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Sample records for mexico coastal area

  1. Geoid determination in the coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, HongZhi

    Coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico are important for many reasons. This part of the United States provides vital coastal habitats for many marine species; the area has seen-ever increasing human settlement along the coast, ever increasing infrastructure for marine transportation of the nation's imports and exports through Gulf ports, and ever increasing recreational users of coastal resources. These important uses associated with the Gulf coast are subject to dynamic environmental and physical changes including: coastal erosion (Gulf-wide rates of 25 square miles per year), tropical storm surges, coastal subsidence, and global sea level rise. Coastal land subsidence is a major component of relative sea level rise along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. These dynamic coastal changes should be evident in changes to the geoid along the coast. The geoid is the equipotential gravity surface of the earth, which the best fits the global mean sea level. The geoid is not only been seen as the most natural shape of the Earth, but also it serves as the reference surface for most of the height systems. By using satellites (GRACE mission) scientists have been able to measure the large scale geoid for the Earth. A small scale geoid model is required to monitor local events such as flooding, for example, flooding created by storm surges from hurricanes such as Katrina (2005), Rita (2005), and Ike (2008). The overall purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the local coastal geoid. The more precise geoid will enable to improve coastal flooding predictions, and will enable more cost effective and accurate measurement of coastal topography using global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). The main objective of this study is to devise mathematical models and computational methods to achieve the best possible precision for evaluation of the geoid in the coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico. More specifically, the numerical objectives of this study are 1) to obtain a

  2. Village Dogs in Coastal Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, Eliza; Hebinck, P.G.M.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Village dogs are important for households in coastal Mexico, yet they are seen as out of place by etic stakeholders (public health and wildlife experts, and animal welfarists). Caregivers of village dogs are considered irresponsible, a view that is reinforced by Mexican policy. We describe two

  3. Microbial nitrogen sinks in the water column of a large coastal hypoxic area, the Gulf of Mexico "Dead Zone"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogener, M. K.; Roberts, B. J.; Rabalais, N. N.; Stewart, F. J.; Joye, S. B.

    2016-02-01

    Excess nitrogen in coastal environments leads to eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, habitat loss, oxygen depletion and reductions in biodiversity. As such, biological nitrogen (N) removal through the microbially-mediated process of denitrification is a critical ecosystem function that can mitigate the negative consequences of excess nitrogen loading. However, denitrification can produce nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas, as a byproduct under some environmental conditions. To understand how excess nitrogen loading impacts denitrification, we measured rates of this process in the water column of the Gulf of Mexico "Dead Zone" three times over the summer of 2015. The Dead Zone is generated by excessive nitrogen loading from the Mississippi River co-occurring with strong water column stratification, which leads to a large summer-time hypoxic/anoxic area at the mouth of the river and along the coast of Louisiana. Rates of denitrification ranged from 31 to 153 nmol L-1 d-1. Dead Zone waters are also enriched in methane and aerobic methane oxidation rates ranged from 0.1 to 4.3 nmol L-1 d-1. Maximal denitrification rates were observed at stations with the lowest oxygen concentrations and highest methane oxidation rates, suggesting a potential coupling between nitrate reduction and methane oxidation which both scrubs reactive N and methane from the system, thus performing a duel ecosystem service.

  4. Toxicities of sediments below 10 effluent outfalls to near-coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.; Weber, D.; Stanley, R.

    1995-01-01

    The chemical quality and toxicities of sediments collected in the receiving waters below 10 wastewater outfalls to Northwest Florida coastal areas were evaluated at multiple stations during 1994--1996. Eight types of toxicity tests using 11 test species were used to assess acute and chronic toxicity of the sediments collected below industrial, municipal, power generation and pulp mill outfalls. The primary objectives of the study were to evaluate the relative ability of different assessment procedures to detect toxicity and to provide some much-needed perspective on the impact of major point sources on sediment quality in Gulf of Mexico estuaries. The major chemical contaminants were heavy metals and PAHs. Acute and chronic toxicities were noted. Results of tests with sediment collected at the same location but several months later often differed. The most sensitive species were mysids and an estuarine amphipod. The least sensitive species were fish and macrophyte seedlings. There was poor correlation of effluent toxicity to sediment toxicity in the receiving water. Toxicity of the effluents was greater than that of the sediments. Overall, the unavailability of relevant chronic toxicity methods, uncertain criteria for choice of control stations, lack of guidance on frequency of testing and the dynamic physical and chemical characteristics of sediments are factors that need consideration if sediment monitoring is to be part of the NPDES regulatory process

  5. Establishing a baseline of estuarine submerged aquatic vegetation resources across salinity zones within coastal areas of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmann, Eva R.; DeMarco, Kristin; LaPeyre, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are dynamic and productive areas that are vulnerable to effects of global climate change. Despite their potentially limited spatial extent, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) beds function in coastal ecosystems as foundation species, and perform important ecological services. However, limited understanding of the factors controlling SAV distribution and abundance across multiple salinity zones (fresh, intermediate, brackish, and saline) in the northern Gulf of Mexico restricts the ability of models to accurately predict resource availability. We sampled 384 potential coastal SAV sites across the northern Gulf of Mexico in 2013 and 2014, and examined community and species-specific SAV distribution and biomass in relation to year, salinity, turbidity, and water depth. After two years of sampling, 14 species of SAV were documented, with three species (coontail [Ceratophyllum demersum], Eurasian watermilfoil [Myriophyllum spicatum], and widgeon grass [Ruppia maritima]) accounting for 54% of above-ground biomass collected. Salinity and water depth were dominant drivers of species assemblages but had little effect on SAV biomass. Predicted changes in salinity and water depths along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast will likely alter SAV production and species assemblages, shifting to more saline and depth-tolerant assemblages, which in turn may affect habitat and food resources for associated faunal species.

  6. Comparative age and growth of common snook Centropomus undecimalis (Pisces: Centropomidae from coastal and riverine areas in Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A. Perera-Garcia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Common snook Centropomus unidecimalis is an important commercial and fishery species in Southern Mexico, however the high exploitation rates have resulted in a strong reduction of its abundances. Since, the information about its population structure is scarce, the objective of the present research was to determine and compare the age structure in four important fishery sites. For this, age and growth of common snook were determined from specimens collected monthly, from July 2006 to March 2008, from two coastal (Barra Bosque and Barra San Pedro and two riverine (San Pedro and Tres Brazos commercial fishery sites in Tabasco, Mexico. Age was determined using sectioned saggitae otoliths and data analyzed by von Bertalanffy and Levenberg-Marquardt among others. Estimated ages ranged from 2 to 17 years. Monthly patterns of marginal increment formation and the percentage of otoliths with opaque rings on the outer edge demonstrated that a single annulus was formed each year. The von Bertalanffy parameters were calculated for males and females using linear adjustment and the non-linear method of Levenberg-Marquardt. The von Bertalanffy growth equations were FLt=109.21(1-e-0.21(t+0.57 for Barra Bosque, FLt=94.56(1-e-0.27(t+0.48 for Barra San Pedro, FLt=97.15(1-e-0.17(t+1.32 for San Pedro and FLt=83.77(1-e-0.26(t+0.49 for Tres Brazos. According to (Hotelling’s T², p<0.05 test growth was significantly greater for females than for males. Based on the Chen test, von Bertalanffy growth curves were different among the study sites (RSS, p<0.05. Based on the observed differences in growth parameters among sampling sites (coastal and riverine environments future research need to be conducted on migration and population genetics, in order to delineate the stock structure of this population and support management programs.

  7. Comparative age and growth of common snook Centropomus undecimalis (Pisces: Centropomidae from coastal and riverine areas in Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A. Perera-Garcia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Common snook Centropomus unidecimalis is an important commercial and fishery species in Southern Mexico, however the high exploitation rates have resulted in a strong reduction of its abundances. Since, the information about its population structure is scarce, the objective of the present research was to determine and compare the age structure in four important fishery sites. For this, age and growth of common snook were determined from specimens collected monthly, from July 2006 to March 2008, from two coastal (Barra Bosque and Barra San Pedro and two riverine (San Pedro and Tres Brazos commercial fishery sites in Tabasco, Mexico. Age was determined using sectioned saggitae otoliths and data analyzed by von Bertalanffy and Levenberg-Marquardt among others. Estimated ages ranged from 2 to 17 years. Monthly patterns of marginal increment formation and the percentage of otoliths with opaque rings on the outer edge demonstrated that a single annulus was formed each year. The von Bertalanffy parameters were calculated for males and females using linear adjustment and the non-linear method of Levenberg-Marquardt. The von Bertalanffy growth equations were FLt=109.21(1-e-0.21(t+0.57 for Barra Bosque, FLt=94.56(1-e-0.27(t+0.48 for Barra San Pedro, FLt=97.15(1-e-0.17(t+1.32 for San Pedro and FLt=83.77(1-e-0.26(t+0.49 for Tres Brazos. According to (Hotelling’s T², pEl robalo blanco Centropomus undecimalis representa un ingreso monetario significativo y un recurso alimentario para todas las comunidades rurales cercanas a su distribución. Se determinó la edad y crecimiento de esta especie. Los organismos se recolectaron mensualmente en los desembarcos de la pesca artesanal de las cooperativas de mayor contribución en la zona costera (Barra Bosque y San Pedro y ribereña (San Pedro y Tres Brazos entre julio 2006 y marzo 2008. La edad se determinó mediante otolitos seccionados. La edad estimada fue de 2 a 17 años. Mensualmente se estableció la

  8. Integrated Assessment of Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal areas are experiencing change due to a range of natural and human-induced drivers. Of particular concern is climate change, particularly sea-level rise (SLR). In low gradient coastal areas, small changes in water levels can have profound consequences. Hence SLR is rightly considered a major threat. However, to properly diagnose a problem and find sustainable solutions, a systems approach is essential as the impacts of SLR will be modified by the other drivers. This paper will consider these issues from a multi-disciplinary perspective drawing on examples from around the world.

  9. Limnological and botanical characterization of larval habitats for two primary malarial vectors, Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, in coastal areas of Chiapas State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, H M; Rejmankova, E; Arredondo-Jim'enez, J I; Roberts, D R; Rodr'iguez, M H

    1990-12-01

    Field surveys of mosquito breeding sites on the Pacific coastal plain and foothill regions of southern Chiapas, Mexico, were carried out in the dry and wet seasons of 1988. At each site, selected environmental variables were measured or estimated, presence and percent cover of aquatic plants recorded, a water sample collected for subsequent analyses, and 10-30 dips made for mosquito larvae. Logistic regression and discriminant analyses revealed that the occurrence of Anopheles albimanus larvae in both the wet and dry seasons was positively associated with planktonic algae and negatively associated with altitude. In the dry season, An. albimanus larvae were largely restricted to the margins of permanent water bodies and were associated with the presence of floating plants, particularly Eichhornia crassipes. During the wet season An. albimanus larvae were positively associated with emergent plants, particularly seasonally flooded Cyperaceae, and phosphorus (PO4) concentrations, and were negatively associated with abundant filamentous algae, high levels of total suspended solids (TSS) and Salvinia. In the dry season, An. pseudopunctipennis larvae were positively associated with filamentous algae, altitude and the presence of Heteranthera if encountered in a riverine setting, and were negatively associated with water depth. During the wet season, flooding eliminated typical flood plain An. pseudopunctipennis habitats, and larvae were rarely encountered.

  10. Mercury in the atmospheric and coastal environments of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelas-Inzunza, Jorge; Delgado-Alvarez, Carolina; Frías-Espericueta, Martín; Páez-Osuna, Federico

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico, published studies relating to the occurrence of Hg in the environment are limited. Among the main sources of Hg in Mexico are mining and refining of Auand Hg, chloralkali plants, Cu smelting, residential combustion of wood, carbo electric plants, and oil refineries. Hg levels are highly variable in the atmospheric compartment because of the atmospheric dynamics and ongoing metal exchange with the terrestrial surface. In atmospheric studies, Hg levels are usually reported as total gaseous Hg (TGM). In Mexico, TGM values ranged from 1.32 ng m-3 in Hidalgo state (a rural agricultural area) to 71.82 ng m-3 in Zacatecas state (an area where brick manufacturers use mining wastes as a raw material).Published information on mercury levels in the coastal environment comprise 21 studies, representing 21 areas, in which sediments constituted the substrate that was analyzed for Hg. In addition, water samples were analyzed for Hg in nine studies.Few studies exist on Hg levels in the Caribbean and in the southwest of the country where tourism is rapidly increasing. Hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury in these increasingly visited areas. In regions where studies have been undertaken, Hg levels in sediments were highly variable. Variations in Hg sediment levels mainly result from geological factors and the varying degree of anthropogenic impacts in the studied areas. In areas that still have pristine or nearly pristine environments (e.g., coast, Baja California, Todos Santos Bay, and La Paz lagoon), sediment Hg levels ranged from Mexico, it is clear that Hg fluxes to sediments have increased from2- to 15-fold in recent years. Since the 1940s, historical increases of Hg fluxes have resulted from higher agricultural waste releases and exhaust from the thermo electric plants. The levels of Hg in water reveal a moderate to elevated contamination of some Mexican coastal sites. In Urias lagoon (NW Mexico), moderate to high levels were found in

  11. IMAGE INTERPRETATION OF COASTAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lazaridou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Coasts were formed with the overall shape of earth's surface. Τhey represent a landform, as determined by the science of geomorphology. Being the boundary between land and sea, they present important features – particularities such as water currents, waves, winds, estuaries, drainage network, pollution etc. Coasts are examined at various levels: continents – oceans, states – large seas, as for example Mediterranean Sea. Greece, because of its horizontal and vertical partitioning, presents great extent and variety of coasts as mainland, peninsulas and islands. Depending on geomorphology, geology, soils, hydrology, land use of the inland and the coasts themselves, these are very diverse. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. This paper concerns critical considerations on the above. It also includes the case of Thessaloniki coasts in Greece, particularly river estuaries areas (river delta. The study of coastal areas of the wide surroundings of Thessaloniki city includes visual image interpretation – digital image processing techniques on satellite data of high spatial resolution.

  12. Environmental literacy in agriculture and coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujianti, N.; Munandar, A.; Surakusumah, W.

    2018-05-01

    This research aim to investigate the environmental literacy of junior high school students in agricultural and coastal areas in Subang based on knowledge, cognitive skill and attitudes toward to environment. This research used descriptive method. The subjects of the research were 7 grade students of junior high school and involved 62 participants in agriculture area and 64 participants in coastal area. The instrument of environment literacy adapted from Middle School Environment Literacy Survey (MSELS) and adapted to the context of agricultural and coastal area. The results showed that: environmental literacy in agricultural areas is 169.30 with moderate category and environmental literacy in the coastal area is 152.61 in the moderate category.

  13. Synthesis of Adaptation Options for Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaptation can help reduce the long-term costs associated with climate change. This document provides an introduction to climate change impacts and adaptation options for estuaries, beaches and coastal areas.

  14. Coastal vulnerability index for the Tabasco State coast, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Nuñez Gómez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sea level rise is one of the most serious events that will impact low-lying lands, as is the case of most of Tabasco State. Historically, the State of Tabasco has been repeatedly impacted by extreme floods, the most recent one occurring in 2007. However, recent studies have shown that coastal erosion is the effect that most directly has impacted the Tabasco’s coastline, as this has even modified soil strata; this is also related to extreme hydrometeorological events associated with environmental changes and changes in the salinity gradient off the coast. In such a situation, future changes in the coastline are almost certain. Tabasco’s coastline has been recognized as one of the most vulnerable zones in the country since Mexico’s first national communication to the UNFCCC in 1997. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the vulnerability of this zone. The purpose of this study was to estimate the vulnerability of the Tabasco’s coastline by applying the coastal vulnerability index method (IVM using a geographic information system (GIS. This method has been successfully applied in several different places around the world including Canada, the United State, Spain and Indonesia. This model is suitable for the local conditions of Tabasco coast, as the input variables it requires (including waves, tides, sea level, coastal slope, erosion rates and geomorphology are available for the study area, thus allowing the possibility of estimating the coast’s vulnerability based on local data. Results from map algebra operations showed that the zones of very high or high vulnerability encompass a six-kilometer stretch around the Sánchez Magallanes community, near the del Carmen lagoon in the municipality of H. Cárdenas, Tabasco. This is due to the high-waves regime and other conditions associated to the coastal dune geomorphology as well as the unconsolidated fine sediments prevailing therein. Other high vulnerability zones are found just in front

  15. Study of Evacuation Behavior of Coastal Gulf of Mexico Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharjee, Sanjoy; Petrolia, Daniel R.; Hanson, Terrill R.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the link between hurricane characteristics, demographics of the Coastal Gulf of Mexico residents, including their household location, and their respective evacuation behavior. Our study is significantly different from the previously made studies on hurricane evacuation behavior in two ways. At first, the research data is collected through recording responses to a series of hypothetical situations which are quite identical to the set of information that people are...

  16. New Mexico Known Mineral Deposit Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains all Known Mineral Deposit Areas in the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a 1:500,000 scale map of the...

  17. Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP's) in coastal environments of Southeast Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Botello, A.; Diaz-Gonzalez, G.; Rueda-Quintana, L.

    1999-01-01

    Analyses to determine the presence and concentrations of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP's) were carried out in sediments and estuarine organisms (Crassostrea virginica) from five coastal lagoons of the Southeast Gulf of Mexico. The results of this study show high levels of POP's in sediments with high concentration of Heptachlor, Aldrin, Dieldrin and ppDDT, either in sediments or biological tissues. According to national regulations, the use and dispersion of these chemical have been severely restricted or totally prohibited in developed countries, however their presence in coastal areas indicate an extensive use and recent application of them. (author)

  18. New Mexico Urban Areas - Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census MAF/TIGER database. The Census MAF/TIGER database...

  19. Use of the Cumbrian coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The primary objective of the research was to establish the recreational usage made of the Cumbrian coastal area. Observations of the numbers of adults and children in each area included in the study were undertaken, as well as an interview survey among adults which identified patterns of use by different groups. The interview survey comprised 7070 interviews, 80% of which were with residents of, rather than visitors to, Cumbria. Additional investigations and analyses were conducted to: determine hours of occupancy at coastal areas; observe usage made of particular areas outside the locations and times of the main survey; assess the usage made of coastal areas and inland waterways by members of the public likely to be excluded from the main study (eg. bird watchers, water-sport participants). (author)

  20. Why is Coastal Community Resilience Important in the Gulf of Mexico Region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gulf of Mexico Program supports the regional collaborative approach and efforts of the Coastal Community Resilience Priority Issue Team of the Gulf of Mexico Governors’ Alliance and its broad spectrum of partners and stakeholders.

  1. Fishprint of Coastal Fisheries in Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Leticia Bravo-Olivas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal fisheries contribute to global food security, since fish are an important source of protein for many coastal communities in the world. However, they are constrained by problems, such as weak management of fisheries and overfishing. Local communities perceive that they are fishing less, as in other fisheries in the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fisheries sustainability in the Jalisco coast through the fishing footprint, or fishprint (FP, based on the primary productivity required (PPR and the appropriated surface by the activity (biocapacity. The total catch was 20,448.2 metric tons from 2002–2012, and the average footprint was calculated to be 65,458 gha/year, a figure that quadrupled in a period of 10 years; the biocapacity decreased, and the average trophic level of catches was 3.1, which implies that it has remained at average levels, resulting in a positive balance between biocapacity and ecological footprint. Therefore, under this approach, the fishing activity is sustainable along the coast of Jalisco.

  2. Protected Areas Database for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US) is a geodatabase, managed by USGS GAP, that illustrates and describes public land ownership, management...

  3. Coastal change and hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR has identified the input of nutrient-rich water from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB as the prime cause of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico and the prime means for its control. A Watershed Nutrient Task Force was formed to solve the hypoxia problem by managing the MARB catchment. However, the hypoxic zone is also experiencing massive physical, hydrological, chemical and biological changes associated with an immense river-switching and delta-building event that occurs here about once a millennium. Coastal change induced hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico prior to European settlement. It is recommended that for further understanding and control of Gulf hypoxia the Watershed Nutrient Task Force adopt a truly holistic environmental approach which includes the full effects of this highly dynamic coastal area.

  4. Diffusion of tritiated water in coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, M.; Kasai, A.; Imai, T.; Amano, H.; Yanase, N.

    1980-01-01

    The diffusion of tritiated water discharged by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute at shore line has been investigated. In continuous discharge, the concentration of tritiated water in samples taken at a point downstream fluctuates largely. To reveal the cause, dye diffusion experiments were made in the coastal area. The shapes of dye cloud were photographed by a remote-control camera suspended from a captive balloon as color pictures. The movement of dye is so complex that a three-dimensional model must be employed to assess the diffusion in coastal areas

  5. Coastal Culture Area. Native American Curriculum Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Cathy; Fernandes, Roger

    Background information, legends, games, illustrations, and art projects are provided in this booklet introducing elementary students to the history and culture of Indian tribes of the North Pacific Coast and Pacific Northwest. One in a series of Native American instructional materials, the booklet provides an overview of the coastal culture area,…

  6. Regional Jurassic geologic framework of Alabama coastal waters area and adjacent Federal waters area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.; Mancini, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    To date, numerous Jurassic hydrocarbon fields and pools have been discovered in the Cotton Valley Group, Haynesville Formation, Smackover Formation and Norphlet Formation in the tri-state area of Mississippi, Alabama and Florida, and in Alabama State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters area. Petroleum traps are basement highs, salt anticlines, faulted salt anticlines and extensional faults associated with salt movement. Reservoirs include continental and marine sandstones, limestones and dolostones. Hydrocarbon types are oil, condensate and natural gas. The onshore stratigraphic and structural information can be used to establish a regional geologic framework for the Jurassic for the State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters areas. Evaluation of the geologic information along with the hydrocarbon data from the tri-state area indicates that at least three Jurassic hydrocarbon trends (oil, oil and gas condensate, and deep natural gas) can be identified onshore. These onshore hydrocarbon trends can be projected into the Mobile area in the Central Gulf of Mexico and into the Pensacola, Destin Dome and Apalachicola areas in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico. Substantial reserves of natural gas are expected to be present in Alabama State waters and the northern portion of the Mobile area. Significant accumulations of oil and gas condensate may be encountered in the Pensacola, Destin Dome, and Apalachicola areas. ?? 1989.

  7. Preliminary assessment of coastal erosion and local community adaptation in Sayung coastal area, central Java – Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Marfai, Muh Aris

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic environment in coastal area, especially due to coastal erosion process, has negative impact on human environment. Sayung coastal area, located in Central Java-Indonesia, has experienced severe impact of coastal erosion. As the result of the coastal erosion, hundreds of settlement located in coastal area has been destructed. Moreover, fishponds as the land use dominated in the coastal area also has been severely destroyed. Besides the coastal erosion, increasing of inundated area due t...

  8. The magnitude and origin of groundwater discharge to eastern U.S. and Gulf of Mexico coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befus, Kevin; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Smith, Christopher G.; Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2017-01-01

    Fresh groundwater discharge to coastal environments contributes to the physical and chemical conditions of coastal waters, but the role of coastal groundwater at regional to continental scales remains poorly defined due to diverse hydrologic conditions and the difficulty of tracking coastal groundwater flow paths through heterogeneous subsurface materials. We use three-dimensional groundwater flow models for the first time to calculate the magnitude and source areas of groundwater discharge from unconfined aquifers to coastal waterbodies along the entire eastern U.S. We find that 27.1 km3/yr (22.8–30.5 km3/yr) of groundwater directly enters eastern U.S. and Gulf of Mexico coastal waters. The contributing recharge areas comprised ~175,000 km2 of U.S. land area, extending several kilometers inland. This result provides new information on the land area that can supply natural and anthropogenic constituents to coastal waters via groundwater discharge, thereby defining the subterranean domain potentially affecting coastal chemical budgets and ecosystem processes.

  9. Coastal areas mapping using UAV photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Kozarski, Dimitrios; Kogkas, Stefanos

    2017-10-01

    The coastal areas in the Patras Gulf suffer degradation due to the sea action and other natural and human-induced causes. Changes in beaches, ports, and other man made constructions need to be assessed, both after severe events and on a regular basis, to build models that can predict the evolution in the future. Thus, reliable spatial data acquisition is a critical process for the identification of the coastline and the broader coastal zones for geologists and other scientists involved in the study of coastal morphology. High resolution satellite data, airphotos and airborne Lidar provided in the past the necessary data for the coastline monitoring. High-resolution digital surface models (DSMs) and orthophoto maps had become a necessity in order to map with accuracy all the variations in costal environments. Recently, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) photogrammetry offers an alternative solution to the acquisition of high accuracy spatial data along the coastline. This paper presents the use of UAV to map the coastline in Rio area Western Greece. Multiple photogrammetric aerial campaigns were performed. A small commercial UAV (DJI Phantom 3 Advance) was used to acquire thousands of images with spatial resolutions better than 5 cm. Different photogrammetric software's were used to orientate the images, extract point clouds, build a digital surface model and produce orthoimage mosaics. In order to achieve the best positional accuracy signalised ground control points were measured with a differential GNSS receiver. The results of this coastal monitoring programme proved that UAVs can replace many of the conventional surveys, with considerable gains in the cost of the data acquisition and without any loss in the accuracy.

  10. Organic carbon isotope ratios of recent sediments from coastal lagoons of the Gulf of Mexico, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botello, A.V.; Mandelli, E.F.; Macko, S.; Parker, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of sedimentary organic carbon was determined in the sediments of seven coastal lagoons of the Gulf of Mexico, Mexico. For most of the lagoons the delta 13 C values for sediments ranged from -20.1 to -23.9 parts per thousand. Anomalously low values, -26.8 to 29.3 parts per thousand were determined in sediments of two of the studied lagoons, probably due to the presence of organic carbon from anthropogenic sources, naturally absent in these environments. The delta 13 C values determined in the tissues of oysters collected at the same time in the different lagoons were very similar to those recorded in the sediments. (author)

  11. USDA FS Inventoried Roadless Areas in New Mexico, Sept. 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains all National Forest Inventoried Roadless Areas (IRAs) for New Mexico. The IRA data was originally submitted to GSTC by all national forests...

  12. Prospects of solar energy in the coastal areas of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emetere, Moses E., E-mail: moses.emetere@covenantuniversity.edu.ng; Akinyemi, Marvel L., E-mail: samuel.sanni@covenantuniversity.edu.ng [Department of Physics, Covenant University Canaan land, P.M.B 1023, Ota (Nigeria)

    2016-02-01

    The climatic factors in the coastal areas are cogent in planning a stable and functional solar farm. The experiment performed in this study entails a day-to-day solar radiation pattern in coastal areas. The results show that the solar radiation pattern in coastal region portends danger to the performance of solar photovoltaic (PV) module and its lifecycle. The efficiency of the PV module was tested in the harmattan where dust is a major hindrance. The results were related to meteorological parameters which influences the solar radiation over an area. The solar radiation pattern in coastal areas was traced to the solar sectional shading theory which was summarized and explained.

  13. 30 CFR 256.25 - Areas near coastal States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas near coastal States. 256.25 Section 256... SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Call for Information and Nominations § 256.25 Areas near coastal States. (a) At the time information is solicited for leasing of areas within 3...

  14. Managing extreme natural disasters in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, P. C.; Swaminathan, M. S.

    2006-08-01

    Extreme natural hazards, particularly the hydro-meteorological disasters, are emerging as a cause of major concern in the coastal regions of India and a few other developing countries. These have become more frequent in the recent past, and are taking a heavy toll of life and livelihoods. Low level of technology development in the rural areas together with social, economic and gender inequities enhance the vulnerability of the largely illiterate, unskilled, and resource-poor fishing, farming and landless labour communities. Their resilience to bounce back to pre-disaster level of normality is highly limited. For the planet Earth at crossroads, the imminent threat, however, is from a vicious spiral among environmental degradation, poverty and climate change-related natural disasters interacting in a mutually reinforcing manner. These, in turn, retard sustainable development, and also wipe out any small gains made thereof. To counter this unacceptable trend, the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation has developed a biovillage paradigm and rural knowledge centres for ecotechnological and knowledge empowerment of the coastal communities at risk. Frontier science and technologies blended with traditional knowledge and ecological prudence result in ecotechnologies with pro-nature, pro-poor and pro-women orientation. The rural communities are given training and helped to develop capacity to adopt ecotechnologies for market-driven eco-enterprises. The modern information and communication-based rural knowledge centres largely operated by trained semi-literate young women provide time- and locale-specific information on weather, crop and animal husbandry, market trends and prices for local communities, healthcare, transport, education, etc. to the local communities. The ecotechnologies and time- and locale-specific information content development are need-based and chosen in a ‘bottom-up’ manner. The use of recombinant DNA technology for genetic shielding of agricultural

  15. Oceanic diffusion in the coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rukuda, Masaaki

    1980-03-01

    Described in this paper is the eddy diffusion in the area off Tokai Village investigated by means of dye diffusion experiment and of oceanic observation. In order to assess the oceanic diffusion in coastal areas, improved methods effective in complex field were developed. The oceanic diffusion was separated in two groups, horizontal and vertical diffusion respectively. Both these diffusions are combined and their analysis together is difficult. The oceanic diffusion is thus considered separately. Instantaneous point release is the basis of horizontal diffusion analysis. Continuous release is then the overlap of numerous instantaneous releases. It was shown that the diffusion parameters derived from the results of diffusion experiment or oceanic observation vary widely with time and place and with sea conditions. A simple diffusion equation was developed from the equation of continuity. The results were in good agreement with seasonal mean horizontal distribution of river water in the sea area. The vertical observation in diffusion experiment is difficult and the vertical structure of oceanic condition is complex, so that the research on vertical diffusion generally is not advanced yet. With river water as the tracer, a method of estimating vertical diffusion parameters with a Gaussian model or one-dimensional model was developed. The vertical diffusion near sea bottom was numerically analized with suspended particles in seawater as the tracer. Diffusion was computed for each particle size, and by summing up the vertical distribution of beam attenuation coefficient was estimated. By comparing the results of estimation and those of observation the vertical diffusivity and the particle size distribution at sea bottom could be estimated. (author)

  16. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Western Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  17. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Central Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  18. Methane fluxes from tropical coastal lagoons surrounded by mangroves, Yucatán, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, P.-C.; Young, M. B.; Dale, A. W.; Miller, L. G.; Herrera-Silveira, J. A.; Paytan, A.

    2017-05-01

    Methane concentrations in the water column and emissions to the atmosphere were determined for three tropical coastal lagoons surrounded by mangrove forests on the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. Surface water dissolved methane was sampled at different seasons over a period of 2 years in areas representing a wide range of salinities and anthropogenic impacts. The highest surface water methane concentrations (up to 8378 nM) were measured in a polluted canal associated with Terminos Lagoon. In Chelem Lagoon, methane concentrations were typically lower, except in the polluted harbor area (1796 nM). In the relatively pristine Celestún Lagoon, surface water methane concentrations ranged from 41 to 2551 nM. Methane concentrations were negatively correlated with salinity in Celestún, while in Chelem and Terminos high methane concentrations were associated with areas of known pollution inputs, irrespective of salinity. The diffusive methane flux from surface lagoon water to the atmosphere ranged from 0.0023 to 15 mmol CH4 m-2 d-1. Flux chamber measurements revealed that direct methane release as ebullition was up to 3 orders of magnitude greater than measured diffusive flux. Coastal mangrove lagoons may therefore be an important natural source of methane to the atmosphere despite their relatively high salinity. Pollution inputs are likely to substantially enhance this flux. Additional statistically rigorous data collected globally are needed to better consider methane fluxes from mangrove-surrounded coastal areas in response to sea level changes and anthropogenic pollution in order to refine projections of future atmospheric methane budgets.

  19. Menaces and environmental risks in the Colombian coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, David A; Vides, Martha P; Londono, Marelvis

    2002-01-01

    The paper includes topics like the vulnerability of the areas coastal Colombians, inventory and characteristics of the areas, identification of the excellent development factors and evaluation of physical and natural changes, among other topics

  20. Fish community structure and dynamics in a coastal hypersaline lagoon: Rio Lagartos, Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Cendejas, Ma. Eugenia; Hernández de Santillana, Mireya

    2004-06-01

    Rio Lagartos, a tropical coastal lagoon in northern Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, is characterized by high salinity during most of the year (55 psu annual average). Even though the area has been designated as a wetland of international importance because of its great biodiversity, fish species composition and distribution are unknown. To determine whether the salinity gradient was influencing fish assemblages or not, fish populations were sampled seasonally by seine and trawl from 1992 to 1993 and bimonthly during 1997. We identified 81 fish species, eight of which accounted for 53.1% considering the Importance Value Index ( Floridichthys polyommus, Sphoeroides testudineus, Eucinostomus argenteus, Eucinostomus gula, Fundulus majalis, Strongylura notata, Cyprinodon artifrons and Elops saurus). Species richness and density declined from the mouth to the inner zone where extreme salinity conditions are prominent (>80) and competitive interactions decreased. However, in Coloradas basin (53 average sanity) and in the inlet of the lagoon, the highest fish density and number of species were observed. Greater habitat heterogeneity and fish immigration were considered as the best explanation. Multivariate analysis found three zones distinguished by fish occurrence, abundance and distribution. Ichthyofaunal spatial differences were attributed to selective recruitment from the Gulf of Mexico due to salinity gradient and to changing climatic periods. Estuarine and euryhaline marine species are abundant, with estuarine dependent ones entering the system according to environmental preferences. This knowledge will contribute to the management of the Special Biosphere Reserve through baseline data to evaluate environmental and anthropogenic changes.

  1. Phenotypic variation in dorsal fin morphology of coastal bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus off Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Morteo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Geographic variation in external morphology is thought to reflect an interplay between genotype and the environment. Morphological variation has been well-described for a number of cetacean species, including the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus. In this study we analyzed dorsal fin morphometric variation in coastal bottlenose dolphins to search for geographic patterns at different spatial scales. A total of 533 dorsal fin images from 19 available photo-identification catalogs across the three Mexican oceanic regions (Pacific Ocean n = 6, Gulf of California n = 6 and, Gulf of Mexico n = 7 were used in the analysis. Eleven fin shape measurements were analyzed to evaluate fin polymorphism through multivariate tests. Principal Component Analysis on log-transformed standardized ratios explained 94% of the variance. Canonical Discriminant Function Analysis on factor scores showed separation among most study areas (p < 0.05 with exception of the Gulf of Mexico where a strong morphometric cline was found. Possible explanations for the observed differences are related to environmental, biological and evolutionary processes. Shape distinction between dorsal fins from the Pacific and those from the Gulf of California were consistent with previously reported differences in skull morphometrics and genetics. Although the functional advantages of dorsal fin shape remains to be assessed, it is not unlikely that over a wide range of environments, fin shape may represent a trade-off among thermoregulatory capacity, hydrodynamic performance and the swimming/hunting behavior of the species.

  2. Perceptions of Village Dogs by Villagers and Tourists in the Coastal Region of Rural Oaxaca, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, E.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of the village dog-keeping system, and of perceptions of dog-related problems by villagers and tourists, in the coastal region of Oaxaca, Mexico. We conducted a survey of the inhabitants of three villages (Mazunte, Puerto Angel, and Río Seco),

  3. Risk Analysis of Coastal hazard Considering Sea-level Rise and Local Environment in Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangjin, P.; Lee, D. K.; KIM, H.; Ryu, J. E.; Yoo, S.; Ryoo, H.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, natural hazards has been more unpredictable with increasing frequency and strength due to climate change. Especially, coastal areas would be more vulnerable in the future because of sea-level rise (SLR). In case of Korea, it is surrounded by oceans and has many big cities at coastal area, thus a hazard prevention plan in coastal area is absolutely necessary. However, prior to making the plan, finding areas at risk would be the first step. In order to find the vulnerable area, local characteristics of coastal areas should also be considered along with SLR. Therefore, the objective of the research is to find vulnerable areas, which could be damaged by coastal hazards considering local environment and SLR of coastal areas. Spatial scope of the research was set up as 1km from the coastline according to the 'coastal management law' in Korea. The assessment was done up to the year of 2050, and the highest sea level rise scenario was used. For risk analysis, biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics were considered as to represent local characteristics of coastal area. Risk analysis was carried out through the combination of 'possibility of hazard' and the 'level of damages', and both of them reflect the above-mentioned regional characteristics. Since the range of inundation was narrowed down to the inundation from typhoon in this research, the possibility of inundation caused by typhoon was estimated by using numerical model, which calculated the height of storm surge considering wave, tide, sea-level pressure and SLR. Also the level of damage was estimated by categorizing the socioeconomic character into four factors; human, infrastructure, ecology and socioeconomic. Variables that represent each factor were selected and used in damage estimation with their classification and weighting value. The result shows that the urban coastal areas are more vulnerable and hazardous than other areas because of socioeconomic factors. The east and the south coast are

  4. Developing New Tourism routes in Coastal Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Flognfeldt, Thor

    2013-01-01

    For Norwegians the name of our country is based on a route - "the way to the North" - and this was not a built route but using of the coast-line itself. As long as the boats and ships were the main means of travel this coastal way - "Nor-way" - was the main communication basis for most people, and for transport of goods. But even in the interior of the country, water, namely rivers and lakes were the main structures for communication. The lakes were most efficient for transport during the col...

  5. Integrated coastal area management: The case of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.

    ofindustries, shipping, ports, fishing, mining, urbanisation and tourism. All these affect the coastal areas. Coastal zone takes the brunt of industrial pressure, environmental degradation, marine life depletion, socia-economic conflicts and security threats... first. Marine life depletes affecting the sustainable fish catch and the marine food chain. Socio-economic conflicts between the industry-oriented society and the marine/agrarian society lead to new legal tangles and ethnic upheavals. Security threats...

  6. EAARL Coastal Topography - Northern Gulf of Mexico, 2007: Bare Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E.L.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Brock, John C.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived bare earth (BE) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. The purpose of this project is to provide highly detailed and accurate datasets of select barrier islands and peninsular regions of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, acquired on June 27-30, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using

  7. EAARL Coastal Topography - Northern Gulf of Mexico, 2007: First Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E.L.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Brock, John C.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) elevation data were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. The project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of select barrier islands and peninsular regions of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, acquired June 27-30, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system

  8. Prioritizing conservation areas for coastal plant diversity under increasing urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxa, Aggeliki; Albert, Cécile Hélène; Leriche, Agathe; Saatkamp, Arne

    2017-10-01

    Coastal urban expansion will continue to drive further biodiversity losses, if conservation targets for coastal ecosystems are not defined and met. Prioritizing areas for future protected area networks is thus an urgent task in such urbanization-threatened ecosystems. Our aim is to quantify past and future losses of coastal vegetation priority areas due to urbanization and assess the effectiveness of the existing protected area network for conservation. We conduct a prioritization analysis, based on 82 coastal plants, including common and IUCN red list species, in a highly-urbanized but biotically diverse region, in South-Eastern France. We evaluate the role of protected areas, by taking into account both strict and multi-use areas. We assess the impact of past and future urbanization on high priority areas, by combining prioritization analyses and urbanization models. We show that half of the highly diverse areas have already been lost due to urbanization. Remaining top priority areas are also among the most exposed to future urban expansion. The effectiveness of the existing protected area (PA) network is only partial. While strict PAs coincide well with top priority areas, they only represent less than one third of priority areas. The effectiveness of multi-use PAs, such as the Natura 2000 network, also remains limited. Our approach highlights the impact of urbanization on plant conservation targets. By modelling urbanization, we manage to identify those areas where protection could be more efficient to limit further losses. We suggest to use our approach in the future to expand the PA network in order to achieve the 2020 Aichi biodiversity targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Feeding ecology of juvenile marine fish in a shallow coastal lagoon of southeastern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Arceo-Carranza; Xavier Chiappa-Carrara

    2015-01-01

    Many species of marine fish use coastal lagoons during early stages of their life cycles due to the protection provided by their turbid waters and complex structure of the environment, such as mangroves and mudflats, and the availability of food derived from the high productivity of these sites. In this study, we analyzed the diet of six species of juvenile marine fishes that use a karstic lagoon system in the northwest portion of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Through stomach contents analys...

  10. 77 FR 39648 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Gulf of Mexico Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Large Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... commercial fishery for non-sandbar large coastal sharks (LCS) in the Gulf of Mexico region. This action is.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Atlantic shark fisheries are managed under the 2006 Consolidated Atlantic Highly...

  11. Carbon Sequestration in Wetland Soils of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal wetlands play an important but complex role in the global carbon cycle, contributing to the ecosystem service of greenhouse gas regulation through carbon sequestration. Although coastal wetlands occupy a small percent of the total US land area, their potential for carbon...

  12. Assessment of economic impact of offshore and coastal discharge requirements on present and future operations in the Gulf of Mexico. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, R.

    1996-06-01

    The high potential costs of compliance associated with new effluent guidelines for offshore and coastal oil and gas operations could significantly affect the economics of finding, developing, and producing oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico. This report characterizes the potential economic impacts of alternative treatment and discharge regulations for produced water on reserves and production in Gulf of Mexico coastal, territorial and outer continental shelf (OCS) waters, quantifying the impacts of both recent regulatory changes and possible more stringent requirements. The treatment technologies capable of meeting these requirements are characterized in terms of cost, performance, and applicability to coastal and offshore situations. As part of this analysis, an extensive database was constructed that includes oil and gas production forecasts by field, data on existing platforms, and the current treatment methods in place for produced water treatment and disposal on offshore facilities. This work provides the first comprehensive evaluation of the impacts of alternative regulatory requirements for produced water management and disposal in coastal and offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico

  13. Library Development Strategy for The Community at Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharso, Putut; Sudardi, Bani; Teguh Widodo, Sahid; Kusumo Habsari, Sri

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to reveal various phenomena of the existence of libraries in coastal areas, especially to pay a particular attention to the relation power between various interests of the library, especially the managers and the community as the users and to explore how both parties understand and imagine the idea of library through the developing the library as a center of learning and skill development. The design of the research is explorative qualitative. Applying case study approach, the location of this research is in a coastal area, in the floating library of Tambak Lorok coastal, Semarang. Data are collected through observation and in-depth interviews with several parties involved. To examine the validity of data, this study applies a triangulation technique of sources focusing on key informants living in the community. The result of this research shows that the existence of library in the coastal area is more than the common belief to the function of library. Although finding shows that the government’s attitude to support the development of the library has been as expected through producing some regulations, the response of the community to the development of the library is far beyond the expectation. Some drawbacks found are in the handling of library management which is still lack of implementation from the initial planning and the absence of integrated coastal resources management resulted from low understanding and mastery of policy makers and implementers of the national library program. However, the community has developed a community-based management which is an approach that has been widely used in various regions as an effort to empower themselves through utilizing any existed facilities, in this case is the library. Community has successfully produced an initiative of developing integrated coastal resource management programs which are still hard to find in Indonesia, especially those involving library institutions.

  14. NATURAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE HALOPHYTE Salicornia bigelovii (TOR. IN COASTAL AREA OF SONORA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Omar Rueda Puente

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase knowledge about the vegetative structure and environmental conditions, two coastal areas (north and south in Sonora, Mexico, where Salicornia bigelovii develops in natural form were investigated. Based on the abundance of Salicornia, three locations were selected in the two areas. Transects in each of the three sites were developed. The sediments in the northern areas showed higher values compared with the south areas of Sonora in organic matter. Plant biomass, density, height and frequency of occurrence were higher in frequently flooded areas compared to sparsely or less often by the tides. The average total biomass ranged from 2.23 to 6.33 kg (dry weight m-2 and is composed primarily of surface components. The maximum values of biomass of Salicornia were observed in February to May in both areas. The growth of Salicornia bigelovii is influenced mainly by the frequency of flooding, duration of exposure to air during low tide, rainfall, salinity and salt content of the ambient water and sediment, respectively. The carbon content increased with plant age, while protein content decreased by 233.6%. The steady increase in human pressure on coastal areas where Salicornia and other halophytes growth, require immediate protection order to prevent vulnerabilities in their populations.

  15. Sustainability of coastal resource use in San Quintin, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Muñoz, A; Buddemeier, R W; Camacho-Ibar, V; Carriquiry, J D; Ibarra-Obando, S E; Massey, B W; Smith, S V; Wulff, F

    2001-05-01

    San Quintin, Mexico, provides a useful site for integrated analyses of material fluxes and socioeconomic constraints in a geographically isolated system. Natural resource utilization on the land is dominated by groundwater exploitation for cultivation of horticulture crops (primarily tomatoes). Irrigation exceeds water recharge minus export by a factor of 6. Resource utilization in the bay is dominated by oyster culture; food for the oysters is provided by tidal exchange of bay and ocean water. Consideration of oyster respiration and system respiration suggests that the present level of aquaculture is about 40% of the sustainable level. A "physical unsustainability index" (PhUI) was developed to measure the proportional departure of utilization of the most limiting resource for sustainability: 6 on land; 0.4 in the bay. Based on PhUI and measures of economic development, we conclude that aquaculture is more viable than agriculture.

  16. Food security assessment in the coastal area of Demak Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harini, R.; Handayani, H. N.; Ramdani, F. R.

    2018-04-01

    Food security is an issue of national and global level. Food is a basic human need to live. Without food will threaten human life. This research was conducted in coastal area of Demak Regency. This research is to understand the potential of human resources, natural resources and assess the level of food security of coastal communities. The data used are primary data through interviews with the local community. Also used Secondary data from government agencies. Data analysis used qualitative and quantitative descriptive methods through graphs, tables and maps. The results showed that potential of human resources in Demak coastal area (Wedung, Purworejo, and Sidogemah villages) is low. It can be indicated from education level of respondents in Demak are elementary school and junior high school. Beside, total households income are about 2-4 million. This study found that the households sampled are 90% is food insecured households. The most of households in Demak coastal area are about 90% households include on insecurity food category.

  17. UV filters are an environmental threat in the Gulf of Mexico: a case study of Texas coastal zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Sharifan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available UV filters are the main ingredients in many cosmetics and personal care products. A significant amount of lipophilic UV filters annually enters the surface water due to large numbers of swimmers and sunbathers. The nature of these compounds cause bioaccumulation in commercial fish, particularly in estuarine areas. Consequently, biomagnification in the food chain will occur. This study estimated the amount of four common UV filters (ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, EHMC; octocrylene, OC; butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane, BM-DBM; and benzophenone-3, BP3, which may enter surface water in the Gulf of Mexico. Our data analysis was based on the available research data and EPA standards (age classification/human body parts. The results indicated that among the 14 counties in Texas coastal zones, Nueces, with 43 beaches, has a high potential of water contamination through UV filters; EHMC: 477 kg year−1; OC: 318 kg year−1; BM-DBM: 258 kg year−1; and BP by 159 kg year−1. Refugio County, with a minimum number of beaches, indicated the lowest potential of UV filter contamination. The sensitive estuarine areas of Galveston receive a significant amount of UV filters. This article suggests action for protecting Texas estuarine areas and controlling the number of tourists and ecotourism that occurs in sensitive areas of the Gulf of Mexico.

  18. Living in Prone Flooding Area: in Coastal Areas of Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyas, W. P.

    2018-02-01

    When settlements are not able to provide a comfort area to live in, in this case because of a periodic threat of tidal flood coming to certain settlement areas, it is likely that the people still cannot leave the area. This paper explores the leading factors of the attachment of people to the areas, from economic, physical, social and psychological factors, including a place attachment. Therefore, the approach of the problem solution to tackle the tidal flooding in the areas should be also concern and have considerations relate to the factors.

  19. Rational Exploitation and Utilizing of Groundwater in Jiangsu Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, B.; Lin, X.

    2017-12-01

    Jiangsu coastal area is located in the southeast coast of China, where is a new industrial base and an important coastal and Land Resources Development Zone of China. In the areas with strong human exploitation activities, regional groundwater evolution is obviously affected by human activities. In order to solve the environmental geological problems caused by groundwater exploitation fundamentally, we must find out the forming conditions of regional groundwater hydrodynamic field, and the impact of human activities on groundwater hydrodynamic field evolution and hydrogeochemical evolition. Based on these results, scientific management and reasonable exploitation of the regional groundwater resources can be provided for the utilization. Taking the coastal area of Jiangsu as the research area, we investigate and analyze of the regional hydrogeological conditions. The numerical simulation model of groundwater flow was established according to the water power, chemical and isotopic methods, the conditions of water flow and the influence of hydrodynamic field on the water chemical field. We predict the evolution of regional groundwater dynamics under the influence of human activities and climate change and evaluate the influence of groundwater dynamic field evolution on the environmental geological problems caused by groundwater exploitation under various conditions. We get the following conclusions: Three groundwater exploitation optimal schemes were established. The groundwater salinization was taken as the primary control condition. The substitution model was proposed to model groundwater exploitation and water level changes by BP network method.Then genetic algorithm was used to solve the optimization solution. Three groundwater exploitation optimal schemes were submit to local water resource management. The first sheme was used to solve the groundwater salinization problem. The second sheme focused on dual water supply. The third sheme concerned on emergency water

  20. Transforming a low value coastal area into a high value natural and recreational area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzen, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    The coastal zone in the Netherlands takes a very peculiar place in the discussion about sustainability in the Netherlands. Large areas are left unused and they remain low cost value areas due to the lack of progressive decision-making. These areas have a low value in economic, recreational and

  1. MONITORING CONCEPTS FOR COASTAL AREAS USING LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schmidt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas are characterized by high spatial and temporal variability. In order to detect undesired changes at early stages, enabling rapid countermeasures to mitigate or minimize potential harm or hazard, a recurrent monitoring becomes necessary. In this paper, we focus on two monitoring task: the analysis of morphological changes and the classification and mapping of habitats. Our concepts are solely based on airborne lidar data which provide substantial information in coastal areas. For the first task, we generate a digital terrain model (DTM from the lidar point cloud and analyse the dynamic of an island by comparing the DTMs of different epochs with a time difference of six years. For the deeper understanding of the habitat composition in coastal areas, we classify the lidar point cloud by a supervised approach based on Conditional Random Fields. From the classified point cloud, water-land-boundaries as well as mussel bed objects are derived afterwards. We evaluate our approaches on two datasets of the German Wadden Sea.

  2. The role of the reef–dune system in coastal protection in Puerto Morelos (Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Franklin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Reefs and sand dunes are critical morphological features providing natural coastal protection. Reefs dissipate around 90 % of the incident wave energy through wave breaking, whereas sand dunes provide the final natural barrier against coastal flooding. The storm impact on coastal areas with these features depends on the relative elevation of the extreme water levels with respect to the sand dune morphology. However, despite the importance of barrier reefs and dunes in coastal protection, poor management practices have degraded these ecosystems, increasing their vulnerability to coastal flooding. The present study aims to theoretically investigate the role of the reef–dune system in coastal protection under current climatic conditions at Puerto Morelos, located in the Mexican Caribbean Sea, using a widely validated nonlinear non-hydrostatic numerical model (SWASH. Wave hindcast information, tidal level, and a measured beach profile of the reef–dune system in Puerto Morelos are employed to estimate extreme runup and the storm impact scale for current and theoretical scenarios. The numerical results show the importance of including the storm surge when predicting extreme water levels and also show that ecosystem degradation has important implications for coastal protection against storms with return periods of less than 10 years. The latter highlights the importance of conservation of the system as a mitigation measure to decrease coastal vulnerability and infrastructure losses in coastal areas in the short to medium term. Furthermore, the results are used to evaluate the applicability of runup parameterisations for beaches to reef environments. Numerical analysis of runup dynamics suggests that runup parameterisations for reef environments can be improved by including the fore reef slope. Therefore, future research to develop runup parameterisations incorporating reef geometry features (e.g. reef crest elevation, reef lagoon width, fore

  3. The role of the reef-dune system in coastal protection in Puerto Morelos (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Gemma L.; Torres-Freyermuth, Alec; Medellin, Gabriela; Allende-Arandia, María Eugenia; Appendini, Christian M.

    2018-04-01

    Reefs and sand dunes are critical morphological features providing natural coastal protection. Reefs dissipate around 90 % of the incident wave energy through wave breaking, whereas sand dunes provide the final natural barrier against coastal flooding. The storm impact on coastal areas with these features depends on the relative elevation of the extreme water levels with respect to the sand dune morphology. However, despite the importance of barrier reefs and dunes in coastal protection, poor management practices have degraded these ecosystems, increasing their vulnerability to coastal flooding. The present study aims to theoretically investigate the role of the reef-dune system in coastal protection under current climatic conditions at Puerto Morelos, located in the Mexican Caribbean Sea, using a widely validated nonlinear non-hydrostatic numerical model (SWASH). Wave hindcast information, tidal level, and a measured beach profile of the reef-dune system in Puerto Morelos are employed to estimate extreme runup and the storm impact scale for current and theoretical scenarios. The numerical results show the importance of including the storm surge when predicting extreme water levels and also show that ecosystem degradation has important implications for coastal protection against storms with return periods of less than 10 years. The latter highlights the importance of conservation of the system as a mitigation measure to decrease coastal vulnerability and infrastructure losses in coastal areas in the short to medium term. Furthermore, the results are used to evaluate the applicability of runup parameterisations for beaches to reef environments. Numerical analysis of runup dynamics suggests that runup parameterisations for reef environments can be improved by including the fore reef slope. Therefore, future research to develop runup parameterisations incorporating reef geometry features (e.g. reef crest elevation, reef lagoon width, fore reef slope) is warranted.

  4. Summary of Training Workshop on the Use of NASA tools for Coastal Resource Management in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Chaeli; Judd, Kathleen S.; Gulbransen, Thomas C.; Thom, Ronald M.

    2009-03-01

    A two-day training workshop was held in Xalapa, Mexico from March 10-11 2009 with the goal of training end users from the southern Gulf of Mexico states of Campeche and Veracruz in the use of tools to support coastal resource management decision-making. The workshop was held at the computer laboratory of the Institute de Ecologia, A.C. (INECOL). This report summarizes the results of that workshop and is a deliverable to our NASA client.

  5. The Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) Initiative in the Nyali-Bamburi-Shanzu Site, Mombasa, Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Mwandotto, B.A.J.

    1997-01-01

    A multi-institutional planning team headed by Coast Development Authority (CDA) in Kenya initiated an Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) process in 1994. The pilot study site was Nyali-Bamburi-Shanzu area in Mombasa. The objective was to provide a starting point for addressing urgent coastal issues facing the area and to enrich the dialogue on how to address urgent coastal management problems nationwide. The pertinent coastal issues that were profiled in a participatory and interactive...

  6. Assessing Nature-Based Coastal Protection against Disasters Derived from Extreme Hydrometeorological Events in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Pérez-Maqueo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural ecosystems are expected to reduce the damaging effects of extreme hydrometeorological effects. We tested this prediction for Mexico by performing regression models, with two dependent variables: the occurrence of deaths and economic damages, at a state and municipality levels. For each location, the explanatory variables were the Mexican social vulnerability index (which includes socioeconomic aspects, local capacity to prevent and respond to an emergency, and the perception of risk and land use cover considering different vegetation types. We used the hydrometeorological events that have affected Mexico from 1970 to 2011. Our findings reveal that: (a hydrometeorological events affect both coastal and inland states, although damages are greater on the coast; (b the protective role of natural ecosystems only was clear at a municipality level: the presence of mangroves, tropical dry forest and tropical rainforest was related to a significant reduction in the occurrence of casualties. Social vulnerability was positively correlated with the occurrence of deaths. Natural ecosystems, both typically coastal (mangroves and terrestrial (tropical forests, which are located on the mountain ranges close to the coast function for storm protection. Thus, their conservation and restoration are effective and sustainable strategies that will help protect and develop the increasingly urbanized coasts.

  7. Coastal and river flood risk analyses for guiding economically optimal flood adaptation policies: a country-scale study for Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haer, Toon; Botzen, W. J. Wouter; van Roomen, Vincent; Connor, Harry; Zavala-Hidalgo, Jorge; Eilander, Dirk M.; Ward, Philip J.

    2018-06-01

    Many countries around the world face increasing impacts from flooding due to socio-economic development in flood-prone areas, which may be enhanced in intensity and frequency as a result of climate change. With increasing flood risk, it is becoming more important to be able to assess the costs and benefits of adaptation strategies. To guide the design of such strategies, policy makers need tools to prioritize where adaptation is needed and how much adaptation funds are required. In this country-scale study, we show how flood risk analyses can be used in cost-benefit analyses to prioritize investments in flood adaptation strategies in Mexico under future climate scenarios. Moreover, given the often limited availability of detailed local data for such analyses, we show how state-of-the-art global data and flood risk assessment models can be applied for a detailed assessment of optimal flood-protection strategies. Our results show that especially states along the Gulf of Mexico have considerable economic benefits from investments in adaptation that limit risks from both river and coastal floods, and that increased flood-protection standards are economically beneficial for many Mexican states. We discuss the sensitivity of our results to modelling uncertainties, the transferability of our modelling approach and policy implications. This article is part of the theme issue `Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'.

  8. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) Sampling Areas Polygons, Hawaiian Islands Shoreline, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a polygon feature dataset with areas along the shoreline of the Hawaiian islands. The National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) is a national coastal...

  9. UAV photogrammetry for topographic monitoring of coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, J. A.; Henriques, R.

    2015-06-01

    Coastal areas suffer degradation due to the action of the sea and other natural and human-induced causes. Topographical changes in beaches and sand dunes need to be assessed, both after severe events and on a regular basis, to build models that can predict the evolution of these natural environments. This is an important application for airborne LIDAR, and conventional photogrammetry is also being used for regular monitoring programs of sensitive coastal areas. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to map and monitor sand dunes and beaches. A very light plane (SwingletCam) equipped with a very cheap, non-metric camera was used to acquire images with ground resolutions better than 5 cm. The Agisoft Photoscan software was used to orientate the images, extract point clouds, build a digital surface model and produce orthoimage mosaics. The processing, which includes automatic aerial triangulation with camera calibration and subsequent model generation, was mostly automated. To achieve the best positional accuracy for the whole process, signalised ground control points were surveyed with a differential GPS receiver. Two very sensitive test areas on the Portuguese northwest coast were analysed. Detailed DSMs were obtained with 10 cm grid spacing and vertical accuracy (RMS) ranging from 3.5 to 5.0 cm, which is very similar to the image ground resolution (3.2-4.5 cm). Where possible to assess, the planimetric accuracy of the orthoimage mosaics was found to be subpixel. Within the regular coastal monitoring programme being carried out in the region, UAVs can replace many of the conventional flights, with considerable gains in the cost of the data acquisition and without any loss in the quality of topographic and aerial imagery data.

  10. Contaminants in the coastal karst aquifer system along the Caribbean coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, Chris D.; Beddows, Patricia A.; Bouchot, Gerardo Gold; Metcalfe, Tracy L.; Li Hongxia; Van Lavieren, Hanneke

    2011-01-01

    Intensive land development as a result of the rapidly growing tourism industry in the 'Riviera Maya' region of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico may result in contamination of groundwater resources that eventually discharge into Caribbean coastal ecosystems. We deployed two types of passive sampling devices into groundwater flowing through cave systems below two communities to evaluate concentrations of contaminants and to indicate the possible sources. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products accumulated in the samplers could only have originated from domestic sewage. PAHs indicated contamination by runoff from highways and other impermeable surfaces and chlorophenoxy herbicides accumulated in samplers deployed near a golf course indicated that pesticide applications to turf are a source of contamination. Prevention and mitigation measures are needed to ensure that expanding development does not impact the marine environment and human health, thus damaging the tourism-based economy of the region. - Research highlights: → Intensive land development as a result of the rapidly growing tourism industry in the 'Riviera Maya' region of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico is contaminating groundwater resources that discharge into Caribbean coastal ecosystems. → Passive sampling devices deployed in groundwater flowing through cave systems below two communities in the Riviera Maya accumulated: pharmaceuticals and personal care products originating from domestic sewage. → PAHs originating from runoff from highways and other impermeable surfaces; chlorophenoxy herbicides originating from pesticide applications to lawns and turf. → Prevention and mitigation measures are needed to ensure that expanding development does not impact the marine environment and human health in the region. - Contaminants accumulated in passive samplers deployed in flooded cave systems in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico indicate contamination by domestic sewage, runoff and applications of pesticides

  11. Contaminants in the coastal karst aquifer system along the Caribbean coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, Chris D., E-mail: cmetcalfe@trentu.ca [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Beddows, Patricia A. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States); Bouchot, Gerardo Gold [Departemento de Recursos del Mar, CINVESTAV Unidad Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Metcalfe, Tracy L.; Li Hongxia [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Van Lavieren, Hanneke [UN University Institute for Water, Environment and Health (UNU-INWEH), Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    Intensive land development as a result of the rapidly growing tourism industry in the 'Riviera Maya' region of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico may result in contamination of groundwater resources that eventually discharge into Caribbean coastal ecosystems. We deployed two types of passive sampling devices into groundwater flowing through cave systems below two communities to evaluate concentrations of contaminants and to indicate the possible sources. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products accumulated in the samplers could only have originated from domestic sewage. PAHs indicated contamination by runoff from highways and other impermeable surfaces and chlorophenoxy herbicides accumulated in samplers deployed near a golf course indicated that pesticide applications to turf are a source of contamination. Prevention and mitigation measures are needed to ensure that expanding development does not impact the marine environment and human health, thus damaging the tourism-based economy of the region. - Research highlights: > Intensive land development as a result of the rapidly growing tourism industry in the 'Riviera Maya' region of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico is contaminating groundwater resources that discharge into Caribbean coastal ecosystems. > Passive sampling devices deployed in groundwater flowing through cave systems below two communities in the Riviera Maya accumulated: pharmaceuticals and personal care products originating from domestic sewage. > PAHs originating from runoff from highways and other impermeable surfaces; chlorophenoxy herbicides originating from pesticide applications to lawns and turf. > Prevention and mitigation measures are needed to ensure that expanding development does not impact the marine environment and human health in the region. - Contaminants accumulated in passive samplers deployed in flooded cave systems in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico indicate contamination by domestic sewage, runoff and applications of

  12. Bacteriological and mycological surveys along Otranto coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagna, M.T.; De Donno, A.; Bagordo, F.; Carrozzini, F.

    2000-01-01

    Bacteriological and mycological surveys were carried out on water samples collected from 6 seaside resorts and 2 affluent along Otranto coastal areas. The following parameters were tested: total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, Salmonella, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, Vibrio species and yeasts. Results show fecal pollution in three seaside resorts and in one drain, whereas Salmonella research always resulted negative. P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were isolated from both affluents. V. alginolyticus was the most isolated vibrio specie (90%). Among isolated yeasts Torulopsis inconspicua (70%) was the most frequent one [it

  13. Land area change in coastal Louisiana (1932 to 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvillion, Brady R.; Beck, Holly; Schoolmaster, Donald; Fischer, Michelle

    2017-07-12

    Coastal Louisiana wetlands are one of the most critically threatened environments in the United States. These wetlands are in peril because Louisiana currently experiences greater coastal wetland loss than all other States in the contiguous United States combined. The analyses of landscape change presented here have utilized historical surveys, aerial, and satellite data to quantify landscape changes from 1932 to 2016. Analyses show that coastal Louisiana has experienced a net change in land area of approximately -4,833 square kilometers (modeled estimate: -5,197 +/- 443 square kilometers) from 1932 to 2016. This net change in land area amounts to a decrease of approximately 25 percent of the 1932 land area. Previous studies have presented linear rates of change over multidecadal time periods which unintentionally suggest that wetland change occurs at a constant rate, although in many cases, wetland change rates vary with time. A penalized regression spline technique was used to determine the model that best fit the data, rather than fitting the data with linear trends. Trend analyses from model fits indicate that coastwide rates of wetland change have varied from -83.5 +/- 11.8 square kilometers per year to -28.01 +/- 16.37 square kilometers per year. To put these numbers into perspective, this equates to long-term average loss rates of approximately an American football field’s worth of coastal wetlands within 34 minutes when losses are rapid to within 100 minutes at more recent, slower rates. Of note is the slowing of the rate of wetland change since its peak in the mid- 1970s. Not only have rates of wetland loss been decreasing since that time, a further rate reduction has been observed since 2010. Possible reasons for this reduction include recovery from lows affected by the hurricanes of 2005 and 2008, the lack of major storms in the past 8 years, a possible slowing of subsidence rates, the reduction in and relocation of oil and gas extraction and

  14. 7 CFR 319.8-11 - From approved areas of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false From approved areas of Mexico. 319.8-11 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-11 From approved areas of Mexico. (a) Entry... in, and which were produced and handled only in approved areas of Mexico 5 may be authorized through...

  15. Irrigation and avifaunal change in coastal Northwest Mexico: has irrigated habit attracted threatened migratory species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grason, Emily; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G.

    2015-01-01

    Irrigation in desert ecosystems can either reduce or increase species diversity. Groundwater pumping often lowers water tables and reduces natural wetlands, whereas canal irrigation often creates mesic habitat, resulting in great increases in avian diversity from irrigation. Here we compare a dataset of potential natural vegetation to recent datasets from areal and satellite imagery to show that 60% of the land in the coastal plain of southern Sonora and northern Sinaloa lying below 200 m elevation has been converted by irrigation to more mesic habitats. We then use the record of bird specimens in the world’s museums from this same region of Mexico to examine the avian community before and after the development of extensive irrigation. In general these museum records show an increase in the abundance and diversity of breeding birds associated with mesic habitats. Although thorn forest birds have likely decreased in total numbers, most are common enough in the remaining thorn forest that collection records did not indicate their probable decline. Four migrants having most of their breeding ranges in the US or Canada, Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Cliff Swallow, Bell’s Vireo, and Orchard Oriole, apparently have increased dramatically as breeders in irrigated habitats of NW Mexico. Because these species have decreased or even largely disappeared as breeding birds in parts of the US or Canada, further research should assess whether their increases in new mesic habitats of NW Mexico are linked to their declines as breeding birds in Canada and the US For Bell’s Vireo recent specimens from Sinaloa suggest its new breeding population in NW Mexico may be composed partly of the endangered Least Bell’s Vireo. PMID:26312181

  16. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: Synthesis and future development

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zhang, J.; Gilbert, D.; Gooday, A.J.; Levin, L.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Scranton, M.; Ekau, W.; Pena, A.; Dewitte, B.; Oguz, T.; Monteiro, M.S.; Urban, E.; Rabalais, N.N.; Ittekkot, V.; Kemp, W.M.; Ulloa, O.; Elmgren, R.; Escobar-Briones, E.; Van der Plas, A.K.

    , Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden 18Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 70305 Ciudad Universitaria 04510, Mexico 19Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources, P.O. Box 912, Swakopmund...; Rosenberg, 1990; Parker and O’Reilly, 1991; D’Andrea et al., 1996; Arau’jo et al., 1999; Bricker et al., 1999; Fonselius and Valderrama, 2003). Since then there have been increasing reports of hypoxia from coastal regions world-wide, e.g. the Gulf of Mexico...

  17. 33 CFR 166.200 - Shipping safety fairways and anchorage areas, Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... anchorage areas, Gulf of Mexico. 166.200 Section 166.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... the erection of structures therein to provide safe approaches through oil fields in the Gulf of Mexico... for Fairway Anchorages in the Gulf of Mexico. Structures may be placed within an area designated as a...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF A GOLF COMPLEX ON COASTAL WETLANDS IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of contamination to nearby coastal wetlands and other near-shore areas. The chemical and biological magnitude of the problem is almost unknown. To provide perspective on this issue, the effects of golf complex r...

  19. Nutrient and Phytoplankton Analysis of a Mediterranean Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiá, M. T.; Rodilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying the key anthropogenic nutrient input sources are essential to adopting management measures that can target input for maximum effect in controlling the phytoplankton biomass. In this study, three systems characterized by distinctive main nutrient sources were sampled along a Mediterranean coast transect. These sources were groundwater discharge in the Ahuir area, the Serpis river discharge in the Venecia area, and a submarine wastewater outfall 1,900 m from the coast. The study area includes factors considered important in determining a coastal area as a sensitive area: it has significant nutrient sources, tourism is a major source of income in the region, and it includes an area of high water residence time (Venecia area) which is affected by the harbor facilities and by wastewater discharges. We found that in the Ahuir and the submarine wastewater outfall areas, the effects of freshwater inputs were reduced because of a greater water exchange with the oligotrophic Mediterranean waters. On the other hand, in the Venecia area, the highest levels of nutrient concentration and phytoplankton biomass were attributed to the greatest water residence time. In this enclosed area, harmful dinoflagellates were detected ( Alexandrium sp. and Dinophysis caudata). If the planned enlargement of the Gandia Harbor proceeds, it may increase the vulnerability of this system and provide the proper conditions of confinement for the dinoflagellate blooms' development. Management measures should first target phosphorus inputs as this is the most potential-limiting nutrient in the Venecia area and comes from a point source that is easier to control. Finally, we recommend that harbor environmental management plans include regular monitoring of water quality in adjacent waters to identify adverse phytoplankton community changes.

  20. Nutrient and phytoplankton analysis of a Mediterranean coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiá, M T; Rodilla, M

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying the key anthropogenic nutrient input sources are essential to adopting management measures that can target input for maximum effect in controlling the phytoplankton biomass. In this study, three systems characterized by distinctive main nutrient sources were sampled along a Mediterranean coast transect. These sources were groundwater discharge in the Ahuir area, the Serpis river discharge in the Venecia area, and a submarine wastewater outfall 1,900 m from the coast. The study area includes factors considered important in determining a coastal area as a sensitive area: it has significant nutrient sources, tourism is a major source of income in the region, and it includes an area of high water residence time (Venecia area) which is affected by the harbor facilities and by wastewater discharges. We found that in the Ahuir and the submarine wastewater outfall areas, the effects of freshwater inputs were reduced because of a greater water exchange with the oligotrophic Mediterranean waters. On the other hand, in the Venecia area, the highest levels of nutrient concentration and phytoplankton biomass were attributed to the greatest water residence time. In this enclosed area, harmful dinoflagellates were detected (Alexandrium sp. and Dinophysis caudata). If the planned enlargement of the Gandia Harbor proceeds, it may increase the vulnerability of this system and provide the proper conditions of confinement for the dinoflagellate blooms' development. Management measures should first target phosphorus inputs as this is the most potential-limiting nutrient in the Venecia area and comes from a point source that is easier to control. Finally, we recommend that harbor environmental management plans include regular monitoring of water quality in adjacent waters to identify adverse phytoplankton community changes.

  1. COASTAL STUDY, COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  2. Eco-Geography of Coastal Areas: Sosio-Economy Dynamic of Land Ownership of Coastal Areas of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Baiquni

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia constitute an archipelagic state which passesses resource of ocean, ecosystem of coast area and social economy dynamics of various maritime society. The nation of Indonesia had ever been welknown as a maritime nation which dominated Nusantara territorial waters as far as neighbour state. Fish cultivation in embankruent  system has been being known since the era of Mojopahit Kingdom and likewise boat industry was held along the north-oast of Java which was ever glorius in the beginning of Dutch Colonialism. But, up to now why a large part of Indonesian fishermen are still using simple technology and method in fishery and fish cultivation? Change in policy within Dutch era development. Which was farm land oriented and plantation had influenced the maritime tradition slip off. Opening of railway and land tract transportation in Java had changed economic ativity pattern of the oast area to hinterland. Investment and human resource were councentrated to farmland development and plantation was directed to export so that it affected the coast area slip off which was basically fishery activity. Development after independence, mainly in the era of New Order, it started from farming activity raised to industry society. Coastal area came back to develop with industrial growth in the urbans of Java north coast. Nevertheless development in fishery does not yet return to show the sign of glorious untill the end of this age. It is  hoped that, with properly judment of the islands coastal area out of Java, goverment will direct  its policy and investment to develop the new maritime society to go against the glorious in the 21st century.

  3. Contaminants in the coastal karst aquifer system along the Caribbean coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Chris D; Beddows, Patricia A; Bouchot, Gerardo Gold; Metcalfe, Tracy L; Li, Hongxia; Van Lavieren, Hanneke

    2011-04-01

    Intensive land development as a result of the rapidly growing tourism industry in the "Riviera Maya" region of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico may result in contamination of groundwater resources that eventually discharge into Caribbean coastal ecosystems. We deployed two types of passive sampling devices into groundwater flowing through cave systems below two communities to evaluate concentrations of contaminants and to indicate the possible sources. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products accumulated in the samplers could only have originated from domestic sewage. PAHs indicated contamination by runoff from highways and other impermeable surfaces and chlorophenoxy herbicides accumulated in samplers deployed near a golf course indicated that pesticide applications to turf are a source of contamination. Prevention and mitigation measures are needed to ensure that expanding development does not impact the marine environment and human health, thus damaging the tourism-based economy of the region. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System: A Decade of Data Aggregation and Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M.; Gayanilo, F.; Kobara, S.; Baum, S. K.; Currier, R. D.; Stoessel, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System Regional Association (GCOOS-RA) celebrated its 10-year anniversary in 2015. GCOOS-RA is one of 11 RAs organized under the NOAA-led U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) Program Office to aggregate regional data and make these data publicly-available in preferred forms and formats via standards-based web services. Initial development of GCOOS focused on building elements of the IOOS Data Management and Communications Plan which is a framework for end-to-end interoperability. These elements included: data discovery, catalog, metadata, online-browse, data access and transport. Initial data types aggregated included near real-time physical oceanographic, marine meteorological and satellite data. Our focus in the middle of the past decade was on the production of basic products such as maps of current oceanographic conditions and quasi-static datasets such as bathymetry and climatologies. In the latter part of the decade we incorporated historical physical oceanographic datasets and historical coastal and offshore water quality data into our holdings and added our first biological dataset. We also developed web environments and products to support Citizen Scientists and stakeholder groups such as recreational boaters. Current efforts are directed towards applying data quality assurance (testing and flagging) to non-federal data, data archiving at national repositories, serving and visualizing numerical model output, providing data services for glider operators, and supporting marine biodiversity observing networks. GCOOS Data Management works closely with the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative and various groups involved with Gulf Restoration. GCOOS-RA has influenced attitudes and behaviors associated with good data stewardship and data management practices across the Gulf and will to continue to do so into the next decade.

  5. Ocean model system for radionuclides - validation and application to the Rokkasho coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takuya

    2010-01-01

    Coastal areas have complex environmental systems and often a high influence from the atmosphere, rivers and the open sea. A nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan releases liquid radioactive waste from a discharge pipe to such a complex coastal area. Consequently, the development of radionuclide migration forecast system in the ocean plays an important rule for assessing the behavior of radionuclides in the coastal area. The development of ocean model systems will be presented and model application will also be described. (author)

  6. Evaluation of percolation rate of bedrock aquifer in coastal area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Hwan; Jung, Hae Ryong; Park, Joo Wan; Yoon, Jeong Hyoun; Cheong, Jae Yeol [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sun Ju [NEXGEO Co. Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Seong Chun [GeoGreen21 Co. Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Estimation of groundwater hydrologic cycle pattern is one of the most critical issues in sustainable management of groundwater resources in coastal area. This study estimated groundwater percolation by using the water balance methodology and hydrogeological characteristics of land use and soil. Evapotranspiration was computed by using the Thornthwaite method, and surface runoff was determined by using the SCS-CN technique. Groundwater storage change was obtained as 229 mm/a (17.8% of the average annual rainfall, 1286 mm/a), with 693 mm/a (60.1%) of evapotranspiration and 124 mm/a (9.6%) of surface runoff. Rainfall and groundwater storage change was highly correlated, comparing with the relationships between rainfall and evapotranspiration, and between rainfall and surface runoff. This result indicates that groundwater storage change responds more sensitively to precipitation than evapotranspiration and surface runoff.

  7. Evaluation of percolation rate of bedrock aquifer in coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Hwan; Jung, Hae Ryong; Park, Joo Wan; Yoon, Jeong Hyoun; Cheong, Jae Yeol; Park, Sun Ju; Jun, Seong Chun

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of groundwater hydrologic cycle pattern is one of the most critical issues in sustainable management of groundwater resources in coastal area. This study estimated groundwater percolation by using the water balance methodology and hydrogeological characteristics of land use and soil. Evapotranspiration was computed by using the Thornthwaite method, and surface runoff was determined by using the SCS-CN technique. Groundwater storage change was obtained as 229 mm/a (17.8% of the average annual rainfall, 1286 mm/a), with 693 mm/a (60.1%) of evapotranspiration and 124 mm/a (9.6%) of surface runoff. Rainfall and groundwater storage change was highly correlated, comparing with the relationships between rainfall and evapotranspiration, and between rainfall and surface runoff. This result indicates that groundwater storage change responds more sensitively to precipitation than evapotranspiration and surface runoff

  8. Feeding ecology of juvenile marine fish in a shallow coastal lagoon of southeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Arceo-Carranza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many species of marine fish use coastal lagoons during early stages of their life cycles due to the protection provided by their turbid waters and complex structure of the environment, such as mangroves and mudflats, and the availability of food derived from the high productivity of these sites. In this study, we analyzed the diet of six species of juvenile marine fishes that use a karstic lagoon system in the northwest portion of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Through stomach contents analysis we determined the trophic differences among Caranx latus, Oligoplites saurus, Trachinotus falcatus, Synodus foetens, Lutjanus griseus, and Strongylura notata. C. latus, O. saurus, S. foetens, and S. notate, which are ichthyophagous species (>80% by number. L. griseus feeds mainly on crustaceans (>55% and fish (35%, while T. falcatus feeds on mollusks (>50% bivalves, >35% gastropods. The analysis of similarities (ANOSIM showed differences in the diet of all species. Cluster analysis, based on the Bray-Curtis similarity matrix revealed three groups; one characterized by the ichthyophagous guild (S. notata, S. foetens, C. latus, and O. saurus, other group formed by the crustacean consumers (L. griseus, and the third, composed by the mollusk feeder (T. falcatus. Species of the ichthyophagous guild showed overlap in their diets, which under conditions of low prey abundance may trigger competition, hence affecting juvenile stages of these marine species that use coastal lagoons to feed and grow.

  9. Ozone, area social conditions, and mortality in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, M.S.; Loomis, Dana; Borja-Aburto, V.H.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether the association of daily mortality and ambient ozone differs by age and area social conditions of the region of residence using a time-series analysis. The study setting was metropolitan Mexico City, a high altitude city situated in a valley, with an estimated 20 million inhabitants, large socioeconomic gradients, and ozone levels frequently exceeding international standards. We stratified daily deaths by six census-derived socioeconomic indicators, based on characteristics of the county where decedents lived. We used Poisson regression to model the association between daily mortality and ozone levels (on the day of death and the previous day) in separate models, stratified by area socioeconomic level and age, and controlling for time trends and temperature. Ozone was positively associated with total mortality [0.65% increase per 10 ppb increment, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02%, 1.28%] and for mortality among those over age 65 [1.39% increase per 10 ppb increment, 95% CI: 0.51%, 2.28%]. Associations between ozone and all-age mortality did not show any consistent patterns according to socioeconomic gradients. We conclude that elderly people are at higher risk for ozone-associated mortality. Though county-level social indicators in Mexico City were not strong markers of vulnerability to ozone-associated acute mortality in this analysis, complex associations between individual and area-level factors may exist that would require additional data and further analyses to elucidate

  10. Towards Defining the Ecological Niches of Novel Coastal Gulf of Mexico Bacterial Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, M. W.; Thrash, C.; Nall, E.

    2016-02-01

    The study of microbial contributions to biogeochemistry is critical to understanding the cycles of fundamental compounds and gain predictive capabilities in a changing environment. Such study requires observation of microbial communities and genetics in nature, coupled with experimental testing of hypotheses both in situ and in laboratory settings. This study combines dilution-to-extinction based high-throughput culturing (HTC) with cultivation-independent and geochemical measurements to define potential ecological niches of novel bacterial isolates from the coastal northern Gulf of Mexico (cnGOM). Here we report findings from the first of a three-year project. In total, 43 cultures from seven HTC experiments were capable of being repeatedly transferred. Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified these isolates as belonging to the phyla Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria. Eight are being genome sequenced, with two selected for further physiological characterization due to their phylogenic novelty and potential ecological significance. Strain LSUCC101 likely represents a novel family of Gammaproteobacteria (best blast hit to a cultured representative showed 91% sequence identity) and strain LSUCC96 belongs to the OM252 clade, with the Hawaiian isolate HIMB30 as its closest relative. Both are small (0.3-0.5 µm) cocci. The environmental importance of both LSUCC101 and LSUCC96 was illustrated by their presence within the top 30 OTU0.03 of cnGOM 16S rRNA gene datasets as well as within clone libraries from coastal regions around the world. Ongoing work is determining growth efficiencies, substrate utilization profiles, and metabolic potential to elucidate the roles of these organisms in the cnGOM. Comparative genomics will examine the evolutionary divergence of these organisms from their closest neighbors, and metagenomic recruitment to genomes will help identify strain-based variation from different coastal regions.

  11. 44 CFR 65.11 - Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mapping coastal flood hazard areas. 65.11 Section 65.11 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL... Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.11 Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas. (a) General conditions. For purposes of the NFIP, FEMA will consider...

  12. Priority setting for bird conservation in Mexico: the role of the Important Bird Areas program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma. del Coro Arizmendi; Laura Marquez Valdelamar; Humberto Berlanga

    2005-01-01

    Many species in Mexico are threatened and in need of protection. At least seventy species are considered to be globally threatened, yet conservation actions have been scarce and not coordinated. In 1996 BirdLife International’s Important Bird Areas Program was initiated in Mexico to identify a network of the most important places in Mexico for birds, with the...

  13. Landscape changes in a coastal system undergoing tourism development: implications for Barra de Navidad Lagoon, Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara L. Holland

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, changes in land cover and land use patterns that occurred between 1985 and 2000 in the surrounding basin of the Barra de Navidad coastal lagoon in Jalisco, Mexico are quantified and explained. Two satellite images from 1985 (Landsat TM and 2000 (Landsat ETM+ were analyzed with supervised classification and ground truthing to evaluate changes in six land use/cover categories: lagoon, agriculture, urban/tourist, tropical dry forest, mangrove and bare substratum. Changes in land use composition were evaluated using a transition matrix and changes to configuration were interpreted using landscape metrics. Results show that urban and tourist areas expanded between 1985 and 2000, mostly at the expense of forested and bare land. Mangroves showed a large relative decrease in area (-39% and experienced fragmentation. These changes appear to be related to increased sedimentation a fan progradation into Barra de Navidad lagoon. These results may serve as a model for comparison in other systems experiencing multiple stressors, especially changes related to tourism and the intensification of resource extraction.

  14. Executive summary - Geologic assessment of coal in the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Karlsen, Alexander K.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA) project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has assessed the quantity and quality of the nation's coal deposits that potentially could be mined during the next few decades. For eight years, geologic, geochemical, and resource information was collected and compiled for the five major coal-producing regions of the United States: the Appalachian Basin, Illinois Basin, Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains, Colorado Plateau, and the western part of the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain (Gulf Coast) region (Figure 1). In particular, the NCRA assessed resource estimates, compiled coal-quality information, and characterized environmentally sensitive trace elements, such as arsenic and mercury, that are mentioned in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1990). The results of the USGS coal assessment efforts may be found at: http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/coal/coal-assessments/index.html and a summary of the results from all assessment areas can be found in Ruppert et al. (2002) and Dennen (2009).Detailed assessments of the major coal-producing areas for the Gulf Coast region along with reviews of the stratigraphy, coal quality, resources, and coalbed methane potential of the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene coal deposits are presented in this report (Chapters 5-10).

  15. LAND COVER - CLASSIFICATION and Other Data from FIXED PLATFORM From Coastal Waters of Gulf of Mexico from 19880101 to 19891231 (NODC Accession 9100034)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wetland Assessment Data was collected from Coastal waters of Gulf of Mexico by Louisiana State and the Louisiana Geological Service under MMS Cooperative Agreement...

  16. GIS coupled Multiple Criteria based Decision Support for Classification of Urban Coastal Areas in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, R.; Kalbar, P.; Inamdar, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal area classification in India is a challenge for federal and state government agencies due to fragile institutional framework, unclear directions in implementation of costal regulations and violations happening at private and government level. This work is an attempt to improvise the objectivity of existing classification methods to synergies the ecological systems and socioeconomic development in coastal cities. We developed a Geographic information system coupled Multi-criteria Decision Making (GIS-MCDM) approach to classify urban coastal areas where utility functions are used to transform the costal features into quantitative membership values after assessing the sensitivity of urban coastal ecosystem. Furthermore, these membership values for costal features are applied in different weighting schemes to derive Coastal Area Index (CAI) which classifies the coastal areas in four distinct categories viz. 1) No Development Zone, 2) Highly Sensitive Zone, 3) Moderately Sensitive Zone and 4) Low Sensitive Zone based on the sensitivity of urban coastal ecosystem. Mumbai, a coastal megacity in India is used as case study for demonstration of proposed method. Finally, uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo approach to validate the sensitivity of CAI under specific multiple scenarios is carried out. Results of CAI method shows the clear demarcation of coastal areas in GIS environment based on the ecological sensitivity. CAI provides better decision support for federal and state level agencies to classify urban coastal areas according to the regional requirement of coastal resources considering resilience and sustainable development. CAI method will strengthen the existing institutional framework for decision making in classification of urban coastal areas where most effective coastal management options can be proposed.

  17. Intrinsic bioremediation potential of a chronically polluted marine coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Valentina; Santisi, Santina; Signa, Geraldina; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio; Cappello, Simone; Yakimov, Michail M; Quatrini, Paola

    2015-10-15

    A microbiological survey of the Priolo Bay (eastern coast of Sicily, Ionian Sea), a chronically polluted marine coastal area, was carried out in order to discern its intrinsic bioremediation potential. Microbiological analysis, 16S rDNA-based DGGE fingerprinting and PLFAs analysis were performed on seawater and sediment samples from six stations on two transects. Higher diversity and variability among stations was detected by DGGE in sediment than in water samples although seawater revealed higher diversity of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. The most polluted sediment hosted higher total bacterial diversity and higher abundance and diversity of culturable HC degraders. Alkane- and PAH-degrading bacteria were isolated from all stations and assigned to Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Thalassospira, Alteromonas and Oleibacter (first isolation from the Mediterranean area). High total microbial diversity associated to a large selection of HC degraders is believed to contribute to natural attenuation of the area, provided that new contaminant contributions are avoided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Fertility in rural and urban areas of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Y Garma, I O

    1989-01-01

    Data from 6 fertility surveys conducted in Mexico between 1969-87 were used to compare rural and urban fertility and to determine whether a significant level of contraceptive usage could be achieved in rural areas despite their lack of socioeconomic development. Age-specific marital fertility rates were calculated for the 4 national-level and 2 rural fertility surveys. The index of fertility control developed by Coale and Trussel was calculated for rural, urban, and all areas. The marital total fertility rate in rural areas declined from 10.6 in 1970 to 7.4 in 1982, a decline of 2.5% annually. From 1982-87 the annual rate of decline in rural fertility slowed to 1.6%, reaching 6.8 children in 1987. The urban marital total fertility rate declined from 7.72 in 1976 to 5.03 in 1987, while the marital total fertility rate for Mexico as a whole declined from 9.04 in 1976 to 5.85 in 1987. The indices of fertility control showed slowly increasing use of contraception in rural areas starting from the very low level of 1969. The urban index of fertility control showed some contraceptive use for all age groups in all surveys. The increases in contraceptive usage were considerable in rural areas from 1976-82 and much less marked in urban areas. From 1982-87 the inverse was observed and the fertility decline in urban areas was more marked. The condition of natural fertility found in rural areas in 1969 subsequently disappeared. Over time, fertility decline and use of contraception have intensified. Contraception is widely practiced in urban areas and is continuing to become more prevalent. The rural fertility decline in 1976-82 suggests that at least sometimes increases in fertility control are more important in rural areas than in urban areas. The theory of modernization, which holds that fertility decline in developed countries is attributable to factors associated with the process of modernization, thus comes into question. However, it is probable that a sustained fertility

  19. Management of Brackish Groundwater Extraction, San Diego-Tijuana area, USA and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danskin, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Management of brackish groundwater extraction from coastal sediment in the transboundary San Diego-Tijuana area, USA and Mexico, involves monitoring storage depletion, seawater intrusion, and land subsidence. In 2017, five additional extraction wells were installed, doubling capacity of the Reynolds Groundwater Desalination Facility. Environmental permits to expand capacity of the facility, and the recently-enacted Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) by the State of California require monitoring the possible adverse effects of the additional extraction. Fortuitously, over the past 14 years, 12 deep multiple-depth, monitoring-well sites were installed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) to aid in mapping the coastal geology and groundwater conditions. Now these sites are being used for groundwater management. Storage depletion is monitored daily via water levels measured using transducers installed permanently in each of the 4-6 piezometers at each site and transmitted automatically to the Internet. Seawater intrusion is tracked annually via electromagnetic geophysical logging in the deepest piezometer at each site, 500-800 meters below land surface, about twice the depth of the extraction wells. Land subsidence is determined annually from surveys of reference points installed at the well sites and from Interferometric Synthetic Aperature Radar (InSAR) satellite data. Management also involves use of a regional hydrologic model to simulate the likely location and timing of future storage depletion, seawater intrusion, and land subsidence.

  20. Concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface coastal sediments of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Coastal sediments in the northern Gulf of Mexico have a high potential of being contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), due to extensive petroleum exploration and transportation activities. In this study we evaluated the spatial distribution and contamination sources of PAHs, as well as the bioavailable fraction in the bulk PAH pool, in surface marsh and shelf sediments (top 5 cm) of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Results PAH concentrations in this region ranged from 100 to 856 ng g−1, with the highest concentrations in Mississippi River mouth sediments followed by marsh sediments and then the lowest concentrations in shelf sediments. The PAH concentrations correlated positively with atomic C/N ratios of sedimentary organic matter (OM), suggesting that terrestrial OM preferentially sorbs PAHs relative to marine OM. PAHs with 2 rings were more abundant than those with 5–6 rings in continental shelf sediments, while the opposite was found in marsh sediments. This distribution pattern suggests different contamination sources between shelf and marsh sediments. Based on diagnostic ratios of PAH isomers and principal component analysis, shelf sediment PAHs were petrogenic and those from marsh sediments were pyrogenic. The proportions of bioavailable PAHs in total PAHs were low, ranging from 0.02% to 0.06%, with higher fractions found in marsh than shelf sediments. Conclusion PAH distribution and composition differences between marsh and shelf sediments were influenced by grain size, contamination sources, and the types of organic matter associated with PAHs. Concentrations of PAHs in the study area were below effects low-range, suggesting a low risk to organisms and limited transfer of PAHs into food web. From the source analysis, PAHs in shelf sediments mainly originated from direct petroleum contamination, while those in marsh sediments were from combustion of fossil fuels. PMID:24641695

  1. Water quality in the coastal area of Santa Marta (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Francisco; Palacio Carlos; Garcia Uriel

    2012-01-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques were used to investigate the temporal and spatial variations of water quality at the Santa Marta coastal area where a submarine out fall that discharges 1 m3/s of domestic wastewater is located. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), cluster and principal component analysis and Krigging interpolation were considered for this report. Temporal variation showed two heterogeneous periods. From December to April, and July, where the concentration of the water quality parameters is higher; the rest of the year (May, June, August-November) were significantly lower. The spatial variation reported two areas where the water quality is different, this difference is related to the proximity to the submarine out fall discharge. Calcareous sands are unique in terms of their origin, mineralogy, shape, fragility and intra particle porosity. This article presents results from an experimental program carried out to study the liquefaction resistance of a calcareous sand retrieved from Cabo Rojo at Puerto Rico. The experimental program included mineralogical characterization, index properties, and undrained cyclic triaxial tests on isotropically consolidated reconstituted samples. Due to the large variation in the calcareous sand properties, results are compared with previous researches carried out on other calcareous sands around the world. Results showed a wide range in the liquefaction resistance of the studied calcareous sands. Cabo Rojo sand experienced greater liquefaction resistance than most of the calcareous sands used for comparison. Important differences in the excess pore pressure generation characteristics were also found.

  2. Convection anomalies associated with warm eddy at the coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, R.; Wang, D.

    2017-12-01

    A possible correlation between a warm eddy and thunderstorms and convective precipitations are investigated at the coastal area in the northwestern South China Sea. Compared to the climatological mean in August from 2006 to 2013, an extreme enhancement of thunderstorm activities and precipitation rate are identified at the southern offshore area of Hainan island in August 2010 when a strong and long-live warm eddy was observed near the coastline at the same time. The 3 hourly satellite data (TRMM) indicate that the nocturnal convections is strong offshore and that could be responsible for the extreme positive anomalies of thunderstorms and rainfall in August 2010. The TRMM data also show a small reduction of thunderstorm activities and rainfall on the island in the afternoon. Meanwhile, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was applied to simulate the change of rainfall in August 2010. The WRF simulation of rainfall rate is comparable with the observation results while there is some difference in the spatial distribution. The WRF simulation successfully captured the strong offshore rainfall and the diurnal variation of rainfall in August 2010. The WRF simulation indicated that the different convergence induced by sea/land breeze could be one essential reason for the adjustment of thunderstorms and rainfall in 2010. The substantial connection between sea/land breeze and upper layer heat content modified by the warm eddy is still on ongoing and will be reported in the future work.

  3. Characteristics and environmental carrying capacities of coastal area in Yogyakarta Special Region for aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triyatmo, B.; Rustadi; Priyono, S. B.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study were to determine characteristics and environmental carrying capacities of coastal area in Yogyakarta Special Region for aquaculture. This study was conducted in 2015 by characterizing land and water dynamics, land use, and the suitability of coastal environments for aquaculture. Evaluation on the coastal environments suitability for aquaculture ponds was based on the landforms, soil properties, water quality and land. Selection of coastal locations for aquaculture development was based on the level of suitability of coastal environment. The results showed that the coastal in Kulon Progo and Bantul Regencies were characterized by sand dune and beach ridge with sandy soil texture, while in Gunungkidul Regency was characterized by limestone hill with rocky texture. Water sources of the coastal area were the sea, river, and ground water with the salinity of 31–37, 7–11, 7–31 ppt and pH of 7.4–8.4 7.0–8.2 and 7.4–9.9, respectively. The coastal lands were used for seasonal/annual planting, ponds, fish landing sites, tourism areas and conservation areas. The coastal carrying capacity was rather suitable for aquaculture, especially in the sandy soil area. Aquaculture in that area can be done intensively for shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), using biocrete (biological material) or plastic sheet.

  4. Monitoring and analysis of coastal reclamation from 1995-2015 in Tianjin Binhai New Area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wengang; Wang, Dongchuan; Huang, Yong; Chen, Liding; Zhang, Lihui; Wei, Xiangwang; Sang, Mengqin; Wang, Feicui; Liu, Jinya; Hu, Bingxu

    2017-06-20

    Increasing coastal reclamation activities have been undertaken to solve the conflict between people and land resources, creating significant challenges for coordinating coastal reclamation, economic development and environmental protection. This paper analyzes the effects of coast reclamation on Gross Domestic Product growth and the quality of inshore seawater in the Tianjin Binhai New Area. Remote sensing and a Geographic Information System were used to extract the information of coastal reclamation. The correlation between the area of coastal reclamation, GDP growth and the quality of inshore seawater was analyzed and a decoupling elasticity model was used to explore trends in the relationship between economic development and coastal reclamation. Results showed that coastal reclamation activities played an important role in promoting economic development, but greatly damaged the ecological environment. Although the relationship between coastal reclamation and economic development has weakened during the last three periods, the influence on the environment will continue because of the cumulative effects of pollution. To maintain a balance between coastal reclamation, economic development and environmental protection, (1) coastal reclamation planning must address both economic and environmental outcomes; (2) environmental deficiencies from existing coastal reclamation projects must be rectified; and (3) the legal system regulating coastal reclamation needs to be refined and strengthened.

  5. Areas of research and manpower development for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    stream_size 6 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coastal_Zone_Mgmt_1993_74.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coastal_Zone_Mgmt_1993_74.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  6. Environmental Predictors of Seabird Wrecks in a Tropical Coastal Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Castro Tavares

    Full Text Available Beached bird surveys have been widely used to monitor the impact of oil pollution in the oceans. However, separating the combined effects of oil pollution, environmental variables and methodological aspects of beach monitoring on seabird stranding patterns is a challenging task. The effects of a comprehensive set of oceanographic and climatic variables and oil pollution on seabird strandings in a tropical area of Brazil were investigated herein, using two robust and innovative methods: Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Structural Equation Modeling. We assessed strandings of four resident seabird species along 480 km of beaches divided into 11 sampling areas, between November 2010 and September 2013. We found that increasing the distance from the nearest breeding island reduce the seabird stranding events. Storm activity and biological productivity were the most important factors affecting the stranding events of brown boobies Sula leucogaster, Cabot's terns Thalasseus acuflavidus and kelp gulls Larus dominicanus. These species are also indirectly affected by warm tropical waters, which reduce chlorophyll-a concentrations. Beach surveys are, thus, useful to investigate the mortality rates of resident species near breeding sites, where individuals are more abundant and exposed to local factors associated with at-sea mortality. In contrast, conservation actions and monitoring programs for far-ranging seabird species are needed in more distant foraging areas. Furthermore, beach monitoring programs investigating the impact of oil pollution on seabirds need to account for the effects of environmental factors on stranding patterns. The present study also demonstrated that seabirds inhabiting tropical coastal waters are sensitive to climate conditions such as adverse weather, which are expected to increase in frequency and intensity in next decades.

  7. Challenges and opportunities for implementing sustainable energy strategies in coastal communities of Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, Jose R.

    This dissertation explores the potential of renewable energy and efficiency strategies to solve the energy challenges faced by the people living in the biosphere reserve of El Vizcaino, which is located in the North Pacific region of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. This research setting provides a practical analytical milieu to understand better the multiple problems faced by practitioners and agencies trying to implement sustainable energy solutions in Mexico. The thesis starts with a literature review (chapter two) that examines accumulated international experience regarding the development of renewable energy projects as a prelude to identifying the most salient implementation barriers impeding this type of initiatives. Two particularly salient findings from the literature review include the importance of considering gender issues in energy analysis and the value of using participatory research methods. These findings informed fieldwork design and the analytical framework of the dissertation. Chapter three surveys electricity generation as well as residential and commercial electricity use in nine coastal communities located in El Vizcaino. Chapter three summarizes the fieldwork methodology used, which relies on a mix of qualitative and quantitative research methods that aim at enabling a gender-disaggregated analysis to describe more accurately local energy uses, needs, and barriers. Chapter four describes the current plans of the state government, which are focused in expanding one of the state's diesel-powered electricity grids to El Vizcaino. The Chapter also examines the potential for replacing diesel generators with a combination of renewable energy systems and efficiency measures in the coastal communities sampled. Chapter five analyzes strategies to enable the implementation of sustainable energy approaches in El Vizcaino. Chapter five highlights several international examples that could be useful to inform organizational changes at the federal

  8. A tsunami early warning system for the coastal area modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebroto, Arief Andy; Sunaryo, Suhartanto, Ery

    2015-04-01

    The tsunami disaster is a potential disaster in the territory of Indonesia. Indonesia is an archipelago country and close to the ocean deep. The tsunami occurred in Aceh province in 2004. Early prevention efforts have been carried out. One of them is making "tsunami buoy" which has been developed by BPPT. The tool puts sensors on the ocean floor near the coast to detect earthquakes on the ocean floor. Detection results are transmitted via satellite by a transmitter placed floating on the sea surface. The tool will cost billions of dollars for each system. Another constraint was the transmitter theft "tsunami buoy" in the absence of guard. In this study of the system has a transmission system using radio frequency and focused on coastal areas where costs are cheaper, so that it can be applied at many beaches in Indonesia are potentially affected by the tsunami. The monitoring system sends the detection results to the warning system using a radio frequency with a capability within 3 Km. Test results on the sub module sensor monitoring system generates an error of 0.63% was taken 10% showed a good quality sensing. The test results of data transmission from the transceiver of monitoring system to the receiver of warning system produces 100% successful delivery and reception of data. The test results on the whole system to function 100% properly.

  9. Electrification of remote coastal areas through wind-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.

    2005-01-01

    It has been estimated that with the present utilization of resources, the country will run out of oil and gas reserves in one and a half decade. There is, thus, a strong need to take measures to tap other resources of energy, which are abundantly available in Pakistan. The exploitation of these resources for production of electricity on local basis, under participatory system of development, would supplement energy being provided by WAPDA, at a much lower cost due to the avoidance of laying high-tension cables, transformers, and meters, etc., and the manpower required to maintain the system. Balochistan is a large but thinly populated province of Pakistan. The situation of electrification in Balochistan is serious, as a vast majority of the population is without access to electricity. Many villages and districts of Balochistan do not have centralized electricity-grid and there is no hope, in the near future, to have one because the extension of grid to such remote and scattered settlements is neither practical nor economically viable. In Balochistan, out of a total number of 13,700 villages, WAPDA has merely electrified 3,154 villages due to the high cost involved in developing the necessary infrastructure. Not surprisingly, this situation is a source of discontentment among the people of the Province. Pakistan has a considerable potential of wind-energy in the coastal belt of Balochistan and Sindh, as well as in the desert areas of Punjab and Sindh, which if utilized effectively, can not only electrify all remote coastal villages, but the electricity so produced also can be fed to the national grid. This renewable source of energy has however, so far, not been utilized. Recently, fourteen small wind-turbines (300-500 watts) were procured and installed by PCRET under Sino-Pak S and T Protocol. Being encouraged by performance of these small wind- turbines, a further 120 wind turbines (JOO of 500 watts and 20 wind-turbines of 5kW each) are being installed. The small

  10. Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Scoping Workshop on Terrestrial and Coastal Carbon Fluxes in the Gulf of Mexico, St. Petersburg, FL, May 6-8, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, L.L.; Coble, P.G.; Clayton, T.D.; Cai, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite their relatively small surface area, ocean margins may have a significant impact on global biogeochemical cycles and, potentially, the global air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide. Margins are characterized by intense geochemical and biological processing of carbon and other elements and exchange large amounts of matter and energy with the open ocean. The area-specific rates of productivity, biogeochemical cycling, and organic/inorganic matter sequestration are high in coastal margins, with as much as half of the global integrated new production occurring over the continental shelves and slopes (Walsh, 1991; Doney and Hood, 2002; Jahnke, in press). However, the current lack of knowledge and understanding of biogeochemical processes occurring at the ocean margins has left them largely ignored in most of the previous global assessments of the oceanic carbon cycle (Doney and Hood, 2002). A major source of North American and global uncertainty is the Gulf of Mexico, a large semi-enclosed subtropical basin bordered by the United States, Mexico, and Cuba. Like many of the marginal oceans worldwide, the Gulf of Mexico remains largely unsampled and poorly characterized in terms of its air-sea exchange of carbon dioxide and other carbon fluxes. In May 2008, the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Scoping Workshop on Terrestrial and Coastal Carbon Fluxes in the Gulf of Mexico was held in St. Petersburg, FL, to address the information gaps of carbon fluxes associated with the Gulf of Mexico and to offer recommendations to guide future research. The meeting was attended by over 90 participants from over 50 U.S. and Mexican institutions and agencies. The Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry program (OCB; http://www.us-ocb.org/) sponsored this workshop with support from the National Science Foundation, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the University of South Florida. The goal of

  11. San Francisco Littoral Cell CRSMP Coastal Armoring Areas 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset is an updated version of the shapefile created by Jennifer Dare at the California Coastal Commission in 2005. The version created by Elena Vandebroek...

  12. San Francisco Littoral Cell CRSMP Coastal Armoring Areas 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset is an updated version of the shapefile created by Jennifer Dare at the California Coastal Commission in 2005. The version created by Elena Vandebroek...

  13. Nutrient fluxes and net metabolism in a coastal lagoon SW peninsula of Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervantes Duarte, R.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluxes of nutrients and net metabolism were estimated in coastal lagoon Magdalena Bay using LOICZ biogeochemical model. In situ data were obtained from 14 sites in the lagoon and also from a fixed site in the adjacent ocean area. Intense upwelling (February to July and faint upwelling (August to January were analyzed from monthly time series. The Temperature, nitrite + nitrate, ammonium and phosphate within the lagoon showed significant differences (p<0.05 between the two periods. Salinity (p=0.408 was more homogeneous (no significantly different due to mixing processes. During the intense upwelling period, nutrients increased in and out of the lagoon due to the influence of Transitional Water and Subartic Water transported by the California Current. However, during the faint upwelling, from August to January, the Transition Water and Subtropical Surface Water were predominant. Magdalena Bay showed denitrification processes of throughout the year as it occurred in other semi-arid coastal lagoons. It also showed a net autotrophic metabolism during intense upwelling and heterotrophic metabolism during faint upwelling. Understanding nutrient flows and net metabolism through simple biogeochemical models can provide tools for better management of the coastal zone.

  14. Advanced data processing of airborne electromagnetic data for imaging hidden conduit networks in the coastal karst plain of Tulum (Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, A.; Schattauer, I.; Ottowitz, D.

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of a series of international research cooperations which commenced in 2007 and are still ongoing. The study area is located on the east coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, and comprises the northern most part of the Sian Kaan biosphere reserve, a coastal wetland of international importance, as well as the city of Tulum in the state of Quintana Roo, and part of the second largest barrier reef in the world some 300 metres to one kilometre off shore. Two airborne surveys, conducted in 2007 and 2008 by the Geological Survey of Austria, covered an area of some 200 square kilometres, including the well-known Ox Bel Ha cave system, already mapped by exploration divers. In order to get additional ground truth data and input for the hydrological model, extended ground geophysical campaigns have been conducted an - nually. The first processing of the airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data revealed not only a clear signature from known caves but also the image of a vast, unexplored, hidden conduit network. However, lateral and depth resolution was limited due to measurement drift and noise as well the specific behaviour of the ap - plied inversion technique. Newly developed algorithms for processing AEM data and inversion results have improved the signal-to-noise ratio significantly and enabled the imaging of well defined structures in the underground. Therefore, the AEM method is now capable of quickly deliver crucial structural information of karst-water regimes in difficult accessible areas with unique depth information compared to previous studies. (Author)

  15. Methane and sulfate dynamics in sediments from mangrove-dominated tropical coastal lagoons, Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, P. C.; Young, Megan B.; Dale, Andrew W.; Miller, Laurence G.; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A.; Paytan, Adina

    2016-01-01

    Porewater profiles in sediment cores from mangrove-dominated coastal lagoons (Celestún and Chelem) on the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico, reveal the widespread coexistence of dissolved methane and sulfate. This observation is interesting since dissolved methane in porewaters is typically oxidized anaerobically by sulfate. To explain the observations we used a numerical transport-reaction model that was constrained by the field observations. The model suggests that methane in the upper sediments is produced in the sulfate reduction zone at rates ranging between 0.012 and 31 mmol m−2 d−1, concurrent with sulfate reduction rates between 1.1 and 24 mmol SO42− m−2 d−1. These processes are supported by high organic matter content in the sediment and the use of non-competitive substrates by methanogenic microorganisms. Indeed sediment slurry incubation experiments show that non-competitive substrates such as trimethylamine (TMA) and methanol can be utilized for microbial methanogenesis at the study sites. The model also indicates that a significant fraction of methane is transported to the sulfate reduction zone from deeper zones within the sedimentary column by rising bubbles and gas dissolution. The shallow depths of methane production and the fast rising methane gas bubbles reduce the likelihood for oxidation, thereby allowing a large fraction of the methane formed in the sediments to escape to the overlying water column.

  16. Phosphorus Fluxes from Three Coastal Watersheds under Varied Agriculture Intensities to the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songjie He

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate recent total phosphorus (TP and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP transport from three coastal rivers—the Calcasieu, Mermentau, and Vermilion Rivers—that drain watersheds with varied agriculture intensities (21%, 67%, and 61%, respectively into the northern Gulf of Mexico, one of the world’s largest summer hypoxic zones. The study also examined the spatial trends of TP and DIP from freshwater to saltwater along an 88-km estuarine reach with salinity increasing from 0.02 to 29.50. The results showed that from 1990–2009 to 2010–2017, the TP fluxes for one of the agriculture-intensive rivers increased while no significant change was found for the other two rivers. Change in river discharge was the main reason for this TP flux trend. The two more agriculture-intensive river basins showed consistently higher TP and DIP concentrations and fluxes, as well as higher DIP:TP ratios than the river draining less agriculture-intensive land, confirming the strong effect of land uses on phosphorus input and speciation. Longitudinal profiles of DIP along the salinity gradient of the estuarine reach displayed characteristic input behavior. Desorption of DIP from suspended solids and river bed sediments, urban inputs, as well as stronger calcium carbonate and phosphorus co-precipitation at the marine endmember could be the reasons for such mixing dynamics.

  17. Reactive silica fractions in coastal lagoon sediments from the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jeffrey W.; Darrow, Elizabeth S.; Pickering, Rebecca A.; Carmichael, Ruth H.; Larson, Ashley M.; Basaldua, Jose L.

    2017-12-01

    Continental-margin sediments account for 50% of the oceanic biogenic silica burial despite covering Gulf of Mexico (nGoM), we measured sediment biogenic silica at sites removed from major freshwater discharge sources using the traditional method and a method that has been modified for deltaic systems to quantify other reactive silica pools, specifically those involved in the process of reverse weathering. The magnitude of authigenically-altered biogenic silica during our study was significant and represented, on average, 33% of the total sediment biogenic silica among core depths and sites. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between the degree to which the biogenic silica pool was authigenically altered and the source of the sediment organic matter, with lower modification in sediments corresponding with higher terrestrial organic matter. We observed no positive correlation between the magnitude of authigenic modification and sediment clay content. Thus, our findings suggest that these processes may occur within a variety of sediment compositions and add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that reverse weathering of silica in coastal systems is a significant pathway in the global silica budget.

  18. Coastal Wetland Ecosystem Responses to Climate Change: the Role of Macroclimatic Drivers along the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osland, M. J.; Enwright, N.; Day, R. H.; Gabler, C. A.; Stagg, C. L.; From, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Across the globe, macroclimatic drivers greatly influence coastal wetland ecosystem structure and function. However, changing macroclimatic conditions are rarely incorporated into coastal wetland vulnerability assessments. Here, we quantify the influence of macroclimatic drivers upon coastal wetland ecosystems along the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) coast. From a global perspective, the NGOM coast provides several excellent opportunities to examine the effects of climate change upon coastal wetlands. The abundant coastal wetland ecosystems in the region span two major climatic gradients: (1) a winter temperature gradient that crosses temperate to tropical climatic zones; and (2) a precipitation gradient that crosses humid to semi-arid zones. We present analyses where we used geospatial data (historical climate, hydrology, and coastal wetland coverage) and field data (soil, elevation, and plant community composition and structure) to quantify climate-mediated ecological transitions. We identified winter climate and precipitation-based thresholds that separate mangrove forests from salt marshes and vegetated wetlands from unvegetated wetlands, respectively. We used simple distribution and abundance models to evaluate the potential ecological effects of alternative future climate change scenarios. Our results illustrate and quantify the importance of macroclimatic drivers and indicate that climate change could result in landscape-scale changes in coastal wetland ecosystem structure and function. These macroclimate-mediated ecological changes could affect the supply of some ecosystem goods and services as well as the resilience of these ecosystems to stressors, including accelerated sea level rise. Collectively, our findings highlight the importance of incorporating macroclimatic drivers within future-focused coastal wetland vulnerability assessments.

  19. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Leslie

    The text explores Mexico's history, geography, art, religion, and lifestyles in the context of its complex economy. The text focuses on Mexico's economy and reasons for its current situation. Part I of this teaching unit includes: Teacher Overview, Why Study Mexico, Mexico Fact Sheet, Map of Mexico, the Land and Climate, History, Government,…

  20. AQUACULTURE AS A MEXICAN STRATEGY FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF COASTAL AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mártir Mendoza

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYAquaculture is one of the worldwide economic activities which has grown in the last 30 years at an annual rate of 9-10.0 %. Poultry, pork, lamb and beef meat production have increased only at an annual rate of 3.0 % in the same period, and in the last five years has decreased due to aviar fever and other viral difficulties. While aquaculture growth takes place in far away countries as China near by countries as Costa Rica, Honduras, Brazil and Chile keeps the same tendency. As far as Mexico´s aquaculture is concerned, it has grown steadily, missing, even its way out. On the one hand fish catches do not grow since the middle of the 80´s when fish production reached 1.5 million tones. On the other hand aquaculture in fresh waters and in sea waters are almost staging due to the loss of authority and governmental management capacity to make decisions. The recently elected federal government which will take office next December 1st, has on its hands the opportunity to favor aquaculture production and doing so, to develop Mexican coastal and rural areas.

  1. Evaluation of the health status of a coastal ecosystem in southeast Mexico: Assessment of water quality, phytoplankton and submerged aquatic vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Morales-Ojeda, Sara M

    2009-01-01

    The coastal environment of the Yucatan Peninsula (SE, Mexico) includes a wide variety of ecosystems ranging from mangroves to coral reefs, resulting in a heterogeneous landscape. Specifically, the marine system is characterized by environmental differences which respond to regional and local forcing functions such as marine currents and groundwater discharges (GD). Such functional characteristics were used here to define four subregions across the Yucatan coast and diagnose the health status of this coastal marine ecosystem. To achieve this goal, we conducted an analysis and integration of water quality variables, an eutrophic assessment, evaluated changes in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), and analyzed the community structure and distribution of harmful phytoplankton. The first step was to determine the reference values for each subregion based on data previously collected from 2002 to 2006 along the coast of Yucatan, 200m offshore. The trophic index (TRIX) and Canadian index for aquatic life (CCMEWQI) were used to diagnose each subregion and then the ASSETS approach was conducted for Dzilam and Progreso, sampling localities on each end of the health status continuum (those with the best and worst conditions). Overall, results indicated that the marine coastal ecosystem of Yucatan is in good condition; however, differences were observed between subregions that can be attributed to local forcing functions and human impacts. Specifically, the central region (zone HZII, Progreso-Telchac) showed symptoms of initial eutrophication due to nutrient inputs from human activities. The eastern region (zone HZ III, Dzilam-Las Bocas) showed a meso-eutrophic condition linked to natural groundwater discharges, while the other two subregions western (zone HZI Celestun-Palmar) and caribbean (zone HZ IV Ria Lagartos-El Cuyo) exhibited symptoms of oligo-mesotrophic condition. These findings may be considered baseline information for coastal ecosystem monitoring programs in

  2. Biodiversity protection and sustainable management of coastal areas: The Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donati, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands, northwest coast of Sicily Island, is the largest area in the Mediterranean Sea, stretching over with its 53,992 hectares. Established in 1991, since 2001 it is managed by the Municipality of Favignana on behalf of the Italian Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea. The Egadi’s archipelago is located in the Strait of Sicily, and includes the islands of Favignana, Levanzo, Marettimo and the islets of Formica and Maraone. The institutional mission of the Marine Protected Area is the protection and enhancement of the marine environment, environmental education, awareness and information of users, research and monitoring, integrated management of the coastal zone, and the promotion of sustainable development, with particular reference to the eco-compatibility of tourism [it

  3. Acoustic profiling and surface imaging of the coastal area near the subduction zone: the eastern coastal area of Boso Peninsula, Central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyama, S.; Sato, T.

    2016-12-01

    The plate motion of the Philippine Sea plate and the Pacific plate influences geology of coastal area in the Pacific side in Japan and sometime causes extensive damage of human activity, such as the Great East Japan Earthquake. It is important to understand the geological structures in a coastal area for disaster prevention. Especially, rapid equipment of geoinformations is highly demanded in the Kanto region where covers capital Tokyo area. Geological Survey of Japan investigated the eastern coastal area in Boso Peninsula, eastern part of the Kanto region, Japan within two years from 2014 to 2015. We obtained seismic sections of ca. 1100 km in total length with a boomer and multi-channel streamer (24 channel with 3.125 m spacing) and report the geological significance of the subsurface structures. The survey area is divided into the northern part of Kujukuri area, the southern part of Kujukuri area, the coastal part of Kujukuri area based on topography and geological structures. In these Kujukuri areas, two strata that show distinct stratification bounded by distinct unconformity distribute and we define them as the Kujukuri A Unit and the Kujukuri B Unit, in ascending order. The lower sequence has some folds and normal faults. These folds that deformed the Kujukuri B Unit extend toward north-northeast in the northern part of Kujukuri area. They contributed to development of wide shelf distributed in this area. In the southern part of Kujukuri area, a lot of faults deformed the Kujukuri B Unit and some of them displaced the Kujukuri A Unit over 10 msec (two way travel). Normal faults developed in the Kujukuri B Unit over 10 msec made grabens and half grabens in the coastal part of Kujukuri area and these grabens and half grabens could make the lowland in the Kujukuri coastal area. The combination of these geological structures identified in the Kujukuri areas could reflect the transition of stress field associated with the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate

  4. Assessment of organotin and tin-free antifouling paints contamination in the Korean coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Ri-Nae; Kim, Un-Jung; Lee, In-Seok; Choi, Minkyu; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2015-10-15

    Twelve organotins (methyl-, octyl-, butyl-, and phenyl-tin), and eight tin-free antifouling paints and their degradation products were measured in marine sediments from the Korean coastal area, and Busan and Ulsan bays, the largest harbor area in Korea. The total concentration of tin-free antifouling paints was two- to threefold higher than the total concentration of organotins. Principal component analysis was used to identify sites with relatively high levels of contamination in the inner bay area of Busan and Ulsan bays, which were separated from the coastal area. In Busan and Ulsan bays, chlorothalonil and DMSA were more dominant than in the coastal area. However, Sea-Nine 211 and total diurons, including their degradation products, were generally dominant in the Korean coastal area. The concentrations of tin and tin-free compounds were significantly different between the east and west coasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Kepuasan Pengunjung Terhadap Kualitas Makanan Lendot Di Kawasan Wisata Taman Kota Coastal Area Kabupaten Karimun

    OpenAIRE

    ", Hanisah; Achnes, Syofia

    2017-01-01

    The satisfaction is compatibility of product accepted and expectation of product. The research was conducted to determine the satisfaction of visitors to the quality of food lendot in The Tourist Area Of The City Park Coastal Area Karimun Regency. The research method used is quantitative approach. The sample technique used is accidental sampling. Samples taken as many as 40 respondents who consume a lendot in the Kawasan Wisata Taman Kota Coastal Area Kabupaten Karimun, where taken into the r...

  6. Design of water pumping system by wind turbine for using in coastal areas of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahbubul; Tasnim, Tamanna; Doha, Umnia

    2017-06-01

    In this work, a theoretical analysis has been carried out to analyze the prospect of Wind Pumping System (WPS) for using in coastal areas of Bangladesh. Wind speed data of three coastal areas of Bangladesh-Kutubdia, Patenga and Sathkhira has been analyzed and an optimal wind turbine viable for this wind speed range has been designed using the simulation software Q-blade. The simulated turbine is then coupled with a rotodynamic pump. The output of the Wind Pumping System (WPS) for the three coastal areas has been studied.

  7. Spatio-temporal variability of internal waves in the northern Gulf of Mexico studied with the Navy Coastal Ocean Model, NCOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambazoglu, M. K.; Jacobs, G. A.; Howden, S. D.; Book, J. W.; Arnone, R.; Soto Ramos, I. M.; Vandermeulen, R. A.; Greer, A. T.; Miles, T. N.

    2016-02-01

    Internal waves enhance mixing in the upper ocean, transport nutrients and plankton over the water column and across the shelf from deeper waters to shallower coastal areas, and could also transport pollutants such as hydrocarbons onshore during an oil spill event. This study aims to characterize internal waves in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM) and investigate the possible generation and dissipation mechanisms using a high-resolution (1-km) application of the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM). Three dimensional model products are used to detect the propagation patterns of internal waves. The vertical structure of internal waves is studied and the role of stratification is analyzed by looking at the temperature, salinity and velocity variations along the water column. The model predictions suggest the generation of internal waves on the continental shelf, therefore the role of ocean bottom topography interacting with tides and general circulation features such as the Loop Current Eddy front, on the internal wave generation will be discussed. The time periods of internal wave occurrences are identified from model predictions and compared to satellite ocean color imagery. Further data analysis, e.g. Fourier analysis, is implemented to determine internal wavelengths and frequencies and to determine if the response of internal waves are at tidal periods or at different frequencies. The atmospheric forcing provided to NCOM and meteorological data records are analyzed to define the interaction between wind forcing and internal wave generation. Wavelet analysis characterizes the ocean response to atmospheric events with periodic frequencies. Ocean color satellite imagery was used to visualize the location of the Mississippi river plume (and other oceanic features) and compared to the model predictions because the enhanced stratification from freshwater plumes which propagate across the Mississippi Bight can provide favorable conditions in coastal waters for internal wave

  8. Lafourche Parish Coastal Zone Curriculum Resource Unit. Bulletin 1834.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Bobby; And Others

    The Louisiana coastal zone is a unique geographic feature. Soil carried by the Mississippi River has been deposited in Louisiana for the last 6,000 years to form the coastal area. All natural features in coastal Louisiana relate to materials and processes associated with the emptying of the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico. The…

  9. Potential for extending major land resource areas into northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy S. Mann; Philip Heilman; Jeffry. Stone

    2013-01-01

    There is a significant history of cooperative efforts between Mexico and the United States on natural resource management issues. Mexico and the United States have jointly conducted research and developed range management technologies. Bringing these technologies together and improving technical communications are an ongoing process. This paper discusses a potential...

  10. 77 FR 17037 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA)--Louisiana, Mississippi River Hydrodynamic... impact statement (EIS) for the Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA)--Louisiana, Mississippi River Hydrodynamic... tiered off of the November 2004, programmatic EIS for the Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA), Louisiana...

  11. 77 FR 60319 - Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction Plan; Coastal Gulf of Maine Closure Area Established With a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ...-XC099 Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction Plan; Coastal Gulf of Maine Closure Area Established With a... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Establishment of the Coastal Gulf of Maine Closure Area... Service (NMFS) announces the establishment of the Coastal Gulf of Maine Closure Area under the Harbor...

  12. Vulnerability assessment of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Li

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Being bordered by the South China Sea and with long coastline, the coastal zone of Guangdong Province is often under severe risk of storm surges, as one of a few regions in China which is seriously threatened by storm surges. This article systematically analyzes the vulnerability factors of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong (from Yangjing to Shanwei. Five vulnerability assessment indicators of hazard-bearing bodies are proposed, which are social economic index, land use index, eco-environmental index, coastal construction index, and disaster-bearing capability index. Then storm surge vulnerability assessment index system in the coastal area of Guangdong is established. Additionally, the international general mode about coastal vulnerability assessment is improved, and the vulnerability evolution model of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong is constructed. Using ArcGIS, the vulnerability zoning map of storm surges in the study region is drawn. Results show that there is the highest degree of storm surge vulnerability in Zhuhai, Panyu, and Taishan; second in Zhongshan, Dongguan, Huiyang, and Haifeng; third in Jiangmen, Shanwei, Yangjiang, and Yangdong; fourth in Baoan, Kaiping, and Enping; and lowest in Guangzhou, Shunde, Shenzhen, and Longgang. This study on the risk of storm surges in these coastal cities can guide the land use of coastal cities in the future, and provide scientific advice for the government to prevent and mitigate the storm surge disasters. It has important theoretical and practical significance.

  13. Exploring scenarios of light pollution from coastal development reaching sea turtle nesting beaches near Cabo Pulmo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M. Verutes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New coastal development may offer economic benefits to resort builders and even local communities, but these projects can also impact local ecosystems, key wildlife, and the draw for tourists. We explore how light from Cabo Cortés, a proposed coastal development in Baja California Sur, Mexico, may alter natural light cues used by sea turtle hatchlings. We adapt a viewshed approach to model exterior light originating from the resort under plausible zoning scenarios. This spatially explicit information allows stakeholders to evaluate the likely impact of alternative development options. Our model suggests that direct light’s ability to reach sea turtle nesting beaches varies greatly by source location and height—with some plausible development scenarios leading to significantly less light pollution than others. Our light pollution maps can enhance decision-making, offering clear guidance on where to avoid elevated lamps or when to recommend lighting restrictions. Communities can use this information to participate in development planning to mitigate ecological, aesthetic and economic impacts from artificial lighting. Though tested in Mexico, our approach and free, open-source software can be applied in other places around the world to better understand and manage the threats of light pollution to sea turtles. Keywords: Artificial light, Viewshed analysis, Sea turtle conservation, Coastal resort management, InVEST

  14. The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System: Building an MBON for the Florida Keys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M.; Stoessel, M. M.; Currier, R. D.

    2016-02-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System Regional Association (GCOOS-RA) Data Portal was designed to aggregate regional data and to serve it to the public through standards-based services in useful and desirable forms. These standards are established and sanctioned for use by the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) Program Office with inputs from experts on the Integrated Ocean Observation Committee and the RA informatics community. In 2012, with considerable input from staff from Ocean Biogeographical Information System USA (OBIS-USA), IOOS began to develop and adopt standards for serving biological datasets. GCOOS-RA applied these standards the following year and began serving fisheries independent data through an GCOOS ERDDAP server. In late 2014, GCOOS-RA partnered with the University of South Florida in a 5-year Marine Biodiversity Observing Network (MBON) Project sponsored by NOAA, NASA and BOEM. Work began in 2015. GCOOS' primary role is to aggregate, organize and serve data that are useful to an MBON for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. GCOOS, in collaboration with Axiom Data Science, will produce a decision support system (DSS) for stakeholders such as NOAA National Marine Sanctuaries Program managers. The datasets to be managed include environmental observations from: field surveys, fixed platforms, and satellites; GIS layers of: bathymetry, shoreline, sanctuary boundaries, living marine resources and habitats; outputs from ocean circulation models and ecosystem models (e.g., Ecopath/Ecosim) and Environmental DNA. Additionally, the DSS may be called upon to perform analyses, compute indices of biodiversity and present results in tabular, graphic and fused forms in an interactive setting. This presentation will discuss our progress to date for this challenging work in data integration.

  15. Water management for a megacity: Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortajada, Cecilia; Castelán, Enrique

    2003-03-01

    The paper presents an overview of the present situation of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The analysis indicates an urgent need to radically improve the current water supply and wastewater management practices, to become sustainable. The MCMA is one of the most rapidly growing urban centers of the world, with a population of about 21 million people, a very high rate of immigration and numerous illegal settlements. In order to meet the increasing water demand, successive governments have focused almost exclusively on supply management and engineering solutions, which have resulted in investments of hundreds of millions of USD and the construction of major infrastructure projects for interbasin water transfer. Environmental, economic and social policies associated with water management are mostly inadequate and insufficient, which is resulting in increasing deterioration in the environment, health and socioeconomic conditions of a population living in one of the largest urban agglomerations of the world. Surprisingly, however, no long-term strategies on demand-management, reuse, conservation, and improved water-management practices have been developed so far.

  16. Emissions inventory for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, V.H.P.; Renteria, J.S. [Secretaria de Medio Ambiente, Col. Tiacopac San Angel (Mexico); Hernandez, C.G. [Departamento del Distrito Federal, Col. Centro (Mexico)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The emissions inventory bears a broad relationship to the energy balance, reflecting the dependence of the emissions with reference to the use of energy. Actually the consumption of gasoline and diesel fuel in the transport sector represents collectively, the greatest comparative expense of energy and the major contributor of the ozone precursor pollutants HC, NO{sub x} and CO, relative to the total volume of emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Also, the industrial sector introduces significant emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} due to its energy consumption of fuel oils and natural gas. In contrast, the great majority of suspended particulate in the MCMA emanate from degradation processes of surface soil along the periphery of the urban zone. To the federal and local authorities charged with the design of strategies for prevention and control of atmospheric pollution, the emissions inventory is a strategic tool that reflects the relative intensity of the various emitters to the load capacity of the atmosphere. A comprehensive inventory was compiled for 1995, categorizing the emissions generated by four sectors: industry, services, transport and surface soils and vegetation, considering the following pollutants: TSP, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, HC and CO. The combined pollutant emissions are 4,009,628 tons/year of which 3% are generated by the industry, 10% by the services sector, 75% by the transport sector, and 12% by surface soils and vegetation.

  17. Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2 data set consists of country-level estimates of urban population,...

  18. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Florida and East Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  19. Natural resources economical activities in coastal area of Rio de la Plata: report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, V.; Garibotto, S.; Gorfinkiel, D.; Pena, C.; Resnichenko, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The integrated management of coastal zone covers multiple problems, often conflicts on the use of coastal resources that is different productive capacities, the presence of a variety of important actors a degree of relationship with the river and its surroundings, this is due to the pressures on coastal resources in a given area may be higher due to the activities that take place outside this area. Colonia, San Jose, Canelones and Maldonado are the departments of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay to which they have studied the impact on the national economy, economic characteristics of the population, business, mining, farming, tourism fores tal activities.

  20. Research on Building Urban Sustainability along the Coastal Area in China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Jiaojiao; Fu Jiayan

    2015-01-01

    At present, in China, the research about the urban sustainability construction is still in the exploratory stage. The ecological problems of the coastal area are more sensitive and complicated. In the background of global warming with serious ecological damage, this paper deeply researches on the main characteristics of urban sustainability and measures how to build urban sustainability. Through combining regional environmental with economic ability along the coastal area...

  1. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Torrance Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  2. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Otero Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  3. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Eddy Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  4. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico). WHITE SHRIMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    regarding this report should be directed to one of the following addresses. Information Transfer Special ist National Coastal Ecosystems Team U.S. Fish and...snace not ’i Iled by, 7 rim, and thei, begin a henthic exi s- tier- a"jrias orua ntae lc tence. The timne )etween hatching and vih il th p ~ i p r i...Gulf of Mexico United States; a LTfe ist -y requirements of se- - regional management plan. Gulf lected finfish and shellfish in Coast Res. Lab. Tech

  5. Monitoring Drought along the Gulf of Mexico and the Southeastern Atlantic Ocean Using the Coastal Salinity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, P. A.; Rouen, L.; Lackstrom, K.; McCloskey, B.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal droughts have a different dynamic than upland droughts, which are typically characterized by agricultural, hydrologic, meteorological, and (or) socio-economic impacts. Drought uniquely affects coastal ecosystems due to changes in salinity conditions of estuarine creeks and rivers. The location of the freshwater-saltwater interface in surface-water bodies is an important factor in the ecological and socio-economic dynamics of coastal communities. The location of the interface determines the freshwater and saltwater aquatic communities, fisheries spawning habitat, and the freshwater availability for municipal and industrial water intakes. The severity of coastal drought may explain changes in Vibrio bacteria impacts on shellfish harvesting and occurrence of wound infection, fish kills, harmful algal blooms, hypoxia, and beach closures. To address the data and information gap for characterizing coastal drought, a coastal salinity index (CSI) was developed using salinity data. The CSI uses a computational approach similar to the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The CSI is computed for unique time intervals (for example 1-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month) that can characterize the onset and recovery of short- and long-term drought. Evaluation of the CSI indicates that the index can be used for different estuary types (for example: brackish, oligohaline, or mesohaline), for regional comparison between estuaries, and as an index of wet conditions (high freshwater inflow) in addition to drought (saline) conditions. In 2017, three activities in 2017 will be presented that enhance the use and application of the CSI. One, a software package was developed for the consistent computation of the CSI that includes preprocessing of salinity data, filling missing data, computing the CSI, post-processing, and generating the supporting metadata. Two, the CSI has been computed at sites along the Gulf of Mexico (Texas to Florida) and the Southeastern Atlantic Ocean (Florida to

  6. 15 CFR 930.98 - Federally assisted activities outside of the coastal zone or the described geographic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the coastal zone or the described geographic area. 930.98 Section 930.98 Commerce and Foreign... Federally assisted activities outside of the coastal zone or the described geographic area. State agencies should monitor proposed federal assistance activities outside of the coastal zone or the described...

  7. A new general dynamic model predicting radionuclide concentrations and fluxes in coastal areas from readily accessible driving variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haakanson, Lars

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a general, process-based dynamic model for coastal areas for radionuclides (metals, organics and nutrients) from both single pulse fallout and continuous deposition. The model gives radionuclide concentrations in water (total, dissolved and particulate phases and concentrations in sediments and fish) for entire defined coastal areas. The model gives monthly variations. It accounts for inflow from tributaries, direct fallout to the coastal area, internal fluxes (sedimentation, resuspension, diffusion, burial, mixing and biouptake and retention in fish) and fluxes to and from the sea outside the defined coastal area and/or adjacent coastal areas. The fluxes of water and substances between the sea and the coastal area are differentiated into three categories of coast types: (i) areas where the water exchange is regulated by tidal effects; (ii) open coastal areas where the water exchange is regulated by coastal currents; and (iii) semi-enclosed archipelago coasts. The coastal model gives the fluxes to and from the following four abiotic compartments: surface water, deep water, ET areas (i.e., areas where fine sediment erosion and transport processes dominate the bottom dynamic conditions and resuspension appears) and A-areas (i.e., areas of continuous fine sediment accumulation). Criteria to define the boundaries for the given coastal area towards the sea, and to define whether a coastal area is open or closed are given in operational terms. The model is simple to apply since all driving variables may be readily accessed from maps and standard monitoring programs. The driving variables are: latitude, catchment area, mean annual precipitation, fallout and month of fallout and parameters expressing coastal size and form as determined from, e.g., digitized bathymetric maps using a GIS program. Selected results: the predictions of radionuclide concentrations in water and fish largely depend on two factors, the concentration in the sea outside the given

  8. Understanding the interactions between Social Capital, climate change, and community resilience in Gulf of Mexico coastal counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C.; Blomberg, B.; Kolker, A.; Nguyen, U.; Page, C. M.; Sherchan, S. P.; Tobias, V. D.; Wu, H.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal communities in the Gulf of Mexico are facing new and complex challenges as their physical environment is altered by climate warming and sea level rise. To effectively prepare for environmental changes, coastal communities must build resilience in both physical structures and social structures. One measure of social structure resilience is how much social capital a community possesses. Social capital is defined as the connections among individuals which result in networks with shared norms, values and understandings that facilitate cooperation within or among groups. Social capital exists in three levels; bonding, bridging and linking. Bonding social capital is a measure of the strength of relationships amongst members of a network who are similar in some form. Bridging social capital is a measure of relationships amongst people who are dissimilar in some way, such as age, education, or race/ethnicity. Finally Linking social capital measures the extent to which individuals build relationships with institutions and individuals who have relative power over them (e.g local government, educational institutions). Using census and American Community Survey data, we calculated a Social Capital index value for bonding, bridging and linking for 60 Gulf of Mexico coastal counties for the years 2000, and 2010 to 2015. To investigate the impact of social capital on community resilience we coupled social capital index values with physical datasets of land-use/land cover, sea level change, climate, elevation and surface water quality for each coastal county in each year. Preliminary results indicate that in Gulf of Mexico coastal counties, increased bonding social capital results in decreased population change. In addition, we observed a multi-year time lag in the effect of increased bridging social capital on population stability, potentially suggesting key linkages between the physical and social environment in this complex coupled-natural human system. This

  9. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Cabezon Area, New Mexico (Sandoval County, New Mexico)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  10. An AHP-derived method for mapping the physical vulnerability of coastal areas at regional scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Le Cozannet

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessing coastal vulnerability to climate change at regional scales is now mandatory in France since the adoption of recent laws to support adaptation to climate change. However, there is presently no commonly recognised method to assess accurately how sea level rise will modify coastal processes in the coming decades. Therefore, many assessments of the physical component of coastal vulnerability are presently based on a combined use of data (e.g. digital elevation models, historical shoreline and coastal geomorphology datasets, simple models and expert opinion. In this study, we assess the applicability and usefulness of a multi-criteria decision-mapping method (the analytical hierarchy process, AHP to map physical coastal vulnerability to erosion and flooding in a structured way. We apply the method in two regions of France: the coastal zones of Languedoc-Roussillon (north-western Mediterranean, France and the island of La Réunion (south-western Indian Ocean, notably using the regional geological maps. As expected, the results show not only the greater vulnerability of sand spits, estuaries and low-lying areas near to coastal lagoons in both regions, but also that of a thin strip of erodible cliffs exposed to waves in La Réunion. Despite gaps in knowledge and data, the method is found to provide a flexible and transportable framework to represent and aggregate existing knowledge and to support long-term coastal zone planning through the integration of such studies into existing adaptation schemes.

  11. Interactions between the Laramide Foreland and the passive margin of the Gulf of Mexico: Tectonics and sedimentation in the Golden Lane area, Veracruz State, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alzaga-Ruiz, H.; Lopez, M.; Roure, F.; Séranne, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the analyses of the clastic sedimentary infill of the Coastal Plain of Eastern Mexico, which initiated synchronously with the Laramide orogeny in the vicinity of the Golden Lane. Results of these analyses are used as boundary conditions for calibrating/interpreting seismic

  12. Designing Freshwater Resilience for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Wi, S.; Brown, C.

    2017-12-01

    There are few places in the world where the water management challenges associated with global urbanization are as fully visible as in the Greater Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). MCMA has a population of 22 million of which only 82% have daily water provision and this figure is projected by local agencies to decrease drastically in the next decade due to population growth, infrastructure degradation and climate change. The city is served by a massive water delivery system, consisting of complex network of infrastructure in the surrounding basins that provides about 40% of the supply for MCMA and is characterized by increasing land use change and competition for water. The remaining 60% of MCMA's water is sourced internally from already depleted groundwater resources whose exploitation also results in significant subsidence throughout the city, further damaging already degraded infrastructure. Consequently, there is interest and need for investments that improve the performance of the freshwater delivery system, including local resources and connected basins, in the face of change and shocks that can be only partially anticipated. The quest for such resilience is a common theme in urban infrastructure design yet practical approaches for achieving it remain nascent. In this study, we use MCMA and the Cutzamala Water supply system to demonstrate a quantitative framework to evaluate investment strategies which seek resilience for the water supply system of MCMA. Multiobjective optimization and decisions under deep uncertainty approaches are used to evaluate the best performing investment portfolios across different resilience performance metrics which encompass social equity, environmental and economic objectives. This analysis shows dynamic system responses that result from different investment portfolios, elucidating difficult planning and management decisions around tradeoffs between allocations as well as performance metrics (e.g short period of total failure

  13. Using models in Integrated Ecosystem Assessment of coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solidoro, Cosimo; Bandelj, Vinko; Cossarini, Gianpiero; Melaku Canu, Donata; Libralato, Simone

    2014-05-01

    Numerical Models can greatly contribute to integrated ecological assessment of coastal and marine systems. Indeed, models can: i) assist in the identification of efficient sampling strategy; ii) provide space interpolation and time extrapolation of experiemtanl data which are based on the knowedge on processes dynamics and causal realtionships which is coded within the model, iii) provide estimates of hardly measurable indicators. Furthermore model can provide indication on potential effects of implementation of alternative management policies. Finally, by providing a synthetic representation of an ideal system, based on its essential dynamic, model return a picture of ideal behaviour of a system in the absence of external perturbation, alteration, noise, which might help in the identification of reference behaivuor. As an important example, model based reanalyses of biogeochemical and ecological properties are an urgent need for the estimate of the environmental status and the assessment of efficacy of conservation and environmental policies, also with reference to the enforcement of the European MSFD. However, the use of numerical models, and particularly of ecological models, in modeling and in environmental management still is far from be the rule, possibly because of a lack in realizing the benefits which a full integration of modeling and montoring systems might provide, possibly because of a lack of trust in modeling results, or because many problems still exists in the development, validation and implementation of models. For istance, assessing the validity of model results is a complex process that requires the definition of appropriate indicators, metrics, methodologies and faces with the scarcity of real-time in-situ biogeochemical data. Furthermore, biogeochemical models typically consider dozens of variables which are heavily undersampled. Here we show how the integration of mathematical model and monitoring data can support integrated ecosystem

  14. Community Participation for Sustainable Tourism Model in Manado Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warouw, F. F.; Langitan, F. W.; Alamsyah, A. T.

    2018-02-01

    Manado city with the potential for coastal tourism which is at the center of the world’s coral triangle is developing a tourism development policy. Tourism that is being developed should certainly be able to adapt to changing conditions of today’s dynamic environment. The extent to which the adaptation process is determined by the communities involved in the development of tourism. Based on data from the population in the city of Manado, there are currently 410 481 thousand inhabitants. This study tried to reveal the extent of community participation in the city of Manado in particular involvement in the development of tourism in coastal Bay of Manado. Level of community participation in the development of tourism in the city of Manado is measured in the form of quantitative research in the form of questionnaires to the community based on the level of community participation developed by Arnstein Sheery by purposive sampling technique. The level of participation was developed by Arnstein Sheery row of low level ketinggi namely: Manipulation, Therapy, informing, Consultation, placation, partnership, Delegaten Power, Citizen Control. Findings community level participation in the development of coastal tourism on Manado bay civilized level of consultation. Consultation rate shows that the government invite the public opinion after the given information to the public and has been a two-way dialogue between government and society. Community has provided input and active discussion by way of the two-way dialogue. Although there has been a two-way dialogue, but the successful rate is low because there is no guarantee that the concerns and ideas of the community will be considered. This requires the development of community-based programs in order to increase the degree of participation so that community participation will increase. To conclude, the program needs to be based on input from the community’s needs and it has to involve the public directly to tourism

  15. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construct a chloride deposition map in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia. We examined geographic (related to coastal distance, orographic, and atmospheric factors that may influence chloride deposition, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, elevation, as well as terrain aspect and slope, appear to be significant factors controlling chloride deposition in the study area. Coastal distance accounts for 70% of spatial variability in bulk chloride deposition, with elevation, terrain aspect and slope an additional 15%. The results are incorporated into a de-trended residual kriging model (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution bulk chloride deposition and concentration maps. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 20–30% in the western MLR, and 40–50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a useful basis for examining catchment chloride balance for the CMB application in the study area.

  16. Geochemical peculiarities of marine sediment in coastal areas of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gothankar, S.S.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    To understand the impact of anthropogenic activity on coastal marine environment, sediment samples were collected covering the west and east coast of India. The elemental concentration was determined using EDXRF technique. The east coast showed lower Rb/Sr ratio reflecting higher fraction of biogenic deposits, the higher ratio at the west coast reflects higher fraction of terrigenous detritus. The concentration of Pb and Ni was found higher at Rameshwaram and Okha respectively. The result indicates the impact of land based source of pollutant in few locations due to the anthropogenic activities. (author)

  17. Gulf of Mexico Seasonal and/or Area Closures GIS Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the geographic area described in Title 50 CFR Part 622, Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic, Subpart B - Reef Fish...

  18. Integrating science into governance and management of coastal areas at urban scale

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Celliers, Louis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available and development planning (CSDP) is no longer an option but a necessity. Current legislation devolves many fine scale planning and management functions within coastal urban centres to local authorities, including land-use and urban and economic development... into governance and management of coastal areas at urban scale L CELLIERS, S TALJAARD AND R VAN BALLEGOOYEN CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001 Email: lcelliers@csir.co.za ? www.csir.co.za BACKGROUND With burgeoning demand for coastal space...

  19. The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System: A Gulf Science Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M.; Gayanilo, F.; Kobara, S.; Jochens, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System's (GCOOS) regional science portal (gcoos.org) was designed to aggregate data and model output from distributed providers and to offer these, and derived products, through a single access point in standardized ways to a diverse set of users. The portal evolved under the NOAA-led U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) program where automated largely-unattended machine-to-machine interoperability has always been a guiding tenet for system design. The web portal has a business unit where membership lists, new items, and reference materials are kept, a data portal where near real-time and historical data are held and served, and a products portal where data are fused into products tailored for specific or general stakeholder groups. The staff includes a system architect who built and maintains the data portal, a GIS expert who built and maintains the current product portal, the executive director who marshals resources to keep news items fresh and data manger who manages most of this. The business portal is built using WordPress which was selected because it appeared to be the easiest content management system for non-web programmers to add content to, maintain and enhance. The data portal is custom built and uses database, PHP, and web services based on Open Geospatial Consortium standards-based Sensor Observation Service (SOS) with Observations and Measurements (O&M) encodings. We employ a standards-based vocabulary, which we helped develop, which is registered at the Marine Metadata Interoperability Ontology Registry and Repository (http://mmisw.org). The registry is currently maintained by one of the authors. Products appearing in the products portal are primarily constructed using ESRI software by a Ph.D. level Geographer. Some products were built with other software, generally by graduate students over the years. We have been sensitive to the private sector when deciding which products to produce. While

  20. Metazoan parasites of fishes from the Celestun coastal lagoon, Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Medina, Trinidad; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor M; Aguirre-Macedo, M Leopoldina

    2015-08-31

    The aims of this study were to produce a checklist of the metazoan parasites of fishes from the Celestun coastal lagoon and to determine the degree of faunal similarity among the fishes based on the metazoan parasites they share. A checklist was prepared including all available records (1996-2014) of parasites of marine, brackish water and freshwater fishes of the area. All of these data were included in a presence/absence database and used to determine similarity via Jaccard's index. The results indicate the presence of 62 metazoan parasite species infecting 22 fish species. The number of metazoan parasite species found in the fishes from the Celestún lagoon is apparently the highest reported worldwide for a tropical coastal lagoon. The parasites included 12 species of adult digeneans, 27 digeneans in the metacercarial stage, 6 monogeneans, 3 metacestodes, 9 nematodes, 2 acanthocephalans, 2 crustaceans and 1 annelid. Forty parasite species were autogenic and 23 were allogenic and 1 unknown. The overall similarity among all of the species of fish with respect to the metazoan parasites they share was low (0.08 ± 0.12), with few similarity values above 0.4 being obtained. This low similarity was due primarily to the presence of suites of parasites exclusive to specific species of fish. The autogenic component of the parasite fauna (40 species) dominated the allogenic component (21 species). The most likely explanation for the large number of fish parasites found at Celestún is the good environmental condition of the lagoon, which allows the completion of parasite life cycles and free circulation of euryhaline fishes from the marine environment bringing marine parasites into the lagoon.

  1. Baseline geophysical data for hazard management in coastal areas in relation to earthquakes and tsunamis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.

    is another factor for some of the intraplate earthquakes in the South Indian Shield, which includes the Eastern and Western Continental Margins of India. Baseline geophysical data for hazard management in coastal areas in relation to earthquakes... surge. Keywords Hazard management, marine geophysical data, geomorphology and tsunami surge, coastal seismicity Date received: 7 August 2015; accepted: 15 October 2015 CSIR – National Institute of Oceanography, Visakhapatnam, India Corresponding author...

  2. Building Coastal Resilience to sea-level rise and storm hazards: supporting decisions in the NE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, C.; Beck, M. W.; Gilmer, B.; Ferdana, Z.; Raber, G.; Agostini, V.; Whelchel, A.; Stone, J.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal communities are increasingly vulnerable to coastal hazards including storm surge and sea level rise. We describe the use of Coastal Resilience, an approach to help support decisions to reduce socio-economic and ecological vulnerability to coastal hazards. We provide examples of this work from towns and cities around Long Island Sound (NY, CT) and the Gulf of Mexico (FL, AL, MS, LA, TX) in the USA and from the Eastern Caribbean (Grenada, St. Vincent and the Grenadines). All of these shores are densely populated and have significant coastal development only centimetres above the sea. This makes people and property very vulnerable and threatens coastal wetlands (marsh, mangrove) and reefs (oyster, coral) that provide habitat and natural buffers to storms while providing other ecosystem services. We describe this work specifically and then offer broader perspectives and recommendations for using ecological habitats to reduce vulnerability to coastal hazards. The Nature Conservancy's Coastal Resilience approach is driven by extensive community engagement and uses spatial information on storm surge, sea level rise, ecological and socio-economic variables to identify options for reducing the vulnerability of human and natural communities to coastal hazards (http://www.coastalresilience.org). We have worked with local communities to map current and future coastal hazards and to identify the vulnerable natural resources and human communities. Communities are able to visualize potential hazard impacts and identify options to reduce them within their existing planning and regulatory frameworks.

  3. Dissolved Platinum Concentrations in Coastal Seawater: Boso to Sanriku Areas, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashio, Asami Suzuki; Obata, Hajime; Gamo, Toshitaka

    2017-08-01

    Platinum, one of the rarest elements in the earth's crust, is now widely used in a range of products, such as catalytic converters in automobiles and anticancer drugs. Increasing use and dispersal of platinum has the potential to affect aquatic environments. Platinum concentrations in open ocean seawater have been found to be very low (approximately 0.2 pmol/L); however, Pt distributions and biogeochemical cycles in coastal areas are unknown. In this study, we investigated Pt concentrations in coastal waters between the Boso and Sanriku areas, Japan, after the 2011 tsunami. We determined sub-picomolar levels of dissolved Pt using isotope-dilution Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after column preconcentration with an anion exchange resin. Dissolved Pt concentrations were found to be in the range 0.20-1.5 pmol/L, with the highest concentration in bottom water of the Boso coastal area, and at stations close to Tokyo Bay. Assuming thermodynamical equilibrium, Pt was determined to be present in the form PtCl 5 (OH) 2- , even in low-oxygen coastal waters. Vertical profiles indicated Pt levels increased toward seafloors near coastal stations and were similar to those of the open ocean at trench stations. High concentrations of dissolved Pt are thought to be derived from coastal sediments.

  4. Environmental impact of industrial wastes on marine area, case study: Port Sudan coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalrahman, E. A. H.

    2004-05-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of the industrial wastes on marine environment in Port Sudan area. A very intensive study has been made to identify types of pollutions drained in seawater at study area of Red Sea coast. Samples were taken from three stations (1, 2 and 3) at study area and the following analysis were made: Temperature, salinity, hydrogen ion concentration, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, nutrient, oil and grease. The laboratory results revealed that wastes pollute the marine environment as the cooling water from studied industries which is drain into the seawater increases the degree of temperature approximately from 6 to 12 C degree above the allowed rate, the matter which was adverse effect on the environment and living marine creatures due to the sudden change of temperature degree. Also, it was found that the great amount of oil spills discharged into seawater due to many factors such as: cooling water, oil spills from ships and loading and discharging operations of crude oil ships. Accordingly these oils spills might have a deadly effect on living marine creatures, which have been mention in details through out this research. Hence, and to minimize this adverse effect of industrial wastes and others on the marine environment, may recommend to the following: Pretreatment to the industrial wastes should be taking before its draining into the Red Sea coastal area. Surveillance all ships into the port and observing loading and discharging operations as well as those ships in the regional waters and implementing the international maritime laws. Enlightenment the industrial administrators and manpower working with them about the severity which will definitely cause the marine environmental deterioration as a result of industrial wastes. To punish every one who violates the laws of environment protection. Thus, can be safeguarding the environment from pollutions and consequently develop the natural resources and proceed

  5. Rapid assessment of endemic bird areas in Michoacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberto Chavez-Leon; Deborah M. Finch

    1999-01-01

    Non-sustainable land use practices in the state of Michoacan, Mexico, have perturbed endemic bird h~bitats for several decades. Endemic birds have a restricted geographic and ecological distribution. This feature makes them suitable to be used as indicators of biological diversity and environmental perturbation. Forty-one Mexican endemic species have been recorded in...

  6. Large-area dry bean yield prediction modeling in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the importance of dry bean in Mexico, crop yield predictions before harvest are valuable for authorities of the agricultural sector, in order to define support for producers. The aim of this study was to develop an empirical model to estimate the yield of dry bean at the regional level prior t...

  7. Three decadal inputs of total organic carbon from four major coastal river basins to the summer hypoxic zone of the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Songjie; Xu, Y Jun

    2015-01-15

    This study investigated long-term (1980-2009) yields and variability of total organic carbon (TOC) from four major coastal rivers in Louisiana entering the Northern Gulf of Mexico where a large-area summer hypoxic zone has been occurring since the middle 1980s. Two of these rivers drain agriculture-intensive (>40%) watersheds, while the other two rivers drain forest-pasture dominated (>50%) watersheds. The study found that these rivers discharged a total of 13.0×10(4)t TOC annually, fluctuating from 5.9×10(4) to 22.8×10(4)t. Seasonally, the rivers showed high TOC yield during the winter and early spring months, corresponding to the seasonal trend of river discharge. While river hydrology controlled TOC yields, land use has played an important role in fluxes, seasonal variations, and characteristics of TOC. The findings fill in a critical information gap of quantity and quality of organic carbon transport from coastal watersheds to one of the world's largest summer hypoxic zones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Actions Environmental Sustainability Measures for Producers and Local Communities in a Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Zequeira-Álvarez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the area of study is defined as the producers and communities of the northern coastal zone, up to the 5-meter level curve of the province of Camagüey, Cuba. It is composed of four municipalities and is very rich in natural values but also identifies itself as a very fragile ecosystem. The methodological procedure consists of three stages that respond to their respective objectives: General characteristics of the study area, environmental problems in the area of study and general measures of sustainability for producers and coastal communities, The general objective of the work is to propose general measures of Environmental sustainability for producers and local communities in the northern coastal zone of Camagüey, Cuba in order to contribute to the use and conservation of the ecosystem. These are aimed at the producers and settlers of the study area but may be interesting for other ecosystems.

  9. Mercury Enrichment in Sediments of the Coastal Area of Northern Latium, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanu, Sergio; Piazzolla, Daniele; Frattarelli, Francesco Manfredi; Mancini, Emanuele; Tiralongo, Francesco; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Tibullo, Daniele; Pecoraro, Roberta; Copat, Chiara; Ferrante, Margherita; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of the Hg geochemical anomaly arising in the Amiata and Tolfa complex to the coastal area of northern Latium and to examine the possible influence on this area by the Mignone River, and by the small coastal basins, which are characterized by both previous mining activities and decades of past industrial impact. The results confirm the extension of the anomaly of concentrations of Hg in the coastal area of northern Latium, with the northern sector influenced by the contributions of the Fiora and Mignone Rivers and the southern sector influenced by the contributions of minor basins. The results show high values of the Adverse Effect Index throughout the considered area and highlight the need for further investigation in order to assess the impact of human activities on the present and past values of Hg in marine sediments.

  10. A new genus and species of cyclopoid (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopinidae) from a coastal system in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Almeyda-Artigas, Roberto Javier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new, monotypic genus of the interstitial marine cyclopoid copepod family Cyclopinidae G.O. Sars, 1913 is described from male and female specimens collected at Laguna de Términos, a large coastal lagoon system in the southern Gulf of Mexico. Mexiclopina campechana gen. et sp. n. cannot be adequately placed in any extant genus within the family. It differs from other cyclopinid genera in having a unique combination of characters including: 1) absence of modified brush-like seta on the mandibular exopod; 2) maxillule exopod with stout setal elements and brush-like setae absent; 3) basis of mandible with one seta; 4) presence of a modified seta on endopod of fourth leg; 5) fifth leg exopod unsegmented, armed with three elements in the female and five in the male; 6) intercoxal sclerite of first swimming leg with two medial spiniform processes on distal margin. The new genus is monotypic and appears to be most closely related to Cyclopina Claus, 1863 and Heptnerina Ivanenko & Defaye, 2004; the new species was compared with species of Cyclopina and it resembles Cyclopina americana Herbst, 1982 and Cyclopina caissara Lotufo, 1994. This is the second record of a species of Cyclopinidae in Mexico and the first in the Gulf of Mexico; the number of cyclopinid species recorded from the Americas is now 13. PMID:26668545

  11. Design of an Autonomous Transport System for Coastal Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Lebkowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a project of an autonomous transport system that can be deployed in coastal waters, bays or between islands. Presented solutions and development trends in the transport of autonomous and unmanned units (ghost ships are presented. The structure of the control system of autonomous units is discussed together with the presentation of applied solutions in the field of artificial intelligence. The paper presents the concept of a transport system consisting of autonomous electric powered vessels designed to carry passengers, bikes, mopeds, motorcycles or passenger cars. The transport task is to be implemented in an optimal way, that is, most economically and at the same time as safe as possible. For this reason, the structure of the electric propulsion system that can be found on such units is shown. The results of simulation studies of autonomous system operation using simulator of marine navigational environment are presented.

  12. Organizing in a National Sacrifice Area: the radioactive waste campaign in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    Organizing in a National Sacrifice Area concerns a citizens' campaign to affect the development of a Federal radioactive waste disposal facility in New Mexico. This facility, called the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), is intended to be the first permanent radioactive waste disposal facility in the United States. The three principal elements of this work are: (1) demographic, economic and attitudinal information providing the social context for the citizens' campaign; (2) the theory and practice of community organizing with respect to the New Mexico radioactive waste disposal project; and (3) the history of citizen activities to affect the New Mexico state legislature on this issue. The demographic and attitudinal information include: survey research conducted previously concerning nuclear waste and nuclear power; demographic and economic data for New Mexico principally from the 1970 Census; a secondary analysis of a base-line survey concerning nuclear development in New Mexico; and original qualitative and survey research dealing with public attitudes in the state on the WIPP project. The attitude change and maintenance literature are also reviewed. This dissertation covers the events constituting the establishment of the WIPP project in New Mexico and citizen activities both opposed to and in support of the radioactive waste disposal project. In addition, citizen activity to influence the New Mexico state legislature in 1979 with regard to radioactive waste disposal is reviewed. An analysis of the New Mexico state legislature in terms of this issue is made also

  13. Impact of salinity on the production of tomato along the coastal areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The coast of Benin lies on a wide bay in the Gulf of Guinea called the Bight of Benin, about 125 km between Togo and Nigeria. The coastal areas of Benin cover part of the cultivable lands of the country. A total of 15 tomato varieties were recorded in the areas of study. The characteristics of each variety grown under salinity ...

  14. Energy and the environment: the case of the Metropolitan area of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazan N, G.

    1992-01-01

    The inefficient use of energy by the different types of consumers of the Metropolitan area of Mexico City (ZMCM, this means, Mexico city and the municipalities of the Estado de Mexico, which constitute a single economic population unit), is one of the main causes for the production of polluting emissions into the atmosphere, specially of nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. This originates a deterioration of the environment, which injures the health of the population. As a consequence, the private and public sectors have been forced to establish programs in order to improve the use of energy, as well as to preserve the environment. (Author)

  15. The Coastal Area Development Using GIS (Review of GIS Application Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prastowo Sutanto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available GIS, Geographical Information System, is a means that an be used to plan and to develop the coastal area because in carrying out the analysis this system combines the space data and their  attributes. The activities done among others the prototype development of algae cultivation and tourism ativities, the development of fish pond location, the reclamation of the Jakarta Bay, and the concept of development the floating “Keramba” for pearl oysters and white sea fish similar to sole. GIS analysis with heaviness and overlay mapping yields the appropriate map to plan and to develop the coastal area. The result of GIS analysis can be used to plan and to develop the coastal area.

  16. Distribution and origin sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in sediment of Sarawak coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Shuhaimi Elias; Abdul Khalik Wood; Zaleha Hashim; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim

    2010-01-01

    Alkyl and parent Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds in marine sediment sample collected from ten locations along Sarawak coastal areas were extracted and analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The source identification of PAH pollution in marine sediment of Sarawak coastal areas were identify by ratios technique of An/ An+phen, Fl/ Fl +Py, B[a]A/ (B[a]A+Chry) and total Methyl Phen/ Phen. The total alkyl and parent PAHs concentration varies from 36.5 - 277.4 ng/ g dry weight (d.w.) with a mean concentration of 138.2 ng/ g d.w. The ratio values of PAHs pollution in marine sediment of Sarawak coastal areas are clearly indicating the PAHs pollutions are originated from petroleum (petrogenic) and petroleum combustion (pyrolytic). However, the origin sources of PAHs pollution in a few stations were uncertain due to mixing sources of PAHs. (author)

  17. Marine and Coastal Morphology: medium term and long-term area modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn

    This thesis documents development and application of a modelling concept developed in collaboration between DTU and DHI. The modelling concept is used in morphological modelling in coastal areas where the governing sediment transport processes are due to wave action. The modelling concept...... is defined: Hybrid morphological modelling and it is based on coupling calculated sediment transport fields from a traditional process based coastal area model with a parametrised morphological evolution model. The focus of this study is to explore possible parametric formulations of the morphological...... solution has a two dimensional nature. 1.5D shoreline model A so-called “1.5D” implementation which introduces redistribution of sediment within a coastal profile in response to horizontal 2D currents makes it possible to simulate the morphological development in areas where 2D evolution occurs...

  18. Government conservation policies on Mexican coastal areas: is "top-down" management working?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Nava

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine and terrestrial ecosystems are declining globally due to environmental degradation and poorly planned resource use. Traditionally, local government agencies have been responsible of the management of natural reserves to preserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, much of these approaches have failed, suggesting the development of more integrative strategies. In order to discuss the importance of a holistic approach in conservation initiatives, coastal and underwater landscape value and biological/environmental indicators of coral reef degradation were assessed using the study case of Zihuatanejo, Guerrero coastal area. This area shelters representative coral reef structures of the Eastern Pacific coast and its terrestrial biodiversity and archaeology enhance the high value of its coastal area. This study explored the landscape value of both terrestrial and marine ecosystems using the geomorphosite approach in two sites on the Zihuatanejo coastal area: Caleta de Chon and Manzanillo Beach. Sedimentation rate, water transparency, chlorophyll and total suspended solids were recorded underwater in each site for environmental characterization. 50 photo-quadrants on five transects were surveyed between 3-4m depth to record coverage (% of living corals, dead corals, algae, sand and rocks. The conservation status of coral reefs was assessed by the coral mortality index (MI. Landscape values showed that both terrestrial and marine ecosystems had important scientific and aesthetic values, being Manzanillo Beach the site with the highest potential for conservation initiatives (TtV=14.2. However, coral reefs face elevated sedimentation rates (up to 1.16kg/m2d and low water transparency (less of 5m generated by coastal land use changes that have increased soil erosion in the adjacent coastal area. High coverage of dead corals (23.6% and algae (up to 29% confirm the low values in conservation status of coral reefs (MI=0.5, reflecting a poorly-planned management

  19. Gulf of Mexico Coastal and Ocean Zones Strategic Assessment: Data Atlas 1985 (NODC Accession 0126646)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlas contains metadata and shape files of 18 different species in the Gulf of Mexico as of 1985. The shapefiles display the spatial and temporal distribution of...

  20. Investigation and Analysis of Crop Germplasm Resources in Coastal Areas of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong WANG; Shoujin FAN; Libin ZHANG; Hui ZHANG; Yingjie LIN; Hanfeng DING; Xiaodong ZHANG; Runfang LI; Zhan LI; Yumin MA; Yu ZHANG; Nana LI; Weijing CHEN; Zhongxue FAN

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the investigation of crop germplasm resources in coastal areas of Shandong Province, including 132 villages in 82 towns of 34 counties. The survey collected local varieties and wild resources of grain crops, economic crops, vegetables and fruit trees, and a total of 848 samples were collected, belonging to 54 species of 39 genera in 15 families. In this study, the current situation and growth and decline conditions of crop germplasm resources were investigated, and their botanical classification and utilization importance were analyzed. Furthermore, the conservation, development and utilization of crop germplasm resources in coastal areas of Shandong Province were also discussed in this paper.

  1. Policy frameworks for adaptation to climate change in coastal zones. The case of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levina, E.; Jacob, J.S.; Ramos Bustillos, L.E.; Ortiz, I.

    2007-05-01

    This paper is the third in a series of AIXG (Annex I Expert Group on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)) papers that analyse the roles that national policy frameworks of various sectors play in adaptation to climate change. Adaptation to climate change is unlikely to be a standalone process. It occurs within the existing sectoral and cross-sectoral policy frameworks, including legal provisions, institutional structures, policies and management practices, and is supported by the available information tools. The previous two papers focused on the water sector. The aim of this paper is to identify and analyse policy frameworks that are important for facilitating adaptation to climate change impacts in coastal zones. The paper is based on the analysis of the Gulf of Mexico. Two countries, the US and Mexico, are examined, with a focus on two aspects of coastal zones: wetlands and built environment. Next to these two sectors attention is paid to four components that construct policy frameworks, namely legal framework, institutional landscape, policies and management tools, and information. Following a brief introduction of the Gulf of Mexico region, its physical and economic characteristics, the paper takes a look at current climatic conditions and trends in the Gulf region and expected climate change impacts and the key vulnerabilities of the region to these changes (Section 2). The rational for the scope and focus of the sectoral analysis presented in this paper can also be found in Section 2. Section 3 focuses on the analysis of policy frameworks that govern wetlands in the US and Mexico and their links with adaptation. Section 4 focuses on the analysis of policy frameworks that govern the development of human settlements, and adaptation to climate change. Sections 3 and 4 follow a structure similar to the one that was used for the two previous papers on policy frameworks for adaptation in the water sector. Both sections examine

  2. 76 FR 60444 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ..., cobia, cero, little tunny, dolphin, and bluefish (Gulf only). At present, only king mackerel, Spanish... bluefish from the Coastal Migratory Pelagic FMP. The Councils and NMFS have determined these species are...

  3. Evaluation and analysis of underground brine resources in the southern coastal area of Laizhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, M.; Zhu, H. T.; Feng, J.; Zhao, Q. S.

    2016-08-01

    The southern coastal districts of Laizhou Bay are some of the most important areas for underground brine exploitation in Shandong Province. Recently, these areas have been gradually developed by the underground brine mining industry. Such economic interest has led to brine exploitation so that underground brine resources are running out. Based on this phenomenon, this study describes the supply, runoff and draining conditions of the area by collecting and organizing the background information of the studied area. Hydrogeological parameters are then calculated according to pumping tests, and the amount of sustainable resources in the coastal areas of the Southern Bank of Laizhou Bay are then calculated based on the uniform distribution of wells. Under the circumstances of underground brine mining, the exploitation potential of the underground brine is evaluated in accordance with the calculation results of exploitation quantum. Finally, suggestions are provided for the sustainable exploitation of underground brine in the area.

  4. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use data for management areas, National Park Service properties, State Parks, and National Wildlife Refuges in Long Island, New York....

  5. Coexisting sea-based and land-based sources of contamination by PAHs in the continental shelf sediments of Coatzacoalcos River discharge area (Gulf of Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Portela, Julián Mauricio Betancourt; Sericano, José Luis; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Espinosa, Luisa Fernanda; Cardoso-Mohedano, José Gilberto; Pérez-Bernal, Libia Hascibe; Tinoco, Jesús Antonio Garay

    2016-02-01

    The oldest refinery and the major petrochemical complexes of Mexico are located in the lower reach of the Coatzacoalcos River, considered the most polluted coastal area of Mexico. A (210)Pb-dated sediment core, from the continental shelf of the Coatzacoalcos River, was studied to assess the contamination impact by the oil industry in the southern Gulf of Mexico. The sedimentary record showed the prevalence of petrogenic PAHs between 1950s and 1970s, a period during which waste discharges from the oil industry were not regulated. Later on, sediments exhibited higher contents of pyrogenic PAHs, attributed to the incineration of petrochemical industry wastes and recurrent wildfires in open dumpsites at the nearby swamps. The total concentration of the 16 EPA-priority PAHs indicated low levels of contamination (1000 ng g(-1)) during the late 1970s, most likely due to the major oil spill produced by the blowout of the Ixtoc-I offshore oil rig in deep waters of the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Most of the PAH congeners did not show defined temporal trends but, according to a Factor Analysis, apparently have a common origin, probably waste released from the nearby oil industry. The only exceptions were the pyrogenic benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene, and the biogenic perylene, that showed increasing concentration trends with time, which we attributed to erosional input of contaminated soil from the catchment area. Our study confirmed chronic oil contamination in the Coatzacoalcos River coastal area from land based sources for more than 60 years (since 1950s). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heavy metal pollution in coastal areas of South China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai-Long; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Sun, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jin-Ling; Li, Hua-Bin

    2013-11-15

    Coastal areas of South China face great challenges due to heavy metal contamination caused by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In this paper, more than 90 articles on levels, distributions, and sources of heavy metals in sediments and organisms were collected to review the status of heavy metal pollution along coastal regions of South China. The results show that heavy metal levels were closely associated with local economic development. Hong Kong and the Pearl River Estuary were severely contaminated by heavy metals. However, concentrations of heavy metals in sediments from Hong Kong have continually decreased since the early 1990 s. High levels of heavy metals were found in biota from Lingdingyang in Guangdong province. Mollusks had higher concentrations of heavy metals than other species. Human health risk assessments suggested that levels of heavy metals in some seafood from coastal areas of South China exceeded the safety limit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Applicability of the grounded-source airborne electromagnetics to coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hisatoshi; Tsukuda, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Koichi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kiho, Kenzo; Mogi, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Understanding geological and hydrogeological characteristics in coastal areas is an issue of paramount importance especially with regard to siting of geological disposal of nuclear wastes, whereas conventional airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys can reveal an electrical resistivity structure to a depth of only ∼200 m. In order to enhance the depth of investigation, we have developed a new type of AEM, grounded-electrical-source airborne transient electromagnetics (GREATEM). Here we have applied GREATEM to two coastal areas in Japan; Kujukuri, an alluvial coastal plain where thick Quaternary sediments prevail, and northwestern part of Awaji Island, where granitic rocks are dominant. It was found that the GREATEM system can reveal resistivity structure to a depth of ∼500 m and also high quality data are available just beneath the shoreline where shallow water prevails. (author)

  8. Flood protection structure detection with Lidar: examples on French Mediterranean rivers and coastal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trmal Céline

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting different topographic analysis conducted with GIS software in order to detect flood protection structures, natural or artificial, in river floodplains but also in coastal zones. Those computations are relevant because of the availability of high-resolution lidar digital terrain model (DTM. An automatic detection permits to map the footprint of those structures. Then detailed mapping of structure crest is achieved by implementing a least cost path analysis on DTM but also on other terrain aspects such as the curvature. On coastal zones, the analysis is going further by identifying flood protected areas and the level of protection regarding sea level. This article is illustrated by examples on French Mediterranean rivers and coastal areas.

  9. Evaluation of sustainable walk-up flats in terms of urban housing renewal in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septanti, D.; Kisnarini, R.; Setyawan, W.; Utami, ASPR

    2018-03-01

    Urban housing renewal aims to get added value while maintaining the sustainability of its environmental function and quality [4]. This research discusses the urban renewal which is done by rebuilding the affected area with walk-up flats. There are four aspects to be considered in achieving sustainability, namely: environmental, social, economic, and cultural [14]. This study is focused on cultural aspect. Sustainable walk-up flats, viewed from the micro context perspective, can later be used as one of the terms of reference in assessing the success of urban renewal projects in Indonesia. Especially in coastal areas, it becomes more challenging because coastal communities have different characteristics and the existing urban renewal flats are not necessarily appropriate for the coastal community. The methods used in this study are explorative, descriptive, ex- post, cross-sectional and synchronic evaluation. This research describes the characteristics of citizens, activities at home and the environment. Thus, the conclusions which are drawn by deductive reasoning are done using frequency, mean, etc. A mixed research method is applied combining with the analysis of quantitative and qualitative data collection and interpretation, including determining quantitative indicators and space design attributes, and qualitative user needs. This research is located in Surabaya as a sample of coastal cities with urban and environmental problems. The results of this study are the findings of indicators, directions, and concepts for Sustainable Housing Development in Coastal Areas which further can be made as scientific recommendation (to support the Housing Theory and Urban Renewal) and contribute to practical guidelines for sustainable low-cost walk-up flats in coastal areas.

  10. Vegetational stabilization of uranium spoil areas, grants, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, N.E.

    1979-01-01

    Factors that could be detrimental to vegetative stabilization of uranium mine and mill waste material were examined. Physical and chemical analyses of materials from an open-pit uranium mine and material from three inactive mill tailing piles in New Mexico were performed. Analyses for selected trace elements in mill tailing material and associated vegetation from piles in New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah were also performed. Field and laboratory experiments identified problems associated with establishing vegetation on spoil material. Problems of uptake and concentration of toxic elements by plants growing on specific spoil material were also identified. Ecological observations in conjunction with physical and chemical analyses of specific geologic units, which form the overburden and waste dumps at the open-pit mine, identified a specific geologic material that, if segregated and placed on the surface of the dumps, would pose the least set of problems for a revegetation program. A pilot revegetation project verified that segregation and use of specific geologic material in the overburden could be utilized successfully and economically for reestablishment of native vegetation on mine waste material

  11. Wind mapping offshore in coastal Mediterranean area using SAR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Arena, Felice; Badger, Merete

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface from Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR) provide information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is of special interest in the Mediterranean, where spatial wind information is only provided by sparse buoys, often with long periods...... of missing data. Here, we focus on evaluating the use of SAR for offshore wind mapping. Preliminary results from the analysis of SAR-based ocean winds in Mediterranean areas show interesting large scale wind flow features consistent with results from previous studies using numerical models and space borne...

  12. Burn severity of areas reburned by wildfires in the Gila National Forest, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary A. Holden; Penelope Morgan; Andrew T. Hudak

    2010-01-01

    We describe satellite-inferred burn severity patterns of areas that were burned and then reburned by wildland fire from 1984 to 2004 within the Gila Aldo Leopold Wilderness Complex, New Mexico, USA. Thirteen fires have burned 27 000 hectares across multiple vegetation types at intervals between fires ranging from 3 yr to 14 yr. Burn severity of reburned areas showed...

  13. Status of greenhouses in Eastern Mediterranean coastal areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plastic cover material used was mostly PE (79%) with inclusion of UV+IR. Heating of the greenhouses was only for frost protection purpose which adversely affected crop yields and quality. Only 2% of the greenhouses present in the area was constructed based on projects of engineering designs; the remaining were ...

  14. Assessing coastal wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast: Gaps and opportunities for developing a coordinated regional sampling network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osland, Michael J; Griffith, Kereen T; Larriviere, Jack C; Feher, Laura C; Cahoon, Donald R; Enwright, Nicholas M; Oster, David A; Tirpak, John M; Woodrey, Mark S; Collini, Renee C; Baustian, Joseph J; Breithaupt, Joshua L; Cherry, Julia A; Conrad, Jeremy R; Cormier, Nicole; Coronado-Molina, Carlos A; Donoghue, Joseph F; Graham, Sean A; Harper, Jennifer W; Hester, Mark W; Howard, Rebecca J; Krauss, Ken W; Kroes, Daniel E; Lane, Robert R; McKee, Karen L; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Middleton, Beth A; Moon, Jena A; Piazza, Sarai C; Rankin, Nicole M; Sklar, Fred H; Steyer, Greg D; Swanson, Kathleen M; Swarzenski, Christopher M; Vervaeke, William C; Willis, Jonathan M; Wilson, K Van

    2017-01-01

    Coastal wetland responses to sea-level rise are greatly influenced by biogeomorphic processes that affect wetland surface elevation. Small changes in elevation relative to sea level can lead to comparatively large changes in ecosystem structure, function, and stability. The surface elevation table-marker horizon (SET-MH) approach is being used globally to quantify the relative contributions of processes affecting wetland elevation change. Historically, SET-MH measurements have been obtained at local scales to address site-specific research questions. However, in the face of accelerated sea-level rise, there is an increasing need for elevation change network data that can be incorporated into regional ecological models and vulnerability assessments. In particular, there is a need for long-term, high-temporal resolution data that are strategically distributed across ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients. Here, we quantify the distribution of SET-MH stations along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast (USA) across political boundaries (states), wetland habitats, and ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients (i.e., gradients in temperature, precipitation, elevation, and relative sea-level rise). Our analyses identify areas with high SET-MH station densities as well as areas with notable gaps. Salt marshes, intermediate elevations, and colder areas with high rainfall have a high number of stations, while salt flat ecosystems, certain elevation zones, the mangrove-marsh ecotone, and hypersaline coastal areas with low rainfall have fewer stations. Due to rapid rates of wetland loss and relative sea-level rise, the state of Louisiana has the most extensive SET-MH station network in the region, and we provide several recent examples where data from Louisiana's network have been used to assess and compare wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise. Our findings represent the first attempt to examine spatial gaps in SET-MH coverage across abiotic gradients. Our analyses can be used

  15. Assessing coastal wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast: Gaps and opportunities for developing a coordinated regional sampling network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Osland

    Full Text Available Coastal wetland responses to sea-level rise are greatly influenced by biogeomorphic processes that affect wetland surface elevation. Small changes in elevation relative to sea level can lead to comparatively large changes in ecosystem structure, function, and stability. The surface elevation table-marker horizon (SET-MH approach is being used globally to quantify the relative contributions of processes affecting wetland elevation change. Historically, SET-MH measurements have been obtained at local scales to address site-specific research questions. However, in the face of accelerated sea-level rise, there is an increasing need for elevation change network data that can be incorporated into regional ecological models and vulnerability assessments. In particular, there is a need for long-term, high-temporal resolution data that are strategically distributed across ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients. Here, we quantify the distribution of SET-MH stations along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast (USA across political boundaries (states, wetland habitats, and ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients (i.e., gradients in temperature, precipitation, elevation, and relative sea-level rise. Our analyses identify areas with high SET-MH station densities as well as areas with notable gaps. Salt marshes, intermediate elevations, and colder areas with high rainfall have a high number of stations, while salt flat ecosystems, certain elevation zones, the mangrove-marsh ecotone, and hypersaline coastal areas with low rainfall have fewer stations. Due to rapid rates of wetland loss and relative sea-level rise, the state of Louisiana has the most extensive SET-MH station network in the region, and we provide several recent examples where data from Louisiana's network have been used to assess and compare wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise. Our findings represent the first attempt to examine spatial gaps in SET-MH coverage across abiotic gradients. Our

  16. Predictive equations for dimensions and leaf area of coastal Southern California street trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.J. Peper; E.G. McPherson; S.M. Mori

    2001-01-01

    Tree height, crown height, crown width, diameter at breast height (dbh), and leaf area were measured for 16 species of commonly planted street trees in the coastal southern California city of Santa Monica, USA. The randomly sampled trees were planted from 1 to 44 years ago. Using number of years after planting or dbh as explanatory variables, mean values of dbh, tree...

  17. Patterns of alien plant invasion across coastal bay areas in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai Ren; Qinfeng Guo; Hong Liu; Jing Li; Qianmei Zhang; Hualin Xu; Fanghong Xu

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the ways in which levels of invasions by alien species are correlated with environmental factors is helpful to manage the negative impacts of these invasive species. Two tropical coastal areas in South China, Shenzhen Bay and Leizhou Bay, are national nature reserves, but they are threatened by invasive plants. Here, we investigated the level of...

  18. Microeconomic motives of land use change in coastal zone area: agent based modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filatova, Tatiana; van der Veen, A.; Voinov, A.; Jakeman, A.; Rizolli, A.

    2006-01-01

    Economic growth causes growing urbanization, extension of tourist sector, infrastructure and change of natural landscape. These processes of land use change attract even more attention if they take place in coastal zone area. In that case not only the efficient allocation and preservation of natural

  19. Regeneration of the Urban Coastal area of Scheveningen : Pearl by the Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oorschot, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nowhere was the advancing globalization so visible as in the coastal area of Scheveningen, one of northwest Europe’s seaside resorts with a wealthy tradition nearby the capital city of The Hague. In the 19th century a consortium of bankers from Paris, Frankfurt, and Amsterdam established a

  20. The origin of brackish and saline groundwater in the coastal area of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, VEA; Van der Plicht, H; Meijer, HAJ

    An explanation is presented for the origin of brackish to saline groundwater in the coastal area of the Netherlands based on geological, chemical (chlorinity), isotopic and geophysical data. A critical review of all possible salinization mechanisms shows that the origin of the brackish water is

  1. The concept of community poverty reduction in coastal area of Surabaya based on sustainable livelihood approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, A. M.; Soewarni, I.; M, M., Sir

    2018-04-01

    Multidimensional poverty becomes a trademark of fisherman community including the community in Surabaya. The fishermen in Surabaya belong to a society with quite apprehensive welfare in all aspects covering economy, social, and environment. Therefore, this research aims to organize poverty reduction concept in coastal area of Surabaya based on sustainable livelihood which assesses poverty through 5 (five) livelihood assets i.e. human asset, natural asset, social asset, physical asset, and financial asset. This research is a qualitative research using rationalistic approach with explorative, descriptive, and perspective nature. Primary data collected using Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPA) and secondary data collected through agency and literature survey. Purposive sampling was employed in getting the sample. Then, the data were analyzed using content analysis, statistics descriptive analysis, and delphi analysis. The results show that sustainable livelihood level in coastal area of Surabaya indicates the human asset is 65% at the SLA level and the lowest is social asset which is 20%, and financial asset is the most affecting factors of poverty in coastal area of Surabaya since the expense for fuel cannot be compared to the fish catched. Community empowerment is the concept proposed to overcome the poverty problems in coastal area of Surabaya.

  2. The Abudance Of Makrozoobenthos On Different Break Water In Semarang And Demak Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiningsih, A.; Sugianto, D. N.; Munasik; Pribadi, R.; Suprijanto, J.

    2018-02-01

    The coast of Semarang and Demak has suffered some damage to its coastal areas. This damage is caused by natural factors and also human activities. There are number of mitigation methods such as hard, soft and hybrid that available for mitigation erosion. In Semarang and Demak coastal area using hard and hybrid option as their mitigation erotion. Breakwater is one of the way beach structure that often used as mitigation erosion di coastal area. Breakwater will cause sediment deposits that will become the living place of various organisms such as makrozoobenthos. The aim of this research is compare the abudance of makrozoobenthos in different type breakwater in Semarang and Demak coastal area.This research held on December 2016 - January 2017 in five different location with different breakwater type. Hard structure in Mangkang (West Semarang), Morosari (Demak district) and Tambak Lorok (North Semarang) and the hybrid engineering in Morosari 2 (Demak district) and Timbulsloko (Demak district). The method used in this study is descriptive comparative. Makrozoobenthos has been found in each station and the highest indeks is in hybrid engineering location. Polychaeta is a genus that dominates at every location because muddy sand is its main habitat.

  3. Near-coastal ocean variability off southern Tamaulipas - northern Veracruz, western Gulf of Mexico, during spring-summer 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, David

    2016-04-01

    Six months of observations from a near-coastal mooring deployed off southern Tamaulipas-northern Veracruz coast (western Gulf of Mexico) during spring-summer 2013 provides velocity, temperature, salinity, sea level, and dissolved oxygen series in a region which ocean dynamics is still poorly understood. As shown in a preceding analysis of this region's winter circulation for winter 2012-2013, coastal trapped motions associated with the regional invasion of synoptic cold fronts modulate the local variability; this pattern remains in the spring 2013, when even more intense events of alongshore flow (>50 cm/s) are observed. This intensified flow is associated with a significant decrease in the dissolved oxygen, most probably related to an influence of hypoxic waters coming from the northern Gulf. In late spring-mid summer, the wind pattern corresponds to persistent southeasterly winds that favor the occurrence of a local upwelling, which maintains a local thermal reduction (>3 degrees Celsius) and is associated with a persistent northward flow (>30 cm/s). The late summer was characterized by a significant tropical-cyclone activity, when a depression, a storm, and a hurricane affected the western Gulf. These tropical systems caused an intense precipitation and hence an important intensification of the local riverine discharge, and the winds enhanced the mixing of such riverine waters, via mostly kinetic stirring and Ekman pumping.

  4. Characterization of pollutants cycles evolution in a coastal mediterranean area under summer conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaza, J.; Artinano, B.

    1994-01-01

    This work performs a jointly interpretation of meteorological and pollutant concentration measurements during three experimental campaigns in the coastal and inland zones of Castellon, in summer time and prevailing local conditions. Thermal origin circulations, sea and land breezes, slope and valley winds, and local topography, give rise to daily cycle recirculation of pollutants, both at surface and higher levels. Related to the associated ozone levels, the observed natural background varies from 40-50 ppb, whom can be added 20-50 ppb as contribution by photochemical generation. This has been observed to be transported up to 100 Km inland and re-circulated again through the coastal Area. (Author) 7 refs

  5. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia has become a world-wide phenomenon in the global coastal ocean and causes a deterioration of the structure and function of ecosystems. Based on the collective contributions of members of SCOR Working Group #128, the present study provides an overview of the major aspects of coastal hypoxia in different biogeochemical provinces, including estuaries, coastal waters, upwelling areas, fjords and semi-enclosed basins, with various external forcings, ecosystem responses, feedbacks and potential impact on the sustainability of the fishery and economics. The obvious external forcings include freshwater runoff and other factors contributing to stratification, organic matter and nutrient loadings, as well as exchange between coastal and open ocean water masses. Their different interactions set up mechanisms that drive the system towards hypoxia. Coastal systems also vary in their relative susceptibility to hypoxia depending on their physical and geographic settings. It is understood that coastal hypoxia has a profound impact on the sustainability of ecosystems, which can be seen, for example, by the change in the food-web structure and system function; other influences include compression and loss of habitat, as well as changes in organism life cycles and reproduction. In most cases, the ecosystem responds to the low dissolved oxygen in non-linear ways with pronounced feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth System, including those that affect human society. Our knowledge and previous experiences illustrate that there is a need to develop new observational tools and models to support integrated research of biogeochemical dynamics and ecosystem behavior that will improve confidence in remediation management strategies for coastal hypoxia.

  6. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Gilbert, D.; Gooday, A. J.; Levin, L.; Naqvi, S. W. A.; Middelburg, J. J.; Scranton, M.; Ekau, W.; Peña, A.; Dewitte, B.; Oguz, T.; Monteiro, P. M. S.; Urban, E.; Rabalais, N. N.; Ittekkot, V.; Kemp, W. M.; Ulloa, O.; Elmgren, R.; Escobar-Briones, E.; van der Plas, A. K.

    2010-05-01

    Hypoxia has become a world-wide phenomenon in the global coastal ocean and causes a deterioration of the structure and function of ecosystems. Based on the collective contributions of members of SCOR Working Group #128, the present study provides an overview of the major aspects of coastal hypoxia in different biogeochemical provinces, including estuaries, coastal waters, upwelling areas, fjords and semi-enclosed basins, with various external forcings, ecosystem responses, feedbacks and potential impact on the sustainability of the fishery and economics. The obvious external forcings include freshwater runoff and other factors contributing to stratification, organic matter and nutrient loadings, as well as exchange between coastal and open ocean water masses. Their different interactions set up mechanisms that drive the system towards hypoxia. Coastal systems also vary in their relative susceptibility to hypoxia depending on their physical and geographic settings. It is understood that coastal hypoxia has a profound impact on the sustainability of ecosystems, which can be seen, for example, by the change in the food-web structure and system function; other influences include compression and loss of habitat, as well as changes in organism life cycles and reproduction. In most cases, the ecosystem responds to the low dissolved oxygen in non-linear ways with pronounced feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth System, including those that affect human society. Our knowledge and previous experiences illustrate that there is a need to develop new observational tools and models to support integrated research of biogeochemical dynamics and ecosystem behavior that will improve confidence in remediation management strategies for coastal hypoxia.

  7. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  8. Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Surface Sediment from Coastal Area of Putatan and Papar, Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Aishah Mohd Ali; Rohana Tair; Yang, S.Z.; Masni Mohd Ali

    2013-01-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and percent total organic carbon (TOC) were investigated in surface sediments from coastal area of Papar and Putatan, Sabah. Samples were collected in five different stations in each area by using Ponar grab sampler. Samples were extracted with Soxhlet, concentrated and analyzed by using UV/ VIS spectrophotometer. The overall mean and range of TPH concentrations in the sediments from coastal area of Papar and Putatan were 1.95 (0.53-4.59 mg/ kg dw Miri crude oil equivalents) and 0.85 (0.26-1.64 mg/ kg dw Miri crude oil equivalents) respectively. Meanwhile, the TOC ranged from 0.81-2.32 % and 0.35-0.81 % respectively. Statistical analysis using Pearson correlation showed no significant differences between TPH and TOC (p<0.05) in both areas. (author)

  9. Discovery of an endemic area of Gnathostoma turgidum infection among opossums, Didelphis virginiana, in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Camacho, Sylvia Páz; Willms, Kaethe; Rendón-Maldonado, José Guadalupe; de la Cruz-Otero, María del Carmen; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco; Robert, Lilia; Antuna, Silvia; León-Règagnon, Virginia; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2009-06-01

    Gnathostomosis, caused by Gnathostoma binucleatum, is a serious public health issue in Mexico. Although 2 other Gnathostoma spp., G. turgidum and G. lamothei, have been found in wild animals, their natural life cycle or their relation to human disease remains unclear. While we were conducting an epidemiological survey on Gnathostoma spp. in Sinaloa State, Mexico, we found an endemic area for G. turgidum in common opossums, Didelphis virginiana, located in Tecualilla, Sinaloa. The species identification was carried out by morphological and molecular biological methods. This is the first record of an endemic area for G. turgidum infection in opossums, D. virginiana, in the Americas.

  10. 78 FR 42021 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Gulf of Mexico Aggregated Large Coastal Shark and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... system by the dealer and received by NMFS no later than midnight, local time, of the first Tuesday... the Gulf of Mexico region that were harvested, off-loaded, and sold, traded, or bartered, prior to the..., or bartered from a vessel that fishes only in state waters and that has not been issued an Atlantic...

  11. Heavy metal pollution in coastal areas of South China: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shuai-Long; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Sun, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jin-Ling; Li, Hua-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Heavy metal contamination in coastal areas of South China has been reviewed. • Heavy metal levels were closely related to economic development in past decades. • Heavy metal levels from Hong Kong continually decreased from the early 1990s. • Higher concentrations of heavy metals were found in mollusk. • Levels of heavy metals in part of seafood exceeded the safety limit. -- Abstract: Coastal areas of South China face great challenges due to heavy metal contamination caused by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In this paper, more than 90 articles on levels, distributions, and sources of heavy metals in sediments and organisms were collected to review the status of heavy metal pollution along coastal regions of South China. The results show that heavy metal levels were closely associated with local economic development. Hong Kong and the Pearl River Estuary were severely contaminated by heavy metals. However, concentrations of heavy metals in sediments from Hong Kong have continually decreased since the early 1990s. High levels of heavy metals were found in biota from Lingdingyang in Guangdong province. Mollusks had higher concentrations of heavy metals than other species. Human health risk assessments suggested that levels of heavy metals in some seafood from coastal areas of South China exceeded the safety limit

  12. Measurement of high natural background radiation levels by TLD at Cox's Bazar coastal areas in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.; Rahman, M.M.; Koddus, M.A.; Husain, S.R.; Malek, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    High natural background radiation levels at the Cox's Bazar coastal areas in Bangladesh were measured by LiF (TLD-100) dosemeters. The dose rates varied from 2621 to 35391 μGy.y -1 with a mean of 11968 μGy.y -1 . The average dose rate is found to significantly higher than the world average value. In order to formulate appropriate guidelines for radiation protection of the population in this area, the necessary recommendations are described. (author)

  13. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. New Mexico, 2010 Census Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area (CBSA) State-based

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  16. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Taos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. MODELING OF OIL POLLUTION OF ARTIC SEA COASTAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the elastic filtration oil drive of oil in a layer based on the estimation of risks of environmental oil pollution because of accidental releases. The model of oil spillage and resorption by the precoat is based on continuity equation and Darcy rule as well as on equations of state taking into account fluid compressibility due to pressure. Filtering area is a line between the precoat and air. Oil filtering area is limited by soil surface below and by free surface above, its equation is known beforehand and is to be defined. The case of soil pollution from the point source, which is the point of fracture of pipeline or borehole, is considered. Upper and approximate estimates of the oil pollution radius due to different types of underlying terrains and to oil characteristics as well as to environmental conditions. The dynamics of oil free sur- face depending on spillage radii is calculated and presented. The estimates of temporary duration of oil filtering by the pre- coat in terms of light ends and soil type are made. The thickness of the oil film and the square of the spill upon condition of constant speed of oil spillage, horizontal position of underlying terrain and the proximity of pressure to normal are deter- mined. For the numerical implementation of the model different cases of oil spillage were considered. Under given values of air temperature, soil porosity and filtration speed the pollution radii according to light end, the time from the moment of accident till the leakage suppression and the speed of oil spillage was calculated.

  5. A multigear protocol for sampling crayfish assemblages in Gulf of Mexico coastal streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Budnick; William E. Kelso; Susan B. Adams; Michael D. Kaller

    2018-01-01

    Identifying an effective protocol for sampling crayfish in streams that vary in habitat and physical/chemical characteristics has proven problematic. We evaluated an active, combined-gear (backpack electrofishing and dipnetting) sampling protocol in 20 Coastal Plain streams in Louisiana. Using generalized linear models and rarefaction curves, we evaluated environmental...

  6. From comprehensive planning to the integration of both, territory and landscape: the State and the creation of touristic areas in coastal environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Francisco Reis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the apparent spontaneity, the transformation of coastal areas influenced by tourism development is also marked by the completion of planning efforts by national or local governments. Since first European interventions in the 1950s, with the provision of infrastructure, equipments and accommodations disconnected from the existing settlements, to the current efforts for qualification of previously developed areas, a great deal was achieved and gradually new variables were incorporated. This paper analyses some of these experiences in order to demonstrate how territory values, environmental issues and distinct urban morphologies have been incorporated intoTerritorial Planning of touristic areas. The sample includes cases of Languedoc Roussillon in France and FONATUR accomplishments in Mexico, examples of comprehensive Stateplanning, as well as planning interventions implemented from the 1990s in Spain, which synthesizes contemporary searches for qualification of touristic settlements developed in last decades.

  7. Assessment of tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingru; Yin, Baoshu

    2017-04-01

    Shandong province is located on the east coast of China and has a coastline of about 3100 km. There are only a few tsunami events recorded in the history of Shandong Province, but the tsunami hazard assessment is still necessary as the rapid economic development and increasing population of this area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential danger posed by tsunamis for Shandong Province. The numerical simulation method was adopted to assess the tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province. The Cornell multi-grid coupled tsunami numerical model (COMCOT) was used and its efficacy was verified by comparison with three historical tsunami events. The simulated maximum tsunami wave height agreed well with the observational data. Based on previous studies and statistical analyses, multiple earthquake scenarios in eight seismic zones were designed, the magnitudes of which were set as the potential maximum values. Then, the tsunamis they induced were simulated using the COMCOT model to investigate their impact on the coastal areas of Shandong Province. The numerical results showed that the maximum tsunami wave height, which was caused by the earthquake scenario located in the sea area of the Mariana Islands, could reach up to 1.39 m off the eastern coast of Weihai city. The tsunamis from the seismic zones of the Bohai Sea, Okinawa Trough, and Manila Trench could also reach heights of >1 m in some areas, meaning that earthquakes in these zones should not be ignored. The inundation hazard was distributed primarily in some northern coastal areas near Yantai and southeastern coastal areas of Shandong Peninsula. When considering both the magnitude and arrival time of tsunamis, it is suggested that greater attention be paid to earthquakes that occur in the Bohai Sea. In conclusion, the tsunami hazard facing the coastal area of Shandong Province is not very serious; however, disasters could occur if such events coincided with spring tides or other

  8. Military Operating Area Boundaries: Atlantic / Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An Operating Area (OPAREA) Complex boundary is the bounded area in which national defense training exercises and system qualification tests are routinely conducted....

  9. HYDROGEOLOGY AND CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF THE KARSTIC COASTAL AQUIFER IN NORTHERN YUCATAN STATE, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J Villasuso-Pino

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The coastal zone of northern Yucatan Peninsula (YP is mainly constituted by Tertiary limestones, covered by Pleistocen limestones, where there exist swamps and estuary systems, locally called “rías”, with mouths connecting them to the sea and hence being a way for an important amount of groundwater to discharge, like in Ría Lagartos and Celestún. These limestones have karstic layers located at depths from 8 to 16 meters below terrain surface.  It is in these layers where groundwater mainly flows toward coast, passing below the sand dune and discharging in the sea in the form of submarine springs which in many cases manifest themselves on the marine surface depending on the hydraulic or piezometric fresh water head. The width of the superficial limestone within this coastal fringe, called “caliche”, varies from 5 to 10 kilometers in the study zone (Chuburna-Progreso-Chicxulub.  Its permeability is extremely low, so it constitutes a confining layer that impedes superficial waters to percolate toward groundwater.  The hydraulic head of the groundwater below this confining layer is over the mean sea level and also over the swamp water level, coastal lagoons and estuaries. There are two important hydrological phenomena that occur in this coastal fringe: 1 There is no recharge to the aquifer (groundwater due to limestone rock outcrops is impermeable or semipermeable; and 2 groundwater pressure is not lost, nor saline interfase is rised if the superficial layer is broken.  The groundwater pollution vulnerability within this coastal fringe is less than that for the superficial saline waters of swamps and estuaries, because of caliche’s low intrinsic permeability that impedes percolation.

  10. Result of desalinating filter performance at representative coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Nobuyosi; Wada, Tadamasa

    1989-01-01

    In Japan, Nuclear energy facilities are usually located within 1 km from sea shore. Lately, manufacturing plants for semiconductors and precision machines have also taken locations at the sea side. At these locations, salt particles coming from the sea flow into a plant through its air-intakes. This is a problem, because if can cause electric equipment and other important equipment to deteriorate and may influence production yield. An effective solution to this problem is to install a filter at the air-intake. However, few data in this area is available, because the salt concentration in the air is too low to verify acutual affects of installed filters. This report describes the performance of a filter system installed in an actual building located 300 m from the sea shore. We used a radioactivation analysis method with a detection limit up to 0.01 μg/m 3 to measure concentrations at the up stream and down stream of the filter. A flame spectrochemical analysis measured salt adhering to filter materials. The particle collection performance averaged 80 % for the prefilter and 90 % for a desalinating filter. We also investigated the possibility that captured NaCl might rescatter with the deliquescence due to high humidity, and we found this phenomenon at least in the prefilter. (author)

  11. Nutrient enhanced coastal ocean productivity in the north Gulf of Mexico: understanding the effects of nutrients on a coastal ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The continental shelf adjacent to the Mississippi River is a highly productive system, often referred to as the fertile fisheries crescent. This productivity is attributed to the effects of the river, especially nutrient delivery. In the later decades of the 2oth century, though, changes in the system were becoming evident. Nutrient loads were seen to be increasing and reports of hypoxia were becoming more frequent. During most recent summers, a broad area (up to 20,000 krn2) of near botto...

  12. Surface albedo measurements in Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, T; Mar, B; Longoria, R; Ruiz Suarez, L. G [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Morales, L [Instituto de Geografia, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    Optical and thermal properties of soils are important input data for the meteorological and photochemical modules of air quality models. As development of these models increase on spatial resolution good albedo data become more important. In this paper measurements of surface albedo of UV (295-385 nm) and visible (450-550 nm) radiation are reported for different urban and rural surfaces in the vicinity of Mexico City. It was found for the downtown zone and average albedo value of 0.05 which is in very good agreement with reported values for urban surfaces. Our albedo values measured in UV region for grey cement and green grass are of 0.10 and 0.009, respectively, and quite similar to those found at the literature of 0.11 and 0.008 for those type of surfaces. [Spanish] Las propiedades opticas y termicas de suelos son datos importantes para los modulos meteorologicos y fotoquimicos de los modelos de calidad del aire. Conforme aumenta la resolucion espacial del modelo se vuelve mas importante contar con buenos datos de albedo. En este articulo se presentan mediciones de albedo superficial de radiacion Ultravioleta (295-385 nm) y visible (450-550 nm) para diferentes superficies urbanas. Los valores medidos de albedo en la region UV para cemento gris y pasto verde son de 0.10 y 0.009, respectivamente, y son muy similares a los reportados en la literatura, 0.11 y 0.008 para este tipo de superficies.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN THE COASTAL URBAN AREA OF KALLITHEA IN ATTICA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agisilaos Economou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the majority of coastal urban areas facing issues concerning economic growth in combination with environmental protection. These challenges have led local authorities to take immediate measures as well as the European Union to formulate new policies. This study refers to the environmental problems of the coastal urban area of Kallithea and on the measures that have been taken in response. Specifically, it focuses on land uses, natural resources and business. To conduct this study a method of personal interviews with the local authorities and an in situ research took place. At the same time, the survey focuses on action and policies that have been implemented until now regarding growth and improving of the quality of life. The results showed despite the problems the research area presents, it has dynamics for growth developments and revitalization. The implementation of new measures and new policies under the frame of sustainable development, taking into account the directives of European Union, is required.

  14. Surface and airborne measurements of organosulfur and methanesulfonate over the western United States and coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, Armin; Crosbie, Ewan; Maudlin, Lindsay C.; Youn, Jong-Sang; Wang, Zhen; Shingler, Taylor; Ortega, Amber M.; Hersey, Scott; Woods, Roy K.

    2015-08-01

    This study reports on ambient measurements of organosulfur (OS) and methanesulfonate (MSA) over the western United States and coastal areas. Particulate OS levels are highest in summertime and generally increase as a function of sulfate (a precursor) and sodium (a marine tracer) with peak levels at coastal sites. The ratio of OS to total sulfur is also highest at coastal sites, with increasing values as a function of normalized difference vegetation index and the ratio of organic carbon to elemental carbon. Correlative analysis points to significant relationships between OS and biogenic emissions from marine and continental sources, factors that coincide with secondary production, and vanadium due to a suspected catalytic role. A major OS species, methanesulfonate (MSA), was examined with intensive field measurements, and the resulting data support the case for vanadium's catalytic influence. Mass size distributions reveal a dominant MSA peak between aerodynamic diameters of 0.32-0.56 µm at a desert and coastal site with nearly all MSA mass (≥84%) in submicrometer sizes; MSA:non-sea-salt sulfate ratios vary widely as a function of particle size and proximity to the ocean. Airborne data indicate that relative to the marine boundary layer, particulate MSA levels are enhanced in urban and agricultural areas and also the free troposphere when impacted by biomass burning. Some combination of fires and marine-derived emissions leads to higher MSA levels than either source alone. Finally, MSA differences in cloud water and out-of-cloud aerosol are discussed.

  15. Health Effects of Coastal Storms and Flooding in Urban Areas: A Review and Vulnerability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Lane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal storms can take a devastating toll on the public's health. Urban areas like New York City (NYC may be particularly at risk, given their dense population, reliance on transportation, energy infrastructure that is vulnerable to flood damage, and high-rise residential housing, which may be hard-hit by power and utility outages. Climate change will exacerbate these risks in the coming decades. Sea levels are rising due to global warming, which will intensify storm surge. These projections make preparing for the health impacts of storms even more important. We conducted a broad review of the health impacts of US coastal storms to inform climate adaptation planning efforts, with a focus on outcomes relevant to NYC and urban coastal areas, and incorporated some lessons learned from recent experience with Superstorm Sandy. Based on the literature, indicators of health vulnerability were selected and mapped within NYC neighborhoods. Preparing for the broad range of anticipated effects of coastal storms and floods may help reduce the public health burden from these events.

  16. Health effects of coastal storms and flooding in urban areas: a review and vulnerability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathryn; Charles-Guzman, Kizzy; Wheeler, Katherine; Abid, Zaynah; Graber, Nathan; Matte, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Coastal storms can take a devastating toll on the public's health. Urban areas like New York City (NYC) may be particularly at risk, given their dense population, reliance on transportation, energy infrastructure that is vulnerable to flood damage, and high-rise residential housing, which may be hard-hit by power and utility outages. Climate change will exacerbate these risks in the coming decades. Sea levels are rising due to global warming, which will intensify storm surge. These projections make preparing for the health impacts of storms even more important. We conducted a broad review of the health impacts of US coastal storms to inform climate adaptation planning efforts, with a focus on outcomes relevant to NYC and urban coastal areas, and incorporated some lessons learned from recent experience with Superstorm Sandy. Based on the literature, indicators of health vulnerability were selected and mapped within NYC neighborhoods. Preparing for the broad range of anticipated effects of coastal storms and floods may help reduce the public health burden from these events.

  17. Microplastics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Xiamen coastal areas: Implications for anthropogenic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guowen; Liu, Mengyang; Zhou, Qian; He, Haixia; Chen, Kai; Zhang, Haibo; Hu, Jiahui; Huang, Qinghui; Luo, Yongming; Ke, Hongwei; Chen, Bin; Xu, Xiangrong; Cai, Minggang

    2018-09-01

    Microplastics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated to study the influence of human activities and to find their possible relationship on the coastal environments, where the coastal areas around Xiamen are undergoing intensive processes of industrialization and urbanization in the southeast China. The abundance of microplastics in Xiamen coastal areas was 103 to 2017particles/m 3 in surface seawater and 76 to 333 particles/kg in sediments. Concentrations of dissolved PAHs varied from 18.1 to 248ng/L in surface seawater. The abundances of microplastics from the Western Harbor in surface seawater and sediments were higher than those from other areas. Foams were dominated in surface seawater samples, however, no foams were found in sediments samples. The microscope selection and FTIR analysis suggested that polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) were dominant microplastics. The cluster analysis results demonstrated that fibers and granules had the similar sources, and films had considerably correlation with all types of PAHs (3 or 4-ring PAHs and alkylated PAHs). Plastic film mulch from agriculture practice might be a potential source of microplastics in study areas. Results of our study support that river runoff, watershed area, population and urbanization rate influence the distribution of microplastics in estuarine surface water, and the prevalence of microplastic pollution calls for monitoring microplastics at a national scale. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A combined field/remote sensing approach for characterizing landslide risk in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francioni, Mirko; Coggan, John; Eyre, Matthew; Stead, Doug

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the key factors controlling slope failure mechanisms in coastal areas is the first and most important step for analyzing, reconstructing and predicting the scale, location and extent of future instability in rocky coastlines. Different failure mechanisms may be possible depending on the influence of the engineering properties of the rock mass (including the fracture network), the persistence and type of discontinuity and the relative aspect or orientation of the coastline. Using a section of the North Coast of Cornwall, UK, as an example we present a multi-disciplinary approach for characterizing landslide risk associated with coastal instabilities in a blocky rock mass. Remotely captured terrestrial and aerial LiDAR and photogrammetric data were interrogated using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques to provide a framework for subsequent analysis, interpretation and validation. The remote sensing mapping data was used to define the rock mass discontinuity network of the area and to differentiate between major and minor geological structures controlling the evolution of the North Coast of Cornwall. Kinematic instability maps generated from aerial LiDAR data using GIS techniques and results from structural and engineering geological surveys are presented. With this method, it was possible to highlight the types of kinematic failure mechanism that may generate coastal landslides and highlight areas that are more susceptible to instability or increased risk of future instability. Multi-temporal aerial LiDAR data and orthophotos were also studied using GIS techniques to locate recent landslide failures, validate the results obtained from the kinematic instability maps through site observations and provide improved understanding of the factors controlling the coastal geomorphology. The approach adopted is not only useful for academic research, but also for local authorities and consultancy's when assessing the likely risks of coastal instability.

  19. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Gilbert, D.; Gooday, A.; Levin, L.; Naqvi, W.; Middelburg, J.; Scranton, M.; Ekau, W.; Pena, A.; Dewitte, B.; Oguz, T.; Monteiro, P. M. S.; Urban, E.; Rabalais, N.; Ittekkot, V.; Kemp, W. M.; Ulloa, O.; Elmgren, R.; Escobar-Briones, E.; van der Plas, A.

    2009-11-01

    Hypoxia has become a world-wide phenomenon in the global coastal ocean and causes deterioration of structure and function of ecosystems. Based on the collective contributions of members of SCOR Working Group #128, the present study provides an overview of the major aspects of coastal hypoxia in different biogeochemical provinces, including estuaries, upwelling areas, fjords and semi-enclosed basins, with various external forcings, ecosystem responses, feedbacks and potential impact on the sustainability of the fishery and economics. The obvious external forcings include fresh water runoff and other factors contributing to stratification, organic matter and nutrient loadings, as well as exchange between coastal and open ocean water masses; their different interactions set up mechanisms that drive the system towards hypoxia. However, whether the coastal environment becomes hypoxic or not, under the combination of external forcings, depends also on the nature of the ecosystem, e.g. physical and geographic settings. It is understood that coastal hypoxia has a profound impact on the sustainability of ecosystems, which can be seen, for example, by the change in the food-web structure and system function; other influences can be compression and loss of habitat, as well as change in life cycle and reproduction. In most cases, the ecosystem responds to the low dissolved oxygen in a non-linear way and has pronounced feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth System, hence affecting human society. Our knowledge and previous experiences illustrate that there is a need to develop new observational tools and models to support integrated research of biogeochemical dynamics and ecosystem behaviour that will improve confidence in remediation management strategies for coastal hypoxia.

  20. Vulnerability of the Nile Delta coastal areas to inundation by sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassaan, M A; Abdrabo, M A

    2013-08-01

    Sea level changes are typically caused by several natural phenomena, including ocean thermal expansion, glacial melt from Greenland and Antarctica. Global average sea level is expected to rise, through the twenty-first century, according to the IPCC projections by between 0.18 and 0.59 cm. Such a rise in sea level will significantly impact coastal area of the Nile Delta, consisting generally of lowland and is densely populated areas and accommodates significant proportion of Egypt's economic activities and built-up areas. The Nile Delta has been examined in several previous studies, which worked under various hypothetical sea level rise (SLR) scenarios and provided different estimates of areas susceptible to inundation due to SLR. The paper intends, in this respect, to identify areas, as well as land use/land cover, susceptible to inundation by SLR based upon most recent scenarios of SLR, by the year 2100 using GIS. The results indicate that about 22.49, 42.18, and 49.22 % of the total area of coastal governorates of the Nile Delta would be susceptible to inundation under different scenarios of SLR. Also, it was found that 15.56 % of the total areas of the Nile Delta that would be vulnerable to inundation due to land subsidence only, even in the absence of any rise in sea level. Moreover, it was found that a considerable proportion of these areas (ranging between 32.32 and 53.66 %) are currently either wetland or undeveloped areas. Furthermore, natural and/or man-made structures, such as the banks of the International Coastal Highway, were found to provide unintended protection to some of these areas. This suggests that the inundation impact of SLR on the Nile Delta is less than previously reported.

  1. Pvevalence of hypertension in people living in coastal areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abu Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of hypertension was reported higher in the coastal areas in different populations of the world. There was no study on the prevalence of hypertension among the coastal people in Bangladesh. This study addressed the prevalence and risk of hypertension among people living in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. Total 32 different coastal communities were selected purposively in the six coastal districts (Barisal, Borguna, Vola, Pirojpur, Potuakhali and Jhalukathi of Bangladesh. All people over 18 years were considered eligible. Social, clinical and family histories were taken. Height, weight, waist- and hip-girths were measured including systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP. Fasting blood glucose and lipids were also estimated. The accepted cut offs for systolic hypertension (sHTN was ³135mmHg and diastolic hypertension (dHTN was ³85 mmHg. Overall, 7058 (m / f = 2631 / 4427 people volunteered to participate in the study. The crude prevalence of sHTN was 17.8% [95% CI, 17.39 – 18.21] and dHTN was 19.0% [95% CI 18.08 – 19.92]. Compared to female, the male participants had higher prevalence of both sHTN (16.4 v. 20.2 %, p<0.001 and dHTN (17.4 v. 21.5%, p<0.001. The prevalence rates of sHTN were 14.6, 18.5 and 24.6% in the poor, the middle and in the rich class, respectively (p<0.001. Similar trend was observed with dHTN. Both types of HTN increased with increasing age (p<0.001, BMI (p<0.001, WHR (p<0.001 and WHtR (p<0.001. Logistic regression analyses proved that the participants of higher social class, of advancing age and with higher obesity had excess risk of hypertension. Positive family history of HTN, DM and stroke had also increased risk for HTN. We found higher prevalence of HTN in Bangladeshi coastal population compared to people living in other areas of Bangladesh. Family history of DM, HTN and stroke were significantly related to sHTN and dHTN. Increasing age, higher obesity and higher social class had excess

  2. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.720 Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters Air Proving...

  3. From TBT to booster biocides: Levels and impacts of antifouling along coastal areas of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista-Andrade, Jahir Antonio; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Batista, Rodrigo Moço; Castro, Italo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2018-03-01

    Antifouling biocides in surface sediments and gastropod tissues were assessed for the first time along coastal areas of Panama under the influence of maritime activities, including one of the world's busiest shipping zones: the Panama Canal. Imposex incidence was also evaluated in five muricid species distributed along six coastal areas of Panama. This TBT-related biological alteration was detected in three species, including the first report in Purpura panama. Levels of organotins (TBT, DBT, and MBT) in gastropod tissues and surficial sediments ranged from TBT inputs were observed in areas considered as moderate to highly contaminated mainly by inputs from fishing and leisure boats. Regarding booster biocides, TCMTB and dichlofluanid were not detected in any sample, while irgarol 1051, diuron and DCOIT levels ranged from TBT (149 ng Sn g -1 ) and irgarol 1051 (2.8 ng g -1 ), as well as relevant level of DCOIT (5.7 ng g -1 ), were detected in a marina used by recreational boats. Additionally, relatively high diuron values (14.1 ng g -1 ) were also detected in the Panama Canal associate to a commercial port. DCOIT concentrations were associated with the presence of antifouling paint particles in sediments obtained nearby shipyard or boat maintenance sites. The highest levels of TBT, irgarol 1051, and diuron exceeded international sediment quality guidelines indicating that toxic effects could be expected in coastal areas of Panama. Thus, the simultaneous impacts produced by new and old generations of antifouling paints highlight a serious environmental issue in Panamanian coastal areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Seasonal variations in 228Ra/226Ra ratio within coastal waters of the Sea of Japan: implications for water circulation patterns in coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, M.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, S.; Kofuji, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Komura, K.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, low-background γ-spectrometry was used to determine the 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratio of 131 coastal water samples from various environments around Honshu Island, Japan (mainly around Noto Peninsula) at 1-3 month intervals from April 2003 until September 2005. Spatial variation in 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratios was also assessed by analyzing 34 coastal water samples from five areas within the Sea of Japan during May and June 2004. The 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratio of coastal water from all sites around Noto Peninsula shows seasonal variation, with minimum values during summer ( 228 Ra/ 226 Ra = 0.7) and maximum values during autumn-winter ( 228 Ra/ 226 Ra = 1.7-2). This seasonal variation is similar to that recorded for coastal water between Tsushima Strait and Noto Peninsula. The measured lateral variation in 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratios within coastal water between Tsushima Strait and Noto Peninsula is only minor (0.5-0.7; May-June 2004). Coastal waters from two other sites (Pacific shore and Tsugaru Strait, north Honshu) show no clear seasonal variation in 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratio. These measured variations in 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratio, especially the temporal variations, have important implications for seasonal changes in patterns of coastal water circulation within the Sea of Japan

  5. SLR-induced changes on storm flooding in coastal areas: the role of accommodation space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Jose A.; Dockx, Stijn; Monbaliu, Jaak

    2015-04-01

    Most of existing predictions of climate-induce changes in coastal storminess in the Mediterranean indicate the absence of any significant increasing trend in neither wave height nor surge. However, this does not mean that magnitude and/or frequency of storm-induced coastal hazards will not be affected by climate change. Thus, sea level rise will induce a series of long-term changes in coastal areas that although not directly affecting storminess will interact with storm-induced processes and, thus, changing coastal storm risks. A typical approach to account SLR-induced effects on coastal inundation by storms is to modify present water level extreme climate by adding expected MWL increase. This implies to consider the coast as a static and passive system to SLR maintaining its configuration from actual to projected (rised) sea level and, as a result of this, the frequency of flood events should increase and, the magnitude of flooding associated to a probability of occurrence will also increase. This will only be realistic for really passive or rigid coasts. However, sandy coastlines will response to SLR and, thus, this approach should undervalue coastal resilience. Within this context, the main aim of this work is to propose a method to assess the effects of SLR on the magnitude of storm-induced coastal flooding on sandy coastlines taking into account their capacity of response. It combines the use of a inundation model (LISFLOOD-FP) for delineating the flood-prone area for given storm conditions and, a coastal module to account for SLR-induced changes in the coastal fringe. The method assumes an equilibrium-type coastal response to SLR which, ideally, implies that the beach profile will be reconstructed under the new higher water level, in such a way that the relative beach configuration will be the same. However, this should only be possible provided there is enough accommodation space in the hinterland. In most of developed coasts, the existence of human built

  6. Planning report for the Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Hayes F.

    1984-01-01

    Large quantities of water for municipal, industrial and agriculture use are supplied from the aquifers in Tertiary and younger sediments over an area of about 225,000 square miles in the Coastal Plain of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, and Texas. Three regional aquifer systems, the Mississippi Embayment aquifer system, the Coastal Lowlands aquifer system, and the Texas Coastal Uplands aquifer system have been developed to varying degrees throughout the area. A variety of problems has resulted from development such as movement of the saline-freshwater interface into parts of aquifers that were previously fresh, lowering of the potentiometric surface with resulting increases in pumping lift, and land-surface subsidence due to the compaction of clays within the aquifer. Increased demand for ground water is anticipated to meet the needs of urban growth, expanded energy development, and growth of irrigated agriculture. The U. S. Geological Survey initiated an eightyear study in 1981 to define the geohydrologic framework, describe the chemistry of the ground water, and to analyze the regional ground-water flow patterns. The objectives, plan, and organization of the study are described in this report and the major tasks to be undertaken are outlined.

  7. Joint Calibration of Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) with Tidal Pumping: Modeling Variable-density Groundwater Flow in Unconfined Coastal Aquifer of Apalachee Bay, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Hu, B.; Burnett, W.; Santos, I.

    2008-05-01

    Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) as an unseen phenomenon is now recognized as an important pathway between land and sea. These discharges typically display significant spatial and temporal variability making quantification difficult. Groundwater seepage is patchy, diffuse, and temporally variable, and thus makes the estimation of its magnitude and components is a challenging enterprise. A two-dimensional hydrogeological model is developed to the near-shore environment of an unconfined aquifer at a Florida coastal area in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Intense geological survey and slug tests are set to investigate the heterogeneity of this layered aquifer. By applying SEAWAT2000, considering the uncertainties caused by changes of boundary conditions, a series of variable-density-flow models incorporates the tidal-influenced seawater recirculation and the freshwater-saltwater mixing zone under the dynamics of tidal pattern, tidal amplitude and variation of water table. These are thought as the contributing factors of tidal pumping and hydraulic gradient which are the driven forces of SGD. A tidal-influenced mixing zone in the near-shore aquifer shows the importance of tidal mechanism to flow and salt transport in the process of submarine pore water exchange. Freshwater ratio in SGD is also analyzed through the comparison of Submarine Groundwater Recharge and freshwater inflow. The joint calibration with other methods (natural tracer model and seepage meter) is also discussed.

  8. Distribution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal areas of Okinawa Island, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Surface sediment and seawater samples were collected from coastal areas around Okinawa Island from September 2001 to May 2002. The samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and homolog composition. The results show that total PCB levels ranged from 0.32 to 128.7 ng/g (dry wt.) in sediment and 1.59 to 2.48 ng/L in seawater. The levels exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water pollution of Japan. The distribution of PCB homolog showed different patterns in the sediments and seawaters. Penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) comprised the main congener group in seawater, while hexa-CBs were more abundant homologs in the sediments. The heavily contaminated sites featured higher CBs, including penta-CBs, hexa-CBs, and hepta-CBs, than those in less contaminated sites where tri-CBs dominated. This study provides current distribution and geochemical behavior of PCBs in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island.

  9. Revegetation increase bird diversity in coastal area of Socorejo, Tuban, East Java - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Yeni Indah; Edi, Wasito; Alivvy, Alkautsar; Ibadah, Acib Setia; Sari, Fadina Yuliana; Nuraini, Finda; Yanuar, Ahmad; Satriyono, Agus; Riany, Citra Fitrie; Saptarini, Dian; Muzaki, Farid Kamal

    2017-06-01

    Study to address positive impact of revegetation program to increasing diversity of bird had been conducted in coastal area of Socorejo, Tuban - Indonesia. Field observation conducted during April 2011 (representing pre-revegetation period), April 2015 and May 2016 (representing post-revegetation period). A belt transect (500 meter long and 50 meter width) was used to survey the abundance and species composition of birds community. In general, we identified at least 51 bird species from three observation times. From 2011 to 2016, the numbers of the birds identified are 23, 37 and 37 species; while the Shannon-Wiener diversity indices (H') are 1.865, 2.071 and 2.957, respectively. In addition, there are 11 national or internationally protected species, 3 Indonesian endemic species and 12 migratory species occurred in the area. As a conclusion, the coastal revegetation program provides positive impact by generating habitat function for bird community.

  10. Landscape pattern evolution of the north of Hangzhou bay coastal area in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Shuai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s in Shanghai,fast economic development,rapid urbanization,population explosion,all of these phenomena are driving radical changes in landscape pattern of coastal area.The landscape pattern evolution at the coastal regions of the north of the Hangzhou bay is analysed based on the landscape ecology theory and method by using Fragstats 3.3 software.3S technology is utilized to interpretate the sensing images at three phase in 1994,2003,2007,and selected two landscape index of the landscape level to study six town from time and space on the contrast analysis.The results show that farmland landscape is the dominant landscape in research area,landscape diversity is high and shows ascendant trend;For 13 years,six towns’(street fragmentation degree increase,the Luchaogang town has the highest degree of fragmentation.

  11. Monitoring of suspended sediment variation using Landsat and MODIS in the Saemangeum coastal area of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jee-Eun; Ryu, Joo-Hyung; Lee, Seok; Son, Seunghyun

    2012-02-01

    Suspended sediment concentration (SS) is an important indicator of marine environmental changes due to natural causes such as tides, tidal currents, and river discharges, as well as human activities such as construction in coastal regions. In the Saemangeum area on the west coast of Korea, construction of a huge tidal dyke for land reclamation has strongly influenced the coastal environment. This study used remotely sensed data to analyze the SS changes in coastal waters caused by the dyke construction. Landsat and MODIS satellite images were used for the spatial analysis of finer patterns and for the detailed temporal analysis, respectively. Forty Landsat scenes and 105 monthly composite MODIS images observed during 1985-2010 were employed, and four field campaigns (from 2005 to 2006) were performed to verify the image-derived SS. The results of the satellite data analyses showed that the seawater was clear before the dyke construction, with SS values lower than 20 g/m(3). These values increased continuously as the dyke construction progressed. The maximum SS values appeared just before completion of the fourth dyke. Values decreased to below 5 g/m(3) after dyke construction. These changes indicated tidal current modification. Some eddies and plumes were observed in the images generated from Landsat data. Landsat and MODIS can reveal that coastal water turbidity was greatly reduced after completion of the construction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Activity concentrations of 239+240 Pu in sediment at Sabah and Sarawak coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal Sharib; Zaharudin Ahmad; Yii Mei Wo; Hidayah Shahar

    2009-01-01

    The coastal sediment sampling was carried out in July 2004 as part of the Marine Radioactivity Database Development Project for Malaysia. The determination of plutonium, 239+240 Pu activity concentration and their distributions along the coastal areas of Sabah and Sarawak was by the alpha spectrometry counting system. Prior to counting, the radionuclides were isolated from the samples using radiochemical separation technique and mounted on a stainless steel disc by using electro-deposition. The results show that the distribution of 239+240 Pu activity concentration in coastal sediment is consistent, ranging from BDL - 1.83 Bq/kg and 0.11 - 0.84 Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. Lubok Sabanan, SB 15, in Sabah and Sungai Similajau, SR 13, in Sarawak were sampling stations that gave highest 239+240 Pu activity concentration. Overall, the 239+240 Pu activity concentration of Sabah and Sarawak are slightly higher in comparison the West Coast coastal stations of Peninsular Malaysia, and can be used as database. (Author)

  13. Activities concentration of 239+240Pu in sediment in Sabah and Sarawak coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal Sharib; Zaharudin Ahmad; Yii Mei Wo; Ahmad Sanadi Abu Bakar; Norfaizal Mohamed; Kamarozaman Ishak; Zulkifli Daud

    2008-08-01

    The determination of plutonium, 239+240 Pu activity concentration and their distributions along the coastal area of the Sabah and Sarawak have been performed using alpha spectrometry counting system. The sampling coastal sediment for this study was carried out in July 2004 as part of the Marine Radioactivity Database Development Project for Malaysia. This results show that the distribution of Plutonium, 239+240 Pu radionuclides in coastal sediment is consistent, their activities are depending on the sampling locations. Generally, the 239+240 Pu activities measured in Sabah and Sarawak coastal sediment are in the range of BDL - 1.83 Bq/kg and 0.11 - 0.841 Bq/kg dry weights, respectively. The sampling stations, Persisiran Lubok Sabanan, SB 15 and Sungai Similajau, SR 13 showed the highest plutonium, 239+240 Pu radionuclides isotopes activity in Sabah and Sarawak. Meanwhile, these two stations shows higher activity compare to West Coast of Peninsular of Malaysia station for the Marine Radioactivity Database Development Project for Malaysia. (Author)

  14. Gulf of Mexico Sales 142 and 143: Central and western planning areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) addresses two proposed Federal actions, lease Sales 142 and 143, that will offer for lease Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) areas that may contain economically recoverable oil and gas resources. The lease sales are proposed for 1993 and include lease blocks in the Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA) and Western Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (WPA). Up to 10,099 blocks will be available for lease under the two proposed actions; only a small percentage is expected to be actually leased. On average, 401 blocks in the Central Gulf and 264 blocks in the Western Gulf have been leased in individual Gulf of Mexico OCS lease sales since 1984. Of the blocks that will be leased as a result of the two proposed actions, only a portion will be drilled and result in subsequent production. The scoping process was used to obtain information and comments on the proposed actions and the potential environmental effects from diverse interests, including the affected States, Federal agencies, the petroleum industry, environmental and public interest groups, and concerned individuals. The input from these sources aided in the identification of significant issues, possible alternatives to the proposed actions, and potential mitigating measures

  15. Gulf of Mexico Sales 142 and 143: Central and western planning areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) addresses two proposed Federal actions, lease Sales 142 and 143, that will offer for lease Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) areas that may contain economically recoverable oil and gas resources. The lease sales are proposed for 1993 and include lease blocks in the Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA) and Western Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (WPA). Up to 10,099 blocks will be available for lease under the two proposed actions; only a small percentage is expected to be actually leased. On average, 401 blocks in the Central Gulf and 264 blocks in the Western Gulf have been leased in individual Gulf of Mexico OCS lease sales since 1984. Of the blocks that will be leased as a result of the two proposed actions, only a portion will be drilled and result in subsequent production. The scoping process was used to obtain information and comments on the proposed actions and the potential environmental effects from diverse interests, including the affected States, Federal agencies, the petroleum industry, environmental and public interest groups, and concerned individuals. This volume, Volume 2, reports on impacts from Sales 142 and 143

  16. Phytoplankton variation and its relation to nutrients and allochthonous organic matter in a coastal lagoon on the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aké-Castillo, José A.; Vázquez, Gabriela

    2008-07-01

    In tropical and subtropical zones, coastal lagoons are surrounded by mangrove communities which are a source of high quantity organic matter that enters the aquatic system through litter fall. This organic matter decomposes, becoming a source of nutrients and other substances such as tannins, fulvic acids and humic acids that may affect the composition and productivity of phytoplankton communities. Sontecomapan is a coastal lagoon located in the southern Gulf of Mexico, which receives abundant litter fall from mangrove. To study the phytoplankton composition and its variation in this lagoon from October 2002 to October 2003, we evaluated the concentrations of dissolved folin phenol active substances (FPAS) as a measure of plant organic matter, salinity, temperature, pH, O 2, N-NH 4+, N-NO 3-, P-PO 43-, Si-SiO 2, and phytoplanktonic cell density in different mangrove influence zones including the three main rivers that feed the lagoon. Nutrients concentrations depended on freshwater from rivers, however these varied seasonally. Concentrations of P-PO 43-, N-NH 4+ and FPAS were the highest in the dry season, when maximum mangrove litter fall is reported. Variation of these nutrients seemed to depend on the internal biogeochemical processes of the lagoon. Blooms of diatoms ( Skeletonema spp., Cyclotella spp. and Chaetoceros holsaticus) and dinoflagellates ( Peridinium aff. quinquecorne, Prorocentrum cordatum) occurred seasonally and in the different mangrove influence zones. The high cell densities in these zones and the occurrence of certain species and its ordination along gradient of FPAS in a canonical correspondence analysis, suggest that plant organic matter (i.e. mangrove influence) may contribute to phytoplankton dynamics in Sontecomapan lagoon.

  17. Analysis of Compound Water Hazard in Coastal Urbanized Areas under the Future Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuo, Y.; Taniguchi, K.; Sanuki, H.; Yoshimura, K.; Lee, S.; Tajima, Y.; Koike, T.; Furumai, H.; Sato, S.

    2017-12-01

    Several studies indicate the increased frequency and magnitude of heavy rainfalls as well as the sea level rise under the future climate, which implies that coastal low-lying urbanized areas may experience increased risk against flooding. In such areas, where river discharge, tidal fluctuation, and city drainage networks altogether influence urban inundation, it is necessary to consider their potential interference to understand the effect of compound water hazard. For instance, pump stations cannot pump out storm water when the river water level is high, and in the meantime the river water level shall increase when it receives pumped water from cities. At the further downstream, as the tidal fluctuation regulates the water levels in the river, it will also affect the functionality of pump stations and possible inundation from rivers. In this study, we estimate compound water hazard in the coastal low-lying urbanized areas of the Tsurumi river basin under the future climate. We developed the seamlessly integrated river, sewerage, and coastal hydraulic model that can simulate river water levels, water flow in sewerage network, and inundation from the rivers and/or the coast to address the potential interference issue. As a forcing, the pseudo global warming method, which applies the changes in GCM anomaly to re-analysis data, is employed to produce ensemble typhoons to drive the seamlessly integrated model. The results show that heavy rainfalls caused by the observed typhoon generally become stronger under the pseudo global climate condition. It also suggests that the coastal low-lying areas become extensively inundated if the onset of river flooding and storm surge coincides.

  18. Air emissions perspective on energy efficiency: An empirical analysis of China’s coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Quande; Li, Xin; Li, Li; Zhen, Wei; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate the static and dynamic energy efficiency in China’s coastal areas. • Both environmental pollutants and greenhouse gas are considered. • Global benchmark technology is incorporated into the related DEA models. • China’s coastal areas have great potential of air emissions reduction. • Technological progress is main driven factor to improve energy efficiency. - Abstract: Improving energy efficiency has been recognized as the most effective way to reduce the greenhouse effect and achieve sustainable development. From the perspective of air emissions, this paper adopts data envelopment analysis approach to evaluate the energy efficiency in China’s coastal areas over the period of 2000–2012. Carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide are treated as undesirable outputs of energy consumptions. The proposed global Epsilon-based measure is used to estimate the static energy efficiency with an annual cross-section of data. The weights of the three undesirable outputs are determined according to their treatment costs. A global Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index based on directional distance function is employed to dynamically evaluate the energy efficiency. The results indicate the following in China’s coastal areas: (1) the level of economic development is positively related to energy efficiency scores; (2) energy efficiency scores decrease when considering undesirable outputs except Beijing and Hainan; (3) the Circum-Bohai Sea Economic Region greatly improves energy efficiency and has great potential of air emission; (4) the annual growth rate of Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index change is overestimated; (5) energy efficiency improvement is mainly driven by technological improvement, and scale efficiency and management level are the main obstacles.

  19. Geophysical detection of marine intrusions in Black Sea coastal areas (Romania) using VES and ERT data

    OpenAIRE

    CHITEA, Florina; GEORGESCU, Paul; IOANE, Dumitru

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. Communities living in coastal areas depend in a great extent on the fresh water resources exploited from aquifers which are usually in a natural hydrodynamic equilibrium with the sea water. The contamination of fresh water with marine saltwater determines a significant increase in the aquifers electric conductivity, allowing an efficient application of resistivity methods in detecting and monitoring the marine intrusions. We present case studies from Romania (Costinesti and Vama Vec...

  20. Resting eggs in a key player Calanoid copepod in coastal areas. The case of Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drillet, Guillaume; Hansen, Benni Winding

      Acartia tonsa is an invasive copepod of the European coastal waters, first described in France in 1926, it was found later in most of the European coastal areas. These invasions are believed to come from transport of resting eggs in ships ballast water. In this presentation, I will show the main...

  1. Mobility and retention of Co-60 in soils in coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahara, Y.; Kudo, A.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mobility of radioactive cobalt ( 60 Co), a typical operating waste, in soils in coastal areas (where all Japanese commercial reactors are located). The results of this investigation may assist in evaluating a degree of safety for the future disposal of radioactive wastes underground. Freshwater and seawater were examined under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions by simulating the environmental conditions of the soils in coastal areas. More than 80% of 60 Co moves freely within soils covered by seawater under anaerobic conditions. Furthermore, the cobalt in the water phase can pass through a dialysis membrane with a pore size of 24 A. This indicates that the cobalt is either in ionic form or associated with materials of low molecular weight. On the other hand, more than 95% of 60 Co was retained by soils covered by freshwater under aerobic conditions. This cobalt, once fixed on soils, was not easily desorbed by seawater under anaerobic conditions. The results suggest that the mobility of cobalt disposed of underground is greatly enced by the initial environmental conditions in the soils in coastal areas. (H.K.)

  2. Environmental response to long-term mariculture activities in the Weihai coastal area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Li, Xiaomin; Li, Qiang; Liu, Ying; Song, Jide; Zhang, Yongyu

    2017-12-01

    The environmental impacts of rapid expansion of mariculture have garnered worldwide attention. China is currently one of the largest countries to engage in this practice. In this study, a representative mariculture zone, the Weihai coastal area in China, was explored to determine the temporal variations in regional nutrients, N/P ratio, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, chlorophyll a (Chl-a), and cellular abundance of diatoms and dinoflagellates in response to the rapid growth in mariculture activities between 2006 and 2014. The temporal variations in inorganic and organic nitrogen concentrations in the surface water presented significantly increasing trends during August, between 2009 and 2014. A marked increase in the ratios of dinoflagellate to diatom abundance, concurrently with ascending N/P ratios, was also observed during August between 2011 and 2014. In addition, dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphate variations revealed the highest concentrations during October and lower levels during May and August, which was attributed in part to the seasonal growth characteristics of kelp cultivated in the study area. Moreover, the nutrient concentrations in Sanggou, Rongcheng, Wulei, and Rushan bays were affected significantly by the various cultured organisms in these bays. The intensive mariculture activity in the Weihai coastal area is likely one of the causes of the negative effects on water quality, such as eutrophication and future ocean acidification. The exploration of effective strategies is quite necessary in the future for keeping good quality of coastal environment and sustainable mariculture development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Web Application for Coastal Area Planning through Analysis of Landslide and Soil Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzoni, Giulio; Debiasi, Alberto; Eccher, Matteo; De Amicis, Raffaele

    2016-04-01

    Global warming and rapid climatic changes are producing dramatic effects on coastal area of Mediterranean countries. Italian coastal areas are one of the most urbanized zones of the south western Europe and the extensive use of soil is causing a consistent impact on the hydrogeological context. Moreover, soil consumption combined with extreme meteorological events, facilitates the occurrence of hazardous landslide events. Environmental policy makers and data managers in territorial planning need to face such emergency situation with appropriate tools. We present an application service with the aim of advising user through environmental analysis of Landslide and Soil Consumption impact. This service wants also to improve the sharing of environmental harmonized datasets/metadata across different organizations and the creation of a collaborative environment where the stakeholders and environmental experts can share their data and work cooperatively. We developed a set of processing services providing functionalities to assess impact of landslide on territory and impact of land take and soil sealing. Among others, the service is able to evaluate environmental impacts of landslide events on Cultural Heritage sites. We have also designed a 3D WebGL client customized to execute the processing services and visualize their outputs. It provides high usability in terms of navigation and data visualization. In this way the service provides not only a Spatial Data Infrastructure to access and visualize data but a complete Decision Support Systems for a more effective environmental planning of coastal area.

  4. A biomonitoring study: trace metals in algae and molluscs from Tyrrhenian coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, M.E.; Cecchetti, Gaetano

    2003-01-01

    Marine organisms were evaluated as possible biomonitors of heavy metal contamination in marine coastal areas. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in the green algae Ulva lactuca L., the brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy, the bivalve mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, and the two gastropod molluscs Monodonta turbinata Born and Patella cerulea L. collected at six coastal stations in the area of the Gulf of Gaeta (Tyrrhenian Sea, central Italy). The coastal area of the Regional Park of Gianola and Monte di Scauri (a 'Protected Sea Park' area) was chosen as a control site. Seawater samples were also collected in each site to assess soluble and total metal concentrations and to gain additional information on both the environmental conditions of the area and possible bioaccumulation patterns. Metal concentrations detected in algae and molluscs did not show significant differences among all stations studied. Moreover, statistical analyses (ANOVA, multiple comparison tests, cluster analysis) showed that the Sea Park station was not significantly different from the others. The hypothesis that the Protected Sea Park would be cleaner than the others must therefore be reconsidered. Data from this study were also compared with those previously obtained from uncontaminated sites in the Sicilian Sea, Italy. The results show clearly differences between these two marine ecosystems. The species examined showed great accumulations of metals, with concentration factors (CFs) higher than 10,000 with respect to the concentrations (soluble fractions) in marine waters. Metal concentrations recorded in this area may be used for background levels for intraspecific comparison within the Tyrrhenian area, a body of water about which information is still very scarce

  5. Metal discharges by Sinaloa Rivers to the coastal zone of NW Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías-Espericueta, M G; Mejía-Cruz, R; Osuna López, I; Muy-Rangel, M D; Rubio-Carrasco, W; Aguilar-Juárez, M; Voltolina, D

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work was to survey the discharges of dissolved and particulate Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn of the eight main rivers of Sinaloa State to the Mexican coastal environment. Zn was the most abundant dissolved metal and Fe was the most abundant particulate (8.02-16.90 and 51.8-1,140.3 μg/L, respectively). Only particulate Mn had significantly (p = 0.028) higher values in summer-fall (rainy season), whereas the significantly (p = 0.036) higher values of dissolved Zn were observed in winter and spring. The highest annual total discharges to Sinaloa coastal waters were those of the rivers San Lorenzo and Piaxtla (>2 × 10(3) m.t.) and the lowest those of rivers Baluarte and El Fuerte (349 and 119 m.t., respectively). Pb concentrations may become of concern, because they are higher than the value recommended for the welfare of aquatic communities of natural waters.

  6. On the formation of coastal polynyas in the area of Commonwealth Bay, Eastern Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Gerd; Gilmore, Dan; Curtis, Jan

    Antarctica's King George V Land and Adélie Land were first explored by Sir Douglas Mawson and his party during their 1911-1913 expedition. They were astounded by the strength of the katabatic wind, which is so dominant in this area. These strong offshore winds can move the sea ice away from shore, forming coastal polynya, not only in summer but even in midwinter. Poor visibility due to darkness and frequently occurring blowing snow make the study of these polynyas from land-based observations difficult. Recently, coverage of this area by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite imagery, which has a high resolution of 40 m (pixel size 12.5 m), gave additional insight into the characteristics of these polynyas. This high resolution is needed because the width of the polynya is small (10 km or so). Furthermore, of special importance is the fact that SAR data can be obtained during darkness and overcast conditions. Following original Russian work, we modified a simple model for wind-driven coastal polynyas, using actual meteorological data from our coastal automatic weather stations as input. Using mean monthly data for the stations, we show that coastal polynyas are to be expected in the windiest area (Cape Denison-Port Martin); while to the west (Dumont d'Urville) and east (Penguin Point), the average conditions do not produce them. Here, they occur only during strong and long-lasting storms. Our observational data of the polynyas as viewed from SAR and advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) confirm these findings.

  7. High 210Po atmospheric deposition flux in the subtropical coastal area of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateda, Yutaka; Iwao, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    Bulk atmospheric deposition fluxes of 210 Po and 210 Pb were measured at three coastal regions of Japan, the Pacific Ocean coastal area of the Japanese mainland (Odawa Bay), the Chinese continental side of Japanese coastal area (Tsuyazaki), and an isolated island near Okinawa (Akajima). Wet and dry fallout collectors were continuously deployed from September 1997 through August 1998 for periods of 3 to 31 days depending on the frequency of precipitation events. Annual 210 Pb deposition fluxes at Odawa Bay (35 o N 139 o E), Tsuyazaki (33 o N 130 o E) and Akajima (26 o N 127 o E) were 73.3 ± 8.0, 197 ± 35 and 78.5 ± 8.0 Bq m -2 y -1 , respectively. Higher 210 Pb deposition was observed at the Chinese continental side of Japanese coast than at the Pacific Ocean coastal site. The high 210 Pb atmospheric flux at the Chinese continental side coast was thought to be attributable to 222 Rn-rich air-mass transport from the Chinese continent during the winter monsoon. In contrast, the annual 210 Po deposition fluxes at the three study sites were 13.0 ± 2.3 (Odawa Bay), 21.9 ± 4.4 (Tsuyazaki) and 58.4 ± 7.7 (Akajima) Bq m -2 y -1 , respectively, indicating unusual high 210 Po deposition at Akajima during winter. Anomalous unsupported 210 Po input was observed during summer 1997, suggesting unknown source of 210 Po at this area

  8. Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System: The Gulf Component of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L. J.; Moersdorf, P. F.

    2005-05-01

    The United States is developing an Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) as the U.S. component of the international Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). IOOS consists of: (1) a coastal observing system for the U.S. EEZ, estuaries, and Great Lakes; and (2) a contribution to the global component of GOOS focused on climate and maritime services. The coastal component will consist of: (1) a National Backbone of observations and products from our coastal ocean supported by federal agencies; and (2) contributions of Regional Coastal Ocean Observing Systems (RCOOS). The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System (GCOOS) is one of eleven RCOOS. This paper describes how GCOOS is progressing as a system of systems to carry out data collection, analysis, product generation, dissemination of information, and data archival. These elements are provided by federal, state, and local government agencies, academic institutions, non-government organization, and the private sector. This end-to-end system supports the seven societal goals of the IOOS, as provided by the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy: detect and forecast oceanic components of climate variability, facilitate safe and efficient marine operations, ensure national security, manage marine resources, preserve and restore healthy marine ecosystems, mitigate natural hazards, and ensure public health. The initial building blocks for GCOOS include continuing in situ observations, satellite products, models, and other information supported by federal and state government, private industry, and academia. GCOOS has compiled an inventory of such activities, together with descriptions, costs, sources of support, and possible out-year budgets. These activities provide information that will have broader use as they are integrated and enhanced. GCOOS has begun that process by several approaches. First, GCOOS has established a web site (www.gcoos.org) which is a portal to such activities and contains pertinent information

  9. HIV pretreatment drug resistance trends in three geographic areas of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Claudia; Tapia-Trejo, Daniela; Quiroz-Morales, Verónica S; Navarro-Álvarez, Samuel; Barrera-Arellano, Carlos A; Casillas-Rodríguez, Jesús; Romero-Mora, Karla A; Gómez-Palacio-Schjetnan, María; Murakami-Ogasawara, Akio; Ávila-Ríos, Santiago; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2017-11-01

    Pretreatment drug resistance (PDR) levels to NNRTI approaching 10% have recently been reported in Mexico. However, subnational differences may exist in PDR prevalence and transmission dynamics. We longitudinally assessed HIV PDR in three geographic areas of Mexico. HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naive individuals were recruited from 2008 to 2016, from the Central Metropolitan Zone (CMZ), Cancun and Tijuana (1194, 773 and 668 respectively). PDR was estimated using the Stanford HIVdb tool from plasma HIV pol sequences. A higher proportion of females, lower education and lower employment rate were observed in Tijuana, while a higher proportion of MSM was observed in the CMZ (P Mexico. Even when increasing trends in efavirenz resistance were observed in the three areas, our observations support that, in a large country such as Mexico, subnational surveillance and locally tailored interventions to address drug resistance may be a reasonable option. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Hurricane Ingrid and Tropical Storm Hanna's effects on the salinity of the coastal aquifer, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Shawn E.; Reinhardt, Eduard G.; Stastna, Marek; Coutino, Aaron; Werner, Christopher; Collins, Shawn V.; Devos, Fred; Le Maillot, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    There is a lack of information on aquifer dynamics in anchialine systems, especially in the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Most of our knowledge is based on ;spot; measurements of the aquifer with no long-term temporal monitoring. In this study spanning four years (2012-2016), sensors (water depth and conductivity (salinity)) were deployed and positioned (-9 and -10 m) in the meteoric Water Mass (WM) close to the transition with the marine WM (halocline) in 2 monitoring sites within the Yax Chen cave system to investigate precipitation effects on the salinity of the coastal aquifer. The results show variation in salinity (95 mm) such as Hurricane Ingrid (2013) and Tropical Storm Hanna (2014) shows meteoric water mass salinity rapidly increasing (approx. 6.39 to >8.6 ppt), but these perturbations have a shorter duration (weeks and days). Wavelet analysis of the salinity record indicates seasonal mixing effects in agreement with the wet and dry periods, but also seasonal effects of tidal mixing (meteoric and marine water masses) occurring on shorter time scales (diurnal and semi-diurnal). These results demonstrate that the salinity of the freshwater lens is influenced by precipitation and turbulent mixing with the marine WM. The salinity response is scaled with precipitation; larger more intense rainfall events (>95 mm) create a larger response in terms of the magnitude and duration of the salinity perturbation (>1 ppt). The balance of precipitation and its intensity controls the temporal and spatial patterning of meteoric WM salinity.

  11. The polycentric structure of local labour markets in Mexico City's Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Casado Izquierdo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Commuting data at a district level and an algorithm designed to delineate self–contained areas show that Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA was organized in 2007 in twelve local labour market areas. Although six exployment subcenters were identified, the MCMA is still clearly dominated by its Central Business District (CBD, being located the remaining five subcenters close to the CBD. Assessment of this spatial structure is not a positive one: diminishing co–location, decrease in speed and increase in commuting time and distance. Nevertheless, the rising percentage of intra–district commuting is a positive sign, even if this trend is not uniform throughout the metropolitan area.

  12. Current Knowledge of Leishmania Vectors in Mexico: How Geographic Distributions of Species Relate to Transmission Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Camila; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Becker-Fauser, Ingeborg; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A. Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    Leishmaniases are a group of vector-borne diseases with different clinical manifestations caused by parasites transmitted by sand fly vectors. In Mexico, the sand fly Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca is the only vector proven to transmit the parasite Leishmania mexicana to humans, which causes leishmaniasis. Other vector species with potential medical importance have been obtained, but their geographic distributions and relation to transmission areas have never been assessed. We modeled the ecological niches of nine sand fly species and projected niches to estimate potential distributions by using known occurrences, environmental coverages, and the algorithms GARP and Maxent. All vector species were distributed in areas with known recurrent transmission, except for Lu. diabolica, which appeared to be related only to areas of occasional transmission in northern Mexico. The distribution of Lu. o. olmeca does not overlap with all reported cutaneous leishmaniasis cases, suggesting that Lu. cruciata and Lu. shannoni are likely also involved as primary vectors in those areas. Our study provides useful information of potential risk areas of leishmaniasis transmission in Mexico. PMID:22049037

  13. Characterization and evolution of the sediments of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon located next to a former mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gregorio; Muñoz-Vera, Ana

    2015-11-15

    Coastal lagoons are ecosystems that are relatively enclosed water bodies under the influence of both the terrestrial and the marine environment, being vulnerable to human impacts. Human activities, such as mining extraction, are significant anthropogenic coastal stressors that can negatively affect ecosystems and communities. In light of the above, the objective of this research is to examine the influence of metal mining activities on the composition of sediments of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon, named Mar Menor. This paper presents a comprehensive characterization for grain size, mineralogy, geochemistry and organic matter of sediments of this coastal lagoon, investigating their variation along space and time. Sedimentation dynamics are ruling clearly the grain size predominant in each area of the Mar Menor coastal lagoon, determining the existence of entrainment, transport and sedimentation areas. For minerals, elements and organic matter, sedimentation dynamics are also determining their distribution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Engineering report on the Grayburg Cooperative and unit area, Eddy County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, John A.; Soyster, Merwin H.

    1945-01-01

    This report covers the area committed to the Grayburg Cooperative and Unit Agreement (I-Sec. 370) approved by the Assistant Secretary of the Interior on October 5, 1943, hereafter referred to as the "unit area", embracing 4,769.44 acres of public land in T. 17 S., Rs. 29 and 30 E., Eddy County, New Mexico. The area includes portions of the Anderson, Grayburg-Jackson, and Leonard oil fields as defined for proration purposes by the New Mexico Oil Conservation Commission. The unit area is covered by Federal oil and gas leases owned by the Grayburg Oil Company of New Mexico and the Western Production Company, Inc. The Grayburg Unit Association has been formed and designated to conduct and manage all operations in the unit area. As of December 31, 1943, there were forty-six producing oil wells within the unit area. The report has been prepared for the purpose of assisting the Grayburg Unit Association in determining the proper locations of gas-injection wells and the best methods for future operation of the pressure-maintenance system that is being installed for the purpose of retarding the reservoir pressure decline and increasing the ultimate recovery of oil from the Grayburg Zone defined in the above-mentioned agreement as formations not more than 3300 feet below the surface. Data used in the report were obtained from records on file in the Geological Survey office at Roswell, New Mexico, and from the records of the Western Production Company and the Grayburg Oil Company. All data were carefully checked as to accuracy with engineers and field representatives of both companies.

  15. Public Administration: Main Factor in Successful Management of Coastal Area Development in Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen Jugović

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The modern society requires a rational, professional, stable and socially accountable public administration that serves its citizens. Analysis of the status and functioning of the Croatian public administration shows that there are still many shortcomings and problems that must be solved. This paper outlines the basic characteristics of public administration as a set of structures and processes aiming to start and implement the policies in accordance with the public interest. Also, it explores the way and the level of success of managing the common good, with special attention given to the management of the coastal area, whereas the management of the coastal area is defined as an activity comprising different levels of management – local, regional, national and international. The author stresses the need to coordinate the different levels and emphasize the importance of organizing the work process and the capabilities of the managing structure. This is necessary because the public administration often makes decisions directly influencing the citizens’ quality of life on a local and individual level. Given that the public administration has a great amount of power in all countries, it must be controlled. The author states that beside self control of public administration it is also needed to conduct the additional control. That kind of control is necessary due to the inestimable value of Croatia’s coastal and other resources. Based on the results of the research the author suggests measures to improve a continued and efficient control.

  16. An inventory of wetland non-passerine birds along a southeastern Brazilian coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Tavares

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the list of non-passerine birds of coastal environments of the Quissama municipality, northern Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. The surveys were conducted monthly between June 2011 and May 2012. Additional ad libitum observations were made between February 2008 and July 2012. We recorded 76 waterbird species of 15 families, of which Scolopacidae was the most representative, with 15 species. The high Nearctic shorebird species richness observed in coastal lagoons in Quissama (17 species is an evidence of the important role of the region as staging site for migratory birds at national level. Also, nine of the species recorded are threatened at regional and one is threatened at national level. It should be emphasized that three species considered locally extinct in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, the most extensively surveyed area in the State, were recorded in the present study. Additionally, we present a high number of previously unrecorded species in northern Rio de Janeiro, and report the first documented record of Stercorarius pomarinus in Rio de Janeiro State. The region has a notorious Waterbird richness including endangered and migratory species, when compared to other coastal areas of the state.

  17. Circulation during Storms and Dynamics of Suspended Matter in a Sheltered Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paladini de Mendoza

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Gaeta, in the western margin of central Italy, is characterized by a coastal morphology that creates a natural sheltered area in which fine sediment settles. The new port regulatory plan provides for dock expansions and dredging works that could alter the suspended particulate matter (SPM concentration. The present study investigates the dynamics of the Gulf of Gaeta with a focus on the dynamic processes that affect the fine particle concentration. The study was conducted through a multidisciplinary approach that involves remote sensing acquisitions (satellite imagery and X-band radar, measurements in situ (water sampling, wave buoy, weather station, turbidity station, CTD profiles, and numerical modelling (SWAN and Delft3D FLOW. The X-band radar system supports the analysis of the dynamic processes of the SPM concentration providing a large dataset useful for the hydrodynamic model’s validation. The analysis reveals a strong influence of nearby rivers in modulating the SPM at the regional scale. Short-term high and low fluctuations in SPM concentration within the gulf are triggered by the local effect of the main physical forces. In particular, the direction of events and bottom sediment resuspension play a key role in modulating the SPM concentration while micro-tidal regime does not appear to influence turbidity in the study area. This approach represents an important tool in improving the long-term coastal management strategy from the perspective of sustainable human activities in marine coastal ecosystems.

  18. Research on the hydrogeological and geochemical conditions at the coastal area and submarine formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Tomochika; Taniguchi, Makoto; Goto, Junji

    2003-05-01

    One of the major concerns for the high-level radioactive waste disposal is the possibility of the radionuclides to reach biosphere by groundwater flow. Recent research results have shown that the fresh groundwater discharge from subsea formations are widespread phenomena, thus, it is necessary to evaluate the submarine groundwater discharge as possible pathways of contaminant discharge towards the biosphere. It is also important to unravel the groundwater flow and associated material transport at the coastal area and subsea formations. To better understand the groundwater flow processes and the submarine groundwater discharge, we have conducted the hydrological, hydrogeological, geochemical, and numerical modeling studies at the Kurobe alluvial fan and its offshore, Toyama Prefecture, Japan. In this report, the results of the following research activities are presented: 1) Development and application of a method to detect the locations of the submarine groundwater discharge. 2) Development and application of a method to collect uncontaminated groundwater samples from subsea formations. 3) Measurements of submarine groundwater discharge fluxes by automated seepage meter. 4) Hydrological and geochemical studies for groundwater flow at the coastal area. 5) Geochemical studies to understand sources of fresh submarine groundwater discharge. 6) Examination of groundwater flow and submarine groundwater discharge using methane concentration and carbon isotope ratio. 7) Numerical modeling studies for coastal groundwater flow system. (author)

  19. Holocene coastal dune development and environmental changes in Helis area (NW Peloponnese, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. STAMATOPOULOS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The coastal area of western Peloponnese is characterized by Pleistocene and Holocene marine deposits. The study area shows the effects of different phases of coastal morphology evolution and is located along a wave-dominated and microtidal coast in the northwestern Peloponnese, 40 km southwest of Patras city. Three significant morphogenetic phases occurred during the Holocene. The first was radiometrically aged from 7000 to 3810 years BP, marking the end of the rapid postglacial transgression. The second, between 3810 and 1400 years BP, was characterized by high rates of sedimentation, possibly because of the proximity of the mouth of the Peneus River, and resulted in the accumulation of predominantly fluvial sediments. During the third and younger phase, from 1400 years BP to the present, landward migration of the coast and deposition of aeolian sands occurred. Archaeological and morphological evidences suggest that this last phase should be related to a low sea-level stand followed by a slow sea-level rise, up to the present-day position and by humid-temperate climate. The collected data concerning the Holocene coastal dune belts, suggest that main phases of dune development could be related to the effects of sea-level changes, climatic conditions, and in a subordinate way, to human activity.

  20. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morell, D; Singer, G

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The findings of this analysis are based on an examination of energy development along New Jersey's urban waterfront and along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast, and on redevelopment efforts in Seattle, San Francisco, Boston, and elsewhere. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process. In highly urbanized areas, air quality has become a predominant concern among citizen groups and an influential factor in development of alternative energy facility siting strategies, such as consideration of inland siting connected by pipeline to a smaller coastal facility. The study addresses the economic impact of the permitting process on the desirability of energy facility investments, and the possible effects of the location selected for the facility on the permitting process and investment economics. The economic analysis demonstrates the importance of viewing energy facility investments in a broad perspective that includes the positive or negative impacts of various alternative siting patterns on the permitting process. Conclusions drawn from the studies regarding Federal, state, local, and corporate politics; regulatory, permitting, licensing, environmental assessment, and site selection are summarized. (MCW)

  1. Coastal circulation and hydrography in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico, during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, E. D.; Lavín, M. F.; Trasviña, A.

    2009-02-01

    Winter observations of shelf and slope hydrography and currents in the inner Gulf of Tehuantepec are analysed from two field studies in 1989 and 1996 to specify the variability of near-shore conditions under varying wind stress. During the winter period frequent outbursts of 'Norte' winds over the central Gulf result in persistent alongshore inflows along both its eastern and western coasts. Wind-induced variability on time scales of several days strongly influences the shelf currents, but has greater effect on its western coast because of the generation and separation of anticyclonic eddies there. The steadier inflow (˜0.2 m s -1) on the eastern shelf is evident in a strong down-bowing of shallow isosurfaces towards the coast within 100 km of shore, below a wedge of warmer, fresher and lighter water. This persistent entry of less saline (33.4-34.0), warmer water from the southeast clearly originates in buoyancy input by rivers along the Central American coast, but is augmented by a general shoreward tendency (0.2 m s -1) in the southeastern Gulf. The resultant shallow tongue of anomalous water is generally swept offshore in the head of the Gulf and mixed away by the strong outflow and vertical overturning of the frequent 'Norte' events but during wind relaxations the warm, low-salinity coastal flow may briefly extend further west. In the head of the Gulf, flow is predominantly offshore (depression, respectively, of the pycnocline against the shore. More saline, open ocean water is introduced from the north-western side of the Gulf by the inflow along the west coast. During extended wind relaxations, the flow becomes predominantly eastward beyond the shelf while nearshore the coastally trapped buoyant inflow from the southeast penetrates across the entire head of the gulf at least as far as its western limit. On the basis of these and other recent observations, it seems that the accepted view of a broad, persistent Costa Rica Coastal Current (CRCC) is the result

  2. Hydrocarbon contamination of coastal sediments from the Sfax area (Tunisia), Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louati, A; Elleuch, B; Kallel, M; Saliot, A; Dagaut, J; Oudot, J

    2001-06-01

    The coastal area off the city of Sfax (730,000 inhabitants), well-known for fisheries and industrial activities, receives high inputs of organic matter mostly anthropogenic. Eighteen stations were selected in the vicinity of the direct discharge of industrial sewage effluents in the sea in order to study the spatial distribution of the organic contamination. Surface sediments sampled in the shallow shelf were analysed for hydrocarbons by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total hydrocarbon distributions revealed high contamination as compared to other coastal Mediterranean sites, with an average concentration of 1865 ppm/dry weight sediment. Gas chromatographic distribution patterns, values of unresolved mixture/n-alkane ratio and distributions of steranes and hopanes confirmed a petroleum contamination of the Arabian light crude oil type. Biogenic compounds were also identified with a series of short-chain carbon-numbered n-alkenes in the carbon range 16-24.

  3. Results of complex annual parasitological monitoring in the coastal area of Kola Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklin, V. V.; Kuklina, M. M.; Kisova, N. E.; Maslich, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    The results of annual parasitological monitoring in the coastal area near the Abram-mys (Kola Bay, Barents Sea) are presented. The studies were performed in 2006-2007 and included complex examination of the intermediate hosts (mollusks and crustaceans) and definitive hosts (marine fish and birds) of the helminths. The biodiversity of the parasite fauna, seasonal dynamics, and functioning patterns of the parasite systems were investigated. The basic regularities in parasite circulation were assessed in relation to their life cycle strategies and the ecological features of the intermediate and definitive hosts. The factors affecting the success of parasite circulation in the coastal ecosystems were revealed through analysis of parasite biodiversity and abundance dynamics.

  4. The Potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Large Scale Mapping of Coastal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwin, N; Ahmad, A; Zainon, O

    2014-01-01

    Many countries in the tropical region are covered with cloud for most of the time, hence, it is difficult to get clear images especially from high resolution satellite imagery. Aerial photogrammetry can be used but most of the time the cloud problem still exists. Today, this problem could be solved using a system known as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) where the aerial images can be acquired at low altitude and the system can fly under the cloud. The UAV system could be used in various applications including mapping coastal area. The UAV system is equipped with an autopilot system and automatic method known as autonomous flying that can be utilized for data acquisition. To achieve high resolution imagery, a compact digital camera of high resolution was used to acquire the aerial images at an altitude. In this study, the UAV system was employed to acquire aerial images of a coastal simulation model at low altitude. From the aerial images, photogrammetric image processing was executed to produce photogrammetric outputs such a digital elevation model (DEM), contour line and orthophoto. In this study, ground control point (GCP) and check point (CP) were established using conventional ground surveying method (i.e total station). The GCP is used for exterior orientation in photogrammetric processes and CP for accuracy assessment based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). From this study, it was found that the UAV system can be used for large scale mapping of coastal simulation model with accuracy at millimeter level. It is anticipated that the same system could be used for large scale mapping of real coastal area and produces good accuracy. Finally, the UAV system has great potential to be used for various applications that require accurate results or products at limited time and less man power

  5. Event driven software package for the database of Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management (ICMAM) (Developed in 'C')

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Murty, T.V.R.; Chandramouli, P.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    National Institute of Oceanography (NIO, RC, Visakhapatnam, India) had taken up the Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management (ICMAM) project funded by Department of Ocean Development (DOD), New Delhi, India. The main objective of this project...

  6. Factors affecting outbreaks of Cochlodinium polykrikoides blooms in coastal areas of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Sik . E-mail leeyodk@hanmail.net; Lee, Sang Yong

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the causes of the first outbreak of Cochlodinium polykrikoides blooms in Narodo and the Southern coast of Namhaedo on the South Sea, as well as the outbreak of C. polykrikoides blooms in the East Sea and around Wando. From the results of AGP tests using diverse seawater types, we identified seawaters in which C. polykrikoides grow well and those in which they do not, depending on the sampling time and location. The reason for C. polykrikoides blooms initially occurring in Narodo, Namhaedo, and Gujaedo seems to be because the seawater that promotes the growth of C. polykrikoides is transported to the areas of primary generation, such as these three areas, by the influence of the Tsushima Warm Current. The reason that C. polykrikoides blooms occur in the coastal area of Wando and the East Sea is because after the seawater promoting the growth of C. polykrikoides is transported to these areas, the amount of sun radiation increases, and abundant nutrients flow in from heavy rains, resulting in mass propagation of C. polykrikoides. The origin of the seawater that promotes the growth of C. polykrikoides is assumed to be the southern section of the southern coastal area of Narodo, Namhaedo, and Gujaedo, in which C. polykrikoides blooms were initially discovered. The components of the f/2 medium (N, P, Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, B12, biotin, thiamine) do not seem to trigger the occurrence of C. polykrikoides blooms

  7. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US. The 1992 population is estimated at 89 million of which 60% are mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% are American Indian, 9% are Caucasian, and 1% are other. 90% are Roman Catholic. There are 8 years of compulsory education. Infant mortality is 30/1000 live births. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females. The labor force is comprised of 30% in services, 24% in agriculture and fishing, 19% in manufacturing, 13% in commerce, 7% in construction, 4% in transportation and communication, and .4% in mining. There are 31 states and a federal district. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $3200 in 1991. Military expenditures were .5% of GDP in 1991. The average inflation rate is 19%. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3.6% in 1991 from 2% in 1987. Dependence on oil exports has decreased. There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of .8% in 1992. Mexico's foreign debt has been reduced from its high in 1987 of $107 billion. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly. Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations.

  8. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) Sampling Areas Map, Hawaiian Islands Shoreline, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) is a national coastal monitoring program with rigorous quality assurance protocols and standardized sampling...

  9. The Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS): a new tool to analyze the conflicts between coastal pressures and sensitivity areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamano, S.; Piermattei, V.; Madonia, A.; Paladini de Mendoza, F.; Pierattini, A.; Martellucci, R.; Stefanì, C.; Zappalà, G.; Caruso, G.; Marcelli, M.

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the coastal environment is fundamental for efficiently and effectively facing the pollution phenomena as expected by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, and for limiting the conflicts between anthropic activities and sensitivity areas, as stated by Maritime Spatial Planning Directive. To address this, the Laboratory of Experimental Oceanology and Marine Ecology developed a multi-platform observing network that has been in operation since 2005 in the coastal marine area of Civitavecchia (Latium, Italy) where multiple uses and high ecological values closely coexist. The Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS), implemented in the current configuration, includes various components allowing one to analyze the coastal conflicts by an ecosystem-based approach. The long-term observations acquired by the fixed stations are integrated with in situ data collected for the analysis of the physical, chemical and biological parameters of the water column, sea bottom and pollution sources detected along the coast. The in situ data, integrated with satellite observations (e.g., temperature, chlorophyll a and TSM), are used to feed and validate the numerical models, which allow the analysis and forecasting of the dynamics of pollutant dispersion under different conditions. To test the potential capabilities of C-CEMS, two case studies are reported here: (1) the analysis of fecal bacteria dispersion for bathing water quality assessment, and (2) the evaluation of the effects of the dredged activities on Posidonia meadows, which make up most of the two sites of community importance located along the Civitavecchia coastal zone. The simulation outputs are overlapped by the thematic maps showing bathing areas and Posidonia oceanica distribution, thus giving a first practical tool that could improve the resolution of the conflicts between coastal uses (in terms of stress produced by anthropic activities) and sensitivity areas.

  10. Eosinophilia and biotoxin exposure in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from a coastal area impacted by repeated mortality events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwacke, Lori H.; Twiner, Michael J.; De Guise, Sylvain; Balmer, Brian C.; Wells, Randall S.; Townsend, Forrest I.; Rotstein, David C.; Varela, Rene A.; Hansen, Larry J.; Zolman, Eric S.; Spradlin, Trevor R.

    2010-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting coastal waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico have been impacted by recurrent unusual mortality events over the past few decades. Several of these mortality events along the Florida panhandle have been tentatively attributed to poisoning from brevetoxin produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. While dolphins in other regions of the Florida coast are often exposed to K. brevis blooms, large-scale dolphin mortality events are relatively rare and the frequency and magnitude of die-offs along the Panhandle raise concern for the apparent vulnerability of dolphins in this region. We report results from dolphin health assessments conducted near St. Joseph Bay, Florida, an area impacted by 3 unusual die-offs within a 7-year time span. An eosinophilia syndrome, manifested as an elevated blood eosinophil count without obvious cause, was observed in 23% of sampled dolphins. Elevated eosinophil counts were associated with decreased T-lymphocyte proliferation and increased neutrophil phagocytosis. In addition, indication of chronic low-level exposure to another algal toxin, domoic acid produced by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp., was determined. Previous studies of other marine mammal populations exposed recurrently to Pseudo-nitzschia blooms have suggested a possible link between the eosinophilia and domoic acid exposure. While the chronic eosinophilia syndrome could over the long-term produce organ damage and alter immunological status and thereby increase vulnerability to other challenges, the significance of the high prevalence of the syndrome to the observed mortality events in the St. Joseph Bay area is unclear. Nonetheless, the unusual immunological findings and concurrent evidence of domoic acid exposure in this sentinel marine species suggest a need for further investigation to elucidate potential links between chronic, low-level exposure to algal toxins and immune health.

  11. Eosinophilia and biotoxin exposure in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from a coastal area impacted by repeated mortality events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwacke, Lori H., E-mail: Lori.Schwacke@noaa.gov [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Center for Human Health Risks, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States); Twiner, Michael J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, 219 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States); De Guise, Sylvain [University of Connecticut, Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science, 61 North Eagleville Road, U-89, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Balmer, Brian C.; Wells, Randall S. [Chicago Zoological Society, c/o Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236 (United States); Townsend, Forrest I. [Bayside Hospital for Animals, 251 N.E. Racetrack Road, Fort Walton Beach, FL 32547 (United States); Rotstein, David C. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources, Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program, 1315 East West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Varela, Rene A. [Ocean Embassy Inc, 6433 Pinecastle Blvd, Ste 2, Orlando, FL 32809 (United States); Hansen, Larry J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service Southeast Fisheries Science Center,101 Pivers Island Road, Beaufort, NC 28516 (United States); Zolman, Eric S. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, 219 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States); Spradlin, Trevor R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources, Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program, 1315 East West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); and others

    2010-08-15

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting coastal waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico have been impacted by recurrent unusual mortality events over the past few decades. Several of these mortality events along the Florida panhandle have been tentatively attributed to poisoning from brevetoxin produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. While dolphins in other regions of the Florida coast are often exposed to K. brevis blooms, large-scale dolphin mortality events are relatively rare and the frequency and magnitude of die-offs along the Panhandle raise concern for the apparent vulnerability of dolphins in this region. We report results from dolphin health assessments conducted near St. Joseph Bay, Florida, an area impacted by 3 unusual die-offs within a 7-year time span. An eosinophilia syndrome, manifested as an elevated blood eosinophil count without obvious cause, was observed in 23% of sampled dolphins. Elevated eosinophil counts were associated with decreased T-lymphocyte proliferation and increased neutrophil phagocytosis. In addition, indication of chronic low-level exposure to another algal toxin, domoic acid produced by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp., was determined. Previous studies of other marine mammal populations exposed recurrently to Pseudo-nitzschia blooms have suggested a possible link between the eosinophilia and domoic acid exposure. While the chronic eosinophilia syndrome could over the long-term produce organ damage and alter immunological status and thereby increase vulnerability to other challenges, the significance of the high prevalence of the syndrome to the observed mortality events in the St. Joseph Bay area is unclear. Nonetheless, the unusual immunological findings and concurrent evidence of domoic acid exposure in this sentinel marine species suggest a need for further investigation to elucidate potential links between chronic, low-level exposure to algal toxins and immune health.

  12. Evaluation of Tsunami Run-Up on Coastal Areas at Regional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez, O.

    2017-12-01

    Tsunami hazard assessment is tackled by means of numerical simulations, giving as a result, the areas flooded by tsunami wave inland. To get this, some input data is required, i.e., the high resolution topobathymetry of the study area, the earthquake focal mechanism parameters, etc. The computational cost of these kinds of simulations are still excessive. An important restriction for the elaboration of large scale maps at National or regional scale is the reconstruction of high resolution topobathymetry on the coastal zone. An alternative and traditional method consists of the application of empirical-analytical formulations to calculate run-up at several coastal profiles (i.e. Synolakis, 1987), combined with numerical simulations offshore without including coastal inundation. In this case, the numerical simulations are faster but some limitations are added as the coastal bathymetric profiles are very simply idealized. In this work, we present a complementary methodology based on a hybrid numerical model, formed by 2 models that were coupled ad hoc for this work: a non-linear shallow water equations model (NLSWE) for the offshore part of the propagation and a Volume of Fluid model (VOF) for the areas near the coast and inland, applying each numerical scheme where they better reproduce the tsunami wave. The run-up of a tsunami scenario is obtained by applying the coupled model to an ad-hoc numerical flume. To design this methodology, hundreds of worldwide topobathymetric profiles have been parameterized, using 5 parameters (2 depths and 3 slopes). In addition, tsunami waves have been also parameterized by their height and period. As an application of the numerical flume methodology, the coastal parameterized profiles and tsunami waves have been combined to build a populated database of run-up calculations. The combination was tackled by means of numerical simulations in the numerical flume The result is a tsunami run-up database that considers real profiles shape

  13. ZONING OF COASTAL AREA FOR MARINE AQUACULTURE Š PRESENT SITUATIONS AND PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lav Bavčević

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We already acepted that Croatian economical and geopolitical possition can bee improved only with better utilization of coastal area. Under these conditions mariculture also makes a part od sea master plan because demands for mariculture are focused on clean environmental conditions to obtain economic benefits. Increased pressure to the coastal area is global trend and if not planed and organized can provoke conflicts and can affect further development. Under these condition, marine aquaculture is frequent subject of many discussion focused on the environmental impact. Conflict of different interest in coastal area with no argumentation is putting marine aquaculture in worst position related with tourism and industry. Hard argumentations is laying in noneadequate frame of work in some facilities and to take advantake competitors are preasenting marine aquaculture in worst picture. Marine aquaculture product has to be health product, which can be completely damaged because of non-responsible approach of other activity. Mariculture also can suffer from self-pollution as for example tourism and must be well planed and managed. Fecal pollution from towns, pollution from bad controlled tourists activity, industry, influence of intensive and non controlled agriculture in coast line, are also potential danger for quality of all sea products and also cultured products from marine aquaculture. High quality of marine products can be obtained by zoning of coastal area, and in concept of these zoning it is necessary to define the zones for marine aquaculture. Procedure of zoning has to be divided in three steps: deetrmination of present status of area, definition of shore land for making mariculture related shore infrastructure and definitions of areas suitable for mariculture with limits of production. These can make positive situations with avoiding conflicts in exploitation of common resources in future. Zone for marine aquaculture has to be controlled

  14. [Social determinants of infant mortality in socioeconomic deprived rural areas in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Gómez, María Beatriz; Núñez-Urquiza, Rosa María; Restrepo-Restrepo, José Alonso; Richardson-López-Collada, Vesta Louise

    The aim of this study was to identify determinants of infant mortality in rural areas in Mexico and recommend strategies for its decrease. A study was conducted in a sample of 16 municipalities among those with the lowest index of human development. Infant deaths were identified through official data, records and through interviews with civil authorities, health workers and community leaders. Mothers of children who died were also interviewed. In most cases, deaths were related with intermediate social determinants (living conditions and health services converged). The most important critical factors were the prevention programs and delays in receiving healthcare. Deficiencies in intersectorial policies to guarantee effective access to health services were found. To decrease infant mortality in rural areas of Mexico, geographic access has to be improved as well as investment in resources and training health personnel in intercultural competence and primary health care skills. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A.

  15. [Malnutrition and cognitive development if infants in rural marginalized areas in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco Quintero, María Del Refugio; Ortiz Hernández, Luis; Roldán Amaro, José Antonio; Chávez Villasana, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between nutritional status measured by anthropometry and the mental, psychomotor and language development of infants in marginalized rural areas of Mexico. Cross-sectional study with 576 infants aged from 7 to 26 months in four rural locations. Variables consisted of measures of anthropometric and cognitive development. Infants with short stature had a lower rate of language development, while birth weight was marginally associated with psychomotor development. Although acute malnutrition (identified by underweight) is no longer a problem in rural areas of Mexico, chronic malnutrition (expressed as stunting) is still common and is associated with alterations in mental development in the child population. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Mercury Speciation at a Coastal Site in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Results from the Grand Bay Intensive Studies in Summer 2010 and Spring 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinrong Ren

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During two intensive studies in summer 2010 and spring 2011, measurements of mercury species including gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM, and particulate-bound mercury (PBM, trace chemical species including O3, SO2, CO, NO, NOY, and black carbon, and meteorological parameters were made at an Atmospheric Mercury Network (AMNet site at the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR in Moss Point, Mississippi. Surface measurements indicate that the mean mercury concentrations were 1.42 ± 0.12 ng∙m−3 for GEM, 5.4 ± 10.2 pg∙m−3 for GOM, and 3.1 ± 1.9 pg∙m−3 for PBM during the summer 2010 intensive and 1.53 ± 0.11 ng∙m−3 for GEM, 5.3 ± 10.2 pg∙m−3 for GOM, and 5.7 ± 6.2 pg∙m−3 for PBM during the spring 2011 intensive. Elevated daytime GOM levels (>20 pg∙m−3 were observed on a few days in each study and were usually associated with either elevated O3 (>50 ppbv, BrO, and solar radiation or elevated SO2 (>a few ppbv but lower O3 (~20–40 ppbv. This behavior suggests two potential sources of GOM: photochemical oxidation of GEM and direct emissions of GOM from nearby local sources. Lack of correlation between GOM and Beryllium-7 (7Be suggests little influence on surface GOM from downward mixing of GOM from the upper troposphere. These data were analyzed using the HYSPLIT back trajectory model and principal component analysis in order to develop source-receptor relationships for mercury species in this coastal environment. Trajectory frequency analysis shows that high GOM events were generally associated with high frequencies of the trajectories passing through the areas with high mercury emissions, while low GOM levels were largely associated the trajectories passing through relatively clean areas. Principal component analysis also reveals two main factors: direct emission and photochemical processes that were clustered with high GOM and PBM. This study indicates that the receptor site

  17. A New View of Glacial Age Coastal Wetlands from A Well-Preserved Underwater Baldcypress Forest in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, K. L.; Harley, G. L.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Reese, A.; Caporaso, A.; Obelcz, J.; Gonzalez Rodriguez, S. M.; Truong, J. T.; Shen, Z.; Raines, B.

    2017-12-01

    A unique site in the northern Gulf of Mexico contains well-preserved baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) stumps in life position deposited when sea level was lower during the last glacial interval presumably uncovered by Hurricane Ivan in 2004. Previous pollen and climate model studies suggest the southeastern USA was cold and dry during the glacial with boreal forests; however, little paleo-evidence for the northern gulf coast exist. Wood normally decomposes quickly in marine environments thus such sites are rare and understudied until this multi-disciplinary team began studying the site in 2012. The team has dived the site collecting 23 wood samples, conducted two geophysical surveys, and recovered 18 vibracores. Radiocarbon dating of tree stumps reveal that the trees are radiocarbon dead yet some dates from the woody fractions in the sediments above the trees have 14C ages from 37,350-41,830 years BP, which are close to the 14C dating limitations. Optically stimulated luminescence dating pushes burial of the forest back to 60-70 ka. Based on the site location (13.5 km offshore), water depth (18 m), and relative tectonic stability of this area, and geophysical surveys, these subtropical baldcypress trees lived 30 m above sea level in a backwater swamp in an area with topographic relief during a lower sea level stand in the last glacial interval (MIS 3-4) near the now buried and incised Mobile River channels. Pollen analysis from sediment core samples found an abundance of baldcypress and tupelo (Nyssa aquatic)with some pine pollen similar to the modern northern Gulf Coast. We developed a floating tree-ring chronology spanning 489 years using wood samples with bark still intact. This chronology reveals growth suppression events towards the end of their life with death occurring simultaneously and burial possibly caused by floodplain aggradation from a quick rise in sea level during the glacial interval. These large baldcypress trees and pollen results suggest the

  18. Effect of reclamation on soil organic carbon pools in coastal areas of eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianguo; Yang, Wenhui; Li, Qiang; Pu, Lijie; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Zhongqi; Liu, Lili

    2018-06-01

    The coastal wetlands of eastern China form one of the most important carbon sinks in the world. However, reclamation can significantly alter the soil carbon pool dynamics in these areas. In this study, a chronosequence was constructed for four reclamation zones in Rudong County, Jiangsu Province, eastern China (reclaimed in 1951, 1974, 1982, and 2007) and a reference salt marsh to identify both the process of soil organic carbon (SOC) evolution, as well as the effect of cropping and soil properties on SOC with time after reclamation. The results show that whereas soil nutrient elements and SOC increased after reclamation, the electrical conductivity of the saturated soil extract (ECe), pH, and bulk density decreased within 62 years following reclamation and agricultural amendment. In general, the soil's chemical properties remarkably improved and SOC increased significantly for approximately 30 years after reclamation. Reclamation for agriculture (rice and cotton) significantly increased the soil organic carbon density (SOCD) in the top 60 cm, especially in the top 0-30 cm. However, whereas the highest concentration of SOCD in rice-growing areas was in the top 0-20 cm of the soil profile, it was greater at a 20-60 cm depth in cottongrowing areas. Reclamation also significantly increased heavy fraction organic carbon (HFOC) levels in the 0-30 cm layer, thereby enhancing the stability of the soil carbon pool. SOC can thus increase significantly over a long time period after coastal reclamation, especially in areas of cultivation, where coastal SOC pools in eastern China tend to be more stable.

  19. [Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and sediment from Zhoushan coastal area, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min; Tuan, Le Huy; Mei, Wei-Ping; Ruan, Hui-Hui; Wu, Hao

    2014-07-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been investigated in water and sediments of Zhoushan coastal area every two months in 2012. The concentrations of total PAHs ranged from 382.3 to 816.9 ng x L(-1), with the mean value of 552.5 ng x L(-1) in water; whereas it ranged from 1017.9 to 3047.1 ng x g(-1), with the mean value of 2 022.4 ng x g(-1) in sediment. Spatial distribution showed that Yangshan and Yanwoshan offshore area had the maximum and minimum of total PAHs contents in water, while the maximum and minimum occurred at Yangshan and Zhujiajian Nansha offshore area in sediment. Temporal distribution revealed that total PAHs contents in water reached the maximum and minimum values in October and June, however in sediments these values were found in August and June, respectively. The PAHs pollution was affected by oil emission, charcoal and coal combustion. Using the biological threshold and exceeded coefficient method to assess the ecological risk of PAHs in Zhoushan coastal area, the result showed that sigma PAHs had a lower probability of potential risk, while there was a higher probability of potential risk for acenaphthylene monomer, and there might be ecological risk for acenaphthene and fluorene. Distribution of PAHs between sediment and water showed that Zhoushan coastal sediment enriched a lot of PAHs, meanwhile the enrichment coefficient (K(d) value) of sediment in Daishan island was larger than that in Zhoushan main island.

  20. Effect of reclamation on soil organic carbon pools in coastal areas of eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianguo; Yang, Wenhui; Li, Qiang; Pu, Lijie; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Zhongqi; Liu, Lili

    2018-04-01

    The coastal wetlands of eastern China form one of the most important carbon sinks in the world. However, reclamation can significantly alter the soil carbon pool dynamics in these areas. In this study, a chronosequence was constructed for four reclamation zones in Rudong County, Jiangsu Province, eastern China (reclaimed in 1951, 1974, 1982, and 2007) and a reference salt marsh to identify both the process of soil organic carbon (SOC) evolution, as well as the effect of cropping and soil properties on SOC with time after reclamation. The results show that whereas soil nutrient elements and SOC increased after reclamation, the electrical conductivity of the saturated soil extract (ECe), pH, and bulk density decreased within 62 years following reclamation and agricultural amendment. In general, the soil's chemical properties remarkably improved and SOC increased significantly for approximately 30 years after reclamation. Reclamation for agriculture (rice and cotton) significantly increased the soil organic carbon density (SOCD) in the top 60 cm, especially in the top 0-30 cm. However, whereas the highest concentration of SOCD in rice-growing areas was in the top 0-20 cm of the soil profile, it was greater at a 20-60 cm depth in cottongrowing areas. Reclamation also significantly increased heavy fraction organic carbon (HFOC) levels in the 0-30 cm layer, thereby enhancing the stability of the soil carbon pool. SOC can thus increase significantly over a long time period after coastal reclamation, especially in areas of cultivation, where coastal SOC pools in eastern China tend to be more stable.

  1. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SELF-SUPPORT STILT-HOUSES TOWARDS THE DISASTER POTENTIALITY AT THE CAMBAYA COASTAL AREA, MAKASSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isfa Sastrawati

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-support stilt-houses at the coastal area have environment characteristics that are different from inland houses, and they have the disaster potentiality such as hurricanes, tidal waves, abrasion, earthquakes, and even tsunami. The stilt houses are very adaptable to climatic conditions and coastal disasters. The shape of the stilt houses at the coastal area must comply with aspects of safety, security, comfort, and health. This paper examines the characteristics of the stilt houses at the coastal area of Cambaya, Makassar, especially in terms of safety and security aspects. The aspects of safety and security include the resistance of the building construction towards disasters. Along with the development of the urban area, the demanding needs and limited financial-abilities, the owners of the houses at the Cambaya coastal area develop their houses by utilizing the empty space at the coastal area and the space under floor of the stilt house. The change of the building shape gives an effect on the poor quality of the building, building safety, and security. However, there are several stilt houses at Cambaya which could reduce the impacts of disasters on the safety of the residents through their local wisdom.

  2. [Microbial Processes and Genesis of Methane Gas Jets in the Coastal Areas of the Crimea Peninsula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakhova, T V; Kanapatskii, T A; Egorov, V N; Malakhova, L V; Artemov, Yu G; Evtushenko, D B; Gulin, S B; Pimenov, N V

    2015-01-01

    Hydroasoustic techniques were used for detection and mapping of gas jet areas in the coastal regions of the Crimean peninsula. Gas seep areas in the bays Laspi, Khersones, and Kazach'ya were chosen for detailed microbiological investigation. The first type of gas jets, observed in the Laspi Bay, was probably associated with discarge of deep thermogenic methane along the faults. Methane isotopic composition was char- acterized by Δ13C of -35.3 degrees. While elevated rates of aerobic methane oxidation were revealed in the sandy sediments adjacent to the methane release site, no evidence of bacterial mats was found. The second type of gas emission, observed in the Khersones Bay, was accompanied by formation of bacterial biofilms of the "Thiodendron" microbial community type, predominated by filamentous, spirochete-like organisms, in the areas of gas seepage. The isotopic composition of methane was there considerably lower (-60.4 degrees), indicating a considerable contribution of modern microbial methane to the gas bubbles discharged in this bay. Activity of the third type of gas emission, the seeps of the Kazach'ya Bay, probably depended directly on modern microbial processes of organic matter degradation in the upper sediment layers. The rates of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were 260 and 34 μmol dm(-3) day(-1), respectively. Our results indicate different mechanisms responsible for formation of methane jets in the Laspi Bay and in the coastal areas of the Heracles Peninsula, where the bays Kazach'ya and Khersones are located.

  3. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Amery Ice Shelf area, Antarctica: 1961–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kevin M.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.; Orndorff, Audrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of Earth’s two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate and to the resulting rise in sea level. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey used its archive of satellite images to document changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica and analyze the glaciological features of the coastal regions. Amery Ice Shelf, lying between 67.5° and 75° East longitude and 68.5° and 73.2° South latitude, is the largest ice shelf in East Antarctica. The latest measurements of the area of the ice shelf range between 62,620 and 71,260 square kilometers. The ice shelf is fed primarily by Lambert, Mellor, and Fisher Glaciers; its thickness ranges from 3,000 meters in the center of the grounding line to less than 300 meters at the ice front. Lambert Glacier is considered to be the largest glacier in the world, and its drainage basin is more than 1 million square kilometers in area. It is possible to see some coastal change on the outlet glaciers along the coast, but most of the noticeable change occurs on the Amery Ice Shelf front.

  4. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 (226Ra), radium-228 (228Ra) and potassium-40 (40K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (Hin), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  5. Spatially uniform but temporally variable bacterioplankton in a semi-enclosed coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziti, Alexandra; Kormas, Konstantinos A; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria; Karayanni, Hera

    2015-07-01

    Studies focusing on the temporal and spatial dynamics of bacterioplankton communities within littoral areas undergoing direct influences from the coast are quite limited. In addition, they are more complicated to resolve compared to communities in the open ocean. In order to elucidate the effects of spatial vs. temporal variability on bacterial communities in a highly land-influenced semi-enclosed gulf, surface bacterioplankton communities from five coastal sites in Igoumenitsa Gulf (Ionian Sea, Greece) were analyzed over a nine-month period using 16S rDNA 454-pyrosequencing. Temporal differences were more pronounced than spatial ones, with lower diversity indices observed during the summer months. During winter and early spring, bacterial communities were dominated by SAR11 representatives, while this pattern changed in May when they were abruptly replaced by members of Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, and Alteromonadales. Additionally, correlation analysis showed high negative correlations between the presence of SAR11 OTUs in relation to temperature and sunlight that might have driven, directly or indirectly, the disappearance of these OTUs in the summer months. The dominance of SAR11 during the winter months further supported the global distribution of the clade, not only in the open-sea, but also in coastal systems. This study revealed that specific bacteria exhibited distinct succession patterns in an anthropogenic-impacted coastal system. The major bacterioplankton component was represented by commonly found marine bacteria exhibiting seasonal dynamics, while freshwater and terrestrial-related phylotypes were absent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Shell alterations in limpets as putative biomarkers for multi-impacted coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begliomini, Felipe Nincao; Maciel, Daniele Claudino; de Almeida, Sérgio Mendonça; Abessa, Denis Moledo; Maranho, Luciane Alves; Pereira, Camilo Seabra; Yogui, Gilvan Takeshi; Zanardi-Lamardo, Eliete; Castro, Ítalo Braga

    2017-07-01

    During the last years, shell alterations in gastropods have been proposed as tools to be used in monitoring programs. However, no studies were so far performed investigating the relationships among shell parameters and classical biomarkers of damage. The relationship between shell alterations (biometrics, shape and elemental composition) and biomarkers (LPO and DNA strand break) was evaluated in the limpet L. subrugosa sampled along a contamination gradient in a multi-impacted coastal zone from southeastern Brazil. Statistically significant differences were detected among sites under different pollution levels. The occurrence of shell malformations was consistent with environmental levels of several hazardous substances reported for the studied area and related to lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. In addition, considering the low mobility, wide geographic distribution, ease of collection and abundance of limpets in coastal zones, this putative tool may be a cost-effective alternative to traditional biomarkers. Thus, shell alterations in limpets seem to be good proxies for assessing biological adverse effects in multi-impacted coastal zones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Residence times of groundwater and nitrate transport in coastal aquifer systems: Daweijia area, northeastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dongmei; Cao, Guoliang; McCallum, James; Song, Xianfang

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater within the coastal aquifer systems of the Daweijia area in northeastern China is characterized by a large of variations (33–521 mg/L) in NO_3"− concentrations. Elevated nitrate concentrations, in addition to seawater intrusion in the Daweijia well field, both attributable to anthropogenic activities, may impact future water-management practices. Chemical and stable isotopic (δ"1"8O, δ"2H) analysis, "3H and CFCs methods were applied to provide a better understanding of the relationship between the distribution of groundwater mean residence time (MRT) and nitrate transport, and to identify sources of nitrate concentrations in the complex coastal aquifer systems. There is a relatively narrow range of isotopic composition (ranging from − 8.5 to − 7.0‰) in most groundwater. Generally higher tritium contents observed in the wet season relative to the dry season may result from rapid groundwater circulation in response to the rainfall through the preferential flow paths. In the well field, the relatively increased nitrate concentrations of groundwater, accompanied by the higher tritium contents in the wet season, indicate the nitrate pollution can be attributed to domestic wastes. The binary exponential and piston-flow mixing model (BEP) yielded feasible age distributions based on the conceptual model. The good inverse relationship between groundwater MRTs (92–467 years) and the NO_3"− concentrations in the shallow Quaternary aquifers indicates that elevated nitrate concentrations are attributable to more recent recharge for shallow groundwater. However, there is no significant relationship between the MRTs (8–411 years) and the NO_3"− concentrations existing in the carbonate aquifer system, due to the complex hydrogeological conditions, groundwater age distributions and the range of contaminant source areas. Nitrate in the groundwater system without denitrification effects could accumulate and be transported for tens of years, through the

  8. Residence times of groundwater and nitrate transport in coastal aquifer systems: Daweijia area, northeastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dongmei [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Cao, Guoliang [National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Center for Water Research, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); McCallum, James [National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); School of the Environment, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Song, Xianfang [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Groundwater within the coastal aquifer systems of the Daweijia area in northeastern China is characterized by a large of variations (33–521 mg/L) in NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations. Elevated nitrate concentrations, in addition to seawater intrusion in the Daweijia well field, both attributable to anthropogenic activities, may impact future water-management practices. Chemical and stable isotopic (δ{sup 18}O, δ{sup 2}H) analysis, {sup 3}H and CFCs methods were applied to provide a better understanding of the relationship between the distribution of groundwater mean residence time (MRT) and nitrate transport, and to identify sources of nitrate concentrations in the complex coastal aquifer systems. There is a relatively narrow range of isotopic composition (ranging from − 8.5 to − 7.0‰) in most groundwater. Generally higher tritium contents observed in the wet season relative to the dry season may result from rapid groundwater circulation in response to the rainfall through the preferential flow paths. In the well field, the relatively increased nitrate concentrations of groundwater, accompanied by the higher tritium contents in the wet season, indicate the nitrate pollution can be attributed to domestic wastes. The binary exponential and piston-flow mixing model (BEP) yielded feasible age distributions based on the conceptual model. The good inverse relationship between groundwater MRTs (92–467 years) and the NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations in the shallow Quaternary aquifers indicates that elevated nitrate concentrations are attributable to more recent recharge for shallow groundwater. However, there is no significant relationship between the MRTs (8–411 years) and the NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations existing in the carbonate aquifer system, due to the complex hydrogeological conditions, groundwater age distributions and the range of contaminant source areas. Nitrate in the groundwater system without denitrification effects could accumulate and be

  9. Observations of inner shelf cross-shore surface material transport adjacent to a coastal inlet in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Mathias K.; MacMahan, Jamie; Reniers, Ad; Özgökmen, Tamay M.; Woodall, Kate; Haus, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Motivated by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the Surfzone and Coastal Oil Pathways Experiment obtained Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) Eulerian and GPS-drifter based Lagrangian "surface" (Mexico to describe the influence of small-scale river plumes on surface material transport pathways in the nearshore. Lagrangian paths are qualitatively similar to surface pathlines derived from non-traditional, near-surface ADCP velocities, but both differ significantly from depth-averaged subsurface pathlines. Near-surface currents are linearly correlated with wind velocities (r =0.76 in the alongshore and r =0.85 in the cross-shore) at the 95% confidence level, and are 4-7 times larger than theoretical estimates of wind and wave-driven surface flow in an un-stratified water column. Differences in near-surface flow are attributed to the presence of a buoyant river plume forced by winds from passing extratropical storms. Plume boundary fronts induce a horizontal velocity gradient where drifters deployed outside of the plume in oceanic water routinely converge, slow, and are re-directed. When the plume flows west parallel to the beach, the seaward plume boundary front acts as a coastal barrier that prevents 100% of oceanic drifters from beaching within 27 km of the inlet. As a result, small-scale, wind-driven river plumes in the northern Gulf of Mexico act as coastal barriers that prevent offshore surface pollution from washing ashore west of river inlets.

  10. Potential inundated coastal area estimation in Shanghai with multi-platform SAR and altimetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guanyu; Yang, Tianliang; Zhao, Qing; Kubanek, Julia; Pepe, Antonio; Dong, Hongbin; Sun, Zhibin

    2017-09-01

    As global warming problem is becoming serious in recent decades, the global sea level is continuously rising. This will cause damages to the coastal deltas with the characteristics of low-lying land, dense population, and developed economy. Continuously reclamation costal intertidal and wetland areas are making Shanghai, the mega city of Yangtze River Delta, more vulnerable to sea level rise. In this paper, we investigate the land subsidence temporal evolution of patterns and processes on a stretch of muddy coast located between the Yangtze River Estuary and Hangzou Bay with differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR) analyses. By exploiting a set of 31 SAR images acquired by the ENVISAT/ASAR from February 2007 to May 2010 and a set of 48 SAR images acquired by the COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) sensors from December 2013 to March 2016, coherent point targets as long as land subsidence velocity maps and time series are identified by using the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) algorithm. With the DInSAR constrained land subsidence model, we predict the land subsidence trend and the expected cumulative subsidence in 2020, 2025 and 2030. Meanwhile, we used altimetrydata and densely distributed in the coastal region are identified (EEMD) algorithm to obtain the average sea level rise rate in the East China Sea. With the land subsidence predictions, sea level rise predictions, and high-precision digital elevation model (DEM), we analyze the combined risk of land subsidence and sea level rise on the coastal areas of Shanghai. The potential inundated areas are mapped under different scenarios.

  11. Regeneration of the Urban Coastal area of Scheveningen: Pearl by the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Oorschot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowhere was the advancing globalization so visible as in the coastal area of Scheveningen, one of northwest Europe’s seaside resorts with a wealthy tradition nearby the capital city of The Hague. In the 19th century a consortium of bankers from Paris, Frankfurt, and Amsterdam established a fashionable European beach resort right next to a medieval fishing village with a Kurhaus Spa and Casino accessible to the general public. At the end of the 20th century the bathing resort lost its image and most of the fishing industry moved away leaving the coastal zone in a crisis. The municipality decided to give the coastline an economic impulse. Not only that, their ambitions were grandiose. In 2005 they got the idea to make Scheveningen the Second International Center of The Hague with impressive architecture and town planning. The beach, the old fishing village, and the fishery at the harbor were connected into a close urban ensemble by the North Sea by a splendid boulevard. However, the financial crisis in 2008 put an end to extravagant developmental plans, to the great relief of coastal residents. They especially feared the expansion of tourism into the residential areas even though tourism had brought and would continue to bring prosperity to the area. The old fishing village was kept intact while the harbor transformed quite differently than sketched and the seaside decayed, losing to its rival the First International Center: the old town of The Hague. How could this have happened to the Pearl on the Sea? Was it the crisis or the stubbornness of residents and entrepreneurs? Or was it the unworldliness of administrators?  

  12. Development of management tools for accidental radiological contamination of the French coastal areas - Development of management tools for accidental radiological contamination in the French marine coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffa, C.; Charmasson, S. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/LERCM - Antenne de Radioecologie Marine, Centre Ifremer, Zone portuaire de Bregaillon, 13507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Bailly du Bois, P.; Fievet, B. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/LRC (France); Couvez, C.; Renaud, P. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/DIR (France); Didier, D. [IRSN/PRP-CRI/SESUC/BMTA (France)

    2014-07-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident led to the most important accidental release of artificial radionuclides into the sea. This accident has underlined the importance of being able to adequately reproduce the fate of radioactive releases and to estimate their consequences for the marine environment. For its Crisis Centre, the French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has operational tools, in order to help experts and decision makers in case of any atmospheric accidental release and terrestrial environment contamination. The on-going project aims to develop tools to manage any marine contamination of the French coastal areas. We should be able to evaluate and anticipate the marine post-accidental situation: contaminated areas localization and contamination levels, and possible consequences. Many sites has be considered as potential source terms into the sea: the Coastal Nuclear Power Plants, the La Hague reprocessing Plant, the Brest and Toulon Military Harbours as home-ports of nuclear powered vessels, and different river mouths (Rhone River, Gironde, Loire, Seine) that could be contaminated by upstream accidental release. To achieve this goal, two complementary approaches are developed: Marine sheets and a dedicated modelling tool (STERNE). - Marine sheets aim to summarize marine environment characteristics for the different sites, identify potential stakes for human protection such as aquaculture areas, beaches, or industrial water intakes, and ecological stakes. Whenever possible, a local climatology (main currents depending on meteorological or tide conditions) that could be a support to first environmental measurement strategy is proposed. A list of available local contacts for any operational management is also provided. - The modelling tool, STERNE (Simulation du Transport et du transfert d'Elements Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin), must predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination of water, marine species and sediments

  13. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates

  14. The role of satellite altimetry in gravity field modelling in coastal areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    2000-01-01

    global uniform gravity information with very high resolution, and these global marine gravity fields are registered on a two by two minute grid corresponding to 4 by 4 kilometres at the equator. In this presentation several coastal complications in deriving the marine gravity field from satellite...... altimetry will be investigated using the KMS98 gravity field. Comparison with other sources of gravity field information like airborne and marine gravity observations will be carried out and two fundamentally different test areas (Azores and Skagerak) will be studied to investigated the different role...

  15. Distribution of heavy metals in the coastal area of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rashdi, Saeed; Arabi, Alya A; Howari, Fares M; Siad, Abdi

    2015-08-15

    Fifty-seven sediment samples were collected from Abu Dhabi coastal area, United Arab Emirates (UAE). The concentrations of heavy metals including antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, mercury, lead, molybdenum, nickel and zinc were obtained using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and X-ray fluorescence. Heavy metal contaminations in Abu Dhabi had increased since 2004. Nevertheless, the enrichment factors, geoaccumulation indices and the pollution load index of 0.3 showed no pollution with any of the measured metals except arsenic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  17. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates

  18. Interaction of the sea breeze with a river breeze in an area of complex coastal heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shiyuan; Takle, Eugene S.; Leone, John M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The interaction of the sea-breeze circulation with a river-breeze circulation in an area of complex coastal heating (east coast of Florida) was studied using a 3D finite-element mesoscale model. The model simulations are compared with temperature and wind fields observed on a typical fall day during the Kennedy Space Center Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment. The results from numerical experiments designed to isolate the effect of the river breeze indicate that the convergence in the sea-breeze front is suppressed when it passes over the cooler surface of the rivers.

  19. Comparative Assessment Of Coastal Tourism Potentials Of Selected Areas In Rivers State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinwanne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined coastal tourism potentials in Rivers State with emphasis on Opobo Bonny and Port Harcourt to determine the area that has comparative advantage for tourism development to optimally utilize resources. The study was conducted in Bonny Opobo and Port Harcourt of River State Nigeria. The area occupies the land close to the Atlantic Ocean within 60km radius from the coast. A survey design was adopted for the study. The instruments used were observation checklist and interview schedule. The instruments were tested for validity and reliability using five experts drawn from the field. The data collected were analyzed using ethnographic description method of analysis to answer research questions. The natural attractions found include mangrove forest sacred forests sacred rivers lakes beaches fishing rivers natural sources of drinking water and sanctuary. The cultural heritage resources were historical monument shrines museums different cultural festivals cultural materials and slave port. The man-made attractions were recreational park zoological garden and tourism village. It was found that there were more tourism potentials in Port Harcourt study site more than Bonny and Opobo sites and therefore Port Harcourt has comparative advantage over Bonny and Opobo for tourism development. Therefore efforts should be made and scarce resources utilized towards developing those coastal areas with best potentials and comparative advantage over others.

  20. Fast and low-cost method for VBES bathymetry generation in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carnero, N.; Aceña, S.; Rodríguez-Pérez, D.; Couñago, E.; Fraile, P.; Freire, J.

    2012-12-01

    Sea floor topography is key information in coastal area management. Nowadays, LiDAR and multibeam technologies provide accurate bathymetries in those areas; however these methodologies are yet too expensive for small customers (fishermen associations, small research groups) willing to keep a periodic surveillance of environmental resources. In this paper, we analyse a simple methodology for vertical beam echosounder (VBES) bathymetric data acquisition and postprocessing, using low-cost means and free customizable tools such as ECOSONS and gvSIG (that is compared with industry standard ArcGIS). Echosounder data was filtered, resampled and, interpolated (using kriging or radial basis functions). Moreover, the presented methodology includes two data correction processes: Monte Carlo simulation, used to reduce GPS errors, and manually applied bathymetric line transformations, both improving the obtained results. As an example, we present the bathymetry of the Ría de Cedeira (Galicia, NW Spain), a good testbed area for coastal bathymetry methodologies given its extension and rich topography. The statistical analysis, performed by direct ground-truthing, rendered an upper bound of 1.7 m error, at 95% confidence level, and 0.7 m r.m.s. (cross-validation provided 30 cm and 25 cm, respectively). The methodology presented is fast and easy to implement, accurate outside transects (accuracy can be estimated), and can be used as a low-cost periodical monitoring method.

  1. Potable water scarcity: options and issues in the coastal areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Atikul; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Karim, Rezaul; Sekine, Masahiko

    2013-09-01

    In the coastal areas of Bangladesh, scarcity of drinking water is acute as freshwater aquifers are not available at suitable depths and surface water is highly saline. Households are mainly dependent on rainwater harvesting, pond sand filters and pond water for drinking purposes. Thus, individuals in these areas often suffer from waterborne diseases. In this paper, water consumption behaviour in two southwestern coastal districts of Bangladesh has been investigated. The data for this study were collected through a survey conducted on 750 rural households in 39 villages of the study area. The sample was selected using a random sampling technique. Households' choice of water source is complex and seasonally dependent. Water sourcing patterns, households' preference of water sourcing options and economic feasibility of options suggest that a combination of household and community-based options could be suitable for year-round water supply. Distance and time required for water collection were found to be difficult for water collection from community-based options. Both household and community-based options need regular maintenance. In addition to installation of water supply facilities, it is necessary to make the residents aware of proper operation and maintenance of the facilities.

  2. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential of Gulf of Mexico coastal microbial communities after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Kappell

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH blowout resulted in oil transport, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs to the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. The microbial communities of these shorelines are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic degradation of PAHs. To investigate the Gulf Coast beach microbial community response to hydrocarbon exposure, we examined the functional gene diversity, bacterial community composition, and PAH degradation capacity of a heavily oiled and non-oiled beach following the oil exposure. With a non-expression functional gene microarray targeting 539 gene families, we detected 28,748 coding sequences. Of these sequences, 10% were uniquely associated with the severely oil-contaminated beach and 6.0% with the non-oiled beach. There was little variation in the functional genes detected between the two beaches; however the relative abundance of functional genes involved in oil degradation pathways, including PAHs, were greater in the oiled beach. The microbial PAH degradation potentials of both beaches, were tested in mesocosms. Mesocosms were constructed in glass columns using sands with native microbial communities, circulated with artificial sea water and challenged with a mixture of PAHs. The low-molecular weight PAHs, fluorene and naphthalene, showed rapid depletion in all mesocosms while the high-molecular weight benzo[α]pyrene was not degraded by either microbial community. Both the heavily oiled and the non-impacted coastal communities showed little variation in their biodegradation ability for low molecular weight PAHs. Massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from mesocosm DNA showed that known PAH degraders and genera frequently associated with oil hydrocarbon degradation represented a major portion of the bacterial community. The observed similar response by microbial communities from beaches with a different recent history of oil exposure suggests that Gulf Coast beach communities are primed for PAH

  3. Movement patterns of Antillean manatees in Chetumal Bay (Mexico) and coastal Belize: A challenge for regional conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Padilla-Saldivar, J.; Hernández-Arana, Héctor Abuid; Slone, D.H.; Reid, J.P.; Morales-Vela, B.

    2013-01-01

    Information from 15 satellite-tracked Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) was analyzed in order to assess individual movements, home ranges, and high-use areas for conservation decisions. Manatees were captured in Chetumal Bay, Mexico, and tagged with Argos-monitored satellite transmitters. Location of the manatees and physical characteristics were assessed to describe habitat properties. Most manatees traveled to freshwater sources. The Maximum Area Size (MAS) for each manatee was determined using the observation-area method. Additional kernel densities of 95% home range and 50% Center of Activity (COA) were also calculated, with manatees having 1–3 COAs. Manatees exhibited two different movement patterns: remaining in Chetumal Bay, and long-distance (up to 240 km in 89 d). The residence time in Chetumal Bay was higher for females (89.6% of time) than for males (72.0%), but the daily travel rate (0.4–0.5 km/d) was similar for both sexes. Most of the COAs fell within Natural Protected Areas (NPA). However, manatees also travel for long distances into unprotected areas, where they face uncontrolled boat traffic, fishing activities, and habitat loss. Conservation of movement corridors may promote long-distance movements and facilitate genetic exchange.

  4. Adaptation to the degradation of natural resources in the semiarid area of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Gonzalez Barrios

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrology and soil research in the semiarid zone of Mexico highlight an erosion process that is worsened by climate and land use changes. Scientific results have inspired a successful adaptation program with an environmental and socioeconomic scope. The Hydrological Environmental Services Programm.e (PSAH, in Spanish pays local workers to build soil and water conservation infrastructure in areas with the potential to provide hydrological environmental services. The programme’s results are still under assessment, but some qualitative results may be already identified: soil and water retention, plant cover recovery, permanence of local people in their comm.unities, and social welfare, among others. The PSAH as a strategy should be echoed in other places of Mexico in order to replicate their benefits on the physical and human environments of the semiarid zone.

  5. Public policy performance for social development : solar energy approach to assess technological outcome in Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas-Aquino, A.R.; Matsumoto-Kuwabara, Y.; Kleiche Dray, Mina

    2017-01-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the most populated urban area in the country. In 2010, MCMA required 14.8% of total energy domestic demand, but greenhouse gas emissions accounted for 7.7% of domestic emissions. Mexico has massive renewable energy potential that could be harnessed through solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. The problem to explore is the relationship between local and federal public strategies in MCMA and their stance on energy transition concern, social empowerment, ne...

  6. Characteristics of Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes in rural and urban areas of western and coastal Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Alberto Ndenga

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is the main vector for yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Recent outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya have been reported in Kenya. Presence and abundance of this vector is associated with the risk for the occurrence and transmission of these diseases. This study aimed to characterize the presence and abundance of Ae. aegypti adult mosquitoes from rural and urban sites in western and coastal regions of Kenya. Presence and abundance of Ae. aegypti adult mosquitoes were determined indoors and outdoors in two western (urban Kisumu and rural Chulaimbo and two coastal (urban Ukunda and rural Msambweni sites in Kenya. Sampling was performed using quarterly human landing catches, monthly Prokopack automated aspirators and monthly Biogents-sentinel traps. A total of 2,229 adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected: 785 (35.2% by human landing catches, 459 (20.6% by Prokopack aspiration and 985 (44.2% by Biogents-sentinel traps. About three times as many Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected in urban than rural sites (1,650 versus 579. Comparable numbers were collected in western (1,196 and coastal (1,033 sites. Over 80% were collected outdoors through human landing catches and Prokopack aspiration. The probability of collecting Ae. aegypti mosquitoes by human landing catches was significantly higher in the afternoon than morning hours (P<0.001, outdoors than indoors (P<0.001 and in urban than rural sites (P = 0.008. Significantly more Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected using Prokopack aspiration outdoors than indoors (P<0.001 and in urban than rural areas (P<0.001. Significantly more mosquitoes were collected using Biogents-sentinel traps in urban than rural areas (P = 0.008 and in western than coastal sites (P = 0.006. The probability of exposure to Ae. aegypti bites was highest in urban areas, outdoors and in the afternoon hours. These characteristics have major implications for the possible transmission of arboviral

  7. The use of the electric vehicle in the metropolitan area of Mexico city; Uso de vehiculos electricos en el area metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, G. [Centro de Intrumentos, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Sheinbaum, C. [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A study is performed on the impact that the introduction of the electric vehicle (EV) would have in the environmental pollution of the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC) for different penetration scenarios of this technology and the costs of the electric vehicle is analyzed and compared with its counterpart, the gasoline vehicle. The associated emissions of a fleet formed of EV and internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) were determined and the emissions reduction of the contaminants considered in the period 1995-2010 produced was analyzed. It was found that the introduction of EV could importantly reduce the carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide and marginally the nitrogen oxides. It was determined that if the EV is massively produced its total cost for its entire useful life would be comparable to the cost of the ICEV. [Espanol] Se realiza un estudio sobre el impacto que tendria la introduccion de vehiculos electricos (VE) en la contaminacion ambiental del area metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico (AMCM) para diferentes escenarios de penetracion de esta tecnologia y se analiza el costo de los vehiculos electricos en comparacion con su contraparte de gasolina. Se determinaron las emisiones asociadas a una flota compuesta de VE y vehiculos con motor de combustion interna (VMCI) y se analizo la reduccion que producia en las emisiones de los diferentes contaminantes considerados en el periodo 1995-2010. Se encontro que la introduccion de VE podria reducir de manera importante las emisiones de monoxido de carbono, metano y dioxido de carbono y marginalmente las de oxido de nitrogeno. Se determino que si los VE son producidos masivamente su costo total para toda su vida util seria comparable al correspondiente al de los VMCI.

  8. The use of the electric vehicle in the metropolitan area of Mexico city; Uso de vehiculos electricos en el area metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, G [Centro de Intrumentos, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Sheinbaum, C [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    A study is performed on the impact that the introduction of the electric vehicle (EV) would have in the environmental pollution of the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC) for different penetration scenarios of this technology and the costs of the electric vehicle is analyzed and compared with its counterpart, the gasoline vehicle. The associated emissions of a fleet formed of EV and internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) were determined and the emissions reduction of the contaminants considered in the period 1995-2010 produced was analyzed. It was found that the introduction of EV could importantly reduce the carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide and marginally the nitrogen oxides. It was determined that if the EV is massively produced its total cost for its entire useful life would be comparable to the cost of the ICEV. [Espanol] Se realiza un estudio sobre el impacto que tendria la introduccion de vehiculos electricos (VE) en la contaminacion ambiental del area metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico (AMCM) para diferentes escenarios de penetracion de esta tecnologia y se analiza el costo de los vehiculos electricos en comparacion con su contraparte de gasolina. Se determinaron las emisiones asociadas a una flota compuesta de VE y vehiculos con motor de combustion interna (VMCI) y se analizo la reduccion que producia en las emisiones de los diferentes contaminantes considerados en el periodo 1995-2010. Se encontro que la introduccion de VE podria reducir de manera importante las emisiones de monoxido de carbono, metano y dioxido de carbono y marginalmente las de oxido de nitrogeno. Se determino que si los VE son producidos masivamente su costo total para toda su vida util seria comparable al correspondiente al de los VMCI.

  9. A STUDY OF BRACKISH WATER MEMBRANE WITH ULTRAFILTRATION PRETREATMENT IN INDONESIA´S COASTAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Hastuti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution and sea water intrusion to water sources in coastal areas result lack of provision safe drinking water by the drinking water regional company or coastal community. The existing water treatment plant that operated on brackish surface water or groundwater feed requires improving process. Membrane process could be a choice to treat the quality of brackish water to the level of potable water that designed to lower cost with high stabil flux and longer lifetime. This research focus on application of pilot plant of brackish water treatment using Ultrafiltration (UF membrane-air lift system as pretreatment of Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane-low pressure. Brackish water sources contain high colloidal and suspended solids that can cause fouling load of RO membranes and impair its performance. UF pretreatment operation tested by addition of compressed air into the feed (air lift system, resulted stable flux, reduces membrane fouling and low feed pressure. A flux of RO with UF pretreatment can produce drinking water of 30--61 L/m2·hour. It was observed, the good quality of RO permeate resulted by using a pretreatment of UF--PS (Polysulfone-UF with total dissolved solid rejection about 96--98% and color rejection about 99--100% at 5 or 8 bars of operation pressure. This paper concludes that performance of membrane technology with UF--air lift system pretreatment and RO membrane-low pressure could be accepted as condition of brackish water source in Indonesia coastal areas in producing drinking water.

  10. A study of brackish water membrane with ultrafiltration pretreatment in Indonesia’s coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Hastuti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution and sea water intrusion to water sources in coastal areas result lack of provision safe drinking water by the drinking water regional company or coastal community. The existing water treatment plant that operated on brackish surface water or groundwater feed requires improving process. Membrane process could be a choice to treat the quality of brackish water to the level of potable water that designed to lower cost with high stabil flux and longer lifetime. This research focus on application of pilot plant of brackish water treatment using Ultrafiltration (UF membrane-air lift system as pretreatment of Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane-low pressure. Brackish water sources contain high colloidal and suspended solids that can cause fouling load of RO membranes and impair its performance. UF pretreatment operation tested by addition of compressed air into the feed (air lift system, resulted stable flux, reduces membrane fouling and low feed pressure. A flux of RO with UF pretreatment can produce drinking water of 30–61 L/m2∙hour. It was observed, the good quality of RO permeate resulted by using a pretreatment of UF–PS (Polysulfone-UF with total dissolved solid rejection about 96–98% and color rejection about 99–100% at 5 or 8 bars of operation pressure. This paper concludes that performance of membrane technology with UF–air lift system pretreatment and RO membrane-low pressure could be accepted as condition of brackish water source in Indonesia coastal areas in producing drinking water.

  11. Methodology for assessing the concentrations of the primary marine aerosol in coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsanti, P.; Briganti, G.; Cappelletti, A.; Marri, P.

    2009-01-01

    European and Italian regulations (DM 60/2002) fix for atmospheric particulate matter PM10 the threshold of 50 μg/m 3 as limit not to be exceeded more than 35 times per year (24 hour mean); unfortunately, such prescriptions do not distinguish anthropic contributions from natural ones (sea salt, Saharan sand, coastal erosion, volcanic ashes, etc.). The aim of this study is to set up a methodology in order to estimate sea salt emissions, both from open sea and surf zone, and to model atmospheric dispersion of marine aerosols. The proposed methodology, applied to the coastal zone between Massa Carrara and Viareggio (Tuscany, Italy), shows specific open sea emissions are generally very low in comparison with the surf zone ones: they are not negligible only with strong winds, but such meteorological conditions are neither persistent nor very frequent in the selected area. On the contrary, sea surf contributions are much more strong (at least 1 order of magnitude), peak-shaped and persistent then the first ones, and can lead to high PM10 concentration fields up to few kilometres inland. The comparison between model outputs and observations, in two points placed at 2000 and 4000 m from the shoreline, has shown an amount of sea salt in total PM10 even greater then 70% in mass. The existence of a surf zone, which can persist many hours or days even after a storm, can produce both elevated PM concentrations and gradients, mainly for light winds perpendicular to the shoreline. This work, supported by MINNI Project (www.minni.org), is suitable for other coastal areas as well and it is aimed to furnish an overview of marine particulate production and atmospheric dispersion processes; it is the starting point of an experimental investigation program, supported by institutional air quality authorities [it

  12. In the Land of the Sky: Recent Paleoenvironmental Research From Coastal Oaxaca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goman, M. F.; Joyce, A. A.; Mueller, R. G.

    2005-05-01

    The Lower Río Verde Valley of Oaxaca has had a long and complex cultural history in part shaped by significant landscape change that ocurred 2300 years ago, when the Río Verde river changed morphology from a meandering to a braided form. These changes were precipitated by anthropogenic landuse impacts in the highland valleys of Oaxaca over 125 linear km to the north. While the lower valley's geomorphic history is well studied, little is known of its paleoecology. In order to reconstruct the history of vegetation, climate, and associated land use change, sediment cores were raised from several sites throughout the region. We present stratigraphical, palynological, and charcoal data from three sites in the region. The lower drainage basin consists entirely of the Verde's coastal valley. The climate of the lower Río Verde Valley is hot and humid with mean annual rainfall of 1000 mm to 2000 mm and average temperatures range from 25°C to 28°C. We discuss the pollen and stratigraphic record from Laguna Pastoría which is a brackish estuary protected from the Pacific Ocean by a roughly east-west trending bay barrier. The bay barrier is about 500 m wide and 2 to 4 m high. Low scrub vegetation (cacti, thorny bushes, small trees and palms) grow on the barrier. The lagoon itself is approximately 9 km long and varies in depth with a 3-4 m maximum. Tides are microtidal (1 m). The lagoon supports a diverse array of mangroves (Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, Conocarpus erectus and Avicennia germinans). Two sediment cores were raised from the lagoon (LP1 and LP2) and provide a record of hurricane strikes and possible changes in the frequency of El Niño's. The LP1 core covers approximately the last 5000 yrs. Preliminary pollen analysis indicates that pollen is in excellent condition and is diverse (>60 taxa). Zea mays pollen was identified from sediments dating to the early Formative period (~ 3600 yr ago). The charcoal records analyzed from 2 paleomeanders of the

  13. The impact of antecedent fire area on burned area in southern California coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Owen F.; Bradstock, Ross A.; Keeley, Jon E.; Syphard, Alexandra D.

    2012-01-01

    Frequent wildfire disasters in southern California highlight the need for risk reduction strategies for the region, of which fuel reduction via prescribed burning is one option. However, there is no consensus about the effectiveness of prescribed fire in reducing the area of wildfire. Here, we use 29 years of historical fire mapping to quantify the relationship between annual wildfire area and antecedent fire area in predominantly shrub and grassland fuels in seven southern California counties, controlling for annual variation in weather patterns. This method has been used elsewhere to measure leverage: the reduction in wildfire area resulting from one unit of prescribed fire treatment. We found little evidence for a leverage effect (leverage = zero). Specifically our results showed no evidence that wildfire area was negatively influenced by previous fires, and only weak relationships with weather variables rainfall and Santa Ana wind occurrences, which were variables included to control for inter-annual variation. We conclude that this is because only 2% of the vegetation burns each year and so wildfires rarely encounter burned patches and chaparral shrublands can carry a fire within 1 or 2 years after previous fire. Prescribed burning is unlikely to have much influence on fire regimes in this area, though targeted treatment at the urban interface may be effective at providing defensible space for protecting assets. These results fit an emerging global model of fire leverage which position California at the bottom end of a continuum, with tropical savannas at the top (leverage = 1: direct replacement of wildfire by prescribed fire) and Australian eucalypt forests in the middle (leverage ∼ 0.25).

  14. Whole Community Resilience: Engaging Multiple Sectors with the Coastal Community Resilience Index and the Climate and Resilience Community of Practice in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempier, T.

    2017-12-01

    Communicating risk due to flooding, sea level rise, storm surge, and other natural hazards is a complex task when attempting to build resilience in coastal communities. There are a number of challenges related to preparing for, responding to, and recovering from coastal storms. Successful resilience planning must include a wide range of sectors including, but not limited to local government, business, non-profit, religious, academia, and healthcare. Years of experience working with communities in the Gulf of Mexico has helped create a process that is both inclusive and effective at bringing the right people to the table and gaining momentum towards resilience efforts. The Coastal Community Resilience Index (CRI), a self-assessment for community leaders, has been implemented in 54 Gulf communities with funding that provides small grant awards to help communities take action to address gaps and vulnerabilities identified in the assessment process. To maintain momentum with resilience actions, the Gulf Climate and Resilience Community of Practice (CoP) encourages local municipality participants to share lessons learned and best practices from their implementation projects in an annual symposium. Recently, both graduate and undergraduate students have been exposed to the CRI and CoP as avenues to work through solutions to complex problems at the local level. In addition, a new generation of high school students has been introduced to the CRI. Their engagement in the process is building a more informed citizenry that will take on the leadership and decision-making roles in the future. Investing in multiple age groups and sectors through the CRI and CoP is building capacity for whole community resilience in the Gulf of Mexico. This presentation will focus on methods that have been successful in the Gulf of Mexico for creating effective change in local municipalities towards resilience actions. Discussion will include decision support tools for engaging local

  15. Government conservation policies on Mexican coastal areas: is "top-down" management working?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Nava

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine and terrestrial ecosystems are declining globally due to environmental degradation and poorly planned resource use. Traditionally, local government agencies have been responsible of the management of natural reserves to preserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, much of these approaches have failed, suggesting the development of more integrative strategies. In order to discuss the importance of a holistic approach in conservation initiatives, coastal and underwater landscape value and biological/environmental indicators of coral reef degradation were assessed using the study case of Zihuatanejo, Guerrero coastal area. This area shelters representative coral reef structures of the Eastern Pacific coast and its terrestrial biodiversity and archaeology enhance the high value of its coastal area. This study explored the landscape value of both terrestrial and marine ecosystems using the geomorphosite approach in two sites on the Zihuatanejo coastal area: Caleta de Chon and Manzanillo Beach. Sedimentation rate, water transparency, chlorophyll and total suspended solids were recorded underwater in each site for environmental characterization. 50 photo-quadrants on five transects were surveyed between 3-4m depth to record coverage (% of living corals, dead corals, algae, sand and rocks. The conservation status of coral reefs was assessed by the coral mortality index (MI. Landscape values showed that both terrestrial and marine ecosystems had important scientific and aesthetic values, being Manzanillo Beach the site with the highest potential for conservation initiatives (TtV=14.2. However, coral reefs face elevated sedimentation rates (up to 1.16kg/m2d and low water transparency (less of 5m generated by coastal land use changes that have increased soil erosion in the adjacent coastal area. High coverage of dead corals (23.6% and algae (up to 29% confirm the low values in conservation status of coral reefs (MI=0.5, reflecting a poorly-planned management

  16. Estimating SGD flux in the Pingtung Plain coastal area by using Radon and Radium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Chang, Yao; Chieh Su, Chih

    2015-04-01

    In the past two decades, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as an important pathway to transport material into coastal area. Our study area is located at Pingtung Plain which is the second largest plain in Taiwan with three major rivers, including Gaoping, Donggang and Linbian Rivers, flow through the plain. The Gaoping River, which has the largest drainage area, flows throughout the central part of the plain. The Pingtung Plain composed by four aquifers in different depths (0, 50, 100, and 200 m) and each layer extends to coastal area. Groundwater is an important water resource for local agriculture and aquaculture. However, the long-term over-pumping induced subsidence problem makes salinization at some coastal area. Some previous studies pointed out the SGD accounts for 80% or more of the mass of freshwater in Fangshan coast, depends on salinity and stable isotopes research. In this study, the radioactive tracers, Radon (222Rn, T1/2=3.8 d) and short-lived Ra isotopes (223Ra, T1/2=11.4 d & 224Ra, T1/2=3.6 d) are used in tracing SGD off the Pingtung Plain. During 2013 to 2014, the terrestrial water samples were collected from Gaoping, Donggang, Linbian Rivers and springs in different seasons. We also conducted two coastal waters cruises by using R/V Ocean Researcher 3 (OR3-1768 and 1799 cruises in May and September 2014). Continuous 222Rn was measured by RAD7 equipped with RAD-AQUA system and large volume (20 L) seawater samples were collected by CTD/Rosette water sampler with Niskin sterile bottles. Water samples were flow through Mn-fiber (flow rate < 1 LPM) to concentrate the Ra isotopes, and counted via RaDeCC system. In spatial variation, our result shows the excess 224Ra in the downstream of Gaoping River (2.39 dpm 100L-1) is higher than upstream (1.09 dpm 100L-1). It indicates the groundwater input may play an important role at the downstream of Gaoping River. For temporal variation, excess 224Ra in the Gaoping River are higher in wet

  17. Air Quality Deterioration of Urban Areas Caused by Wildfires in a Natural Reservoir Forest of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Carbajal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many regions of the world suffer loss of vegetation and reduced air quality due to wildfires. Studies on aerosol emissions by wildfires often discuss the negative effects of atmospheric contaminants from a regional or mesoscale perspective. The occurrence of wildfires reveals that a high percentage takes place close to large urban areas. Very high concentration of pollutants and PM10 particulate matter reach urban zones and millions of inhabitants. These events of high pollutant concentrations are seasonally recurrent. There are many large urban areas in the world that often undergo severe air deterioration due to wildfires smoke. We document the extreme impact of wildfire that occurs in the Protected Area of Flora and Fauna La Primavera located in neighborhood of Guadalajara, a large urban zone in Mexico. The simultaneous emissions of aerosols by 60 wildfires were simulated and compared with observed data. The plume generated by the wildfires reached large areas of the central part of Mexico. The principal characteristics of smog emissions (CO, NO2, and PM10 over the urban area were acceptably reproduced. Observed and modeled CO, PM10, and NO2 data indicated that aerosol plumes generated by the wildfires increased notably the concentrations over the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara.

  18. Predicted Infiltration for Sodic/Saline Soils from Reclaimed Coastal Areas: Sensitivity to Model Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the influences of soil surface conditions and initial soil water content on water movement in unsaturated sodic soils of reclaimed coastal areas. Data was collected from column experiments in which two soils from a Chinese coastal area reclaimed in 2007 (Soil A, saline and 1960 (Soil B, nonsaline were used, with bulk densities of 1.4 or 1.5 g/cm3. A 1D-infiltration model was created using a finite difference method and its sensitivity to hydraulic related parameters was tested. The model well simulated the measured data. The results revealed that soil compaction notably affected the water retention of both soils. Model simulations showed that increasing the ponded water depth had little effect on the infiltration process, since the increases in cumulative infiltration and wetting front advancement rate were small. However, the wetting front advancement rate increased and the cumulative infiltration decreased to a greater extent when θ0 was increased. Soil physical quality was described better by the S parameter than by the saturated hydraulic conductivity since the latter was also affected by the physical chemical effects on clay swelling occurring in the presence of different levels of electrolytes in the soil solutions of the two soils.

  19. Machine learning algorithms for meteorological event classification in the coastal area using in-situ data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Anton; Gengembre, Cyril; Dmitriev, Egor; Delbarre, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    The problem is considered of classification of local atmospheric meteorological events in the coastal area such as sea breezes, fogs and storms. The in-situ meteorological data as wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity and turbulence are used as predictors. Local atmospheric events of 2013-2014 were analysed manually to train classification algorithms in the coastal area of English Channel in Dunkirk (France). Then, ultrasonic anemometer data and LIDAR wind profiler data were used as predictors. A few algorithms were applied to determine meteorological events by local data such as a decision tree, the nearest neighbour classifier, a support vector machine. The comparison of classification algorithms was carried out, the most important predictors for each event type were determined. It was shown that in more than 80 percent of the cases machine learning algorithms detect the meteorological class correctly. We expect that this methodology could be applied also to classify events by climatological in-situ data or by modelling data. It allows estimating frequencies of each event in perspective of climate change.

  20. Predicted infiltration for sodic/saline soils from reclaimed coastal areas: sensitivity to model parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongdong; She, Dongli; Yu, Shuang'en; Shao, Guangcheng; Chen, Dan

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the influences of soil surface conditions and initial soil water content on water movement in unsaturated sodic soils of reclaimed coastal areas. Data was collected from column experiments in which two soils from a Chinese coastal area reclaimed in 2007 (Soil A, saline) and 1960 (Soil B, nonsaline) were used, with bulk densities of 1.4 or 1.5 g/cm(3). A 1D-infiltration model was created using a finite difference method and its sensitivity to hydraulic related parameters was tested. The model well simulated the measured data. The results revealed that soil compaction notably affected the water retention of both soils. Model simulations showed that increasing the ponded water depth had little effect on the infiltration process, since the increases in cumulative infiltration and wetting front advancement rate were small. However, the wetting front advancement rate increased and the cumulative infiltration decreased to a greater extent when θ₀ was increased. Soil physical quality was described better by the S parameter than by the saturated hydraulic conductivity since the latter was also affected by the physical chemical effects on clay swelling occurring in the presence of different levels of electrolytes in the soil solutions of the two soils.

  1. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in children in coastal areas of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to measure the caries prevalence and treatment needs in school children of 6-14 year old residing in coastal areas of West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A total of 1764 children of 6-14 years age group, studying in different primary and high schools of the coastal areas were examined using World Health Organization criteria (1997 to record the prevalence of dental caries. The treatment needs were also calculated according to that given criteria. Statistical Analysis: The results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Chi-square test and unpaired ′t′ test. Results: Dental caries were founded low in the studied population. The overall all caries prevalence in the permanent dentition was 28.06%, in boys it was 25.39% and in girls it was 30.86%. Therefore caries prevalence in female was higher and which was statistically highly significant (P < 0.05. The most frequently required treatment was one surface filling followed by other treatments irrespective of sex and age group. Discussion: The presence of sea foods containing high fluoride and least availability of refined carbohydrate in the diet may be the reason of lower prevalence. Conclusion: child oral health is always a matter of concern for a developing country so further research is required to explore actual causes.

  2. Model evaluation of faecal contamination in coastal areas affected by urban rivers receiving combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, T; Kojima, K; Lee, S A; Furumai, H

    2014-01-01

    Odaiba seaside park is one of the most popular waterfronts in Tokyo Bay, but is easily affected by wet weather pollutant loads through combined sewer overflows (CSOs). The monitoring data of Escherichia coli clearly showed high faecal contamination after a rainfall event on 9-11 November 2007. We estimated the amounts of discharge volume and E. coli pollutant loads of urban rivers receiving CSO from rainfall chambers as well as pumping stations and primary effluent discharge. The result suggested that Sumida River and Meguro River were more influential to the Odaiba coastal area than other sources including the nearest wastewater treatment plant. Subsequently, we simulated the dynamic behaviour of E. coli by a three-dimensional (3D) hydro-dynamic and water quality model. The model simulation reproduced that E. coli concentration after the rainfall event increased rapidly at first and later gradually decreased. The simulations with and without inflow pollutant loads from urban rivers suggested that the E. coli concentration can be influenced by the Meguro River just after the rainfall event and Sumida River about 1 week later. From the spatial and temporal distribution of surface E. coli concentration, after at least 6 days from the rainfall event, high faecal contamination spread to the whole of the coastal area.

  3. Influence the condition land subsidence and groundwater impact of Jakarta coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, S.; Sumotarto, U.; Pramudito, H.

    2018-01-01

    Jakarta has been experiencing land subsidence for ten years due toerecting weight building and intensive extraction of groundwater for society drink water through ground water wells. Many groundwater extraction for drinkingwater has caused intensive scouring of land rock and further triggering land subsidence developed widely in coastal area of Jakarta. Measurement of the land subsidence has been performed by various experts and institutes. Between 1974 to 2010 subsidence has happened between 3 to 4.1 meters especially in Jakarta coastal area. Two major causes of the subsidence are identified. The first major cause is a result of erecting weight building such as hotels, appartments, and various human activities buildings. The second major cause is extracting ground water from aquifers bellow Jakarta land due to water deep wells down to the aquifer and traditional shallow water well of shallow or subsurface uncovered ground water. Weighter building and higher debit of water flow from deep water wells has fastened and deepened the land subsidence. Continuous measurement of land subsidence by means of geodetic as well as geophysical earth behaviour measurements need to be performed to monitor the rate, location as well as mapping of the land subsidence.

  4. Measurement of Seaward Ground Displacements on Coastal Landfill Area Using Radar Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, W.-K.; Jung, H.-S.

    2018-04-01

    In order to understand the mechanism of subsidence and help reducing damage, researchers has been observed the line-of-sight subsidence on the Noksan industrial complex using SAR Interferometry(InSAR) and suggested subsidence prediction models. Although these researches explained a spatially uneven ground subsidence near the seaside, they could not have been explained the occurrence of the newly proposed seaward horizontal, especially nearly north-ward, displacement because of the geometric limitation of InSAR measurements. In this study, we measured the seaward ground displacements trend on the coastal landfill area, Noksan Industrial Complex. We set the interferometric pairs from an ascending and a descending orbits strip map data of ALOS PALSAR2. We employed InSAR and MAI stacking approaches for the both orbits respectively in order to improve the measurement. Finally, seaward deformation was estimated by retrieving three-dimensional displacements from multi-geometric displacements. As a results, maximally 3.3 and 0.7 cm/year of ground displacements for the vertical and seaward directions. In further study, we plan to generate InSAR and MAI stacking measurements with additional SAR data to mitigate tropospheric effect and noise well. Such a seaward observation approach using spaceborne radar is expected to be effective in observing the long-term movements on coastal landfill area.

  5. MEASUREMENT OF SEAWARD GROUND DISPLACEMENTS ON COASTAL LANDFILL AREA USING RADAR INTERFEROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-K. Baek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the mechanism of subsidence and help reducing damage, researchers has been observed the line-of-sight subsidence on the Noksan industrial complex using SAR Interferometry(InSAR and suggested subsidence prediction models. Although these researches explained a spatially uneven ground subsidence near the seaside, they could not have been explained the occurrence of the newly proposed seaward horizontal, especially nearly north-ward, displacement because of the geometric limitation of InSAR measurements. In this study, we measured the seaward ground displacements trend on the coastal landfill area, Noksan Industrial Complex. We set the interferometric pairs from an ascending and a descending orbits strip map data of ALOS PALSAR2. We employed InSAR and MAI stacking approaches for the both orbits respectively in order to improve the measurement. Finally, seaward deformation was estimated by retrieving three-dimensional displacements from multi-geometric displacements. As a results, maximally 3.3 and 0.7 cm/year of ground displacements for the vertical and seaward directions. In further study, we plan to generate InSAR and MAI stacking measurements with additional SAR data to mitigate tropospheric effect and noise well. Such a seaward observation approach using spaceborne radar is expected to be effective in observing the long-term movements on coastal landfill area.

  6. Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes the key energy data for Mexico: 1 - energy organizations and policy: Ministry of energy (SENER), Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE), Ministry of Finances, Ministry of trade and industrial development (SECOFI), national commission for energy savings (CONAE); 2 - companies: federal commission of electricity (CFE), Minera Carbonifera Rio Escondido (MICARE - coal), Pemex (petroleum); 3 - energy production: resources, electric power, petroleum, natural gas; 4 - energy consumption; 5 - stakes and perspectives. Some economic and energy indicators are summarized in a series of tables: general indicators, supply indicators (reserves, refining and electric capacity, energy production, foreign trade), demand indicators (consumption trends, end use, energy independence, energy efficiency, CO 2 emissions), energy status per year and per energy source. (J.S.)

  7. Characteristics of total gaseous mercury concentrations at a coastal area of the Yangtze Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Chunyan; Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Bin; Tang, Shichuang

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we report on total gaseous mercury (TGM) field observations made in the rural area of Shanghai, Chongming Island, China, from September 2009 to April 2012. The average TGM was 2.65 ± 1.73 ng m -3 in Chongming Island, which is higher than the TGM background value of the Northern Hemisphere (1.5-1.7 ng m -3 ); this indicates that to some extent, the Chongming area has been affected by anthropogenic mercury emissions. The observed TGM follows a seasonal pattern; concentrations are highest in winter, followed by autumn, summer, and spring. There is also a clear diurnal variation in TGM. All peak values appear between 7:00 and 9:00 in all four seasons; this appears to be the result of the height change in the atmospheric boundary layer that occurs between day and night. TGM concentrations in Chongming remain high in the westerly wind direction, especially in the southwest direction because of its low frequency, so the greatest source contribution to TGM in Chongming lies to the northwest. Wind speed is also a significant factor affecting TGM, and was negatively correlated with TGM concentrations. TGM is also closely related to carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, indicating that TGM is impacted by human activities. The slope of the linear fitting of TGM and CO demonstrates that the contribution of noncoal source emissions to TGM in summer is greater than in autumn, mainly because the high temperature and intensive sunlight in summer increase mercury emissions from natural sources. Except for some studies in the coastal areas (e.g., Kang Hwa Island by Kim et al., 2006, An-Myun Island by Kim et al., 2002, and Okinawa by Chan et al., 2008), data specifically for coastal areas are lacking. Monitoring of total gaseous mercury (TGM) in the rural area of Shanghai, Chongming Island, can help us understand mercury distribution.

  8. Phosphorus speciation, transformation, and preservation in the coastal area of Rushan Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zang, Jiaye; Zhao, Chenying; Yu, Zhigang; Xu, Bochao; Li, Jingxi; Ran, Xiangbin

    2016-09-15

    Phosphorus (P) speciation, burial, and transformation are poorly constrained under low-oxygen conditions. Sequential chemical extraction techniques, in-situ incubation, and laboratory incubation were employed to explore P cycling in the low-oxygen area of coastal Rushan. The study determined that the total P concentrations in the coastal area of Rushan Bay were higher than those of other China shelf seas, and largely affected by anthropogenic activities. The phosphate (DRP) fluxes in the study area calculated using an incubation method (0-1960μmolm(-2)day(-)(1)) and measured based on pore water gradients (1.5-50.4μmolm(-2)day(-)(1)) were both highly correlated with oxygen conditions. Sediment incubations showed that DRP diffusion from the sediment mainly originates from Fe-P and Auth-P dissolution and that Org-P recycling contributed only a small portion of the total released P pool. The benthic phosphate flux can be 60 times higher under low bottom-water oxygen levels of 63-150μmolL(-1) than under oxygen levels exceeding 150μmolL(-1) in the study area. The P accumulation rates and burial efficiencies in this study area ranged from 16.5-33.3μmolcm(-2)year(-1) and 81.1-83.4%, respectively, and were regulated by the oxygen level and diffusive DRP flux. This study indicates that low oxygen levels between 63 and 150μmol significantly govern P transformation and preservation in the sediment and P pools in the water column. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Distributions and seasonal variations of total dissolved inorganic arsenic in the estuaries and coastal area of eastern Hainan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiu-Hong; Ren, Jing-Ling; Zhang, Gui-Ling; Zhang, Jin-E; Du, Jin-Zhou; Zhu, De-Di

    2012-03-01

    The concentrations of total dissolved inorganic arsenic (TDIAs) were measured by Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS). Two cruises were carried out in the river, estuary, coastal area and groundwater of eastern Hainan in December 2006 and August 2007. The concentrations of TDIAs in the Wanquan and Wenchang/Wenjiao rivers and their estuaries, coastal area in December 2006 were 4.0-9.4, 1.3-13.3, 13.3-17.3 nmol x L(-1), respectively. The concentrations of TDIAs in the Wanquan and Wenchang/Wenjiao rivers and their estuaries, coastal area in August 2007 were 1.6-15.5, 2.4-15.9, 10.8-17.6 nmol x L(-1), respectively. There was no significantly seasonal variation of TDIAs in the rivers and estuaries during the dry and wet seasons. Compared with other areas in the world, the concentration of TDIAs in the Eastern Hainan remained at pristine levels. TDIAs showed conservatively mixing in the both estuaries. The concentration of TDIAs of groundwater was below detection limit (BDL)-41.7 nmol x L(-1). The submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the coastal area was estimated in the drainage basin of Wenchang/Wenjiao river based on the average concentration of TDIAs in the groundwater and SGD water discharge, with the value of 1 153 mol x a(-1). Budget estimation indicated that the SGD discharge is one of the important sources of arsenic in the coastal area.

  10. Incidence of neural tube defects in the natural radiation coastal areas of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaikrishan, G.; Sudheer, K.R.; Andrews, V.J.; Koya, P.K.M.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    All consecutive births in selected government hospitals in and around the high level natural background radiation areas (HLNRA) of Kerala were monitored for congenital malformations observable at birth since 1995. The HLNR area, a coastal strip of land about 55 km in length and 0.5 km in breadth from Purakkad in the north in Alleppey district to Sakthikulangara in the south of Quilon district, stands out among the most prominent background radiation areas of the world. Natural deposit of monazite sand, containing Thorium (8-10%), Uranium (0.3%) and corresponding decay products, is the source of elevated background radiation, ranging from < 1 to 45 mGy/year. Wide variation in dose, due to the patchy and non-uniform distribution of Monazite sand, enables in built controls. High population density, limited migration, ethnic diversity, good literacy, health awareness, institutionalized births and acceptance of small family norm are some of the key features of the population. Areas with a mean radiation dose of more than 1.5 mGy/year were treated as HLNR areas and areas with a dose level of 1.5 mGy/year or less were treated as normal level radiation (NLNR) areas. The study carried out since 1995 does not seem to implicate HLNR in the incidence of neural tube defects among newborns

  11. Statistical downscaling of IPCC sea surface wind and wind energy predictions for U.S. east coastal ocean, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhigang; Xue, Zuo; He, Ruoying; Bao, Xianwen; Song, Jun

    2016-08-01

    A multivariate statistical downscaling method is developed to produce regional, high-resolution, coastal surface wind fields based on the IPCC global model predictions for the U.S. east coastal ocean, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), and the Caribbean Sea. The statistical relationship is built upon linear regressions between the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) spaces of a cross- calibrated, multi-platform, multi-instrument ocean surface wind velocity dataset (predictand) and the global NCEP wind reanalysis (predictor) over a 10 year period from 2000 to 2009. The statistical relationship is validated before applications and its effectiveness is confirmed by the good agreement between downscaled wind fields based on the NCEP reanalysis and in-situ surface wind measured at 16 National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoys in the U.S. east coastal ocean and the GOM during 1992-1999. The predictand-predictor relationship is applied to IPCC GFDL model output (2.0°×2.5°) of downscaled coastal wind at 0.25°×0.25° resolution. The temporal and spatial variability of future predicted wind speeds and wind energy potential over the study region are further quantified. It is shown that wind speed and power would significantly be reduced in the high CO2 climate scenario offshore of the mid-Atlantic and northeast U.S., with the speed falling to one quarter of its original value.

  12. Disconnects Between Audiences, Resources, and Initiatives: Key Findings of the Coastal Areas Climate Change Education Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Karger, F. E.; Ryan, J. G.; Feldman, A.; Gilbes, F.; Trotz, M.; McKayle, C.; Stone, D.; Plank, L.; Meisels, G.; Peterson, M.; Reynolds, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership focused on defining a plan for effective education on climate change and its salient issues in coastal communities Florida and the US Caribbean territories. The approach included assessing perceptions and needs of stakeholders, evaluating the nature of available educational and information resources, and establishing a partnership that includes the public and professional organizations most relevant in planning and in addressing the resiliency of coastal communities. Information gathering activities included surveys among K-12 educators and students on climate change perceptions and current classroom activities in both Florida and the Caribbean territories; surveys of professional urban and land-use planners across Florida regarding their understanding of related in their professional practice; and conducting an inventory of relevant educational materials and information resources. Survey results showed a range of misperceptions about climate change, its causes and its likely impacts. At present, students and teachers in high and middle schools show poor understanding of climate science, and minimal time is spent in instruction on climate change in science courses in Florida and Puerto Rico schools. Also, there has to be professional development efforts and access to rich instructional content in a continuum spanning schools and professional communities including planners (which we surveyed). Architects and engineers are communities that also need to be surveyed and included in future efforts. A major obstacle to efforts at providing continuing education for planners and municipal officials is the lack of consensus on and access to regionally-specific scientific data regarding climate impacts and the relevant instructional content. It is difficult for professionals to prepare for climate change if they cannot define impacts in the Florida-Caribbean region and its coastal urban areas. Across over 1000

  13. Anthropogenic marine litter composition in coastal areas may be a predictor of potentially invasive rafting fauna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Rech

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic plastic pollution is a global problem. In the marine environment, one of its less studied effects is the transport of attached biota, which might lead to introductions of non-native species in new areas or aid in habitat expansions of invasive species. The goal of the present work was to assess if the material composition of beached anthropogenic litter is indicative of the rafting fauna in a coastal area and could thus be used as a simple and cost-efficient tool for risk assessment in the future. Beached anthropogenic litter and attached biota along the 200 km coastline of Asturias, central Bay of Biscay, Spain, were analysed. The macrobiotic community attached to fouled litter items was identified using genetic barcoding combined with visual taxonomic analysis, and compared between hard plastics, foams, other plastics and non-plastic items. On the other hand, the material composition of beached litter was analysed in a standardized area on each beach. From these two datasets, the expected frequency of several rafting taxa was calculated for the coastal area and compared to the actually observed frequencies. The results showed that plastics were the most abundant type of beached litter. Litter accumulation was likely driven by coastal sources (industry, ports and river/sewage inputs and transported by near-shore currents. Rafting vectors were almost exclusively made up of plastics and could mainly be attributed to fishing activity and leisure/ household. We identified a variety of rafting biota, including species of goose barnacles, acorn barnacles, bivalves, gastropods, polychaetes and bryozoan, and hydrozoan colonies attached to stranded litter. Several of these species were non-native and invasive, such as the giant Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas and the Australian barnacle (Austrominius modestus. The composition of attached fauna varied strongly between litter items of different materials. Plastics, except for foam, had a

  14. Anthropogenic marine litter composition in coastal areas may be a predictor of potentially invasive rafting fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell Pichs, Yaisel J.; García-Vazquez, Eva

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic plastic pollution is a global problem. In the marine environment, one of its less studied effects is the transport of attached biota, which might lead to introductions of non-native species in new areas or aid in habitat expansions of invasive species. The goal of the present work was to assess if the material composition of beached anthropogenic litter is indicative of the rafting fauna in a coastal area and could thus be used as a simple and cost-efficient tool for risk assessment in the future. Beached anthropogenic litter and attached biota along the 200 km coastline of Asturias, central Bay of Biscay, Spain, were analysed. The macrobiotic community attached to fouled litter items was identified using genetic barcoding combined with visual taxonomic analysis, and compared between hard plastics, foams, other plastics and non-plastic items. On the other hand, the material composition of beached litter was analysed in a standardized area on each beach. From these two datasets, the expected frequency of several rafting taxa was calculated for the coastal area and compared to the actually observed frequencies. The results showed that plastics were the most abundant type of beached litter. Litter accumulation was likely driven by coastal sources (industry, ports) and river/sewage inputs and transported by near-shore currents. Rafting vectors were almost exclusively made up of plastics and could mainly be attributed to fishing activity and leisure/ household. We identified a variety of rafting biota, including species of goose barnacles, acorn barnacles, bivalves, gastropods, polychaetes and bryozoan, and hydrozoan colonies attached to stranded litter. Several of these species were non-native and invasive, such as the giant Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and the Australian barnacle (Austrominius modestus). The composition of attached fauna varied strongly between litter items of different materials. Plastics, except for foam, had a much more diverse

  15. Anthropogenic marine litter composition in coastal areas may be a predictor of potentially invasive rafting fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Sabine; Borrell Pichs, Yaisel J; García-Vazquez, Eva

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic plastic pollution is a global problem. In the marine environment, one of its less studied effects is the transport of attached biota, which might lead to introductions of non-native species in new areas or aid in habitat expansions of invasive species. The goal of the present work was to assess if the material composition of beached anthropogenic litter is indicative of the rafting fauna in a coastal area and could thus be used as a simple and cost-efficient tool for risk assessment in the future. Beached anthropogenic litter and attached biota along the 200 km coastline of Asturias, central Bay of Biscay, Spain, were analysed. The macrobiotic community attached to fouled litter items was identified using genetic barcoding combined with visual taxonomic analysis, and compared between hard plastics, foams, other plastics and non-plastic items. On the other hand, the material composition of beached litter was analysed in a standardized area on each beach. From these two datasets, the expected frequency of several rafting taxa was calculated for the coastal area and compared to the actually observed frequencies. The results showed that plastics were the most abundant type of beached litter. Litter accumulation was likely driven by coastal sources (industry, ports) and river/sewage inputs and transported by near-shore currents. Rafting vectors were almost exclusively made up of plastics and could mainly be attributed to fishing activity and leisure/ household. We identified a variety of rafting biota, including species of goose barnacles, acorn barnacles, bivalves, gastropods, polychaetes and bryozoan, and hydrozoan colonies attached to stranded litter. Several of these species were non-native and invasive, such as the giant Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and the Australian barnacle (Austrominius modestus). The composition of attached fauna varied strongly between litter items of different materials. Plastics, except for foam, had a much more diverse

  16. Benthic ecology of tropical coastal lagoons: Environmental changes over the last decades in the Términos Lagoon, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenz, Christian; Fichez, Renaud; Silva, Carlos Álvarez; Benítez, Laura Calva; Conan, Pascal; Esparza, Adolfo Contreras Ruiz; Denis, Lionel; Ruiz, Silvia Díaz; Douillet, Pascal; Martinez, Margarita E. Gallegos; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Mendieta, Francisco José Gutiérrez; Origel-Moreno, Montserrat; Garcia, Antonio Zoilo Marquez; Caravaca, Alain Muñoz; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Alvarado, Rocío Torres; Zavala-Hidalgo, Jorge

    2017-10-01

    The Términos Lagoon is a 2000-km2 wide coastal lagoon linked to the largest river catchment in Mesoamerica. Economic development, together with its ecological importance, led the Mexican government to pronounce the Términos Lagoon and its surrounding wetlands as a Federal protected area for flora and fauna in 1994. It is characterized by small temperature fluctuations, but with two distinct seasons (wet and dry) that control the biological, geochemical, and physical processes and components. This paper presents a review of the available information about the Términos Lagoon. The review shows that the diversity of benthic communities is structured by the balance between marine and riverine inputs and that this structuration strongly influences the benthic metabolism and its coupling with the biogeochemistry of the water column. The paper also presents many specific drivers and recommendations for a long-term environmental survey strategy in the context of the expected Global Change in the Central American region.

  17. Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System Assessment in Warmer Urban Areas in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto-Jesus Perea-Moreno

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the possibility of using a stand-alone photovoltaic system (SAPVS for electricity generation in urban areas in Southern Mexico. In Mexico, an urban area is defined as an area where more than 2500 inhabitants live. Due to constant migration from the countryside to the cities, the number of inhabitants of urban localities has been increasing. Global horizontal irradiation (GHI data were recorded every 10 min during 2014–2016 in Coatzacoalcos in the state of Veracruz located on 18°08′09″ N and 94°27′48″ W. In this study, batteries represented 77% of the total cost, 12 PV panels of 310 W could export 5.41 MWh to the grid, and an inverter with an integrated controller and charger was selected, which decreased the initial cost. The city of Coatzacoalcos was chosen because the average annual temperature is 28°, with an average relative humidity of 75% and an average irradiance of 5.3 kWh/m2/day. An emission factor 0.505 tCO2/MWh of greenhouse gases (GHG were obtained, based on the power system, the reduction of net annual GHG would be 11 tCO2 and a financial revenue of 36.951 × 103 $/tCO2 would be obtained. Financial parameters such as a 36.3% Internal Rate Return (IRR and 3.4 years payback show the financial viability of this investment. SAPVSs in urban areas in Mexico could be a benefit as long as housing has a high consumption of electricity.

  18. Probability density functions of photochemicals over a coastal area of Northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiadis, T.; Fortezza, F.; Alberti, L.; Strocchi, V.; Marani, A.; Dal Bo', G.

    1998-01-01

    The present paper surveys the findings of experimental studies and analyses of statistical probability density functions (PDFs) applied to air pollutant concentrations to provide an interpretation of the ground-level distributions of photochemical oxidants in the coastal area of Ravenna (Italy). The atmospheric-pollution data set was collected from the local environmental monitoring network for the period 1978-1989. Results suggest that the statistical distribution of surface ozone, once normalised over the solar radiation PDF for the whole measurement period, follows a log-normal law as found for other pollutants. Although the Weibull distribution also offers a good fit of the experimental data, the area's meteorological features seem to favour the former distribution once the statistical index estimates have been analysed. Local transport phenomena are discussed to explain the data tail trends

  19. Cervical cancer, a disease of poverty: mortality differences between urban and rural areas in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio-Mejía, Lina Sofía; Rangel-Gómez, Gudelia; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    To examine cervical cancer mortality rates in Mexican urban and rural communities, and their association with poverty-related factors, during 1990-2000. We analyzed data from national databases to obtain mortality trends and regional variations using a Poisson regression model based on location (urban-rural). During 1990-2000 a total of 48,761 cervical cancer (CC) deaths were reported in Mexico (1990 = 4,280 deaths/year; 2000 = 4,620 deaths/year). On average, 12 women died every 24 hours, with 0.76% yearly annual growth in CC deaths. Women living in rural areas had 3.07 higher CC mortality risks compared to women with urban residence. Comparison of state CC mortality rates (reference = Mexico City) found higher risk in states with lower socio-economic development (Chiapas, relative risk [RR] = 10.99; Nayarit, RR = 10.5). Predominantly rural states had higher CC mortality rates compared to Mexico City (lowest rural population). CC mortality is associated with poverty-related factors, including lack of formal education, unemployment, low socio-economic level, rural residence and insufficient access to healthcare. This indicates the need for eradication of regional differences in cancer detection. This paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

  20. A SUMMARY OF TOTAL MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN FLORA AND FAUNA NEAR CONTAMINANT SOURCES IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes total mercury concentrations for environmental media collected from near-coastal areas including those impacted by contaminant sources common to the Gulf of Mexico. Water, sediment, fish, blue crabs, oysters, clams, mussels, periphyton and seagrasses were ...

  1. Marginality Phenomena and New Uses on the Agricultural Land. Diachronic and Spatial Analyses of the Molise Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Cialdea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the evolution of land use in the Molise Region. The attention is focused on the changes that occurred primarily on the rural area of the coastal area in this Region.  The presence of urban centers of limited dimension, both for the demographic performance and for the dimensional order, is the main characteristic of this area. The historic part of rural tradition, at the same time, no longer emerges as a primary component of the regional landscape. This trend is particularly evident in the coastal zone, which is analyzed in this work not only in the range of areas that directly bordering the Adriatic Sea, but also in its pre-coastal zone, which remains imprinted on a matrix rural, but suffering from marginalization phenomena

  2. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Anisa, E-mail: coppering@ymail.com; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Alias, Masitah [TNB Reasearch Sdn. Bhd., Kawasan Institusi Penyelidikan, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra), radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra) and potassium-40 ({sup 40}K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (H{sub in}), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  3. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Type 2 Diabetes in a Coastal Area of Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswathy, S; Lohidas, V; Paul, Nimitha; Anish, T S; Narayanan, Tinu; Oldenburg, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Varying prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes have been observed in different parts of the southern state of Kerala, India which is in an advanced stage of epidemiologic transition. Social patterning is evident in diabetes and therefore it was decided to undertake a study on estimating the prevalence of diabetes and associated social determinants. The adopted local self administration unit of the Medical College which is also the field practice area with a population of 25,096 was taken for the study. All the households in the area were visited and the details regarding self reported diabetes was collected after obtaining informed consent and analysis done by multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of self reported diabetes in this coastal area was found to be low at 7.4%. Type 2 diabetes was also found to occur significantly earlier among the respondents belonging to the below poverty line. Age above 40 years (OR 2 95% CI 1.5-2.7, p=.000), marital status (OR 1.9 95% CI 1.1-2.1, p=.006) presence of comorbidities (OR 635 95% CI 389-969, p=.000), more than 8 years of schooling (OR 0.64 95% CI 0.46-0.86, p=.004), living conditions as represented by presence of household source of drinking water(OR 1.4 95% CI 1.01-1.5) were found to be independent predictors. Though there was increasing trend of diabetes among the forward caste line families after backward logistic regression this disappeared leaving behind the proxy of socioeconomic status, household source of drinking water. Though, the state of Kerala is in an advanced stage of epidemiologic transition, coastal areas are still in the earlier phases of transition with low prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Higher education and better living conditions are important social determinants of diabetes though further studies are necessary to delineate the impact of economic status and education.

  4. Numerical calculation of hydrodynamic characteristics of tidal currents for submarine excavation engineering in coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-hua Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In coastal areas with complicated flow movement, deposition and scour readily occur in submarine excavation projects. In this study, a small-scale model, with a high resolution in the vertical direction, was used to simulate the tidal current around a submarine excavation project. The finite volume method was used to solve Navier-Stokes equations and the Reynolds stress transport equation, and the entire process of the tidal current was simulated with unstructured meshes, generated in the irregular shape area, and structured meshes, generated in other water areas. The meshes near the bottom and free surface were densified with a minimum layer thickness of 0.05 m. The volume of fluid method was used to track the free surface, the volume fraction of cells on the upstream boundary was obtained from the volume fraction of adjacent cells, and that on the downstream boundary was determined by the water level process. The numerical results agree with the observed data, and some conclusions can be drawn: after the foundation trench excavation, the flow velocity decreases quite a bit through the foundation trench, with reverse flow occurring on the lee slope in the foundation trench; the swirling flow impedes inflow, leading to the occurrence of dammed water above the foundation trench; the turbulent motion is stronger during ebbing than in other tidal stages, the range with the maximum value of turbulent viscosity, occurring on the south side of the foundation trench at maximum ebbing, is greater than those in other tidal stages in a tidal cycle, and the maximum value of Reynolds shear stress occurs on the south side of the foundation trench at maximum ebbing in a tidal cycle. The numerical calculation method shows a strong performance in simulation of the hydrodynamic characteristics of tidal currents in the foundation trench, providing a basis for submarine engineering construction in coastal areas.

  5. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Alias, Masitah

    2015-01-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 ( 226 Ra), radium-228 ( 228 Ra) and potassium-40 ( 40 K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (H in ), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption

  6. Characteristics of Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes in rural and urban areas of western and coastal Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndenga, Bryson Alberto; Mutuku, Francis Maluki; Ngugi, Harun Njenga; Mbakaya, Joel Omari; Aswani, Peter; Musunzaji, Peter Siema; Vulule, John; Mukoko, Dunstan; Kitron, Uriel; LaBeaud, Angelle Desiree

    2017-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the main vector for yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Recent outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya have been reported in Kenya. Presence and abundance of this vector is associated with the risk for the occurrence and transmission of these diseases. This study aimed to characterize the presence and abundance of Ae. aegypti adult mosquitoes from rural and urban sites in western and coastal regions of Kenya. Presence and abundance of Ae. aegypti adult mosquitoes were determined indoors and outdoors in two western (urban Kisumu and rural Chulaimbo) and two coastal (urban Ukunda and rural Msambweni) sites in Kenya. Sampling was performed using quarterly human landing catches, monthly Prokopack automated aspirators and monthly Biogents-sentinel traps. A total of 2,229 adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected: 785 (35.2%) by human landing catches, 459 (20.6%) by Prokopack aspiration and 985 (44.2%) by Biogents-sentinel traps. About three times as many Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected in urban than rural sites (1,650 versus 579). Comparable numbers were collected in western (1,196) and coastal (1,033) sites. Over 80% were collected outdoors through human landing catches and Prokopack aspiration. The probability of collecting Ae. aegypti mosquitoes by human landing catches was significantly higher in the afternoon than morning hours (Paegypti mosquitoes were collected using Prokopack aspiration outdoors than indoors (Paegypti bites was highest in urban areas, outdoors and in the afternoon hours. These characteristics have major implications for the possible transmission of arboviral diseases and for the planning of surveillance and control programs. PMID:29261766

  7. Reactivated basement structures in the central Savannah River area and their relationship to coastal plain deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumbest, R.J.; Price, V.; Temples, T.J.; Fallaw, W.C.; Snipes, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Structural surface mapping and geophysical studies have identified several faults in the crystalline basement and overlying Coastal Plain sedimentary sequences in the central Savannah River area. Major subsurface basement shear zones occur parallel to and near Upper Three Runs Creek and Tinker Creek and are associated with linear aeromagnetic anomalies. Reflection seismic imaging of the basement shows a band of southeast dipping events parallel to Upper Three Runs Creek. Drill core from basement contain phyllonites, mylonites, fault breccia and pseudotachylite. The magnetic anomalies also mark the boundary separating greenschist facies metavolcanic rocks from amphibolite facies felsic gneiss, schist, and amphibolite. These features are similar to those that characterize other Paleozoic faults of the Eastern Piedmont Fault system. Reflection seismic imaging shows the sub-Cretaceous unconformity as well defined and easily identified event as well as easily traced laterally extensive events in Coastal Plain sequences. The unconformity and sedimentary sequences are faulted or deformed in several locations which also coincide with changes in dip of the unconformity. In the vicinity of Upper Three Runs Creek the unconformity shows a broad warping across which the elevation drops to the southeast and sedimentary sequences show a marked rate of thickening southeast. This indicates deformation of the basement exerted a control on deposition of the Coastal Plain sediments with down to the southeast movement. The basement shear zones are closely associated with the Dunbarton basin and are probable reactivated Paleozoic structures associated with extensional basin development as commonly seen associated with extensional basins on the east coast of North America

  8. Are styrene oligomers in coastal sediments of an industrial area aryl hydrocarbon-receptor agonists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seongjin; Lee, Junghyun; Lee, Changkeun; Yoon, Seo Joon; Jeon, Seungyeon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Giesy, John P; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-06-01

    Effect-directed analysis (EDA) was performed to identify the major aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists in sediments collected from a highly industrialized area (Lake Shihwa, Korea). Great AhR-mediated potencies were found in fractions containing aromatic compounds with log Kow values of 5-8, and relatively great concentrations of styrene oligomers (SOs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in those fractions. Until now, there was little information on occurrences and toxic relative potencies (RePs) of SOs in coastal environments. In the present study; i) distributions and compositions, ii) AhR binding affinities, and iii) contributions of SOs to total AhR-mediated potencies were determined in coastal sediments. Elevated concentrations of 10 SOs were detected in sediments of inland creeks ranging from 61 to 740 ng g(-1) dry mass (dm), while lesser concentrations were found in inner (mean = 33 ng g(-1) dm) and outer regions (mean = 25 ng g(-1) dm) of the lake. Concentrations of PAHs in sediments were comparable to those of SOs. 2,4-diphenyl-1-butene (SD3) was the predominant SO analogue in sediments. SOs and PAHs were accumulated in sediments near sources, and could not be transported to remote regions due to their hydrophobicity. RePs of 3 SOs could be derived, which were 1000- to 10,000-fold less than that of one representative potent AhR active PAH, benzo[a]pyrene. Although concentrations of SOs in sediments were comparable to those of PAHs, the collective contribution of SOs to total AhR-mediated potencies were rather small (coastal environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Down's syndrome and related abnormalities in an area of high background radiation in coastal Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochupillai, N.; Verma, I.C.; Grewal, M.S.; Ramalingaswami, V.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that in a coastal area of Kerala, Southern India, the background radiation is between 1500 and 3000 mR/yr, this being due to the presence of Th-containing monazite mineral in the soil. During an epidemiological study of modular lesions of the thyroid in this area an apparently high prevalence of Down's syndrome and other forms of severe mental retardation was observed. A house-to-house survey of relevant abnormalities in this area was made, and also in a comparable control area without high background radiation. The frequency of chromosome aberrations in a sample of the population in the study and control areas was also investigated. The observations support the view that radiation induces genetic anomalies occur with above average frequency in the population living in the area with high background radiation. Only gross abnormalities evident in clinical examination were recorded. The study and control populations were similar in age and sex structure and general sociologic conditions. Severe mental retardation was the commonest abnormality encountered, and 85% of the abnormalities detected in the study population were genetic in origin, compared with 56% in the control population. Prevalence of Down's syndrome was 0.93 per 1000 in the study population. (U.K.)

  10. Territorial Vulnerability Assessment Supporting Risk Managing Coastal Areas Due to Tsunami Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leandro Barros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Portugal’s coastline extends 1187 km. It is characterized by social, economic and physical conditions that differentiate it from the rest of the territory, including population density, location of infrastructure and support of tourism activities. Therefore, it has a significant exposure if a tsunami occurs. Six coastal study sites with varying characteristics were selected for evaluation in this paper, including two core beach-use areas, two residential areas and two industrial areas. These sites are located in the municipalities of Figueira da Foz, Setúbal and Vila do Bispo. The analysis began with the calculation of the potential tsunami inundation area for each site using the 1755 Lisbon tsunami. Next, a methodology distinguished by its multidimensional character was applied to assess local vulnerability to tsunamis. This methodology assesses vulnerabilities associated with morphological, structural, social and tax factors. These four vulnerability components were combined to obtain a Composite Vulnerability Index (CVI, which enabled us to identify the most vulnerable areas and to determine the distinguishing characteristics of each area.

  11. A driving cycle for vehicle emissions estimation in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifter, I; Díaz, L; Rodríguez, R; López-Salinas, E

    2005-02-01

    A driving cycle derived from driving behavior and real traffic conditions in Mexico City (MC) is proposed. Data acquisition was carried out over diverse MC routes, representing travel under congested and uncongested conditions, using the chase-car approach. Thirteen different on-road patterns, including the four main access roads to MC, trips in both directions and different timetables, a total of 108 trips spanning 1044 km were evaluated in this study. The MC cycle lasts 1360 seconds with a distance of 8.8 km and average speed of 23.4 km h(-1). Both maximum speed (73.6 km h(-1)) and maximum acceleration (2.22 km h(-1)s(-1)) are lower than those of the new vehicles certification employed in Mexico ,FTP-75 cycle., that is, the MC cycle exhibits less cruising time and more transient events than the FTP cycle. A total of 30 light duty gasoline vehicles were classified into different technological groups and tested in an FTP-75 and MC driving cycles in order to compare their emission factors A potential concern is that in Mexico manufacturers design vehicles to meet the emission standards in the FTP, but emission levels increase significantly in a more representative cycle of present driving patterns in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC). The use of a more representative cycle during certification testing, would provide an incentive for vehicle manufacturers to design emissions control systems to remain effective during operation modes that are not currently represented in the official test procedures used in the certification process. Based on the results of the study, the use of MC cycle, which better represents current day driving patterns during testing of vehicle fleets in emissions laboratories, would improve the accuracy of emissions factors used in the MAMC emissions inventories.

  12. Ground-water geology of the coastal zone, Long Beach-Santa Ana area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, J.F.; Piper, A.M.

    1956-01-01

    This paper is the first chapter of a comprehensive report on the ground-water features in the southern part of the coastal plain in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, Calif., with special reference to the effectiveness of the so-called coastal barrier--the Newport-Inglewood structural zone--in restraining landwar,-1 movement of saline water. The coastal plain in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, which covers some 775 square miles, sustains a large urban and rural population, diverse industries, and intensive agricultural developments. The aggregate ground-water withdrawal in 1945 was about 400,000 acre-feet a year, an average of about 360 million gallons a day. The dominant land-form elements are a central lowland plain with tongues extending to the coast, bordering highlands and foothills, and a succession of low hills and mesas aligned northwestward along the coastal edge of the central low- land plain. These low hills and mesas are the land-surface expression of geologic structure in the Newport-Inglewood zone. The highland areas that border the inland edge of the coastal plain are of moderate altitude and relief; most of the ridge crests range from 1,400 to 2,500 feet in altitude, but Santiago Peak in the Santa Ana Mountains attains a height of 5,680 feet above sea level. From these highlands the land surface descends across foothills and aggraded alluvial aprons to the central lowland, Downey Plain, here defined as the surface formed by alluvial aggradation during the post-Pleistocene time of rising base level. The Newport-Inglewood belt of hills and plains (mesas) has a maximum relief of some 500 feet but is widely underlain at a depth of about 30 feet by a surface of marine plantation. As initially formed in late Pleistocene time that surface was largely a featureless plain. Thus the present land-surface forms within the Newport-Inglewood belt measure the earth deformation that has occurred there since late Pleistocene time and so are pertinent with respect to

  13. Seagrass distribution and abundance in Eastern Gulf of Mexico coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard L.; Bittaker, Henry F.

    1986-05-01

    The marine angiosperms Thalassia testudinum, Syringodium filiforme, and Halodule wrightii form two of the largest reported seagrass beds along the northwest and southern coasts of Florida where they cover about 3000 square km in the Big Bend area and about 5500 square km in Florida Bay, respectively. Most of the leaf biomass in the Big Bend area and outer Florida Bay was composed of Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme which were distributed throughout the beds but which were more abundant in shallow depths. A short-leaved form of Halodule wrightii grew in monotypic stands in shallow water near the inner edges of the beds, while Halophila decipiens and a longer-leaved variety of H. wrightii grew scattered throughout the beds, in monotypic stands near the outer edges of the beds, and in deeper water outside the beds. Halophila engelmanni was observed scattered at various depths throughout the seagrass beds and in monospecific patches in deep water outside the northern bed. Ruppia maritima grew primarily in brackish water around river mouths. The cross-shelf limits of the two major seagrass beds are controlled nearshore by increased water turbidity and lower salinity around river mouths and off-shore by light penetration to depths which receive 10% or more of sea surface photosynthetically active radiation. Seagrasses form large beds only along low energy reaches of the coast. The Florida Bay seagrass bed contained about twice the short-shoot density of both Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme, for data averaged over all depths, and about four times the average short-shoot density of both species in shallow water compared with the Big Bend seagrass bed. The differences in average seagrass abundance between Florida Bay and the Big Bend area may be a consequence of the effects of greater seasonal solar radiation and water temperature fluctuations experienced by plants in the northern bed, which lies at the northern distribution limit for American

  14. Study of storm surge trends in typhoon-prone coastal areas based on observations and surge-wave coupled simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingru; Li, Mingjie; Yin, Baoshu; Yang, Dezhou; Yang, Hongwei

    2018-06-01

    This is a study of the storm surge trends in some of the typhoon-prone coastal areas of China. An unstructured-grid, storm surge-wave-tide coupled model was established for the coastal areas of Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong provinces. The coupled model has a high resolution in coastal areas, and the simulated results compared well with the in situ observations and satellite altimeter data. The typhoon-induced storm surges along the coast of the study areas were simulated based on the established coupled model for the past 20 years (1997-2016). The simulated results were used to analyze the trends of the storm surges in the study area. The extreme storm surge trends along the central coast of Fujian Province reached up to 0.06 m/y, significant at the 90% confidence level. The duration of the storm surges greater than 1.0 and 0.7 m had an increasing trend along the coastal area of northern Fujian Province, significant at confidence levels of 70%-91%. The simulated trends of the extreme storm surges were also validated by observations from two tide gauge stations. Further studies show that the correlation coefficient (RTE) between the duration of the storm surge greater than 1 m and the annual ENSO index can reach as high as 0.62, significant at the 99% confidence level. This occurred in a location where the storm surge trend was not significant. For the areas with significant increasing storm surge trends, RTE was small and not significant. This study identified the storm surge trends for the full complex coastline of the study area. These results are useful both for coastal management by the government and for coastal engineering design.

  15. 2014 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Hurricane Sandy Coastal Impact Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles at 0.35m GSD created for NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative in Hurricane Sandy coastal...

  16. Summary Report on Information Technology Integration Activities For project to Enhance NASA Tools for Coastal Managers in the Gulf of Mexico and Support Technology Transfer to Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulbransen, Thomas C.

    2009-04-27

    Deliverable to NASA Stennis Space Center summarizing summarizes accomplishments made by Battelle and its subcontractors to integrate NASA's COAST visualization tool with the Noesis search tool developed under the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative project.

  17. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A rectangular...

  18. Analysis of Temporal Change Taking Place at the Coastline and Coastal Area of the South Coast of the Marmara Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sümeyra KURT

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the fact that determining the temporal change at the coastline is highly significant in maintaining sustainable coastal development plans, this study focuses on the temporal coastline change in the south coasts of the Marmara Sea, which is one of the seas where coastal use and change are the most obvious. Therefore, old and new coastlines have been determined by using Landsat TM images with 30m resolution from the years 1984, 2003 and 2011 as well as colorful orthophotographs of the year 2008 with 0,45 cm resolution. Geometrical confirmation of satellite images were effectuated by using software and techniques of Erdas Imagine 10 and ArcGis 10 and then the coastal analyses from the obtained coastlines and land examinations have been conducted. According to the result of the study, an area of 5,76 km² have been filled between Çanakkale-Çardak and Yalova within 27 years of time between the years 1984 and 2011. The study also reached a conclusion that mining sand was effectuated in an area of 1,15 km² and thus the coast was pulled back. The line that was 521 km in 1984 reached 560 km in 2011. The most obvious coastal change was seen to be in the coasts of Yalova, Gemlik, Mudanya and Bandırma. The coastal bend, located in Lapseki, Gönen, Karacabey and in the south of Kapıdağ Peninsula, still remains to be a natural coastline. Even though irregular settlements in the coastal areas of cities cut off people’s contact with the sea, the solution of filling the coasts was found for the purpose of recreating green spaces in the interest of the public. However, the coastal areas, which have sensitive ecological features, face with pressures of tourism and urban-based developments due to these landfills in the coasts. Therefore, coastal landfills in the southern coasts of the Marmara Sea gradually destroy the natural coastal spaces and the coastline also lost its original appearance. The population growth and pressures on using the land in

  19. Assessing coastal flood risk and sea level rise impacts at New York City area airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, K. A.; Kimball, N.; Osler, M.; Eberbach, S.

    2014-12-01

    Flood risk and sea level rise impacts were assessed for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) at four airports in the New York City area. These airports included John F. Kennedy International, LaGuardia, Newark International, and Teterboro Airports. Quantifying both present day and future flood risk due to climate change and developing flood mitigation alternatives is crucial for the continued operation of these airports. During Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 all four airports were forced to shut down, in part due to coastal flooding. Future climate change and sea level rise effects may result in more frequent shutdowns and disruptions in travel to and from these busy airports. The study examined the effects of the 1%-annual-chance coastal flooding event for present day existing conditions and six different sea level rise scenarios at each airport. Storm surge model outputs from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provided the present day storm surge conditions. 50th and 90thpercentile sea level rise projections from the New York Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) 2013 report were incorporated into storm surge results using linear superposition methods. These projections were evaluated for future years 2025, 2035, and 2055. In addition to the linear superposition approach for storm surge at airports where waves are a potential hazard, one dimensional wave modeling was performed to get the total water level results. Flood hazard and flood depth maps were created based on these results. In addition to assessing overall flooding at each airport, major at-risk infrastructure critical to the continued operation of the airport was identified and a detailed flood vulnerability assessment was performed. This assessment quantified flood impacts in terms of potential critical infrastructure inundation and developed mitigation alternatives to adapt to coastal flooding and future sea level changes. Results from this project are advancing the PANYNJ

  20. Social Capital and Public Participation on Planning in Coastal Area Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayitno, Gunawan; Syaifurridzal, M.

    2017-07-01

    Indonesia is one country to the world that rich with natural resources, especially on marine and coastal resources. But, the condition of rural inhabitants in coastal area still low in economic condition and public facilities and others not suitable for good living environment. The goal of this paper is to integrate the concept of social capital and public participation in the community activities. Social capital, which is interpreted with the term of the trust, networks and norm as governing human behavior is significant to motivate and coordinate collective action towards collaboration. Collective action or collaboration among people in the communities could solve the problem together. In the Grootaert research, with the title “Social Capital, Household Welfare and Poverty in Indonesia” (1999) found that active participation in decision making and memberships in heterogeneous organizations further reduce the likelihood to be poor. In this research, we found the same from Grootaert finding, that social capital (trust) has positive impact to community activities (path point 0.56) in this research location.

  1. Isolation and identification of halotolerant soil bacteria from coastal Patenga area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shafkat Shamim; Siddique, Romana; Tabassum, Nafisa

    2017-10-30

    Halotolerant bacteria have multiple uses viz. fermentation with lesser sterility control and industrial production of bioplastics. Moreover, it may increase the crop productivity of coastal saline lands in Bangladesh by transferring the salt tolerant genes into the plants. The study focused on the isolation and identification of the halotolerant bacteria from three soil samples, collected from coastal Patenga area. The samples were inoculated in nutrient media containing a wide range of salt concentrations. All the samples showed 2, 4 and 6% (w/v) salt tolerance. The isolates from Patenga soil (4, 6%) and beach soil (2%) showed catalase activity and all the isolates showed negative results for oxidase activity, indole production, lactose and motility. All the samples provided positive results for dextrose fermentation. Other tests provided mixed results. Based on the morphological characteristics, biochemical tests and ABIS software analysis the isolates fall within the Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridium and Corynebacterium, with a predominance of Vibrios. Overall the isolates can be considered as mild halotolerant, with the best growth observed at lower salinities and no halophilism detected. Among many possibilities, the genes responsible for the salt tolerant trait in these species can be identified, extracted and inserted into the crop plants to form a transgenic plant to result in higher yield for the rest of the year.

  2. Quantification of risks to coastal areas and development: wave run-up and erosion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In support of the effective implementation of the Integrated Coastal Management Act (Act No 24 of 2008), a review is presented of coastal hazard assessment methods. In particular the ICM Act legislates the establishment or change of coastal setback...

  3. Detection and treatment of hyperthyroidism in sea coastal areas and chemically polluted areas in Gujarat, (western part) India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Om Prakash; Mayank, M.; Rachh, S.; Patel, N.; Patel, K.M.; Soni, M.K.; Bhatt, V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Thyrotoxicosis results from a high level of thyroid hormone in blood. 131 I therapy for this is very safe treatment. Surgery is not acceptable in youngsters because of cosmetic point of view. Objective: In India most of thyrotoxicosis occurs in sea coastal region and hypothyroidism in Himalayan region. The main objective of this study to evaluate, the effect of geographical distribution and chemical pollution on thyroid. To calculate exact dose based on gland size. Materials and Methods: 160 patients of primary hyperthyroidism were selected. Age group range between 15-65 yrs. All patients from Gujarat (India) it is located in western part of India. It's sea coast is approx. 1600 km long. Here Asia's largest chemical zone is situated. Method: 5ml of blood collected from each patient. T3,T4 and TSH test done by RIA and IRMA techniques. After that 99m TcO 4 - Scintigraphy done by gamma camera (GE infinia) 15 days before administration of 131 I all iodine containing food and drugs had been stopped, even iodized salts also. 20 patients got fixed dose of 131 I 10 mci per patient. 140 patients got 120 micro curie per gram of thyroid tissues weight. Follow up study done after 6 months of 131 I administration. Thyroid function test and scintigraphy done to evaluate pre and post therapy changes. Result: 60% of treated patients from sea coastal area, 25% from chemical and 15% from planes. The patients who got fixed dose 10 mci 131 I, of them 35% became hypothyroid and 3% got 2nd dose (13-15 mci) other group who got 120 micro curie 131 I per gram of thyroid tissue of them only 10% became hypothyroid but 5.4% had been treated with 20% more 131 I than primary dose. In the age group of 50-65 yrs on ECG cardiac arrhythmia detected. Conclusion: In treatment of thyrotoxic patients 120 micro curie/gram group shows better result than fixed dose 10 mCi. 60% of treated patients were from sea coastal range, but 25% patients were from chemically polluted zone is guiding us to

  4. Statistical Models for Sediment/Detritus and Dissolved Absorption Coefficients in Coastal Waters of the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Green, Rebecca E; Gould, Jr., Richard W; Ko, Dong S

    2008-01-01

    ... (CDOM) absorption coefficients from physical hydrographic and atmospheric properties. The models were developed for northern Gulf of Mexico shelf waters using multi-year satellite and physical data...

  5. Local Authority Empowerment towards Quality Living Environment for Coastal Reclamation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusup Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Good urban governance administration system is the key to a successful physical planning development. A local authority of a local government concentrates on planning administration and executes the policies and strategies either the federal or state, or even the local’s policies and strategies. Based on its characteristic as the lowest level of government, it becomes the best authority to regulate and monitor the development process within their territory. The significance of a local authority in providing quality living environment invites various academia and professionals to ponder the best urban governance system at a local level. However, there are issues with regards to financial and technical capacity of a local authority, its legal limitation and development instrument adopted in providing urban services for coastal reclamation area in Malaysia. The aim of this paper is to investigate the capability of local authorities in Malaysia in implementing their function as drawn by the legislation. Hence, this paper examines the roles and functions of a local authority as the lowest level of government administration agency in providing urban services; collecting revenue; safeguarding the physical environment in Malaysia, particularly when dealing with development in a coastal reclamation area. Primary data collection was gathered through face-to-face interview sessions involving government agencies and stakeholders. Legal documents, policies and development plans were then analysed to support the primary data for further understanding of the issues concerning the capacity of a local authority especially when providing urban services within its area. The study is expected to provide a new approach to local authorities in Malaysia in providing quality living environment in terms of development procedure, the role and function, legal empowerment, and decentralisation of function particularly in enhancing the current practices at local level.

  6. Gulf of Mexico sales 157 and 161: Central and Western Planning areas. Final environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections IV.D through IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This volume of the environmental impact statement for sales in the Gulf of Mexico presents information dealing with impacts on the costal regions due to planned operations of the petroleum industry. Topics discussed include: impacts on sensitive coastal environments; coastal barrier beaches and associated dunes; wetlands; offshore resources; water quality; air quality; impacts to aquatic environments; impacts on marine birds; impacts on archaeological resources; impacts on socioeconomic conditions; topography; and analysis of a large oil spill

  7. Community Participation Of Coastal Area On Management Of National Park, Karimunjawa Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Bambang A.; Aditomo, Aryo B.; Prihantoko, Kukuh E.

    2018-02-01

    Karimunjawa island located in Jepara Regacy, Central Java has potential marine and fishing resources. Since 1998, this area has been selected as conservation for its natural resources. National park of Karimunjawa is managed by Balai Taman Nasional Karimunjawa (Karimunjawa National Park Beuroue). Some activities involved community have been done in order to get effective management. Community participation is an important component for success in coastal area management. The level of community/people awareness anual on natural resource conservation can increate sustainable resource. However, it is necesssary to provide tools in resource utilization for the community, so that their economic life can be secured. This study observe the level of community participation in the effort of Karimunjawa National Park management. Descriptive method and purposive random sampling were used to carry out the study parameters observed in this study include community participation related to level of knowladge and obedience on the rule of area zonation, an its impact to community. The result show that community knowledge was quite high (40%) with obedience (56%) on the rule of area zonation. Impact area zonation rule was less significant to community. The level of community participation to Karimunjawa National Park management was performed will low to medium level.

  8. Biogenic origin of coalbed gas in the northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Breland, F. Clayton; Hackley, Paul C.

    2008-01-01

    New coal-gas exploration and production in northern Louisiana and south-central Mississippi, Gulf of Mexico Basin, is focused on the Wilcox Group (Paleocene–Eocene), where the depth to targeted subbituminous C to high volatile C bituminous coal beds ranges from 300 to 1680 m, and individual coal beds have a maximum thickness of about 6 m. Total gas content (generally excluding residual gas) of the coal beds ranges from less than 0.37 cm3/g (as-analyzed or raw basis; 1.2 cm3/g, dry, ash free basis, daf) at depths less than 400 m, to greater than 7.3 cm3/g (as-analyzed basis; 8.76 cm3/g, daf) in deeper (> 1,500 m) parts of the basin. About 20 Wilcox coal-gas wells in northern Louisiana produce from 200 to 6485 m3 of gas/day and cumulative gas production from these wells is approximately 25 million m3 (as of December, 2006). U.S. Geological Survey assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas resources in the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain, including northern and south-central Mississippi, indicates that coal beds of the Wilcox Group contain an estimated mean total 109.3 million m3 (3.86 trillion ft3) of producible natural gas.To determine the origin of the Wilcox Group coal gases in northern Louisiana, samples of gas, water, and oil were collected from Wilcox coal and sandstone reservoirs and from under- and overlying Late Cretaceous and Eocene carbonate and sandstone reservoirs. Isotopic data from Wilcox coal-gas samples have an average δ13CCH4 value of − 62.6‰ VPDB (relative to Vienna Peedee Belemnite) and an average δDCH4 value of − 199.9‰ VSMOW (relative to Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water). Values of δ13CCO2 range from − 25.4 to 3.42‰ VPDB. Produced Wilcox saline water collected from oil, conventional gas, and coalbed gas wells have δDH2O values that range from − 27.3 to − 18.0‰ VSMOW. These data suggest that the coal gases primarily are generated in saline formation water by bacterial reduction of CO2

  9. Biogenic origin of coalbed gas in the northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain, U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Hackley, Paul C. [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Breland, F. Clayton Jr. [Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, 617 North 3rd Street, Baton Rouge, LA 70802 (United States)

    2008-10-02

    New coal-gas exploration and production in northern Louisiana and south-central Mississippi, Gulf of Mexico Basin, is focused on the Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene), where the depth to targeted subbituminous C to high volatile C bituminous coal beds ranges from 300 to 1680 m, and individual coal beds have a maximum thickness of about 6 m. Total gas content (generally excluding residual gas) of the coal beds ranges from less than 0.37 cm{sup 3}/g (as-analyzed or raw basis; 1.2 cm{sup 3}/g, dry, ash free basis, daf) at depths less than 400 m, to greater than 7.3 cm{sup 3}/g (as-analyzed basis; 8.76 cm{sup 3}/g, daf) in deeper (> 1,500 m) parts of the basin. About 20 Wilcox coal-gas wells in northern Louisiana produce from 200 to 6485 m{sup 3} of gas/day and cumulative gas production from these wells is approximately 25 million m{sup 3} (as of December, 2006). U.S. Geological Survey assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas resources in the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain, including northern and south-central Mississippi, indicates that coal beds of the Wilcox Group contain an estimated mean total 109.3 million m{sup 3} (3.86 trillion ft{sup 3}) of producible natural gas. To determine the origin of the Wilcox Group coal gases in northern Louisiana, samples of gas, water, and oil were collected from Wilcox coal and sandstone reservoirs and from under- and overlying Late Cretaceous and Eocene carbonate and sandstone reservoirs. Isotopic data from Wilcox coal-gas samples have an average {delta}{sup 13}C{sub CH4} value of - 62.6 permille VPDB (relative to Vienna Peedee Belemnite) and an average {delta}D{sub CH4} value of - 199.9 permille VSMOW (relative to Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water). Values of {delta}{sup 13}C{sub CO2} range from - 25.4 to 3.42 permille VPDB. Produced Wilcox saline water collected from oil, conventional gas, and coalbed gas wells have {delta}D{sub H2O} values that range from - 27.3 to - 18.0 permille VSMOW. These data suggest that the

  10. Development and Application of Percent Annual Chance Coastal Inundation Maps to Support Decision-Making in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilskie, M. V.; Hagen, S. C.; Irish, J. L.; Yoskowitz, D.; Del Angel, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    Rising sea levels increase the vulnerability, exposure, probability, and thus risk associated with hurricane storm surge flooding across low-gradient coastal landscapes. In the U.S., flood risk assessments commonly employ the delineation of the 1% annual chance flood (100-year return period) that guide coastal policy and planning. As many coastal communities now include climate change effects on future development activities, the need to provide scientifically sound and scenario-based data products are becoming increasingly essential. Implementing bio-geo-physical models to study the effects of sea level rise (SLR) on coastal flooding under a variety of scenarios can be a powerful tool. However, model results alone are not appropriate for use by the broader coastal management community and thus must be further refined. For example, developing return period inundations maps or examining the potential economic damages are vital to translate scientific finding and extend their practicality to coastal resources managers, stakeholders, and governmental agencies. This work employs a collection of high-resolution wind-wave and hurricane storm surge models forced by a suite of synthetic storms to derive the 1% and 0.2% annual chance floodplain under four SLR scenarios (0.2, m, 0.5 m, 1.2 m, and 2.0 m) across the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) coast, which include Mississippi, Alabama, and the Florida panhandle. The models represent the potential outlook of the coastal landscape for each of the scenarios and contains changes to the salt marsh, barrier islands, shoreline position, dune elevations, and land use land cover. Simulated surge data are fed into a hazard assessment tool that provides estimates of potential future damages and costs for each SLR scenario. Results provide evidence that the present 500-year floodplain becomes the 100-year floodplain under the 0.5 m SLR scenario by the end of the century along the Alabama and the Florida panhandle coast. Across

  11. Marine organic geochemistry in industrially affected coastal areas in Greece: Hydrocarbons in surface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocarbons are abundant components of the organic material in coastal zones. Their sources are mainly anthropogenic, but several natural ones have also been recognized. Among hydrocarbons, the polycyclic aromatic ones (PAHs) have received special attention since they considered as hazardous environmental chemicals and are included in priority pollutant lists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution, sources and transport pathways of hydrocarbons in marine areas in Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone by using a molecular marker approach, characteristic compositional patterns and related indices and also to evaluate their potential toxicity. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three marine areas: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, affected from the operation of an alumina and production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos, affected from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, affected from a cement production plant. In all the studied areas aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. High aliphatic hydrocarbon (AHC) concentrations (~500 μg/g), indicating significant petroleum related inputs, were measured only in Antikyra bay. In all the other samples, AHC values were below 100 μg/g. N-alkanes were the most prominent resolved components (R) with an elevated odd to even carbon number preference, revealing the high importance of terrestrial inputs in the study areas. The unresolved complex mixture (UCM) was the major component of the aliphatic fraction (UCM/R > 4), indicating a chronic oil pollution. A series of hopanes were also identified, with patterns characteristic of oil-derived hydrocarbons, further confirming the presence of pollutant inputs from fossil fuel products. Extremely high PAH concentrations (> 100,000 ng/g) were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production

  12. Preliminary Study Contamination of Organochlorine Pesticide (Heptachlor) and Heavy Metal (Arsenic) in Shallow Groundwater Aquifer of Semarang Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochaddi, Baskoro; Adhi Suryono, Chrisna; Atmodjo, Warsito; Satriadi, Alfi

    2018-02-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the level of pesticide and heavy metal contamination in shallow aquifer of Semarang coastal areas. Results indicated that Heptachlor and Arsenic were detected in the water samples in the range 0.023-0.055 μg L-1 and 0,03-1,63 μg L-1, respectively. Compared to the standard limits of the organochlorine contents in the water sample by World Health Organization (WHO) limits and Indonesian Drinking and Domestic Water Quality Standard for Ground Water (IWQS), groundwater of Semarang Coastal Areas was contaminated with pesticide and heavy metal. This study has proven the presence of organochlorine and heavy metal contamination of some shallow aquifer supplies in the coastal areas of Semarang.

  13. Stratigraphic controls on saltwater intrusion in the Dominguez Gap area of coastal Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B.D.; Ehman, K.D.; Ponti, D.J.; Reichard, E.G.; Tinsley, J.C.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Land, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Los Angeles Basin is a densely populated coastal area that significantly depends on groundwater. A part of this groundwater supply is at risk from saltwater intrusion-the impetus for this study. High-resolution seismic-reflection data collected from the Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor Complex have been combined with borehole geophysical and descriptive geological data from four nearby ??400-m-deep continuously cored wells and with borehole geophysical data from adjacent water and oil wells to characterize the Pliocene to Holocene stratigraphy of the Dominguez Gap coastal aquifer system. The new data are shown as a north-south, two- dimensional, sequence-stratigraphic model that is compared to existing lithostratigraphic models of the Los Angeles Basin in an attempt to better understand pathways of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. Intrusion of saltwater into the coastal aquifer system generally is attributed to over-pumping that caused the hydraulic gradient to reverse during the mid-1920s. Local water managers have used the existing lithostratigraphic model to site closely spaced injection wells of freshwater (barrier projects) attempting to hydraulically control the saltwater intrusion. Improved understanding of the stratigraphic relationships can guide modifications to barrier design that will allow more efficient operation. Allostratigraphic nomenclature is used to define a new sequence-stratigraphic model for the area because the existing lithostratigraphic correlations that have been used to define aquifer systems are shown not to be time-correlative. The youngest sequence, the Holocene Dominguez sequence, contains the Gaspur aquifer at its base. The Gaspur aquifer is intruded with saltwater and consists of essentially flat-lying gravelly sands deposited by the ancestral Los Angeles River as broad channels that occupied a paleovalley incised into the coastal plain during the last glacio-eustatic highstand. The underlying sequences are deformed into

  14. Prenatal Care Utilization for Mothers from Low-Income Areas of New Mexico, 1989–1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael A.; Waitzkin, Howard; Carson, E. Ann; Romain, Sandra J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Prenatal care is considered to be an important component of primary health care. Our study compared prenatal care utilization and rates of adverse birth outcomes for mothers from low- and higher-income areas of New Mexico between 1989 and 1999. Methodology/Principal Findings Prenatal care indicators included the number of prenatal care visits and the first month of prenatal care. Birth outcome indicators included low birth weight, premature birth, and births linked with death certificates. The results of our study indicated that mothers from low-income areas started their prenatal care significantly later in their pregnancies between 1989 and 1999, and had significantly fewer prenatal visits between 1989 and 1997. For the most part, there were not significant differences in birth outcome indicators between income groupings. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that while mothers from low-income areas received lower levels of prenatal care, they did not experience a higher level of adverse birth outcomes. PMID:20862298

  15. Prenatal care utilization for mothers from low-income areas of New Mexico, 1989-1999.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Schillaci

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal care is considered to be an important component of primary health care. Our study compared prenatal care utilization and rates of adverse birth outcomes for mothers from low- and higher-income areas of New Mexico between 1989 and 1999.Prenatal care indicators included the number of prenatal care visits and the first month of prenatal care. Birth outcome indicators included low birth weight, premature birth, and births linked with death certificates. The results of our study indicated that mothers from low-income areas started their prenatal care significantly later in their pregnancies between 1989 and 1999, and had significantly fewer prenatal visits between 1989 and 1997. For the most part, there were not significant differences in birth outcome indicators between income groupings.These findings suggest that while mothers from low-income areas received lower levels of prenatal care, they did not experience a higher level of adverse birth outcomes.

  16. Spatial Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen in the Coastal Area of Mid-Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Pu, Lijie; Liao, Qilin; Zhu, Ming; Yu, Xue; Mao, Tianying; Xu, Chenxing

    2017-07-14

    Soils play an important role in sequestrating atmospheric CO₂. Coastal tidal flats have been intensively reclaimed for food security and living spaces worldwide. We aimed to identify the changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) following coastal reclamation and their spatial variation in the coastal area of mid-Eastern China to provide information for coastal cropland management. We measured SOC and TN of 463 soil samples in the coastal plain of mid-Eastern China. The results showed that SOC and TN increased highly from the uncultivated coastal tidal flat (2.49 g·kg -1 and 0.21 g·kg -1 , respectively) to the cropland (10.73 g·kg -1 and 1.3 g·kg -1 , respectively). After long-term cultivation, SOC and TN in the old farmland (12.98 g·kg -1 and 1.49 g·kg -1 , respectively) were greater than those in the young farmland (5.76 g·kg -1 and 0.86 g·kg -1 , respectively). The density of SOC in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat, young farmland, and old farmland were 0.68 kg·C·m -2 , 1.52 kg·C·m -2 , and 3.31 kg·C·m -2 , respectively. The density of TN in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat, young farmland and old farmland were 0.05 kg·N·m -2 , 0.23 kg·N·m -2 , and 0.38 kg·N·m -2 , respectively. The C/N (11.17) in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat was highest comparing to that in the young and old farmland due to lower nitrogen. The C/N increased from 6.78 to 8.71 following cultivation. Reclaimed coastal tidal flats had high carbon and nitrogen sequestration potential that not only mitigated the threat of global warming, but also improved soil fertility for crop production. Coastal management of cropland should consider the spatial distribution of SOC and TN to improve ecosystem services of coastal soils.

  17. Trends in the prevalence of hypertension in island and coastal areas of china: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Wei, Wei; Zou, Safeng; Wu, Xiaomei; Zhou, Bo; Fu, Lingyu; Wang, Hailong; Shi, Jingpu

    2014-12-01

    With the economic development in recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in the prevalence of hypertension in some coastal cities of China; however, the number of reports regarding the prevalence of hypertension based on a nationwide study of island and coastal areas of China is limited. We estimated the prevalence and described the trends of hypertension during the last 3 decades in these specific areas. Authoritative databases were searched for cross-sectional studies reporting the prevalence of hypertension in island and coastal areas of China published in the past 3 decades, and 37 studies that involved 760,428 individuals representing 22 different locations were identified and included in our analysis. The estimated prevalence of hypertension was 9.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 6.3%-14.9%) in the 1980s, 18.5% (95% CI = 13.6%-24.8%) in the 1990s, and 30.0% (95% CI = 26.7%-33.6%) in the 2000s (χ(2) for trend: P = 0.00). In the 2000s, adjusted prevalence estimate of hypertension was 21.6% according to the national standard population composition in 1990, and the pooled prevalence estimate for the northern region in coastal areas of China was significantly higher than the southern region (36.2% vs. 26.2%; P = 0.002). Thus, the prevalence of hypertension in the island and coastal areas of China appears to have increased 21.5% in the last 3 decades; the increasing trend was observed in men and women. Our findings highlight the urgent need for public health strategies with more emphasis on improvement of primary health care in the island and coastal areas of China. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Baseline evaluation of sediment contamination in the shallow coastal areas of Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ruiz Compean, Pedro Javier

    2017-09-12

    Despite the growing recognition of the importance of water and sediment quality there is still limited information on contamination levels in many regions globally including the Red Sea. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of three classes of contaminants (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - PAH; metals; plastics) in coastal sediments along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea mainly collected using grabs. Background concentrations are provided for metals in the region. Concentrations of metals and PAH were generally low in comparison to international guidelines. A clear relationship between the concentration of metals and anthropogenic sources was not always apparent and dust and vegetation may be relevant players in the region. Microplastic items (mainly polyethylene) were abundant (reaching up to 1gm−2 and 160piecesm−2) and in general associated with areas of high human activity. This study provides critical information for future monitoring and the development of national policies within the Red Sea region.

  19. Baseline evaluation of sediment contamination in the shallow coastal areas of Saudi Arabian Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Compean, Pedro; Ellis, Joanne; Cúrdia, João; Payumo, Richard; Langner, Ute; Jones, Burton; Carvalho, Susana

    2017-10-15

    Despite the growing recognition of the importance of water and sediment quality there is still limited information on contamination levels in many regions globally including the Red Sea. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of three classes of contaminants (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - PAH; metals; plastics) in coastal sediments along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea mainly collected using grabs. Background concentrations are provided for metals in the region. Concentrations of metals and PAH were generally low in comparison to international guidelines. A clear relationship between the concentration of metals and anthropogenic sources was not always apparent and dust and vegetation may be relevant players in the region. Microplastic items (mainly polyethylene) were abundant (reaching up to 1gm -2 and 160piecesm -2 ) and in general associated with areas of high human activity. This study provides critical information for future monitoring and the development of national policies within the Red Sea region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Protecting Coastal Areas from Flooding by Injecting Solids into the Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanovich, L. N.; Murdoch, L.

    2008-12-01

    Subsidence and sea level rise conspire to increase the risk of flooding in coastal cities throughout the world, and these processes were key contributors to the devastation of New Orleans by hurricane Katrina. Constructing levees and placing fill to raise ground elevations are currently the main options for reducing flooding risks in coastal areas, and both of these options have drawbacks. We suggest that hydromechanical injection of solid compounds suspended in liquid can be used to lift the ground surface and thereby expand the options for protecting such coastal cities as New Orleans, Venice, and Shanghai from flooding. These techniques are broadly related to hydraulic fracturing and compensation grouting, where solid compounds are injected as slurries and cause upward displacements at the ground surface. The equipment and logistics required for hydromechanical solid injection and ground lifting are readily available from current geotechnical and petroleum operations. Hydraulic fractures are routinely created in the upper tens of meters of sediments, where they are filled with a wide range of different proppants for environmental applications. At shallow depths, many of these fractures are sub-parallel to the ground surface and lift their overburden by a few mm to cm, although lifting is not the objective of these fractures. Much larger, vertical displacements, of the order of several meters, could be created in low-cohesion sediments over areas as large as square kilometers. This would be achieved as a result of multiple injections. Injecting solid particulates provides the benefits of a permanent displacement supported by the solids. We have demonstrated that hydraulic fractures will lift the ground surface at shallow depths in Texas near the Sabine River, where the geological setting is generally similar to that of New Orleans (and where, incidentally, hurricane Rita landed in 2005). In these regions, the soft surficial sediments are underlain by relatively

  1. Optimal design of a lagrangian observing system for hydrodynamic surveys in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, Andrea; Quattrocchi, Giovanni; Antognarelli, Fabio; Satta, Andrea; Maicu, Francesco; Ferrarin, Christian; Umgiesser, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The optimization of ocean observing systems is a pressing need for scientific research. In particular, the improvement of ocean short-term observing networks is achievable by reducing the cost-benefit ratio of the field campaigns and by increasing the quality of measurements. Numerical modeling is a powerful tool for determining the appropriateness of a specific observing system and for optimizing the sampling design. This is particularly true when observations are carried out in coastal areas and lagoons where, the use satellites is prohibitive due to the water shallowness. For such areas, numerical models are the most efficient tool both to provide a preliminary assess of the local physical environment and to make short -term predictions above its change. In this context, a test case experiment was carried out within an enclosed shallow water areas, the Cabras Lagoon (Sardinia, Italy). The aim of the experiment was to explore the optimal design for a field survey based on the use of coastal lagrangian buoys. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model based on the finite element method (SHYFEM3D, Umgiesser et al., 2004) was implemented to simulate the lagoon water circulation. The model domain extent to the whole Cabras lagoon and to the whole Oristano Gulf, including the surrounding coastal area. Lateral open boundary conditions were provided by the operational ocean model system WMED and only wind forcing, provided by SKIRON atmospheric model (Kallos et al., 1997), was considered as surface boundary conditions. The model was applied to provide a number of ad hoc scenarios and to explore the efficiency of the short-term hydrodynamic survey. A first field campaign was carried out to investigate the lagrangian circulation inside the lagoon under the main wind forcing condition (Mistral wind from North-West). The trajectories followed by the lagrangian buoys and the estimated lagrangian velocities were used to calibrate the model parameters and to validate the

  2. Baseline evaluation of sediment contamination in the shallow coastal areas of Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ruiz Compean, Pedro Javier; Ellis, Joanne; Curdia, Joao; Payumo, Richard; Langner, Ute; Jones, Burton; Carvalho, Susana

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growing recognition of the importance of water and sediment quality there is still limited information on contamination levels in many regions globally including the Red Sea. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of three classes of contaminants (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - PAH; metals; plastics) in coastal sediments along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea mainly collected using grabs. Background concentrations are provided for metals in the region. Concentrations of metals and PAH were generally low in comparison to international guidelines. A clear relationship between the concentration of metals and anthropogenic sources was not always apparent and dust and vegetation may be relevant players in the region. Microplastic items (mainly polyethylene) were abundant (reaching up to 1gm−2 and 160piecesm−2) and in general associated with areas of high human activity. This study provides critical information for future monitoring and the development of national policies within the Red Sea region.

  3. Degradation of mangroves adversely affected ecosystem and rural inhabitant in the Sindh's coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, S.R.; Inam, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Mangroves the ecological treasure of Sindh, are facing a steady decline due to in active Government policies and lack of interest of local people. Mangroves provide important breeding Zone of to the marine biodiversity because of the reduction of silt flows, the area of active growth of delta, has been reduced from an original estimate of 2600 sq km to about 260 sq km. Similarly, the area of Mangroves from 345,000 hectares, the area is now only 205000 hectares. Pakistani Mangroves rank 6th among the mangroves spread in 92 countries. Mangroves forests act as inter face b/w land and sea. It provides nutrients to marine fisheries and is vital healthy Ecosystem. During past 50 years, nearly 100,000 hectares have been destroyed. The destruction is quite high from 1975 to 1992. It is due to water shortage in the river Indus. Degradation of mangroves adversely affected ecosystem and rural inhabitant in the coastal area. Thus to find root causes of degradation and its effects this study was made. (author)

  4. The Study of Heavy Metals on Sediment Quality of Kuala Perlis Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubir, A. A. Ahmad; Saad, F. N. Mohd; Dahalan, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    The contamination of heavy metals gives bad implications to the aquatic environment. Thus, a study was conducted to assess the sediment quality by using different contamination indices such as Enrichment Factor (EF), Geo-accumulation Index (Igeo), and Pollution Load Index (PLI). Each sediment sample was collected at the surface (0-15cm) at 5 locations based on the land use activity; jetty port (A), seaside restaurant (B), roadside area (C), power plant (D) and residential area (E). All samples were undergoes acid digestion and analyzed with AAS. Four elements identified from the sediment samples which are Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were used to calculate the respective indices. Results show that, the highest EF value of Pb which categorized as very severe enrichment was at point E. Meanwhile minor enrichment was detected at point B for Cu while Cr and Zn at point A. Based on Igeo value the sediment quality along Kuala Perlis was in the unpolluted-moderately polluted condition (class 1). As for PLI it shows that the sediment of the coastal area is unpolluted (PLI<1). Therefore, this study revealed that, the main contributor of heavy metals in this area is Pb while the sediment quality of Kuala Perlis was in minor pollution condition.

  5. Application of Social Vulnerability Indicators to Climate Change for the Southwest Coastal Areas of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Cheng Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change on the coastal zones of Taiwan not only affects the marine environment, ecology, and human communities whose economies rely heavily on marine activities, but also the sustainable development of national economics. The southwest coast is known as the area most vulnerable to climate change; therefore, this study aims to develop indicators to assess social vulnerability in this area of Taiwan using the three dimensions of susceptibility, resistance, and resilience. The modified Delphi method was used to develop nine criteria and 26 indexes in the evaluation, and the analytic hierarchy process method was employed to evaluate the weight of each indicator based on the perspectives of experts collected through questionnaire surveys. The results provide important information pertaining to the vulnerability of the most susceptive regions, the lowest-resistance areas, and the least resilient townships on the southwest coast. The most socially vulnerable areas are plotted based on the present analysis. Experts can consider the vulnerability map provided here when developing adaptation policies. It should be kept in mind that improving the capacities of resistance and resilience is more important than reducing susceptibility in Taiwan.

  6. Biological response to coastal upwelling and dust deposition in the area off Northwest Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohde, T.; Siegel, H.

    2010-05-01

    Nutrient supply in the area off Northwest Africa is mainly regulated by two processes, coastal upwelling and deposition of Saharan dust. In the present study, both processes were analyzed and evaluated by different methods, including cross-correlation, multiple correlation, and event statistics, using remotely sensed proxies of the period from 2000 to 2008 to investigate their influence on the marine environment. The remotely sensed chlorophyll- a concentration was used as a proxy for the phytoplankton biomass stimulated by nutrient supply into the euphotic zone from deeper water layers and from the atmosphere. Satellite-derived alongshore wind stress and sea-surface temperature were applied as proxies for the strength and reflection of coastal upwelling processes. The westward wind and the dust component of the aerosol optical depth describe the transport direction of atmospheric dust and the atmospheric dust column load. Alongshore wind stress and induced upwelling processes were most significantly responsible for the surface chlorophyll- a variability, accounting for about 24% of the total variance, mainly in the winter and spring due to the strong north-easterly trade winds. The remotely sensed proxies allowed determination of time lags between biological response and its forcing processes. A delay of up to 16 days in the surface chlorophyll- a concentration due to the alongshore wind stress was determined in the northern winter and spring. Although input of atmospheric iron by dust storms can stimulate new phytoplankton production in the study area, only 5% of the surface chlorophyll- a variability could be ascribed to the dust component in the aerosol optical depth. All strong desert storms were identified by an event statistics in the time period from 2000 to 2008. The 57 strong storms were studied in relation to their biological response. Six events were clearly detected in which an increase of chlorophyll- a was caused by Saharan dust input and not by

  7. Development of a 3D coupled physical-biogeochemical model for the Marseille coastal area (NW Mediterranean Sea: what complexity is required in the coastal zone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Fraysse

    Full Text Available Terrestrial inputs (natural and anthropogenic from rivers, the atmosphere and physical processes strongly impact the functioning of coastal pelagic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to develop a tool for the examination of these impacts on the Marseille coastal area, which experiences inputs from the Rhone River and high rates of atmospheric deposition. Therefore, a new 3D coupled physical/biogeochemical model was developed. Two versions of the biogeochemical model were tested, one model considering only the carbon (C and nitrogen (N cycles and a second model that also considers the phosphorus (P cycle. Realistic simulations were performed for a period of 5 years (2007-2011. The model accuracy assessment showed that both versions of the model were able of capturing the seasonal changes and spatial characteristics of the ecosystem. The model also reproduced upwelling events and the intrusion of Rhone River water into the Bay of Marseille well. Those processes appeared to greatly impact this coastal oligotrophic area because they induced strong increases in chlorophyll-a concentrations in the surface layer. The model with the C, N and P cycles better reproduced the chlorophyll-a concentrations at the surface than did the model without the P cycle, especially for the Rhone River water. Nevertheless, the chlorophyll-a concentrations at depth were better represented by the model without the P cycle. Therefore, the complexity of the biogeochemical model introduced errors into the model results, but it also improved model results during specific events. Finally, this study suggested that in coastal oligotrophic areas, improvements in the description and quantification of the hydrodynamics and the terrestrial inputs should be preferred over increasing the complexity of the biogeochemical model.

  8. Development of a 3D coupled physical-biogeochemical model for the Marseille coastal area (NW Mediterranean Sea): what complexity is required in the coastal zone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraysse, Marion; Pinazo, Christel; Faure, Vincent Martin; Fuchs, Rosalie; Lazzari, Paolo; Raimbault, Patrick; Pairaud, Ivane

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial inputs (natural and anthropogenic) from rivers, the atmosphere and physical processes strongly impact the functioning of coastal pelagic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to develop a tool for the examination of these impacts on the Marseille coastal area, which experiences inputs from the Rhone River and high rates of atmospheric deposition. Therefore, a new 3D coupled physical/biogeochemical model was developed. Two versions of the biogeochemical model were tested, one model considering only the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles and a second model that also considers the phosphorus (P) cycle. Realistic simulations were performed for a period of 5 years (2007-2011). The model accuracy assessment showed that both versions of the model were able of capturing the seasonal changes and spatial characteristics of the ecosystem. The model also reproduced upwelling events and the intrusion of Rhone River water into the Bay of Marseille well. Those processes appeared to greatly impact this coastal oligotrophic area because they induced strong increases in chlorophyll-a concentrations in the surface layer. The model with the C, N and P cycles better reproduced the chlorophyll-a concentrations at the surface than did the model without the P cycle, especially for the Rhone River water. Nevertheless, the chlorophyll-a concentrations at depth were better represented by the model without the P cycle. Therefore, the complexity of the biogeochemical model introduced errors into the model results, but it also improved model results during specific events. Finally, this study suggested that in coastal oligotrophic areas, improvements in the description and quantification of the hydrodynamics and the terrestrial inputs should be preferred over increasing the complexity of the biogeochemical model.

  9. Residence times of groundwater and nitrate transport in coastal aquifer systems: Daweijia area, northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Cao, Guoliang; McCallum, James; Song, Xianfang

    2015-12-15

    Groundwater within the coastal aquifer systems of the Daweijia area in northeastern China is characterized by a large of variations (33-521mg/L) in NO3(-) concentrations. Elevated nitrate concentrations, in addition to seawater intrusion in the Daweijia well field, both attributable to anthropogenic activities, may impact future water-management practices. Chemical and stable isotopic (δ(18)O, δ(2)H) analysis, (3)H and CFCs methods were applied to provide a better understanding of the relationship between the distribution of groundwater mean residence time (MRT) and nitrate transport, and to identify sources of nitrate concentrations in the complex coastal aquifer systems. There is a relatively narrow range of isotopic composition (ranging from -8.5 to -7.0‰) in most groundwater. Generally higher tritium contents observed in the wet season relative to the dry season may result from rapid groundwater circulation in response to the rainfall through the preferential flow paths. In the well field, the relatively increased nitrate concentrations of groundwater, accompanied by the higher tritium contents in the wet season, indicate the nitrate pollution can be attributed to domestic wastes. The binary exponential and piston-flow mixing model (BEP) yielded feasible age distributions based on the conceptual model. The good inverse relationship between groundwater MRTs (92-467years) and the NO3(-) concentrations in the shallow Quaternary aquifers indicates that elevated nitrate concentrations are attributable to more recent recharge for shallow groundwater. However, there is no significant relationship between the MRTs (8-411years) and the NO3(-) concentrations existing in the carbonate aquifer system, due to the complex hydrogeological conditions, groundwater age distributions and the range of contaminant source areas. Nitrate in the groundwater system without denitrification effects could accumulate and be transported for tens of years, through the complex carbonate

  10. Pelagic and benthic nutrient regeneration processes in mussel cultures (Mytilus edulis) in a eutrophic coastal area (Skive Fjord, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer, Marianne; Thorsen, Sandra Walløe; Carlsson, Marita Sundstein

    2015-01-01

    Long-line mussel farming has been proposed as a mitigation tool in eutrophic coastal areas as nutrients are removed from the ecosystem upon harvest of the crops and transferred back to land. Further mussels filter the water and thereby increase water transparency and promote benthic plant growth...... of this study was to explore the environmental interactions of a long-line mussel farm located in a eutrophic coastal area (Skive Fjord, Denmark) by studying the nutrient cycling in the water column and sediments and assessing their contribution to the nutrient dynamics and oxygen conditions in the fjord...

  11. Physico-chemical analysis of ground water samples of coastal areas of south Chennai in the post-Tsunami scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, A; Mansiya, C

    2015-11-01

    The study of changes in ground water quality on the east coast of chennai due to the December 26, 2004 tsunami and other subsequent disturbances is a matter of great concern. The post-Tsunami has caused considerable plant, animal, material and ecological changes in the entire stretch of chennai coastal area. Being very close to sea and frequently subjected to coastal erosion, water quality has been a concern in this coastal strip, and especially after the recent tsunami this strip seems to be more vulnerable. In the present investigation, ten ground water samples were collected from various parts of south chennai coastal area. Physico-chemical parameters such as pH, temperature, Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Dissolved oxygen (DO), total solids; turbidity and fecal coliform were analyzed. The overall Water quality index (WQI) values for all the samples were found to be in the range of 68.81-74.38 which reveals a fact that the quality of all the samples is only medium to good and could be used for drinking and other domestic uses only after proper treatment. The long term adverse impacts of tsunami on ground water quality of coastal areas and the relationships that exist and among various parameters are carefully analyzed. Local residents and corporation authorities have been made aware of the quality of their drinking water and the methods to conserve the water bodies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid sewage pollution assessment by means of the coverage of epilithic taxa in a coastal area in the SW Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becherucci, M E; Jaubet, M L; Saracho Bottero, M A; Llanos, E N; Elías, R; Garaffo, G V

    2018-07-01

    The sewage pollution impact over coastal environment represents one of the main reasons explaining the deterioration of marine coastal ecosystems around the globe. This paper aims to detect promptly a putative sewage pollution impact in a Southwestern Atlantic coastal area of Argentina as well as to identify a straightforward way for monitoring, based on the relative abundance coverage of the intertidal epilithic taxa. Four sampling sites were distributed at increased distances from the sewage outfall where the cover of individual epilithic species was visually estimated. The surrounded outfall area (i.e. outfall site) resulted polluted with high percentages of organic matter in sediment and Enterococcus concentration in seawater. The structure of the community showed a remarkable difference between the polluted site (outfall site) and the unpolluted sites. The polychaete Boccardia proboscidea dominated the outfall site with variable abundances of the green algae Ulva sp. during the period of study, decreasing the diversity of the community, while the mussel Brachidontes rodriguezii and variable abundances of several algae species dominated the unpolluted sites. The monitoring of the benthic community represents an effective, non-destructive, relative inexpensive and rapid method to assess the health of the coastal environment in the study area. The large abundance of B. proboscidea along with the absence of B. rodriguezii individuals at coastal ecosystem with certain gradient of pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative analysis of bacterial community-metagenomics in coastal Gulf of Mexico sediment microcosms following exposure to Macondo oil (MC252)

    KAUST Repository

    Koo, Hyunmin

    2014-09-10

    The indigenous bacterial communities in sediment microcosms from Dauphin Island (DI), Petit Bois Island (PB) and Perdido Pass (PP) of the coastal Gulf of Mexico were compared following treatment with Macondo oil (MC252) using pyrosequencing and culture-based approaches. After quality-based trimming, 28,991 partial 16S rRNA sequence reads were analyzed by rarefaction, confirming that analyses of bacterial communities were saturated with respect to species diversity. Changes in the relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes played an important role in structuring bacterial communities in oil-treated sediments. Proteobacteria were dominant in oil-treated samples, whereas Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were either the second or the third most abundant taxa. Tenericutes, members of which are known for oil biodegradation, were detected shortly after treatment, and continued to increase in DI and PP sediments. Multivariate statistical analyses (ADONIS) revealed significant dissimilarity of bacterial communities between oil-treated and untreated samples and among locations. In addition, a similarity percentage analysis showed the contribution of each species to the contrast between untreated and oil-treated samples. PCR amplification using DNA from pure cultures of Exiguobacterium,  Pseudoalteromonas,  Halomonas and Dyadobacter, isolated from oil-treated microcosm sediments, produced amplicons similar to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading genes. In the context of the 2010 Macondo blowout, the results from our study demonstrated that the indigenous bacterial communities in coastal Gulf of Mexico sediment microcosms responded to the MC252 oil with altered community structure and species composition. The rapid proliferation of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria suggests their involvement in the degradation of the spilt oil in the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem.

  14. Levels and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in southwestern area of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodolfo Sosa, E. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, D.F. (Mexico); Humberto Bravo, A. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: hbravo@servidor.unam.mx; Violeta Mugica, A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Azcapotzalco, D.F. (Mexico); Pablo Sanchez, A. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, D.F. (Mexico); Emma Bueno, L. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental, Instituto Nacional de Ecologia (Mexico); Krupa, Sagar [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Thirteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were quantified at three sites in southwestern Mexico City from July 2000 to February 2001. High concentrations of different VOCs were found at a Gasoline refueling station (GS), a Condominium area (CA), and at University Center for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS). The most abundant VOCs at CA and CAS were propane, n-butane, toluene, acetylene and pentane. In comparison, at GS the most abundant were toluene, pentane, propane, n-butane, and acetylene. Benzene, a known carcinogenic compound had average levels of 28, 35 and 250 ppbC at CAS, CA, and GS respectively. The main contributing sources of the measured VOCs at CA and CAS were the handling and management of LP (Liquid Propane) gas, vehicle exhaust, asphalt works, and use of solvents. At GS almost all of the VOCs came from vehicle exhaust and fuel evaporation, although components of LP gas were also present. Based on the overall results possible abatement strategies are discussed. - Volatile organic compounds were quantified in order to perform their source apportionment in southwestern area of Mexico City.

  15. Levels and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in southwestern area of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodolfo Sosa, E.; Humberto Bravo, A.; Violeta Mugica, A.; Pablo Sanchez, A.; Emma Bueno, L.; Krupa, Sagar

    2009-01-01

    Thirteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were quantified at three sites in southwestern Mexico City from July 2000 to February 2001. High concentrations of different VOCs were found at a Gasoline refueling station (GS), a Condominium area (CA), and at University Center for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS). The most abundant VOCs at CA and CAS were propane, n-butane, toluene, acetylene and pentane. In comparison, at GS the most abundant were toluene, pentane, propane, n-butane, and acetylene. Benzene, a known carcinogenic compound had average levels of 28, 35 and 250 ppbC at CAS, CA, and GS respectively. The main contributing sources of the measured VOCs at CA and CAS were the handling and management of LP (Liquid Propane) gas, vehicle exhaust, asphalt works, and use of solvents. At GS almost all of the VOCs came from vehicle exhaust and fuel evaporation, although components of LP gas were also present. Based on the overall results possible abatement strategies are discussed. - Volatile organic compounds were quantified in order to perform their source apportionment in southwestern area of Mexico City

  16. Effectiveness of airborne multispectral thermal data for karst groundwater resources recognition in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatti, Stefano; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Palombo, Angelo; Santini, Federico; Pascucci, Simone

    2013-04-01

    Currently the detection, use and management of groundwater in karst regions can be considered one of the most significant procedures for solving water scarcity problems during periods of low rainfall this because groundwater resources from karst aquifers play a key role in the water supply in karst areas worldwide [1]. In many countries of the Mediterranean area, where karst is widespread, groundwater resources are still underexploited, while surface waters are generally preferred [2]. Furthermore, carbonate aquifers constitute a crucial thermal water resource outside of volcanic areas, even if there is no detailed and reliable global assessment of thermal water resources. The composite hydrogeological characteristics of karst, particularly directions and zones of groundwater distribution, are not up till now adequately explained [3]. In view of the abovementioned reasons the present study aims at analyzing the detection capability of high spatial resolution thermal remote sensing of karst water resources in coastal areas in order to get useful information on the karst springs flow and on different characteristics of these environments. To this purpose MIVIS [4, 5] and TASI-600 [6] airborne multispectral thermal imagery (see sensors' characteristics in Table 1) acquired on two coastal areas of the Mediterranean area interested by karst activity, one located in Montenegro and one in Italy, were used. One study area is located in the Kotor Bay, a winding bay on the Adriatic Sea surrounded by high mountains in south-western Montenegro and characterized by many subaerial and submarine coastal springs related to deep karstic channels. The other study area is located in Santa Cesarea (Italy), encompassing coastal cold springs, the main local source of high quality water, and also a noticeable thermal groundwater outflow. The proposed study shows the preliminary results of the two airborne deployments on these areas. The preprocessing of the multispectral thermal imagery

  17. Factors that influence the success of conservation programs in communal property areas in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Bunge-Vivier

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available More than half of the natural vegetation in Mexico is managed collectively within common property systems. The appropriation and continuity of government programs related to the conservation of land that is communally used is proposed to depend on the level of organization of the communities and the interaction between the local and governmental institutions, as well as the benefits derived from conservation projects. Patterns of what drives the conservation of common natural resources were analyzed in order to propose improvements to conservation policy. Changes in primary and secondary vegetation cover in common and private properties were identified by performing a historical spatial analysis. Questionnaires were used to survey 32 populations of seven states of the Mexican Republic to determine the conservation status of common property resources, as well as the ability of the community to continue conservation activities initially undertaken by government programs. Some 53% of the primary and secondary vegetation in Mexico is found in common property areas, but the change from primary and secondary vegetation to other uses is the same for common and private property. Communities with a high level of conservation of communal areas and with the ability to continue conservation projects were those that had dedicated the areas to recreation and conservation, had stronger community organization and were less marginalized. A recognition of the heterogeneity of the socioeconomic and cultural context of communities with common property is necessary to design governmental conservation programs that achieve long-term conservation. To meet the needs of a region that is both degraded and marginalized, the creation of synergies between programs that combat poverty and programs that promote conservation is needed. In addition, the continuation of payments with public funds for work that preserves or rehabilitates natural areas is needed, thereby

  18. Is Sustainablity Possible in Protected Areas in Mexico? Deer as an Example of a Renewable Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gallina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, Mexico’s National Commission of Protected Areas (CONANP was created to encourage the protection, management and restoration of natural and cultural resources and their conservation. Protected areas were recently increased by more than 3 million hectares, for a current total of more than 25 million hectares, corresponding to 174 protected areas that cover 12.90% of the country’s surface area. The information obtained by research helps us understand both biodiversity and ecological processes, as well as the social and economic phenomena that influence the use of ecosystems. In Mexico there are four species of deer: white-tailed deer, mule deer, red brocket and brown brocket. These ungulates have been an important part of the diet of indigenous people and rural communities, and represent an important resource for sport and trophy hunting. We found the best deer populations in protected areas; these can therefore maintain the gene pool and serve as source populations for other areas. These populations are also useful from a research perspective. People living in some protected areas continue to use natural resources such as deer, and also receive economic inputs to develop ecotourism programs, and support from the government for the environmental services derived from conserving biodiversity.

  19. Minimum area thresholds for rattlesnakes and colubrid snakes on islands in the Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meik, Jesse M; Makowsky, Robert

    2018-01-01

    We expand a framework for estimating minimum area thresholds to elaborate biogeographic patterns between two groups of snakes (rattlesnakes and colubrid snakes) on islands in the western Gulf of California, Mexico. The minimum area thresholds for supporting single species versus coexistence of two or more species relate to hypotheses of the relative importance of energetic efficiency and competitive interactions within groups, respectively. We used ordinal logistic regression probability functions to estimate minimum area thresholds after evaluating the influence of island area, isolation, and age on rattlesnake and colubrid occupancy patterns across 83 islands. Minimum area thresholds for islands supporting one species were nearly identical for rattlesnakes and colubrids (~1.7 km 2 ), suggesting that selective tradeoffs for distinctive life history traits between rattlesnakes and colubrids did not result in any clear advantage of one life history strategy over the other on islands. However, the minimum area threshold for supporting two or more species of rattlesnakes (37.1 km 2 ) was over five times greater than it was for supporting two or more species of colubrids (6.7 km 2 ). The great differences between rattlesnakes and colubrids in minimum area required to support more than one species imply that for islands in the Gulf of California relative extinction risks are higher for coexistence of multiple species of rattlesnakes and that competition within and between species of rattlesnakes is likely much more intense than it is within and between species of colubrids.

  20. Development of emergency response tools for accidental radiological contamination of French coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffa, Céline; Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Caillaud, Matthieu; Charmasson, Sabine; Couvez, Céline; Didier, Damien; Dumas, Franck; Fievet, Bruno; Morillon, Mehdi; Renaud, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident resulted in the largest ever accidental release of artificial radionuclides in coastal waters. This accident has shown the importance of marine assessment capabilities for emergency response and the need to develop tools for adequately predicting the evolution and potential impact of radioactive releases to the marine environment. The French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) equips its emergency response centre with operational tools to assist experts and decision makers in the event of accidental atmospheric releases and contamination of the terrestrial environment. The on-going project aims to develop tools for the management of marine contamination events in French coastal areas. This should allow us to evaluate and anticipate post-accident conditions, including potential contamination sites, contamination levels and potential consequences. In order to achieve this goal, two complementary tools are developed: site-specific marine data sheets and a dedicated simulation tool (STERNE, Simulation du Transport et du transfert d’Eléments Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin). Marine data sheets are used to summarize the marine environment characteristics of the various sites considered, and to identify vulnerable areas requiring implementation of population protection measures, such as aquaculture areas, beaches or industrial water intakes, as well as areas of major ecological interest. Local climatological data (dominant sea currents as a function of meteorological or tidal conditions) serving as the basis for an initial environmental sampling strategy is provided whenever possible, along with a list of possible local contacts for operational management purposes. The STERNE simulation tool is designed to predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination in seawater and marine species by incorporating spatio-temporal data. 3D hydrodynamic forecasts are used as input data. Direct discharge points or

  1. Mexico Wind Resource Assessment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.N.; Elliott, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    A preliminary wind energy resource assessment of Mexico that produced wind resource maps for both utility-scale and rural applications was undertaken as part of the Mexico-U.S. Renewable Energy Cooperation Program. This activity has provided valuable information needed to facilitate the commercialization of small wind turbines and windfarms in Mexico and to lay the groundwork for subsequent wind resource activities. A surface meteorological data set of hourly data in digital form was utilized to prepare a more detailed and accurate wind resource assessment of Mexico than otherwise would have been possible. Software was developed to perform the first ever detailed analysis of the wind characteristics data for over 150 stations in Mexico. The hourly data set was augmented with information from weather balloons (upper-air data), ship wind data from coastal areas, and summarized wind data from sources in Mexico. The various data were carefully evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. The preliminary assessment has identified many areas of good-to-excellent wind resource potential and shows that the wind resource in Mexico is considerably greater than shown in previous surveys.

  2. Heavy metal deposition fluxes affecting an Atlantic coastal area in the southwest of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Sonia; de la Rosa, Jesús D.; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M.; González-Castanedo, Yolanda; Fernández-Camacho, Rocío

    2013-10-01

    The present study seeks to estimate the impact of industrial emissions and harbour activities on total atmospheric deposition in an Atlantic coastal area in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Three large industrial estates and a busy harbour have a notable influence on air quality in the city of Huelva and the surrounding area. The study is based on a geochemical characterization of trace elements deposited (soluble and insoluble fractions) in samples collected at a rate of 15 days/sample from June 2008 to May 2011 in three sampling sites, one in the principal industrial belt, another in the city of Huelva, and the last, 56 km outside Huelva city in an area of high ecological interest. The industrial emissions emitted by the Huelva industrial belt exert a notable influence on atmospheric deposition. Major deposition fluxes were registered for Fe, Cu, V, Ni, P, Pb, As, Sn, Sb, Se and Bi, principally in the insoluble fraction, derived from industrial funnel emissions and from harbour activities. Metals such as Mn, Ni, Cu and Zn, and elements such as P also have a significant presence in the soluble fraction converting them into potentially bio-available nutrients for the living organism in the ocean. A principal component analysis certifies three common emissions sources in the area: 1) a mineral factor composed mainly of elements derived from silicate minerals mixed with certain anthropogenic species (Mg, K, Sr, Na, Al, Ba, LREE, Li, Mn, HREE, Ti, Fe, Se, V, SO-, Ni, Ca and P); 2) an industrial factor composed of the same trace elements in the three areas (Sb, Mo, Bi, As, Pb, Sn and Cd) thus confirming the impact of the emissions from the Huelva industrial belt on remote areas; and 3) a marine factor composed of Na, Cl, Mg and SO.

  3. Hearths in the coastal areas of northernmost Sweden, from the period AD 800 to 1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Liedgren

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the chronological setting of hearths registered in FMIS (digital register containing records of all known ancient monuments in Sweden in the provinces of Västerbotten and Norrbotten, Northern Sweden. A total of c. 1500 hearths are known in the area, mainly situated north of the river Skellefteälven. Within a study area of 107 x 94 km, 32 hearths were randomly selected for excavation, each site embracing 1-14 hearths. The sites were scanned using a metal detector and nearly all artifacts found were from the period AD 1600-1900. 14C-datings of charcoal and burned bones corroborated that most hearths were used during this period, with a large number dating to the 19th and 20th centuries. Many hearths contained bones from mature reindeer, indicating that the hearths were related to reindeer herding. We suggest that most hearths are related to nomadic Sami reindeer herders using coastal areas for winter pasture, possibly resulting from the breakdown of the “lappskatteland” (taxation lands system and an increase in reindeer numbers.

  4. Natural Radionuclides and Heavy Metals Pollution in Seawater at Kuala Langat Coastal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabarina Md Yunus; Zaini Hamzah; Ab Khalik Hj Wood; Ahmad Saat

    2015-01-01

    Rapid industrial developments along the Langat river basin play an important role in contributing to the increases of pollution loading at Kuala Langat coastal area. The major pollutant sources in this area may be originating from human activities such as industrial discharge, domestic sewage, construction, agriculture and pig farming near the tributaries that affects the water quality. In addition, Langat and Semenyih rivers flow through the mining and ex-mining area, which is related to the source of natural radionuclides contamination. Heavy metals in the aquatic environment and more likely to enter the food chain. This study is focusing to the levels of radionuclides and heavy metals in seawater. The samples were collected using appropriate water sampler, which is then acidified until pH 2 and filtered using cellulose acetate 0.45 μm. The concentration of these radionuclides and heavy metals were determined using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS) after dilution. In general, the radionuclides and heavy metals concentrations are lower than Malaysia Marine Water Quality Standard (MMWQS) except for few locations where the concentration levels above the standards. The higher concentration of pollutant in the seawater may have a toxic effect on sensitive plants and living organisms. The results of pollution levels of these radionuclides and heavy metals were also compared with other studies. (author)

  5. Taxonomic assessment of seaweed community from the coastal areas of Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafizbillah Zawawi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Basic taxonomic information forms the important basis for the documentation, resource management and utilization of marine biodiversity such as seaweeds. A taxonomic assessment of seaweeds in the coastal areas of Bintulu, Sarawak, East Malaysia, was conducted monthly from May 2011 to May 2012. Species composition was recorded following NaGISA protocols, direct observation, and SCUBA and snorkeling techniques. A total of 54 species were identified, classified into Rhodophyta (23 species, Chlorophyta (16 species and Phaeophyta (15 species. The highest abundance was recorded at Kuala Similajau (25 species while the lowest was recorded at Kuala Nyalau (12 species. As the present study was conducted by examining species collected from both rocky shores and the reef area for the first time, a higher number of species was documented compared to previous studies conducted in the same general area but focusing only on particular habitats. Thirty species found in the current survey represent new records for the locality including some with economic potentials.

  6. Tsunami vulnerability and damage assessment in the coastal area of Rabat and Salé, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Atillah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study, a companion paper to Renou et al. (2011, focuses on the application of a GIS-based method to assess building vulnerability and damage in the event of a tsunami affecting the coastal area of Rabat and Salé, Morocco. This approach, designed within the framework of the European SCHEMA project (www.schemaproject.org is based on the combination of hazard results from numerical modelling of the worst case tsunami scenario (inundation depth based on the historical Lisbon earthquake of 1755 and the Portugal earthquake of 1969, together with vulnerability building types derived from Earth Observation data, field surveys and GIS data. The risk is then evaluated for this highly concentrated population area characterized by the implementation of a vast project of residential and touristic buildings within the flat area of the Bouregreg Valley separating the cities of Rabat and Salé. A GIS tool is used to derive building damage maps by crossing layers of inundation levels and building vulnerability. The inferred damage maps serve as a base for elaborating evacuation plans with appropriate rescue and relief processes and to prepare and consider appropriate measures to prevent the induced tsunami risk.

  7. Reinterpretation of the stratigraphy and structure of the Rancho Las Norias area, central Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, W.R.; Harris, A.G.; Poole, F.G.; Repetski, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    New geologic mapping and fossil data in the vicinity of Rancho Las Norias, 30 km east of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, show that rocks previously mapped as Precambrian instead are Paleozoic. Previous geologic maps of the Rancho Las Norias area show northeast-directed, southwest-dipping reverse or thrust faults deforming both Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks. The revised stratigraphy requires reinterpretation of some of these faults as high-angle normal or oblique-slip faults and the elimination of other faults. We agree with earlier geologic map interpretations that compressional structures have affected the Paleozoic rocks in the area, but our mapping suggests that the direction of compression is from southeast to northwest. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Environmental variation and macrofauna response in a coastal area influenced by land runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoumianaki, Ioanna; Papaspyrou, Sokratis; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar.; Nicolaidou, Artemis

    2013-11-01

    Macrofauna community interactions with environmental variables in the water column (salinity, temperature, turbidity, transparency, suspended particulate matter, particulate organic matter, choloroplastic pigments) and in the sediment (granulometric variables, organic carbon and pigments) were investigated in a coastal area with high land runoff due to riverine and temporary stream discharges (Greece, Aegean Sea, Maliakos Gulf). Samples were taken along a distance-depositional gradient from the river mouth to the open sea at eight stations, at times of different precipitation regime from August 2000 to May 2001. The physical variables, such as transparency and median grain size, generally increased seawards, and parallelled the depositional gradient as opposed to measures of food inputs and hydrodynamic regime. High environmental heterogeneity was observed during peak precipitation. The total number of species increased seawards and from August (122 species) to May (170 species). Maximum abundance also increased from August (4953 m-2) to May (10,220 individuals m-2), irrespective of distance from river mouth. Species belonging to different functional groups, as to recolonization, feeding, motility and substrate preferences, coexisted at all times indicating high functional diversity. Non-parametric multivariate regression showed that at times of low, rising and falling precipitation 78-81% of community variation was explained by environmental variables, indicating that macrofauna distribution and species composition respond to food inputs and sediment characteristics. During peak land runoff the community-environment relationship weakened (57% of the variability explained). The diversity of functional traits of the most abundant species indicates that the macrofauna community can absorb the impact of increased turbidity, sedimentation and current-driven dispersion. The study offers baseline information for the integrated coastal zone management in microtidal areas

  9. Vegetation cover, tidal amplitude and land area predict short-term marsh vulnerability in Coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmaster, Donald; Stagg, Camille L.; Sharp, Leigh Anne; McGinnis, Tommy S.; Wood, Bernard; Piazza, Sarai

    2018-01-01

    The loss of coastal marshes is a topic of great concern, because these habitats provide tangible ecosystem services and are at risk from sea-level rise and human activities. In recent years, significant effort has gone into understanding and modeling the relationships between the biological and physical factors that contribute to marsh stability. Simulation-based process models suggest that marsh stability is the product of a complex feedback between sediment supply, flooding regime and vegetation response, resulting in elevation gains sufficient to match the combination of relative sea-level rise and losses from erosion. However, there have been few direct, empirical tests of these models, because long-term datasets that have captured sufficient numbers of marsh loss events in the context of a rigorous monitoring program are rare. We use a multi-year data set collected by the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) that includes transitions of monitored vegetation plots to open water to build and test a predictive model of near-term marsh vulnerability. We found that despite the conclusions of previous process models, elevation change had no ability to predict the transition of vegetated marsh to open water. However, we found that the processes that drive elevation change were significant predictors of transitions. Specifically, vegetation cover in prior year, land area in the surrounding 1 km2 (an estimate of marsh fragmentation), and the interaction of tidal amplitude and position in tidal frame were all significant factors predicting marsh loss. This suggests that 1) elevation change is likely better a predictor of marsh loss at time scales longer than we consider in this study and 2) the significant predictive factors affect marsh vulnerability through pathways other than elevation change, such as resistance to erosion. In addition, we found that, while sensitivity of marsh vulnerability to the predictive factors varied spatially across coastal Louisiana

  10. Nuclear desalination: harnessing the seas for development of coastal areas of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayub, M.S.; Butt, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan has a population of 140 million with more than 30% of the population living in cities and towns. Karachi, the major port city of the country, is the most densely populated with a population crossing the 11 million mark. The city receives 435 MGD of drinking water from the River Indus and other sources. However, the net demand for the year 2000 was 594 MGD thus there is a gap of 159 MGD in demand and supply. Statistics show that the water demand in Karachi is increasing at the rate of 100 MGD every five years. The coastal belt of the country extends to 1046 sq. km. Of this, 930 km is from the Karachi to Gwader region in the province of Baluchistan. Most of the coastal areas lie outside the monsoon system of weather and therefore the climate is extremely dry. The annual rainfall in this belt is about 15 cms. Therefore, fresh water availability is a major factor for development of the coastal belt of Pakistan. In the wake of the looming water crisis it is becoming increasingly clear that all available and appropriate technologies, including nuclear and related technologies, have to be used for the sustainable development and management of freshwater resources in Pakistan. One particular approach is the desalination of seawater, and countries are increasing their capacity to harness the seas for tapping fresh water. The prospects of using nuclear energy for seawater desalination on a large scale are attractive since desalination is an energy intensive process. Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) is planning to actively participate in the activities of IAEA in the field of nuclear desalination by offering one of its nuclear power plants for coupling a demonstration nuclear desalination plant. Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP), which is the country's first nuclear plant has been successfully operating for the last 30 years. This plant is proposed to be used as a potential site for installation of a demonstration nuclear desalination plant. KANUPP is

  11. 77 FR 40081 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning Area (CPA), Oil and Gas Lease Sales for 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability...

  12. Groundwater management in coastal zones and on islands in crystalline bedrock areas of Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Ekström, Linda Louise; Ljungkvist, Andreas; Granberg, Maria; Merisalu, Johanna; Pokorny, Sebastian; Barthel, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater problems in coastal regions are usually not associated with the sparsely populated shores of water-rich Scandinavia. However, the combination of geology and the specific conditions of water usage create challenges even there. Along the Swedish coast, much of the groundwater occurs in fractured bedrock or in relatively small, shallow, and isolated quaternary sedimentary formations. Those aquifers cannot provide water to larger permanent settlements and are thus neither useful for the public water supply nor have previously received much attention from water authorities or researchers. However, of the 450,000 private wells in Sweden, many are located in coastal areas or on islands, creating pressure on groundwater resources in summer months as periods with low or no natural groundwater recharge. In view of the increasing water demand, as well as the awareness of environmental impacts and climate change, Swedish municipalities now recognize groundwater usage in coastal areas is a major concern. Here, we present the results of an investigation on the "Koster" archipelago which forms a microcosm of coastal zone groundwater problems in Sweden. Koster's geology is dominated by fractured, crystalline bedrock with occasional shallow quaternary deposits in between. With around 300 permanent residents, and up to 6,000 summer guests in peak holiday season, the existing water supply based on 800 private wells is at its limit. Water availability forms an obstacle to future development and the current mode of operation is unsustainable. Therefore, the municipality must decide how to secure future water supply which involves complex legal problems, as well as social, cultural, economic, hydrogeological, and environmental questions. As there are no observation wells on the islands, we used approximately 220 of the 800 wells (65% dug and shallow, 35% drilled and up to 120m deep) for our monitoring. Additionally, water samples were collected by property owners on four

  13. Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia in a community in the Mayan area of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Losa, Maria R; Suarez-Allén, Rosa E; Canul-Canche, Jaqueline; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Eljure-Lopez, Nixma

    2011-03-01

    Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia is a pathology of the oral mucosa which has been reported in diverse ethnic groups. Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 13 and 32 DNA has been detected in these lesions. The aims of this paper are to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of an outbreak in a rural community in the Mayan area of Mexico and to identify a possible route of transmission through saliva. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Chemax (Yucatan, Mexico). Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained through direct interviews. Samples of oral cells and saliva were taken. HPV 13 and 32 were identified by polymerase chain reaction using specific primers. A total of 57 patients were studied, of whom 79.1% were aged jugal mucosa, and more frequently, the tongue. HPV 13 was found in all the patients and HPV 32 in none. A total of 42 saliva samples were positive for HPV 13. Human papillomavirus type 13 is involved in multifocal epithelial hyperplasia among the Mexican Mayan population. The presence of HPV 13 in cells from saliva, combined with poor hygiene behaviors, may explain the familial distribution of the pathology. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. The Albufera Initiative for Biodiversity: a cost effective model for integrating science and volunteer participation in coastal protected area management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riddiford, N.J.; Veraart, J.A.; Férriz, I.; Owens, N.W.; Royo, L.; Honey, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper puts forward a multi-disciplinary field project, set up in 1989 at the Parc Natural de s’Albufera in Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain, as an example of a cost effective model for integrating science and volunteer participation in a coastal protected area. Outcomes include the provision

  15. Trace metal distribution in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, Carman C.M.; Li Xiangdong; Zhang Gan; Wai, Onyx W.H.; Li, Y.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Surface sediments and sediment cores collected at the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and its surrounding coastal area were analysed for total metal concentrations, chemical partitioning, and Pb isotopic compositions. The distribution of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn demonstrated a typical diffusion pattern from the land to the direction of the sea. Two hotspots of trace metal contamination were located at the mixed zone between freshwater and marine waters. The enrichment of metals in the sediments could be attributed to the deposition of the dissolved and particulate trace metals in the water column at the estuarine area. The similar Pb isotopic signatures of the sediments at the PRE and its surrounding coastal area offered strong evidence that the PRE was a major source of trace metals to the adjacent coastal area. Slightly lower 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios in the coastal sediments may indicate other inputs of Pb in addition to the PRE sources, including the inputs from Hong Kong and other parts of the region. - The distribution of trace metals in sediments reflected contaminant sources, physical and chemical deposition processes

  16. Satellite Assessment of Bio-Optical Properties of Northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Waters Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrenz, Steven E; Cai, Wei-Jun; Chen, Xiaogang; Tuel, Merritt

    2008-07-10

    The impacts of major tropical storms events on coastal waters include sediment resuspension, intense water column mixing, and increased delivery of terrestrial materials into coastal waters. We examined satellite imagery acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ocean color sensor aboard the Aqua spacecraft following two major hurricane events: Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on 29 August 2005, and Hurricane Rita, which made landfall on 24 September. MODIS Aqua true color imagery revealed high turbidity levels in shelf waters immediately following the storms indicative of intense resuspension. However, imagery following the landfall of Katrina showed relatively rapid return of shelf water mass properties to pre-storm conditions. Indeed, MODIS Aqua-derived estimates of diffuse attenuation at 490 nm (K_490) and chlorophyll (chlor_a) from mid-August prior to the landfall of Hurricane Katrina were comparable to those observed in mid-September following the storm. Regions of elevated K_490 and chlor_a were evident in offshore waters and appeared to be associated with cyclonic circulation (cold-core eddies) identified on the basis of sea surface height anomaly (SSHA). Imagery acquired shortly after Hurricane Rita made landfall showed increased water column turbidity extending over a large area of the shelf off Louisiana and Texas, consistent with intense resuspension and sediment disturbance. An interannual comparison of satellite-derived estimates of K_490 for late September and early October revealed relatively lower levels in 2005, compared to the mean for the prior three years, in the vicinity of the Mississippi River birdfoot delta. In contrast, levels above the previous three year mean were observed off Texas and Louisiana 7-10 d after the passage of Rita. The lower values of K_490 near the delta could be attributed to relatively low river discharge during the preceding months of the 2005 season. The elevated levels off Texas and

  17. Satellite Assessment of Bio-Optical Properties of Northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Waters Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merritt Tuel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of major tropical storms events on coastal waters include sediment resuspension, intense water column mixing, and increased delivery of terrestrial materials into coastal waters. We examined satellite imagery acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS ocean color sensor aboard the Aqua spacecraft following two major hurricane events: Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on 29 August 2005, and Hurricane Rita, which made landfall on 24 September. MODIS Aqua true color imagery revealed high turbidity levels in shelf waters immediately following the storms indicative of intense resuspension. However, imagery following the landfall of Katrina showed relatively rapid return of shelf water mass properties to pre-storm conditions. Indeed, MODIS Aqua-derived estimates of diffuse attenuation at 490 nm (K_490 and chlorophyll (chlor_a from mid-August prior to the landfall of Hurricane Katrina were comparable to those observed in mid-September following the storm. Regions of elevated K_490 and chlor_a were evident in offshore waters and appeared to be associated with cyclonic circulation (cold-core eddies identified on the basis of sea surface height anomaly (SSHA. Imagery acquired shortly after Hurricane Rita made landfall showed increased water column turbidity extending over a large area of the shelf off Louisiana and Texas, consistent with intense resuspension and sediment disturbance. An interannual comparison of satellite-derived estimates of K_490 for late September and early October revealed relatively lower levels in 2005, compared to the mean for the prior three years, in the vicinity of the Mississippi River birdfoot delta. In contrast, levels above the previous three year mean were observed off Texas and Louisiana 7-10 d after the passage of Rita. The lower values of K_490 near the delta could be attributed to relatively low river discharge during the preceding months of the 2005 season. The elevated levels

  18. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Ross Island area, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, Kevin M.; Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of Earth?s two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate and to the resulting rise in sea level. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey used its archive of satellite images to document changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica and analyze the glaciological features of the coastal regions. The Ross Island area map is bounded by long 141? E. and 175? E. and by lat 76? S. and 81? S. The map covers the part of southern Victoria Land that includes the northwestern Ross Ice Shelf, the McMurdo Ice Shelf, part of the polar plateau and Transantarctic Mountains, the McMurdo Dry Valleys, northernmost Shackleton Coast, Hillary Coast, the southern part of Scott Coast, and Ross Island. Little noticeable change has occurred in the ice fronts on the map, so the focus is on glaciological features. In the western part of the map area, the polar plateau of East Antarctica, once thought to be a featureless region, has subtle wavelike surface forms (megadunes) and flow traces of glaciers that originate far inland and extend to the coast or into the Ross Ice Shelf. There are numerous outlet glaciers. Glaciers drain into the McMurdo Dry Valleys, through the Transantarctic Mountains into the Ross Sea, or into the Ross Ice Shelf. Byrd Glacier is the largest. West of the Transantarctic Mountains are areas of blue ice, readily identifiable on Landsat images, that have been determined to be prime areas for finding meteorites. Three subglacial lakes have been identified in the map area. Because McMurdo Station, the main U.S. scientific research station in Antarctica, is located on Ross Island in the map area, many of these and other features in the area have been studied extensively. The paper version of this map is

  19. Temperature, productivity and sediment characteristics as drivers of seasonal and spatial variations of dissolved methane in the near-shore coastal areas (Belgian coastal zone, North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Speeckaert, Gaëlle; Champenois, Willy; Scranton, Mary I.; Gypens, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    The open ocean is a modest source of CH4 to the atmosphere compared to other natural and anthropogenic CH4 emissions. Coastal regions are more intense sources of CH4 to the atmosphere than open oceanic waters, in particular estuarine zones. The CH4 emission to the atmosphere from coastal areas is sustained by riverine inputs and methanogenesis in the sediments due to high organic matter (OM) deposition. Additionally, natural gas seeps are sources of CH4 to bottom waters leading to high dissolved CH4 concentrations in bottom waters (from tenths of nmol L-1 up to several µmol L-1). We report a data set of dissolved CH4 concentrations obtained at nine fixed stations in the Belgian coastal zone (Southern North Sea), during one yearly cycle, with a bi-monthly frequency in spring, and a monthly frequency during the rest of the year. This is a coastal area with multiple possible sources of CH4 such as from rivers and gassy sediments, and where intense phytoplankton blooms are dominated by the high dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) producing micro-algae Phaeocystis globosa, leading to DMSP and dimethylsulfide (DMS) concentrations. Furthermore, the BCZ is a site of important OM sedimentation and accumulation unlike the rest of the North Sea. Spatial variations of dissolved CH4 concentrations were very marked with a minimum yearly average of 9 nmol L-1 in one of the most off-shore stations and maximum yearly average of 139 nmol L-1 at one of the most near-shore stations. The spatial variations of dissolved CH4 concentrations were related to the organic matter (OM) content of sediments, although the highest concentrations seemed to also be related to inputs of CH4 from gassy sediments associated to submerged peat. In the near-shore stations with fine sand or muddy sediments with a high OM content, the seasonal cycle of dissolved CH4 concentration closely followed the seasonal cycle of water temperature, suggesting the control of methanogenesis by temperature in these OM

  20. Multivariate statistical evaluation of trace elements in groundwater in a coastal area in Shenzhen, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Kouping; Jiao, Jiu J.; Huang Jianmin; Huang Runqiu

    2007-01-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques are efficient ways to display complex relationships among many objects. An attempt was made to study the data of trace elements in groundwater using multivariate statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA), Q-mode factor analysis and cluster analysis. The original matrix consisted of 17 trace elements estimated from 55 groundwater samples colleted in 27 wells located in a coastal area in Shenzhen, China. PCA results show that trace elements of V, Cr, As, Mo, W, and U with greatest positive loadings typically occur as soluble oxyanions in oxidizing waters, while Mn and Co with greatest negative loadings are generally more soluble within oxygen depleted groundwater. Cluster analyses demonstrate that most groundwater samples collected from the same well in the study area during summer and winter still fall into the same group. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical analysis in hydrochemical studies. - Multivariate statistical analysis was used to investigate relationships among trace elements and factors controlling trace element distribution in groundwater

  1. Using a social-ecological systems perspective to understand tourism and landscape interactions in coastal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper Hessel Heslinga

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to look at the potential synergies between tourism and landscapes and examine the potential contribution of tourism to build social-ecological resilience in the Dutch Wadden. Design/methodology/approach – The authors reveal how a social-ecological systems perspective can be used to conceptualize the Wadden as a coupled and dynamic system. This paper is a conceptual analysis that applies this approach to the Dutch Wadden. The data used for the inquiry primarily comes from a literature review. Findings – The authors argue that the social-ecological systems perspective is a useful approach and could be used to improve the governance of multi-functional socio-ecological systems in coastal areas. Opportunities for synergies between tourism and landscapes have been overlooked. The authors consider that tourism and nature protection are potentially compatible and that the synergies should be identified. Research limitations/implications – This paper is only a conceptual application rather than an empirical case study. Further research to actually apply the methodology is needed. Practical implications – Managers of protected areas should consider applying a social-ecological systems approach. Social implications – The views of a wide variety of stakeholders should be considered in landscape planning. Originality/value – The value of this paper lies in the articulation of the social-ecological systems perspective as a way to identify and understand the complex interactions between tourism and landscape, and the potential synergies between them.

  2. Comparative study of urban development and groundwater condition in coastal areas of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Capítulo, Leandro; Carretero, Silvina C.; Kruse, Eduardo E.

    2017-08-01

    The geomorphological evolution of a sand-dune barrier in Buenos Aires, Argentina, is analyzed as a factor regulating the fresh groundwater reserves available. The impact of geomorphological evolution and the consequences for the social and economic development of two coastal areas are assessed. This is one of the most important tourist destinations in the country; for study purposes, it was divided into a northern sector and a southern sector. In the southern sector, the exploitable groundwater is associated with the Holocene and upper Pleistocene geomorphological evolution, which generated three interrelated aquifer units, constituting a system whose useful thickness reaches at least 45 m. In contrast, the northern sector is restricted to two Holocene aquifer units, whose total thickness is on the order of 12 m. The morphological characteristics and the occurrence of the largest fresh groundwater reserves in the southern sector are indicators of better conditions for economic growth, which is mainly reflected on the expansion of real estate ventures. The relationships of transmissivity vs area of real estate ventures (Arev), and total water consumption vs Arev, are indicators for the sustainable management of the water resources. The approach chosen may be used by decision makers in other regions to assess the feasibility of future tourism projects on the basis of the availability of water resources associated with geomorphological features.

  3. Underwater Topography Detection in Coastal Areas Using Fully Polarimetric SAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Bian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR can provide detailed information on scattering mechanisms that could enable the target or structure to be identified. This paper presents a method to detect underwater topography in coastal areas using high resolution fully polarimetric SAR data, while less prior information is required. The method is based on the shoaling and refraction of long surface gravity waves as they propagate shoreward. First, the surface scattering component is obtained by polarization decomposition. Then, wave fields are retrieved from the two-dimensional (2D spectra by the Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT. Finally, shallow water depths are estimated from the dispersion relation. Applicability and effectiveness of the proposed methodology are tested by using C-band fine quad-polarization mode RADARSAT-2 SAR data over the near-shore area of the Hainan province, China. By comparing with the values from an official electronic navigational chart (ENC, the estimated water depths are in good agreement with them. The average relative error of the detected results from the scattering mechanisms based method and single polarization SAR data are 9.73% and 11.53% respectively. The validation results indicate that the scattering mechanisms based methodology is more effective than only using the single polarization SAR data for underwater topography detection, and will inspire further research on underwater topography detection with fully polarimetric SAR data.

  4. New technologies for the detection of natural and anthropic features in coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappucci, Sergio; Del Monte, Maurizio; Paci, M.; Valentini, Emiliana

    2015-01-01

    Some results of the sub project GE.RI.N (Natural Resources Management) conducted in the Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands (Western Sicily) are presented. Coastal and sea floor morphology has been investigated integrating different data sources and using remote sensing data acquired by the Ministry of Environment during the MAMPIRA Project. This approach allowed us to recognize the real extent and distribution of several rocky outcrops emerging from the sandy bottom, south of Favignana Island (known as I Pali ) , and the anthropogenic features generated by the effects of traps, trawling and anchor on the 'Posidonia oceanica' meadow that, within the Egadi Archipelago, is the largest in the Mediterranean Sea (www.ampisoleegadi.it). Unpublished and detailed characterization of the seafloor and assessment of human impacts are the main results of the present study, which demonstrate how remote sensing technologies have a great potential and relevant management implication for Marine Protected Areas and the preservation of emerged and submerged environment [it

  5. Sediment Transport and Slope Stability of Ship Shoal Borrow Areas for Coastal Restoration of Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Xu, K.; Bentley, S. J.; Li, C.; Miner, M. D.; Wilson, C.; Xue, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Sandy barrier islands along Louisiana coast are degrading rapidly due to both natural and anthropogenic factors. Ship Shoal is one of the largest offshore sand resources, and has been used as a borrow area for Caminada Headland Restoration Project. Our knowledge of sediment transport and infilling processes in this new sandy and dynamic borrow area is rather limited. High resolution sub-bottom seismic data, side scan sonar images, multi-beam bathymetry and laser sediment grain size data were used to study seafloor morphological evolution and pit wall stability in response to both physical and geological processes. The multi-beam bathymetry and seismic profiling inside the pit showed that disequilibrium conditions led to rapid infilling in the pits at the beginning, but this process slowed down after the pit slope became stable and topography became smooth. We hypothesize that the erosion of the adjacent seabed sediment by energetic waves and longshore currents, the supply of suspended sediment from the rivers, and the erodible materials produced by local mass wasting on pit walls are three main types of infilling sediments. Compared with mud-capped dredge pits, this sandy dredge pit seems to have more gentle slopes on pit walls, which might be controlled by the angle of repose. Infilling sediment seems to be dominantly sandy, with some mud patches on bathymetric depressions. This study helps us better understand the impacts of mining sediment for coastal restoration and improves sand resource management efforts.

  6. How marine debris ingestion differs among megafauna species in a tropical coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Beneditto, Ana Paula Madeira; Awabdi, Danielle Rodrigues

    2014-11-15

    The marine debris ingested by megafauna species (Trichiurus lepturus, Chelonia mydas, Pontoporia blainvillei, and Sotalia guianensis) was recorded in a coastal area of southeastern Brazil (21-23°S). Marine debris was recorded in all species, mainly consisting of plastic material (flexible and hard plastics - clear, white, and colored- and nylon filaments). The 'pelagic predators' T. lepturus and S. guianesis showed the lowest percent frequencies of debris ingestion (0.7% and 1.3%, respectively), followed by the 'benthic predator' P. blainvillei (15.7%) and the 'benthic herbivorous C. mydas (59.2%). The debris found in C. mydas stomachs was opportunistically ingested during feeding activities on local macroalgal banks. In the study area, the benthic environment accumulates more anthropogenic debris than the pelagic environment, and benthic/demersal feeders are more susceptible to encounters and ingestion. The sub-lethal effects observed in C. mydas, such as intestinal obstruction due to hardened fecal material, should be considered a local conservation concern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Topographic data acquisition in tsunami-prone coastal area using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfai, M. A.; Sunarto; Khakim, N.; Cahyadi, A.; Rosaji, F. S. C.; Fatchurohman, H.; Wibowo, Y. A.

    2018-04-01

    The southern coastal area of Java Island is one of the nine seismic gaps prone to tsunamis. The entire coastline in one of the regencies, Gunungkidul, is exposed to the subduction zone in the Indian Ocean. Also, the growing tourism industries in the regency increase its vulnerability, which places most of its areas at high risk of tsunamis. The same case applies to Kukup, i.e., one of the most well-known beaches in Gunungkidul. Structurally shaped cliffs that surround it experience intensive wave erosion process, but it has very minimum access for evacuation routes. Since tsunami modeling is a very advanced analysis, it requires an accurate topographic data. Therefore, the research aimed to generate the topographic data of Kukup Beach as the baseline in tsunami risk reduction analysis and disaster management. It used aerial photograph data, which was acquired using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The results showed that the aerial photographs captured by drone had accurate elevation and spatial resolution. Therefore, they are applicable for tsunami modeling and disaster management.

  8. Observed and simulated sea breeze characteristics over Rayong coastal area, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung Thanh; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan

    2012-05-01

    This work presents the detailed characterization of sea breeze (SB) over the Rayong coastal area, one of the most rapidly developed and highly industrialized areas during the last decade in Thailand, using observation data analysis and fine-resolution (2 km) mesoscale meteorological modeling with incorporation of new land cover and satellite-derived vegetation fraction data sets. The key characteristics considered include frequency of SB occurrence, sea-breeze day (SBD) identification, degree of inland penetration, and boundary layer development. It was found that SBs occur frequently in the winter due mainly to relatively large land-sea temperature contrasts and minimally in the wet season. Monthly mean SB onset and cessation times are at around 12-15 local time (LT) and 18-21 LT, respectively, and its strength peaks during the early- to mid-afternoon. Monthly SB hodographs generally exhibit clockwise rotations, and SB inland penetration (at PCD-T tower) ranges widely with the monthly means of 25-55 km from the coast. Mesoscale MM5 modeling was performed on two selected SBDs (13 January and 16 March 2006), on which the SBs are under weak and onshore strong influences from background winds, respectively. Simulated near-surface winds and temperature were found to be in fair-to-acceptable agreement with the observations. The SB circulation along the Rayong coast is clearly defined with a return flow aloft and a front on 13 January, while it is enhanced by the onshore background winds on 16 March. Another SB along the Chonburi coast also develops separately, but their fronts merge into one in the mid-afternoon, resulting in large area coverage by the SB. Simulated planetary boundary layer height over the land area is significantly affected by a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) induced by an SB, which is found to be low near the coast and increases toward the front (up to 800-1,000 m along the Rayong coast).

  9. Chemical and geotechnical assessment of low organic foundation soils across the coastal area of Southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebisi, N. O.; Osammor, J.; Oluwafemi, O. S.

    2018-04-01

    Pressure on land use has caused great site development along the coastal area of south western Nigeria. However, research works for the purpose of evaluating appropriate depths of foundations in the area were without cognizance of engineering challenges that may ensue as a result of the organic content, and associated factors of the soils. This paper evaluates the compositional effects of the soils on foundation materials, and a phenomenological model of compressibility of fines during design and construction of problem-free foundations in the area. Thirty (30) disturbed soils were analysed for moisture content, grain size distribution, consistency limits, chloride, pH and sulphate, while the oedometer consolidation test was carried out on another 30 undisturbed soils. The stratigraphic sequence in the profile comprises medium dense to coarse grained silty clayey sand to 16.80 m depth, below loose grey organic silty clayey sand from the surface. Results show in most cases, that the foundation soils contain insignificant percentages (0.95-5.8%) of organic solids. Moisture content (44-70%), chloride (74.9 ppm), sulphate (420 ppm) ions concentration and pH (8.96) could enhance the corrosive potential of the soils. It is recommended that Portland cement concrete will be suitable in the environment. Foundation settlement with respect to surface area (0.028≤ mv ≤ 0.434m2MN-1 at 200 kNm-2; 0.038mv ≤ 0.776m2MN-1 at 400 kNm-2; 0.038≤ mv ≤ 0.879m2MN-1 at 800 kNm-2) ranges from low to medium compressibility with respect to consolidation pressure. Therefore, footings load need be spread over the soils, and foundation design need be based on site-specific soil information.

  10. Analysis of Multi Temporal Satellite Imagery for Total Suspended Sediments in a Wave-Active Coastal Area-Gaza Strip Coastal Water, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midyan D.I. Aldabash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sediment load materials is one of the key factors that determine the surface water quality, both of oceanic and river water, and it specifies water optical properties. Thus it provides a background for a plenty of applications and projects in the water and oceanography community. Landsat detects and classifies reflected solar energy from bodies on the earth's surface. Suspended sediments existing in water column have an optical influences. So that, Landsat images could detect suspended sediments concentration in such a water surface. In this study we have three main objectives to be achieved as; TSS Concentration maps generation in the Gaza Strip coastal zone, achieving analysis processes on TSS trend itself and TSS related coastal phenomenon, and investigation of the ability of Landsat images to detect TSS comprehensively in a wavy coastal zone. For this purpose two landsat TM5 images acquired in 1999 and 2010, one Landsat TM7 images acquired in 2003, and 2 Landsat Oli 8 images acquired in 2014 and 2015 were used for TSS mapping. In addition, 64 TSS in-situ tested samples were also to calculate a correlation equation between Digital Numbers - DN in each image pixels and TSS values in the ground data. All image analysis and remote sensing steps have been done in this study using Integrated Land and Water Information System - ILWIS software version ILWIS academic 3.3. Green and Red bands in all used Landsat images contained the highest linear correlation factors -R- for the images acquired in 1999, 2003, 2010, 2014, and 2015. Resulted correlation factors were higher by reducing time difference between acquisition time and sampling time. Generated maps showed that circulation in Gaza coastal area are counterclockwise, and it brings the sediments from Nile River Delta toward Gaza Strip.

  11. From Ecosystem-Scale to Litter Biochemistry: Controls on Carbon Sequestration in Coastal Wetlands of the Western Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louchouarn, P.; Kaiser, K.; Norwood, M. J.; Sterne, A. M. E.; Armitage, A. R.; HighField, W.; Brody, S.

    2015-12-01

    Landscape-level shifts in plant species distribution and abundance can fundamentally change the structure and services of an ecosystem. Such shifts are occurring within mangrove-marsh ecotones of the U.S., where over the last few decades, relatively mild winters have led to mangrove expansion into areas previously occupied by salt marsh plants. Here we present the synthesis of 3 years of multidisciplinary work to quantify ecosystem shifts at the regional scale, along the entire Texas (USA) coast of the western Gulf of Mexico, and transcribe these shifts into carbon (C) sequestration mass balances. We classified Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images using artificial neural networks to quantify shifts in areal coverage of black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) and salt marsh (Spartina alterniflora and other grass and forb species) over 20 years across the Texas Gulf coast. Between 1990 and 2010, mangrove area expanded by 74% (+16 km2). Concurrently, salt marsh area experienced a net loss of 24% (-78 km2). Most of that loss was due to conversion to tidal flats or water, likely a result of relative sea level rise, with only 6% attributable to mangrove expansion. Although relative carbon load (per surface area) are statistically larger for mangrove wetlands, total C loads are larger for salt marsh wetlands due to their greater aerial coverage. The entire loss of above ground C (~7.0·109 g), was offset by salt marsh expansion (2.0·109 g) and mangrove expansion (5.6·109 g) over the study period. Concurrently, the net loss in salt marsh coverage led to a loss in below ground C accumulation capacity of 2.0·109 g/yr, whereas the net expansion of mangrove wetlands led to an added below ground C accumulation capacity of 0.4·109 g/yr. Biomarker data show that neutral carbohydrates and lignin contributed 30-70% and 10-40% of total C, respectively, in plant litter and surface sediments. Sharp declines of carbohydrate yields with depth occur parallel to increases in lignin

  12. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.Z.; Gilbert, D.; Gooday, A.J.; Levin, L.A.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Scranton, M.; Ekau, W.; Pena, A.; Dewitte, B.; Oguz, T.; Monteiro, P.M.S.; Urban, E.; Rabalais, N.; Ittekkot, V.; Kemp, W.M.; Ulloa, O.; Elmgren, R.; Escobar-Briones, E.; Van der Plas, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia has become a world-wide phenomenon in the global coastal ocean and causes a deterioration of the structure and function of ecosystems. Based on the collective contributions of members of SCOR Working Group #128, the present study provides an overview of the major aspects of coastal hypoxia

  13. Satellite Assessment of Bio-Optical Properties of Northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Waters Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    OpenAIRE

    Lohrenz, Steven E.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Chen, Xiaogang; Tuel, Merritt

    2008-01-01

    The impacts of major tropical storms events on coastal waters include sediment resuspension, intense water column mixing, and increased delivery of terrestrial materials into coastal waters. We examined satellite imagery acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ocean color sensor aboard the Aqua spacecraft following two major hurricane events: Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on 29 August 2005, and Hurricane Rita, which made landfall on 24 September. MODIS A...

  14. Descriptions and preliminary report on sediment cores from the southwest coastal area, Everglades National Park, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, G. Lynn; Cronin, Thomas M.; Holmes, Charles W.; Willard, Debra A.; Budet, Carlos A.; Ortiz, Ruth E.

    2005-01-01

    Sediment cores were collected from five locations in the southwest coastal area of Everglades National Park, Florida, in May 2004 for the purpose of determining the ecosystem history of the area and the impacts of changes in flow through the Shark River Slough. An understanding of natural cycles of change prior to significant human disturbance allows land managers to set realistic performance measures and targets for salinity and other water quality and quantity quality measures. Preliminary examination of the cores indicates significant changes have taken place over the last 1000-2000 years. The cores collected from the inner bays - the most landward bays - are distinctly different from other estuarine sediment cores examined in Florida Bay and Biscayne Bay. Peats in the inner-bay cores from Big Lostmans Bay, Broad River Bay, and Tarpon Bay were deposited at least 1000 years before present (BP) based on radiocarbon analyses. The peats are overlain by poorly sorted organic muds and sands containing species indicative of deposition in a freshwater to very low salinity environment. The Alligator Bay core, the most northern inner-bay core, is almost entirely sand; no detailed faunal analyses or radiometric dating has been completed on this core. The Roberts River core, taken from the mouth of the River where it empties into Whitewater Bay, is lithologically and faunally similar to previously examined cores from Biscayne and Florida Bays; however, the basal unit was deposited ~2000 years before the present based on radiocarbon analyses. A definite trend of increasing salinity over time is seen in the Roberts River core, from sediments representing a terrestrially dominated freshwater environment at the bottom of the core to those representing an estuarine environment with a strong freshwater influence at the top. The changes seen at Roberts River could represent a combination of factors including rising sea-level and changes in freshwater supply, but the timing and

  15. EAARL Coastal Topography and Imagery-Naval Live Oaks Area, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Florida, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, David B.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Segura, Martha

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced color-infrared (CIR) imagery and elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) topography, first-surface (FS) topography, and canopy-height (CH) datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Naval Live Oaks Area in Florida's Gulf Islands National Seashore, acquired June 30, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral CIR camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area

  16. Gerisa - Using Foss in Environmental Risk Management for the Coastal Areas of w- Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewner, R.; Elbchari, F.; Theilen-Willige, B.; Ait Malek, H.; Ayt Ougougdal, M.; Chaibi, M.; Charif, A.; Nakhcha, C.; Ridaoui, M.

    2013-12-01

    Pilot region of the GeRiSa project (Gestion des risques de l'environnement dans la région de Safi) is the Sahel of Abda (Morocco) located on the Atlantic coast of western Morocco between the lagoon of Oualidia and the Tensift river basin. It belongs to the Coastal Meseta and forms an erosional platform covered by accumulations of various Meso-cenozoic sediments. Firstly, the study area is characterized by a variety of geomorphological units (depressions, plateaus, cliffs, dunes, estuaries, etc.) and shows a considerable natural richness. Secondly, it illustrates its importance for the national economy by intensive social and economic activities. During the last century, this region has been affected by intensive changes from urban growth, tourism, industrial and commercial development, inducing a considerable vulnerability to natural hazards such as coastal erosion, landslides, flooding, Tsunamis and seismicity. In order to give solutions to these problems, the three-year GeRiSa project with the support of the bilateral Moroccan-German Programme of Scientific Research (PMARS) promoted by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), will implement a knowledge pool and a risk management centre for natural hazards at the Polydisciplinary Faculty of the Cadi Ayyad University of Safi (Morocco). GeRiSa addresses fundamental scientific, environmental and anthropological problems of national importance and social relevance. The aim is a regional real-time geoinformation system with worldwide access via Internet and interdisciplinary dynamic content, enabling the communication between universities, local authorities and public organisation. In this sense, this multidisciplinary project focuses on a synthesis of various works, approaches and collaborations in-progress, previous completed projects and already existing data combining it with new research results. One of the main research targets within this project is the

  17. Sedimentology and geomorphology analysis of coastal area along pantai penarik, terengganu before and during northeast monsoon season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Tengku Ahmad Imran Ku; Shaufi Sokiman, Mohamad

    2017-10-01

    This research is conducted to understand the sedimentology and morphological change before and during the northeast monsoon at the east coast of peninsular Malaysia. The increase in wind speed, wave energy and rainfall during the northeast monsoon are believed to causes the coastal erosion to increase during the season. Rapid development along the east coast area might disrupt the sediments distribution which can increase the coastal erosion rate every year. The understanding on the sediments distribution, erosion and deposition as well as the morphological change can help to figure out if the coastal erosion can affect the infrastructure in the future. The result of the study can show the necessity to perform mitigation or any required action toward the problem that might happen

  18. Cultural dimensions of risk perceptions: A case study on cross-strait driftage pollution in a coastal area of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chang; Chang, Han-Pi

    2018-01-15

    Constant exploitations of the ocean render numerous present challenges as the ocean is linked to human development. The study focused on cross-strait driftage pollution that poses a great threat to coastal environment under climate change. Several hundred packs of herbicides drifting across the Taiwan Strait were discovered along the coastline of Guanyin District of Taiwan. We compared risk perceptions of the local ethnic groups, Hakka and Fulao, residing in a coastal area of Taiwan and exposed to the herbicide coastal incident under climate change. It is of concern that society's response to every dimension of global climate change is mediated by culture. The Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) cause-effect framework was applied in semi-structured interviews to explore coastal sensitivity and human adaptability. As a result, we indicated that despite the presence of two ethnic groups in the same place exposed to the incident they presented very different risk perceptions on both environmental degradation (ED) and adaptive capacity (AC) due to cultural values. We argued that the herbicide coastal incident involved people's risk perceptions and subsequently influenced their opinions and attitudes towards environmental problems. We concluded that the ethnic trait contributed to adaptive behaviors during environmental change. Culturally appropriate adaptations appeared to enhance risk perceptions and adaptation actions, suggesting a need for more rigorous cultural adaptation guidelines towards climate resilience when designing adaptation interventions for different ethnic groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Social conflict in response to urban sprawl in rural areas: urban reconfiguration of the Mezquital valley as influence area of the megalopolis of Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, Brisa; Cadena, Edel; Campos, Juan; Hinojosa, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    The urban sprawl of metropolitan areas involves complex processes of coexistence between urban and rural dynamics, the functional redefining of central urban areas and rural areas or urban-rural surrounding transition generates land conflicts. In this paper the context of Mexico City megalopolis and its expansion process, will be discussed in the new specialization of the central city to tertiary services and increasing the value of land, it has resulted in the expulsion of the industry and s...

  20. Risk to a Changing Climate in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, N. D.

    2016-12-01

    The issue of climate change has dominated the atmospheric sciences agenda in recent decades. The concern about an increase in climate related disasters, mainly in large population centers, has led to ask whether they are mainly due to changes in climate or in vulnerability.The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is an example of megalopolis under high climate risk, where floods, landslides, health problems, high air pollution events, socioeconomic droughts are becoming important environmental and social problems. As urbanization spreads and population increases exposure to natural hazards increases, and so the magnitude of risk to a changing climate and the negative impacts. Since the late nineteenth century, in the MCMA an average maximum temperature could be around 22°C, whereas today it is about 24.5ºC. That is, the increase in the average temperature in Mexico City is around 3°C in a hundred years. But there are areas where an increase in the average temperature is similar in only thirty years. The heating rate of the city can vary depending on the change in land use. Areas that conserve forested regions in the process of urbanization tend to warm less than areas where the transformation into concrete and cement is almost complete. Thus, the climate of the MCMA shows important changes mainly in relation to land use changes. Global warming and natural climate variability were also analyzed as possible forcing factors of the observed warming by comparing low frequency variations in local temperature and indices for natural forcing. The hydrological cycle of the MCMA has also changed with urbanization. The "bubble of hot air" over the urban area has more capacity to hold moisture now than before the UHI. However, the increased risk to floods, heat or drought appears to be related not only to more frequent intense climatic hazards induced by the urbanization effect. This process also induces increased vulnerability to a changing climate. The establishment of

  1. Carbon farming in hot, dry coastal areas: an option for climate change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Berger, T.; Gebel, J.; Münch, W.

    2013-07-01

    We present a comprehensive, interdisciplinary project which demonstrates that large-scale plantations of Jatropha curcas - if established in hot, dry coastal areas around the world - could capture 17-25 t of carbon dioxide per hectare per year from the atmosphere (over a 20 yr period). Based on recent farming results it is confirmed that the Jatropha curcas plant is well adapted to harsh environments and is capable of growing alone or in combination with other tree and shrub species with minimal irrigation in hot deserts where rain occurs only sporadically. Our investigations indicate that there is sufficient unused and marginal land for the widespread cultivation of Jatropha curcas to have a significant impact on atmospheric CO2 levels at least for several decades. In a system in which desalinated seawater is used for irrigation and for delivery of mineral nutrients, the sequestration costs were estimated to range from 42-63 EUR per tonne CO2. This result makes carbon farming a technology that is competitive with carbon capture and storage (CCS). In addition, high-resolution simulations using an advanced land-surface-atmosphere model indicate that a 10 000 km2 plantation could produce a reduction in mean surface temperature and an onset or increase in rain and dew fall at a regional level. In such areas, plant growth and CO2 storage could continue until permanent woodland or forest had been established. In other areas, salinization of the soil may limit plant growth to 2-3 decades whereupon irrigation could be ceased and the captured carbon stored as woody biomass.

  2. Uranium chemistry in stack solutions and leachates of phosphogypsum disposed at a coastal area in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysandrou, M; Pashalidis, I

    2008-02-01

    The effect of the matrix composition (main constituents) on the concentration and chemical behavior of uranium in phosphogypsum stack solutions and leachates has been investigated. Solid and aqueous samples were taken from three different sub-areas of a phosphogypsum stack at a coastal area in Vasilikos (Cyprus). The sub-areas are characterized whether by their acidity (e.g. "aged" and "non-aged" phosphogypsum) or by their salt content, originating from pulping water during wet stacking or (after deposition) from the adjacent sea. Measurements in stack solutions and leachates showed that phosphogypsum characteristics affect both, the concentration and the chemical behavior of uranium in solution. Uranium concentration in solutions of increased salinity is up to three orders of magnitude higher than in solutions of low salinity and this is attributed to the effect of ionic strength on the solubility of phosphogypsum. Modelling showed that uranium in stack solutions is predominantly present in the form of uranium(VI) phosphate complexes (e.g. UO(2)(H(2)PO(4))(2), UO(2)HPO(4)), whereas in leachates uranium(VI) fluoro complexes (e.g. UO(2)F(2), UO(2)F(3)(-)) are predominant in solution. The latter indicates that elution of uranium from phosphogypsum takes places most probably in the form of fluoro complexes. Both, effective elution by saline water and direct migration of uranium to the sea, where it forms very stable uranium(VI) carbonato complexes, indicate that the adjacent sea will be the final receptor of uranium released from Vasilikos phosphogypsum.

  3. Assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal area of Sindh province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Aamir; Khan, Moazzam Ali; Schilling, Janpeter; Shaukat, S Shahid; Shahab, Shoaib

    2016-02-01

    Groundwater is a highly important resource, especially for human consumption and agricultural production. This study offers an assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal areas of Sindh province in Pakistan. Fifty-six samples of groundwater were taken at depths ranging from 30 to 50 m. Bacteriological and physico-chemical analyses were performed using the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. These were supplemented with expert interviews and observations to identify the usage of water and potential sources of pollution. The quality of the groundwater was found to be unsuitable for human consumption, despite being used for this purpose. The concentrations of sulfate and phosphate were well within the tolerance limits. Most critical were the high levels of organic and fecal pollution followed by turbidity and salinity. Metal concentrations (As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were also determined, and Ni and Pb strongly exceeded health standards. The study stresses the need for significant improvements of the irrigation, sanitation, and sewage infrastructure.

  4. Radionuclide concentrations in salt pans in the coastal area of Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.N.; Chowdhury, M.I.; Zafar, M.; Kamal, M.; Ghose, S.; Kamal, A.H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Radionuclide concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 40 K in samples of water, soil and salt from three gradients of salt pans (reservoir, condenser and crystalliser) in the coastal area of Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh and in samples of refined salts were measured using γ-spectrometry. The activities of 226 Ra in the salt pans were found to be in the range 3·18±1·02 Bq l -1 in water to 25·17±5·76 Bq kg -1 in soil; 232 Th activities were 2·01±0·89 Bq l -1 in water to 42·33±2·54 Bq kg -1 in soil, and 40 K activities ranged from 109·60±27·77 Bq l -1 in water to 651·89±65·89 Bq kg -1 in soil. No 137 Cs or 134 Cs was found in soil, salt and water from the salt pans investigated. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Flood warnings in coastal areas: how do experience and information influence responses to alert services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescaroli, G.; Magni, M.

    2015-04-01

    Many studies discuss the economic and technical aspects of flood warnings. Less attention has been given to the social and behavioural patterns that affect alert services. In particular, the literature focuses on warnings activated in river basins or marine environments without providing clear evidence on Mediterranean coastal areas, even though these are subjected to growing flood risk related to climate change. This paper is a first attempt to bridge this gap. Our research develops an in-depth analysis of the village of Cesenatico on the Adriatic Sea coast. Here the municipality adopted two complementary warning systems: a siren and an alert via short message service (SMS). The analysis focuses on a survey conducted in 2011 and 2012 with 228 participants. The relationships between social and behavioural variables and warning services are investigated as well as flood preparedness and information dissemination. Qualitative evidence from informal interviews is used to support the understanding of key responses. The conclusions show how different social and behavioural patterns can influence the effectiveness and use of warning systems, regardless of the technology adopted and the structural mitigation measures implemented. Education, training and accountability are seen to be critical elements for implementation. Finally, the statistical output is used to suggest new questions and new directions for research.

  6. Flood warnings in coastal areas: how do social and behavioural patterns influence alert services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescaroli, G.; Magni, M.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies discuss the economic and technical aspects of flood warnings. Less attention has been given to the social and psychological patterns that affect alert services. In particular, the literature focuses on warnings activated in river basins or marine environments without providing clear evidence of relevance to Mediterranean coastal areas, even though these are subjected to growing flood risk related to climate change. This paper is a first attempt to bridge this gap. Our research develops an in- depth analysis of the village of Cesenatico on the Adriatic Sea coast. Here the municipality adopted two complementary warning systems: a siren and an alert via Short Message Service (SMS). The analysis focuses on a survey conducted in 2011 and 2012 with 228 participants. The relationships between social and behavioural variables and warning services are investigated, and so are flood preparedness and information dissemination. Qualitative evidence from informal interviews is used to support the understanding of key responses. The conclusions show how different social and behavioural patterns can influence the effectiveness and use of warning systems, regardless of the technology adopted and the structural mitigation measures implemented. Education, training and accountability are seen to be critical elements for improvement. Finally, the statistical output is used to suggest new questions and new directions for research.

  7. Assessment of coral health in the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourandeh, Mehdi Bolouki; Nabavi, S. Mohammad Bagher; Sinaei, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    In this study, Zooxanthellae density, chlorophyll a concentration, and mitotic index (MI) were measured in the coral Porites compressa obtained from coastal areas of the Persian Gulf in early February to September 2008. During the summer, zooxanthellae density declined by approximately 30% compared to the winter peak (3,607,849 ± 229,894, n = 15) and reached a minimum of 2,536,732 ± 169,776, n = 15. The highest value of chlorophyll a (0.828 ± 0.043 μg/cm2) was recorded in the south while the lowest (0.604 ± 0.048 μg/cm2) was measured in the north sampling site at the cold season. There was a higher level of MI in the warm season followed by cold > and temperate seasons. The MI were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the warm and cold seasons in comparison with the temperate season. Differences in response may be attributed to the drastic seasonal temperature changes. However, the significant decline found in the north sampling site indicates that anthropogenic stressors may adversely affect coral P. compressa. These results imply that there were negative impacts on coral P. compressa in our study site.

  8. Bacteriological and mycological surveys along Otranto coastal areas; La situazione igienica del litorale salentino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montagna, M.T. [Bari Univ., Bari (Italy). Ist. di Igiene; De Donno, A.; Bagordo, F. [Lecce Univ., Lecce (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia, Lab. di Igiene; Carrozzini, F. [ASL LE/2, Lecce (Italy). Direzione Sanitaria

    2000-01-01

    Bacteriological and mycological surveys were carried out on water samples collected from 6 seaside resorts and 2 affluent along Otranto coastal areas. The following parameters were tested: total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, Salmonella, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, Vibrio species and yeasts. Results show fecal pollution in three seaside resorts and in one drain, whereas Salmonella research always resulted negative. P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were isolated from both affluents. V. alginolyticus was the most isolated vibrio specie (90%). Among isolated yeasts Torulopsis inconspicua (70%) was the most frequent one. [Italian] E' stata condotta una indagine batteriologica e micologica su campioni di acqua provenienti da 6 stabilimenti balneari e da 2 affluenti che sfociano nel litorale di Otranto. Sono stati esaminati i seguenti parametri: coliformi totali, coliformi fecali, streptococchi fecali, salmonelle, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, vibrioni e miceti. Dall'indagine e' emerso che indici di contaminazione fecale sono stati evidenziati in tre stazioni balneari e in un affluente mentre la ricerca delle salmonelle e' risultata sempre negativa. P. aeruginosa e S. aureus sono stati isolati in entrambi gli affluenti. Per quanto riguarda la ricerca dei vibrioni, V. alginolyticus e' apparsa la specie piu' frequente (90%). Tra i lieviti isolati, quello piu' frequente e' risultato Torulopsis inconspicua (70%).

  9. Trace element concentrations in wild mussels from the coastal area of the southeastern Adriatic, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovic Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the levels of trace elements (Zn, Cu, As, Pb, Cd and total Hg in the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.. Based on their levels, the quality of Montenegro seawater for future mussel farming was estimated. The mussel M. galloprovincialis (L. was collected from four sites in the Montenegrin costal area in the period of two years to determine trace element concentrations and to classify the quality of the coastal water and possible health risks from its consumption. The mean metal concentrations in the mussels ranged from 133.5-205.9 for Zn, 7.50-14.5 for Cu, 4.42-13.3 for As, 4.70-12.9 for Pb, 1.73-2.41 for Cd and 0.07-0.59 for total Hg in mg/kg dry weight. The levels of toxic metals (except for Pb in the mussels were within the maximum residual levels prescribed by the laws of Montenegro, the EU and the USFDA. In addition, the trace metal concentrations found in the mussels in this study were similar to regional data using this mussel as a biomonitoring agent of seawater quality.

  10. Health status of school children in rural area of coastal Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhar M Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children are the foundation of a strong and healthy nation. Morbidity among school-going children adversely affects their normal growth and development and hence is a major public health concern. School health program was started as an important component of total health care delivery system in the country with a purpose of addressing the health needs of children. Aim: To assess the morbidity pattern and nutritional status among school children. Materials and Methods: Study design: A cross-sectional study. Study period: 1-year from 1 st July 2012 to 30 th June 2013. Study setting: 14 schools with a total strength of 909 children in a rural area of coastal Karnataka. Data collection: Health examination of the school children was carried out by a trained team. Data regarding anthropometric measurements, refractory error, medical problems and minor ailments were collected using a predesigned proforma. Results: A total of 797 children were examined. Dental caries was the most common ailment observed in 31.86% of children 43.32% of the children were underweight, 53.03% were normal, and 3.65% were overweight for age. Conclusion: The school health program provides a good opportunity to screen, identify and impart education regarding health related issues. The common morbidities found were dental caries, pallor, upper respiratory tract infection and refractory error. Overweight was also observed in the school children and needs to be addressed. There is a scope of providing comprehensive school health services by incorporating dental care.

  11. Background radiation and individual dosimetry in the coastal area of Tamil Nadu (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, N.; Brahmanandhan, G. M.; Yoshida, M.; Takamura, N.; Suyama, A.; Koguchi, Y.; Juto, N.; Raj, Y. L.; Winsley, G.; Selvasekarapandian, S.

    2011-01-01

    South coast of India is known as the high-level background radiation area (HBRA) mainly due to beach sands that contain natural radionuclides as components of the mineral monazite. The rich deposit of monazite is unevenly distributed along the coastal belt of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. An HBRA site that laid in 2x7 m along the sea was found in the beach of Chinnavillai, Tamil Nadu, where the maximum ambient dose equivalent reached as high as 162.7 mSv y -1 . From the sands collected at the HBRA spot, the high-purity germanium semi-conductor detector identified six nuclides of thorium series, four nuclides of uranium series and two nuclides belonging to actinium series. The highest radioactivity observed was 43.7 Bq g -1 of Th-228. The individual dose of five inhabitants in Chinnavillai, as measured by the radiophotoluminescence glass dosimetry system, demonstrated the average dose of 7.17 mSv y -1 ranging from 2.79 to 14.17 mSv y -1 . (authors)

  12. Assessment of natural radioactivity and (137)Cs in some coastal areas of the Saudi Arabian gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, H; Al-Muqrin, A; El-Sharkawy, A

    2016-03-15

    The levels of natural radioactivity have been investigated in some Saudi Arabian Gulf coastal areas. Sampling sites were chosen according to the presence of nearby non-nuclear industrial activities such as, the two main water desalination plants in Al Khobar and Al Jubail, and Maaden phosphate complex in Ras Al Khair, to ensure that effluents discharges into the Arabian Gulf didn't enhance radioactivity in seawater and shore sediments. Seawater samples were analyzed for radium isotopes (Ra-226 & Ra-228) and measured by gamma spectrometry using high purity germanium detector, after radiochemical separation of the isotopes by co-precipitation with MnO2. Shore sediment samples were analyzed for (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th), (4)°K and (137)Cs using gamma sepectrometry. A small variation was observed in the activity concentrations of the investigated radioisotopes, and the activity levels were comparable to those reported in literature. Quality assurance and methods validation were established through the efficiency calibration of the detectors, the estimation of uncertainties, the use of blanks, the analysis of standard reference materials and the intercomparison and proficiency tests. Radiological hazards were assessed, and the annual effective dose had an average value of 0.02 mSv. On the basis of the current results, we may conclude that any radiological hazards to the public visiting these shores are not expected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Modelling of Suralaya Coastal Area, Cilegon, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, A. H.; Suntoyo; Damerianne, H. A.; Wahyudi

    2018-03-01

    The coastal zone of Suralaya is located in the district Pulomerak, Cilegon City, Province Banten. This region is a part of the Sunda Strait region that is very important area to support the ongoing activities such as, industries, power plant, ports, and tourism. However, those various activities will certainly give effect to the surrounding environment. To determine the environmental conditions of Suralaya Coast, it is necessary to study the hydrodynamics analysis and sediment transport modelling including the analysis of currents patterns. Tidal elevation observation was conducted for 15 days used to validate the water elevation simulation results, in which a good agreement between the observed data and the model result was obtained with the error value of 1.6%. The dominant current direction is from northeast in west season, while in the east season predominant current direction is from northwest with a speed average current 12,44 cm/s. The dominant wave direction is from the west. The average temperature is at 27°C and the bottom sediment dominant form is fine sand.

  14. Achieving Success under Pressure in the Conservation of Intensely Used Coastal Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza Micheli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how biological conservation and socioeconomic development can be harmonized in social-ecological systems is at the core of sustainability science. We present the case of a Mediterranean marine protected area (MPA, the Tavolara-Punta Coda Cavallo MPA, that exhibits high ecological performance under intense pressure from fishing, tourism, and coastal development. This case study illustrates how socioeconomic development and significant conservation benefits can coexist, even in a challenging context. Based on this case study, we present a framework for what elements and interactions have determined the high ecological performance of this MPA, and highlight the key leverages that have enabled ecosystem recovery. In particular, the most critical elements underlying high performance were sufficient leadership and knowledge to identify a conservation vision and to catalyze some key actors in the implementation of this vision. Thus, success was ultimately determined by the ability of the leadership of the MPA to devise and implement an effective strategy, with the support and participation of key actors that were external to the MPA organization. The insights from this case study may be applicable to improving MPA management in other systems with similar characteristics, including high human pressures and the presence of an MPA authority.

  15. Simulation-Optimization Model for Seawater Intrusion Management at Pingtung Coastal Area, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, P. S.; Chiu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In 1970's, the agriculture and aquaculture were rapidly developed at Pingtung coastal area in southern Taiwan. The groundwater aquifers were over-pumped and caused the seawater intrusion. In order to remedy the contaminated groundwater and find the best strategies of groundwater usage, a management model to search the optimal groundwater operational strategies is developed in this study. The objective function is to minimize the total amount of injection water and a set of constraints are applied to ensure the groundwater levels and concentrations are satisfied. A three-dimension density-dependent flow and transport simulation model, called SEAWAT developed by U.S. Geological Survey, is selected to simulate the phenomenon of seawater intrusion. The simulation model is well calibrated by the field measurements and replaced by the surrogate model of trained artificial neural networks (ANNs) to reduce the computational time. The ANNs are embedded in the management model to link the simulation and optimization models, and the global optimizer of differential evolution (DE) is applied for solving the management model. The optimal results show that the fully trained ANNs could substitute the original simulation model and reduce much computational time. Under appropriate setting of objective function and constraints, DE can find the optimal injection rates at predefined barriers. The concentrations at the target locations could decrease more than 50 percent within the planning horizon of 20 years. Keywords : Seawater intrusion, groundwater management, numerical model, artificial neural networks, differential evolution

  16. Wind dependence of ambient noise in a biologically rich coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Delphine; Gervaise, Cédric; Di Iorio, Lucia

    2016-02-01

    The wind dependence of acoustic spectrum between 100 Hz and 16 kHz is investigated for coastal biologically rich areas. The analysis of 5 months of continuous measurements run in a 10 m deep shallow water environment off Brittany (France) showed that wind dependence of spectral levels is subject to masking by biological sounds. When dealing with raw data, the wind dependence of spectral levels was not significant for frequencies where biological sounds were present (2 to 10 kHz). An algorithm developed by Kinda, Simard, Gervaise, Mars, and Fortier [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134(1), 77-87 (2013)] was used to automatically filter out the loud distinctive biological contribution and estimated the ambient noise spectrum. The wind dependence of ambient noise spectrum was always significant after application of this filter. A mixture model for ambient noise spectrum which accounts for the richness of the soundscape is proposed. This model revealed that wind dependence holds once the wind speed was strong enough to produce sounds higher in amplitude than the biological chorus (9 kn at 3 kHz, 11 kn at 8 kHz). For these higher wind speeds, a logarithmic affine law was adequate and its estimated parameters were compatible with previous studies (average slope 27.1 dB per decade of wind speed increase).

  17. Bacterial source tracking guides management of boat head waste in a coastal resort area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Michael A; Haltom, Mary I; Song, Bongkeun; Tavares, Mary E; Dellies, Stephen P

    2010-12-01

    Fecal contamination of water bodies causes a public health problem and economic loss. To control such contamination management actions need to be guided by sound science. From 2007-2009 a study was undertaken to determine the sources of fecal bacteria contamination to the marine waters adjoining the Town of Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, USA. The research effort included sampling for fecal coliform and Enterococcus bacteria, sampling for optical brighteners, dye studies, and use of molecular bacterial source tracking techniques including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and terminal restriction fragment polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting of the Bacteroides-Prevotella group. Of the 96 samples collected from nine locations during the study, the water contact standard for Enterococcus was exceeded on 13 occasions. The T-RFLP fingerprint analyses demonstrated that the most widespread source of fecal contamination was human, occurring in 38% of the samples, with secondary ruminant and avian sources also detected. Optical brightener concentrations were low, reflecting a lack of sewage line leakage or spills. A lack of sewer leaks and lack of septic systems in the town pointed toward discharge from boat heads into the marine waters as the major cause of fecal contamination; this was supported by dye studies. Based on these data, the Town initiated action to have the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency declare the coastal waters (out to 3 nautical miles), the nearby Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway and its tributaries a no-discharge zone (NDZ) to alleviate the human fecal pollution. The Town garnered supporting resolutions from other local communities who jointly petitioned the North Carolina Department of Environmental and Natural Resources. This State regulatory agency supported the local government resolutions and sent an application for an NDZ to the EPA in April 2009. The EPA concurred, and in February 2010 the coastal waters of New Hanover County, NC, became the

  18. Impact of endocrine disrupting compounds in sewage impacted coastal area on seabream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jandal, Noura; Saeed, Talat; Azad, Ismail; Al-Subiai, Sherain; Al-Zekri, Waleed; Hussain, Sumaiah; Al-Hasan, Enas

    2018-04-15

    The pollution of coastal regions worldwide has been of a great concern due to the presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These chemicals find their way to the marine environment via the sewage treatment plants (STPs). Hence, this study was designed to investigate the status and sources of EDCs and their effect on fish in Kuwait's coastal areas, from the chemical and biological perspectives. The assessment of three STPs indicated the presence of significant levels of phthalates (19 and 31µg/l), alkylphenols (85 and 159ng/l), and estrogens (30 and 368ng/l) in both inflow and outflow samples. The analysis of samples from field exposure sites revealed significant levels of EDCs in seawater (phthalates: 2.1-4.6µg/l; alkylphenols: 1.2-16.4ng/l; estrogens: 0-36.2ng/l) and sediment (phthalates: 2.1-15.7mg/kg dry wt; alkyphenols: 2.5-15.1µg/kg dry wt.; estrogens: 4.1-214.2µg/kg dry wt.) samples. The biological perspective investigated through the exposure of fish to sewage outlets at five sites. The hepatosomatic index (HSI) revealed a higher level in winter samples 0.48-0.79%) in comparison to summer samples 1-1.5%). Histological observation of hepatic tissue of fish exposed during winter months in all sites, showed much less necrotic changes and hepatic vacuolation in the hepatic tissue of summer exposed fish. Imunnohistochemistry evidences revealed a significant level of positive signals and Vtg localization in the hepatic tissue as the results support the histopathological alterations observed. Results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed no significant difference between the plasma protein content of winter and summer samples. Overall, the study