also identified in Ecuador. Since 1993, VEEV has been continuously isolated from patients in Loreto, Peru, and more recently (2005, in Madre de Dios, Peru. We performed phylogenetic analyses with VEEV from Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru and compared their relationships to strains from other parts of South America. We found that VEEV subtype ID Panama/Peru genotype is the predominant one circulating in Peru. We also demonstrated that VEEV subtype ID strains circulating in Ecuador belong to the Colombia/Venezuela genotype and VEEV from Madre de Dios, Peru and Cochabamba, Bolivia belong to a new ID genotype. In summary, we identified a new major lineage of enzootic VEEV subtype ID, information that could aid in the understanding of the emergence and evolution of VEEV in South America.

  15. Ecuador steps up pace of oil development activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that oil companies operating in Ecuador plan to quicken the pace of oil development this year. After delays in 1991, companies plan a series of projects to develop reserves discovered the past 3 years estimated at more than 600 million bbl. Oil and Gas Journal estimated Ecuador's proved crude reserves at 1.55 billion bbl as of Jan. 1, 1992. The development push is part of a larger effort needed to ensure Ecuador's status as an oil exporter into the next century. Ecuador is the smallest crude oil producer and exporter in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

  16. BURMEISTERA DIAZII(CAMPANULACEAE: LOBELIOIDEAE, UNA ESPECIE NUEVA DE LOS ANDES DE ANTIOQUIA, Y NOTAS ACERCA DEL NUEVO REGISTRO DE B. LOEJTNANTII PARA COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER GARZÓN VENEGAS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Burmeistera diazii (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae, de la Cordillera Central de Colombia, en la franja altitudinal entre 1,800 y 2,750 m en los municipios de Sonsón y Guatapé (Antioquia, es descrita como una especie nueva. Se discuten en detalle las semejanzas morfológicas con sus especies afines (B. obtusifolia, de Costa Rica y Panamá, B. killipii y B. serraniaguae, de Colombia y B. crassifolia y B. loejtnantii, de Colombia y Ecuador, las cuales se caracterizan por tener hojas ovadas a ovado-lanceoladas, pedúnculo ebracteado y lóbulos del cáliz largos. Se registra B. loejtnantii por primera vez para la flora de Colombia.

  17. Terrorism in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes Zapata, Gabriel Darío

    2003-01-01

    Colombia is a poor country that has been plagued by ongoing violence for more than 120 years. During the 1940s, subversive terrorist groups emerged in rural areas of the country when criminal groups came under the influence of Communism, and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Ejercito de Liberacion Nacional (ELN) or National Liberation Army and Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionares de Colombia (FARC) or Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia). Paramilitary terrorist groups emerged in response to subversive groups and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC) or United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia. Terrorism has placed an enormous burden on modern Colombia. From 1995 to 2002, 9,435 people were killed by terrorism-related events, of which 5,864 were killed by subversive terrorist activities and 3,571 were killed by paramilitary terrorist activities. In 2002, at least nineteen attacks produced 10 or more casualties, of which 18 were bombings. In 2002, terrorists killed at least 12 mayors, 71 legislators, and internally displaced 300,000 persons from their homes. Since terrorist groups in Colombia are typically supported by drug manufacturing and trafficking, it has been difficult at times to distinguish violence due to terrorism from violence due to illicit drug trafficking. Terrorism has also had a major adverse effect on the economy, with restricted travel, loss of economic resources, and lack of economic investment. In addition to political, military, and commercial targets, terrorists have specifically targeted healthcare infrastructure and personnel. At the national and local levels, much emergency planning and preparedness has taken place for terrorism-related events. The Centro Regulador de Urgencias (CRU) or Emergency Regulation Center in Bogota plays a major role in coordinating local prehospital and hospital emergency response in the capital city and the national level where

  18. Distribución de Stenocercus guentheri (Sauria: Iguanidae en el sur de los Andes de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Herrera Fernando

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of a population of Stenocercus guentherifrom Colombia is described in detail and compared to information from ecuadorean specimens. The range of the species is extended northward to include the colombian departments (provinces of Nariño and Cauca along the Andes. Some field observations about bahavior, habitat, and reproduction are included.El presente trabajo describe las características de Stenocercus guentheri, en las poblaciones del sur de Colombia y hace una comparación con la información del Ecuador. Se amplía su rango de distribución geográfica hacia el norte de Suramérica, incluyendo los departamentos de Nariño y Cauca en los Andes de Colombia. Se incluyen datos de campo sobre hábitat, hábitos y reproducción.

  19. Biomass burning in the Amazon-fertilizer for the mountaineous rain forest in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Peter; Kohlpaintner, Michael; Rollenbeck, Ruetger

    2005-09-01

    Biomass burning is a source of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen compounds which, along with their photochemically generated reaction products, can be transported over very long distances, even traversing oceans. Chemical analyses of rain and fogwater samples collected in the mountaineous rain forest of south Ecuador show frequent episodes of high sulfate and nitrate concentration, from which annual deposition rates are derived comparable to those found in polluted central Europe. As significant anthropogenic sources are lacking at the research site it is suspected that biomass burning upwind in the Amazon basin is the major source of the enhanced sulfate and nitrate imput. Regular rain and fogwater sampling along an altitude profile between 1800 and 3185 m has been carried out in the Podocarpus National Park close to the Rio SanFrancisco (3 degrees 58'S, 79 degrees 5'W) in southern Ecuador. pH values, electrical conductivity and chemical ion composition were measured at the TUM-WZW using standard methods. Results reported cover over one year from March 2002 until May 2003. Annual deposition rates of sulfate were calculated ranging between 4 and 13 kg S/ha year, almost as high as in polluted central Europe. Nitrogen deposition via ammonia (1.5-4.4 kg N/ha year) and nitrate (0.5-0.8 kg N/ha year) was found to be lower but still much higher than to be expected in such pristine natural forest environment. By means of back trajectory analyses it can be shown that most of the enhanced sulfur and nitrogen deposition is most likely due to forest fires far upwind of the ecuadorian sampling site, showing a seasonal variation, with sources predominantly found in the East/North East during January-March (Colombia, Venezuala, Northern Brazil) and East/SouthEast during July-September (Peru, Brazil). Our results show that biomass burning in the Amazon basin is the predominant source of sulfur and nitrogen compounds that fertilize the mountaineous rain forest in south Ecuador. The

  20. Powering Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines Mexico's demand for electricity and the market for independent power generation. The topics discussed in the article include the outlook for the 1990s for growth in Mexico's economy and energy demand, renewable energy, energy conservation, small-scale, off-grid renewable energy systems, and estimates of Mexico's market for electric power generating equipment

  1. Keys of educational change in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín De la Herrán Gascón

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the educational system in Ecuador. The Ecuadorian education system arouses international interest, especially in Latin America. In this essay we will try to answer these questions: What might be the relevant keys from the public education in Ecuador? Why has it reached its present level of development, particularly in inclusive education? What fundaments and policies are behind the results of the goals from Education for All (EFA 2000-2015 From the Dakar framework for Action? (World Education Forum, 2000. In light of these issues, the goal is to understand key factors and reasons that have contributed to the development of the Ecuadorian public education. In terms of methodology, the approach is qualitative, dialectical, documentary and descriptive (Mc Millan and Schumacher, 2005. The research is proposed as a case study, where the choice of the case is justified by its novelty, its degree of development and its emphasis on inclusion and equity in all educational levels. With this aim, it is made a descriptive analysis of the rules underlying the changes in the educational system in Ecuador in the last three decades and it is carried out, particularly since 2008, following the last Constitution (Constituent Assembly, 2008. Tables as an analytical contribution of the authors are offered. Also data endorsed by authors and agencies of maximum national and international prestige are detailed and they realize the effectiveness of policies and such changes.

  2. Exploration and development at crossroads in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Ecuador's oil and gas sector has reached a pivotal point in its history. After several years of fairly brisk activity, foreign operators recently began scaling back exploration in Ecuador. They cited results that haven't met expectations and persistent delays in obtaining approval by state owned Petroecuador for development of reserves that have been discovered. Foreign oil companies had anticipated the pace of development would accelerate in Ecuador in early 1992, but major projects generally remained in limbo for most of this year. At presstime, however, there were signs of an encouraging follow-through in promised reforms in the permitting process. Petroecuador in April-May approved two of those projects and a third in June. Of the 13 oil companies or groups that had signed exploration contracts with the state oil company since 1985, several companies have terminated their operations in the country, and only one company, Oryx Energy Co., Dallas, is producing a small volume of oil. Two other companies have been negotiating exploration rights for about 2 years, with contracts yet to be signed

  3. Mexico Geoid Heights (MEXICO97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Mexico, and North-Central America, is the MEXICO97 geoid model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine gravity...

  4. Morphologic characterization of forty six accessions of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.), in Antioquia (Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Trillos González, Ofelia; Cotes Torres, José Miguel; Medina Cano, Clara Inés; Lobo Arias, Mario; Navas Arboleda, Alejandro Alberto

    2008-01-01

    La uchuva, Physalis peruviana L., crece como planta silvestre en las zonas tropicales altas de América, estando el centro de origen y diversificación en los Andes Suramericanos, principalmente de Colombia, Perú y Ecuador. Se realizó la caracterización morfológica de 46 accesiones de uchuva provenientes del Banco de Germoplasma de la nación Colombiana, a cargo de La Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuarias, CORPOICA, en el Centro de Investigación La Selva, ubicado en la vereda Lla...

  5. Rediseño del sistema de control militar en el contrabando y comercialización de hidrocarburos en la frontera Sur del Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Moscoso, Giovanni Gabriel; Armas Romero, Ronald Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Este particular delito de contrabando de hidrocarburos que reporta ganancias ilícitas por millones de dólares a sus actores, ha generado una serie de controversias entre las autoridades de control en el ecuador y una total incertidumbre sobre los procedimientos para combatir este cáncer social en las fronteras con Colombia y Perú. Varias investigaciones y propuestas técnicas se han presentado en los países afectados por el tráfico de combustibles, los cuales han sido archivados para el olvido...

  6. Manual de intervención en crisis para población colombiana en las oficinas del Servicio Jesuita a refugiados y migrantes - Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Villalobos Arqueros, Juan Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Durante los últimos años el Ecuador ha experimentado diversos cambios en la configuración de su sociedad. La crisis económica del año 2000 determinó la salida del país de más de un millón y medio de ecuatorianos y ecuatorianas al extranjero. Pero no es solo este evento el que determina otra dinámica social. Casi al mismo tiempo se firmaba el “Plan Colombia” entre los gobiernos de Estados Unidos y Colombia, un proyecto de cooperación binacional que apuntaba hacia la eliminación ...

  7. Ecuador's Higher Education System in Times of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Hubert B.; Estrella, Mateo; Eljuri, Marie-Isabel; León, Leonardo Torres

    2013-01-01

    Ecuador's higher education system is undergoing dramatic changes. The National Constitution of 2008 and the Higher Education Law of 2010 have changed the way Ecuador's universities are funded, administered, and accredited. The importance of research was elevated and drastic changes were made to the academic qualifications and employment conditions…

  8. Report on Follow-Up Visit to Ecuador, Part 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pearson, W. N

    1961-01-01

    ...), National Institutes of Health, who visited Ecuador from January 15th to the 21st, 1961. W. N. Pearson, PhD, visited Ecuador from January 15th to the 21st, 1961, to discuss the nutritional survey conducted by ICNND in the summer of 1959...

  9. Proyecto Ensamblando en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Kreime, Pablo; Gómez Morales, Yuri Jack; Ashmore, Malcolm; Miranda Canal, Néstor; Pérez Bustos, Tania; Vinck, Dominique; Amaya, José Antonio; Carvajal Marín, Luz Mery; Castro-Gómez, Santiago; Camargo Uribe, Juan Arturo; Dávila Dávila, Juan Manuel; Sebastián, Díaz Ángel; Duque Muñoz, Lucía; Durán-Sánchez, María Fernanda; García Álvarez, Claudia María

    2013-01-01

    Los dos volúmenes de esta obra reúnen los resultados del proyecto ganador de la «Convocatoria nacional de proyectos bicentenario 1810-2010 “Historia social de la ciencia, la tecnología y la innovación en Colombia: ciudadanía, saberes y nación”», lanzada por Colciencias en el 2009. El proyecto, titulado «Ensamblado en Colombia: producción de saberes y construcción de ciudadanías» se propuso estudiar la manera como se constituyen en el presente y se han constituido en el pasado «asuntos de inte...

  10. The genus Tyrinthia Bates, 1866 in Ecuador (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Hemilophini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; McClarin, Jim; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2017-12-05

    Tyrinthia frontalis (Guérin-Méneville, 1855) is redescribed, formally recorded from Ecuador, and its type locality is questioned. Tyrinthia napoensis sp. nov. is described from Ecuador. Tyrinthia paraba Martins & Galileo, 1991, and T. turuna Martins & Galileo, 1993 are new country records for Ecuador. A key to species of Tyrinthia from Ecuador is provided.

  11. 75 FR 22370 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ...-893, A-549-822, A-552-802] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's... certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and... Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador, 69 FR 76913 (December 23, 2004) (Ecuador Final...

  12. A new species of Eritrachys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Ochlerini) from Ecuador (Especie nueva de Eritrachys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Ochlerini) de Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of to the genus Eritrachys Ruckes, E. brailovskyi, collected in Ecuador, is described and illustrated. The male of E. bituberculata Ruckes is described and illustrated, with new records from Panama and Ecuador. A key to the species of the genus is provided....

  13. Mexico : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: MOTIVATION, Gender. Région: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay. Programme: Emploi et croissance. Financement total : CA$ 858,000.00. Transformer les territoires (Amérique latine). Projet. Ce projet vise à appuyer des politiques et des programmes qui créent de meilleures occasions et qui ...

  14. mexico : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: MOTIVATION, Gender. Région: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay. Programme: Emploi et croissance. Financement total : CA$ 858,000.00. Transformer les territoires (Amérique latine). Projet. Ce projet vise à appuyer des politiques et des programmes qui créent de meilleures occasions et qui ...

  15. El IDRC en Colombia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    gación de Colombia en salud, agri- ... y desarrollar una base nacional de datos ... apoyada por el IDRC mostró caminos para .... conocimiento con los formuladores de políticas, con otros investigadores y comunidades en todo el mundo.

  16. A new medicinal plant from Amazonian Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asdall, W

    1983-12-01

    Dalbergaria tessmanii, a shrub of the Gesneriaceae locally abundant in the tropical forests of Ecuador, is variously ethnomedicinally employed. For example, none of several Shuar (Jívaro) herbal healers know or use it, but the one Shuar Shaman consulted extols its importance in reducing vaginal bleeding. Although Mestizo native consultants from the provincial capital of Morona-Santiago report its use in alleviating heart problems, those from Pastaza Province employ it to reduce menstrual flow. The Lowland Quechua apparently use it for this purpose as well. This plant has apparently not yet been chemically examined. Its reported use in several different cultural context suggest that it should be phytochemically investigated.

  17. The Chacana caldera complex in Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Minard L; Mothes, Patricia A [Instituto Geofisico, Escuela Politecnica Nacional, Quito (Ecuador)], E-mail: volcan_pete@yahoo.com

    2008-10-01

    The Chacana caldera, located immediately east of Quito, capital of Ecuador, forms the most-northern edifice of Ecuadoros rhyolite province. It is a 50X30 km Pleistocene structure that has remained active into historic times. Vitrophyres, welded tuffs, and ignimbrites of rhyolitic and dacitic composition constitute the outer flanks, meantime syngenetic breccias and tuffs, capped later by extensive dacite lava flows and basin sediments, filled the calderaos depression. A notable resurgence occurred that lifted quiet-water sediments to over 4000 m in elevation. The area has numerous hot springs, and little seismic activity.

  18. The Chacana caldera complex in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Minard L; Mothes, Patricia A

    2008-01-01

    The Chacana caldera, located immediately east of Quito, capital of Ecuador, forms the most-northern edifice of Ecuadoros rhyolite province. It is a 50X30 km Pleistocene structure that has remained active into historic times. Vitrophyres, welded tuffs, and ignimbrites of rhyolitic and dacitic composition constitute the outer flanks, meantime syngenetic breccias and tuffs, capped later by extensive dacite lava flows and basin sediments, filled the calderaos depression. A notable resurgence occurred that lifted quiet-water sediments to over 4000 m in elevation. The area has numerous hot springs, and little seismic activity.

  19. Analysis of Kenyan isolates of Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... ... reported worldwide, including Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Chile,. Venezuela, Costa Rica and Malawi (Kraft et al., 1981). ... growth, mycelial texture and pigments (colour) produced on the mycelia. The nature of ...

  20. Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... countries such as: Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay or Venezuela ■ Have seen the bug, ...

  1. : tous les projets | Page 501 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, EMPOWERMENT, DISABLED PERSONS, DISABLED WORKERS, EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES. Région: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, North and Central America, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay. Programme: Économies en réseaux.

  2. Investing in Internet access boosts incomes, concludes Latin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... ... digital literacy programs for women, according to a study in Latin America. ... employment, and education in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, ... Latin American researchers supported by IDRC's Safe and Inclusive ...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-21 - Okra from certain countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Okra from certain countries. Okra from Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Mexico, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, and the West Indies may be imported into the United States in accordance with this section and...

  4. Petroleum: Social and economic effect in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Aguas Pután

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents the results of the research work related to the social and economic impact of the exploitation of oil in Ecuador, presents the reader with the methodologies that allowed obtaining the results and the most viable solution to the economic problems facing the country . The purpose of the investigative work is to propose a practical solution to the economic and social situation in the country, especially in the last years when the business started with the international oil companies which did not respect the agreement made by both parties that produced Negative consequences for the land, such as damages, contamination of the rivers, damage of the flora and fauna of the surroundings, it is considered that there were and there are economic fluctuations that have varied the economy and development of the fulfillment of the state budget and the breach of the same Towards social promises to the people of Ecuador, for not having the necessary provisions in the fall of the price of oil and this has its effect on the national budget.

  5. Democracia liberal e inestabilidad política en Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade A., Pablo

    2005-01-01

    Se explora el reciente cambio de gobierno en Ecuador a la luz de las siguientes hipótesis: 1) la inestabilidad política que caracteriza al Ecuador desde hace nueve años; 2) esta fase como resultado de las contradicciones creadas por el intento de reconciliar una economía organizada en torno al libre mercado con los procedimientos de una democracia representativa; 3) el proceso que ha llevado en los últimos trece años a la desarticulación de las instituciones democráticas en Ecuador. Se desarr...

  6. 1990s bright for post-OPEC Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Ecuador, in its first full year outside the fold of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, stands poised for a significant expansion of production in the 1990s. While preparing for Ecuador's eventual withdrawal from OPEC last fall, the government since early summer 1992 has moved quickly to approve a number of key development projects. It was, perhaps, no coincidence that the most important conference on Ecuadorian petroleum prospects in recent years was timed to coincide with the government's public confirmation of the pullout. All foreign companies operating in Ecuador attended, with details disclosed of projects planned or under way. This article summarizes these projects and other key issues raised at the conference

  7. Loodushariduse mammutkongress Colombias / Aarne Tõldsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõldsepp, Aarne

    2009-01-01

    Sel suvel toimunud rahvusvahelisest matemaatika- ja loodushariduse kongressist Colombia ajaloolises sadamalinnas Cartagenas, mille peakorraldajaks oli 19 aastat tagasi Valgevenest Colombiasse emigreerunud professor Juri Orlik

  8. The April 16th 2016 Pedernales Earthquake and Instituto Geofisico efforts for improving seismic monitoring in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M. C.; Alvarado, A. P.; Hernandez, S.; Singaucho, J. C.; Gabriela, P.; Landeureau, A.; Perrault, M.; Acero, W.; Viracucha, C.; Plain, M.; Yepes, H. A.; Palacios, P.; Aguilar, J.; Mothes, P. A.; Segovia, M.; Pacheco, D. A.; Vaca, S.

    2016-12-01

    On April 16th, 2016, Ecuador's coastal provinces were struck by a devastating earthquake with 7.8 Mw magnitude. This event caused the earthquake-related largest dead toll in Ecuador (663 fatalities) since 1987 inland event. It provoked also a widespread destruction of houses, hotels, hospitals, affecting economic activities. Damaged was very worthy in the city of Pedernales, one of the nearest localities to the epicenter. Rupture area extended about a 100 km from the southern limit marked by the aftershock area of the 1998, 7.1 Mw earthquake to its northern limit controlled by the Punta Galera-Mompiche seismic zone, which is one of the several elongated swarms oriented perpendicular to the trench that occurred since 2007. Historical accounts of the Ecuador Colombia subduction zone have few mentions of felt earthquakes in the XVIII and XIX century likely related to poor communication and urban settlements in this area. A cycle of noticeable earthquakes began in 1896, including the 1906 8.8 Mw event and three earthquakes with magnitudes larger than 7.7 in the period 1942-1979, that preceded the 2016 earthquake. The Instituto Geofiísico of the Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IGEPN) has been monitoring the coastal area through the National Seismic Network (RENSIG) since 30 years back and recently enhanced through SENASCYT and SENPLADES supported projects. International collaboration from Japanese JICA and French IRD also contributed to expand the network and implement research projects in the area. Nowadays, the RENSIG has 135 seismic stations including 105 broadband and 5 strong motion velocimeters. Processing performed by Seiscomp3 software allows an automatic distribution of seismic parameters. A joint cooperation between IGEPN, the Navy Oceanographic Institute and the National Department for Risk Management is in charge of tsunami monitoring.

  9. Sending-Country Violence & Receiving-Country Discrimination: Effects on the Health of Colombian Refugees in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlin, Michele G.; Decena, Carlos U.; Noboa, Hugo; Betancourt, Óscar

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study explored factors affecting the health and well being of recent refugees from Colombia in Ecuador. Data collection focused on how sending-country violence and structural violence in a new environment affect immigrant health vulnerability and risk behaviors. METHODS A qualitative approach included ethnographic observation, media content analysis, focus groups, and individual interviews with refugees (N=137). The focus groups (5) provided perspectives on the research domains by sex workers; drug users; male and female refugees; and service providers. RESULTS Social and economic marginalization are impacting the health and well being of this growing refugee population. Data illustrate how stigma and discrimination affect food and housing security, employment and health services, and shape vulnerabilities and health risks in a new receiving environment. DISCUSSION Widespread discrimination in Ecuador reflects fears, misunderstanding, and stereotypes about Colombian refugees. For this displaced population, the sequelae of violence, combined with survival needs and lack of support and protections, shape new risks to health and well-being. PMID:23377565

  10. Colombia vista desde afuera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico Banco de la República

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Mucha de la bibliografía sobre Colombia no se conoce en el país. Cada año se realizan centenares de trabajos acerca de diferentes aspectos de las ciencias naturales, sociales, o sobre literatura, que a la postre quedan archivadas en bibliotecas europeas o estadounidenses, como ocurre de manera específica con los trabajos presentados como tesis de grado en universidades extranjeras.

  11. Tsunami source of the 2016 Muisne, Ecuador Earthquake inferred from tide gauge and DART records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriano, B.; Fujii, Y.; Koshimura, S.

    2016-12-01

    On April 16, 2016 an earthquake occurred in the central coast of Ecuador (0.382°N 79.922°W, Mw=7.8 at 23:58:36.980 UTC according to U.S. Geological Service). It was reported that widespread damage occurred at several towns of Monabi coastal province. According to reports from the Ecuador Government, more than 15,000 buildings were damaged. This earthquake generated a relatively small tsunami that was detected at several tide gauge station as well as offshore DARTs (Deep Ocean Tsunami Detection Buoys). This study aims to investigate the tsunami source of the 2016 Muisne Earthquake using inversion of recorded tsunami waveform signals. The INOCAR (Instituto Oceanográfico de la Armada in Spanish) of the Ecuador provided the tide records of Esmeraldas, Manta, and La Libertad ports. In addition, the DIMAR (Dirección General Marítima in Spanish) of Colombia provided the tide record of Tumaco port. Finally, waveform signal from two DARTs were also employed. These waveform records usually include ocean tides, which we removed by applying a high-pass filter. To estimate the extent of the tsunami source and the slip distribution, we divide the tsunami source into 4 subfaults that covers the aftershock area during one month after the mainshock. The subfault size is 30 km x 60 km with a top depth of 10 km. The focal mechanisms for all the subfaults were taken form the USGS solution of the mainshock. The inversion result showed that the largest slip was located around the epicenter with a maximum value of 3.1 m. The estimated moment magnitude was calculated as Mw=7.78 (5.89E+20 N-m), which is slightly smaller than the proposed by USGS (Mw7.8, moment 7.05E+20 N-m). The estimated slip distribution suggested that the fault rupture started near the epicenter and propagated from north to south. This evidence is supported by the aftershock distribution, which is higher to the south of the epicenter with a main aftershock of Mw=6.0 on April 22.

  12. A qualitative view of the HIV epidemic in coastal Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Adam L; Wilson, Magdalena M; Prabhu, Vishaal; Soekoe, Nicola; Mata, Humberto; Grau, Lauretta E

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 approximately 37,000 people were living with HIV in Ecuador (prevalence 0.4%), representing a generalized epidemic where most new infections arise from sexual interactions in the general population. Studies that examine attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLWH), individual risk perception of acquiring HIV amongst Ecuadorians, and the ways in which levels of risk perception may affect risk behaviors are lacking. This qualitative study aimed to fill this gap in the literature by investigating these issues in the rural, coastal community of Manglaralto, Ecuador, which has among the highest incidence of HIV in Ecuador. We conducted interviews with 15 patients at Manglaralto Hospital. Analysis of interview transcripts revealed widespread negative attitudes towards PLWH, prevalent risk behaviors such as multiple sex partners and lack of condom use, and low individual risk-perception of contracting HIV. These findings underscore the need for increased efforts to prevent further growth of the HIV epidemic in Ecuador.

  13. A qualitative view of the HIV epidemic in coastal Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L. Beckman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 approximately 37,000 people were living with HIV in Ecuador (prevalence 0.4%, representing a generalized epidemic where most new infections arise from sexual interactions in the general population. Studies that examine attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLWH, individual risk perception of acquiring HIV amongst Ecuadorians, and the ways in which levels of risk perception may affect risk behaviors are lacking. This qualitative study aimed to fill this gap in the literature by investigating these issues in the rural, coastal community of Manglaralto, Ecuador, which has among the highest incidence of HIV in Ecuador. We conducted interviews with 15 patients at Manglaralto Hospital. Analysis of interview transcripts revealed widespread negative attitudes towards PLWH, prevalent risk behaviors such as multiple sex partners and lack of condom use, and low individual risk-perception of contracting HIV. These findings underscore the need for increased efforts to prevent further growth of the HIV epidemic in Ecuador.

  14. Percepciones hemisfericas sobre la crisis colombiana: el caso de Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrade A.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The essay describes the securitization of Ecuador's policy regarding the Colombian conflict. The author argues that since 1999, distinct governments have adopted a policy that treats the Colombian conflict as a threat to the existential survival of Ecuador. In the first part of the essay, the author discusses the assumptions underlying this policy in light of the available empirical evidence on the effects of the armed conflict over the past five years. The second part deals with the process of securitization itself, illustrating the effects of perceptions of threat on the part of Ecuador's decision-makers, in particular the Armed Forces. The last two sections examine the links existing between Ecuador's policy and the regional interests of the United States, and the effects of the securitization process and its likely continuation in the future.

  15. Diversity and distribution of the Caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) of Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Blanca Ríos-Touma; Ralph W. Holzenthal; Jolanda Huisman; Robin Thomson; Ernesto Rázuri-Gonzales

    2017-01-01

    Background Aquatic insects and other freshwater animals are some of the most threatened forms of life on Earth. Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are highly biodiverse in the Neotropics and occupy a wide variety of freshwater habitats. In Andean countries, including Ecuador, knowledge of the aquatic biota is limited, and there is a great need for baseline data on the species found in these countries. Here we present the first list of Trichoptera known from Ecuador, a country that harbors two global b...

  16. Assessing local vulnerability to climate change in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Mario Andres; Bucaram, Santiago J.; Renteria, Willington

    2015-01-01

    Vulnerability assessments have become necessary to increase the understanding of climate-sensitive systems and inform resource allocation in developing countries. Challenges arise when poor economic and social development combines with heterogeneous climatic conditions. Thus, finding and harmonizing good-quality data at local scale may be a significant hurdle for vulnerability research. In this paper we assess vulnerability to climate change at a local level in Ecuador. We take Ecuador as a c...

  17. Macroeconomic Effects of Fiscal Policy in Ecuador 1993-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Fiscal policy is particularly relevant in dollarized economies. For the case of Ecuador, we analyze the effects of taxes and public spending on the overall performance of the economy for the period 1993-2009. To do this, we use a structural autoregressive vector model (SVAR) incorporating the stylized facts of Ecuador estimated on Gachet et al. (2010). The main results are: i) the taxes have only temporary effects on the ecuadorian economy, ii) the increase in indirect taxes affect negatively...

  18. The carbon holdings of northern Ecuador's mangrove forests

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Stuart E.; Lovette, John; Borbor, Mercy; Millones, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Within a GIS environment, we combine field measures of mangrove diameter, mangrove species distribution, and mangrove density with remotely sensed measures of mangrove location and mangrove canopy cover to estimate the mangrove carbon holdings of northern Ecuador. We find that the four northern estuaries of Ecuador contain approximately 7,742,999 t (plus or minus 15.47 percent) of standing carbon. Of particular high carbon holdings are the Rhizophora mangle dominated mangrove stands found in-...

  19. Ecuador still grappling over privatization as oil flow rises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Ecuador continues to grapple with efforts to privatize its petroleum sector a year after disclosing its plans to withdraw from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. One of OPEC's smallest members, Ecuador last year said it would leave the group in March 1993, citing high membership costs and minimal benefits. Industry observers also noted at the time Ecuador's plans to sharply boost production this century might run afoul of its OPEC quota. Political controversy is stalling efforts to implement a new reform oriented hydrocarbon law in Ecuador that would open the country's petroleum sector to greater participation by foreign companies and privatize state petroleum companies, including Petroleos del Ecuador (Petroecuador). That comes even as foreign contractors' participation in Ecuador's upstream sector are making a significant contribution to boosting the country's oil production, which had remained flat for a number of years. The paper discusses the status of the new law, the controversy surrounding reforms, the master plan, environmental concerns, reserves and production, Petroecuador activity, planned pipeline work, service contracts, start-up of Oxy, details of Oxy development, and Elf's start-up

  20. Critical Phenomena of Rainfall in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Sh.; Vasquez, N.; Jacome, P.; Basile, L.

    2014-02-01

    Self-organized criticality (SOC) is characterized by a power law behavior over complex systems like earthquakes and avalanches. We study rainfall using data of one day, 3 hours and 10 min temporal resolution from INAMHI (Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e Hidrologia) station at Izobamba, DMQ (Metropolitan District of Quito), satellite data over Ecuador from Tropical Rainfall Measure Mission (TRMM,) and REMMAQ (Red Metropolitana de Monitoreo Atmosferico de Quito) meteorological stations over, respectively. Our results show a power law behavior of the number of rain events versus mm of rainfall measured for the high resolution case (10 min), and as the resolution decreases this behavior gets lost. This statistical property is the fingerprint of a self-organized critical process (Peter and Christensen, 2002) and may serve as a benchmark for models of precipitation based in phase transitions between water vapor and precipitation (Peter and Neeling, 2006).

  1. The Ecuador-Peru Peace Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Fortuna Biato

    Full Text Available Abstract The 1998 Brasilia Peace Agreement ended a territorial dispute between Ecuador and Peru that, due to the size and location of the contested area, had remained a source of regional instability and continental tensions for decades. This paper examines the circumstances that finally allowed negotiations, beginning in 1995, to overcome an almost two-centuries-old conflict, long after almost all territorial disputes in South America had been laid to rest. It will focus in particular on the diplomatic endeavours by the guarantor countries of the 1942 Rio de Janeiro Protocol, which involved a unique set of negotiations, and the setting up of the first effective multilateral peace operation in South America. It also suggests that the peace agreement benefited from the dynamics of economic integration underway since the 1980s. Finally, it considers the implications for regional security arrangements, as well as Brazil’s leadership credentials in South America.

  2. Consulta previa y democracia en el Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floresmilo Simbaña

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda un tema clave respecto de la efectiva participación política de los pueblos indígenas: el derecho a la Consulta Previa. En el Ecuador, la Constitución establece que el Estado tiene que consultar a las comunidades antes de poner en marcha iniciativas de desarrollo que podrían afectarlas directamente. No obstante, esa obligación ha sido sistemáticamente eludida por diversos gobiernos y los pueblos indígenas se han visto obligados a acudir a las instancias internacionales de protección de los derechos humanos para hacer respetar sus derechos. Tal es el caso del pueblo kichwa de Sarayaku. El autor ofrece un panorama de esa lucha histórica.

  3. Autecology of microorganisms of typical Ecuador biotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashyrev, O B; Pidgorskyi, V S; Toro, Miguel Naranjo; Gualoto, Miguel; Gladka, G V; Tashyreva, H O; Rokitko, P V; Romanovskaya, V A

    2014-01-01

    34 strains of aerobic chemoorganotrophic microorganisms were isolated from 23 soil and plant samples selected from highland biotopes of Ecuador-Andes massif (Papallacta, 4020 m), ash at the foot of the volcano Tungurahua, mountainous jungle (La Favorita, 1600 m), as well as in humid tropic botanical garden (state Puyo, 950 m). In mountain jungle samples the high number of bacteria--10(5)-10(7) CFU/g of sample were represented by 2-5 morphotypes. In highland (4020 m) samples the bacterial counts made from 10(2) to 10(7) CFU/g of sample. The current study describes resistance of isolated strains to high salinity, UV radiation and toxic metal ions. The majority of isolated strains were halotolerant. Isolates from volcanic ash showed high resistance level to UV radiation--LD99,99 made 1000-1440 J/m2; resistance level for isolates from the soil of Puyo Botanical Garden and isolates from rock lichen (Papallacta) LD99,99 made 1160 and 800 J/m2 respectively. Strains isolated from mountain jungle (La Favorita) showed lower UV-resistance. In highland biotopes of Ecuador occurred bacteria resistant to toxic metal ions. The highest resistance to Hg2+ was shown by isolate of lichen from mountain jungle, the maximal growth concentration was 0.025 g/L; to Cr(VI)--by isolate from lichen rock massif--3,0 g/L. Correlation between metal-resistance, halotolerace and UV resistance for studied strains was not detected, probably because of different microbial cell damage/repair mechanisms under the action of these factors.

  4. Medios digitales en Ecuador: perspectivas de futuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Punín Larrea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El avance de la tecnología, en especial, en el ámbito de la comunicación, obliga a los medios a evolucionar constantemente para no morir en un escenario marcado por una serie de transformaciones y cambios mediáticos que han afectado al periodismo como profesión y a los medios de comunicación, proceso que ha generado estudios de todo orden. Este trabajo analiza el panorama mediático digital en Ecuador, las características de cultura periodística y el consumo de contenidos en la Red. Describe las tendencias de los principales medios digitales en el país, seleccionados para realizar un estudio de caso. El artículo toma como referencia central el estudio de las diez tendencias digitales en medios de comunicación de Cerezo-Gilarranz, especialista en estrategias digitales. Posteriormente se identifican las deficiencias que tienen los medios en Ecuador; principalmente por la falta de domino de los entornos tecnológicos y la escasa vinculación del proyecto empresarial y periodístico con soportes tecnológicos e innovadores, como el uso de redes sociales... El resultado final es una guía detallada de las debilidades y las fortalezas de cada medio digital en estudio. Asimismo, este trabajo propone tendencias fiables para que los medios estudiados puedan encaminarse firmes en entornos digitales, asumiendo a las herramientas tecnológicas como oportunidad de negocio y de servicio.

  5. Un gobierno basilante arruina para siempre* la crisis de legitimidad que acompaña la emergencia del poder de la opinión en Colombia, 1826-1831

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Calderón

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the crisis of legitimacy that strikes Colombia between 1826 and 1831. The dictatorship of Simón Bolívar (1828 and Rafael Urdaneta (1830, the incapacity of the two constituent assemblies to give way to a Constitution and the ultimate dissolution of the Republic giving birth to Venezuela, Nueva Granada and Ecuador express the difficulty to provide adequate solutions to the challenges that define modern politics in the context of the dominant political culture.

  6. Colombia science without future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pérez-Cordero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombia no será nada hasta que no se eduque su gente, es un país que está retrasado intelectualmente; un país que no valora la ciencia es porque nadie les ha enseñado a sus ciudadanos su valor y sus dirigentes no lo entienden, es porque no les interesa, según lo comentó GINAS, (2004. “El futuro de Colombia va a estar profunda y directamente relacionado con la capacidad que los colombianos tengamos de organizar la educación; la hija de la educación: la ciencia; y la hija de la ciencia: la tecnología-GINAS, 1993” (CORREA, 2017, hoy la ciencia en Colombia no tiene futuro; la inversión pública para ciencia disminuirá para el año 2018 en 41.5 %. El punto de inversión más alto fue de $430.150 millones para el año 2013; para 2014 bajó a $376.768 millones, en 2015 pasó a $332.197 y en 2016 perdió otra porción y se redujo a $304.516 millones. Este año bajó hasta $299.177 millones y para el 2018 se prevé será el más bajo en una década, con apenas $220.506 millones (CORREA, 2017. Las mayores repercusiones se reflejarán en el congelamiento de nuevas becas para programas doctorados y en el presupuesto para convocatorias de proyectos de investigación (EL ESPECTADOR, 2017.

  7. Energetic Planning in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombana V, Jorge E

    1998-01-01

    In the country one of the most dynamic sectors in the last years, it has been the mining - energy sector that has had rates of increase superiors to 5%. The most critical situation corresponds to the sector of hydrocarbons, where the exploration in Colombia has arrived at its lower historical levels as they are those of 22 and 30 perforated wells, and 2148 and 2300 acquired kilometers of seismic 2d, in the years of 1996 and 1997, that which doesn't agree with the National Energy Plan NEP that inclined to perforate 100 exploratory wells per year, for the period 1997 - 2010, with the purpose of maintaining the production of 1.0 mbd starting from the year 2000 and this way to avoid that Colombia loses its self-sufficiency and be importer in the 2004 again. The oil politics in charge of the Ecopetrol, will have to be revised with different approaches if one wants a reactivation, because from 1989, year in that included the escalation clause, not alone it has not been possible to increase the exploration, but rather it has fallen at the mentioned levels. In the electric sector; the Regulation of Energy and Gas Commission - REGC, has been a supremely difficult to put priorities, because measures and immediate and urgent changes are needed. To medium term, Colombia should solve its institutional, normative problems and of infrastructure, to be able to have a true integral planning, that takes us to receive the next millennium with true energy self-sufficiency and a consolidation of the country in the export of coal and petroleum, if they take the necessary measures and avoid the lost of the self-sufficiency in hydrocarbons

  8. Las serpientes en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, H.

    2012-01-01

    El estudio de las serpientes en Colombia no deja de tener su particular interés; existe una inmensa variedad de especies que se escalonan desde los valles ardientes hasta alturas relativamente considerables; en estos últimos puntos disminuye notablemente la variedad de formas y de modo especial las especies provistas de veneno. Hacer una distinción entre las especies venenosas y las inofensivas, resulta un tanto difícil; en algunos textos se dan unas cuántas reglas, pero la mayor parte d...

  9. Serpientes de colombia

    OpenAIRE

    M., Rodrigo Ángel

    2013-01-01

    En este libro es una guía práctica sobre las serpientes de Colombia en cuanto a su clasificación y tratamiento del envenenamiento causado por sus mordeduras. Contiene los siguientes capítulos: 1. Características generales, 2. Serpiente Colombianas, 3. Aparato venenoso, 4. Clasificación fisiopatología de los efectos del veneno, 5. Mordedura por serpientes venenosas en Antioquía, listas de nombres populares y científicos, la bibliografía. Esta es una introducción a esta práctica guí...

  10. Aging in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lourdes SANTOS PÉREZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using data from statistical sources and official reports, we propose a critical approach to aging in Colombia, specifically from the point of view of public policy in progress or in planning. Our main hypothesis is that these measures refuse comprehensive treatment of the ageing in terms of needs and rights promoting a pure welfare system which, instead, contributes to reinforce a collective imagination of a dependent and impoverished old age, with «fatal» consequences that sustain and reproduce the socioeconomic system.

  11. The training and the exercise of university teaching in Ecuador. Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Emilio Fabara Garzón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research study concerns the need the higher education system has to train faculty members; this study begins with the analysis of the same process carried out in Bologna. Then, the latest higher education institutions´ policies published by the government refereeing their functioning in Ecuador in 2015 are described; the current faculty staff development offerings by higher education institutions in the country are reviewed as well as those topics to be considered in a future faculty training process.This study is eminently documented and written on the basis of the existing information and information published by the current regulatory bodies as well as universities around the country.Experiences from faculty training from Colombia are taking into consideration in this study. In addition, faculty functions, powers, responsibilities concerning teaching, research and higher education center management are analyzed according to the law.Each one of the functions are reviewed according to the law in order to reach quality education. The weak relationship among existing laws considering the attention the community deserves from higher education institutions is highlighted.Some conclusions are drawn, some of them related to the changes occurred in the development of universities in the country in the last years. 

  12. Análisis de la labor conjunta del ACNUR y el gobierno colombiano en la asistencia para los refugiados. Estudio de caso: refugiados colombianos en Ecuador. 2006 – 2011.

    OpenAIRE

    Toro Medina, Mayra Camila

    2014-01-01

    Dentro del marco de rompimiento de relaciones diplomáticas entre Colombia y Ecuador, este estudio de caso pretende analizar la labor desempeñada por el Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados –ACNUR- y el gobierno colombiano, en cuanto a los refugiados colombianos que se encuentran en territorio ecuatoriano; pues dada la situación entre los Estados, es posible que la organización encontrara dificultades al asistir a la población colombiana que se encuentra refugiada. El co...

  13. 78 FR 11221 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Determination On the basis... injured by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of... China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec...

  14. 78 FR 64009 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record... from China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in... China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207.2(f) of the...

  15. 78 FR 13325 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam..., Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.\\1\\ Currently, the... From the People's Republic of China,Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist...

  16. NAFTA and the USA-Colombia FTA: learning from the past?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Ramoni-Perazzi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Back in 1992, a commercial agreement was signed between USA and Mexico (and Canada, which was supposed to promote the economic growth of its members by removing barriers to trade and investment among the three nations. Twenty years later, some studies indicates that the US have lost more jobs than those created by the agreement and moved from positive to negative trade balance with Mexico, all that due to American companies reallocating their production in Mexico, limiting the possibilities of higher wage claims for low-income workers in USA. Mexico, on the other hand, has not seen the positive impact on manufacturing wages NAFTA was supposed to exert. Based on this experience, what can be expected from the Free Trade Agreement between USA and Colombia in force since May 2012, since it is expected to achieve similar goals than NAFTA using similar policies?

  17. Impresiones de los Mexicanos sobre la imagen país de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María Echeverri Cañas

    2014-08-01

    of an investigation on impressions with Mexicans who have visited and have not visited Colombia. Mexico was chosen because it is the second source of tourists to Colombia from North America. Through an empirical study applied to a sample of 190 Mexicans over 18 years, it was found that the positioning remains negative and the country is still associated with drugs, terrorism and insecurity. One contrasting attribute regarding perception that stands out in the study is that Colombia is associated with the friendliness of its people. The study results were obtained at the end of 2013. Keywords: Association; Colombia; country image; Mexico; perception; visitors.

  18. NEW AND NOTEWORTHY BIRD RECORDS FROM THE EAST SLOPE OF THE ANDES OF COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALAMAN PAUL G.W.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We present significant new information on the distribution and status of 138 speciesof birds from the Andean East Slope of Colombia, based upon fieldwork between1990 and 2000 at 28 sites from central Dpto. Boyacá south to the Ecuador border.The first Colombian specimens of two species (Campylopterus villaviscensio, NapoSabrewing; Myrmotherula spodionota, Foothill Antwren are reported. Three othertaxa (Ocreatus underwoodii addae, Piculus leucolaemus leucolaemus andMyiophobus p. phoenicomitra, the first two sometimes considered species distinctfrom known Colombian forms, represent first reports from Colombia based uponsightings or photographs; we add several more sightings of two species (Pipreolachlorolepidota, Iridisornis analis previously known from single sight records. Inall, we report 35 species from the Andean East Slope of Colombia for the first time,southward range extensions on this slope for 47 species, northward extensions for21, upward or downward altitudinal extensions for 19, filling in of major discontinuitiesin distribution for 22; for ten of the latter, known from very few reports, new informationindicates a continuous distribution and far greater abundance than previouslysupposed. Range extensions and previously undiscovered populations of severalrestricted-range, Vulnerable, Near-threatened and Threatened species help toemphasize the importance of implementing conservation measures in the face of the increasing colonization pressures and insecurity. Based on our observations, wepresent several recommendations for setting conservation priorities in this rich butstill relatively poorly known region.

  19. Leishmaniases in Ecuador: Comprehensive review and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Gomez, Eduardo A L; Kato, Hirotomo

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews current knowledge about leishmaniases in Ecuador, proceeding from 1920, when the first human case was described, to the present, mainly focusing on the recent research events published. Regarding basic situations, it appears that 23 of Ecuador's 24 provinces have leishmaniasis-case reports. The disease is one of the mandatory notification infectious diseases in the country since 2005. All the 21,305 cases notified to the Ministry of Public Health, during the period from 2001 through 2014, were said to involve different clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) but not visceral (VL). Eight Leishmania species, L. (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) panamensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (Leishmania) mexicana, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (L.) major-like, L. (V.) naiffiand L. (V.) lainsoni were characterized. The last two species were most recently reported from the Ecuadorian Amazon regions. Of the 73 Ecuadorian Lutzomyia species (43 man-biting species) recorded, only four, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ayacuchensis, and Lu. tortura were incriminated as vectors of the Leishmania parasites. Current knowledge on the reservoir hosts of Leishmania in Ecuador is extremely poor. Recently, in Ecuador different kinds of molecular techniques were developed for diagnosis and mass screening of the disease, employing various materials derived from patients and sand fly vectors. These are PCR-RFLP, colorimetric FTA-LAMP etc. Brief comments and recommendations were also given, for future research and control of leishmaniases in Ecuador. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. IAEA Completes Nuclear Security Advisory Mission in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) team of experts today completed a nuclear security advisory mission in Ecuador. The mission was carried out at the request of the Government of Ecuador. The scope of the two-week International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS) mission included the legislative and regulatory framework for the security of radioactive material, regulatory licensing, inspection and enforcement as well as coordination among authorities and other stakeholders involved in nuclear security. In September 2017, Ecuador ratified the 2005 Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) and its incorporation into the nuclear security regime was also included in the scope of the mission. The IPPAS team carried out a number of visits, including to a steel company that uses gamma radiography, two hospitals, the National Polytechnic University and a company that transports radioactive material. In addition, the team visited a temporary storage facility for disused radioactive sources in Alóag, a town about 50 km south of the capital, Quito. The team observed that Ecuador is making efforts towards enhancing its national nuclear security regime. The team provided recommendations and suggestions to support Ecuador in enhancing and sustaining nuclear security. Good practices were identified that can serve as examples to other IAEA Member States to help strengthen their nuclear security activities.

  1. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Colombia. Crónica de un proceso de paz fracasado

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  2. The Phanuromyia galeata species group (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae, Telenominae: shining a lantern into an unexplored corner of Neotropical diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine C. Nesheim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Phanuromyia galeata species group is delineated and its species richness explored for the first time (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, Telenominae. Fifteen species are described, all of which are new: Phanuromyia comata Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil, P. constellata Nesheim, sp. n. (Paraguay, P. corys Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil, P. cranos Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Bolivia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, P. cudo Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Panama, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, P. dissidens Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Bolivia, Brazil, French Guiana, P. galeata Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Mexico, Peru, P. galerita Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil, Ecuador, French Guiana, P. hjalmr Nesheim, sp. n. (Bolivia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Paraguay, Venezuela, P. krossotos Nesheim, sp. n. (Ecuador, P. odo Nesheim, sp. n. (Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, P. pauper Nesheim, sp. n. (Ecuador, Peru, P. princeps Nesheim, sp. n. (Brazil, Ecuador, French Guiana, P. tonsura Nesheim, sp. n. (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, P. tubulifer Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil, Guyana.

  3. PLAN COLOMBIA: Some Differing Perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcella, Gabriel

    2001-01-01

    This monograph, with an introduction by Dr. Gabriel Marcella, includes four short, but interesting and important papers presented at a conference on Plan Colombia, sponsored by the Strategic Studies Institute of the U.S...

  4. Gravity Data For Colombia 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (9,050 records), were observed and processed by the Instituto Geografico Agustin Codazzi(IGAC), in Colombia from 1958 to 1996. This data...

  5. Subsistence hunting for turtles in Northwestern Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, John L; Almendariz, Ana; Simmons, John E; Nielsen, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    We describe the subsistence exploitation of an entire turtle fauna in Esmerald's Province, Ecuador. We collected first hand accounts and witnessed a number of capture techniques used by rural afroecuadorian and chachi inhabitants of the Cayapas Santiago River basin. The diversity of techniques indicated a practical knowledge of the ecology of the species. Chelydra acutirostris, Kinosternon leucostomum, Rhinoclemmys annulata, Melanosterna, and R. nasuta were captured and eaten. Poziando involved cleaning pools in a stream bed during the relatively dry season by removing live plants, organic detritus, and then seining with baskets; we observed R. melanosterna and K. leucostomum captured in this way. Pitfall traps baited with fruit were used to catch R. melanosterna during forays on land. Basket traps (Canasto tortuguero) with a wooden slat funnel across the opening are floated with balsa lashed to the sides. Banana or Xanthosoma leaf bait in the basket traps caught R. melanosterna, R. nasuta, and K. leucostomum. Marshy areas were probed for R. melanosterna and K. leucostomum. Direct capture by hand was also common. Turtles were relished as food items; all turtles captured were consumed, usually in soup or stew. Use of turtles for food in the region was pervasive, perhaps because fish and game populations were depleted.

  6. Neoliberalism and shrimp industry in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Romero Salgado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the effects of the shrimp industry development in the mangrove ecosystem, the socio-environmental conflicts generated and its relationship with neoliberalism and the financial crisis of 1999 in Ecuador. After a review of the importance of the mangrove ecosystem, the stages of the shrimp expansion, its promoters, the mangrove deforestation and the socio-environmental effects caused, I will analyze the shrimp crisis, its parallels with the financial crisis of 1999 and its subsequent recovery. I will show that the shrimp industry expanded in mangrove areas in order to reduce costs, even breaking the law and creating environmental degradation, vulnerability of the costs and loss of natural resources, based on the exploitation and privatization of a public good. This created unemployment, migration and impoverishment to local populations and costs that the State will have to assume. Therefore, it is a process of “accumulation by dispossession” characteristic of neoliberalism.

  7. State of malnutrition in hospitals of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos Espinosa, Sylvia; Nicolalde Cifuentes, Marcelo; Santana Porbén, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    Hospital malnutrition is a global health problem affecting 30-50% of hospitalized patients. There are no estimates of the size of this problem in Ecuadorian hospitals. Hospital malnutrition might influence the quality of medical assistance provided to hospitalized populations. To estimate the current frequency of malnutrition among patients admitted to Ecuadorian public hospitals. The Ecuadorian Hospital Malnutrition Study was conducted between November 2011 and June 2012 with 5,355 patients (Women: 37.5%; Ages ≥ 60 years: 35.1%; Length of stay ≤ 15 days: 91.2%) admitted to 36 public hospitals located in the prominent cities of 22 out of the 24 provinces of the country. Malnutrition frequency was estimated by means of the Subjective Global Assessment survey. Malnutrition affected 37.1% of the surveyed patients. Malnutrition was dependent upon patient's age and education level; as well as the presence of cancer, sepsis, and chronic organic failure. Hospital areas showed different frequencies of hospital malnutrition. Health condition leading to hospital admission influenced negatively upon nutritional status. Malnutrition frequency increased as length of stay prolonged. Malnutrition currently affects an important proportion of patients hospitalized in public health institutions of Ecuador. Policies and actions are urgently required in order to successfully deal with this health problem and thus to ameliorate its negative impact upon quality of medical care. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Proposed U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Background and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    exports. China is the second-leading supplier of Colombia’s imports, after the United States, accounting for 13% of total imports, followed by Mexico...which accounted for 9% of Colombia’s imports in 2010. China also ranks second among Colombia’s export markets, accounting for 5.0% of total...Postura Institucional, April 12, 2007. CUT, TLC: Todos Limosnearemos Comida , April 2008. Proposed U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Background and

  9. LA RIQUEZA DE LAS PLANTAS CON FLORES DE COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ORLANDO RANGEL-CH.

    2015-01-01

    úmero de especies; especialmente Compositae (1965, Fabaceae (2694, Poacaeae (1401, Myrtaceae (927, Melastomataceae (1312 y Bromeliaceae (1207. En Colombia 15 familias tienen el mayor número de especies; Araceae (800, Piperaceae (604 y Gesneriaceae (520. En Ecuador hay cuatro familias con mayor expresión de la riqueza, especialmente Orchidaceae (3630 y Ericaceae (224. En Ecuador se encontraron los valores más altos en los índices de riqueza a nivel de familia (8.2 x 10-4 y de especie (5.5X10-2.

  10. LAS MIGRACIONES INTERNACIONALES EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maguemati Wabgou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo expone los resultados de una investigación sobre los flujos migratorios internacionales que han estado llegando a Colombia desde el siglo XVI hasta la actualidad. La metodología investigativa se fundamenta en la recolección y el análisis de datos derivados de investigaciones anteriores. Los resultados son significativos en lamedida que presentan el estado de las migraciones en Colombia entre los siglos XVI y XIX y desde la primera mitad del siglo XX hasta la actualidad. Por un lado, engloban a la inmigración británica, jamaiquina y africana en las islas de San Andrés y Providencia; junto con la inmigración árabe, judía, alemana, francesa, italiana y gitana en Colombia continental. Por otro, aluden a las migraciones japonesas, suramericanas, junto con los crecientes asentamientos de migrantes norteamericanos, europeos y las nuevas oleadas de migraciones asiáticas y africanas en Colombia. Todo ello lleva a aprehender la envergadura del papel jugado por Colombia como un país de destino de las migraciones internacionales, lo que contrasta con la imagen más conocida de Colombia como un país expulsor de emigrantes.

  11. Quality control tools applied to a PV microgrid in Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camino-Villacorta, M.; Egido-Aguilera, M.A. [Ciudad Univ., Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Energia Solar - UPM; Gamez, J.; Arranz-Piera, P. [Trama Tecnoambiental (TTA), Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    The Instituto de Energia Solar has been dealing with quality control issues for rural electrification for many years. In the framework of project DOSBE (Development of Electricity Service Operators for Poverty Alleviation in Ecuador and Peru), a technical toolkit has been developed to implement adapted integral quality control procedures for photovoltaic systems (covering all components and equipment, installation and servicing), applicable at a local and regional scale, with the overall aim of increasing the confidence in photovoltaic systems. This toolkit was applied in the evaluation of an existing microgrid in Ecuador, which is described in this paper. The toolkit and the detailed results of its application are presented in a published document which is being widely distributed among the stakeholders of rural electrification in Ecuador and Peru. It can be downloaded from the web page of the DOSBE project: www.dosbe.org (orig.)

  12. Ecuador to withdraw from OPEC; group to maintain present flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, which has agreed to maintain its present combined production of 24.2 million b/d of oil in the fourth quarter, will soon see the first pullout of a member. The 13 member group will shrink to 12, probably in November, when Ecuador withdraws. Ecuador President Sixto Duran Ballen issued notice of the pullout Sept. 17, a little more than 1 month after he took office. Ecuador, strapped for cash, wants to save OPEC membership dues reported to be $2-3 million/year. It plans to remain an associate member, although it wasn't immediately clear what that means. No other countries are regarded as associate members

  13. Sertula Florae Colombiae, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Uribe Lorenzo

    1955-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo el autor registra como nuevas para Colombia varias especies pertenecientes a las Familias botánicas Aristolochiaceae, Passifloraceae y Solanaceae; provee de una diagnosis latina a Aristolochia argyroneura con el fin de revalidar ese binomio empleado irreglamentariamente desde hace medio siglo por carecer de la debida descripción; y discute brevemente el problema suscitado en torno al género Dilkea (de las Pasifloráceas, al cual se han atribuido varias especies por algunos botánicos, mientras otros sospechan que se trata de simples formas de una misma entidad específica por lo cual el genero debe ser considerado como monotípico.

  14. Marine biodiversity in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Juan Manuel

    2002-01-01

    One decade ago, the seas and oceans were considered biologically less diverse that the terrestrial environment. Now it is known that it is on the contrary; 33 of the 34 categories of animals (phylum), they are represented in the sea, compared with those solely 15 that exist in earth. The investigation about the diversity of life in the sea has been relatively scorned, but there are big benefits that we can wait if this is protected. The captures of fish depend on it; the species captured by the fisheries are sustained of the biodiversity of their trophic chains and habitats. The marine species are probably the biggest reservoir of chemical substances that can be used in pharmaceutical products. The genetic material of some species can be useful in biotechnical applications. The paper treats topics like the current state of the knowledge in marine biodiversity and it is done a diagnostic of the marine biodiversity in Colombia

  15. Derecho Electoral en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ariel Sanchez-Torres

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El artículo quiere demostrar que la afirmación y profundización de las normas electorales, en orden a la democracia y su progreso, han constituido en Colombia una forma institucional de cambio.  Si bien es cierto que no puede desconocerse el paréntesis del Frente Nacional que limitó el libre juego de las fuentes políticas, la legislación en temas como financiación política, publicidad y encuestas de opinión actualmente vigentes, son vitales para  que la democracia  y las normas electorales sean el camino Institucional  del cambio.

  16. Mucormicosis (ficomicosis en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Peña

    1965-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan dos casos de mucormicosis (ficomicosis, entidad que ha sido muy raramente encontrada en Colombia. El primer caso se refiere a un prematuro con deshidratación consecutiva a vómito y diarrea. A la autopsia se encontró una mucormicosis del intestino delgado con necrosis del mismo e invasión al bazo, a la vez que una candidiasis esofágica. El segundo caso es el de un niño de 5 meses de edad, con diarreas, vómito, acidosis y signos de trombosis del seno cavernoso derecho y de meningitis. La autopsia reveló una mucormicosis ocular y meningo-encefálica acompañada de trombosis de la arteria cerebral media derecha y del seno cavernoso del mismo lado.

  17. Las Serpientes en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H.

    1949-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de las serpientes en Colombia no deja de tener su particular interés; existe una inmensa variedad de especies que se escalonan desde los valles ardientes hasta alturas relativamente considerables; en estos últimos puntos disminuye notablemente la variedad de formas y de modo especial las especies provistas de veneno. Hacer una distinción entre las especies venenosas y las inofensivas, resulta un tanto difícil; en algunos textos se dan unas cuántas reglas, pero la mayor parte de ellas sólo tienen aplicación con especies exóticas ya que la mayor parte de esas distinciones se han tomado de obras que hacen referencia a la fauna europea.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of human oral Chagas disease outbreaks in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Ramírez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, displays significant genetic variability revealed by six Discrete Typing Units (TcI-TcVI. In this pathology, oral transmission represents an emerging epidemiological scenario where different outbreaks associated to food/beverages consumption have been reported in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Venezuela. In Colombia, six human oral outbreaks have been reported corroborating the importance of this transmission route. Molecular epidemiology of oral outbreaks is barely known observing the incrimination of TcI, TcII, TcIV and TcV genotypes. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: High-throughput molecular characterization was conducted performing MLMT (Multilocus Microsatellite Typing and mtMLST (mitochondrial Multilocus Sequence Typing strategies on 50 clones from ten isolates. Results allowed observing the occurrence of TcI, TcIV and mixed infection of distinct TcI genotypes. Thus, a majority of specific mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the sylvatic cycle of transmission were detected in the dataset with the foreseen presence of mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the domestic cycle of transmission. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the incrimination of sylvatic genotypes in the oral outbreaks occurred in Colombia. We observed patterns of super-infection and/or co-infection with a tailored association with the severe forms of myocarditis in the acute phase of the disease. The transmission dynamics of this infection route based on molecular epidemiology evidence was unraveled and the clinical and biological implications are discussed.

  19. Partial characterization of Maize rayado fino virus isolates from Ecuador: phylogenetic analysis supports a Central American origin of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicas, Mauricio; Caviedes, Mario; Hammond, Rosemarie; Madriz, Kenneth; Albertazzi, Federico; Villalobos, Heydi; Ramírez, Pilar

    2007-06-01

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) infects maize and appears to be restricted to, yet widespread in, the Americas. MRFV was previously unreported from Ecuador. Maize plants exhibiting symptoms of MRFV infection were collected at the Santa Catalina experiment station in Quito, Ecuador. RT-PCR reactions were performed on total RNA extracted from the symptomatic leaves using primers specific for the capsid protein (CP) gene and 3' non-translated region of MRFV and first strand cDNA as a template. Nucleotide sequence comparisons to previously sequenced MRFV isolates from other geographic regions revealed 88-91% sequence identity. Phylogenetic trees constructed using Maximum Likelihood, UPGMA, Minimal Evolution, Neighbor Joining, and Maximum Parsimony methods separated the MRFV isolates into four groups. These groups may represent geographic isolation generated by the mountainous chains of the American continent. Analysis of the sequences and the genetic distances among the different isolates suggests that MRFV may have originated in Mexico and/or Guatemala and from there it dispersed to the rest of the Americas.

  20. The Mexican Assimilation: Colombia in the 1930s - The case of Ignacio Gómez Jaramillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Solano Roa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During the 1930s in Colombia, artists such as Ignacio Gómez Jaramillo, took Mexican muralism as an important part of their careers thus engaging with public art for the irst time in the country. In 1936, Gómez Jaramillo travelled to Mexico for two years in order to study muralism, to learn the fresco technique and to transmit the Mexican experience of the open-air-schools. Gómez Jaramillo returned to Colombia in 1938 and in 1939 painted the murals of the National Capitol. Although Gómez Jaramillo’s work after 1939 is well known, his time in Mexico has been barely studied and very few scholars have analyzed the artist’s work in light of his Mexican experience. While in Mexico, Gómez Jaramillo joined the LEAR (La Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios with whom he crated the murals of the Centro Escolar Revolución. These murals depict politically engaged images that, apparently, little had to do with his more historical work back in Colombia. This text proposes a careful reading of the artist’s work at the CER and a rereading of the National Capitol murals in light of a more politicized vision.

  1. EL DERECHO CONSUETUDINARIO DE LOS PUEBLOS ORIGINARIOS DEL ECUADOR

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Villacres, Borman Renán

    2017-01-01

    El Ecuador, como país intercultural y plurinacional recoge en su memoria social todas las costumbres, mitos, leyendas y tradiciones que transforman en direccionamientos para el desarrollo del país en todas sus áreas, ya que compila en el Derecho Consuetudinario de los pueblos originarios del Ecuador su forma de actuar, ya hoy en día gracias a la revolución ciudadana, lo podemos socializar y aplicar, mismos que deben ser cumplidos en forma coercitiva porque ese es su modo de vida, que con toda...

  2. New records of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae from Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bruce Alexander

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available The plebotomine sand fly fauna of Ecuador was surveyed in two 3-month collecting trips made in 1988 and 1990. A total of 12 provinces were visited, including three (Bolivar, Loja and Morona Santiago from wich no previous records to phlebotomines existed. Forty-six species were collected, 13 of wich, together with 1 subspecies and 1 genus (Warileya represented new records for the country. This survey increases the known number of species in Ecuador to 60. The distribuition of Ecuadorian sand flies is discussed in the light of these new findings.

  3. Desarrollo histórico del sistema sanitario de Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Morocho, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se describen las condiciones de salud de Ecuador y con mayor detalle, las características del sistema ecuatoriano de salud, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, programas de salud, fuentes de financiamiento, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone, las tareas de rectoría que desarrolla el Ministerio de Salud Pública. La República de Ecuador no escapó de los efectos de las sucesivas crisis económicas, y su sistema de salud estuvo marcado por más de 15 ...

  4. A Primary Care System to Improve Health Care Efficiency: Lessons from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldulaimi, Sommer; Mora, Francisco E

    2017-01-01

    Ecuador is a country with few resources to spend on health care. Historically, Ecuador has struggled to find a model for health care that is efficient, effective, and available to all people in the country, even those in underserved and rural communities. In 2000, the Ecuador Ministry of Public Health implemented a new system of health care that used primary care as its platform. Since then, Ecuador has been able to increase its health care efficiency, increasing its ranking from 111 of 211 countries worldwide in 2000, to 20 of 211 countries in 2014. This article briefly reviews the new components of the system implemented in Ecuador and examines the tools used to accomplish this. The discussion also compares and contrasts the Ecuador and US systems, and identifies concepts and policies from Ecuador that could improve the US system. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  5. Land Reform and Conflict Resolution in Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nieswiadomy, Mark

    2003-01-01

    One of the leading arguments explaining the current rural conflict in Colombia is that it stems from deeply rooted peasant grievances over lack of land, As is true in much of Latin America, Colombia...

  6. United States Strategy in Colombia: New Opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Lee C

    2003-01-01

    .... Despite decades of U.S. support to the Government of Colombia, the troika of guerrilla insurgency, civil disorder by paramilitaries, and illegal drug activities has brought Colombia close to becoming a failed State. U.S...

  7. Estimating road transport fuel consumption in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, Jaime Cevallos

    2016-01-01

    Road transport is one of the sectors with highest energy consumptions in the planet, with large dependence of fossil fuels, and contribution for global greenhouse gas emissions. Although, Latin America is not a high-energy consumer, its share in global consumption is expected to grow, especially in the transportation sector. This make essential for developing countries the adoption of better policies to identify the vehicle groups with largest fuel demands. The present study describes the VKT technique to disaggregate road transport energy consumption by vehicle type, applied to the road transportation system of Ecuador. It also describes the procedures performed to estimate the variables required to run the model, and some of the practical applications that be used to create public policies. Results show as the biggest fuel consumers the heavy-duty freight cargo, followed by light duty vehicles. The estimation of greenhouse gas emissions evidence that road transport released 14.3 million tons of CO_2 in 2012. When fuel consumption is compared by it costs, it can be confirmed that Ecuadorean Government covered, through subsidies, for 68% of the annual fuel costs of national road transport, demonstrating the importance of restructuring these expenditures in order to achieve an efficient road transport system. - Highlights: •The vehicle-kilometers traveled has been estimated from local info. •The fuel economy has been calculated from national and international data. •The groups with higher fuel consumption has been located. •The fuel-type dependency has been estimated for each vehicle group. •Greenhouse gas emission, and fuel costs, has been estimated for local road transport.

  8. Una nueva especie de Burmeistera (Campanulaceae de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano C. Gustavo

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta nueva especie se puede separar fácilmente de las demás especies del género Burmeistera por tener sus hojas profunda y repetidamente pinnatisectas característica nunca antes registrada en este grupo de plantas. Aparte de la especie aquí descrita, la única especie de Burmeistera que presenta la lámina foliar pinnatisecta (laciniada, es B. pteridioides,  Mc Vaugh, descrita de la Cordillera Oriental en Colombia (Mc VAUGH, 1965; sin embargo, las hojas de B. pteridioides tienen divisiones sólo de primer orden (simplemente pinnatisectas, mientras que las hojas de B. multipinnatisecta tienen divisiones hasta de quinto orden (pentapinnatisectas. Aún dentro de la familia Campanulaceae, el presentar la lámina foliar pinnatisecta es una característica  de escasa ocurrencia; en lo que respecta a las especies americanas, este carácter se presenta en las especies ya  mencionadas, B. multipinnatisecta  y B. pteridiodes y en Centropogon dissectus Wimm., una especie endémica del Ecuador (JEPPESEN, 1981.

  9. English Language Education Policy in Colombia and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    English language education policies have attracted the attention of researchers in applied linguistics and English language teaching world-wide in the last few years. Some contend that English language skills are vital if a country is to participate actively in the global economy and individuals are to have access to knowledge for social and…

  10. The Colombia Seismological Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Chia, J. F.; Poveda, E.; Pedraza, P.

    2013-05-01

    The latest seismological equipment and data processing instrumentation installed at the Colombia Seismological Network (RSNC) are described. System configuration, network operation, and data management are discussed. The data quality and the new seismological products are analyzed. The main purpose of the network is to monitor local seismicity with a special emphasis on seismic activity surrounding the Colombian Pacific and Caribbean oceans, for early warning in case a Tsunami is produced by an earthquake. The Colombian territory is located at the South America northwestern corner, here three tectonic plates converge: Nazca, Caribbean and the South American. The dynamics of these plates, when resulting in earthquakes, is continuously monitored by the network. In 2012, the RSNC registered in 2012 an average of 67 events per day; from this number, a mean of 36 earthquakes were possible to be located well. In 2010 the network was also able to register an average of 67 events, but it was only possible to locate a mean of 28 earthquakes daily. This difference is due to the expansion of the network. The network is made up of 84 stations equipped with different kind of broadband 40s, 120s seismometers, accelerometers and short period 1s sensors. The signal is transmitted continuously in real-time to the Central Recording Center located at Bogotá, using satellite, telemetry, and Internet. Moreover, there are some other stations which are required to collect the information in situ. Data is recorded and processed digitally using two different systems, EARTHWORM and SEISAN, which are able to process and share the information between them. The RSNC has designed and implemented a web system to share the seismological data. This innovative system uses tools like Java Script, Oracle and programming languages like PHP to allow the users to access the seismicity registered by the network almost in real time as well as to download the waveform and technical details. The coverage

  11. Estudio preliminar de la fauna Amphibia del valle de Sibundoy, Alto Putumayo, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonh Jairo Mueses-Cisneros

    2004-07-01

    (Valle de Sibundoy y por localidades muestreadas, se hace una comparación con las faunas realizadas en el transecto Napo en Ecuador y en el transecto Montañita-Alto Gabinete en Caquetá y se presenta una clave taxonómica y una serie de fotografías para facilitar su  reconocimiento. El estudio además aporta cinco especies nuevas para la ciencia, amplía el rango altitudinal de otras ocho y presenta tres más para ser incluidas al listado general de las especies de anfibios de Colombia, las cuales habían sido ya anteriormente reportadas para el país por otros autores, pero no habían sido tenidas en cuenta en el último listado.

  12. Enfermedad cerebrovascular en Colombia Cerebrovascular disease in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico A Silva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la enfermedad cerebrovascular constituye un problema de salud pública mundial. En Colombia es la cuarta causa de muerte en la población adulta y genera una alta discapacidad en estos pacientes. Objetivo: describir algunos resultados obtenidos por el grupo de Ciencias Neurovasculares de la Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia. Desarrollo y conclusiones: la enfermedad cerebrovascular es una entidad con una alta prevalencia en la población colombiana y genera discapacidad mental, motora y del lenguaje. Es necesaria la implementación de unidades de cuidado neurovascular con personal entrenado, protocolos definidos, tratamientos adecuados y tecnología de punta. En Colombia deben imponerse este tipo de unidades dentro del cuidado básico de los pacientes para disminuir la morbilidad, mortalidad y discapacidad generada en estos pacientes. La Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia es pionera en la implementación de este tipo de cuidados.Introduction: cerebrovascular disease constitutes a worldwide public health problem. In Colombia, it is the fourth leading cause of death in the adult population and generates high disability in these patients. Objective: to describe some results obtained by the Neurovascular Sciences group from the Colombian Cardiovascular Foundation. Development and conclusions: cerebrovascular disease has a high prevalence in the Colombian population and generates mental, motor, and language disabilities. The implementation of neurovascular care units with trained personnel, defined protocols, adequate treatments and high technology, are necessary. This kind of units must be imposed in Colombia as a basic care for these patients in order to decrease morbidity, mortality and disability. The Colombian Cardiovascular Foundation is pioneer in the implementation of these care units.

  13. Intersectoral Transfer, Growth, and Inequality in Rural Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, C.T.M.; Lanjouw, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we study intersectoral transfer and its impact on the distribution of income in Ecuador. We find that income shares between farm and nonfarm activities are roughly equal, on average, although the rich in rural areas typically receive a greater share of income from nonfarm sources. Thus

  14. Analysis of Sedimentation in the Guayas River at Guayaquil, Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosselman, E.; Barrera Crespo, P.; Becker, A; Ottevanger, W.; Nabi, M.; Giardino, A; de Keizer, O; Arias Hidalgo, M.E.; Sanchez, D.; Pazmiño Nelson, N.

    2017-01-01

    The Equatorian Daule and Babahoyo rivers combine into the tidal Guayas River with the largest estuary on the Pacific coast of South America. The city of Guayaquil, located along the Guayas, is the main port of Ecuador but at the same time the planet’s fourth most vulnerable city for future flooding

  15. Analysis of Sedimentation in the Guayas River at Guayaquil, Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrera Crespo, P.; Becker, A; Ottevanger, W.; Nabi, M.; Giardino, A; de Keizer, O; Arias, M; Sanchez, D.; Pazmiño Nelson, N.; Mosselman, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Equatorian Daule and Babahoyo rivers combine into the tidal Guayas River with the largest estuary on the Pacific coast of South America. The city of Guayaquil, located along the Guayas, is the main port of Ecuador but at the same time the planet’s fourth most vulnerable city for future flooding

  16. Targeting micro-credits to poor household enterprises in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidalgo, D.; Oosterbeek, H.

    2008-01-01

    In 2007 the government of Ecuador launched a micro-credit program for enterprises run by poor households. The program was targeted to households at the bottom two quintiles in the wealth distribution. This paper uses data collected prior to the start of the program to examine whether the

  17. Assessing local vulnerability to climate change in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Mario Andres; Bucaram, Santiago J; Renteria, Willington

    2015-01-01

    Vulnerability assessments have become necessary to increase the understanding of climate-sensitive systems and inform resource allocation in developing countries. Challenges arise when poor economic and social development combines with heterogeneous climatic conditions. Thus, finding and harmonizing good-quality data at local scale may be a significant hurdle for vulnerability research. In this paper we assess vulnerability to climate change at a local level in Ecuador. We take Ecuador as a case study as socioeconomic data are readily available. To incorporate the spatial and temporal pattern of the climatic variables we use reanalysis datasets and empirical orthogonal functions. Our assessment strategy relies on the statistical behavior of climatic and socioeconomic indicators for the weighting and aggregation mechanism into a composite vulnerability indicator. Rather than assuming equal contribution to the formation of the composite indicator, we assume that the weights of the indicators vary inversely as the variance over the cantons (administrative division of Ecuador). This approach captures the multi-dimensionality of vulnerability in a comprehensive form. We find that the least vulnerable cantons concentrate around Ecuador's largest cities (e.g. Quito and Guayaquil); however, approximately 20 % of the national population lives in other cantons that are categorized as highly and very highly vulnerable to climate change. Results also show that the main determinants of high vulnerability are the lack of land tenure in agricultural areas and the nonexistence of government-funded programs directed to environmental and climate change management.

  18. Birth order and human capital development: evidence from Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.; Plug, E.; Rosero, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador using a large national database together with self-collected survey data. Using family fixed effects models we find significant positive birth order effects; earlier born children stay behind in their human

  19. Birth order and human capital development: evidence from Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.; Plug, E.; Rosero, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador. Using family fixed effects models we find positive and persistent birth order effects; earlier-born children stay behind in their human capital development from infancy to adolescence. Turning to potential

  20. Potato landraces: description and dynamics in three areas of Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteros, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aims to fill the gap of information on the potato landrace diversity present in farmer fields of Ecuador. Passport data from previous collections (1970’s and 1980’s) were used to identify Carchi, Chimborazo and Loja as representative areas of potato diversity. The status of on-farm

  1. Government policies, inequality and basic needs in Ecuador.

    OpenAIRE

    Vos R

    1985-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub-PREALC pub. Working paper on development policy, basic needs and poverty in Ecuador - discusses economic policy, and access to public expenditure; argues that income redistribution does not necessarily result from rural area infrastructure, health service, housing and educational expenditure. References, statistical tables.

  2. Contested discourses, knowledge, and socio-environmental conflict in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchanan, K.S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how multiple types of knowledge – epistemic, technical, and anecdotal – are combined and used discursively within the claim-making process of a long-running socio-environmental conflict concerning copper extraction and its threat to biodiversity conservation in Ecuador's Intag

  3. International Briefing 36: Training and Development in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Anormaliza, Richard; Llinàs-Audet, Xavier; Sabaté, Ferran

    2017-01-01

    This article examines educational policies in Ecuador. It outlines the main features of the education and training systems, and analyses the impact on productivity and national development. The efforts made by various national authorities to strengthen and encourage education at all levels is evident, as well as efforts to boost productivity by…

  4. The Foundation of Counseling in the Republic of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert L.; Valarezo, Maria Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Counseling is at an early stage of development in the Republic of Ecuador. A turbulent history, poverty, and unemployment have affected the growth of mental health services and counselor preparation programs. Yet, this country experiences problems of addictions, domestic violence, depression, suicide, gender inequity, and drug trafficking. The…

  5. Voices of Contact: Politics of Language in Urban Amazonian Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of diverse linguistic resources and contentious identity politics among indigenous Amazonian Kichwas in the city of Tena, Ecuador. Tena is a rapidly developing Amazonian provincial capital city with a long history of interethnic and interlinguistic contact. In recent decades, the course of indigenous Kichwa identity…

  6. Citizenship Education in Ecuador: Perceptions of Students and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Andres Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review literature about citizenship education in order to develop a framework for transformative citizenship education and compare that framework to the intended and implemented citizenship education curriculum in Ecuador. This study presents qualitative research carried out in eight schools in four provinces of…

  7. Teacher Disempowerment in the Education System of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Dack, Tammy M.

    2016-01-01

    A profound and systemic education change requires taking into consideration the several factors that intervene, particularly, and most importantly, the role of the teacher. Ecuador, since 2009 has been immersed in constant changes to achieve an educational transformation; however, nothing has been invested in the professional development of…

  8. Impact of two policy interventions on dietary diversity in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Juan; Ramos-Martin, Jesus

    2017-06-01

    To differentiate the effects of food vouchers and training in health and nutrition on consumption and dietary diversity in Ecuador by using an experimental design. Interventions involved enrolling three groups of approximately 200 randomly selected households per group in three provinces in Ecuador. Power estimates and sample size were computed using the Optimal Design software, with a power of 80 %, at 5 % of significance and with a minimum detectable effect of 0·25 (sd). The first group was assigned to receive a monthly food voucher of $US 40. The second group was assigned to receive the same $US 40 voucher, plus training on health and nutrition issues. The third group served as the control. Weekly household values of food consumption were converted into energy intake per person per day. A simple proxy indicator was constructed for dietary diversity, based on the Food Consumption Score. Finally, an econometric model with three specifications was used for analysing the differential effect of the interventions. Three provinces in Ecuador, two from the Sierra region (Carchi and Chimborazo) and one from the Coastal region (Santa Elena). Members of 773 households randomly selected (n 4343). No significant impact on consumption for any of the interventions was found. However, there was evidence that voucher systems had a positive impact on dietary diversity. No differentiated effects were found for the training intervention. The most cost-effective intervention to improve dietary diversity in Ecuador is the use of vouchers to support family choice in food options.

  9. Caracterización morfológica de cuarenta y seis accesiones de uchuva (Physalis peruviana L.), en Antioquia (Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Trillos González,Ofelia; Cotes Torres,José Miguel; Medina Cano,Clara Inés; Lobo Arias,Mario; Navas Arboleda,Alejandro Alberto

    2008-01-01

    La uchuva, Physalis peruviana L., crece como planta silvestre en las zonas tropicales altas de América, estando el centro de origen y diversificación en los Andes Suramericanos, principalmente de Colombia, Perú y Ecuador. Se realizó la caracterización morfológica de 46 accesiones de uchuva provenientes del Banco de Germoplasma de la nación Colombiana, a cargo de La Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuarias, CORPOICA, en el Centro de Investigación La Selva, ubicado en la vereda Lla...

  10. de Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Jaramillo Ayerbe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la modelación para la predicción a corto plazo de la concentración de ozono troposférico en la zona urbana de la ciudad de Cali, Colombia, mediante el análisis univariante de series de tiempo. El método se aplicó a una serie de 2.496 datos horarios de concentración de ozono, obtenida en una de las estaciones de la Red de Monitoreo de Calidad del Aire (RMCA de Cali, correspondiente a 104 días consecutivos durante el período abril a julio de 2003. Los datos de los primeros 93 días se utilizaron para la estimación del modelo, y los de los 11 días restantes para la validación del mismo. El modelo propuesto podría ser utilizado por las autoridades ambientales de la región para predecir y alertar a la población sobre posibles episodios de altas concentraciones de ozono que puedan poner en riesgo la salud pública con hasta 8 horas de anticipación.

  11. Environmental information in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez S, Andres

    2005-01-01

    This article is a chapter from the paper, Elements for the description of an environmental information system, which was written by the author as a requirement for the degree of specialist on environment and Geoinformatics at the school of engineering. Universidad de Antioquia. The original paper attempted a description of the context and development of a particular environmental information system, built at the eastern region of Antioquia by CORNARE (a regional autonomous corporation for the environment and the natural resources). This article refers to the Colombian institutional context for environmental information. With particular emphasis laid on the strategic character that must be conceded to the administration of information. Towards the construction of equitable and sustainable development models under autonomous orientation an efficient and transparent environmental administration as is needed by such models is only attainable through the design and application of environmental information systems committed to the pursuit of collective interests. Here a balance is sought between accomplishments and failures reached during the long standing discussion held in Colombia around the formulation of public policies that acknowledge and strengthen the role of information as a cornerstone of environmental administration, and a contribution towards the goal of human sustainable development

  12. de barranquilla (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Flores

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación aborda algunas de las variables que, en las periferias de las ciudades del Tercer Mundo, inciden en la ausencia de una identidad urbana y de una cultura política democrática, tomando como ejemplo el municipio de Soledad, en el departamento del Atlántico, Colombia. La investigación tuvo como primer objetivo indagar por los sentidos de lo público que construyen los habitantes y para ello se realizó un inventario de los espacios públicos y unos diarios de campo sobre los usos dados a estos espacios. En segundo lugar, nos preguntamos sobre los modos de inserción en las dinámicas urbanas. Las encuestas realizadas confirmaron la ausencia de canales de expresión y participación, con lo cual formas no institucionalizadas de identidad social se convierten en la alternativa para los ciudadanos, en particular, para los jóvenes. De ahí que el estudio centrara sus conclusiones en las demandas que estas realidades presentan al Estado y en los peligros que, para la consolidación de la democracia, implican estas ciudadanías inconclusas..

  13. Rupture process of the 2016 Mw 7.8 Ecuador earthquake from joint inversion of InSAR data and teleseismic P waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lei; Xu, Caijun; Wen, Yangmao; Zhang, Xu; Jiang, Guoyan

    2018-01-01

    The 2016 Ecuador earthquake ruptured the Ecuador-Colombia subduction interface where several historic megathrust earthquakes had occurred. In order to determine a detailed rupture model, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) images and teleseismic data sets were objectively weighted by using a modified Akaika's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) method to jointly invert for the rupture process of the earthquake. In modeling the rupture process, a constrained waveform length method, unlike the traditional subjective selected waveform length method, was used since the lengths of inverted waveforms were strictly constrained by the rupture velocity and rise time (the slip duration time). The optimal rupture velocity and rise time of the earthquake were estimated from grid search, which were determined to be 2.0 km/s and 20 s, respectively. The inverted model shows that the event is dominated by thrust movement and the released moment is 5.75 × 1020 Nm (Mw 7.77). The slip distribution extends southward along the Ecuador coast line in an elongated stripe at a depth between 10 and 25 km. The slip model is composed of two asperities and slipped over 4 m. The source time function is approximate 80 s that separated into two segments corresponding to the two asperities. The small magnitude of the slip occurred in the updip section of the fault plane resulted in small tsunami waves that were verified by observations near the coast. We suggest a possible situation that the rupture zone of the 2016 earthquake is likely not overlapped with that of the 1942 earthquake.

  14. The Burden of Dengue Fever and Chikungunya in Southern Coastal Ecuador: Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, and Phylogenetics from the First Two Years of a Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.; Ryan, Sadie J.; Kenneson, Aileen; King, Christine A.; Abbott, Mark; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Beltrán-Ayala, Efraín; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J.; Cárdenas, Washington B.; Cueva, Cinthya; Finkelstein, Julia L.; Lupone, Christina D.; Jarman, Richard G.; Maljkovic Berry, Irina; Mehta, Saurabh; Polhemus, Mark; Silva, Mercy; Endy, Timothy P.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract. Here, we report the findings from the first 2 years (2014–2015) of an arbovirus surveillance study conducted in Machala, Ecuador, a dengue-endemic region. Patients with suspected dengue virus (DENV) infections (index cases, N = 324) were referred from five Ministry of Health clinical sites. A subset of DENV-positive index cases (N = 44) were selected, and individuals from the index household and four neighboring homes within 200 m were recruited (N = 400). Individuals who entered the study, other than the index cases, are referred to as associates. In 2014, 70.9% of index cases and 35.6% of associates had acute or recent DENV infections. In 2015, 28.3% of index cases and 12.8% of associates had acute or recent DENV infections. For every DENV infection captured by passive surveillance, we detected an additional three acute or recent DENV infections in associates. Of associates with acute DENV infections, 68% reported dengue-like symptoms, with the highest prevalence of symptomatic acute infections in children aged less than 10 years. The first chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections were detected on epidemiological week 12 in 2015; 43.1% of index cases and 3.5% of associates had acute CHIKV infections. No Zika virus infections were detected. Phylogenetic analyses of isolates of DENV from 2014 revealed genetic relatedness and shared ancestry of DENV1, DENV2, and DENV4 genomes from Ecuador with those from Venezuela and Colombia, indicating the presence of viral flow between Ecuador and surrounding countries. Enhanced surveillance studies, such as this, provide high-resolution data on symptomatic and inapparent infections across the population. PMID:29512482

  15. Study on the mortality in Ecuador related to dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira-Mosquera, Juan Alejandro; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Sánchez-Llaguno, Sungey; Moreno Rojas, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Diet is an important factor related to the development of numerous diseases. In developing countries like Ecuador, this aspect is not considered as priority however, the study of the incidence of certain diet-related diseases could help to assess consumption habits of a country from a Public Health perspective and support national nutrition policies and programs. The objective the present study is to investigate the mortality rate of certain diet-related diseases in Ecuador and its possible relationship with Ecuadorian consumption habits. For that, mortality rates (2001-2008) associated with five different disease groups related to dietary factors (cancer of colon, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and liver diseases) were collected, analyzed and compared to consumption patterns in Ecuador. According to results, Ecuador has a low level of cancer of colon in comparison with developed countries (e.g. Spain). The group with the highest number of deaths corresponded to cardiovascular diseases followed by cerebrovascular diseases. The mortality study per province revealed that Amazonian provinces showed few deaths in relation to other provinces in Ecuador. This could be due to different factors including fails in the disease surveillance information systems, environmental factors and consumption patterns. In this sense, further investigation on native products consumption such as "chontaduro" might help to find valuable foods contributing to healthier Ecuadorian diet. These results, though preliminary, evidence that a major effort should be made by national and international organisations to collect data on consumption patterns and nutritional aspects of the Ecuadorian population in order to better support the development of effective food security and nutrition policies. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. El Patentamiento Universitario en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Milena González Gélvez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta un panorama general del patentamiento que realizan las Universidades en Colombia. Para ello, se realiza un análisis de la información de la base de datos de patentes de la Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio de Colombia desde 1970 hasta 2010. Los resultados permiten observar el estado real del patentamiento Universitario en Colombia, así como identificar las Universidades más exitosas en el proceso de patentamiento y los tiempos reales requeridos para proteger las nuevas creaciones. Así mismo, los resultados son un insumo importante en la determinación de la estrategia de protección que adopten las Universidades Colombianas en cuanto a la protección de sus creaciones.

  17. Natalidad y fecundidad, Colombia, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    León A, Alba Luz; Ocampo A, Leidy Johanna; Spath P, Doris Estella; Agudelo G, Héctor Byron; Grisales R, Hugo

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta la natalidad, la fecundidad y los nacimientos vivos en Colombia en el año 2001 con base en la totalidad de los registros de nacidos vivos del Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadísticas (dane) (724.236). La población de Colombia, calculada a mitad de período, se dividió en ocho categorías de municipios de acuerdo con el tamaño poblacional, según la Ley 617/2001. No se presentaron diferencias importantes entre las variables afines a las características del recién nacido po...

  18. Descubrir el universo desde Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    Los dos hechos científicos más relevantes en la corta historia de Colombia, son la Real Expedición Botánica del Nuevo Reino de Granada y la Misión Corográfica. Hoy cuando los astrónomos, entre otros asuntos que se ubican en la frontera del conocimiento, intentan conocer la geometría del espacio, la naturaleza de la materia oscura y los misterios del tiempo, en Colombia nuestros científicos tienen pendiente entre otros aportes para la construcción de la Nación, apoyar tareas fundamentales y es...

  19. September 1985 Mexico City, Mexico Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.1 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Mexico. The damage was concentrated in a 25 square km area of Mexico City, 350 km from the epicenter....

  20. Serpientes de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rodrigo Ángel

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available En este libro es una guía práctica sobre las serpientes de Colombia en cuanto a su clasificación y tratamiento del envenenamiento causado por sus mordeduras. Contiene los siguientes capítulos: 1. Características generales, 2. Serpiente Colombianas, 3. Aparato venenoso, 4. Clasificación fisiopatología de los efectos del veneno, 5. Mordedura por serpientes venenosas en Antioquía, listas de nombres populares y científicos, la bibliografía. Esta es una introducción a esta práctica guía sobre las serpientes Colombianas: Desde el origen del hombre, a través de la evolución de las distintas culturas y aún en la época actual en un amplio sector sociocultural, la serpiente ha sido considerada como un animal dotado de ciertos poderes sobrenaturales, bien sea como fuente de mal, de beneficio, de poder, de sabiduría o de salud. Considerada por su aspecto tóxico, la influencia en la patología humana es evidente y de gran importancia como causa de morbilidad sobre todo en aquellos países donde se le considera animal sagrado. En el aspecto simbólico, el folklor es abundante en creencias y tradiciones, que generalmente coinciden en la mayoría de los pueblos. En un país tropical como Colombia, con diversidad de climas y bosques, las serpientes venenosas de gran poder tóxico son también abundantes y significan un peligro real para nuestra población campesina en lucha abierta con la naturaleza. Los envenenamientos causados por sus mordeduras, graves de por sí, empeoran frecuentemente debido a diversos factores tales como la escasez y alto costo del suero antiofídico y la demora en la atención médica, condicionada esta última no sólo por la deficiencias de nuestras vías de comunicación, sino por la influencia nefasta del curandero. Sobre tema tan importante de nuestra patología, es entonces necesario que nuestras instituciones educativas y las encargadas de velar por la salud, se preocupen no sólo por su

  1. Dengue en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Boshell

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available El Gobierno Colombiano estableció una campaña que erradicó el Aedes aegypti de su territorio en atención a las recomendaciones que hizo la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana en 1947. Esta campaña consiguió desaparecer el dengue endémico durante aproximadamente 20 años, apareciendo de nuevo en forma explosiva con la epidemia de dengue 2 en la Costa Atlántica (1971-1972, seguida de dos epidemias bien documentadas de dengue 3 (1975-1977 y dengue 1 en 1978. Se hace un resumen de las actividades que desarrolla el Laboratorio de Virología del Instituto Nacional de Salud para apoyar el diagnóstico de esta enfermedad en el país incluyendo el primer aislamiento de dengue 4 en 1982, la actividad de los virus dengue 1, 2 y 4 detectada hasta la fecha, los hallazgos clínicos y virológicos en un caso fatal de enfermedad hemorrágica asociada a infección por virus del dengue y un breve recuento de la epidemia de Tumaco en la Costa Pacífica en la cual se comprobó actividad simultánea de dengue 1 y 2. Finalmente se informa sobre el estado de infestación que tiene el país actualmente con el Aedes aegypti y sobre la actividad del virus de fiebre amarilla en focos selváticos vecinos a ciudades altamente infestadas, detectada en el mes de enero de 1987 en Colombia.

  2. de Manizales, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Humberto Vargas López

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se deriva de una investigación realizada con 29 jóvenes escolarizados de la ciudad de Manizales, Colombia, en la cual se indagó por los sentidos y significados de la ciudadanía. Para la recolección de información se utilizó el taller pedagógico, en tanto permitió combinar diversas técnicas e instrumentos tales como la entrevista semiestructurada, la entrevista a profundidad y la discusión. El estudio concluye que las y los jóvenes significan y comprenden la ciudadanía desde cuatro referentes: el lugar del sujeto en la sociedad y la cultura, el sentido del derecho y la ley en la organización y la convivencia, las percepciones del actuar moral y político de los líderes y de los políticos, y las percepciones y consumos de ciudad que hacen los ciudadanos. Se concluye que las y los jóvenes sitúan la ciudadanía desde un referente de la acción, manifestado fundamentalmente en la participación, el enjuiciamiento político y la posibilidad de ser representados por otros. Igualmente, se plantea que las y los jóvenes orientan la ciudadanía desde los principios y marcos de significación cultural de ciudad, expresados en los vínculos y compromisos que adquieren los ciudadanos con su ciudad y viceversa. Finalmente, se afirma que se trata de una ciudadanía significada en el respeto, la libertad, la justicia social y el reconocimiento del potencial humano universal

  3. chile : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INTRAREGIONAL MIGRATION, WOMEN WORKERS, WOMEN'S RIGHTS. Région: ... Région: Brazil, South America, Chile, Colombia, North and Central America, Panama ... Région: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, North and Central America, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay.

  4. Emissions Of Forest Fires In The Amazon: Impact On The Tropical Mountain Forest In Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, P.; Rollenbeck, R.; Thiemens, M. H.; Brothers, L.

    2006-12-01

    Biomass burning is a source of carbon, sulphur, and nitrogen compounds which, along with their photochemically generated reaction products, can be transported over very large distances, even traversing oceans. Four years of regular rain and fog-water measurements in the tropical mountain forest at the eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, along an altitude profile between 1800 m and 3185 m, have been carried out. The ion composition of rain and fog-water samples shows frequent episodes of significantly enhanced nitrogen and sulphur, resulting in annual deposition rates of about 5 kg N/ha and 10 kg S/ha into this ecosystem, which are comparable to those of polluted central Europe. By relating back trajectories calculated by means of the FLEXTRA model to the distributions of satellite derived forest fire pixels, it can be shown that most episodes of enhanced ion concentration, with pH values as low as 4.0, can be attributed to biomass burning in the Amazon. First analyses of oxygen isotopes 16O, 17O, and 18O of nitrate in fogwater samples show mass independent fractionation values ranging between 15 and 20 per mille, clearly indicating that nitrate in the samples is a product of atmospheric conversion of precursors, while the isotope data of river samples taken downstream of the research area are grouped in the region of microbial nitrate. This strongly supports the aforementioned trajectory results and shows that the tropical mountain forest in Ecuador, with local pollution sources missing,is "fertilized" by long-range transport of substances originating from forest fires in Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, and Peru, far upwind of the research site.

  5. Military Observer Mission Ecuador-Peru (MOMEP) Doing a Lot with a Little.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    IPS), URL: <htttp://web.maxwell.syr.edu.nativew...aphy/latinam/ ecuador /borderl6.html>, accessed 10 November 1996, pp. 1-2. 蔵 "Evacuees in Loja Number...OBSERVER MISSION ECUADOR -PERU (MOMEP) DOING A LOT WITH A LITTLE BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL KEVIN M. HIGGINS United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...MISSION ECUADOR -PERU (MOMEP) Doing A Lot With a Little by Lieutenant Colonel Kevin M. Higgins United States Army Naval Postgraduate School Special

  6. The Hybrid Threat: Crime, Terrorism and Insurgency in Mexico. Proceedings of the Joint Policy and Research Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    to name a few. Drug trafficking in Mexico is big, if illicit, business. The most notorious players include the Sinaloa Cartel, the Gulf Cartel...091311.pdf. A Joint CSL-HSPI Study12 problem didn’t originate in Mexico, but migrated there in force after Colombia cracked down on its own drug lords...four’ – Jua´rez, Gulf, Sinaloa , and Tijuana – which operate generally in the north. But, perhaps foreshadowing a fourth generation in the gangs

  7. Solving Colombia’s Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    parties for political control during the period from 1948 to 1953.15 “During this period, referred to as ‘La Violencia ,’ groups of armed men paid by...surprise to those familiar with the Colombia government history of mishandling foreign aid in the war against drugs and in their parallel inability to

  8. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2007-07-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that > 21% of the serum samples had antibodies aaainst spotted fever group rickettsiae.

  9. Colombia extends its exploration horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1997-01-01

    The Return 1 Contract, currently being awarded under the tender system, faithfully reflects Colombia's new approach to hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation. This policy aims to increase reserves and has Ecopetrol assume a more aggressive role in its direct activities by sharing the exploration risks with private partners

  10. Pseudotectites from Colombia and Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, R.; Sitter-Koomans, de C.

    1955-01-01

    In a previous note on “Americanites” (Martin, 1934) from Colombia and Peru, the writer came to the conclusion, on the basis solely of published data, that it was very likely that these so-called tectites are in reality obsidian of terrestrial origin. He stated, however, that “before it is possible

  11. CANCER DE MAMA EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. González Mariño

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer la situación del cáncer de mama en Colombia mediante la revisión de publicaciones epidemiológicas y clínicas. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Evaluación de estudios publicados en revistas científicas seriadas sobre cáncer de mama en Colombia mediante búsqueda en las bases de datos Medline con los términos neoplasm and breast and Colombia y Lilacs con neoplasia y mama y Colombia. Se seleccionaron los estudios con aplicación epidemiológica o clínica con muestreo o datos de mujeres residentes en Colombia, ubicando sus resultados en la sección de introducción y en la de discusión de acuerdo con los enfoques de promoción, prevención y tratamiento. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron 62 referencias en Medline de las que se seleccionaron 23 y en Lilacs de 16 se escogieron 4. Las referencias se descartaron en Medline por las siguientes razones: 15 por el diseño de estudio (revisión de tema, presentación de casos clínicos, 7 por tratarse de investigación básica, 10 por tema diferente al cáncer de mama en Colombia y 7 por datos pertenecientes a otro país. En Lilacs se excluyeron por: 7 artículos también presentes en Medline, 3 por diseño, 1 de investigación básica y 1 de un tema diferente. CONCLUSIONES: Los artículos revisados permiten tener una visión integral sobre el cáncer de mama en Colombia. En ellos se puede verificar que hay limitaciones en la prestación del servicio de atención en salud para esta enfermedad, y se identifican factores de riesgo con significancia estadística como la nuliparidad, niveles altos de inactividad física y exposición a DDE (diclorodifenildicloroeteno y para el cáncer genético se encontraron mutaciones fundadoras. La consulta se hace principalmente por síntomas, no sobre resultados de cribado como sería lo deseable. Existen también contribuciones sobre el manejo quirúrgico y adyuvante extrapolables a las condiciones del país.

  12. Mammalia, Chiroptera, Thyropteridae, Thyroptera tricolor Spix, 1823: Distribution extension in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boada, C. E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ecuador, Thyroptera tricolor is distributed on the northern coastal region, in Amazonia, and in the foothillsof the Andes between 50 to 1,800 m of altitude. We reported a capture of a non-breeding female at El Descanso, Los RíosProvince, in the central coastal region of Ecuador. With this record, we have extended the geographical distribution of T.tricolor in Ecuador 55 km further south. Using the available data for Ecuador, a predictive distribution model was generatedusing a Maximum Entropy approach.

  13. Palmas de Colombia: clave diagnostica de los géneros y nómina de las especies conocidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1940-12-01

    Full Text Available Después del Brasil, Colombia posee mayor número de palmas que cualquiera otro país del globo.  Débese la razón de esta primacía a la favorable situación geográfica de nuestro territorio, en cuyo ámbito concurren condiciones fitoecológicas muy variadas: por el sur y por el suroeste Colombia ocupa una porción muy amplia de la inmensa Hylæa amazónica*, verdadero Edén del reino vegetal, como llamó a esta región el botánico Kerchove de Denterghem; por el noroeste, las selvas húmedas del Darién, del Atrato y del Chocó son la continuación en este continente de las ricas asociaciones vegetales centro-americanas; hacia el nordeste, las fronteras de nuestro país atraviesan una parte considerable de las grandes selvas vírgenes que cubren la región meridional de la cuenca de Maracaibo y que penetran a Colombia por el Catatumbo, en tanto que por los lados del occidente y del suroeste toda la Costa del Pacifico, desde el Chocó hasta el Ecuador, esta vestida de magnas florestas primitivas sujetas a uno de los regímenes pluviales más abundantes de la tierra.

  14. Mining Taxation in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper first assesses the current Colombian mining tax-and-royalty regime in comparison with other countries from the points of view of efficiency, competitiveness and revenue performance. It then discusses the theoretical convenience of introducing alternative designs for a resource rent tax (RRT to be applied to new mining projects, together with a reduced common royalty rate for all minerals, and simulates their potential efficiency, competitiveness and revenue-performance effects. In particular, it examines alternative interactions between the RRT, the royalty regime and the corporate income tax (royalties creditable against the RRT or deductible from its tax base; accepting or not corporate income tax deductibility from the RRT tax base, under alternative RRT tax rates. It also discusses alternative capital return allowances and the pros and cons of project-by-project versus sectorial ring fencing, and sharing RRT revenues between the national and sub-national governments. It concludes with a detailed blueprint for reform based on these discussions, assessments and simulations, as well as political economy and administrative considerations for the specific case of Colombia. Este trabajo evalúa la eficiencia, competitividad y capacidad de recaudo del régimen tributario y de regalías colombiano en comparación con el de otros países mineros relevantes. Posteriormente, propone la implementación de un “Resource Rent Tax” (RRT para proyectos mineros futuros (junto con una reducción y unificación de la tasa de regalías entre minerales y modela el impacto que tendría éste sobre la eficiencia y el recaudo. Se examinan la interacción entre el RRT, las regalías y el impuesto de renta bajo distintos diseños y tasas de RRT y costo de oportunidad del capital. También se analiza si es preferible tener “ringfencing” a nivel de proyecto o a nivel sectorial. El trabajo concluye con una propuesta de reforma junto con consideraciones

  15. Prevalence of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Schoolchildren in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Játiva, Edgar; Velasco-Benítez, Carlos A; Koppen, Ilan J N; Játiva-Cabezas, Zahira; Saps, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    The prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in children in Ecuador is unknown. We describe a survey study in 2 schools in Quito, Ecuador, using a Spanish translation of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version (QPGS-RIII). A total of 417 children (51% boys) with a mean age of 12.0 years were included. FGIDs were present in 95 children (22.8%) and occurred in 25% of girls and in 20.7% of boys (P = 0.296). Functional defecation disorders were found in 12.0% of children, 9.4% had an abdominal pain-related FGID and 3.8% was diagnosed with a vomiting or aerophagia FGID.

  16. Structure of media and communication companies in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Coronel-Salas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of information about the media landscape in Ecuador has prompted the Department of Communication Sciences at the Private Technical University of Loja to map the country's media, production companies, and advertising and public relations agencies. The need for a database on communication issues is still latent in Ecuador. Some public and private agencies have made some contributions to the construction of physical or virtual repositories, but the data provided have been limited to basic, often outdated, contact information. Based on a sample of over one thousand media companies, this study describes their structure, legal and corporate organisation, geographical location, contents, reach, and provided services. This study is an approximation to the country’s media reality and is part of a wider research project entitled “Mapa de la Comunicación de Ecuador” (“Ecuador’s Media Map”.

  17. Review of existing species of fruit flies in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tigrero, Juan

    1998-01-01

    This study was carried out since 1990 to 1997. The goal was to figure out different species of fruit fly that inhabit in Ecuador. For the identification we put special emphasis in the female genitalia. We recommend to do more research into this subject, because of the few studies done in our country and the importance of fruit cultivation. We mention 32 genus in the family Tephritidae in Ecuador, including the introduced genus Ceratitis. Into Toxotrypaninae are pointing out the presence of one specie of the Toxotrypana genus and 31 species of the Anastrepha genus, detailing brilly the 27 species most common. General notions about taxonomic bases are mentioned in order to identify species of the Anastrepha Schiner, pointing out certain fenotipic characteristics that prove variability among the ecuadorian's population, mainly A. fraterculus, A. distincta, A. obliqua, A. striata, and others. (The author)

  18. Metal sources in Jurassic to miocene ore deposits of Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaradia, M.; Fontbote, L

    2001-01-01

    The Ecuadorian crust is a mosaic of NNE-SSW-trending terranes representing different geotectonic domains. These terranes, composed by oceanic and continental crust, were formed during the Triassic separation of the North and South American continents and were accreted to the Amazon craton during subduction of the Farallon/Nazca plate, from Early Cretaceous to Early Tertiary (Litherland et al., 1994). In the southwestern part of Ecuador, EW-striking crustal-scale faults, related to the Huancabamba deflection, mark the transition between the Central and Northern Andes. In this study we discuss more than 200 lead isotope compositions of ores as well as magmatic and metamorphic rocks of Ecuador. The interest of carrying out a large-scale isotope survey in the Northern Andes derives from a geotectonic evolution characterized by multi-accretionary episodes which is not recognized in the Central Andes (au)

  19. Characteristics of clinical Helicobacter pylori strains from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debets-Ossenkopp, Yvette J; Reyes, Germán; Mulder, Janet; aan de Stegge, Birgit M; Peters, José T A M; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Tanca, J; Peña, Amado S; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E

    2003-01-01

    In Ecuador, Helicobacter pylori infections are highly prevalent. A total of 42 H. pylori clinical isolates from 86 patients attending the outpatient clinic of the gastroenterology department of the university hospital of Guayaquil in Ecuador were characterized. Their susceptibility, and cagA and vacA status were determined. Resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin was found in 80.9% and 9.5% of strains, respectively. Neither amoxicillin- nor tetracycline-resistant strains were found. The most prevalent genotype was the cagA(+), vacA s1b,m1 type. This genotype was associated with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer. Typing by random amplified polymorphic DNA showed no genetic relationship among the strains.

  20. Neogene magmatism and its possible causal relationship with hydrocarbon generation in SW Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Mónica; Altenberger, Uwe; Romer, Rolf L.

    2009-07-01

    The Cretaceous oil-bearing source and reservoir sedimentary succession in the Putumayo Basin, SW Colombia, was intruded by gabbroic dykes and sills. The petrological and geochemical character of the magmatic rocks shows calc-alkaline tendency, pointing to a subduction-related magmatic event. K/Ar dating of amphibole indicates a Late Miocene to Pliocene age (6.1 ± 0.7 Ma) for the igneous episode in the basin. Therefore, we assume the intrusions to be part of the Andean magmatism of the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ). The age of the intrusions has significant tectonic and economic implications because it coincides with two regional events: (1) the late Miocene/Pliocene Andean orogenic uplift of most of the sub-Andean regions in Peru, Ecuador and Colombia and (2) a pulse of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion that has reached the gas window. High La/Yb, K/Nb and La/Nb ratios, and the obtained Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions suggest the involvement of subducted sediments and/or the assimilation of oceanic crust of the subducting slab. We discuss the possibility that magma chamber(s) west of the basin, below the Cordillera, did increase the heat flow in the basin causing generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons and CO2.

  1. Recent hydrocarbon developments in Latin America: Key issues in the downstream oil sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.; Pezeshki, S.

    1995-01-01

    This report discusses the following: (1) An overview of major issues in the downstream oil sector, including oil demand and product export availability, the changing product consumption pattern, and refineries being due for major investment; (2) Recent upstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela; (3) Recent downstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Cuba, and Venezuela; (4) Pipelines in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; and (5) Regional energy balance. 4 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Recent hydrocarbon developments in Latin America: Key issues in the downstream oil sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.; Pezeshki, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report discusses the following: (1) An overview of major issues in the downstream oil sector, including oil demand and product export availability, the changing product consumption pattern, and refineries being due for major investment; (2) Recent upstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela; (3) Recent downstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Cuba, and Venezuela; (4) Pipelines in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; and (5) Regional energy balance. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Pasteur en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Bárcenas lsaacs

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Simposio Internacional sobre Inmunización y Producción de Vacunas, Bogotá, 29 de Septiembre de 1985.

    La Sociedad Colombiana de Historia de la Medicina recibió del Comité Organizador de la reunión que hoy nos congrega, la solicitud de presentar el tema de la influencia de Luís Pasteur en la América Latina. La Sociedad mencionada tuvo a bien encargarme de tan honroso cometido; sin embargo, habida cuenta de la vastedad de nuestro continente, del largo tiempo que se requiere para consultar responsable y juiciosamente archivos y bibliotecas en los diferentes países, además de los viajes que hubiera sido necesario realizar, decliné tan atractiva y desafiante tarea, pero propuse, en cambio, que se me permitiera abordar el tema circunscribiéndolo a Colombia.

    Me doy cuenta cabal de que lo que diga pudiera parecer estrecho o parroquial a este distinguido concurso de personalidades provenientes de tan diversas latitudes. No obstante, me atrevo a creer que lo que aconteció en Colombia al advenimiento de las ideas y de los descubrimientos de Pasteur, no debe diferir demasiado de lo sucedido en otras naciones, a las cuales Bolívar agrupó en una sola cuando dijo “para nosotros la patria es América”.

    Con la salvedad expresada, trataré de cumplir con la generosa designación que he recibido de la Sociedad Colombiana de Historia de la Medicina, a la cual me complazco en pertenecer y a cuyo presidente y Junta Directiva agradezco la distinción que me hacen.

    En este año de 1985 se cumplen y se celebran cien de la primera aplicación humana de la vacuna antirrábica debida a Pasteur. Se conmemora también el centenario de la muerte de Víctor Hugo, uno de los más grandes escritores y poetas de la humanidad. Siempre he creído que estos dos hijos insignes de la Francia del Siglo XIX, se distinguieron por el respeto, el afecto y la admiración que les profesaron sus contemporáneos y entre

  4. Studies of Migration in Ecuador: From National Development to Mobilities

    OpenAIRE

    María Mercedes Eguiguren

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a review of the studies on migration in Ecuador during the period 1960-2016. It addresses the main debates that have marked these studies, the contexts of academic production, and the way in which migrations and their social and economic conditions have influenced the constitution and orientations of the field. Three stages go through the academic production: a first one where the internal migrations are approached from a spatial phenomena analysis; a second that deals wi...

  5. Social Enterprise, Capabilities and Development: Lessons from Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Scarlato, Margherita

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyses how the theoretical framework of social enterprise proposed in the academic debate could be operationalised in the specific socioeconomic context of Ecuador. Recently, this country designed a new economic paradigm based on the solidarity economy model to reconcile an ambitious developmental state platform with the vision of a participatory strategy that pursues democracy, human rights and poverty reduction. This paradigm was enshrined in the constitution and elaborated thro...

  6. Comercio entre Huaquillas, Ecuador - Aguas Verdes, Perú.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Carpio

    2015-10-01

    This research aims to present the statistics on international trade between the major towns on the border Ecuador - Peru. This work seeks to show business opportunities framed in the Strategic Plan of the Productive Transformation matrix which seeks to increase domestic production through import substitution. Based on Huaquillas city, the research results show that the main imports are textiles and footwear, which represent over 50% of total imports and $ 107 million a year.

  7. Land Policy Changes and Land Redistribution in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Albornoz Barriga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines three distinct periods of policy change and land redistribution in Ecuador through the agrarian reform laws of 1964, 1973 and 2010. A comparative case study of each moment of the law reforms was based on the instruments and policy network approach. In order to explain public policy process design, the high incidence of collective domains led by agribusiness on government management, and the incidence of indigenous organizations and farmers over the state action.

  8. Birds, Lower Sangay National Park, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara, E.; Santander, T.; Guevara, J. E.; Gualotuña, R.; Ortiz, V.

    2010-01-01

    Sangay National Park is located at the mid-eastern Andean foothills of the Cordillera Oriental of Ecuador. We present a preliminary avifauna inventory corresponding to the lower zone of the Sangay National Park (SNP). One-hundred and twenty-seven bird species belonging to 39 families were recorded, including noteworthy records that represent range extensions for four species, Phaetornis hispidus (Gould 1846) (White-bearded Hermit), Ramphastos ambiguus Swainson 1823 (Black-mandibled Toucan), P...

  9. A national survey of radiodiagnostic services in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penaherrera S, P.; Echeverria T, F.; Buitron S, S.; Yela de Chacon, L.

    1979-11-01

    The Ecuadorian Atomic Energy Commission elaborated a Radiation Protection Regulation for Ecuador. In order to implement it, a national survey of radiodiagnostic services was implemented with the following objectives: a) Statistics of Radiodiagnostic services related to geography and population ulation density, b) To establish general patterns for X-Ray control and calibration, c) Evaluation of the professional and technical work in this field. (Author)

  10. Comunidades y territorio en la costa del Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero Burgos, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Se propone una definición teórica de la comunidad territorial sustentada en el concepto de identificación y la teoría del desarrollo rural territorial con el objeto de analizar las principales cadenas productivas que surcan la costa centro sur del Ecuador. Además se estudia a los principales movimientos agrarios que caracterizan un territorio que es sobre todo agrario y rural.

  11. ¿Colombia tiene recursos económicos suficientes para atacar el narcotráfico y sus actividades vinculadas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Felipe Jiménez Trucco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Colombia es criticada permanentemente por la comunidad internacional en lo referente a su lucha contra la violencia. Sin embargo, no encuentra un apoyo real en algunos de sus vecinos (Nicaragua, Ecuador y Venezuela y otros actores en el ataque a generadores de violencia como son la guerrilla o los paramilitares, los cuales están a su vez relacionados con el narcotráfico. Es necesario que la comunidad internacional conozca el verdadero esfuerzo que realiza Colombia en la lucha contra el narcotráfico y la violencia asociada a este delito. Colombia ha incrementado considerablemente sus gastos en seguridad y defensa en la última década haciendo grandes esfuerzos para atacar, entre otros, el narcotráfico. Realmente ha encontrado un apoyo de sus vecinos y aliados para combatir idóneamente este delito? Con este escrito se evalúa la cooperación obtenida por Colombia por parte de otros actores en la lucha contra el narcotráfico, no solo en términos monetarios, sino también en términos de apoyo institucional.

  12. Causes of blindness among hospital outpatients in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, Helene; Landers, John; Benitez, Paul

    2006-03-01

    There is a lack of published information on the causes of blindness in Ecuador and the Latin American region in general. This study is designed to enumerate the proportions of ocular conditions contributing to blindness in an outpatient population of an ophthalmology hospital in the coastal region of Ecuador. All cases presenting to an ophthalmology outpatient clinic over a 3-week period during September 2004 were reviewed (n = 802). Visual acuity was measured using a Snellen acuity chart and those who met the criteria for blindness were included in the study (n = 118). Blindness was defined under the World Health Organization protocol as visual acuity of glaucoma (15%). Among those considered to have bilateral blindness (n = 30), refraction was the most common cause (37%), followed by cataract (23%) and glaucoma (17%). The major causes of blindness found in this study reflected those in estimated data for the region. More studies are needed to improve the quality and quantity of epidemiological data on blindness in Ecuador and Latin America. Many obstacles to successful implementation of prevention of blindness programmes in South America still need to be overcome.

  13. Checklist of the flower flies of Ecuador (Diptera, Syrphidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Armijos, Diego; Quezada-Ríos, Noelia; Soto-Armijos, Carolina; Mengual, Ximo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Syrphidae is one of the most speciose families of true flies, with more than 6,100 described species and worldwide distribution. They are important for humans acting as crucial pollinators, biological control agents, decomposers, and bioindicators. One third of its diversity is found in the Neotropical Region, but the taxonomic knowledge for this region is incomplete. Thus, taxonomic revisions and species checklists of Syrphidae in the Neotropics are the highest priority for biodiversity studies. Therefore, we present the first checklist of Syrphidae for Ecuador based on literature records, and provide as well the original reference for the first time species citations for the country. A total of 201 species were recorded for Ecuador, with more than 600 records from 24 provinces and 237 localities. Tungurahua, Pastaza, and Galápagos were the best sampled provinces. Although the reported Ecuadorian syrphid fauna only comprises 11.2 % of the described Neotropical species, Ecuador has the third highest flower fly diversity density after Costa Rica and Suriname. These data indicate the high species diversity for this country in such small geographic area. PMID:29200924

  14. Checklist of the flower flies of Ecuador (Diptera, Syrphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Marín-Armijos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Syrphidae is one of the most speciose families of true flies, with more than 6,100 described species and worldwide distribution. They are important for humans acting as crucial pollinators, biological control agents, decomposers, and bioindicators. One third of its diversity is found in the Neotropical Region, but the taxonomic knowledge for this region is incomplete. Thus, taxonomic revisions and species checklists of Syrphidae in the Neotropics are the highest priority for biodiversity studies. Therefore, we present the first checklist of Syrphidae for Ecuador based on literature records, and provide as well the original reference for the first time species citations for the country. A total of 201 species were recorded for Ecuador, with more than 600 records from 24 provinces and 237 localities. Tungurahua, Pastaza, and Galápagos were the best sampled provinces. Although the reported Ecuadorian syrphid fauna only comprises 11.2 % of the described Neotropical species, Ecuador has the third highest flower fly diversity density after Costa Rica and Suriname. These data indicate the high species diversity for this country in such small geographic area.

  15. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Calvopiña

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

  16. [Social factors associated with use of prenatal care in Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, Amaya; Cevallos, William; Grijalva, Mario J; Silva-Ayçaguer, Luis C; Tamayo, Susana; Jacobson, Jerry O; Costales, Jaime A; Jiménez-Garcia, Rodrigo; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Serruya, Suzanne; Riera, Celia

    2016-11-01

    Prenatal care is a pillar of public health, enabling access to interventions including prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and congenital syphilis. This paper describes social factors related to use of prenatal care in Ecuador. In 2011 and 2012, participant clinical history and interview information was analyzed from a national probability sample of 5 998 women presenting for delivery or miscarriage services in 15 healthcare facilities in Ecuador, to estimate prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and Chagas disease, and prenatal care coverage. The study found that 94.1% of women had attended at least one prenatal visit, but that attendance at no less than four visits was 73.1%. Furthermore, lower educational level, greater number of pregnancies, occupation in the agriculture or livestock sector, and membership in ethnic indigenous, Afro-Ecuadorian, or other minority groups were factors associated with lack of use (no prenatal visits) or insufficient use of prenatal care (fewer than four visits or first visit at >20 weeks gestation) in Ecuador. These results point to persistence of marked inequalities in access to and use of prenatal health services attributable to socioeconomic factors and to the need to strengthen strategies to address them, to reach the goal of universal prenatal care coverage.

  17. Macroinvertebrate Richness Importance in Coastal Tropical Streams of Esmeraldas (Ecuador and Its Use and Implications in Environmental Management Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Martínez-Sanz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the performance of some indices and community attributes frequently used to assess river quality and test the role of macroinvertebrate taxa richness as element of bioindication in several coastal tropical streams of western Esmeraldas (Ecuador. In addition, a macroinvertebrate taxon list of this region was provided for the first time. Thirteen sampled points distributed across nine streams were selected for this study and nineteen parameters and attributes of bioindication were tested. The differences between nonimpact and impact places were evaluated mainly using one-way analysis of variance. Jackknife 2 and Clench were used to estimate the regional richness and the quality of the inventory, respectively. Seventy taxa (principally genus and family of the main groups of macroinvertebrates were collected. Measured richness and family richness were the best metric followed by Biological Monitoring Working Party/Colombia (BMWP/Col, Odonata richness, Shannon-Weiner, and EPT richness (Ephemeroptera + Plecoptera + Trichoptera indices. Only a slight right trend (Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Chironomidae attributes or incorrect performances (Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT and % EPT were showed by frequently used metrics. Finally, several recommendations were made about taxonomic level used, the ranks of quality of taxa richness, and the effort-results relationship in the field of bioindication.

  18. Mexico; Mexique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes the key energy data for Mexico: 1 - energy organizations and policy: Ministry of energy (SENER), Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE), Ministry of Finances, Ministry of trade and industrial development (SECOFI), national commission for energy savings (CONAE); 2 - companies: federal commission of electricity (CFE), Minera Carbonifera Rio Escondido (MICARE - coal), Pemex (petroleum); 3 - energy production: resources, electric power, petroleum, natural gas; 4 - energy consumption; 5 - stakes and perspectives. Some economic and energy indicators are summarized in a series of tables: general indicators, supply indicators (reserves, refining and electric capacity, energy production, foreign trade), demand indicators (consumption trends, end use, energy independence, energy efficiency, CO{sub 2} emissions), energy status per year and per energy source. (J.S.)

  19. 75 FR 30776 - Exemption of Foreign Air Carriers From Excise Taxes; Review of Finding of Reciprocity (Ecuador...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Excise Taxes; Review of Finding of Reciprocity (Ecuador), 26 U.S.C. 4221 AGENCY: International Trade... existing exemption for aircraft registered in Ecuador from certain internal revenue taxes on the purchase... Government of Ecuador has discontinued allowing substantially reciprocal tax exemptions to aircraft of U.S...

  20. Constitutional Adjudication in Colombia: Avant-Garde or Case law Transplant? A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Lizarazo-Rodríguez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Colombia is mentioned, together with the US, Uruguay, Argentina and Mexico, as one of the first countries worldwide to adopt the judicial review as a means for adjudicating on the constitutionality of legislation. In recent years, and particularly since the enactment of the Political Constitution of 1991, the Colombian Constitutional Court is also mentioned as a notorious example of judicial activism in terms of legislating through the constitutional adjudication process. This article presents a literature review on the globalization of judicial review and the contemporary methods of constitutional adjudication (including the balancing method, in order to assess the uniqueness and avantgarde nature of constitutional adjudication in Colombia in the global context. Brief reference is also made to the literature on the institutional limitations faced by less developed countries, inasmuch as they affect the way constitutional adjudication is applied and perceived.

  1. Tomographically-imaged subducted slabs and magmatic history of Caribbean and Pacific subduction beneath Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Olaya, R.; Mann, P.; Vargas, C. A.; Koulakov, I.

    2013-12-01

    We define the length and geometry of eastward and southeastward-subducting slabs beneath northwestern South America in Colombia using ~100,000 earthquake events recorded by the Colombian National Seismic Network from 1993 to 2012. Methods include: hypocenter relocation, compilation of focal mechanisms, and P and S wave tomographic calculations performed using LOTOS and Seisan. The margins of Colombia include four distinct subduction zones based on slab dip: 1) in northern Colombia, 12-16-km-thick oceanic crust subducts at a modern GPS rate of 20 mm/yr in a direction of 110 degrees at a shallow angle of 8 degrees; as a result of its low dip, Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic rocks are present 400 km from the frontal thrust; magmatic arc migration to the east records 800 km of subduction since 58 Ma ago (Paleocene) with shallow subduction of the Caribbean oceanic plateau starting ~24-33 Ma (Miocene); at depths of 90-150 km, the slab exhibits a negative velocity anomaly we associate with pervasive fracturing; 2) in the central Colombia-Panama area, we define an area of 30-km-thick crust of the Panama arc colliding/subducting at a modern 30/mm in a direction of 95 degrees; the length of this slab shows subduction/collision initiated after 20 Ma (Middle Miocene); we call this feature the Panama indenter since it has produced a V-shaped indentation of the Colombian margin and responsible for widespread crustal deformation and topographic uplift in Colombia; an incipient subduction area is forming near the Panama border with intermediate earthquakes at an eastward dip of 70 degrees to depths of ~150 km; this zone is not visible on tomographic images; 3) a 250-km-wide zone of Miocene oceanic crust of the Nazca plate flanking the Panama indenter subducts at a rate of 25 mm/yr in a direction of 55 degrees and at a normal dip of 40 degrees; the length of this slab suggests subduction began at ~5 Ma; 4) the Caldas tear defines a major dip change to the south where a 35 degrees

  2. Gnss Geodetic Monitoring as Support of Geodynamics Research in Colombia, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Paez, H.; Acero-Patino, N.; Rodriguez-Zuluaga, J. S.; Diederix, H.; Bohorquez-Orozco, O. P.; Martinez-Diaz, G. P.; Diaz-Mila, F.; Giraldo-Londono, L. S.; Cardozo-Giraldo, S.; Vasquez-Ospina, A. F.; Lizarazo, S. C.

    2013-05-01

    are located on the three major plates that interact within the Wide Plate Margin Deformation Zone including existing permanent installations on IGS Galapagos and Malpelo Islands on the Nazca Plate, and San Andres Island on the Caribbean plate. The velocity vectors confirm the oblique subduction of the Nazca Plate and Carnegie aseismic ridge collision processes at the Colombia-Ecuador trench which are assumed to be the mechanism for the transpressional deformation and the "escape" of the North Andes Block (NAB). The northernmost vectors in Colombia are indicative of the ongoing collision of the Panama Arc with northwestern Colombia. Planned for the year 2013 is the installation of 10 additional GNSS continuously operating stations, and construction of 20 GPS campaign sites.

  3. Violencia y salud en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Franco Agudelo

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available La violencia en Colombia parece incontenible. A las masacres y asesinatos colectivos, de una crueldad desconcertante, se suman los secuestros y desapariciones, el maltrato de niños y ancianos y las violaciones de adolescentes. Cada día, sin tregua, los colombianos son espectadores o víctimas de atracos callejeros y de discriminación racial, sexual y socioeconómica. Sin quererlo, se convierten en agentes de agresiones en el transporte urbano, el hogar, la escuela y el trabajo. Colombia tiene las tasas de mortalidad por homicidio más altas del mundo. Independientemente de la enorme sobrecarga institucional que impone a los servicios de salud y medicina legal, la violencia constituye actualmente en Colombia el principal problema de salud pública. Para hacerle frente, el sector de la salud debe elaborar políticas y financiar acciones; crear nuevos procesos de formación de personal, poner en marcha procesos de educación pública, y dedicar mayor esfuerzo y creatividad al campo de la investigación, que hasta ahora ha dado respuestas importantes pero aún insuficientes. Al reflexionar sobre la violencia, que es la sustitución de toda argumentación por la fuerza, es necesario ubicarla en el contexto de la vida y la salud. No se pretende solo racionalizarla, y menos aún sustituir la acción por la palabra o por las reflexiones, sino tratar de comprenderla a fondo con el objeto de buscarle alternativas. En el presente artículo se analiza, con esta finalidad, el tema de la violencia en Colombia, principalmente desde el punto de vista de su efecto en la salud de los colombianos y de sus implicaciones para el sector sanitario. El autor expone sus puntos de vista con plena conciencia de su subjetividad y limitaciones.

  4. La industria maltera en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Parra Restrepo, Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo estudia la industria maltera de Colombia, su origen, evolución y el estado en que se encuentra. Presenta cifras respecto al comportamiento de la producción y ventas. Muestra las relaciones de propiedad y describe la importancia relativa de la empresa con las otras subsidiarias del grupo económico al que pertenece. De otra parte analiza las relaciones obrero/patronales en el contexto actual y las relaciones con la agroindustria colombiana.

  5. Etiology of Acute Undifferentiated Febrile Illness in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Quito, Ecuador; Departamento de Medicina Interna, Hospital General de las Fuerzas Armadas, Quito, Ecuador; Policlínico Militar San Jorge, Sangolqui...593-2-226-9234, E-mail: bquist@hcjb.org.ec. Juan Freire Espín, Departamento de Medicina Interna, Hospital General de las Fuerzas Armadas, Queseras

  6. Is the US Investing Wisely in Latin America? Let Us Take a Closer Look at Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    voluntad política del Ecuador para profundizar los lazos con Iran”, www.elciudadano.gov.ec 74 Ibid 75 CRS Report for Congress, “Venezuela: Political...www.elciudadano.gov.ec, January 9, 2009. El Ciudadano. “Presidente Correa destacó la voluntad política del Ecuador para profundizar los lazos con

  7. Population genetics of Phaedranassa cuencana Minga, C. Ulloa & Oleas (Amaryllidaceae), an endemic species of Southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaedranassa is a genus of Amaryllidaceae mostly endemic to the Northern Andes. Six out of the eight species described in Ecuador are endangered or vulnerable to extinction. Phaedranassa cuencana was first described in 2015. This species is restricted to the southern part of Ecuador, around the city...

  8. Environmental Education in Ecuador: Conceptions and Currents in Quito's Private Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteri, Fátima; Clarebout, Geraldine; Crauwels, Marion

    2013-01-01

    While key conceptions and the status of environmental education (EE) have been reported at various international, regional, national and local levels, those in play in the schools of Quito (Ecuador) are still relatively unknown. Of particular interest to this study are private schools: they are considerable in number in Ecuador and elsewhere, yet…

  9. Violence and health in Colombia Violencia y salud en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Franco Agudelo

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, violence seems uncontrollable. Along with massacres and group killings of astonishing cruelty, there are also kidnappings and disappearances, abuse of children and the elderly, and rape of young adolescents. Every day, without respite, Colombians are witnesses or victims of street crimes as well as racial, sexual, and socioeconomic discrimination. Unwillingly, they become agents of aggression in public transport, at home, at school, and at work. Colombia has the highest rates of mortality from homicide in the world. Apart from the enormous institutional burden that violence imposes on the health services and forensic medicine, it now constitutes the principal public health problem in the country. To confront it, the health sector must develop policies and finance actions, develop innovative ways to train personnel, implement public education processes, and devote more effort and greater creativity to research, which up to now has provided some important, albeit insufficient, responses. Violence, which is the substitution of force for any type of dialogue, must be considered within the context of life and health. Doing so is not an attempt to rationalize violence, much less to substitute words or reflection for action, but rather an attempt to understand it in depth in order to search for alternatives. With that goal, this article analyzes the subject of violence in Colombia, principally from the perspective of its effect on the health of the citizens and its implications for the health sector. The author fully recognizes the subjectivity and limitations of the views he expresses herein.La violencia en Colombia parece incontenible. A las masacres y asesinatos colectivos, de una crueldad desconcertante, se suman los secuestros y desapariciones, el maltrato de niños y ancianos y las violaciones de adolescentes. Cada día, sin tregua, los colombianos son espectadores o víctimas de atracos callejeros y de discriminación racial, sexual

  10. Violencia y salud en Colombia Violence and health in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Franco Agudelo

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available La violencia en Colombia parece incontenible. A las masacres y asesinatos colectivos, de una crueldad desconcertante, se suman los secuestros y desapariciones, el maltrato de niños y ancianos y las violaciones de adolescentes. Cada día, sin tregua, los colombianos son espectadores o víctimas de atracos callejeros y de discriminación racial, sexual y socioeconómica. Sin quererlo, se convierten en agentes de agresiones en el transporte urbano, el hogar, la escuela y el trabajo. Colombia tiene las tasas de mortalidad por homicidio más altas del mundo. Independientemente de la enorme sobrecarga institucional que impone a los servicios de salud y medicina legal, la violencia constituye actualmente en Colombia el principal problema de salud pública. Para hacerle frente, el sector de la salud debe elaborar políticas y financiar acciones; crear nuevos procesos de formación de personal, poner en marcha procesos de educación pública, y dedicar mayor esfuerzo y creatividad al campo de la investigación, que hasta ahora ha dado respuestas importantes pero aún insuficientes. Al reflexionar sobre la violencia, que es la sustitución de toda argumentación por la fuerza, es necesario ubicarla en el contexto de la vida y la salud. No se pretende solo racionalizarla, y menos aún sustituir la acción por la palabra o por las reflexiones, sino tratar de comprenderla a fondo con el objeto de buscarle alternativas. En el presente artículo se analiza, con esta finalidad, el tema de la violencia en Colombia, principalmente desde el punto de vista de su efecto en la salud de los colombianos y de sus implicaciones para el sector sanitario. El autor expone sus puntos de vista con plena conciencia de su subjetividad y limitaciones.In Colombia, violence seems uncontrollable. Along with massacres and group killings of astonishing cruelty, there are also kidnappings and disappearances, abuse of children and the elderly, and rape of young adolescents. Every day

  11. Prediabetes in Colombia: Expert Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Carlos; Castillo, Jorge; Escobar, Iván Darío; Melgarejo, Enrique; Parra, Gustavo Adolfo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The prevalence of Prediabetes in Colombia is high, and despite being recognized and categorized in the main Medical Guidelines and included in the International Classification of Diseases in Colombia, knowledge and awareness of it is limited amongst healthcare professionals and in the community. Our expert group recommends that educational programs emphasize a global approach to risk which includes a recognition of the importance of prediabetes and its evaluation along with and other risk factors such as a family history of DM2, overweight and obesity, dislipidemia and hypertension. Studies conducted in Colombia demonstrate the value of the FINDRIS questionnaire as a tool to identify subjects at risk of prediabetes and DM2, and we recommend that it should be systematic applied throughout the country as part of government policy. Prediabetes progresses to DM2 at an annual rate of 10%, but it has also been shown that prediabetes is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. On this basis, the Committee recommends that once prediabetes is detected and diagnosed, immediate management of the disease begins through lifestyle changes, with follow up assessments performed at 3 and 6 months. If the patient does not respond with a weight loss of at least 5% and if the HbA1C values ​​are not normalized, pharmacological management should be initiated with a metformin dose of 500 mg / day, increasing up to 1,500 - 1,700 mg / day, according to tolerance. PMID:29662261

  12. Violence and health in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Franco Agudelo

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, violence seems uncontrollable. Along with massacres and group killings of astonishing cruelty, there are also kidnappings and disappearances, abuse of children and the elderly, and rape of young adolescents. Every day, without respite, Colombians are witnesses or victims of street crimes as well as racial, sexual, and socioeconomic discrimination. Unwillingly, they become agents of aggression in public transport, at home, at school, and at work. Colombia has the highest rates of mortality from homicide in the world. Apart from the enormous institutional burden that violence imposes on the health services and forensic medicine, it now constitutes the principal public health problem in the country. To confront it, the health sector must develop policies and finance actions, develop innovative ways to train personnel, implement public education processes, and devote more effort and greater creativity to research, which up to now has provided some important, albeit insufficient, responses. Violence, which is the substitution of force for any type of dialogue, must be considered within the context of life and health. Doing so is not an attempt to rationalize violence, much less to substitute words or reflection for action, but rather an attempt to understand it in depth in order to search for alternatives. With that goal, this article analyzes the subject of violence in Colombia, principally from the perspective of its effect on the health of the citizens and its implications for the health sector. The author fully recognizes the subjectivity and limitations of the views he expresses herein.

  13. Prediabetes in Colombia: Expert Consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jaramillo, Patricio; Calderón, Carlos; Castillo, Jorge; Escobar, Iván Darío; Melgarejo, Enrique; Parra, Gustavo Adolfo

    2017-12-30

    The prevalence of Prediabetes in Colombia is high, and despite being recognized and categorized in the main Medical Guidelines and included in the International Classification of Diseases in Colombia, knowledge and awareness of it is limited amongst healthcare professionals and in the community. Our expert group recommends that educational programs emphasize a global approach to risk which includes a recognition of the importance of prediabetes and its evaluation along with and other risk factors such as a family history of DM2, overweight and obesity, dislipidemia and hypertension. Studies conducted in Colombia demonstrate the value of the FINDRIS questionnaire as a tool to identify subjects at risk of prediabetes and DM2, and we recommend that it should be systematic applied throughout the country as part of government policy. Prediabetes progresses to DM2 at an annual rate of 10%, but it has also been shown that prediabetes is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. On this basis, the Committee recommends that once prediabetes is detected and diagnosed, immediate management of the disease begins through lifestyle changes, with follow up assessments performed at 3 and 6 months. If the patient does not respond with a weight loss of at least 5% and if the HbA1C values ​​are not normalized, pharmacological management should be initiated with a metformin dose of 500 mg / day, increasing up to 1,500 - 1,700 mg / day, according to tolerance.

  14. Geodynamic control of the chemical composition of Tertiary continental arc magmas of Ecuador?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaradia, M.; Fontbote, L

    2001-01-01

    Whereas an abundant literature has been produced on the Tertiary magmatism of the Central Andes, no comparable studies exist for the Tertiary continental magmatism of the Northern Andes in general and of Ecuador in particular. In this contribution we present the first extensive data on lead and strontium isotopes of Paleocene to Pliocene magmatic rocks of Ecuador together with their major, trace and rare earth element geochemistry. The main interest of carrying out a geochemical and isotopic investigation on the magmatism of Ecuador is that, different from the Central Andes, Ecuador consists of several accreted terranes both of continental and oceanic affinity. The fragmented nature of the recently assembled crust of Ecuador, composed of lithologies such as Paleozoic schists, Triassic anatexites, and Jurassic metabasalts, could have variably affected the chemistry of the Ecuadorian magmas (au)

  15. USEPA'S SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATIONS IN ECUADOR AND MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to support and help in the struggle to improve the quality of drinking water in the United States and abroad, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) conducts research studies for the demonstration and evaluation of alternative and innovative drinking w...

  16. Circulation of Streptococcus pneumoniae clone Colombia5 ST289 in nine Latin American countries Circulación de Streptococcus pneumoniae clon Colombia5 ST289 en nueve países de América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Firacative

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine genetic relatedness of clone Colombia5 ST289 with invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 5 isolates recovered in nine Latin American countries. METHODS: Forty-four invasive S. pneumoniae serotype 5 isolates recovered from children under 5 years of age in Bolivia, Chile, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela were studied. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of DNA treated with SmaI restriction enzyme were classified using Tenover's criteria and analyzed with the Fingerprinting II program to determine their genetic relatedness with the Colombian clone. RESULTS: All isolates had a genetic similarity of 78.5% or more with the Colombian clone. Thirteen electrophoretic subtypes derived of pattern A were identified, and five of them (A5, A6, A8, A13, A27 comprised 61.4% of the isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Clone Colombia5 ST289 is disseminated in Latin America. This is important because S. pneumoniae serotype 5 frequently causes invasive disease in the region and is associated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance.OBJETIVO: Determinar la relación genética del clon Colombia5 ST289 con los aislamientos invasores de Streptococcus pneumoniae serotipo 5 provenientes de nueve países latinoamericanos. MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron 45 aislamientos invasores de Streptococcus pneumoniae serotipo 5 procedentes de niños menores de 5 años de Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú, República Dominicana y Venezuela. Los patrones en electroforesis en gel de campo pulsante del ADN tratado con la enzima de restricción SmaI se clasificaron mediante el criterio de Tenover y se analizaron con el programa Fingerprinting II para determinar su relación genética con el clon colombiano. RESULTADOS: Todos los aislamientos tuvieron una similitud genética de 78,5% o mayor con el clon colombiano. Se identificaron 13 subtipos electroforéticos derivados del patrón A y cinco de ellos

  17. Caracterización morfológica de cuarenta y seis accesiones de uchuva (Physalis peruviana L., en Antioquia (Colombia Morphologic characterization of forty six accessions of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L., in Antioquia (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Trillos González

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La uchuva, Physalis peruviana L., crece como planta silvestre en las zonas tropicales altas de América, estando el centro de origen y diversificación en los Andes Suramericanos, principalmente de Colombia, Perú y Ecuador. Se realizó la caracterización morfológica de 46 accesiones de uchuva provenientes del Banco de Germoplasma de la nación Colombiana, a cargo de La Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuarias, CORPOICA, en el Centro de Investigación La Selva, ubicado en la vereda Llanogrande del municipio de Rionegro (Antioquia, Colombia. Los genotipos de uchuva se sembraron utilizando un diseño látice siete por siete simple desbalanceado duplicado. Las accesiones se ubicaron en parcelas constituidas por cinco plantas, de las cuales se evaluaron las tres plantas centrales de las dos replicaciones y cinco estructuras por planta. Se empleó un listado de 69 descriptores, 40 de ellos cualitativos y 29 cuantitativos, 56 de los cuales (81,16% fueron útiles en la diferenciación de las accesiones. Para las variables cualitativas se estimaron los coeficientes de disimilaridad de Gower, que fluctuaron desde 0 a 0,20; y para las variables cuantitativas se estimaron los valores de distancia Euclediana, que fluctuaron entre 0,25 y 1,22.Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L grows wild in tropical areas of South America. The Centre of origin and diversity is located at the Andean zone between Colombia, Peru and Ecuador. This work is about morphological characterization of forty six accessions of Cape gooseberry from a Germplasm Bank of the Colombian Nation at the Experimental Station of "La Selva" located at Rionegro (Antioquia, Colombia. The experimental design used was a lattice seven by seven simple unbalanced and duplicated. Each accession was planted at rows with five plants and five structures of tree plants of each row were evaluated. Sixty eight morphological descriptors were used and 56 of them (81,16% were useful to accessions

  18. New Mexico Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of parks in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data from a...

  19. New Mexico State Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the generalized physical boundaries of New Mexico State Parks, in polygonal form with limited attributes, compiled using...

  20. New Mexico Ghost Towns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data provides locations and non-spatial attributes of many ghost towns in the State of New Mexico, compiled from various sources. Locations provided with...

  1. Plan Colombia or development as security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Guevara Latorre

    2015-01-01

    the most relevant policy for the construction of the State in 21st-century Colombia from a critical standpoint. The document makes it possible to show that Plan Colombia is a privatized form of development, interpreted in terms of security based on an incomplete understanding of the Colombian conflict that prevails into our present

  2. English Teaching in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Discusses teaching English in Mexico, a country with important social, cultural, and economic ties to the United States. Looks at the various English teaching situations as well as teacher education for teachers in Mexico. Concludes that the English teaching situation in Mexico reflects great diversity and growth, and that the knowledge of English…

  3. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  4. Internal displacement in Colombia: Fifteen distinguishing features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Espinel, Zelde; Oliveros, Sofia Rios; Fonseca, Maria Fernanda; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    This commentary aims to delineate the distinguishing features of conflict-induced internal displacement in the nation of Colombia, South America. Even as Colombia is currently implementing a spectrum of legal, social, economic, and health programs for "victims of armed conflict," with particular focus on internally displaced persons (IDPs), the dynamics of forced migration on a mass scale within this country are little known beyond national borders.   The authors of this commentary are embarking on a global mental health research program in Bogota, Colombia to define best practices for reaching the displaced population and implementing sustainable, evidence-based screening and intervention for common mental disorders. Presenting the defining characteristics of internal displacement in Colombia provides the context for our work and, more importantly, conveys the compelling and complex nature of this humanitarian crisis. We attempt to demonstrate Colombia's unique position within the global patterning of internal displacement.

  5. The Vital Minimum Amount of Drinking Water Required in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Martínez Moscoso

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2017, the government of Ecuador established the minimum quantity of water required to be provided for free by drinking water utilities. Ecuador recognized the access to water as a fundamental human right because it guarantees the good living, known as “Sumak kawsay”, an indigenous Andean concept, in the Ecuadorian Constitution. This represents a novel approach to water rights in the world, as it is the first attempt to establish a minimum quantity of water under a constitutional guarantee by legislation, rather than regulation or judicial decision. However, this novel legislative approach raises the question of how this minimum amount of free water will impact the most vulnerable members of the Ecuadorian community. This paper provides the results of the first comprehensive research of the minimum required water provision in Ecuador. In order to measure the impact on the income of households, we built a methodology integrating: doctrinaire analyses, normative studies, and economic analyses. According to the Ecuadorian legislation, over-consumption of raw water generates additional costs that must be paid by water companies to the central government. In that regard, there is an inevitable relationship between the efficiency of the service and those additional costs. Efficiency, on this case, is the capacity of water companies (public or private to provide water services at an adequate price, observing the following parameters: quantity, quality and sufficiency. Our research found that with this legislation in three Ecuadorian local governments (Cuenca, Gualaceo and Suscal, the most vulnerable households (i.e., low-income and/or indigenous households will be affected the most. This means that and those families will spend the most part of their income on water services otherwise they would have to reduce their water consumption.

  6. The complex influence of ENSO on droughts in Ecuador

    KAUST Repository

    Vicente-Serrano, S. M.

    2016-03-26

    In this study, we analyzed the influence of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the spatio-temporal variability of droughts in Ecuador for a 48-year period (1965–2012). Droughts were quantified from 22 high-quality and homogenized time series of precipitation and air temperature by means of the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index. In addition, the propagation of two different ENSO indices (El Niño 3.4 and El Niño 1 + 2 indices) and other atmospheric circulation processes (e.g., vertical velocity) on different time-scales of drought severity were investigated. The results showed a very complex influence of ENSO on drought behavior across Ecuador, with two regional patterns in the evolution of droughts: (1) the Andean chain with no changes in drought severity, and (2) the Western plains with less severe and frequent droughts. We also detected that drought variability in the Andes mountains is explained by the El Niño 3.4 index [sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the central Pacific], whereas the Western plains are much more driven by El Niño 1 + 2 index (SST anomalies in the eastern Pacific). Moreover, it was also observed that El Niño and La Niña phases enhance droughts in the Andes and Western plains regions, respectively. The results of this work could be crucial for predicting and monitoring drought variability and intensity in Ecuador. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  7. Burnout en profesionales de la salud del Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Zhindón, Marina del Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Uno de los grupos de mayor riesgo para desarrollar síndrome de burnout es el constituido por el personal sanitario. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la prevalencia del burnout y de sus dimensiones, así como los factores asociados en profesionales de enfermería y de medicina de las instituciones de salud de las 24 provincias de Ecuador. Se seleccionó una muestra de 2404 profesionales de salud (68.4% mujeres, media de edad = 40.0 años). Se emplearon distintos instrumentos para re...

  8. CYP1A1 Genetic Polymorphisms in Ecuador, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Paz-y-Miño

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 108 individuals from the Ecuadorian population from rural and urban places were analyzed for two CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms. The frequency of the val allele at codon 462 was 0.50, while the frequency of the Msp I restriction site, m2 allele at the T6235C position was 0.70. These polymorphisms in Ecuador have higher frequencies if we compare with others around the world, with the exception of some South American population in Brazil and Chile.

  9. Diversidad de peces demersales en la plataforma continental del Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Coello, D.; Herrera, M.

    2010-01-01

    A partir de información colectada de cuatro cruceros de investigación a bordo del B/l Tohalli, se analiza la diversidad de peces óseos y elasmobranquios presentes en la plataforma continental del Ecuador. Los valores medios de diversidad estimados indican que tanto las poblaciones de peces óseos y condrictios demersales hasta los 120 m de profundidad presenten heterogeneidad, con un grado significativo de organización. Las fluctuaciones en el índice de diversidad en las diferentes subáreas y ...

  10. Political Bots on Twitter in #Ecuador2017 Presidential Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iria Puyosa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the behavior of campaign hashtags on Twitter in the second round of Ecuador 2017 presidential elections. The study analyzed 10 trending hashtags attacking opponents. The data was captured and analyzed with NodeXL, an application used to analyze social network. The analysis verifies the central role of automated accounts or botnets in the creation of hashtags. The campaign against the opposing binomial, which combined real accounts of government party activists with botnets, was more effective versus the less coordinated opposition campaign against candidate Lenin Moreno. It also verifies the use of localized botnets, mainly in Argentina and Venezuela.

  11. Key Concepts of Conservatism in Ecuador (1875-1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Espinosa Fernández de Córdoba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to understand conservative political language in Ecuador during the last third of the 19th century as an expression of political modernity and as a discourse involving dialogue with liberal concepts. The conservative ideas of "Catholic freedom", "Catholic civilization" and "perfect society" are explored, and the reciprocal manner in which these concepts were defined relative to liberal notions is investigated. Using conceptual history, polysemantic political categories are analyzed in a context of struggle and in relation to the rise of modernity.

  12. Obsidian ages from Ecuador by the fission track dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, A.M.; Hadler, J.C.; Bigazzi, G.; Norelli, P.; Coltelli, M.; Salazar, E.

    1991-01-01

    Fission track dating was applied in order to study obsidian samples originated from Mullumica and Callejones flows, Oyacachi, Ecuador. Preliminary data show that the ratio between the mean diameter os spontaneous and induced tracks is about 0.9, an indication that the analysed samples were submitted to small fading during their geological histories. Ages were obtained around 0.2 x 10 6 a, in agreement with Miller and Wagners's results. Ages ranging from 0.17 x 10 6 a up to 0.23 x 10 6 a were obtained correcting the apparent ages by means of the plateau method. (author)

  13. Los derechos humanos de las mujeres en el Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Pizani, Moni

    2010-01-01

    Se registran importantes avances legales y constitucionales en el reconocimiento del derecho de las mujeres. Sin embargo, persisten situaciones de inequidad en los temas pobreza, violencia contra la mujer y acceso a la justicia. En el Ecuador, uno de cada cinco hogares pobres está jefaturado por una mujer, alcanzando el 20% de los mismos el nivel de indigencia. Un 41% de las mujeres encuestadas declara haber sido víctima de violencia psicológica, un 31% afirma haber sufrido violencia física...

  14. Adopción de NIIF en el Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida Haro, Lucía María

    2009-01-01

    En el Ecuador en el ejercicio 1999 se aplicó las NEC, y para el ejercicio económico 2006, se publicó las normas internacionales de información finnaciera, las mismas que no representaban ninguna obligación de asumirlas por no existir la disposición gubernamental reglamentaria, Dentro de este contexto podemos decir que las NIIF están siendo aplicadas por las compañías transnacionales que rigen sus procesos contables con lineamientos de la empresa matriz que regularmente se encuentra en el e...

  15. SHRIMP MARICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN ECUADOR: SOME RESOURCE POLICY ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Southgate, Douglas

    1992-01-01

    During the past 15 years, Ecuador has become the Western Hemisphere's leading producer and exporter of shrimp. Growth has come about largely through mariculture development. About 8,000 metric tons (MT) of shrimp have been captured off the Ecuadorian coast each year since the late 1970s. Meanwhile, pond output has increased several-fold, from less than 5,000 MT in 1979 to over 100,000 MT 12 years later (Table 1). Mariculture has expanded largely at the expense of renewable natural resources. ...

  16. Juvenile Dispersal of Harpy Eagles (Harpia harpyja) in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Urios, Vicente; Muñiz López, Ruth; Vidal-Mateo, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The movement ecology of Harpy Eagles (Harpia harpyja) is poorly known due to the difficulty observing this species. We studied the movements of two juvenile Harpy Eagles before and during dispersal using GPS satellite telemetry in the Reserva de Producción Faunística Cuyabeno, Ecuador. Both eagles were tagged at their respective nest tree. For each eagle, we calculated the daily distance moved and the distance from each recorded position to the nest. One eagle started dispersal during its 28t...

  17. Cooperación técnica en salud entre Colombia y sus países fronterizos Technical cooperation for health between Colombia and bordering countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamileth Ortiz Gómez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar la cooperación técnica de Colombia con cuatro de sus países fronterizos y determinar las necesidades de formación de sus grupos técnicos binacionales (GTB. MÉTODOS: Investigación cualitativa basada en la revisión documental y en información suministrada por actores clave de este campo. Para explorar las necesidades de capacitación se aplicó una encuesta con los GTB de Colombia y Ecuador, la cual fue profundizada a través de grupos de discusión; se aplicaron técnicas de categorización deductiva e inductiva, y de triangulación por convergencia. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvieron 18 acuerdos/convenios y documentación de 12 proyectos de cooperación sanitaria en zona de frontera. La mayoría de los proyectos encontrados correspondían a cooperación multilateral. Los dos temas de cooperación priorizados fueron el Reglamento Sanitario Internacional y los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio 6 y 7. Los GTB consideraron necesario un proceso de capacitación en gestión, diplomacia en salud y desarrollo de capacidades para la cooperación en ámbitos fronterizos. CONCLUSIONES: Las fronteras se exhibieron como escenarios complejos de intervención, donde el derecho internacional y la política exterior han delimitado las acciones de cooperación. Al definir la capacitación de los GTB, se sugiere considerar el marco normativo nacional e internacional y el contexto de las áreas fronterizas.OBJECTIVE: Characterize the technical cooperation of Colombia with four bordering countries and determine the training needs of the binational technical groups (BTGs. METHODS: Qualitative investigation based on document review and information provided by key actors in this field. To explore training needs, a survey of Colombia-Ecuador BTGs was conducted. Further information was obtained through discussion groups. Deductive and inductive categorization techniques were applied, as well as convergence using the triangulation method. RESULTS

  18. Situation of bovine tuberculosis in Ecuador Situación de la tuberculosis bovina en el Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Proaño-Pérez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (BTB is a chronic and contagious disease that affects domestic animals, wildlife, and humans. Caused by Mycobacterium bovis, BTB causes major economic losses and poses a serious constraint to international livestock trade. Moreover, in developing countries where BTB controls are lacking, M. bovis is a public health concern. In most developing countries, the prevalence of BTB in livestock is unknown because the information is either not reported or not available. In Ecuador, there is no national BTB control program. This article reviews the BTB situation in Ecuador by examining exhaustive data from tuberculin testing surveys and slaughterhouse surveillance studies conducted in 1972-2008 in a variety of the country's geographic areas. In Ecuador, several factors, including the dairy industry's expansion (preempted by the high demand for milk and its by-products, intensified efforts to increase the cattle population, the presence of M. bovis, and a lack of BTB controls, have caused a rise in BTB prevalence, and consequently, a growing push for the implementation of a national BTB control program.La tuberculosis bovina es una enfermedad contagiosa crónica que afecta a los animales domésticos, los animales salvajes y los seres humanos. Es producida por Mycobacterium bovis; causa grandes pérdidas económicas y plantea una grave limitación para el comercio ganadero internacional. Por otro lado, en los países en desarrollo donde no hay controles de la tuberculosis bovina, la infección por M. bovis representa un problema de salud pública. En la mayoría de los países en desarrollo, la prevalencia de tuberculosis en el ganado se desconoce porque la información no se comunica o no se consigue. En el Ecuador no hay un programa nacional de control de la tuberculosis bovina. En este artículo se revisa la situación de la tuberculosis bovina en el Ecuador, sobre la base de un análisis de los datos exhaustivos obtenidos de

  19. Enfermedad de Chagas en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Serpa Florez

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Generalidades.

    La tripanosomiasis americana o enfermedad de Chagas se halla ampliamente distribuida en Centro y Sur América. La Organización Mundial de la Salud considera que pueden haber doce millones de casos de esta dolencia en el continente (1, estudiados principalmente en Argentina, Brasil y Venezuela. Se calcula que en Colombia tendríamos una incidencia muy alta de casos, (Marinkelle (2 estima que 7.140/0 de la población podría estar infectada o sea cerca de dos millones de personas, distribuidos en las zonas rurales del nordeste del país (cuenca del Catatumbo Magdalena Medio y Llanos Orientales (Piedemonte, Macarena y Meta cercano (3 (4 (5 Y que seis millones de nuestros compatriotas -22.30/0 de la población total- (2 corren el riesgo de adquirir la enfermedad pues habitan en regiones donde se dan las condiciones para que ésta se propague.


    RESEÑA HISTORICA DE LA ENFERMEDAD EN COLOMBIA
    La existencia de casos de tripanosomiasis americana y de sus vectores fue comprobada en Colombia desde 1929 cuando César Uribe Piedrahita (6 encontró en Prado, Tolima, vectores del mal infectados con T.

    cruzi e Ignacio Moreno Pérez observó dicho hemoflagelado en sangre de seres humanos en Cali (4. En los años siguientes Hernando Ucrós, Benjamín Otálora, Hernando Groot, Santiago Renjifo, Hernando Osorno, Carlos Duarte Rangel, C.J. Marinkelle, Augusto Corredor, Ernesto Suescún y varios otros investigadores colomb iano s describieron diversos focos de la enfermedad en Colombia y estudiaron la distribución de sus vectores y huéspedes intermediarios. En 1947 1. Caicedo y C. Hernández publicaron su informe sobre los primeros casos crónicos de enfermedad de Chagas comprobados en nuestro país, procedentes de la región de Fusagasugá, Cundinamarca (7 en tanto que, en 1961, Marcos Duque inicia los estudios sobre cardiopatía chagásica (8 y Hernando Rocha, en 1971, comunica

  20. Historia del paramilitarismo en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera,Edgar de Jesús Velásquez

    2007-01-01

    En Colombia, desde la década de los años ochenta del siglo XX tomó fuerza el paramilitarismo como estrategia contrainsurgente, política que no ha sido reconocida como tal por parte de los distintos gobiernos y se expresa como terrorismo de Estado. Incidió en el surgimiento de tal fenómeno, la ideología anticomunista que profesan la mayoría de miembros de las fuerzas armadas, la cultura política derivada de la violencia, la corrupción y el clientelismo, así como el narcotráfico, al igual que l...

  1. Colombia competente para la paz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Sofía Vanegas Torres

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La paz y la convivencia en Colombia demandan el desarrollo de un enfoque humanístico, una competencia particular que como las restantes competencias implican un saber y un saber hacer dentro de un contexto, pero que en este caso se relacionan más concretamente con el saber vivir. Este artículo analiza el desarrollo de una posible de competencia para la paz y analiza la importancia de la academia como medio para su desarrollo e instrumentalización. Se analizan al mismo tiempo las connotaciones de esta competencia en el marco de la sociedad posmoderna contemporánea.

  2. MICROCRÉDITO EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Barona Z

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo tiene como propósitos: proporcionar una visión general de la forma en que el financiamiento de los microempresarios y los estratos más vulnerables de la población ha sido abocada en Colombia; resumir los grandes retos que enfrenta en la actualidad el programa de microfinanzas en el mundo, presentar el programa de investigación que están adelantando las Universidades Icesi y del Valle en Colombia en asocio con la Universidad de Laval en Canadá y con algunos centros de Investigación de Filipinas, Marruecos y Benin y algunos resultados parciales de este esfuerzo investigativo; y, presentar algunas recomendaciones tendientes a fortalecer a las organizaciones microfinancieras en el país. Una revisión de la historia y el estado actual del microcrédito en Colombia indica que los esfuerzos hasta ahora realizados parecen haberse quedado muy cortos frente a las necesidades de financiación de los microempresarios: la cobertura de microemepresarios alcanzada por instituciones gubernamentales, ONG y la banca convencional ha sido muy baja. En cuanto a los retos que afronta el movimiento microfinanciero en el mundo dos muy importantes son (i, clarificar el efecto de los diferentes esfuerzos de microcrédito realizados en la reducción de la pobreza de la población del país y, (ii, identificar mecanismos para lograr un aumento significativo de la cobertura mediante un balance adecuado entre regulación, supervisión y disciplina de mercado. Los principales resultados (parciales obtenidos en la línea de investigación descrita en este artículo son (i, contrario a lo que con frecuencia se asume, a medida que una organización cooperativa crece en tamaño no necesariamente se torna más eficiente: los posibles beneficios de la mayor escala fueron más que compensados en las empresas estudiadas por nosotros por la propensión al gasto excesivo que exhiben los gerentes en caso de instituciones de mayor tamaño (ii, las cooperativas

  3. Food Innocuousness: Prospect In Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elvira Ortiz Amaya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Food innocuousness, on all over the world, is receiving more attention due to the increment in the incidence of food borne diseases (ETAs, the worry about emergent known dangers and the globalization of trade. Consequently, this literature review shows the progress in relation to this thematic, in Colombia. It covers topics as the relation between food innocuousness and safety, the international and national organizations involved, the developments, in legislation, the system of epidemiological surveillance of ETAs and their perspectives, as cornerstones to ensure food quality

  4. La industria maltera en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Parra Restrepo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia la industria maltera de Colombia, su origen, evolución y el estado en que se encuentra. Presenta cifras respecto al comportamiento de la producción y ventas. Muestra las relaciones de propiedad y describe la importancia relativa de la empresa con las otras subsidiarias del grupo económico al que pertenece. De otra parte analiza las relaciones obrero/patronales en el contexto actual y las relaciones con la agroindustria colombiana.

  5. Los desequilibrios territoriales en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Roa, Óscar A.; A. Alfonso R., Óscar; Revéiz Roldán, Édgar

    2016-01-01

    Colombia es un país de regiones metropolitanas. Si a cada región que es habitada por una población le es inmanente un gobierno, las formas de ocupación territorial por la población y las actividades humanas deberían contar con la forma de gobierno más pertinente. Por tanto, un nuevo modelo territorial de Estado tendrá que organizarse en torno a gobiernos metropolitanos cuyas funciones de alcance supralocal se construirían con base en las que ya poseen las jurisdicciones involucradas en el pol...

  6. Security of IP Telephony in Ecuador: Online Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Estrada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Telephony is a global service and thus telephone networks have been a coveted target for criminals. Now that voice can be transported over IP and that multiple services are integrated in a convergent model through Internet, there are more incentives to attack and more attackers. Moreover, the development of open source telephone applications has encouraged the massive use of IP telephony, but not an increased awareness about embedded security risks. Due to the current and intensive adoption of IP telephony systems in Ecuador, we conducted an exploration based on public information to obtain statistics about telephone systems connected to Internet in Ecuador. Additionally, using a deliberately vulnerable IP telephony system, we collected more data to do a preliminary analysis of threats to such systems. We found that hundreds of telephone systems were publicly available on the Internet and using outdated versions of Asterisk-based applications. We also found thousands of malicious interactions on the IP telephony system we deployed on the Internet.

  7. Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes

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    Yvonne-Marie Linton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase ( COI I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n = 179 is presented for the first time in 60 years.

  8. The relict forests of Northwest Peru and Southwest Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Weigend

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The forest fragments or relict forests on the Western slopes of the Andes in northwest Peru and in south-west Ecuador are fragile ecosystems, which were largely continuous at some stage in the past. The importance and uniqueness of these forests as «refuges» and stable habitats roots partly in their complex diversity and their high levels of endemicity. These in turn are the outcome of a complex topography and ecology. In this introductory chapter 12 studies are analysed, which were presented at the Taller sobre Bosques Relictos de la Vertiente Occidental Andina del Norte del Perú y Sur del Ecuador in May 2004 at the X CONABOT, Trujillo-Perú. This helps to consolidate and update our knowledge on these over 20 forests fragments in northern Peru and two previously unknown fragments are presented for the first time: Bosque La Oscurana (Cajamarca and Kañaris (Lambayeque. Some ideas are exposed on the the relationships between the relict forests, how to analyse their dynamics, how to characterize their structure and how their conservation may be achieved. It is proposed that crucial elements in a conservation of these forests are a urgently inventorizing them to demonstrate their high diversity b emphasizing their economic potential with respect to the abundance of phytogenetic ressources c evaluating their role as catchment areas for the rivers which are the primary source of water for agriculture and urban life on the coast.

  9. REDD+ and the Indigenous Question: A Case Study from Ecuador

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    Pablo Reed

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main issues regarding the implementation of REDD+ in Latin America has been the growing concern that such projects may infringe upon the rights and negatively affect the livelihoods of forest-dependent communities. Various indigenous and civil society organizations are ardently opposed to the initiative. Such is the case in Ecuador, where indigenous opposition to REDD+ represents a considerable obstacle in the creation of a national strategy since more than 60% of the country’s remaining forest cover is on indigenous land or under indigenous occupation. Thus one of the most critical challenges remaining for Ecuador will be the construction of a strong legal, financial, and institutional framework—one that the greater indigenous community might be willing to accept. Closer examination of this topic however, reveals just how difficult this may become. Lack of information, a recent political split between national authorities and the indigenous sector, and the dissimilar organizational capacity levels of indigenous communities make the feasibility of carrying out REDD+ projects on these lands extremely complex. However, the biggest obstacle may be ideological. Many indigenous groups view REDD+, with its possible emphasis on international markets and neoliberal mechanisms, as a continuation of the type of policies that have impeded their quest for sovereignty and self determination. As such, indigenous people are only willing to consider such projects if they clearly see preconditions in place that would safeguard their cultures, territories, and autonomy.

  10. [Human resources for health in Ecuador's new model of care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Verónica; de la Torre, Daniel; Acuña, Cecilia; Cadena, Cristina

    2017-06-08

    Describe strategies implemented by Ecuador's Ministry of Public Health (MPH) to strengthen human resources for health leadership and respond to the new model of care, as a part of the reform process in the period 2012-2015. A documentary review was carried out of primary and secondary sources on development of human resources for health before and after the reform. In the study period, Ecuador developed a new institutional and regulatory framework for developing human resources for health to respond to the requirements of a model of care based on primary health care. The MPH consolidated its steering role by forging strategic partnerships, implementing human resources planning methods, and making an unprecedented investment in health worker training, hiring, and wage increases. These elements constitute the initial core for development of human resources for health policy and a health-services study program consistent with the reform's objectives. Within the framework of the reform carried out from 2012 to 2015, intersectoral work by the MPH has led to considerable achievements in development of human resources for health. Notable achievements include strengthening of the steering role, development and implementation of standards and regulatory instruments, creation of new professional profiles, and hiring of professionals to implement the comprehensive health care model, which helped to solve problems carried over from the years prior to the reform.

  11. Central Bank of Ecuador, 1927: among Dictatorship, Revolution and Crisis

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    Cristian Paúl Naranjo Navas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On July 9th, 1925, a coup d’état overthrew the Ecuadorian government of the president Gonzalo S. Córdova. The Military Junta chose the new president, Dr. Isidro Ayora, who founded the Central Bank of Ecuador in 1927. The majority of historians emphasize the patriotic spirit of the military forces in order to eliminate the influence of private banks. Nonetheless, there is a less popular view of the Julian Revolution, which understands the coup d’état, and the foundation of the Central Bank of Ecuador, as the result of struggles between bankers due to controversies around currency emissions. The arguments behind the Julian Revolution were based on some economic facts. Even though real GDP did not decrease in any year from 1913 to 1927, there was a generalized perception of a critical economy due to the constant fluctuation in prices, the increasing of fiscal deficit, and the reduction of revenues from the trade balance. The economic crisis was a common factor in the urban areas, which represented less than half percent of the total population.

  12. Report on the oil and gas sector in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    After a brief introduction on the economic and political situation in Ecuador, the state of the country's oil and gas sector is reviewed. Before 1967, all oil came from wells along the Pacific coast, but with discoveries in the Amazon Basin, the opening of the trans-Ecuador pipeline, and creation of the state oil company CEPE (renamed Petroecuador in 1990) by the early 1970s, a boom in the industry occurred. Current proven reserves stand at 1.2-1.5 billion bbl of oil and 140 billion ft 3 of natural gas. Current production is generally around 300,000 bbl/d, mostly from the Petroecuador-Texaco consortium block in the Amazon Basin. Petroecuador now operates the main oil export pipeline and has subsidiaries responsible for exploration and production, refining, and the marketing of petroleum and its derivatives. In recent years Petroecuador has imported about $60 million worth of goods annually, offering a market opportunity for foreign companies supplying goods and services to the oil and gas industry. Market opportunities of interest to Canadian companies are outlined, local procedures for doing business are presented, and lists of Canadian and Ecuadorian contacts are provided. 3 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-10-10

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador.Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost.Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food). The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic) ailments (39 species), followed by respiratory disorders (34), problems of the urinary tract (28), Fever/Malaria (25), Rheumatism (23) and nervous system problems (20).

  14. Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Douglas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food. The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic ailments (39 species, followed by respiratory disorders (34, problems of the urinary tract (28, Fever/Malaria (25, Rheumatism (23 and nervous system problems (20.

  15. Amazonian indigenous settlement and local development in Pastaza, Ecuador

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    Ruth I. Arias-Gutiérrez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In six Amazonian indigenous communities that call to their selves as membership of nación Kichwa, located in Pastaza province, in Ecuador, it is analyzed the process of inhabitation, population characteristics, how much the territory is enough for food requirements for the indigenous families, and their use of land, to determine important factors to improve strategies for local sustainable development. It is considered important because Ecuador has constitutional protection for plural ethnicity and it is looking for improving a new productivity matrix that let down extraction and contamination and raise another matrix based on knowledge and richness from natural renewable resources. Survey used statistics information, qualitative analysis around reality in process, participant research, documentary analysis, oral history and surveys to leadership and family`s chiefs. Results confirm that communities hold standing their identity and knowledge systems of the Amazonian environment, whose conservation they need. Those are factors to be included in local development strategies that let people become safe from effects of extractives activities that are dangerous for culture and environment, in the geographic and biological diversity of the high Ecuadorian Amazonia.

  16. Prevalence and correlates of burnout in health professionals in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Marina R; Otero, Patricia; Blanco, Vanessa; Ontaneda, Mercy P; Díaz, Olga; Vázquez, Fernando L

    2018-04-01

    Although burnout is a widespread phenomenon among healthcare professionals, there are no studies about its prevalence in Ecuador. This study assesses the prevalence of burnout syndrome among Ecuadorian healthcare professionals and examine the relationship with their personal and organizational characteristics. A total of 2404 healthcare professionals (average age 40.0years; 68.4% women) from the capitals of all 24 provinces in Ecuador participated in this study. Trained psychologists assessed the presence of burnout by applying the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Sociodemographic variables, emotional distress, social support and coping styles as well as organizational variables were also collected. Of all healthcare professionals surveyed, 2.6% presented burnout syndrome. By dimensions, 17.2% of the participants presented a high level of emotional exhaustion, 13.5% of depersonalization, and 18.2% had reduced personal accomplishment. Being non-mestizo, being classified as a probable case of mental disorder and using more passive coping were associated with a greater probability of presenting burnout; having >10years of experience was associated with a lower probability of burnout. A significant number of active health professionals suffer from burnout. It is necessary to develop effective psychotherapeutic interventions for those who have the syndrome and to evaluate potential prevention strategies in those who have not yet developed it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidemiology of Chagas disease in Ecuador. A brief review

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    Aguilar V H Marcelo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is a complex public health problem that has been underestimated in Ecuador. Here we review the relevant published information, and present unpublished and new data that help to understand the current Chagas disease epidemiological situation and its evolution in the country. Three main characteristics have been identified: (i persistence of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in already known foci; (ii a marked endemicity in some urban areas of Guayaquil; and (iii the transformation of new Amazon foci into truly endemic areas. The situation in other suspect areas remains uncertain. Five Triatominae species have been implicated in the transmission of T. cruzi to people in Ecuador (Triatoma dimidiata, Rhodnius ecuadoriensis, R. pictipes, R. robustus and Panstrongylus geniculatus, but some others may also play a role in some areas (P. rufotuberculatus, P. howardi, T. carrioni and P. chinai. Other Triatominae reported seem to have little or no epidemiological relevance (T. venosa, T. dispar, Eratyrus mucronatus, E. cuspidatus, P. lignarius and Cavernicola pilosa. High frequency of acute cases and severe chronic disease has been observed. Although cardiomyopathy is more frequent, serious digestive disease is also present. It is estimated that around 120,000-200,000 people may be infected. 2.2 to 3.8 million people are estimated to live under transmission risk conditions.

  18. First Record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador Infesting Urban Citrus and Orange Jasmine Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, J.F.; Chica, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus ( Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine ( Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America. PMID:25527601

  19. Medicinal plants sold at traditional markets in southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinitana, Fani; Rios, Montserrat; Romero-Benavides, Juan Carlos; de la Cruz Rot, Marcelino; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel

    2016-07-05

    The traditional markets in southern Ecuador and within the Andean region are especially important for plant resource trading among local people, even since before Spanish colonization; therefore, ethnobotanical studies are currently necessary and important. These strategic spaces persist for the traditional medicine cultural value reflected in the higher consumption of medicinal plants, which span all socioeconomic levels of rural and urban people. The purpose of this study includes the following: 1) to create a novel list of medicinal plants sold at 33 traditional markets; 2) to establish medicinal plant use agreement amongst vendors with the Factor of Informant Consensus (FIC); and 3) to determine the most sold medicinal plant species using the Fidelity Level (FL). This study focus on traditional markets ethnobotany utilizes the largest sample of medicinal plants market vendors up to date in Ecuador, interviewing them at 33 traditional markets, located within the Loja province. In order to determine the most sold medicinal plants and their ethnobotanical information, structured questionnaires and personal conversations were conducted with 196 medicinal plant vendors, and voucher specimens were created. Agreement among vendors about the therapeutic use of medicinal plants was measured using the FIC, and the most sold medicinal plant species were assessed with the FL. This research registered 160 medicinal plant species, grouped in 126 genera and 57 families that were sold in 33 traditional markets. The uses of medicinal plants in southern Ecuador are related to a long history of traditional medicine health practices that has persisted until today as well as high plant diversity. The 53 therapeutic uses recorded were grouped into 12 medical categories that were adapted from the World Health Organization. Three medical categories shared the highest value for FIC = 0.92, which showed a high level of agreement of market vendors for 57 medicinal plant species sold

  20. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Una paz esquiva

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  1. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Una nueva estrategia de paz

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  2. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Una paz secuestrada

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  3. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Los momentos de la paz

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  4. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Siempre es tarde para la paz

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  5. Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA - Viraje en el proceso de paz

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Fernández, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Observatorio de Política Internacional I. COLOMBIA (Neira Fernández, Enrique) RECIENTES Año 2008 Colombia. Cerca el fin del paramilitarismo Colombia. Cerca el fin de las Farc Colombia. Conflicto armado y desarrollo humano Colombia. Política exterior Colombia. Inicia el 2008 con buen pie Año 2007 Colombia. Tras las pasadas elecciones Colombia. El espectro de las próximas elecciones Colombia. La garrocha de Uribe Colombia. III Parapolíticos Colombia. II...

  6. Seismicity, fault plane solutions, depth of faulting, and active tectonics of the Andes of Peru, Ecuador, and southern Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, G.; Molnar, P.; Burchfiel, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    The long-period P waveforms observed for 17 earthquakes in the Peruvian Andes during 1963-1976 are compared with synthetic waveforms to obtain fault-plane solutions and focal depths. The morphological units of the Peruvian Andes are characterized: coastal plains, Cordillera Occidental, altiplano and central high plateau, Cordillera Oriental, and sub-Andes. The data base and analysis methodology are discussed, and the results are presented in tables, diagrams, graphs, maps, and photographs illustrating typical formations. Most of the earthquakes are shown to occur in the transition zone from the sub-Andes to the Cordillera Oriental under formations of about 1 km elevation at focal depths of 10-38 km. It is suggested that the sub-Andean earthquakes reflect hinterland deformation of a detached fold and thrust belt, perhaps like that which occurred in parts of the Canadian Rockies. From the total crustal shortening evident in Andean morphology and the shortening rate of the recent earthquakes it is estimated that the topography and crustal root of the Andes have been formed during the last 90-135 Myr.

  7. 78 FR 70276 - Trade Mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama, and Ecuador in Conjunction With Trade Winds-The...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... processing and packaging equipment and medical equipment. Peru Peru's long-term economic stability and very.... Known for its political and economic stability, Chile has posted average GDP growth of 5 percent per..., stable economic and political environment, affinity for U.S. goods and services and a high level of...

  8. Water Sovereignty: Social impact of the phenomenon of “water stress” in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gabriela Beltrán Gordillo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Colombia, where each person would have the right to access 50.000 m3 of water per year, a 50% of population does not have access to potable water, 10 millions of Colombians do not own an aqueduct system and at least 800 municipal headers are about to disappear. In this article are presented the political factors that take over the water resources in state sovereignty terms; which could canalize the appearance of water stress phenomenon in the country, which is reality to Mexico and Peru. Materials and method: Reection from the literature review was realized through recompilation of 30 documents in Universidad Nacional of Colombia database. 22 articles were selected. Results: Water stress is the progressive deterioration of water resources of a country in terms of quality and quantity. This phenomenon begins to appear in Colombia as a social problem due to excessive use of water by the agricultural / livestock industries, and oil, gas and mining multinational companies, in which the state does not applies any control. Conclusions: The competent resource governance and protection are been forced by international politics shown especially in developing countries, which neglect their vulnerable communities. Being sovereignty an elemental characteristic of each state, it is governmental duty to regulate water resources as fundamental source of well-being and maintenance of its population.

  9. Potencial del cultivo de aguacate (persea americana mill en Ecuador como alternativa de comercialización en el mercado local e internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sotomayor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El Ecuador, por su ubicación geográfica posee las condiciones climáticas adecuadas para el cultivo del aguacate, siendo las principales zonas productoras: Carchi, Imbabura, Pichincha, Tungurahua, Azuay y Loja. La variedad demandada a nivel internacional es la ‘Hass’; sin embargo en el mercado local es la aceptación es por la variedad ‘Fuerte’. Entre los principales países importadores y potenciales mercados de este frutal tenemos Estados Unidos, Francia, Holanda, Japón, entre otros. No obstante, las exportaciones de aguacate ecuatoriano han sido principalmente a Colombia (99 %, alcanzando un valor de 2.2 millones de dólares americanos; y en menor escala a las Antillas Holandesas, España y Holanda. El precio en el mercado local varía entre 1.06 y 1.90USD/kg, observándose inestabilidad; sin embargo, en el mercado europeo alcanza un valor de 3.60 USD/kg constituyéndose una alternativa atractiva para su comercialización. En el mercado local no existe una demanda insatisfecha debido a que la producción nacional se la comercializa casi en su totalidad en el país; mientras que existe una demanda insatisfecha a nivel internacional que constituye una oportunidad de mercado. Abstract Ecuador has adequate weather conditions for growing avocado due to its geographic location. The main producing areas are Carchi, Imbabura, Pichincha, Tungurahua, Azuay and Loja. ‘Hass’is the variety demanded in the international market; however the variety ‘Fuerte’ is the most consumed in the local market.Among the major importing countries and potential markets for this fruit are United States of America, France, Holland, Japan, among other.However, the Ecuadorian avocado exportation has been mainly to Colombia (99 %, reaching an amount of 2.2 million of American dollars; and a low scale to the Netherlands Antilles, Spain and Holland.The price in the local market varies between 1.06 and 1.90USD/kg, resulting in instability; on the other hand, in

  10. COMERCIO DE FAUNA SILVESTRE EN COLOMBIA WILDLIFE TRADE IN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Javier Mancera Rodríguez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo ofrece un panorama sobre las actividades relacionadas con el comercio de bienes derivados de las especies de fauna silvestre en Colombia, abordando el tema desde el desarrollo que ha tenido su actividad productiva, el aprovechamiento extractivo, así como la dinámica de su comercio legal e ilegal en el país y el desarrollo y promoción de alternativas productivas sustentadas en su aprovechamiento. Se analizó la información secundaria de entidades como el Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial, las Corporaciones Autónomas Regionales y Autoridades Ambientales Urbanas, el Instituto Colombiano de Desarrollo Rural-INCODER, las Autoridades Policiales, los Institutos de Investigación, el Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística, la Dirección de Impuestos y Aduanas Nacionales-DIAN, el Ministerio de Comercio, Industria y Turismo, y PROEXPORT. entre otras. En Colombia, el comercio de especies de fauna silvestre está centrado principalmente en la extracción de ejemplares de forma ilegal, lo cual ha generado desequilibrios en las poblaciones naturales y ha repercutido en el deterioro de la dinámica de los ecosistemas. El comercio legal de fauna silvestre se basa en la producción de unas pocas especies entre las que se destacan la babilla (Caiman crocodilus, el chigüiro (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, cerca de 200 especies de peces ornamentales y en menor medida el lobo pollero (Tupinambis nigropunctatus, la iguana (Iguana iguana, la boa (Boa constrictor, escarabajos (Dynastes hercules y mariposas. En el país no se tiene información exacta sobre el número de incautaciones realizadas en los operativos de control al tráfico ilegal de fauna, y no existe un conocimiento de la dinámica de este comercio ilegal.This work offers a current view on the activities related to the trade of derived from the wildlife species in Colombia, approaching the topic from the development that has had its productive activity

  11. CASE STUDY: Ecuador — Learning to share the resource and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    Dec 15, 2010 ... Water Management in Ecuador's Andes Mountains ... In talking about water issues with the people of the watershed communities, the ... availability, water quality, and land use were closely linked throughout the watershed, ...

  12. On the local politics of administrative decentralization: applying for policy responsibilities in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faust, J.; Harbers, I.

    2012-01-01

    Variation in the behavior and preferences of subnational governments is one of the areas that remain poorly understood by students of comparative decentralization and federalism. Yet, evidence suggests that this variation plays an important role in shaping intergovernmental relations. Ecuador

  13. A new species of Molynocoelia Giglio-Tos (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molynocoelia erwini, a new species of fruit fly from Ecuador is described and illustrated. It differs from its previously known congeners in wing pattern (not banded, distal half brown), scutal and scutellar markings, and male femoral setation....

  14. LBA-ECO LC-01 National, Provincial, and Park Boundaries, Ecuador

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the national and provincial boundaries of Ecuador as well as the boundaries of two national parks: the Cuyabeno Wildlife Reserve and the...

  15. LBA-ECO LC-01 National, Provincial, and Park Boundaries, Ecuador

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains the national and provincial boundaries of Ecuador as well as the boundaries of two national parks: the Cuyabeno Wildlife Reserve and...

  16. Land use change and human systems dynamics: Cotacachi Ecuador 1963-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Rhoades, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation reports on a study to analyze land-use change over 40 years in Cotacachi, Ecuador, link land-use change to human system dynamics, and discuss implications for sustainability. BA-2 (SANREM-Andes Research)

  17. Terrorism, Diasporas, and Permissive Threat Environments. A Study of Hizballah's Fundraising Operations in Paraguay and Ecuador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meehan, Howard V

    2004-01-01

    .... The focus of analysis is how host-nation characteristics, geo-strategic variables, and diaspora characteristics influence the nature and significance of Hizballah's fundraising operations in Paraguay and Ecuador...

  18. A Biodiversity Informatics Approach to Ethnobotany: Meta-analysis of Plant Use Patterns in Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Torre, Lucia; Cerón, Carlos E.; Balslev, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    We explored the relative importance of ecosystem diversity, socioeconomic, environmental, and geographical factors in determining the pattern and diversity of people’s plant use in Ecuador, based on existing ethnobotanic investigations and a large database of georeferenced plant collections...

  19. Plan Colombia, Consequences for Venezuelan Natonal Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arroyo, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    ...% reduction in cocaine production), and narcotics trafficking groups move into Venezuela, the government will have to commit its Armed Forces but, under unequal military and technological conditions when compared to Colombia...

  20. Bartoneliasis: fiebre verrucosa del guaitara en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Patiño Camargo, Luis

    2011-01-01

    En Colombia, al descubrirla, diósele (1) a esta dolencia los siguientes nombres: Bartonellosis, Fiebre verrucosa del Guaitara y Verruga, análoga a la enfermedad de Carrión, Fiebre de Oroya y Verruga Peruana.

  1. Colombia: More Than Just a Drug Problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wynne, Charles E

    2003-01-01

    ... of $45 billion in the year 2000. While estimates vary, most experts agree between 80-90 percent of the cocaine and more than 50 percent of the heroin used in the United States comes from Colombia...

  2. Uses and management of Aphandra Natalia (palmae in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available UTILISATIONS ET MISE EN VALEUR DE APHANDRA NATALIA (PALMAE EN EQUATEUR. Aphandra natalia (Balslev & Henderson Barfod est un palmier Phytelephantoidé de l’Amazonie occidentale. En Équateur il est exploité commercialement pour ses fruits comestibles, et pour les fibres de la gousse et du pétiole de la feuille dont on se sert pour fabriquer les balais dans tout le pays. Les fibres sont extraites principalement des individus sauvages de la forêt ou de ceux qui se trouvent dans les pâturages et les zones agricoles et qui sont exploités in situ. L’exploitation comprend la protection du palmier lorsque la forêt est coupée, l’enlèvement sélectif d’autre végétation et des techniques de récolte non-destructives. De temps à autre A. natalia se cultive. USOS Y MANEJO DE APHANDRA NATALIA (PALMAE EN ECUADOR. Aphandra natalia (Balslev & Henderson Barfod es una palma Phytelephantoideae de la Amazonia occidental. En el Ecuador es explotada comercialmente por sus frutos comestibles, y por las fibras de la vaina y del pecíolo de la hoja que son usadas para la producción de escobas en todo el país. Las fibras son extraídas principalmente de individuos en el bosque natural o de plantas dejadas en los pastizales y en los campos agrícolas, y manejadas in situ. El manejo incluye dejar en pie la palma cuando el bosque es talado, la remoción selectiva de otra vegetación y las técnicas de cosecha no destructivas. Ocasionalmente A. natalia es cultivada. Aphandra natalia (Balslev & Henderson Barfod is a Phytelephantoid palm from the western Amazon. In Ecuador it is commercially exploited for its edible fruits, and for its leaf sheath and petiole fibers which are used for brooms throughout the country. Fibers are extracted mainly from wild individuals in the forest or those left in pastures and agricultural areas and managed in situ. Management includes protecting the palm when forest is cleared, selective removal of other vegetation, and non

  3. Local circulating clones of Staphylococcus aureus in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, Jeannete; Barba, Pedro; Ortega-Paredes, David; Mora, Marcelo; Rivadeneira, Sebastián

    The spread of pandemic Staphylococcus aureus clones, mainly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), must be kept under surveillance to assemble an accurate, local epidemiological analysis. In Ecuador, the prevalence of the USA300 Latin American variant clone (USA300-LV) is well known; however, there is little information about other circulating clones. The aim of this work was to identify the sequence types (ST) using a Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis 14-locus genotyping approach. We analyzed 132 S. aureus strains that were recovered from 2005 to 2013 and isolated in several clinical settings in Quito, Ecuador. MRSA isolates composed 46.97% (62/132) of the study population. Within MRSA, 37 isolates were related to the USA300-LV clone (ST8-MRSA-IV, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin [PVL] +) and 10 were related to the Brazilian clone (ST239-MRSA-III, PVL-). Additionally, two isolates (ST5-MRSA-II, PVL-) were related to the New York/Japan clone. One isolate was related to the Pediatric clone (ST5-MRSA-IV, PVL-), one isolate (ST45-MRSA-II, PVL-) was related to the USA600 clone, and one (ST22-MRSA-IV, PVL-) was related to the epidemic UK-EMRSA-15 clone. Moreover, the most prevalent MSSA sequence types were ST8 (11 isolates), ST45 (8 isolates), ST30 (8 isolates), ST5 (7 isolates) and ST22 (6 isolates). Additionally, we found one isolate that was related to the livestock associated S. aureus clone ST398. We conclude that in addition to the high prevalence of clone LV-ST8-MRSA-IV, other epidemic clones are circulating in Quito, such as the Brazilian, Pediatric and New York/Japan clones. The USA600 and UK-EMRSA-15 clones, which were not previously described in Ecuador, were also found. Moreover, we found evidence of the presence of the livestock associated clone ST398 in a hospital environment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Barriers to combating human trafficking in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, Daniel Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Despite international and domestic policies and programs intended to combat human trafficking, Colombia remains one of the countries with the highest instances of human trafficking in the Western Hemisphere. Factors contributing to human trafficking in Colombia, such as internal violence and displacement, drug trafficking, a weak central government, and widespread corruption, have overpowered what energies the government marshaled agai...

  5. The Student Movement as an Object of study in the Colombia and continental historiography: Notes for a balance and a research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro Acevedo Tarazona; Gabriel Samacá Alonso

    2011-01-01

    The events of 1968 are recognized today as the irst global Cultural Revolution. Latin America was not stranger to the big changes in a time known for cultural social movements and student protests. Today is not yet known a balance about the Continental Historiography of this event. This article attempts to point out the limitations of scientiic research in Colombia, marked by their fragmented and dispersed character. In a continental level are explored the cases of Mexico, Argentina and Br...

  6. La Música Da Vida a Vida: Transverse Flute Music of Otavalo, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo, Jessie M.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation introduces an Andean transverse flute tradition of northernEcuador that has been routinely overlooked throughout a long history of scholarship published on the Otavalan region and its Kichwa–speaking inhabitants. Ethnographic data was collected through a variety of methods over the course of eight cumulative months of fieldwork in Ecuador, as well as an additional three and a half years during which I co–produced an album with flute masters from the Hatun Kotama ...

  7. Tackling Complex Inequalities and Ecuador's Buen Vivir: Leaving No-one Behind and equality in diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Radcliffe, Sarah Anne

    2017-01-01

    Ecuador's postneoliberal policy of Buen Vivir seeks to reduce social inequality and tackle complex disadvantages associated with gender, location, race-ethnicity and other social differences. The paper analyses governmental Buen Vivir policy thinking and institutional arrangements to explore how Buen Vivir frameworks approach the constitutional commitment to equality in diversity, in light of the global Sustainable Development Goal of "Leaving No-one Behind" (LNOB). In many respects Ecuador ...

  8. Miss Universe in the Land of Missery: Ecuador's Contradictory Development Package

    OpenAIRE

    Dulfano, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Given the wealth generated by oil reserves as well as the promise of economic recovery through dollarization, it is striking to note that the sociopolitical and economic reality of Ecuador contradicts theoretical predictions of prosperity and growth. Economics is only part of the explanation. In fact, social and cultural factors have had a dramatic impact on the current state of affairs in Ecuador. The country faces many of the challenges evident in other Latin American countries and thus ser...

  9. Lahars at Cotopaxi and Tungurahua Volcanoes, Ecuador: Highlights from stratigraphy and observational records and related downstream hazards: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothes, Patricia A; Vallance, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Lahars are volcanic debris flows that are dubbed primary when triggered by eruptive activity or secondary when triggered by other factors such as heavy rainfall after eruptive activity has waned. Variation in time and space of the proportion of sediment to water within a lahar dictates lahar flow phase and the resultant sedimentary character of deposits. Characteristics of source material and of debris eroded and incorporated during flow downstream may strongly affect the grain-size composition of flowing lahars and their deposits. Lahars borne on the flanks of two steep-sided stratocones in Ecuador exemplify two important lahar types. Glacier-clad Cotopaxi volcano has been a producer of primary lahars that flow great distances downstream. Such primary lahars include those of both clast-rich and matrix-rich composition—some of which have flowed as far as 325 km to the Pacific Ocean. Cotopaxi's last important eruption in 1877 generated formidable syneruptive lahars comparable in size to those that buried Armero, Colombia, following the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano. In contrast, ash-producing eruptive activity during the past 15 years at Tungurahua volcano has generated a continual supply of fresh volcaniclastic debris that is regularly remobilized by precipitation. Between 2000 and 2011, 886 rain-generated lahars were registered at Tungurahua. These two volcanoes pose dramatically different hazards to nearby populations. At Tungurahua, the frequency and small sizes of lahars have resulted in effective mitigation measures. At Cotopaxi 137 years have passed since the last important lahar-producing eruption, and there is now a high-risk situation for more than 100,000 people living in downstream valleys.

  10. The dual burden of malnutrition in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Olga L; Parra, Diana C; González, Silvia A; González-Casanova, Inés; Forero, Ana Y; Garcia, Johnattan

    2014-12-01

    Almost all nutrition policies in Colombia currently focus on either undernutrition or obesity, with the predominant emphasis on undernutrition. It is crucial to assess the prevalence of the dual burden of malnutrition in Colombia to better target programs and policies. The aim was to estimate the national prevalence of the dual burden of malnutrition in Colombia at the individual and household levels in children aged malnutrition was defined as the coexistence of overweight and stunting or anemia in the same person or household. In Colombia, low to high prevalences of overweight and obesity (3.4-51.2%) coexist with moderate to high prevalences of anemia (8.1-27.5%) and stunting (13.2%). The observed prevalence of the dual burden was lower than expected. Approximately 5% of households had at least one stunted child aged malnutrition in Colombia are lower than expected. Despite the independence of the occurrence of these conditions, the fact that the dual burden coexists at the national, household, and intraindividual levels suggests that public policies should address both conditions through multiple strategies. It is imperative to evaluate the current nutrition policies to inform malnutrition prevention efforts in Colombia and to share lessons with other countries at a similar stage of nutritional transition. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Helmintiasis y protozoasis en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Patiño Camargo

    1940-02-01

    Full Text Available Sabre un territorio de más de un millón de kilómetres cuadrados caracrerizado por la multiplicidad de climas y la variedad topográfica de su relieve, habita el pueblo de Colombia de cerca de nueve millones de personas de un tipo humano con caracteres propios en via de eetabilización. El parasitismo intestinal por helmintos y protozoarios es una pandemia de todos los climas colombianos, pera alcanza su intensidad maxima en las zonas extendidas del nivel del mar a 2.000 metros de elevación con temperaturas medias de 32° a 16° grados oentígrados.

  12. Known uraniferous occurrences in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, H.; Aluja, J.A.; Pfeiffer, J.; Cortes, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of an internal report entitled 'Possibilities of Uranium in Colombia' compiled by the author in 1973, and as a result of work done by the foreign companies TOTAL-MINATOME (France) and ENUSA (Spain) using carborne radiometric techniques, ground surveys (plus occasional aerial prospecting) and geochemical methods (sediments and waters), approximately 260 uranium anomalies (in 1973 the figure was 106) have been discovered after covering 30% of the areas considered under priorities I, II and III (321,000 km 2 ), together with 16,000 km of the national road network (+-44,000 km). In addition to supporting the original selection, these results indicate considerable variation in the geological conditions and metallogenic associations, which IAN, MINATOME and ENUSA have now begun to evaluate in the hope of obtaining specific data by the end of 1980. (author)

  13. Las marcas propias en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Felipe Payán Rodríguez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la situación actual de las marcas propias en Colombia, teniendo en cuenta su creciente auge al interior de las grandes superficies. Mediante este tipo de marcas el mismo distribuidor vende productos y servicios con su nombre o recurriendo a una marca de su propiedad, compitiendo con las marcas ya posicionadas en el mercado de los fabricantes. El texto se articula, primero, en una contextualización con base en doctrina comparada respecto de las marcas propias. Luego, se aplican las reglas de dichos conceptos doctrinales a la situación actual colombiana. Por último, se plantean dos problemas jurídicos respecto de las marcas propias, uno, analizado desde la propiedad industrial, y el otro, desde las reglas del Estatuto del Consumidor.

  14. Epidemiology of Tropical Neglected Diseases in Ecuador in the Last 20 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartelle Gestal, Monica; Holban, Alina Maria; Escalante, Santiago; Cevallos, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Background Tropical and zoonotic diseases are major problems in developing countries like Ecuador. Poorly designed houses, the high proportion of isolated indigenous population and under developed infrastructure represent a fertile environment for vectors to proliferate. Control campaigns in Ecuador over the years have had varying success, depending on the disease and vectors targeted. Aims In our study we analyse the current situation of some neglected diseases in Ecuador and the efficiency of the control campaigns (by measuring changes in numbers of cases reported) that the Ecuadorian government has been running to limit the spread of these infectious and parasitic diseases. Results Our study reveals that Brucellosis, Chagas Disease, Rabies and Onchocerciasis have been controlled, but small outbreaks are still detected in endemic areas. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis have been increasing steadily in recent years in Ecuador since the first records. The same increase has been reported world-wide also. Better diagnosis has resulted in a higher number of cases being identified, particularly with regard to the linking of outdoor activities and contact with farm animals as contributing vectors. Improvements in diagnosis are due to regular professional training, implementation of automatized systems, establishing diagnosis protocols and the creation of an epidemiological vigilance network that acts as soon as a case is reported. Conclusion Control campaigns performed in Ecuador have been successful in recent years, although natural phenomena limit their efficiency. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis infections remain a growing problem in Ecuador as it is worldwide. PMID:26394405

  15. Epidemiology of Tropical Neglected Diseases in Ecuador in the Last 20 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartelle Gestal, Monica; Holban, Alina Maria; Escalante, Santiago; Cevallos, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Tropical and zoonotic diseases are major problems in developing countries like Ecuador. Poorly designed houses, the high proportion of isolated indigenous population and under developed infrastructure represent a fertile environment for vectors to proliferate. Control campaigns in Ecuador over the years have had varying success, depending on the disease and vectors targeted. In our study we analyse the current situation of some neglected diseases in Ecuador and the efficiency of the control campaigns (by measuring changes in numbers of cases reported) that the Ecuadorian government has been running to limit the spread of these infectious and parasitic diseases. Our study reveals that Brucellosis, Chagas Disease, Rabies and Onchocerciasis have been controlled, but small outbreaks are still detected in endemic areas. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis have been increasing steadily in recent years in Ecuador since the first records. The same increase has been reported world-wide also. Better diagnosis has resulted in a higher number of cases being identified, particularly with regard to the linking of outdoor activities and contact with farm animals as contributing vectors. Improvements in diagnosis are due to regular professional training, implementation of automatized systems, establishing diagnosis protocols and the creation of an epidemiological vigilance network that acts as soon as a case is reported. Control campaigns performed in Ecuador have been successful in recent years, although natural phenomena limit their efficiency. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis infections remain a growing problem in Ecuador as it is worldwide.

  16. Unicef: Los niños del Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . UNICEF

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El Informe de UNICEF (1992 "Bienestar de los niños en el Ecuador", es una radiografía general de la sociedad ecuatoriana. El trabajo documenta temas esenciales para la comprensión de la situación del país: demografía, urbanización, medio ambiente, pobreza, derechos del niño, mortalidad y educación. La comparación de datos correspondientes a las últimas tres décadas valoriza el análisis, señala las tendencias en curso y advierte sobre las situaciones que requieren más urgente atención.

  17. PREDICTIONEER’S GAME: THE COLLECTIVE VIOLENCE IN ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Mochťak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses collective violence in Ecuador from the end of September 2010. The situation was characterized as a Coup d'état when violent clashes between hostile camps were identified. The president was attacked by rebellious units of state police that had protested against the planned cuts of benefits and salaries in the law enforcement sector. The society was threatened by local riots, temporary anarchy and violent clashes that led to the declaration of state of emergency by president Correa. On the basis of empirical data, the prediction model is designed according to the analytical tool “Predictioneer’s Game“ defined by Bruce Bueno de Mesquita. The prediction is aimed at the forecast of the stability of regime in the context of the events from the 30th September 2010.

  18. Transformed Territories of Gendered Care Work in Ecuador's Petroleum Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cielo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the transformation of indigenous women's care work in the Ecuadorian Amazon, as their communities are increasingly integrated into petroleum industry activities. Care work activities–not only for social reproduction, but also to sustain cycles of fertility, growth and waste interdependent with nature–constitute affective ecologies. In development sites of Ecuador's petroleum circuit, such activities are domesticated and devalued, and the territories produced by women's care work are progressively delimited. Once aimed at social and natural reproduction, their care practices now focus on household and familial reproduction. This article is based on two years of ethnographic and qualitative research in indigenous communities of the Amazonian provinces of Sucumbíos and Pastaza. We bring feminist economic approaches to the study of affective ecologies to show how fundamental changes in inhabitants' historically shaped relationships to, and conservation of, nature both depend on and produce gendered ecological and socioeconomic relations.

  19. The banking sector and media ownership: the case of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Checa-Godoy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The referendum called by President Rafael Correa in 2011 concludes a complex phase in the history of Ecuador, as it ratified the decision to make unlawful the participation of the banking sector in media ownership. The intense fight between the government and the financial sector started in 1999 when the banking crisis demonstrated the significant presence of bankers in the country’s media. This fight lasted twelve years during which two phases can be identified: 1999 to 2006, a period in which the banking sector, despite its internal crisis -or due to it, as it used newspapers, radio and television to improve its image- expanded its presence in the major media, and 2007 to 2011, a very interesting and unique period during which the political power acted intensively to remove bankers from the media.

  20. Studies of Migration in Ecuador: From National Development to Mobilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes Eguiguren

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a review of the studies on migration in Ecuador during the period 1960-2016. It addresses the main debates that have marked these studies, the contexts of academic production, and the way in which migrations and their social and economic conditions have influenced the constitution and orientations of the field. Three stages go through the academic production: a first one where the internal migrations are approached from a spatial phenomena analysis; a second that deals with the links between agricultural transformations and migration; and a third that shows a transition from a resurgence of migration in the literature to recent studies on the diversification of mobilities in the country.

  1. Incidencia de las intoxicaciones: un caso en hospital de Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segura-Osorio, Marisela

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Intoxication is a public health problem and one of the main causes of admission in emergency rooms nationwide and internationally. An exploratory, descriptive, and cross-sectional research of a directed observation was conducted to determine the incidence of intoxication in patients of General Teófilo Dávila Hospital in El Oro Province, Ecuador, in 2012; patients were classified by age, sex, origin, and the most frequent toxicant in this area. The highest incidence was February (16.35%, in the sample of 104 intoxicated males predominated (66.35%, urban origin (88.46% and the age group of 20-49 years (60.58%. The circumstances were: accidental (78.85%, intentional (16, 35 % and employment (4.81%. The most important mechanism is the intake (84.62 %, the agent types are food / beverages (29.81 % and substance abuse (25%.

  2. A marvelous new glassfrog (Centrolenidae, Hyalinobatrachium) from Amazonian Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayasamin, Juan M.; Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F.; Maynard, Ross J.; Lynch, Ryan L.; Culebras, Jaime; Hamilton, Paul S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hyalinobatrachium is a behaviorally and morphologically conserved genus of Neotropical anurans, with several pending taxonomic problems. Using morphology, vocalizations, and DNA, a new species from the Amazonian lowlands of Ecuador is described and illustrated. The new species, Hyalinobatrachium yaku sp. n., is differentiated from all other congenerics by having small, middorsal, dark green spots on the head and dorsum, a transparent pericardium, and a tonal call that lasts 0.27–0.4 s, with a dominant frequency of 5219.3–5329.6 Hz. Also, a mitochondrial phylogeny for the genus is presented that contains the new species, which is inferred as sister to H. pellucidum. Conservation threats to H. yaku sp. n. include habitat destruction and/or pollution mainly because of oil and mining activities. PMID:28769670

  3. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis “Chiclero's Ulcer” in Subtropical Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Martinez, Leonardo; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    An 18-year-old female presented with a severe ulcerative lesion on her right ear of 6 weeks duration. Her right ear was edematous and erythematous with a large, painless ulcerative lesion covering a third of the pinna and satellite papular lesions on the posterior. She was diagnosed with chiclero's ulcer. A skin smear stained with Diff-quik showed abundant Leishmania parasites. Chiclero's ulcer is a rare clinical presentation and is typically severe and difficult to treat. Physicians in Ecuador recommend administering prolonged intramuscular Glucantime. Side effects are common and can be severe resulting in low patient compliance. Because of preferences of the patient and the large volume needed for her weight, we recommended topical treatment with a lotion of Glucantime mixed half and half with white Merthiolate. After applying this lotion to the lesion 3 to 4 times a day for 6 weeks, the lesion healed. PMID:23926136

  4. A new species of Pristimantis from southern Ecuador (Anura, Craugastoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Paul; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Székely, Diana; Páez, Nadia; Ron, Santiago R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Pristimantis is described from Reserva Buenaventura, southern Ecuador, at elevations between 878 and 1082 m. A molecular phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes shows that the new species is closely related to Pristimantis phoxocephalus, Pristimantis riveti, and Pristimantis versicolor. The new species differs from them and other morphologically similar congeners in having a low W-shaped dermal ridge in the scapular region, a large conical tubercle on the upper eyelid and on the heel, a thin mid dorsal fold, and a longitudinal lateral fold starting behind the tympanic fold and extending along the anterior two thirds of the flank. The new species inhabits cloud forests in the Pacific slopes of the Andes. PMID:27551223

  5. El compromiso con el desarrollo sostenible: Principios de Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallardo Vázquez Dolores

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La preocupación por el desarrollo sostenible es el hecho por excelencia de las últimas décadas. El sector financiero ha apostado por el tema abordando prácticas de gestión social, ambiental y económica que conduzcan a acciones socialmente responsables. Las entidades hoy se preocupan por la responsabilidad social corporativa y enfocan sus negocios bajo la filosofía del “Triple Resultado”. Con la adopción de los Principios de Ecuador los bancos disponen de un conjunto de directrices para la gestión de los temas sociales y ambientales relacionados con la financiación de grandes proyectos de desarrollo.

  6. Birds, Lower Sangay National Park, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guevara, E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sangay National Park is located at the mid-eastern Andean foothills of the Cordillera Oriental ofEcuador. We present a preliminary avifauna inventory corresponding to the lower zone of the Sangay NationalPark (SNP. One-hundred and twenty-seven bird species belonging to 39 families were recorded, includingnoteworthy records that represent range extensions for four species, Phaetornis hispidus (Gould 1846 (WhitebeardedHermit, Ramphastos ambiguus Swainson 1823 (Black-mandibled Toucan, Phylloscartes orbitalis(Cabanis 1873 (Spectacled Bristle Tyrant, and Microcerculus bambla (Boddaert 1783 (Wing-banded Wren.We also obtained information on threatened species such as Aburria aburri (Lesson 1828 (Wattled Guan,Phlogophilus hemileucurus Gould 1860 (Ecuadorian Piedtail, and Dendroica cerulea (Wilson 1810 (CeruleanWarbler and reproductive data on one species, Patagioenas speciosa (Gmelin 1789 (Scaled Pigeon. To ourknowledge this is a first ornithological survey carried out at this specific site of the SNP.

  7. Migration, Remittances and Entrepreneurship: The Case of Rural Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Vasco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Con datos de la “Encuesta de condiciones de vida (ecv 2005-2006”, este artículo analiza el impacto de la migración internacional y las remesas en la iniciativa emprendedora en el Ecuador rural. Los resultados sugieren que ni la migración internacional ni las remesas afectan la probabilidad de que los hogares rurales ecuatorianos posean un negocio familiar. En cambio, otras variables como la educación, el crédito y la disponibilidad de servicios básicos tienen un efecto positivo en la probabilidad de que un hogar rural posea un negocio. Contrariamente a lo esperado, el test Smith-Blundell no pudo rechazar la hipótesis nula de exogeneidad de la migración internacional y las remesas respecto de la probabilidad de poseer un negocio rural.

  8. Relaciones económicas bilaterales entre Ecuador y Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Díaz, Stefany Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Dentro de la dinámica mundial actual, resulta de especial interés para Ecuador el análisis de sus relaciones económicas bilaterales con Brasil, debido al papel protagónico que ha alcanzado este país tanto a nivel regional como mundial. A nivel regional, varios de los países vecinos han delineado, incluso, su política exterior en función de potenciar sus relaciones políticas y económicas con él, y a nivel internacional, su participación en la geopolítica mundial es cada vez mayor. En términos ...

  9. Colombia - The Quality of Education in Colombia : An Analysis and Options for a Policy Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this report is to analyze student learning in Colombia in order to foster policies to improve education quality that are grounded in research and the Colombian context. In 2006, Colombia participated for the first time in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which provides an imp...

  10. Travel time tomography of the crust and the mantle beneath Ecuador from data of the national seismic network.

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo , Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    Although there have been numerous studies on the geodynamics and the tectonics in Ecuador based on the seismic activity, there has not been to date a comprehensive tomography study using the entire database of the National Seismic Network (RENSIG). Only a preliminary limited study was performed by Prevot et al. to infer a simple P velocity model in central Ecuador, and several profiles in the South-Colombian-Ecuador margin were also investigated by using travel time inversion of wide-angle se...

  11. Social and Economic Consequences of the 1987 Earthquakes in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Albornoz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El 5 de marzo de 1987, dos terremotos de 6,1 y 6,9 grados en la escala Richter sacudieron en noreste del Ecuador. Si bien el país había vivido terremotos más fuertes, el de 1987 representa uno de los que más golpearon su economía. Para entender la gravedad de las consecuencias económicas y sociales que este fenómeno natural tuvo, es necesario revisar la realidad ecuatoriana previa al desastre. En particular tres factores habrían hecho más vulnerable al país frente a los terremotos de ese año: condiciones climáticas desfavorables, infraestructura vulnerable y malas políticas económicas. El resultado de esta vulnerabilidad fue que un terremoto causó una crisis económica que duró alrededor de cinco años. Abstract On March 5, 1987, northeastern Ecuador was shaken by two earthquakes, which registered 6.1 and 6.9 degrees, respectively, on the Richter scale. Even though the country had experienced stronger earthquakes, the ones that occurred in 1987 hit the economy harder than most. In order to understand how serious the economic and social consequences of this natural disaster were, it is necessary to examine Ecuador’s reality prior to these events. Three factors in particular made the country more susceptible to repercussions from the 1987 earthquakes: unfavorable climatic conditions, vulnerable infrastructure and ill-conceived economic policies. This meant that the earthquakes gave rise to an economic crisis that lasted approximately five years.

  12. Genetic and phenotypic diversity of Rhizobium isolates from Southern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roldán Torres-Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rhizobium-legume symbioses play relevant roles in agriculture but have not been well studied in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic and phenotypic diversity of Rhizobium isolates associated with Phaseolus vulgaris from southern Ecuador. Morpho-cultural characterization, biochemical tests and physiological analyses were conducted to authenticate and determine the diversity of bacteria Rhizobium-like isolates. The genetic diversity of the isolates was determined by molecular techniques, which consisted of bacteria DNA extraction and amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The nodulation parameters and nitrogen fixation for P. vulgaris under greenhouse conditions were also assessed to determine the phenotypic diversity among isolates. Furthermore, bacteria indole-acetic-acid production was evaluated by the colorimetric method. Morpho-cultural and biochemical characteristic assessments demonstrated that Rhizobium-like bacteria was associated with the P. vulgaris nodules. The diversity among the isolates, as determined by physiological analyses, revealed the potential of several isolates to grow at different pH values, salinity conditions and temperatures. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified the Rhizobium genus in every sampling site. From a total of 20 aligned sequences, nine species of Rhizobium were identified. Nodule formation and biomass, as well as nitrogen fixation, showed an increase in plant phenotypic parameters, which could be influenced by IAA production, especially for the strains R. mesoamericanum NAM1 and R. leguminosarum bv. viciae COL6. These results demonstrated the efficiency of native symbiotic diazotrophic strains inoculants for legume production. This work can serve as the basis for additional studies of native Rhizobium strains and to help spread the use of biofertilizers in Ecuadorian fields.

  13. Intellectual capital management: An approach to organizational practices in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Claver-Cortés

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study has as its aim to identify the organizational management practices that involve intellectual capital as facilitators of innovation in its diverse formats, in Ecuador-based shrimp exporting companies. Design/methodology: The research of a qualitative nature was based on the Grounded Theory as a support for data analysis and collection. The personal interview was used in order to obtain the text corpus. The five resulting clusters served as the basis to apply inductive processes: open coding; axial coding; and selective coding, as a methodological activity meant to help interpret concepts and relationships. Findings: The organizational practices associated with intellectual capital in shrimp exporting companies are focused on structural and human capital management, where innovation has developed from the demands for the implementation of quality management systems in accordance with international regulations. Research limitations/implications:  The main contribution made by the present study lies in establishing a primary reference framework for the design of strategic alternatives that involve strengthening intellectual capital as a way to generate sustainable competitive advantages in the companies belonging to this sector. Social implications: Shrimp exports, which stand out for being one of the most significant sources of income in Ecuador, contribute to local development by means of employment generation, mainly in rural communities. The exposure to organizational routines linked to intellectual capital provides a chance to come closer to the reality of this sector. This can prove useful for executives and public policy managers to prioritize an approach which influences the generation and maintenance of competitiveness at a firm level, and also impacts on the development of the regions where such business are located. Originality/value: Faced with the absence of works applied to this sector, the present work

  14. An autochthonous geological model for the eastern Andes of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Warren T.; Duque, Pablo; Ponce, Miguel

    2005-04-01

    We describe a traverse across the Cordillera Real and sub-Andean Zone of Ecuador, poorly known areas with very little detailed mapping and very little age control. The spine of the Cordillera comprises deeply eroded Triassic and Jurassic plutons, the roots of a major arc, emplaced into probable Palaeozoic pelites and metamorphosed volcanic rocks. The W flank comprises a Jurassic (?) submarine basaltic-andesitic volcanic sequence, which grades up into mixed Jurassic/Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Inter-Andean Valley. The sub-Andean Zone, on the E flank of the Cordillera, comprises a newly recognized Cretaceous basin of cleaved mudrocks, quartz arenites and limestones. East of the syndepositional Cosanga Fault, the Cretaceous basin thins into a condensed sequence that is indistinguishable from the rocks of the adjacent hydrocarbon-bearing Oriente Basin. The principal penetrative deformation of the Cordillera Real was probably latest Cretaceous/Palaeocene. It telescoped the magmatic belts, but shortening was largely partitioned into the pelites between plutons. The plutons suffered inhomogenous deformation; some portions completely escaped tectonism. The pelites conserve two foliations. The earliest comprises slaty cleavage formed under low- or sub-greenschist conditions. The later is a strong schistosity defined by new mica growth. It largely transposed and obliterated the first. Both foliations may have developed during a single progressive deformation. We find inappropriate recent terrane models for the Cordillera Real and sub-Andean Zone of Ecuador. Instead we find remarkable similarities from one side of the Cordillera to the other, including a common structural history. In place of sutures, we find mostly intrusive contacts between major plutons and pelites. Triassic to Cretaceous events occurred on the autochthonous western edge of the Archaean Guyana Shield. The latest Cretaceous-Paleocene deformation is interpreted as the progressive

  15. Social inequalities in maternal mortality among the provinces of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, Antonio; Roldán, Jakeline Calle; Ríos-Quituizaca, Paulina; Acuña, Maria Cecilia; Espinosa, Isabel

    2017-06-08

    This study set out to describe the association between the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) estimates and a set of socioeconomic indicators and compute the MMR inequalities among the provinces of Ecuador. A cross-sectional ecological study was conducted, using data for 2014 from the country's 24 provinces. The MMR estimate was calculated for each province, as well as the association and its strength between MMR and specific socioeconomic indicators. For the indicators that were found to be significantly associated with MMR, inequality measurements were computed. Despite a relatively low MMR for Ecuador overall, ratios differed substantially among the provinces. Five socioeconomic indicators proved to be statistically significantly associated with MMR: total fertility rate, the percentage of indigenous population, the percentage of households with children who do not attend school, gross domestic product, and the percentage of houses with electrical service. Of these five, only three had MMR inequalities that were significant: total fertility rate, gross domestic product, and the percentage of households with electricity. This study supports research arguing that national averages can be misleading, as they often hide differences among subgroups at the local level. The findings also suggest that MMR is significantly associated with some socioeconomic indicators, including ones linked with significant health outcome inequalities. In order to reduce health inequities, it is crucial that countries look beyond national averages and identify the subgroups being left behind, explore the particular social determinants that generate these health inequalities, and examine the specific barriers and other factors affecting the subgroups most vulnerable to maternal health inequalities.

  16. The remarkable geographical pattern of gastric cancer mortality in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Oleas, Nadia; Núñez-González, Solange; Simancas-Racines, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    This study was aimed to describe the gastric cancer mortality trend, and to analyze the spatial distribution of gastric cancer mortality in Ecuador, between 2004 and 2015. Data were collected from the National Institute of Statistics and Census (INEC) database. Crude gastric cancer mortality rates, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and indirect standardized mortality rates (ISMRs) were calculated per 100,000 persons. For time trend analysis, joinpoint regression was used. The annual percentage rate change (APC) and the average annual percent change (AAPC) was computed for each province. Spatial age-adjusted analysis was used to detect high risk clusters of gastric cancer mortality, from 2010 to 2015, using Kulldorff spatial scan statistics. In Ecuador, between 2004 and 2015, gastric cancer caused a total of 19,115 deaths: 10,679 in men and 8436 in women. When crude rates were analyzed, a significant decline was detected (AAPC: -1.8%; p<0.001). ISMR also decreased, but this change was not statistically significant (APC: -0.53%; p=0.36). From 2004 to 2007 and from 2008 to 2011 the province with the highest ISMR was Carchi; and, from 2012 to 2015, was Cotopaxi. The most likely high occurrence cluster included Bolívar, Los Ríos, Chimborazo, Tungurahua, and Cotopaxi provinces, with a relative risk of 1.34 (p<0.001). There is a substantial geographic variation in gastric cancer mortality rates among Ecuadorian provinces. The spatial analysis indicates the presence of high occurrence clusters throughout the Andes Mountains. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Empathic orientation among medical students from three universities in Barranquilla, Colombia and one university in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Narváez, Víctor Patricio; Alonso Palacio, Luz Marina; Caro, Sara Elvira; Silva, María Guadalupe; Castillo, Joel Arboleda; Bilbao, Jorge Luis; Acosta, Jesús Iglesias

    2014-02-01

    To compare empathic orientation among medical students from three schools of medicine in Colombia and one in the Dominican Republic. Empathic orientation of medical students was measured using the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE), Spanish version for students (the "S" version) validated in Mexico and Chile, and culturally adapted to Colombia and the Dominican Republic. Data were compared using a three-factor analysis of variance (model III) and a discriminant analysis. No differences in empathic orientation were observed among courses and between sexes, but differences were found in schools of medicine considered as a unit in each studied country. Empathic orientation levels tend to reduce as courses advance. This was observed in both male and female students and in all schools analyzed.

  18. U.S. Support to Plan Colombia: A Heading Check

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buckley, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    .... For some Latin American countries like Colombia these ideals fall quite short of reality. Colombia is plagued by internal problems which restrict its ability to adequately govern its population and territory...

  19. [Aging in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras de Lehr, E

    1986-01-01

    Demographic social and economic aspects of the situation of the elderly in Mexico are described with special emphasis upon education programmes and types of care in nursing homes. Considering the future trends of an increase in Mexico's elderly population, the author calls for more efforts in research and training in the field of gerontology. First results in this area are reported.

  20. La Isla de Gorgona, Colombia: A petrological enigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Andrew C.

    2005-09-01

    equatorial palaeolatitude. This evidence, and differing geochemical signatures, strongly suggests that Gorgona and probably other coastal oceanic plateau sequences in Colombia and Ecuador, belong to a completely different oceanic plateau to the CCOP.

  1. Environmental information in Colombia; La informacion ambiental en Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez S, Andres

    2005-07-01

    This article is a chapter from the paper, Elements for the description of an environmental information system, which was written by the author as a requirement for the degree of specialist on environment and Geoinformatics at the school of engineering. Universidad de Antioquia. The original paper attempted a description of the context and development of a particular environmental information system, built at the eastern region of Antioquia by CORNARE (a regional autonomous corporation for the environment and the natural resources). This article refers to the Colombian institutional context for environmental information. With particular emphasis laid on the strategic character that must be conceded to the administration of information. Towards the construction of equitable and sustainable development models under autonomous orientation an efficient and transparent environmental administration as is needed by such models is only attainable through the design and application of environmental information systems committed to the pursuit of collective interests. Here a balance is sought between accomplishments and failures reached during the long standing discussion held in Colombia around the formulation of public policies that acknowledge and strengthen the role of information as a cornerstone of environmental administration, and a contribution towards the goal of human sustainable development.

  2. Contribuciones al conocimiento de las Magnoliácea de Colombia, V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano Contreras Gustavo

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available La consecución de material adicional de Magnoliaceae del sur de Colombia permite establecer dos nuevos taxa, ubicados en los géneros Dugandiodendron y Talauma, respectivamente.Al igual que Talauma dixonii Little y Dugandiodendron striatifolium (Little G. Lozano-c., conocidas de Esmeraldas, Ecuador, las nuevas especies reciben el nombre vernáculo de "Cucharillo". Como ocurre con otras magnoliáceas, la madera de estas especies es muy apreciada, por lo cual se les explota a pesar de la prohibición vigente en cuanto a tala; más aún, las especies que se describen están en peligro de extincion yes difícil obtener material completo de las mismas.  Los "cucharillos" han sido elementos importantes en la composición de la selva pluvial macrotérmica de la región tropical occidental ubicada en el Departamento de Nariño.

  3. 77 FR 59064 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Trade Promotion Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Colombia. DATES: Interim...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (``CTPA'' or ``Agreement''), and on June 28, 2007, the Parties signed a...

  4. Strategi Counterinsurgency Kolombia terhadap Farc (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias De Colombia) 2010-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Olivia, Yessi; Miranda, Dea

    2014-01-01

    This paper is analysing about counterinsurgency Colombia to against paramilitary group in Colombia to help address the humanitarian crisis that occurred because of civil conflict in Colombia. Conflict in Colombia involving the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionaries de Colombia (FARC) and the Government of Colombia is one example of a threat to human security in this case is a citizen of Colombia. Thousands of people confirmed dead, and hundreds more injured and displaced into the surrounding area. C...

  5. Efectos de la regionalización de la política de seguridad democrática para el desplazamiento en las fronteras de Colombia / Effects of the Regionalization of the Democratic Security Policy upon Displacement at Colombia’s Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Camila López Rojas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article argues the deep consequences of Plan Colombia and democratic security strategy over displacement, affecting mainly the frontiers with Ecuador, Venezuela and Panama. Its effects are visible not only in higher transfrontiers displacements but also in migratory policies adopted by neighbor countries against it. This analysis allows the article to conclude that Colombian refugees do not have legal and institutional support from Colombian foreign policy that could guarantee human rights protection under its immigrant condition, for each of those three studies countries.

  6. Mexico and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfman, M

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration and HIV/AIDS in Mexico and Central America, including Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama. Most migrants travel to the US through Mexico. US-Mexico trade agreements created opportunities for increased risk of HIV transmission. The research literature focuses on Mexico. Most countries, with the exception of Belize and Costa Rica, are sending countries. Human rights of migrants are violated in transit and at destination. Migration policies determine migration processes. The Mexican-born population in the US is about 3% of US population and 8% of Mexico's population. About 22% arrived during 1992-97, and about 500,000 are naturalized US citizens. An additional 11 million have a Mexican ethnic background. Mexican migrants are usually economically active men who had jobs before leaving and were urban people who settled in California, Texas, Illinois, and Arizona. Most Mexican migrants enter illegally. Many return to Mexico. The main paths of HIV transmission are homosexual, heterosexual, and IV-drug-injecting persons. Latino migrants frequently use prostitutes, adopt new sexual practices including anal penetration among men, greater diversity of sexual partners, and use of injectable drugs.

  7. Neogene stratigraphy and Andean geodynamics of southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerbühler, Dominik; Steinmann, Michael; Winkler, Wilfried; Seward, Diane; Egüez, Arturo; Peterson, Dawn E.; Helg, Urs; Hammer, Cliff

    2002-01-01

    The present paper reviews Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary formations in the Inter-Andean region of southern Ecuador (between 2°S and 4°20'S) in order to develop a geodynamic model of the region. The formations occur in the southern shallow prolongation of the Inter-Andean Valley between the Cordillera Real to the east, and the Cordillera Occidental and Amotape-Tahuín Provinces to the west. One hundred fifty zircon fission-track analyses has established a detailed chronostratigraphy for the sedimentary and volcanic formations and several small intrusions. The Paleogene to early Miocene formations are dominated by intermediate and acidic volcanic and pyroclastic rocks. In addition, relics of Eocene continental sedimentary series have been identified. The Neogene sedimentary series lie unconformably on deformed and eroded metamorphic, sedimentary and volcanic formations. They were deposited in two stages, which are separated by a major unconformity dated at ≈10-9 Ma. (1) During the middle and early late Miocene (≈15-10 Ma) marginal marine deltaic, lagoonal, lacustrine and fluvial environments prevailed, which we group under the heading "Pacific Coastal sequences". They presumably covered a greater surface area in southern Ecuador than their present occurrence in small topographic depressions. We suggest that they were deposited in the shallow marine Cuenca and Loja Embayments. Deposition in a marginal marine environment is also supported by the occurrence of brackish water ostracods and other fauna. (2) Above the regional (angular) unconformity, the coastal facies are overlain by late Miocene (≈9-5 Ma) continental alluvial fan and fluvial facies which are in turn covered by mainly airborne volcanic material. They represent the "Intermontane sequences" of the basins of Cuenca, Girón-Santa Isabel, Nabón, Loja and Malacatos-Vilcabamba. Sedimentologic and stratigraphic results are used to discuss the tectonic setting of Neogene sedimentation in the forearc

  8. los pobres de barranquilla (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ramos R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se analizan las características socioeconómicas relevantes que tiene la población pobre del distrito de Barranquilla (Colombia, y se destacan en el análisis las aspiraciones y la percepción que estas personas tienen sobre las instituciones de carácter público que se dedican a atender las demandas sociales. El estudio examina la relación entre los ciudadanos menos favorecidos y la institucionalidad social en sus múltiples manifestaciones y dimensiones, siguiendo los preceptos de la teoría institucional. Metodológicamente el estudio responde a un diseño cualitativocuantitativo, de carácter descriptivo-analítico. Para la interpretación de la información recogida a través de las encuestas se realizó un análisis de correspondencias múltiples.

  9. Nuclear Medicine week in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhy, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    During the week of 6-12 October 2003 the IAEA organized a Research Coordination Meeting on 'Relationship between lower Respiratory Tract Infection, Gastroesophageal reflux and bronchial Asthma in children' at Hospital San Ignacio in Bogota. Besides there were four workshops in Bogota; workshops on Bone infection and Bone scan in Pediatric ortopaedics at Hospital Militar and Fundacion CardioInfantil, a workshop for Nuclear Medicine Technologists and a workshop on Sentinel Lymph Node mapping and Surgical Gamma Probe Application at Institute of Oncology. A nuclear cardiology workshop was organized in Medellin, and finally crowning them all was the 9th Congress of the Colombian Association of Nuclear Medicine at Cali from 10-12 October, 2003; probably the largest and best Colombian nuclear medicine congress every held in the country. A workshop was also organized in Cali for nuclear medicine technologists in conjunction with the Annual Convention. It was a mix of IAEA's Technical Cooperation and Regular Budget activities along with the activities of Colombian Association of Nuclear Medicine, bringing in absolute synergy to galvanize the entire nuclear medicine community of the country. The week saw nuclear medicine scientists from more than 20 IAEA Member States converging on Colombia to spread the message of nuclear medicine, share knowledge and to foster International understanding and friendship among the nuclear medicine people of the world

  10. Isotopic meteoric line for Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez N, Cesar O

    2004-01-01

    Isotope analyses from representative rainfall samples taken from different areas in Colombia were processed to yield the meteoric line. Stable isotope composition in precipitation reflects the effects of temperature, altitude and of the continental site, being affected by different sources of atmospheric humidity over the Colombian territory. There is a seasonal variation in isotopic composition of precipitation with grater σ deviation during the rainy season and lower values in the dry season. In coastal areas the variation is smaller and is more pronounced than at continental stations. Correlation between altitude and isotope content led to equations, which indicate, on a regional level, a change in isotopic composition with altitude, of about 0.5 σ units per 200 m, for O 18 and 4 σ units per 200 m for H 2 . Such equations may be used to identify the original altitude of precipitation water, in hydrological surface and groundwater studies. Meteoric line and the concepts derived from the resulting equations presented in this paper may be applied to the interpretation of isotope analysis in future hydrological studies, particularly in areas without available data

  11. Timeline: environmental education in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Adriana Pita-Morales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The environmental education is a process that allows the individual to understand the relations of interdependence with the environment in the one that develops, is like that, since the reality bears biophysics in mind, social, political, economic in this respect it is necessary to generate in the company activities of valuation and respect for the environment. The environmental education is a dynamic and participative process orientated to the formation of critical and reflexive persons with aptitude to understand the environmental problematics of the local, regional and national context. In this frame the need is born of contextualized the labor that has become national in the construction of instruments that allow him the condition to look at the environmental education as a fundamental tool for the care of the natural resources and not as an isolated concept foreign to the community. In the present review their approaches the historical frame of the environmental education in Colombia his challenges, challenges and the way like are opening formative spaces and of projection for the suitable managing of the environment. In conclusion environmental education is a participatory process that must be born of the group in order to give management the natural resources of a region and community where professionals to do is oriental these processes in society.

  12. Crisis, ingresos y mercado de trabajo en Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Au court des dernières qannées, l'Équateur a traversé une profonde crise économique et politique. Les indicateurs d'inégalité, dont les déterminants sont sanalysés à fond dans ce travail, montrent des changements entre 1995 et 1998. Les données indiquent que les facteurs les plus significatifs qui expliquent l'inégalité sont : la scolarité, l'appartenance au secteur agricole, le sexe et le degré de formalité de l'emploi. En désagrégant ces caracteristiques de l'e´chantillon, les différentes contributions de chaque facteur à l'inégalité se manifestent. La raison pourrait en être les changements survenus dans la structure productive de la famille, parmi lesqueles se trouvent la participation des femmes et le phénomène migratoire, qui s'est accentué depuis 1998. Ecuador ha atravesado una profunda crisis económica y política los últimos años. Los indicadores de desigualdad, cuyos determinantes se analizan con profundidad en este trabajo, muestran variaciones entre 1995 y 1998. La evidencia indica que los factores más significativos para explicar la desigualdad son la escolaridad, la pertenencia al sector agrícola, el género y el grado de formalidad del empleo. Al desagregar la muestra por estas características, se encuentran diferencias en la forma en que cada uno de estos factores contribuyen a la desigualdad. La explicación se encontraría en que se han dado cambios en la estructura productiva de la familia, entre los cuales destacan la forma de participación de la mujer y un proceso migratorio al extranjero que se aceleró justamente a partir de 1998. In recent years, Ecuador has gone through a severe economic and political crisis. Inequality indicators for the 1995-1998 period, which are analized in depth in this paper, exhibit a rising trend. The evidence indicates that the most significant factors that contribute to inequality are education, belonging to the agricultural sector, gender, and the degree of

  13. "Horchata" drink in Southern Ecuador: medicinal plants and people's wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Montserrat; Tinitana, Fani; Jarrín-V, Pablo; Donoso, Natalia; Romero-Benavides, Juan Carlos

    2017-03-09

    The "horchata" is a herbal mixture infusion consumed in Southern Ecuador. It remains unknown how vendors group the plant species to sell them at traditional markets. This research documented the following: 1) a list of medicinal plant species sold for the drink; 2) the culturally important medicinal plant species; 3) the agreement among vendors regarding the medicinal plants species and their therapeutic use; and 4) the groups of medicinal plants sold for the preparation of "horchata." Interviews were made to 185 vendors at 31 traditional markets in Loja province. Bunches of medicinal plants were purchased to identify the species and to prepare voucher specimens. Culturally important medicinal plants species were established with the Fidelity Level (FL) index. Agreement among vendors on the therapeutic use of medicinal plants was measured with the Factor of Informant Consensus (FIC) index. A cluster analysis was made to determine the groups of medicinal plants sold by market vendors to prepare the "horchata" drink. In Loja province, the "horchata" drink is consumed for its therapeutic uses. This study registered 33 families with 58 genera and 71 medicinal plant species, 50 of which are herbs and three are endemic to the Andean highlands of Ecuador. The FL index (46.1-96.3) determined 20 culturally important medicinal plant species. The highest FIC value (1.00) among vendors corresponds to four plant species employed each for a different therapeutic use. The cluster analysis identified a core group of 16 plant species which are essential to the drink and which likely interact to provide wellbeing. The "horchata" is a heritage drink in Loja province. The 71 medicinal plants species registered for this drink is the largest number reported to date, and they have a total of 32 therapeutic uses. The combined results of the FL and FIC indices, the cluster analysis, and the field observations reveal an agreement among vendors on 16 medicinal plant species and their

  14. Global conservation significance of Ecuador's Yasuní National Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot S Bass

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The threats facing Ecuador's Yasuní National Park are emblematic of those confronting the greater western Amazon, one of the world's last high-biodiversity wilderness areas. Notably, the country's second largest untapped oil reserves--called "ITT"--lie beneath an intact, remote section of the park. The conservation significance of Yasuní may weigh heavily in upcoming state-level and international decisions, including whether to develop the oil or invest in alternatives. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted the first comprehensive synthesis of biodiversity data for Yasuní. Mapping amphibian, bird, mammal, and plant distributions, we found eastern Ecuador and northern Peru to be the only regions in South America where species richness centers for all four taxonomic groups overlap. This quadruple richness center has only one viable strict protected area (IUCN levels I-IV: Yasuní. The park covers just 14% of the quadruple richness center's area, whereas active or proposed oil concessions cover 79%. Using field inventory data, we compared Yasuní's local (alpha and landscape (gamma diversity to other sites, in the western Amazon and globally. These analyses further suggest that Yasuní is among the most biodiverse places on Earth, with apparent world richness records for amphibians, reptiles, bats, and trees. Yasuní also protects a considerable number of threatened species and regional endemics. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Yasuní has outstanding global conservation significance due to its extraordinary biodiversity and potential to sustain this biodiversity in the long term because of its 1 large size and wilderness character, 2 intact large-vertebrate assemblage, 3 IUCN level-II protection status in a region lacking other strict protected areas, and 4 likelihood of maintaining wet, rainforest conditions while anticipated climate change-induced drought intensifies in the eastern Amazon. However, further oil development in

  15. Mexico's nuclear paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redclift, M.

    1989-01-01

    Opposition to Mexico's nuclear reactors at Laguna Verde has grown during the last two years. The nuclear programme is blamed for being expensive and wasteful, and the decision to rely on the USA contradicts Mexico's espoused policy of greater independence from the USA. The way in which petroleum revenues were used to precipitate the nuclear option is compared with the lack of urgency given to renewable energy and greater energy efficiency. From a social and environmental perspective, as well as an economic one, Mexico's nuclear programme is judged expensive and irrelevant. (author)

  16. The century of the Petroleum in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1999-01-01

    A recount of the big changes is made with hydrocarbons in Colombia during the X X century. The X X century it meant everything for Colombia in oil matter. In this century it took off and it consolidated their industry of the hydrocarbons and with her great part of the industrialization process and development of the country. It is undeniable that the petroleum was one of the big main characters of the century X X and Colombia has not been unaware to the sways of a highly changing industry. The creation of the OPEC, the warlike conflicts, the times of high and low prices, the technological advances, the processes of energy integration and the mega coalitions are hardly some of the ingredients that seasoned the Oil Industry in the years 1900

  17. Sistema de salud de Colombia The health system of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Guerrero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta una breve descripción de las condiciones de salud de Colombia y una descripción detallada del sistema colombiano de salud. Esta última incluye una descripción de su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, el gasto en salud, los recursos con los que cuenta, quién vigila y evalúa al sector salud y qué herramientas de participación tienen los usuarios. Dentro de las innovaciones más recientes del sistema se incluyen las modificaciones al Plan Obligatorio de Salud y a los montos de la unidad de pago por capitación, la integración vertical entre empresas promotoras de salud y las instituciones prestadoras de servicios, así como el establecimiento de nuevas fuentes de recursos para lograr la universalidad e igualar los planes de beneficios entre los distintos regímenes.This document briefly describes the health conditions of the Colombian population and, in more detail, the characteristics of the Colombian health system. The description of the system includes its structure and coverage; financing sources; expenditure in health; physical material and human resources available; monitoring and evaluation procedures; and mechanisms through which the population participates in the evaluation of the system. Salient among the most recent innovations implemented in the Colombian health system are the modification of the Compulsory Health Plan and the capitation payment unit, the vertical integration of the health promotion enterprises and the institutions in charge of the provision of services and the mobilization of additional resources to meet the objectives of universal coverage and the homologation of health benefits among health regimes.

  18. [Payment mechanisms and financial resources management for consolidation of Ecuador's health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacrés, Tatiana; Mena, Ana Cristina

    2017-06-08

    Analyze the proposal by the Ministry of Public Health to reform the public financing model in Ecuador with regard to pooling of funds and payment mechanisms. A literature review was done of the financing model, the current legal framework, and the budgetary bases in Pubmed, SciELO, LILACS Ecuador, and regional LILACS using the key words health financing, health financing systems, capitation, pooling of funds, health system reform Ecuador, health system Ecuador, and health payment mechanisms. Books and other documents suggested by health systems experts were also included. Review of the financing model enabled identifying the historical segmentation of Ecuador's health system; out of this, the Ministry of Public Health conceived its proposal to reform the financing model. The Ministry's proposed solutions are pooling of funds and payment of services at the first level of care through payment per capita adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic risks. Progress made in reforming the financing model includes design of the proposals and their implementation mechanisms, and discussions with stakeholders. Implementation of these changes may produce improvements for the health system in efficiency, spreading of risks, incentives for meeting health objectives, as well as contribute to its sustainability and advance toward universal health coverage. Nevertheless, legal, political, and operational constraints are hampering their implementation.

  19. Republic of Ecuador Country Environmental Analysis : Environmental Quality and Natural Resource Management for Sustained Economic Growth and Poverty Alleviation

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Ecuador is a country with exceptional natural resource and environmental advantages and challenges. It is strategically located and has considerable oil reserves in the interior and the coastal region. This document does not aim to describe the state of the environment in Ecuador. Rather, its main objective is to provide an analytical foundation to identify the country's institutional weak...

  20. La aleación inestable. Origen y consolidación de un Estado transformista: Ecuador, 1920 – 1960

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ospina Peralta, P.E.

    2016-01-01

    La historia del Ecuador se ha caracterizado por una vida política “apacible”, ajena a las guerras civiles, los asesinatos políticos y las muertes de manifestantes en las calles. ¿Qué distingue a Ecuador para explicar una historia política de más de medio siglo de resultados tan inusuales? Este