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Sample records for mexican immigrant workers

  1. Explanatory Emotion Talk in Mexican Immigrant and Mexican American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Christi A.

    2002-01-01

    Mother-child conversations during story-telling play were analyzed for patterns of emotion talk. Subjects were 48 Mexican immigrant and Mexican American mothers and their children aged 3-4. Contrary to previous findings, Mexican immigrant mothers used more explanations of emotions than labels. Mexican American mothers used both, equally. Results…

  2. Troubling the Proletarianization of Mexican Immigrant Students in an Era of Neoliberal Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudry, Aziz

    2010-01-01

    In response to Richardson Bruna's "Mexican immigrant transnational social capital and class transformation: examining the role of peer mediation in insurgent science", this paper draws on the author's research on organizing, mobilization and knowledge production among adult im/migrant workers in Canada. While appreciative of the content…

  3. Immigrants and Native Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find...... that the increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability...

  4. Unemployment Among Mexican Immigrant Men in the United States, 2003 – 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Based on their socioeconomic characteristics, Mexican immigrant men should have very high un-employment. More than half do not have a high school diploma. One in four works in construction; at the height of the recent recession, 20% of construction workers were unemployed. Yet their unemployment rates are similar to those of native-born white men. After controlling for education and occupation, Mexican immigrant men have lower probabilities of unemployment than native-born white men – both before and during the recent recession. I consider explanations based on eligibility for unemployment benefits, out-migrant selection for unemployment, and employer preferences for Mexican immigrant labor. PMID:25432614

  5. Undocumented immigration status and diabetes care among Mexican immigrants in two immigration "sanctuary" areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iten, A Elizabeth; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Lahiff, Maureen; Fernández, Alicia

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between immigration status and the patient experience of health care, diabetes self-management, and clinical outcomes among Mexican immigrants with diabetes receiving health care in two immigration sanctuary cities. We used data from the Immigration, Culture and Health Care study, a cross-sectional survey and medical record study of low-income patients with diabetes recruited from public hospitals and community clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area and Chicago. Undocumented Mexican, documented Mexican immigrants, and US-born Mexican-Americans' health care experiences, diabetes self-management, and clinical outcomes were compared using multivariate linear and logistic regressions. We found no significant differences in reports of physician communication, or in measures of diabetes management between undocumented and documented immigrants. All three groups had similar clinical outcomes in glycemic, systolic blood pressure, and lipid control. These results indicate that, at least in some settings, undocumented Mexican immigrants with diabetes can achieve similar clinical outcomes and report similar health care experiences as documented immigrants and US-born Mexican-Americans.

  6. Mexican immigration and the port-of-entry school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, R; Bryan, D; Mclean-bardwell, C; Gomez, F

    1989-01-01

    The results of an immigrant student census in a California port-of-entry school district are used to describe the educational backgrounds of Mexican immigrant students and to distinguish types of Mexican immigrant students by school entry patterns. Interviews with recently arrived Mexican immigrant parents reveal the educational and occupational expectations they hold for their children in the US. The study findings are used as a basis for raising policy questions and generating research issues. The most notable observation from the study is that the children of Mexican immigrants in La Entrada do not migrate once they are in school. Parents may be migrating back and forth between the US and Mexico, but children once in La Entrada do not leave the school to return to school in Mexico. The study suggests that the parents of immigrant students do not know how the US educational system works but they are interested in helping teachers educate their children.

  7. Consequences of Arizona's Immigration Policy on Social Capital among Mexican Mothers with Unauthorized Immigration Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Padilla, Brian; Valentine, Jessa Lewis

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the consequences of increasingly restrictive immigration policies on social capital among Mexican mothers with unauthorized immigrant status in Arizona. Three focus groups conducted in Arizona explore how mothers' experiences with immigration policies have affected their neighborhood, community, and family ties. Focus group…

  8. Women's Networks and the Social Needs of Mexican Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mary I.

    1990-01-01

    Reports on the persistence of a two-tiered economic and political system that routinely excludes Mexican immigrants. Focuses on the predominantly female employees of a wholesale nursery in Carpinteria (California), who have adapted the Mexican tradition of "confianza"-based relationships to form networks that facilitate communication and…

  9. Positive pregnancy outcomes in Mexican immigrants: what can we learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Robin L

    2004-01-01

    To provide an integrated review of the literature of potential explanations for better than expected pregnancy outcomes in Mexican immigrants, focusing on socioeconomics, social support, desirability of pregnancy, nutrition, substance use, religion, acculturation, and prenatal care. Computerized searches of MEDLINE and CINAHL databases, as well as reference lists from published articles on low birth weight and prematurity in immigrants and acculturation in immigrants from January 1989 to December 2002. Search terms were Mexican immigrant women, childbearing, and pregnancy outcome, and only English-language articles were reviewed. Literature was selected from refereed publications in the areas of nursing, medicine, public health, family, and sociology. Data were extracted using keywords pertinent to pregnancy outcome in Mexican immigrants. Despite having many of the risk factors for poor pregnancy outcomes, Mexican immigrants have superior birth outcomes when compared to U.S.-born women. Social support, familism, healthy diet, limited use of cigarettes and alcohol, and religion may play a role in improved outcomes. The superior outcomes diminish with the process of acculturation as the individual adapts to her new culture. Low birth weight and prematurity are public health concerns in the United States. Through further study of the factors that lead to superior birth outcomes among Mexican immigrant women, rates of low birth weight and prematurity in the United States may be reduced.

  10. "Ganando Confianza": Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we…

  11. Acculturation and Life Satisfaction Among Immigrant Mexican Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio F. Marsiglia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The numbers of Mexican Americans living in the United States, many of whom are first generation immigrants, are increasing. The process of immigration and acculturation can be accompanied by stress, as an individual attempts to reconcile two potentially competing sets of norms and values and to navigate a new social terrain. However, the outcomes of studies investigating the relationship between levels of acculturation and well-being are mixed. To further investigate the dynamic of acculturation, this article will address the impact of acculturation and familismo, on reported life satisfaction and resilience among Mexican American adults living in the Southwest (N=307, the majority (89% of which are immigrants. The findings indicate that bilingual individuals report significantly higher levels of life satisfaction and resilience than their Spanish-speaking counterparts do. Speaking primarily English only predicted higher levels of resilience but not life satisfaction. Implications for social work practice with Mexican American immigrants are discussed.

  12. Immigration Restrictions as Active Labor Market Policy: Evidence from the Mexican Bracero Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens, Michael A.; Lewis, Ethan Gatewood; Postel, Hannah M.

    2017-01-01

    An important class of active labor market policy has received little rigorous impact evaluation: immigration barriers intended to improve the terms of employment for domestic workers by deliberately shrinking the workforce. Recent advances in the theory of endogenous technical change suggest that such policies could have limited or even perverse labor-market effects, but empirical tests are scarce. We study a natural experiment that excluded almost half a million Mexican 'bracero' seasonal ag...

  13. Employer Sanctions and the Wages of Mexican Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brownell

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wage differences between authorized and unauthorized Mexican immigrants can be explained by human capital factors prior to the 1986 passage of employer sanctions, which prohibited knowingly hiring unauthorized aliens. However, a significant post-1986 wage differential has been interpreted as employers “passing along” expected costs of sanctions through lower wages for unauthorized immigrants. I test this explanation using administrative data on employer sanctions enforcement, finding employer sanctions enforcement levels are related to Mexican immigrants’ wages but have no statistically significant differential effect based on legal status. Estimated savings to employers due to the pay gap are orders of magnitude larger than actual fines.

  14. Immigration and Wage Dynamics: Evidence from the Mexican Peso Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Monras , Joan

    2015-01-01

    How does the US labor market absorb low-skilled immigration? I address this question using the 1995 Mexican Peso Crisis, an exogenous push factor that raised Mexican migration to the US. In the short run, high-immigration states see their low-skilled labor force increase and native low-skilled wages decrease, with an implied local labor demand elasticity of -.7. Internal relocation dissipates this shock spatially. In the long run, the only lasting consequences are for low-skilled natives who ...

  15. Subjective Social Status, Mental and Psychosocial Health, and Birth Weight Differences in Mexican-American and Mexican Immigrant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-12-01

    Recent Mexican immigrant women on average have an unexpectedly low incidence of low birth weight (LBW). Birth weights decline and LBW incidence increases in post-immigrant generations. This pilot project tested the hypothesis that subjective social status (SSS) of pregnant women predicts variation in birth weight between Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women. 300 low-income pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women in South Texas were surveyed for SSS, depression, pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress and self-esteem and subsequent birth weight. No significant difference in SSS levels between pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women were found. However, SSS better predicted variation in birth weight across both groups than mental and psychosocial health variables. Results suggest distinct relationships among SSS, mental and psychosocial health that could impact birth weight. They underscore the relevance of a multilevel, biopsychosocial analytical framework to studying LBW.

  16. The Diffusion of Mexican Immigrants During the 1990s: Explanations and Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    David Card; Ethan G. Lewis

    2005-01-01

    Mexican immigrants were historically clustered in a few cities, mainly in California and Texas. During the past 15 years, however, arrivals from Mexico established sizeable immigrant communities in many "new" cities. We explore the causes and consequences of the widening geographic diffusion of Mexican immigrants. A combination of demand-pull and supply push factors explains most of the inter-city variation in inflows of Mexican immigrants over the 1990s, and also illuminates the most importa...

  17. Using Media Literacy to Explore Stereotypes of Mexican Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Lucila; dePyssler, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Examines media portrayals of Mexican immigrants, and interplay between these images and portrayals of U.S.-born Latinos. Argues that examining media images is imperative because the influence of media saturation is almost overwhelming. Suggests a media-literacy framework for developing abilities for interpreting media and giving students control…

  18. Immigrant Workers and Farm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob R.; Seidelin, Claus Aastrup

    2013-01-01

    for Danish farms in 1980–2008 to analyze the micro-level relationship between these two developments. Farms employing immigrants tend to be both larger than and no less productive than other farms. Furthermore, an increased use of immigrants is associated with an improvement in job creation and revenue......In many developed countries, the agricultural sector has experienced a significant inflow of immigrants. At the same time, agriculture is still in a process of structural transformation, resulting in fewer but larger and presumably more efficient farms. We exploit matched employer-employee data...

  19. Ganando Confianza: Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-03-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we conducted sustained focus groups through which we could learn more about our participants and thereby improve services. This paper reports on the challenges and lessons learned from these groups. We characterize the key lessons as (a) recruitment and retention is more than agreement to participate; (b) confidentiality is not just a word but an activity; (c) the complicated nature of language; (d) cultural norms shape the group process; (e) appreciating the value of taking time; and (f) gender issues and group interaction. Service providers and researchers who work with Mexican families may benefit from our experiences as they promote and develop programs and projects in the developmental disabilities field.

  20. Durational and generational differences in Mexican immigrant obesity: Is acculturation the explanation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Mathew J.; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne R.; Chung, Chang Y.

    2012-01-01

    Using the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A.FANS-2; n = 1610), we explore the link between Mexican immigrant acculturation, diet, exercise and obesity. We distinguish Mexican immigrants and 2nd generation Mexicans from 3rd+ generation whites, blacks and Mexicans. First, we examine variation in social and linguistic measures by race/ethnicity, duration of residence and immigrant generation. Second, we consider the association between acculturation, diet and exercise. Third, we evaluate the degree to which acculturation, diet, exercise, and socioeconomic status explain the association between race/ethnicity, immigrant exposure to the US (duration since immigration/generation), and adult obesity. Among immigrants, we find a clear relationship between acculturation measures, exposure to the US, and obesity-related behaviors (diet and exercise). However, the acculturation measures do not clearly account for the link between adult obesity, immigrant duration and generation, and race/ethnicity. PMID:22575698

  1. Weight status of Mexican immigrant women: a comparison with women in Mexico and with US-born Mexican American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia D; Ritterman-Weintraub, Miranda L; Fernald, Lia C H; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha

    2013-09-01

    We assessed the association between birthplace, residence, or years in the United States and actual weight (body mass index), perceived weight accuracy, or provider screens for overweight or obesity among Mexican immigrant women. We used linked data from Health and Nutrition Examination Survey waves 2001-2006 and 2006 National Mexican Health and Nutrition Survey to compare 513 immigrants with 9527 women in Mexico and 342 US-born Mexican American women. Immigrants were more likely than women in Mexico to be obese and to perceive themselves as overweight or obese after adjustment for confounders. Recent immigrants had similar weight-related outcomes as women in Mexico. Immigrants were less likely to be obese than were US-born Mexican Americans. Within the overweight or obese population, reported provider screens were higher among immigrants than among women in Mexico, but lower than among US-born Mexican Americans. US residency of at least 5 years but less than 20 years and reporting insufficient provider screens elevated obesity risk. Mexican-origin women in the United States and Mexico are at risk for overweight and obesity. We found no evidence of a "healthy immigrant" effect.

  2. Immigrant Sexual Citizenship: Intersectional Templates among Mexican Gay Immigrants to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Steven; Carrillo, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    Existing literature on sexual citizenship has emphasized the sexuality-related claims of de jure citizens of nation-states, generally ignoring immigrants. Conversely, the literature on immigration rarely attends to the salience of sexual issues in understanding the social incorporation of migrants. This article seeks to fill the gap by theorizing and analyzing immigrant sexual citizenship. While some scholars of sexual citizenship have focused on the rights and recognition granted formally by the nation-state and others have stressed more diffuse, cultural perceptions of community and local belonging, we argue that the lived experiences of immigrant sexual citizenship call for multiscalar scrutiny of templates and practices of citizenship that bridge national policies with local connections. Analysis of ethnographic data from a study of 76 Mexican gay and bisexual male immigrants to San Diego, California reveals the specific citizenship templates that these men encounter as they negotiate their intersecting social statuses as gay/bisexual and as immigrants (legal or undocumented); these include an “asylum” template, a “rights” template, and a “local attachments” template. However, the complications of their intersecting identities constrain their capacity to claim immigrant sexual citizenship. The study underscores the importance of both intersectional and multiscalar approaches in research on citizenship as social practice. PMID:25013360

  3. Immigrant Sexual Citizenship: Intersectional Templates among Mexican Gay Immigrants to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Steven; Carrillo, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    Existing literature on sexual citizenship has emphasized the sexuality-related claims of de jure citizens of nation-states, generally ignoring immigrants. Conversely, the literature on immigration rarely attends to the salience of sexual issues in understanding the social incorporation of migrants. This article seeks to fill the gap by theorizing and analyzing immigrant sexual citizenship . While some scholars of sexual citizenship have focused on the rights and recognition granted formally by the nation-state and others have stressed more diffuse, cultural perceptions of community and local belonging, we argue that the lived experiences of immigrant sexual citizenship call for multiscalar scrutiny of templates and practices of citizenship that bridge national policies with local connections. Analysis of ethnographic data from a study of 76 Mexican gay and bisexual male immigrants to San Diego, California reveals the specific citizenship templates that these men encounter as they negotiate their intersecting social statuses as gay/bisexual and as immigrants (legal or undocumented); these include an "asylum" template, a "rights" template, and a "local attachments" template. However, the complications of their intersecting identities constrain their capacity to claim immigrant sexual citizenship. The study underscores the importance of both intersectional and multiscalar approaches in research on citizenship as social practice.

  4. Do immigrants improve the health of native workers?

    OpenAIRE

    Giuntella, Osea

    2014-01-01

    Public debate on immigration focuses on its effects on wages and employment, yet the discussion typically fails to consider the effects of immigration on working conditions that affect workers' health. There is growing evidence that immigrants are more likely than natives to work in risky jobs, as they are more inclined to take on physically intensive tasks. Recent studies show that as immigration rises, native workers are pushed into less demanding jobs. Such market adjustments have positive...

  5. Examining the sexual harassment experiences of Mexican immigrant farmworking women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Irma Morales

    2010-03-01

    This study examined sexual harassment experiences of Mexican immigrant farmworking women (n = 150) employed on California farms. Of the estimated one million California farmworkers, 78% are Latino, mostly from Mexico, and 28% are women. Unlike gender-segregated worksites of Mexico, women farmworkers in the United States labor alongside men, facilitating harassment from coworkers and supervisors. Simultaneous sexist, racist, and economic discrimination are comparable to converging lanes of automobile traffic (Crenshaw, 2000) that women, standing at the intersections, manage to avoid harm. Findings highlight how discrimination shapes women's experiences and demonstrate the need for institutional policies to protect them.

  6. Higher risk for obesity among Mexican-American and Mexican immigrant children and adolescents than among peers in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Valero, María A; Bustamante-Montes, L Patricia; Hernández, Mike; Halley-Castillo, Elizabeth; Wilkinson, Anna V; Bondy, Melissa L; Olvera, Norma

    2012-08-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1,717 children and adolescents of Mexican origin ages 5-19 years living in Mexico and Texas to explore the influence of country of birth and country of longest residence on their overweight and obesity status. Descriptive statistics were used to compare demographic and anthropometric characteristics of participants born and raised in Mexico (Mexicans), born in Mexico and raised in the United States (Mexican immigrants), and born and raised in the United States (Mexican-Americans). Univariate and multivariate nominal logistic regression was used to determine the demographic predictors of obesity adjusted by country of birth, country of residence, age, and gender. Almost half (48.8%) of the Mexican-Americans and 43.2% of the Mexican immigrants had body mass index at the 85th percentile or above, compared to only 29.3% of the Mexicans (P obese than their Mexican peers [Mexican-Americans: odds ratio (OR) = 2.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-3.4); Mexican immigrants: OR = 2.2 (95% CI 1.6-3.0)]. In addition, males were more likely than females to be obese [OR = 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.1)], and adolescents 15-19 years of age were less likely than their younger counterparts [OR = 0.5 (95% CI 0.4-0.7)] to be obese. The high prevalence of obesity among children of Mexican origin in the United States is of great concern and underscores the urgent need to develop and implement obesity preventive interventions targeting younger children of Mexican origin, especially newly arrived immigrant children. In addition, future obesity research should take into consideration the country of origin of the study population to develop more culturally specific obesity interventions.

  7. Reproductive habitus, psychosocial health, and birth weight variation in Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-08-01

    The Latina Paradox, or persistent, unexplained variation in low birth weight rates in recently immigrated Mexican women and the trend toward higher rates in subsequent generations of Mexican American women, is most often attributed to unidentified sociocultural causes. We suggest herein that different disciplinary approaches can be synthesized under the constructs of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to identify influences of sociocultural processes on birth weight. Reproductive habitus are "modes of living the reproductive body, bodily practices, and the creation of new subjects through interactions between people and structures" (Smith-Oka, 2012: 2276). Subjective social status infers comparison of self to others based on community definitions of status or socioeconomic status (Adler 2007). We present results from a prospective study of low-income Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women from south Texas that tested the ability of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to elucidate the Latina Paradox. We hypothesized that reproductive habitus between Mexican immigrant women and Mexican American women inform different subjective social statuses during pregnancy, and different subjective social statuses mediate responses to psychosocial stressors known to correlate with low birth weight. Six hundred thirty-one women were surveyed for psychosocial health, subjective social status, and reproductive histories between 2011 and 2013. Eighty-three women were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 for status during pregnancy, prenatal care practices, and pregnancy narratives and associations. Birth weight was extracted from medical records. Results were mixed. Subjective social status and pregnancy-related anxiety predicted low birth weight in Mexican immigrant but not Mexican American women. Mexican immigrant women had significantly lower subjective social status scores but a distinct reproductive habitus that could explain improved psychosocial

  8. Amor and Social Stigma: ASD Beliefs Among Immigrant Mexican Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Shana R; Miguel, Jessica

    2018-06-01

    This study examined cultural beliefs about ASD and its causes among Mexican-heritage families. In focus group interviews, we asked 25 immigrant parents of children with ASD to identify words they associated with ASD and its causes. Participants free-listed, ranked, and justified their responses. Mixed methods analyses utilized saliency scores to calculate responses. Deductive interview analyses justified participants' responses. Salient responses for ASD perceptions included specific characteristics about the child (e.g., loving) and perceptions about lack of resources. Salient responses for ASD causes were vaccines, genetics, and a combination of genetics and environment. Inductive analyses revealed distinct beliefs about social stigma, child characteristics, factors supporting development, and parents' emotional stress. Interpretations linked these beliefs to promising adaptations in diagnosis and treatment.

  9. A Profile of the Low-Wage Immigrant Workforce. Immigrant Families and Workers. Facts and Perspectives Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Randy; Fix, Michael; Passel, Jeffrey S.; Ost, Jason; Perez-Lopez, Dan

    Immigrants compose an increasingly large share of the U.S. labor force and growing share of low-wage workers. Immigrants' hourly wages are lower on average than those for natives. Immigrant workers are much more likely than native workers to drop out of high school. Three-fourths of all U.S. workers with less than a ninth grade education are…

  10. Changes in health selection of obesity among Mexican immigrants: a binational examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Annie; Fleischer, Nancy

    2014-12-01

    Health selection is often measured by comparing the health of more recent immigrants to the native born of their new host country. However, this comparison fails to take into account two important factors: (1) that changes in the health profile of sending countries may impact the health of immigrants over time, and (2) that the best comparison group for health selection would be people who remain in the country of origin. Obesity represents an important health outcome that may be best understood by taking into account these two factors. Using nationally-representative datasets from Mexico and the US, we examined differences in obesity-related health selection, by gender, in 2000 and 2012. We calculated prevalence ratios from log-binomial models to compare the risk of obesity among recent immigrants to the US to Mexican nationals with varying likelihood of migration, in order to determine changes in health selection over time. Among men in 2000, we found little difference in obesity status between recent immigrants to the US and Mexican non-migrants. However, in 2012, Mexican men who were the least likely to migrate had higher obesity prevalence than recent immigrants, which may reflect emerging health selection. The trends for women, however, indicated differences in obesity status between recent Mexican immigrants and non-migrants at both time points. In both 2000 and 2012, Mexican national women had significantly higher obesity prevalence than recent immigrant women, with the biggest difference between recent immigrants and Mexican women who were least likely to migrate. There was also indication that selection increased with time for women, as the differences between Mexican nationals and recent immigrants to the US grew from 2000 to 2012. Our study is among the first to use a binational dataset to examine the impact of health selectivity, over time, on obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An Anthropology of "Familismo": On Narratives and Description of Mexican/Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Morris, Carolyn; Morales-Campos, Daisy; Alvarez, Edith Alejandra Castaneda; Turner, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Research on core cultural values has been central to behavioral and clinical research in ethnic groups. "Familismo" is one such construct, theorized as the strong identification and attachment of Hispanic persons with their nuclear and extended families. Our anthropological research on this concept among Mexicans and Mexican immigrants in the…

  12. Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Mexican Immigrant Men in South Mississippi: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohee; Rehner, Tim; Castellanos, Diana Cuy

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased interest in mental health among Latino immigrants in the United States, it is particularly salient to note that minimal or marginal attention has been paid to Mexican immigrant men settling in non-metro or rural areas outside of traditional settlement places. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with…

  13. Past and Current Realities about Mexican/Latino Immigration. Looking Beyond the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Martinez-Brawley,

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The literature including social media shows that Mexican/Latino immigrants have attracted contempt and have been traditionally objected to as a minority in the U.S. The intent here is to search for historical and other factors that might explain the public antipathy and to identify reasons that could, either in isolation or in combination with others, explain anti-immigrant sentiments among people, many of whom are descendants of immigrants. The perusal of the challenges of Mexican immigrants to the U.S through the decades will highlight some similarities related to discrimination against waves “peoples of color”, not only in the U.S. but in other parts of the world. The daily treatment within the society of immigrants of color as well as the frequent lower immigration quotas imposed on certain groups, including Mediterranean people, makes the topic quite relevant to today’s concerns.

  14. 'He supported me 100%': Mexican-immigrant fathers, daughters, and adolescent sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman-Minahan, Kate; Samari, Goleen

    2018-02-19

    First and second generation Mexican-origin adolescents in the U.S. face social and economic disadvantage and sexual health disparities. Although fathers can support child and adolescent development, the literature has portrayed Mexican-origin immigrant fathers as emotionally distant and sexist. This study aims to treat migration as a social determinant of health to examine father-daughter relationships and adolescent sexual health in Mexican-origin immigrant families. Integrating qualitative data from life history interviews with 21 Mexican-origin young women in immigrant families with quantitative data on first and second generation Mexican-origin young women in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, this study describes father-daughter relationships, examines the association between father-daughter relationships and daughters' early sexual initiation, and considers the impact of migration on the father-daughter relationship and sexual health among Mexican-origin young women. Qualitative data identify four types of father-daughter relationships: 'good,' hostile, distant, and conflicted. Supporting the qualitative patterns, quantitative data find that positive or 'good' father-daughter relationship quality is significantly associated with reduced risk of early sexual initiation. Importantly, father-daughter separation across borders and economic inequality facing immigrant families is associated with hostile or distant father-daughter relationship quality and increased risk of early sexual initiation. Reports of good father-daughter relationships are common and may protect against early sexual initiation in Mexican-origin immigrant families. Policies that keep families together and reduce economic inequality among immigrants may also reduce sexual health disparities among immigrant adolescents.

  15. How immigrants and job mobility help low-skilled workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The inflow of low-skilled migrants may encourage natives to upgrade their skills, taking advantage of immigrant-native complementarity. This column uses exogenous dispersion of refugees in Denmark to investigate this issue. The findings confirm that for low-skilled native workers, the presence...... of refugee-country immigrants spurred mobility and increased specialisation into complex jobs....

  16. The Transformation of Ms. Corazon: Creating Humanizing Spaces for Mexican Immigrant Students in Secondary ESL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Maria del Carmen; Franquiz, Maria E.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the journey of one English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher who held rigid boundaries that negatively impacted the academic resiliency of her Mexican immigrant students. As she transformed her pedagogical orientation, she created permeability in her curricular practices. With the elements of "respeto" (respect), "confianza"…

  17. The Relationship between Print Literacy, Acculturation, and Acculturative Stress among Mexican Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintron, Alexander Modesto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine print literacy, acculturation, and acculturative stress among one-hundred and six Mexican immigrant women participating in a family literacy program. The two hypotheses were: (1.) There is a relationship between (a) print literacy as measured by the Print Literacy Questionnaire and (b) acculturation as…

  18. Mexican Ancestry, Immigrant Generation, and Educational Attainment in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Morgan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available After introducing alternative perspectives on assimilation and acculturation, we use the 2002-2012 waves of the Education Longitudinal Study to model differences in educational attainment for students sampled as high school sophomores in 2002. We focus on patterns observed for the growing Mexican immigrant population, analyzing separately the trajectories of 1st, 1.5th, 2nd, and 3rd+ generation Mexican immigrant students, in comparison to 3rd+ generation students who self-identify as non-Hispanic whites and students who self-identify as non-Hispanic blacks or African Americans. The results suggest that the dissonant acculturation mechanism associated with the segmented assimilation perspective is mostly unhelpful for explaining patterns of educational attainment, especially for the crucial groups of 1.5th and 2nd generation Mexican immigrant students. Instead, standard measures of family background can account for large portions of group differences in bachelor’s degree attainment, with or without additional adjustments for behavioral commitment to schooling, occupational plans, and educational expectations. The broad structure of inequality in the United States, as well as the rising costs of bachelor’s degrees, should be the primary source of concern when considering the prospects for the incorporation of the children of recent Mexican immigrants into the mainstream.

  19. Mexican immigrants in the United States. A review of the literature on integration, segregation and discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Pérez-Soria

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This article reviews the literature on integration, segregation and discrimination against Mexican immigrants in the United States. It is an assessment of the different theoretical approaches and empirical research results published from the first decades of the twentieth century until present days. Our review suggests that the assimilation model is the dominant theoretical approach, while empirical findings in the field reveal the permanence of patterns of occupational and residential segregation among Mexican-born population and their offspring. Results reported by studies on discrimination vary broadly, as a result of the different methodological perspectives adopted in each study. We conclude with a note encouraging the use of new approaches and complementary methodologies in the study about segregation and discrimination against Mexican immigrants in the United States.

  20. Conflicting Ideologies of Mexican Immigrant English across Levels of Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sarah; Link, Holly; Allard, Elaine; Wortham, Stanton; Mortimer, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how language ideologies--beliefs about immigrant students' language use--carry conflicting images of Spanish speakers in one New Latino Diaspora town. We describe how teachers and students encounter, negotiate, and appropriate divergent ideologies about immigrant students' language use during routine schooling practices, and…

  1. Sociocultural contexts and worker safety and health: findings of a study with Chinese immigrant restaurant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jenny; Bruck, Annie

    2009-02-01

    More immigrants are seeking employment in restaurants. Drawing data from an ethnographic study, this article discusses what and how sociocultural contexts shape the safety and health of immigrant restaurant workers. Eighteen Chinese immigrants from China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan participated in the study. Data generation methods included a questionnaire, individual and focus group interviews, and participant observations. Ethnographic analysis revealed that immigration mechanisms, demands of English proficiency for employment, and existence of networks and ethnic communities shaped the participants' employment choices. Working hours and schedules, interpersonal relationships at work, job design and training, occupational safety and health training, and national events and economy further influenced the participants' occupational experiences and well-being. Issues were noted with job security, mental health, family relationships, and risks for occupational injuries and illnesses. Implications for occupational health nursing research and practice to reduce immigrant workers' vulnerability to poor safety and health outcomes conclude this article.

  2. Relocating Precarity and Resiliency within Montreal: The Artists' Bloc of the Immigrant Workers' Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Koby Rogers; Salamanca, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    In this document we describe our experience relocating precarity and resiliency by way of arts activism, to denounce and make visible social injustices experienced by im/migrant communities in Montreal. Under the umbrella of the Immigrant Workers' Centre, and other allies from the im/migrant workers' movement, we combine knowledge building, action…

  3. The health and safety concerns of immigrant women workers in the Toronto sportswear industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannagé, C M

    1999-01-01

    Immigrant women's conditions of work have worsened with new government and managerial strategies to restructure the Canadian apparel industry. Changes in occupational health and safety legislation have both given and taken away tools that immigrant women workers could use to improve the quality of their working lives. The author outlines a methodology for eliciting the health and safety concerns of immigrant women workers.

  4. Dating, mating, and motherhood: identity construction among Mexican maquila workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiano, S; Ladino, C

    1999-02-01

    The authors explore the gender identities among women factory workers in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Using data from 3 generations of women, they show that women's participation in the maquila work force is exposing them to new ideologies which challenge traditional images embodied in the marianismo ideal of Mexican womanhood. By focusing upon women's changing experiences of courtship and motherhood, the authors suggest that conventional discourses stressing parentally supervised mate selection and full-time motherhood are being challenged by alternative ones which allow young women to socialize freely with prospective mates in unsupervised contexts, and expand the meaning of responsible motherhood to encompass full-time employment. Women workers' identities are fluid processes in permanent negotiation. ¿

  5. "One Scar Too Many:" The Associations Between Traumatic Events and Psychological Distress Among Undocumented Mexican Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcini, Luz M; Peña, Juan M; Gutierrez, Angela P; Fagundes, Christopher P; Lemus, Hector; Lindsay, Suzanne; Klonoff, Elizabeth A

    2017-10-01

    Undocumented immigration often presents with multiple stressors and contextual challenges, which may diminish mental health. This study is the first to provide population-based estimates for the prevalence of traumatic events and its association to clinically significant psychological distress among undocumented Mexican immigrants in the United States. This cross-sectional study used respondent-driven sampling to obtain and analyze data from clinical interviews with 248 undocumented Mexican immigrants residing in high-risk neighborhoods near the California-Mexico border. Overall, 82.7% of participants reported a history of traumatic events, with 47.0% of these meeting the criteria for clinically significant psychological distress. After controlling for relevant covariates, having experienced material deprivation, odds ratio (OR) = 2.26, 95% CI [1.18, 4.31], p = .013, and bodily injury, OR = 2.96, 95% CI [1.50, 5.83], p = .002, and not having a history of deportation, OR = 0.36, 95% CI [0.17, 0.79], p = .011, were associated with clinically significant psychological distress. These results support the need to revisit health and immigration policies and to devise solutions grounded in empirical evidence aimed at preventing the negative effects of trauma and psychological distress in this population. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  6. Ethics and the compensation of immigrant workers for work-related injuries and illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Sylvie; Vissandjée, Bilkis; Lippel, Katherine; Brodeur, Jean-Marc; Patry, Louis; Champagne, François

    2010-10-01

    This paper examines the compensation process for work-related injuries and illnesses by assessing the trajectories of a sample of immigrant and non-immigrant workers (n = 104) in Montreal. Workers were interviewed to analyze the complexity associated with the compensation process. Experts specialized in compensation issues assessed the difficulty of the interviewees' compensation process. Immigrant workers faced greater difficulties with medical, legal, and administrative issues than non-immigrants did. While immigrant workers' claim forms tended to be written more often by employers or friends (58% vs. 8%), the claims were still more often contested by employers (64% vs. 24%). Immigrant workers were less likely to obtain a precise diagnosis (64% vs. 42%) and upon returning to work were more likely to face sub-optimal conditions. Such results throw into relief issues of ethics and equity in host societies that are building their economy with migrant workers.

  7. Traditional beliefs and practices among Mexican American immigrants with type II diabetes: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemley, Megan; Spies, Lori A

    2015-04-01

    To describe selected common health beliefs and practices among Mexican American immigrants with type II diabetes. Selected clinical trials, qualitative studies, and systematic reviews. The Hispanic folk illness belief susto refers to an episode of severe fright, and Mexican American immigrants hold varying views on its relation to diabetes. Culturally and in the research, susto has also been linked with depression. Sabila (aloe vera) and nopal (prickly pear cactus) are herbal remedies that have had widespread, longstanding use in Mexican culture and while this is not the gold standard of research, it does provide ample evidence and a strong cultural belief that these therapies work. There is some evidence in the literature to support their efficacy as glucose-lowering agents, but lack of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation, potential side effects, and a dearth of rigorous clinical trials preclude aloe vera and nopal from being recommended therapy. Awareness about susto beliefs, commonly used herbal remedies, and development of culturally sensitive communication skills are essential for nurse practitioners to effectively assist patients in this population achieve their glycemic goals. Research on the effects of nopal and aloe vera on diabetes is needed to guide clinical decisions. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  8. Marianismo and Caregiving Role Beliefs Among U.S.-Born and Immigrant Mexican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A; Anthony, Katherine P

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to explore how women of Mexican-origin conceptualized caregiving as a construct in terms of cultural beliefs, social norms, role functioning, and familial obligations. We examined the personal experiences of U.S-born and immigrant Mexican female caregivers to identify how these 2 groups differed in their views of the caregiver role. We conducted 1-time in-depth interviews with 44 caregivers living in Southern California. Our study was guided by marianismo, a traditional role occupied by women in the Mexican family. We analyzed data from a grounded theory approach involving the constant comparative method to refine and categorize the data. The majority of all caregivers had similar views about caregiving as an undertaking by choice, and almost all caregivers engaged in self-sacrificing actions to fulfill the marianismo role. Despite these similarities, U.S.-born and immigrant caregivers used different words to describe the same concepts or assigned different meanings to other key aspects of caregiving, suggesting that these 2 groups had different underlying motivations for caregiving and orientations to the role. Our findings highlight the complexity of language and culture in underlying caregiving concepts, making the concepts challenging to operationalize and define in a heterogeneous sample of Latinos. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. An examination of nervios among Mexican seasonal farm workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Margaret; Mysyk, Avis; Gallegos, Juan Arturo Avila

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this exploratory descriptive study was to examine a process model of the nervios experience of 30 Mexican seasonal farm workers. Focused interviews were conducted in Spanish to determine the workers' perspectives on their experiences of nervios while residing in rural, southwest Ontario. Data for analysis originated from variables created to represent key themes that had emerged from open coding of the interviews. Simultaneous entry, multiple regression analyses revealed that provocation, control salience, and cognitive sensory motor distress directly explained 67.2% of the variation in worker expressions of negative affectivity. The combination fear, feeling trapped, and giving in mediated the relationship of provocation, control salience and cognitive sensory motor distress to expressions of negative affectivity (R(2) = 88.1%). Control salience and its dampening effect on other elements of the nervios experience, however, appeared to be key to whether subjects experienced negative reactions to being provoked or distressed. This evidence points to nervios being a powerful, holistic idiom of distress with at least six variables contributing to its affective negativity. This information is important to our understanding of how nervios unfolds and for accurate specification of a nervios model for clinical practice and research. It also sets the stage for improved therapeutic alliances with nervios sufferers, and social action to reduce factors that provoke nervios.

  10. The unauthorized Mexican immigrant population and welfare in Los Angeles County: a comparative statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, E A; Heer, D M

    1998-01-01

    "Using a unique 1994 Los Angeles County Household Survey of foreign-born Mexicans and the March 1994 and 1995 Current Population Surveys, we estimate the number of unauthorized Mexican immigrants (UMIs) residing in Los Angeles County, and compare their use of seven welfare programs with that of other non-U.S. citizens and U.S. citizens. Non-U.S. citizens were found to be no more likely than U.S. citizens to have used welfare, and UMIs were 11% (14%) less likely than other non-citizens (U.S.-born citizens).... We demonstrate how results differ depending on the unit of analysis employed, and on which programs constitute ¿welfare'." excerpt

  11. A qualitative study of family healthy lifestyle behaviors of Mexican-American and Mexican immigrant fathers and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Barbara J; Navuluri, Neelima; Winkler, Paula; Vale, Shruthi; Finley, Erin

    2014-04-01

    This study qualitatively examines contrasting parental decision-making styles about family food choices and physical activities as well as willingness to change behaviors among Mexican-American and Mexican immigrant mothers and fathers of school-aged children. Twelve sex-specific focus groups were held in English or Spanish in 2012. Qualitative analysis informed by grounded theory examined parenting styles (ie, authoritative, authoritarian, or permissive), barriers to healthy lifestyle, and parents' stage of change about healthy lifestyles. One third of the 33 participating couples were born in Mexico. The majority of mothers and fathers described being permissive and allowing unhealthy food choices, and a minority of mothers reported more authoritarian approaches to promoting a healthier diet for their children. Mothers were more permissive than fathers about family physical activities and less engaged in these activities. Most mothers and fathers described only contemplating a healthier diet and more physical activity, while wanting their children to have a healthier lifestyle. These data suggest that clinicians need to assess and address differential parental roles when promoting a healthy lifestyle for children. Clinicians should also adopt culturally competent approaches to overcome barriers to parental engagement in diverse aspects of a healthy family lifestyle. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Occupational health and safety services for immigrant workers in Japanese workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Asuka; Muto, Takashi; Muto, Shigeki

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the status of occupational health and safety services for immigrant workers, the barriers to employing immigrant workers and the needs of the managers in workplaces to keep immigrant workers healthy and safe. This study was a cross-sectional survey. We sent self-administered questionnaires to 126 workplaces in the western part of Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan in August 2006. The questionnaire included the characteristics of the workplace, barriers to employing immigrant workers, current actions to keep immigrant workers healthy and safe, the implementation rate of health checkups and important issues to keep immigrant workers healthy and safe. Implementation rates of health and safety education, creating job instruction manuals written in their native languages, creating safety signs written in their native languages, and the use of translators were 62.5%, 50.0%, 41.1% and 37.5%, respectively. Implementation rates of general health checkups, special health checkups and follow up after health checkups were 80.8%, 73.6% and 67.3%, respectively. The most important issue which the managers considered kept immigrant workers healthy and safe was health checkups (69.6%). In conclusion, several occupational health and safety services were conducted for immigrant workers without a margin to compare with Japanese workers.

  13. Strain, Psychological Conflicts, Aspirations-Attainment Gap, and Depressive Tendencies among Youth of Mexican Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paat, Yok-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Using Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS), this study examined the links between strain, psychological conflicts, aspiration-attainment gap, and depressive tendencies of 755 youth of Mexican origin. Two research questions were raised: (a) What types of strain and psychological conflict induced depressive tendencies? (b) What types of aspirations were relevant to these depressive symptoms? Overall, this study showed that factors implicated by collision of values, perceived discrepancies between aspiration and attainment, and negative appraisal of self could induce depressive mood, feelings, and behaviors, an important finding revealing that this underserved population can benefit from better public health services.

  14. 78 FR 4858 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Immigrant Petition for Alien Workers, Form I-140...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ...-0015] Agency Information Collection Activities: Immigrant Petition for Alien Workers, Form I-140... Approved Collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Immigrant Petition for Alien Worker. (3) Agency form... other for-profit. The information furnished on Form I-140 will be used by USCIS to classify aliens under...

  15. 77 FR 65706 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Immigrant Petition for Alien Worker, Form I-140...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ...-0015] Agency Information Collection Activities: Immigrant Petition for Alien Worker, Form I-140... Form/Collection: Immigrant Petition for Alien Worker. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the... information furnished on Form I-140 will be used by USCIS to classify aliens under sections 203(b)(1), 203(b...

  16. Varieties of Inequality: Allocation, Distribution, and the Wage Disadvantages of Immigrant Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Kesler, Christel

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I ask how immigrant/native-born wage gaps differ in two institutionally distinct receiving societies in Western Europe: Sweden, with a comparatively equal wage structure, and the United Kingdom, with a comparatively unequal wage structure. Using large, nationally representative data sets and focusing on 30 immigrant groups that reside in both countries, I document two distinct kinds of inequality between immigrant and native-born workers. In terms of wage percentiles, immigrant...

  17. Social Security Contributions and Return Migration Among Older Male Mexican Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Emma; Vega, Alma

    2017-06-01

    For decades, scholars have studied the effects of immigration on the U.S. social security system. To date, this research has been primarily limited to migrants within the United States and does not consider those who return to their countries of origin. We estimate the proportion of male Mexican return migrants who contributed to the U.S. social security system and analyze their socioeconomic characteristics and migration histories. We also estimate the proportion that receive or expect to receive U.S. social security benefits. Using probit regression on the 2012 Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), we describe the predictors of having contributed to the U.S. social security system among Mexican males in Mexico aged 50 years and older who at some point lived in the United States. We find that 32% of male return migrants reported having contributed to the U.S. social security system, but only 5% of those who contributed, received or expected to receive benefits. Those who reported having contributed spent more years in the United States and were more likely to be U.S. citizens or legal permanent residents than those who did not contribute. Immigrants often pay Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance taxes using legitimate or illegitimate social security numbers and return to their home countries without collecting U.S. social security benefits. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Extending a model of precarious employment: A qualitative study of immigrant workers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porthé, Victoria; Ahonen, Emily; Vázquez, M Luisa; Pope, Catherine; Agudelo, Andrés Alonso; García, Ana M; Amable, Marcelo; Benavides, Fernando G; Benach, Joan

    2010-04-01

    Since the 1980s, changes in the labor market have modified power relations between capital and labor, leading to greater levels of precarious employment among workers. Globalization has led to a growth in migration, as people leave their countries in search of work. We aimed to describe the dimensions of precarious employment for immigrant workers in Spain. Qualitative study using analytic induction. Criterion sampling was used to recruit 129 immigrant workers in Spain with documented and undocumented administrative status. Data quality was ensured by triangulation. Immigrant workers reported that precarious employment is characterized by high job instability, a lack of power for negotiating employment conditions, and defenselessness against high labor demands. They described insufficient wages, long working hours, limited social benefits, and difficulty in exercising their rights. Undocumented workers reported greater defenselessness and worse employment conditions. This study allowed us to describe the dimensions of precarious employment in immigrant workers. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Educational and Mothering Discourses and Learner Goals: Mexican Immigrant Women Enacting Agency in a Family Literacy Program. Research Brief #8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toso, Blaire Willson

    2012-01-01

    Family literacy programs promote certain ideas about literacy and parenting. This study examined how Mexican immigrant women in a family literacy program used mainstream ideas, or discourses, of mothering and parent involvement in education to pursue their own personal and academic goals. The findings revealed that women were at times faced with…

  20. Adaptation and Feasibility of a Communication Intervention for Mexican Immigrant Mothers and Children in a School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Diane B.; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Fogg, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Children of Mexican immigrants are exposed to multiple ecological risks that heighten their likelihood of experiencing depressive symptoms. In previous studies, affirming parent-child communication has been found to be protective against depressive symptoms in Hispanic youth. Interventions focused on enhancing communication between parents and…

  1. An Analysis of Communicative Language Functions in the Speech Patterns of Bilingual Korean and Mexican Immigrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sook Lee, Jin; Choi, Jane Y.; Marqués-Pascual, Laura

    2016-01-01

    For children from immigrant families, opportunities to develop additive bilingualism exist, yet bilingual attainment has varied widely. Given the significance of language development opportunities in home settings, this study examines the home language use of 20 second-generation children (ages 6-8) of Mexican and Korean descent in the United…

  2. Psychosocial working conditions and well-being among immigrant and German low-wage workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Annekatrin

    2011-04-01

    Despite a steady increase of immigrant workers in Germany in the past decades, occupational health research has only peripherally addressed psychosocial working conditions and immigrant worker well-being. This study has two aims: (1) to investigate differences in psychosocial stressors and resources between immigrant and German low-wage workers, and (2) to examine group differences in their association with well-being using a structural equation modeling multiple group analysis approach. Eighty-nine immigrant and 146 German postmen of a German mail service company were surveyed. Results reveal more stressors in the social work environment for the immigrant workers than for their German coworkers but similar levels of task-related stressors in both groups. Stressors are more strongly associated with psychological distress among the German workers. In terms of resources, job control serves as a resource only among German workers, whereas supervisor and coworker support are more important for immigrant workers. These differences suggest that cultural factors, previous work experiences, and expectations influence the worker's experience of psychosocial working conditions and have a direct impact on worker health.

  3. Don't end up in the fields: identity construction among Mexican adolescent immigrants, their parents, and sociocontextual processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Jose A; Knudson-Martin, Carmen

    2014-10-01

    This grounded theory study of 16 Mexican immigrant adolescents and 20 of their parents examines how they construct relational identities within their families, at school, with friends, and in the larger society. Results focus on a core identity bind faced by the adolescents: immigration messages from parents that say, "don't be like me" and the societal message, "you're not like us." Response to this bind was guided by two contrasting sets of identity narratives: Empowering narratives invited an intentional approach to school and life choices. Restricting narratives maintained an ambivalent approach to school and life choices. Resolution of the identity bind was a collective, ongoing process that has implications for Mexican immigrant families and the professionals who work with them. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  4. Beyond Nationality: Dispatches from Immigrant Workers in the Global City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel ABRANTES

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on migration policy, social structures and labour market dynamics underlines the persistent vulnerability of immigrants in the labour market of contemporary western societies. However, little attention has been paid to the diverse manners in which these factors overlap in the life of migrants moving within the same origin and destination settings. This article examines the case of Brazilian-born migrants working in Amsterdam, drawing on the analysis of statistical data, policy documents and fifteen life stories. It starts by explaining the aim of the research and the choice of origin and destination units. Findings are organized according to four key elements: legal status, gender, year of arrival, and occupation. It is argued that these elements comprise increasing differentiation mechanisms and provide an improved notion of what is at stake for migrant workers dwelling in the global city. The main conclusion is that international borders are undergoing a significant reorganization in their daily operation, in particular due to concomitant changes in migration law and flexibility strategies in the labour market. Reinforcement of distinct categories of migrants, expansion of rights for relatives or civil partners of European Union citizens and increasing pressure over undocumented workers require future research to consider whether migration policy is being replaced by a global order of human selection owing more to social and economic profile than nationality.

  5. Immigrant health workers in Chile: is there a Latin American "brain drain"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltica Cabieses

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Most research on the phenomenon of "brain drain" (one-way flow of highly skilled/educated individuals has focused on movement between the least developed and most highly developed countries. Therefore, the significance of patterns of migration to middle-income countries such as those in Latin America is less clear. The aim of this study was to outline key features of international health worker "brain drain" to Chile to promote discussion and further research on this phenomenon as it pertains to the Latin American region. The study compared immigrant health workers living in Chile to both Chilean-born health workers and other immigrants living in Chile using a qualitative nationwide dataset (the results of Chile's 2009 National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey. Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables were included in the analyses, which were weighted by population to obtain nationally representative estimates. In 2009, immigrant health workers represented 2.2% of all health personnel and 2.6% of all resident immigrants in the country. While most immigrant health workers had a universitylevel education, about 25% had only a high school-level education or less. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of immigrant health workers' household income and that of Chilean-born health workers. A significantly higher proportion of the immigrant group reported no entitlement to health care provision. While the results of this study do not indicate a significant international health worker "brain drain" to Chile, they do suggest distinctive patterns of migration within the Latin American region. Future studies in Chile could confirm the validity of these results, using a larger sample of immigrant health workers.

  6. Immigrant health workers in Chile: is there a Latin American "brain drain"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena

    2012-08-01

    Most research on the phenomenon of "brain drain" (one-way flow of highly skilled/educated individuals) has focused on movement between the least developed and most highly developed countries. Therefore, the significance of patterns of migration to middle-income countries such as those in Latin America is less clear. The aim of this study was to outline key features of international health worker "brain drain" to Chile to promote discussion and further research on this phenomenon as it pertains to the Latin American region. The study compared immigrant health workers living in Chile to both Chilean-born health workers and other immigrants living in Chile using a qualitative nationwide dataset (the results of Chile's 2009 National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey). Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables were included in the analyses, which were weighted by population to obtain nationally representative estimates. In 2009, immigrant health workers represented 2.2% of all health personnel and 2.6% of all resident immigrants in the country. While most immigrant health workers had a universitylevel education, about 25% had only a high school-level education or less. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of immigrant health workers' household income and that of Chilean-born health workers. A significantly higher proportion of the immigrant group reported no entitlement to health care provision. While the results of this study do not indicate a significant international health worker "brain drain" to Chile, they do suggest distinctive patterns of migration within the Latin American region. Future studies in Chile could confirm the validity of these results, using a larger sample of immigrant health workers.

  7. Do Mexican immigrants substitute health care in Mexico for health insurance in the United States? The role of distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Henry Shelton

    2008-12-01

    Although language and culture are important contributors to uninsurance among immigrants, one important contributor may have been overlooked - the ability of immigrants to return to their home country for health care. This paper examines the extent to which uninsurance (private insurance and Medicaid) is related to the ability of immigrants to return to Mexico for health care, as measured by spatial proximity. The data for this study are from the Mexican Migration Project. After controlling for household income, acculturation and demographic characteristics, arc distance to the place of origin plays a role in explaining uninsurance rates. Distance within Mexico is quite important, indicating that immigrants from the South of Mexico are more likely to seek care in their communities of origin (hometowns).

  8. Bilingualism in older Mexican-American immigrants is associated with higher scores on cognitive screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Claudia; Mendez, Mario F; Jimenez, Elvira E; Teng, Edmond

    2016-11-24

    Bilingualism may protect against cognitive aging and delay the onset of dementia. However, studies comparing monolinguals and bilinguals on such metrics have produced inconsistent results complicated by confounding variables and methodological concerns. We addressed this issue by comparing cognitive performance in a more culturally homogeneous cohort of older Spanish-speaking monolingual (n = 289) and Spanish-English bilingual (n = 339) Mexican-American immigrants from the Sacramento Longitudinal Study on Aging. After adjusting for demographic differences and depressive symptoms, both groups performed similarly at baseline on verbal memory but the bilingual group performed significantly better than the monolingual group on a cognitive screening test, the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS; p bilingual group, neither language of testing nor degree of bilingualism was significantly associated with 3MS or verbal memory scores. Amongst individuals who performed in the normal or better range on both tests at baseline and were followed for an average of 6 years, both monolinguals and bilinguals exhibited similar rates of cognitive decline on both measures. These findings suggest that bilingualism is associated with modest benefits in cognitive screening performance in older individuals in cross-sectional analyses that persist across longitudinal analyses. The effects of bilingualism should be considered when cognitively screening is performed in aging immigrant populations.

  9. Bilingualism in older Mexican-American immigrants is associated with higher scores on cognitive screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Padilla

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bilingualism may protect against cognitive aging and delay the onset of dementia. However, studies comparing monolinguals and bilinguals on such metrics have produced inconsistent results complicated by confounding variables and methodological concerns. Methods We addressed this issue by comparing cognitive performance in a more culturally homogeneous cohort of older Spanish-speaking monolingual (n = 289 and Spanish-English bilingual (n = 339 Mexican-American immigrants from the Sacramento Longitudinal Study on Aging. Results After adjusting for demographic differences and depressive symptoms, both groups performed similarly at baseline on verbal memory but the bilingual group performed significantly better than the monolingual group on a cognitive screening test, the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS; p < 0.001. Group differences on the 3MS were driven by language/executive and language/praxis factors. Within the bilingual group, neither language of testing nor degree of bilingualism was significantly associated with 3MS or verbal memory scores. Amongst individuals who performed in the normal or better range on both tests at baseline and were followed for an average of 6 years, both monolinguals and bilinguals exhibited similar rates of cognitive decline on both measures. Conclusions These findings suggest that bilingualism is associated with modest benefits in cognitive screening performance in older individuals in cross-sectional analyses that persist across longitudinal analyses. The effects of bilingualism should be considered when cognitively screening is performed in aging immigrant populations.

  10. Perception of Job-Related Risk, Training, and Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE among Latino Immigrant Hog CAFO Workers in Missouri: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena K. Ramos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hog production in the United States is a large industry that has seen dramatic changes over the last few decades. Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs are growing in number throughout the country. This pilot study explores the perception of risk, receipt of work-related training, provision and usage of personal protective equipment (PPE, and prevention preferences of Latino immigrant hog CAFO workers in Missouri. Forty workers (M age = 36.08 years, SD = 10.04; 92.5% male; 70.0% Mexican were interviewed. Results indicate that most workers did not perceive their job as dangerous. Limited English proficient workers were significantly less likely to report receiving any work-related training. Although most workers had access to employer provided PPE, usage was inconsistent. As the demographic composition of the farmworker population in the Midwest becomes increasingly comprised of hired immigrant workers, it will be imperative to develop occupational safety and health educational and outreach efforts focused on the needs of these workers.

  11. Perception of Job-Related Risk, Training, and Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) among Latino Immigrant Hog CAFO Workers in Missouri: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Athena K; Fuentes, Axel; Trinidad, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Hog production in the United States is a large industry that has seen dramatic changes over the last few decades. Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are growing in number throughout the country. This pilot study explores the perception of risk, receipt of work-related training, provision and usage of personal protective equipment (PPE), and prevention preferences of Latino immigrant hog CAFO workers in Missouri. Forty workers (M age = 36.08 years, SD = 10.04; 92.5% male; 70.0% Mexican) were interviewed. Results indicate that most workers did not perceive their job as dangerous. Limited English proficient workers were significantly less likely to report receiving any work-related training. Although most workers had access to employer provided PPE, usage was inconsistent. As the demographic composition of the farmworker population in the Midwest becomes increasingly comprised of hired immigrant workers, it will be imperative to develop occupational safety and health educational and outreach efforts focused on the needs of these workers.

  12. A qualitative study about immigrant workers' perceptions of their working conditions in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, E Q; Porthé, V; Vázquez, M L; García, A M; López-Jacob, M J; Ruiz-Frutos, C; Ronda-Pérez, E; Benach, J; Benavides, F G

    2009-11-01

    Spain has recently become an inward migration country. Little is known about the occupational health of immigrant workers. This study aimed to explore the perceptions that immigrant workers in Spain had of their working conditions. Qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study. Criterion sampling. Data collected between September 2006 and May 2007 through semi-structured focus groups and individual interviews, with a topic guide. One hundred and fifty-eight immigrant workers (90 men/68 women) from Colombia (n = 21), Morocco (n = 39), sub-Saharan Africa (n = 29), Romania (n = 44) and Ecuador (n = 25), who were authorised (documented) or unauthorised (undocumented) residents in five medium to large cities in Spain. Participants described poor working conditions, low pay and health hazards. Perception of hazards appeared to be related to gender and job sector. Informants were highly segregated into jobs by sex, however, so this issue will need further exploration. Undocumented workers described poorer conditions than documented workers, which they attributed to their documentation status. Documented participants also felt vulnerable because of their immigrant status. Informants believed that deficient language skills, non-transferability of their education and training and, most of all, their immigrant status and economic need left them with little choice but to work under poor conditions. The occupational health needs of immigrant workers must be addressed at the job level, while improving the enforcement of existing health and safety regulations. The roles that documentation status and economic need played in these informants' work experiences should be considered and how these may influence health outcomes.

  13. A study on the perceptions of child welfare workers on the use of corporal punishment among immigrant and Norwegian families

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso, Nathalia Patricia Perez

    2016-01-01

    Erasmus Mundus Master’s Programme in Social Work with Families and Children The purpose of the study was to explore the perceptions and experiences of child welfare workers in regard to immigrant and non-immigrant families by using the concept of corporal punishment as a point of departure. There were three main questions and objectives that focused on exploring the expectations and approaches that child welfare workers have when working with immigrant and non-immigrant familie...

  14. Parent Perceptions of Child Weight Status in Mexican-Origin Immigrant Families: An Investigation of Acculturation, Stress, and Coping Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Dorothy L; Bates, Carolyn R; Heard, Amy M; Bohnert, Amy M; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo

    2018-04-01

    Parents often underestimate their child's weight status, particularly when the child is overweight or obese. This study examined acculturation, stress, coping, and involuntary responses to stress and their relation to estimation of child's weight status among Mexican-origin immigrant families. Eighty-six families provided data on child's height and weight, caregiver's perception of their child's weight status, and caregiver's responses to acculturation, stress, and coping scales. Parents underestimated their child's weight status, particularly when the child was overweight or obese. Although acculturation and stress were not associated with accuracy, parents' responses to stress were linked to parent perceptions. Parents who reported more frequent use of involuntary engagement (e.g., rumination, physiological arousal) were more accurate. Future research, as well as healthcare providers, should consider how parents manage and respond to stress in order to fully understand the factors that explain weight perceptions among Mexican-origin immigrant parents.

  15. The role of immigration age on alcohol and drug use among border and non-border Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingle, Jennifer M; Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A; Vaeth, Patrice A C

    2014-07-01

    To determine the age of immigration at which the marked increase in risk for alcohol- and drug-use problems in adulthood is observed among Mexican American adults residing in 2 distinct contexts: the U.S.-Mexico border, and cities not proximal to the border. We used 2 samples of Mexican American adults: specifically, 1,307 who resided along the U.S.-Mexico border, and 1,288 non-border adults who were interviewed as a part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey study. Survey logistic and Poisson regression methods were used to examine how immigration age during adolescence is related to alcohol- and drug-use behavior in adulthood. We found that participants who immigrate to the United States prior to age 14 have qualitatively different alcohol- and drug-related outcomes compared to those who immigrate later in life. Adults who immigrated at younger ages have alcohol- and drug-use patterns similar to those who were U.S.-born. Adults who immigrated at young ages and reside distal from the U.S.-Mexico border are at greater risk for alcohol and drug use than those who live in border contexts. Immigration from Mexico to the U.S. before age 14 results in alcohol- and drug-related behavior that mirrors the behavior of U.S.-born residents, and the alcohol- and drug-use effects were more pronounced among adults who did not reside proximal to the U.S.-Mexico border. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Immigrant workers in the United States: recent trends, vulnerable populations, and challenges for occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Linda A

    2005-07-01

    Immigrant workers are a rapidly growing segment of the U.S. work force, and these increasing numbers have resulted in a different ethnic mix in the work force than in previous decades. Immigrant workers are not a homogenous group, but are over-represented in low-paying occupations. Their diversity and vulnerability present distinct challenges for occupational health nurses. High-risk occupations in which a large proportion of immigrant workers are hired include agriculture, sweatshops, day laborers, and construction. Initiatives needed to improve the working conditions of this vulnerable population include improved surveillance and research, culturally competent care providers, improved health care access, advocacy, and changes in immigration and health policy.

  17. Identity, Over-Commitment, Work Environment, and Health Outcomes among Immigrant Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla DAHL-JØRGENSEN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we compared immigrant workers with native workers on several factors related to their perception of their work identity anchored in their psychosocial work environment, and the result of these factors on work stress and subjective health. The data for the study came from 924 employees in the Norwegian food and beverage and among them were 84 immigrant workers. We found significant differences in levels of over-commitment, mental health and stress between native and immigrant workers. Immigrant workers perceived more over-commitment, more mental health problems and higher job stress than native workers did. The personal ambitions of the immigrants, measured as a higher level of over-commitment was seen as a driving force behind the pattern we found. This could have been a possible threat to an increased level of stress leading to mental health problems, but commitment to the firm they worked in was found to have a compensating effect in the final path analysis.

  18. Mexican Parenting Questionnaire (MPQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgunseth, Linda C.; Ispa, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted in four phases and constructed a self-report parenting instrument for use with Mexican immigrant mothers of children aged 6 to 10. The 14-item measure was based on semistructured qualitative interviews with Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 10), was refined by a focus group of Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 5), and was…

  19. Social Structures and the Occupational Composition of Skilled Worker Immigrants to Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Dryburgh

    2005-12-01

    structures that influence the composition of the economic immigrant population over time. Over the last 20 years, economic immigrants to Canada have faced changing selection policies, cycles of economic recession and growth, increased demand for information technology skills, women’s increased labour force participation and an aging labour force. Using data from Statistics Canada’s Longitudinal Immigration Database (IMDB, this paper examines the flow of economic immigrants to Canada by their occupational composition from 1980 to 2000. Relative to Canadians, when all immigrants from this period are grouped together, their economic integration is slow and does not reach parity with Canadians before 16 years. Among skilled worker immigrants, whereas the earlier cohorts did well but did not improve much over time, later cohorts started off in a relatively worse position, but early indications show a fairly steep slope to better relative average earnings. These differences support the need to examine immigrant integration by both the class of immigrant and the context at the time of immigration.

  20. Validity of a parent vocabulary checklist for young Spanish speaking children of Mexican immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of the current investigation was to examine the concurrent and predictive validity of a parent vocabulary checklist with young Spanish speaking children of Mexican immigrants. This study implemented a longitudinal approach. Nineteen families participated when children were 15-16 months of age, and then again at 30-32 months of age. The Spanish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (Inventarios del Desarrollo de Habilidades Communicativas, INV) and spontaneous language samples collected during naturalistic play were used to examine the relationship between observed and reported vocabulary. Vocabulary reported through the INV-II and vocabulary observed at 30-32 months were significantly correlated, suggesting that the INV-II captures a valid representation of vocabulary at this age. Comparatively, vocabulary reported on the INV-I, was not correlated with observed vocabulary at 15-16 months of age or reported or observed vocabulary at 30-32 months of age. These results suggest that the INV-I, when used with 14-16-month-olds, demonstrates limited concurrent and predictive validity. Implications for the clinical use of the INV-I and INV-II are presented.

  1. A multi-sector assessment of community organizational capacity for promotion of Chinese immigrant worker health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jenny H-C; Thompson, Elaine A

    2017-12-01

    Community-based collaborative approaches have received increased attention as a means for addressing occupational health disparities. Organizational capacity, highly relevant to engaging and sustaining community partnerships, however, is rarely considered in occupational health research. To characterize community organizational capacity specifically relevant to Chinese immigrant worker health, we used a cross-sectional, descriptive design with 36 agencies from six community sectors in King County, Washington. Joint interviews, conducted with two representatives from each agency, addressed three dimensions of organizational capacity: organizational commitment, resources, and flexibility. Descriptive statistics were used to capture the patterning of these dimensions by community sector. Organizational capacity varied widely across and within sectors. Chinese and Pan-Asian service sectors indicated higher capacity for Chinese immigrant worker health than did Chinese faith-based, labor union, public, and Pan-ethnic nonprofit sectors. Variation in organizational capacity in community sectors can inform selection of collaborators for community-based, immigrant worker health interventions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Unauthorized Mexican workers in the 1990 Los Angeles County labour force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, E A; Heer, D M

    1997-01-01

    "By analysing how unauthorized Mexicans compare with seven other ethno-racial groups in Los Angeles County, separately and collectively, by educational attainment and time spent in the U.S., we find that unauthorized Mexicans had relatively fewer years of formal education (either in the U.S. or in Mexico) and had been in the U.S. a relatively fewer number of years than in-migrants of other ethno-racial backgrounds in 1990. These findings are then used as proxies to compare the human capital endowments of different ethno-racial groups. We next estimate the number of unauthorized Mexicans by occupation, industry and class of worker, and compare these distributions with the total labour force and with the other ethno-racial groups in Los Angeles County.... Results show that amounts of human capital are positively related to the kinds of occupations filled." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  3. Prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants: probability survey in the north border of Mexico

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    Gudelia Rangel M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants (MMIs in different geographic contexts, including the sending communities in Mexico, the receiving communities in the United States (US, and the Mexican North border region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a probability survey among MMIs traveling through key border crossing sites in the Tijuana (Baja California, Mexico-San Diego (California, US border region (N=1 429. RESULTS: The survey revealed substantial rates of reported sexually transmitted infections, needle-sharing and sexual risk practices in all migration contexts. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated levels of HIV risk call for further binational research and preventive interventions in all key geographic contexts of the migration experience to identify and tackle the different personal, environmental, and structural determinants of HIV risk in each of these contexts.

  4. Immigration: Policy Considerations Related to Guest Worker Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    and also must provide workers with housing, transportation, and other benefits, including workers ’ compensation insurance. No health insurance coverage...bargaining representatives of the employer’s employees had been notified of the filing of the application for H-2A workers . An employer interested in...employer would have had to offer wages at least equal to the prevailing wage rate and would have had to provide “H” workers with health insurance

  5. Work Hours of Immigrant Versus U.S.-Born Female Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung-Heui

    2017-10-01

    This study was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data extracted from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey. Data from 8,931 full-time (i.e., 21 hours or more per week) women workers aged 18 to 85 years were analyzed to examine the nature and prevalence of immigrant female workers' work hours, overtime, and related factors in the United States compared to U.S.-born female workers. Results showed that foreign-born female workers did not work longer hours than U.S.-born female workers. Foreign-born female workers who reported poor health worked longer hours than did their U.S.-born counterparts. Foreign-born female workers who were self-employed or worked in family businesses tended to work longer hours than did those women who worked for private companies or nonprofit organizations.

  6. The effect of perceived discrimination on the health of immigrant workers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Gil-González, Diana; Vives-Cases, Carmen; García, Ana M; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos; Felt, Emily; Benavides, Fernando G

    2011-08-17

    Discrimination is an important determinant of health inequalities, and immigrants may be more vulnerable to certain types of discrimination than the native-born. This study analyses the relationship between immigrants' perceived discrimination and various self-reported health indicators. A cross-sectional survey was conducted (2008) amongst a non-random sample of 2434 immigrants from Ecuador, Morocco, Romania and Colombia in four Spanish cities: Barcelona, Huelva, Madrid and Valencia. A factorial analysis of variables revealed three dimensions of perceived discrimination (due to immigrant status, due to physical appearance, and workplace-related). The association of these dimensions with self-rated health, mental health (GHQ-12), change in self-rated health between origin and host country, and other self-reported health outcomes was analysed. Logistic regression was used adjusting for potential confounders (aOR-95%CI). Subjects with worsening self-reported health status potentially attributable to perceived discrimination was estimated (population attributable proportion, PAP %). 73.3% of men and 69.3% of women immigrants reported discrimination due to immigrant status. Moroccans showed the highest prevalence of perceived discrimination. Immigrants reporting discrimination were at significantly higher risk of reporting health problems than those not reporting discrimination. Workplace-related discrimination was associated with poor mental health (aOR 2.97 95%CI 2.45-3.60), and the worsening of self-rated health (aOR 2.20 95%CI 1.73- 2.80). 40% (95% CI 24-53) PAP of those reporting worse self-rated health could be attributable to discrimination due to immigrant status. Discrimination may constitute a risk factor for health in immigrant workers in Spain and could explain some health inequalities among immigrant populations in Spanish society.

  7. The effect of perceived discrimination on the health of immigrant workers in Spain

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    Gil-González Diana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discrimination is an important determinant of health inequalities, and immigrants may be more vulnerable to certain types of discrimination than the native-born. This study analyses the relationship between immigrants' perceived discrimination and various self-reported health indicators. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted (2008 amongst a non-random sample of 2434 immigrants from Ecuador, Morocco, Romania and Colombia in four Spanish cities: Barcelona, Huelva, Madrid and Valencia. A factorial analysis of variables revealed three dimensions of perceived discrimination (due to immigrant status, due to physical appearance, and workplace-related. The association of these dimensions with self-rated health, mental health (GHQ-12, change in self-rated health between origin and host country, and other self-reported health outcomes was analysed. Logistic regression was used adjusting for potential confounders (aOR-95%CI. Subjects with worsening self-reported health status potentially attributable to perceived discrimination was estimated (population attributable proportion, PAP %. Results 73.3% of men and 69.3% of women immigrants reported discrimination due to immigrant status. Moroccans showed the highest prevalence of perceived discrimination. Immigrants reporting discrimination were at significantly higher risk of reporting health problems than those not reporting discrimination. Workplace-related discrimination was associated with poor mental health (aOR 2.97 95%CI 2.45-3.60, and the worsening of self-rated health (aOR 2.20 95%CI 1.73- 2.80. 40% (95% CI 24-53 PAP of those reporting worse self-rated health could be attributable to discrimination due to immigrant status. Conclusions Discrimination may constitute a risk factor for health in immigrant workers in Spain and could explain some health inequalities among immigrant populations in Spanish society.

  8. Mexican immigration to the US and alcohol and drug use opportunities: does it make a difference in alcohol and/or drug use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Rafful, Claudia; Benjet, Corina; Tancredi, Daniel J; Saito, Naomi; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Breslau, Joshua

    2012-09-01

    Mexican immigrants in the US do not have increased risk for alcohol use or alcohol use disorders when compared to Mexicans living in Mexico, but they are at higher risk for drug use and drug use disorders. It has been suggested that both availability and social norms are associated with these findings. We aimed to study whether the opportunity for alcohol and drug use, an indirect measure of substance availability, determines differences in first substance use among people of Mexican origin in both the US and Mexico, accounting for gender and age of immigration. Data come from nationally representative surveys in the United States (2001-2003) and Mexico (2001-2002) (combined n=3432). We used discrete time proportional hazards event history models to account for time-varying and time-invariant characteristics. The reference group was Mexicans living in Mexico without migration experience. Female immigrants were at lower risk of having opportunities to use alcohol if they immigrated after the age of 13, but at higher risk if they immigrated prior to this age. Male immigrants showed no differences in opportunity to use alcohol or alcohol use after having the opportunity. Immigration was associated with having drugs opportunities for both sexes, with larger risk among females. Migration was also associated with greater risk of using drugs after having the opportunity, but only significantly for males. The impacts of immigration on substance use opportunities are more important for drugs than alcohol. Public health messages and educational efforts should heed this distinction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Narratives of Deservingness and the Institutional Youth of Immigrant Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    This article speaks to the special issue's goal of disrupting the deserving/undeserving immigrant narrative: 1) the 2012 Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, which provides temporary deportation relief and work authorization for young adults who meet an educational requirement and other criteria, and 2) current and proposed…

  10. Educating Immigrant Hispanic Foodservice Workers about Food Safety Using Visual-Based Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Lakshman

    2013-01-01

    Providing food safety training to a diverse workforce brings with it opportunities and challenges that must be addressed. The study reported here provides evidence for benefits of using visual-based tools for food safety training when educating immigrant, Hispanic foodservice workers with no or minimal English language skills. Using visual tools…

  11. Rehabilitation Counselor Competencies When Working With Hispanic/Latino Immigrant Injured Workers: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Román, Leslie M.; Estrada-Hernández, Noel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To explore and identify attitudes, knowledge, and skills rehabilitation practitioners in the private sector need when working with Hispanic/Latino immigrant injured workers. Methods: This study employed a 3-round Delphi study to obtain a consensus of 8 rehabilitation practitioners who had experience and expertise working with…

  12. Immigrant Workers Centers in Eastern Massachusetts, USA: Fostering Services, Support, Advocacy, and Community Organizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Reynoso-Vallejo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigrant Workers Centers (IWCs are community-based organizations that have been developed in the United States to promote and protect workers’ rights through support, services, advocacy, and organizing initiatives. The purpose of this research study was to examine how IWCs in the Eastern part of the state of Massachusetts are structured along twelve dimensions of organizational development and community organizing. Qualitative research methods were used to identify shared themes within the six IWCs and three immigrant support organizations, as well as their organizational responses to the current anti-immigrant environment. IWCs constituted a convenience sample which enabled the researchers to gather data utilizing a case study methodology. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted between the months of July and September of 2009 to answer the following research questions: 1What are the shared themes for the development of Immigrant Workers Centers?, and 2 How do Immigrant Workers Centers respond to current anti-immigrant sentiment, intolerant immigration policies, and increased exploitation in this troubled economy? Shared themes among the IWCs include prioritizing community organizing for workers’ rights and collective empowerment. Sub-modalities such as education, training and leadership development area common feature. While some individual support is provided, and in some cases, programming, it always is offered within a context that emphasizes the need for collective action to overcome injustice. Issues addressed include health/safety, sexual harassment, discrimination, and various problems associated with wages (underpayment, missed payments, collecting back wages, and lack of overtime pay. IWCs respond to antiimmigrant policies and practices by supporting larger efforts for immigration reformat the municipal, state, and federal levels. Coalitions of IWCS and their allies attempt to make state wide and federal policy changes

  13. The Relation of Drug Trafficking Fears and Cultural Identity to Attitudes Toward Mexican Immigrants in Five South Texas Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Manuel; Argueta, Nanci L; Castro, Yessenia; Perez, Ricardo; Dawson, Darius B

    This paper reports the findings of research investigating the relationship of spill-over fears related to drug trafficking and of cultural identity to Mexican Americans' attitudes toward recent immigrants from Mexico in five non-metropolitan communities in the US-Mexico borderlands of South Texas. A mixed methods design was used to collect data from 91 participants (30 intact families with two parents and at least one young adult). Quantitative findings showed that the majority of participants expressed the view that most people in their communities believed that newcomers were involved in drug trafficking and in defrauding welfare programs. A significant interaction indicated that Mexican cultural identity buffered the negative effects of drug trafficking fears as related to the view that the newcomers were creating problems in the communities and region. Qualitative data yielded positive and negative themes, with those that were negative being significantly more numerous. The findings have implications for intra-ethnic relations in borderlands communities as well as for immigration policy.

  14. Mexican immigrant mothers' perceptions of their children's communication disabilities, emergent literacy development, and speech-language therapy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerer, Sharon E; Lopez-Reyna, Norma A; Hughes, Marie Tejero

    2007-08-01

    This qualitative study explored mothers' perceptions of their children's communication disabilities, emergent literacy development, and speech-language therapy programs. Participants were 14 Mexican immigrant mothers and their children (age 17-47 months) who were receiving center-based services from an early childhood intervention program, located in a large urban city in the Midwestern United States. Mother interviews composed the primary source of data. A secondary source of data included children's therapy files and log notes. Following the analysis of interviews through the constant comparative method, grounded theory was generated. The majority of mothers perceived their children as exhibiting a communication delay. Causal attributions were diverse and generally medical in nature (i.e., ear infections, seizures) or due to familial factors (i.e., family history and heredity, lack of extended family). Overall, mothers seemed more focused on their children's speech intelligibility and/or expressive language in comparison to emergent literacy abilities. To promote culturally responsive intervention, mothers recommended that professionals speak Spanish, provide information about the therapy process, and use existing techniques with Mexican immigrant families.

  15. Associations between language acculturation, age of immigration, and obesity in the Mexican American Mano A Mano cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisman, Matthew; Chow, Wong-Ho; Daniel, Carrie R; Wu, Xifeng; Zhao, Hua

    As Mexican immigrants to the U.S. become acculturated, they face worsening health outcomes such as obesity. The role of language acculturation in the development of obesity has not been thoroughly examined. To examine associations between language acculturation and obesity, data were drawn from the Mexican-American Mano A Mano cohort study. Participants aged 20 years and over (n=18,298) completed baseline questionnaires on socio-demographic and behavioural factors, including physical activity and sitting time. The Bi-dimensional Acculturation Scale for Hispanics assessed language acculturation. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression was conducted to investigate associations between language acculturation, immigration age, and obesity, and whether sitting time and physical activity mediated these associations. Individuals with obesity were more linguistically acculturated than individuals who were normal weight or overweight (Pobesity (OR=1.35, 95% CI: 1.12-1.62) in U.S.-born participants and lower risk in Mexico-born participants (OR=0.90, 95%CI=0.81-1.00). For Mexico-born participants, arrival in the U.S. as an adult (≥20years old) was associated with a reduced obesity risk (OR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.67-0.80). Sitting time mediated the association between language acculturation and obesity. Language acculturation may influence obesity development among the U.S.-born Mexican Americans in this cohort, but not their Mexico-born counterparts. Sitting time could be targeted in obesity prevention efforts in this population. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Applying the Theory of Work Adjustment to Latino Immigrant Workers: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggerth, Donald E; Flynn, Michael A

    2012-02-01

    Blustein mapped career decision making onto Maslow's model of motivation and personality and concluded that most models of career development assume opportunities and decision-making latitude that do not exist for many individuals from low income or otherwise disadvantaged backgrounds. Consequently, Blustein argued that these models may be of limited utility for such individuals. Blustein challenged researchers to reevaluate current career development approaches, particularly those assuming a static world of work, from a perspective allowing for changing circumstances and recognizing career choice can be limited by access to opportunities, personal obligations, and social barriers. This article represents an exploratory effort to determine if the theory of work adjustment (TWA) might meaningfully be used to describe the work experiences of Latino immigrant workers, a group living with severe constraints and having very limited employment opportunities. It is argued that there is significant conceptual convergence between Maslow's hierarchy of needs and the work reinforcers of TWA. The results of an exploratory, qualitative study with a sample of 10 Latino immigrants are also presented. These immigrants participated in key informant interviews concerning their work experiences both in the United States and in their home countries. The findings support Blustein's contention that such workers will be most focused on basic survival needs and suggest that TWA reinforcers are descriptive of important aspects of how Latino immigrant workers conceptualize their jobs.

  17. Applying the Theory of Work Adjustment to Latino Immigrant Workers: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggerth, Donald E.; Flynn, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Blustein mapped career decision making onto Maslow’s model of motivation and personality and concluded that most models of career development assume opportunities and decision-making latitude that do not exist for many individuals from low income or otherwise disadvantaged backgrounds. Consequently, Blustein argued that these models may be of limited utility for such individuals. Blustein challenged researchers to reevaluate current career development approaches, particularly those assuming a static world of work, from a perspective allowing for changing circumstances and recognizing career choice can be limited by access to opportunities, personal obligations, and social barriers. This article represents an exploratory effort to determine if the theory of work adjustment (TWA) might meaningfully be used to describe the work experiences of Latino immigrant workers, a group living with severe constraints and having very limited employment opportunities. It is argued that there is significant conceptual convergence between Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and the work reinforcers of TWA. The results of an exploratory, qualitative study with a sample of 10 Latino immigrants are also presented. These immigrants participated in key informant interviews concerning their work experiences both in the United States and in their home countries. The findings support Blustein’s contention that such workers will be most focused on basic survival needs and suggest that TWA reinforcers are descriptive of important aspects of how Latino immigrant workers conceptualize their jobs. PMID:26345693

  18. Domestic Dramas: Mexican American Music as an Archive of Immigrant Women's Experiences, 1920s-1950s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Magdalena L.

    2012-01-01

    Mexican women's working and romantic lives were frequent subject matter in early-twentieth-century Mexican American music. Surprisingly, this trend is rendered nearly invisible by the corpus of scholarly work that focuses on the male-centered "heroic corrido," particularly the class and race conflicts represented in that "masculine" genre. This…

  19. Risk perception about zoonoses in immigrants and Italian workers in Northwestern Italy

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    Natalia Cediel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: To assess factors associated with a low risk perception of zoonoses and to identify the gaps in knowledge about transmission and prevention of zoonoses in immigrant and Italian workers. MÉTODOS: A cross-sectional study with 175 workers in the agro-livestock and agro-food industry in Piemonte, Italy, was carried out. Data were collected with a semi-structured questionnaire based on knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP survey. We calculated proportions and used chi-square tests and odds ratios to assess associations. Eight individual interviews with key informants on immigration and public health in Piemonte were carried out. RESULTADOS: Participants were 82 (47% Italians and 93 (53% immigrants. Immigrants were from Romania, Morocco, Albania, India, China, Argentina, Peru, Macedonia, Ivory Coast, Ukraine and Colombia. The study revealed significant differences in risk perception at work (p = 0.001. We found associations between "not having correct knowledge about zoonoses" and the following variables: i. "being immigrant" OR = 4.1 (95%CI 1.7;9.8 p ≤ 0.01; ii. "working in the livestock industry" OR = 2.9 (95%CI 1.2;15.4 p = 0.01; and iii. "being an unqualified worker" OR = 4.4 (95%CI 2.9;15.4 p ≤ 0.01. Another strong association was found between being immigrant and having a low job qualification OR = 6.7 (IC95% 2.9 - 15.4 p ≤ 0.01. Asian immigrants were the group with the highest frequency of risky behaviours and the lowest level of knowledge about zoonoses. CONCLUSÕES: Our results indicate that there were differences in risk perception of zoonoses between the groups participating in our study. These results suggest that immigrant status can be considered a risk factor for having lower risk perception and lower level of knowledge of zoonoses at work. There is a relationship between this specific knowledge of zoonoses and lack of training and instruction among migrant populations. Our results stress the need for developing

  20. Drug consumption in Mexican immigrants interviewed in northwest Mexico-USA border cities

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    Ricardo Sánchez–Huesca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to confirm the existence of a relationship between the immigration stay in the United States and the use of illicit drugs. By applying a nonprobabilistic sample in Tijuana, Nogales and Ciudad Juarez 567 immigrants, were interviewed 77.8% were males (average of 29 years old. The main reason of their immigration was the search for an “economic improvement”; the most of they did not have the documentation to cross the border. The main destinations were California, Arizona and Texas. When comparing the use of illicit drugs before and after the immigration experience, the number of users of cocaine and methamphetamine were found to significantly increase. The “curiosity” was the main reason to drug use, as well as the fact of being “invited by friends”. Other reasons seem to be associated to the immigration experience: some used drugs because they felt depressed or because they needed to take a break and feel relaxed after working. These findings make it possible to confirm that the immigration experience modifies the pattern of use of drugs in some immigrants who have previously used this kind of substances; some others start using them during the immigration stay.

  1. "Las Siete Historias": Perceptions of Parent Involvement among Mexican Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Duckwitz, Claire M.; Hess, Robyn S.; Atcherly, Elsa

    2013-01-01

    This multiple case study examined parent involvement perspectives among seven immigrant mothers from Mexico. All the participants came from limited educational and socioeconomic backgrounds, and reported that they immigrated to the United States for greater opportunity. These background experiences seemed to shape their current role…

  2. Barriers Experienced by Mexican Immigrants: Implications for Educational Achievement and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Melissa L. Morgan; Consoli, Andres J.; Orozco, Graciela Leon; Gonzales, Rufus R.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    The adversities faced by Latina/o individuals and their families in the U.S. negatively impact educational outcomes as well as their mental and physical health. These adversities are often related to immigration status and acculturation and include difficulties with immigration, language barriers, and discrimination. Given that recent immigrants…

  3. Community Interagency Connections for Immigrant Worker Health Interventions, King County, Washington State, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chin; Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna

    2016-06-02

    Cross-sector community partnerships are a potentially powerful strategy to address population health problems, including health disparities. US immigrants - commonly employed in low-wage jobs that pose high risks to their health - experience such disparities because of hazardous exposures in the workplace. Hazardous exposures contribute to chronic health problems and complicate disease management. Moreover, prevention strategies such as worksite wellness programs are not effective for low-wage immigrant groups. The purpose of this article was to describe an innovative application of social network analysis to characterize interagency connections and knowledge needed to design and deliver a comprehensive community-based chronic disease prevention program for immigrant workers. Using iterative sample expansion, we identified 42 agencies representing diverse community sectors (service agencies, faith-based organizations, unions, nonprofits, government agencies) pertinent to the health of Chinese immigrant workers. To capture data on shared information, resources, and services as well as organizational characteristics, we jointly interviewed 2 representatives from each agency. We used social network analysis to describe interagency network structure and the positions of agencies within the networks. Agency interconnections were established primarily for information sharing. In the overall interagency network, a few service-oriented agencies held central or gatekeeper positions. Strong interconnectedness occurred predominately across service, public, and nonprofit sectors. The Chinese and Pan-Asian service sectors showed the strongest interconnectedness. Network analysis yields critical understanding of community structural links and assets needed to inform decisions about actual and potential community collaborations. Alternative intervention strategies may be needed to address health disparities among immigrant workers.

  4. Attitudes towards Immigrant Workers and Asylum Seekers in Eastern Croatia: Dimensions, Determinants and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Gregurović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Croatia’s accession to the EU has brought new challenges and issues in researching and analysing migration flows and trends as well as attitudes and perceptions of real and potential newcomers. The aim of this paper is to explore attitudes of the residents of the two most easterly Croatian counties towards two distinct categories of newcomers: immigrant workers and asylum seekers. The research was conducted shortly after Croatia’s entry into the EU, in September 2013, and the presented data are a part of a larger survey that included various migration and ethnicity issues. The survey was applied on a convenience sample of 1 110 adult respondents in two counties: Osijek-Baranja and Vukovar-Srijem. Data were analysed in a series of multivariate procedures. Results indicated significant perceptions of immigrant workers within the dimension of cultural threat, along with the expression of a considerable degree of social distance towards them. Asylum seekers were further perceived as a security and economic threat. Within two analysed regression models, the effects on attitudes towards immigrant workers and asylum seekers were similar. Among the spectrum of socio-demographic variables, a statistically significant effect on both dependent variables came from age and political orientation, indicating that older and politically right-oriented respondents expressed more negative attitudes towards both groups. Among other socio-demographic variables, education was significant in predicting attitudes towards immigrant workers, while ethnicity was significant in predicting the attitudes towards asylum seekers. The second model analysed the effect of selected political attitudes and value orientations resulting in significant prediction of negative attitudes towards both groups by pronounced conservativism, support of aggression and submission, social-dominance, dominant submissive authoritarianism and social alienation, rejecting socially oriented

  5. Psychosocial job factors and biological cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rojas, Isabel Judith; Choi, BongKyoo; Krause, Niklas

    2015-03-01

    Psychosocial job factors (PJF) have been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease. The paucity of data from developing economies including Mexico hampers the development of worksite intervention efforts in those regions. This cross-sectional study of 2,330 Mexican workers assessed PJF (job strain [JS], social support [SS], and job insecurity [JI]) and biological cardiovascular disease risk factors [CVDRF] by questionnaire and on-site physical examinations. Alternative formulations of the JS scales were developed based on factor analysis and literature review. Associations between both traditional and alternative job factor scales with CVDRF were examined in multiple regression models, adjusting for physical workload, and socio-demographic factors. Alternative formulations of the job demand and control scales resulted in substantial changes in effect sizes or statistical significance when compared with the original scales. JS and JI showed hypothesized associations with most CVDRF, but they were inversely associated with diastolic blood pressure and some adiposity measures. SS was mainly protective against CVDRF. Among Mexican workers, alternative PJF scales predicted health outcomes better than traditional scales, and psychosocial stressors were associated with most CVDRF. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration: examining the potential mechanisms underlying Mexican-origin adolescents' organized activity participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Sandra D; Delgado, Melissa Y; Price, Chara D; Quach, Alex; Starbuck, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    The integrative model for child development and ecodevelopmental theory suggest that macro factors, such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration influence the settings in which adolescents engage. The goal of this investigation was to use a combination of deductive and inductive qualitative analysis to describe the mechanisms by which these macro factors might be related to Mexican-origin adolescents' participation in organized after-school activities. Qualitative data were collected through focus group interviews with 44 adolescents, 50 parents, and 18 activity leaders from 2 neighborhoods that varied in ethnic composition and average family income. Results indicated that family socioeconomic status might be related to adolescents' participation through financial resources and parents' work. Ethnicity was identified as a predictor of participation via experiences with ethnic discrimination, particularly in the neighborhood with a low percentage of Hispanic families. Cultural values and practices were related to participants' preferences for particular activities (e.g., bilingual, church-sponsored) and adolescents' participation in activities. Immigration seemed to be a factor in parents' familiarity with and beliefs about organized activities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Capital, Alienation, and Challenge: How U.S. Mexican Immigrant Students Build Pathways to College and Career Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Catherine R; Domínguez, Elizabeth; Cooper, Robert G; Higgins, Ashleigh; Lipka, Alex

    2018-06-01

    This article considers how the global "academic pipeline problem" constrains immigrant, low-income, and ethnic minority students' pathways to higher education, and how some students build pathways to college and career identities. After aligning theories of social capital, alienation/belonging, and challenge and their integration in Bridging Multiple Worlds Theory, we summarize six longitudinal studies based on this theory from a 23-year university-community partnership serving low-income, primarily U.S. Mexican immigrant youth. Spanning from childhood to early adulthood, the studies revealed two overarching findings: First, students built pathways to college and career identities while experiencing capital, alienation/belonging, and challenges across their evolving cultural worlds. Second, by "giving back" to families, peers, schools, and communities, students became cultural brokers and later, institutional agents, transforming institutional cultures. Findings highlight the value of integrating interdisciplinary theories, research evidence, and educational systems serving diverse communities to open individual pathways and academic pipelines in multicultural societies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Somos Hermanas Del Mismo Dolor (We Are Sisters of the Same Pain): Intimate Partner Sexual Violence Narratives Among Mexican Immigrant Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tiffany; Draucker, Claire B; Bradway, Christine; Grisso, Jeanne Ann; Sommers, Marilyn S

    2016-04-28

    Migration across international borders places tremendous stress on immigrant families and may put women at greater risk for intimate partner violence. In this study, we used narrative analysis methods to explore how nine Mexican immigrant women in the Northeastern United States described their experiences of intimate partner sexual violence, and how these stories were embedded within narratives of transition and movement across borders. We identified three major themes: The Virgin and the Whore, The Family, and Getting Ahead. We share important implications for researchers and health and social service providers working with this population. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. A Guide to the Design of Occupational Safety and Health Training for Immigrant, Latino/a Dairy Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, Lauren M; Rosecrance, John; Stallones, Lorann; Roman-Muniz, Ivette Noami

    2016-01-01

    Industrialized dairy production in the U.S. relies on an immigrant, primarily Latino/a, workforce to meet greater production demands. Given the high rates of injuries and illnesses on U.S. dairies, there is pressing need to develop culturally appropriate training to promote safe practices among immigrant, Latino/a dairy workers. To date, there have been few published research articles or guidelines specific to developing effective occupational safety and health (OSH) training for immigrant, Latino/a workers in the dairy industry. Literature relevant to safety training for immigrant workers in agriculture and other high-risk industries (e.g., construction) was examined to identify promising approaches. The aim of this paper is to provide a practical guide for researchers and practitioners involved in the design and implementation of effective OSH training programs for immigrant, Latino/a workers in the dairy industry. The search was restricted to peer-reviewed academic journals and guidelines published between 1980 and 2015 by universities or extension programs, written in English, and related to health and safety training among immigrant, Latino/a workers within agriculture and other high-risk industries. Relevant recommendations regarding effective training transfer were also included from literature in the field of industrial-organizational psychology. A total of 97 articles were identified, of which 65 met the inclusion criteria and made a unique and significant contribution. The review revealed a number of promising strategies for how to effectively tailor health and safety training for immigrant, Latino/a workers in the dairy industry grouped under five main themes: (1) understanding and involving workers; (2) training content and materials; (3) training methods; (4) maximizing worker engagement; and (5) program evaluation. The identification of best practices in the design and implementation of training programs for immigrant, Latino/a workers within

  10. Health care and social issues of immigrant rescue and recovery workers at the World Trade Center site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hoz, Rafael E; Hill, Scottie; Chasan, Rachel; Bienenfeld, Laura A; Afilaka, Aboaba A; Wilk-Rivard, Elizabeth; Herbert, Robin

    2008-12-01

    This article reviews the experience of a unique occupational group of World Trade Center (WTC) workers: immigrant workers. This group is comprised largely of men, laborers, who are first-generation immigrants. The majority of these workers are from Latin America (predominantly from Ecuador and Colombia) or from Eastern Europe (predominantly from Poland). Our data shows that the disease profile observed in these workers was what we have previously reported for WTC working population as a whole. Recent reports have begun to document the disproportionate burden of occupational hazards, injuries, and illnesses experienced by immigrant workers in the United States. The WTC experience of immigrants exemplified this burden but, additionally, highlighted that this burden is exacerbated by limitations in access to appropriate health care, disability and compensation benefits, and vocational rehabilitation services. A clinical program that was designed to address the complex medical and psychosocial needs of these workers in a comprehensive manner was successfully established. Full justice for these workers depends on larger societal changes.

  11. Work-related health problems among resident immigrant workers in Italy and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Rosano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: in both Spain and Italy the number of immigrants has strongly increased in the last 20 years, currently representing more than the 10% of workforce in each country. The segregation of immigrants into unskilled or risky jobs brings negative consequences for their health. The objective of this study is to compare prevalence of work-related health problems between immigrants and native workers in Italy and Spain.

    Methods: data come from the Italian Labour Force Survey (n=65 779 and Spanish Working Conditions Survey (n=11 019, both conducted in 2007. We analyzed merged datasets to evaluate whether interviewees, both natives and migrants, judge their health being affected by their work conditions and, if so, which specific diseases. For migrants, we considered those coming from countries with a value of the Human Development Index lower than 0.85. Logistic regression models were used, including gender, age, and education as adjusting factors.

    Results: migrants reported skin diseases (Mantel-Haenszel pooled OR=1.49; 95%CI: 0.59-3.74 and musculoskeletal problems among those employed in agricultural sector (Mantel-Haenszel pooled OR=1.16; 95%CI: 0.69-1.96 more frequently than natives; country-specific analysis showed higher risks of musculoskeletal problems among migrants compared to the non-migrant population in Italy (OR=1.17; 95% CI: 0.48-1.59 and of respiratory problems in Spain (OR=2.02; 95%CI: 1.02-4.0. In both countries the risk of psychological stress was predominant among national workers.

    Conclusions: this collaborative study allows to strength the evidence concerning the health of migrant workers in Southern European countries.

  12. Self-reported discrimination and mental health status among African descendants, Mexican Americans, and other Latinos in the New Hampshire REACH 2010 Initiative: the added dimension of immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Gilbert C; Ryan, Andrew; Laflamme, David J; Holt, Jeanie

    2006-10-01

    We examined whether self-reported racial discrimination was associated with mental health status and whether this association varied with race/ethnicity or immigration status. We performed secondary analysis of a community intervention conducted in 2002 and 2003 for the New Hampshire Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health 2010 Initiative, surveying African descendants, Mexican Americans, and other Latinos. We assessed mental health status with the Mental Component Summary (MCS12) of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 12, and measured discrimination with questions related to respondents' ability to achieve goals, discomfort/anger at treatment by others, and access to quality health care. Self-reported discrimination was associated with a lower MCS12 score. Additionally, the strength of the association between self-reported health care discrimination and lower MCS12 score was strongest for African descendants, then Mexican Americans, then other Latinos. These patterns may be explained by differences in how long a respondent has lived in the United States. Furthermore, the association of health care discrimination with lower MCS12 was weaker for recent immigrants. Discrimination may be an important predictor of poor mental health status among Black and Latino immigrants. Previous findings of decreasing mental health status as immigrants acculturate might partly be related to experiences with racial discrimination.

  13. Factors Associated with Fatal Occupational Accidents among Mexican Workers: A National Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Delgado, Mery; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Robles, Eduardo; Borja, Víctor H.; Aguilar, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the factors associated with fatal occupational injuries in Mexico in 2012 among workers affiliated with the Mexican Social Security Institute. Methods Analysis of secondary data using information from the National Occupational Risk Information System, with the consequence of the occupational injury (fatal versus non-fatal) as the response variable. The analysis included 406,222 non-fatal and 1,140 fatal injuries from 2012. The factors associated with the lethality of the injury were identified using a logistic regression model with the Firth approach. Results Being male (OR=5.86; CI95%: 4.22-8.14), age (OR=1.04; CI95%: 1.03-1.06), employed in the position for 1 to 10 years (versus less than 1 year) (OR=1.37; CI95%: 1.15-1.63), working as a facilities or machine operator or assembler (OR: 3.28; CI95%: 2.12- 5.07) and being a worker without qualifications (OR=1.96; CI95%: 1.18-3.24) (versus an office worker) were associated with fatality in the event of an injury. Additionally, companies classified as maximum risk (OR=1.90; CI 95%: 1.38-2.62), workplace conditions (OR=7.15; CI95%: 3.63-14.10) and factors related to the work environment (OR=9.18; CI95%:4.36-19.33) were identified as risk factors for fatality in the event of an occupational injury. Conclusions Fatality in the event of an occupational injury is associated with factors related to sociodemographics (age, sex and occupation), the work environment and workplace conditions. Worker protection policies should be created for groups with a higher risk of fatal occupational injuries in Mexico. PMID:25790063

  14. Associations of doctor-diagnosed asthma with immigration status, age at immigration, and length of residence in the United States in a sample of Mexican American School Children in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldeirawi, Kamal; McConnell, Rob; Furner, Sylvia; Freels, Sally; Stayner, Leslie; Hernandez, Eva; Amoruso, Lisa; Torres, Shioban; Persky, Victoria W

    2009-10-01

    Among Mexican Americans in the United States, children who were born in the US had higher rates of asthma than their Mexico-born peers. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of doctor-diagnosed asthma with immigration-related variables and to investigate whether these associations could be explained by factors that may change with migration. We surveyed parents of 2,023 school children of Mexican descent and examined the associations of asthma with nativity, age at immigration, and length of residence in the US after adjusting for potential confounding variables. In multivariate analyses, US-born children had a 2.42-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.52-3.83) increased odds of asthma compared with their Mexico-born peers. Mexico-born participants who moved to the US before 2 years of age were almost twice as likely to experience asthma compared with Mexico-born children who moved to the US >or=2 years of age. In addition, Mexico-born participants who lived in the US for 10 years or more were 2.37 times more likely to have asthma than Mexico-born students who lived in the US for less than 10 years. These associations were not explained by a wide variety of factors such as place of residence in infancy; exposure to animals/pets; history of infections, Tylenol use, and antibiotic use in infancy; breastfeeding; exposure to environmental tobacco smoke; daycare attendance and number of siblings; and language use. Our findings point to the effects of nativity, age at immigration, and duration of residence in the US on the risk of asthma in Mexican American children, suggesting that potentially modifiable factors that change with migration may be linked with the disease. The findings of this study should stimulate further research to explain factors that may be responsible for the observed differentials in the risk of asthma among Mexican Americans.

  15. The Spillover of US Immigration Policy on Citizens and Permanent Residents of Mexican Descent: How Internalizing ‘Illegality’ Impacts Public Health in the Borderlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha eSabo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The militarization of the U.S.-Mexico border region exacerbates the process of ‘Othering’ Latino immigrants—as illegal aliens. The internalization of ‘illegality’ can manifest as a sense of undeservingness of legal protection in the population and be detrimental on a biopsychological level. Objective: We explore the impacts of ‘illegality’ among a population of US citizen and permanent resident farmworkers of Mexican descent. We do so through the lens of immigration enforcement-related stress and the ability to file formal complaints of discrimination and mistreatment perpetrated by local immigration enforcement agents, including local police authorized to enforce immigration law. Methods: Drawing from cross-sectional data gathered through the National Institute of Occupation Safety and Health, Challenges to Farmworker Health at the US-Mexico Border study, a community-based participatory research project conducted at the Arizona-Sonora border, we compared Arizona resident farmworkers (N=349 to Mexico-based farmworkers (N=140 or Transnational farmworkers who cross the US-Mexico border daily or weekly to work in US agriculture. Results: Both samples of farmworkers experience significant levels of stress in anticipation of encounters with immigration officials. Fear was cited as the greatest factor preventing individuals from reporting immigration abuses. The groups varied slightly in the relative weight attributed to different types of fear. Conclusion: The militarization of the border has consequences for individuals who are not the target of immigration enforcement. These spillover effects cause harm to farmworkers in multiple ways. Multi institutional and community-centered systems for reporting immigration related victimization is required. Applied participatory research with affected communities can mitigate the public health effects of state-sponsored immigration discrimination and violence among US citizen and

  16. Importance of Content and Format of Oral Health Instruction to Low-income Mexican Immigrant Parents: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Corissa P; Barker, Judith C; Hoeft, Kristin S; Guerra, Claudia; Chung, Lisa H; Burke, Nancy J

    2018-01-01

    This study's purpose was to explore how content and format of children's oral health instruction in the dental clinic is perceived by parents and might affect parents' knowledge and behaviors. Thirty low-income Mexican immigrant parents of children age five years and under were recruited from dental clinics in 2015 to 2016. In-person qualitative interviews in Spanish about their children's and their own experiences of dental care and home oral hygiene practices were conducted, digitally recorded, translated, and transcribed. Data analysis involved iteratively reading text data and developing and refining codes to find common themes. Twenty-five of 30 parents recalled receiving oral hygiene instruction, and 18 recalled receiving nutrition instruction and were included in analyses. The format and effectiveness of instruction varied. More engaging educational approaches were recalled and described in more detail than less engaging educational approaches. As a result of oral hygiene and nutritional instruction, most parents reported changing their oral hygiene home behaviors for their children; half aimed to reduce purchasing sugary foods and drinks. Most parents recalled receiving oral hygiene and nutrition instruction as part of their child's dental visit and reported incorporating the instruction and recommendations they received into their children's home routine.

  17. Rights, responsibilities and (re)presentation: Using drawings to convey health and safety messages among immigrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillop, Chris; Parsons, Janet A; Brown, Janet; Scott, Susan; Holness, D Linn

    2016-09-27

    Immigrant workers who are new to Canada are considered a vulnerable population under the Ontario Ministry of Labour Prevention Strategy for workplace safety. Posters outlining workplace safety rights and responsibilities may not be understandable to new immigrants. To explore visual approaches to making health and safety messages more understandable to new immigrants. This pilot study used arts-based qualitative research methods. Key messages from the Ministry of Labour Health & Safety at Work poster were (re)represented as images by an artist. Recent immigrants engaged in individual interviews and then took part in a focus group, in order to elicit their experiences of health and safety practices, their understanding and feedback concerning the Ministry poster, and the images created. An image-rich version of the poster was developed. The combination of drawings and minimal text was preferred and considered helpful by participants. Barriers to health and safety and work challenges for new immigrants were highlighted. Visual analysis yielded new versions of the poster, as well as a pictorial representation of the research process and study findings. The study demonstrates the value of using image-rich posters with immigrant workers, and the effectiveness of using arts-based methods within the research process.

  18. Region of birth, sex, and agricultural work of immigrant Latino farm workers: the MICASA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, S A; Stoecklin-Marois, M T; Tancredi, D J; Bennett, D H; Schenker, M B

    2014-04-01

    Agricultural work is hazardous, and immigrant workers perform the majority of production tasks, yet there are few data describing agricultural work and use of protective measures by demographic characteristics. We examined cross-sectionally the influence of region of birth (Mexico vs. Central America) and sex on agricultural work and use of protective measures in the MICASA cohort of immigrant Latino farm workers in Mendota, California. Of 445 participants, 293 (65.8%) were born in Mexico (163 men, 130 women) and 152 (34.2%) were born in Central America (80 men, 72 women). Men worked on average 74.4 more days than women (95% CI 62.0, 86.9) and were more likely to perform tasks requiring high levels of training or strength, such as machine operation, pruning, picking, planting, and irrigation; more likely to work in dusty conditions; and more likely to work directly with pesticides. Women predominated in packing. Respondents from Mexico were more likely to work with tomatoes and less likely to work with melon and lettuce. Central America-born respondents were less likely to engage in planting, irrigation, and pesticide use. Use of task-appropriate personal protective measures on at least a half-time basis was rare, with the exception of persons working with pesticides (a group limited to men) and for facial scarves among Central American women. Further work should focus on identifying barriers to use of preventive measures and programs to further their use. Educational models accounting for cultural factors and driving social norm change, employer engagement, and use of community health workers (promotores) may be helpful in promoting use of preventive measures.

  19. Advancing Immigrant Worker Rights through Labor-Community Coalition: Comparative Case Studies of the CLEAN Carwash Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mindy Minyi

    2017-01-01

    Since 2008, a coalition known as the CLEAN Carwash Campaign has been organizing car wash workers in Los Angeles. How did CLEAN manage the divergent interests of its coalition members and strategize? What is it about CLEAN that led the labor-community coalition to achieve gains for carwasheros when conventional wisdom dictates that low wage immigrant workers were too vulnerable to be unionized? Given the dearth of empirical research into how social movement coalitions strategize and how campai...

  20. The Social Situation of Immigrant Farm Workers : A Comparative Study between Spain and the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Izcara Palacios, Simón Pedro; Yamamoto, Yasutaka; Sawauchi, Daisuke; Sajiki, Takahiro; Demura, Katsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    In Spain and in the United States domestic farm laborers are not available in sufficient numbers during peak harvest seasons. Therefore, intensive farm production has a dependence on immigrant workers, mainly laborers who lack proper documentation to legally reside or work. Moreover increases in the labor supply, prompted by continued unauthorized entries and employment has adversely affected the wages and working conditions in the farming sector, speeding the exit of local workers from agric...

  1. The effect of maquiladora employment on the monthly flow of Mexican undocumented immigration to the U.S., 1978-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, A; Saenz, R

    1990-01-01

    "Some controversy has surrounded the extent to which employment in maquiladoras (assembly plants located along the Mexican border) has stimulated undocumented immigration to the United States. This study uses monthly data of maquiladora employment and INS [Immigration and Naturalization Service] apprehensions in a 'push-pull' migration framework to study the association between these two variables during the April 1978 to January 1982 period. The findings suggest that there is a significantly negative relationship between the one month lag of maquiladora employment and INS apprehensions. Employment growth in the maquiladora sector tends to be followed by a reduction of apprehensions one month later. The study also finds that male and female apprehensions appear to respond to relatively similar economic factors." excerpt

  2. Effects of Social Determinants on Chinese Immigrant Food Service Workers' Work Performance and Injuries: Mental Health as a Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun; Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2015-07-01

    The effects of social discrimination, job concerns, and social support on worker mental health and the influence of mental health on occupational health outcomes have been documented intermittently. We propose an integrated, theory-driven model to distinguish the impact of social determinants on work performance and injuries and the mediating effects of mental health problems. The US Chinese immigrant food service workers (N = 194) completed a multimeasure interview; we tested the integrated model using structural equation modeling. Mental health problems, which were associated with decreased work performance and increased injuries, also mediated relationships between job/employment concerns and both work performance and injuries but did not mediate the influences of discrimination and social support. This research reveals mechanisms by which social determinants influence immigrant worker health, pointing to complementary strategies for reducing occupational health disparities.

  3. Listening to Chinese Immigrant Restaurant Workers in the Midwest: Application of the Culture-Centered Approach (CCA) to Explore Perceptions of Health and Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haijuan; Dutta, Mohan; Okoror, Titilayo

    2016-01-01

    This study engages with the culture-centered approach (CCA) to explore Chinese immigrant restaurant workers' perception of the U.S. health care system and their interactions with the health care system in interpreting meanings of health. Chinese restaurant workers are marginalized because of their struggles on the job, their immigrant identity, and their negotiations with the structural contexts of occupation, migration status, and culture. In-depth interviews were conducted with 18 Chinese immigrant restaurant workers that lasted an average of 1.5 hours each, and were audiotaped. Interviews with participants highlighted critical issues in access to health care and the struggles experienced by restaurant workers in securing access to health, understood in the context of work. Critical to the workers' discourse is the acknowledgment of structural constraints such as lack of insurance coverage, immigration status, and lack of understanding of how the U.S. health care system works.

  4. Work organization and health among immigrant women: Latina manual workers in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcury, Thomas A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Chen, Haiying; Mora, Dana C; Quandt, Sara A

    2014-12-01

    We sought to describe work organization attributes for employed immigrant Latinas and determine associations of work organization with physical health, mental health, and health-related quality of life. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 319 employed Latinas in western North Carolina (2009-2011). Measures included job demands (heavy load, awkward posture, psychological demand), decision latitude (skill variety, job control), support (supervisor control, safety climate), musculoskeletal symptoms, mental health (depressive symptoms), and mental (MCS) and physical component score (PCS) health-related quality of life. Three fifths reported musculoskeletal symptoms. Mean scores for depression, MCS, and PCS were 6.2 (SE = 0.2), 38.3 (SE = 0.5), and 42.8 (SE = 0.3), respectively. Greater job demands (heavy load, awkward posture, greater psychological demand) were associated with more musculoskeletal and depressive symptoms and worse MCS. Less decision latitude (lower skill variety, job control) was associated with more musculoskeletal and depressive symptoms. Greater support (supervisor's power and safety climate) was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and better MCS. Work organization should be considered to improve occupational health of vulnerable women workers. Additional research should delineate the links between work organization and health among vulnerable workers.

  5. Economic effects of immigrants on native and foreign-born workers: complementarity, substitutability, and other channels of influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, M J; Hunt, G L

    1995-04-01

    The authors use Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA) data constructed from 1980 census microdata files and other sources to estimate a structural model of native/foreign-born labor demand and labor supply which distinguishes the effects upon real wages of each type of labor and on the employment of natives. The authors specify, econometrically estimate, and simulate the structural model which incorporates not only a production structure channel through which immigrants influence area real wages and employment, but also demand and native labor supply channels. It is noted that while these are not the only channels through which immigrants may affect native workers, the model nonetheless constitutes a step in the direction of a general equilibrium approach. In the production structure channel, immigrants and natives are found to be substitutes in production. Immigration lowers foreign-born wage rates and leads to lower wages for natives. The negative effects of the production channel usually are ameliorated through the demand channel. Further, immigrants add to local demand through their earnings and potentially through non-labor income, while also lowering unit costs and local prices which enhances real incomes and potentially net exports, and thus the demands for local output and area labor. The author discusses findings of interest from the simulation results based upon an analysis of all areas.

  6. How do Restructuring Processes Influence Low- and Unskilled Immigrant and Nonimmigrant Workers and their Managers in a Norwegian Hospital?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Enehaug

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that workplace restructuring has undesirable effects on the psychosocial work environment, health, and sick leave, but no attention has been given to the health effects of work environments characterized by restructuring, a multicultural staff, and a strong socioeconomic occupational hierarchy. In this casestudy, we examine a large Norwegian hospital in which all of these features are present. Through in-depth interviews with employees and their managers we investigate the healthiness of the restructuring process, and the consequences of the restructuring process on the work environment, subjective health, and sick leave. Results show that immigrant workers received less information, had higher level of frustration and less control over work, and experienced a decrease in well-being, autonomy, and social support. Immigrant worker vulnerability, that is, the handicap of poor understanding of the Norwegian language and a lack of understanding of general and local organizational norms and practices in the Norwegian workplace, is an important explanation. Immigrant workers with a poor Norwegian language understanding are even worse off. We conclude that a strong occupational hierarchy within the hospital exerts an overall influence on the position of low/unskilled employees in the restructuring process as well as their perception of and involvement in it.

  7. Reasons for self-medication and perceptions of risk among Mexican migrant farm workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sarah; Stewart, Analisia

    2012-08-01

    Although the frequency of self-medication among Mexican migrants has been well-documented in the public health literature, the multiple reasons for this practice are poorly understood. Most studies point to migrants' cultural preferences for Mexican medications, their prior experiences in countries where antibiotics are loosely regulated, and their lack of access to health care as the primary factors behind their self-medication. Based on participant observation and in-depth interviews with 23 Mexican migrants in a farm working community in the interior of California, we argue that occupational vulnerability is an equally important factor that encourages self-medication. All 23 of our interviewees reported having engaged in some degree of self-medication, notable in this location 8 h from the US-Mexico border. Among interviewees, occupational vulnerability represented an even more important factor influencing self-medication than lack of health insurance or lack of legal documentation. While interviewees did express a preference for Mexican medications as more potent and effective, this did not necessarily translate to a preference for using them without a doctor's supervision. Finally, we show that rather than remaining unaware of the risks of following this custom "transported from Latin America", Mexican migrants devised an elaborate hierarchy of resort of the safest self-medication practices to follow.

  8. The Making of the "Precarious" Examining Indian Immigrant IT Workers in Canada and Their Transnational Networks with Body Shops in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Srabani

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s, temporary staffing agencies have been playing a key role in managing and supplying a ready pool of skilled workers to the global IT market. Yet, such agencies often regulate their workforce to maintain flexible, low-cost and accommodating workers. Due to continuing racial and gendered barriers, many immigrant Indian IT…

  9. Addressing cultural orientations in fear appeals: promoting AIDS-protective behaviors among Mexican immigrant and African American adolescents and American and Taiwanese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Johnson, L; Witte, K; Liu, W Y; Hubbell, A P; Sampson, J; Morrison, K

    2001-01-01

    Fear appeals threatening the individual have been shown to be powerful persuasive devices in the cultures where they have been studied. However, most fear appeal research has been conducted with members of individualist cultures. Individualist cultures place self-needs above group concerns, while collectivist cultures place group needs above self-concerns. Little is known about the effectiveness of fear appeals (or other persuasive strategies) in collectivist cultures. Two studies assessed the effectiveness of AIDS-prevention fear appeals threatening the self versus fear appeals threatening the group (i.e., family) on members of individualist and collectivist cultures. The first study focuses on African American and Mexican immigrant junior high school youth. The second study focuses on U.S. and Taiwanese college undergraduates. The results indicated that fear appeals should address cultural orientation (i.e., individualist versus collectivist orientation) to achieve maximum effectiveness. The results also indicate that one cannot assume cultural orientation based on ethnicity.

  10. Socioeconomic status, occupational characteristics, and sleep duration in African/Caribbean immigrants and US White health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertel, Karen A; Berkman, Lisa F; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2011-04-01

    o advance our understanding of the interplay of socioeconomic factors, occupational exposures, and race/ethnicity as they relate to sleep duration. We hypothesize that non Hispanic African/Caribbean immigrant employees in long term health care have shorter sleep duration than non Hispanic white employees, and that low education, low income, and occupational exposures including night work and job strain account for some of the African/Caribbean immigrant-white difference in sleep duration. Cross sectional Four extended care facilities in Massachusetts, United States 340 employees in extended care facilities Sleep duration was assessed with wrist actigraphy for a mean of 6.3 days. In multivariable regression modeling controlling for gender and age, African/Caribbean immigrants slept 64.4 fewer minutes (95% CI: -81.0, -47.9) per night than white participants; additional control for education and income reduced the racial gap to 50.9 minutes (-69.2, -32.5); additional control for the occupational factors of hours worked per week and working the night shift reduced the racial gap to 37.7 minutes (-57.8, -17.6). his study provides support for the hypothesis that socioeconomic and occupational characteristics explain some of the African/ Caribbean immigrant-white difference in sleep duration in the United States, especially among health care workers.

  11. Tracking Students through Life: A Critical Structural Analysis of Academic Tracking of Mexican Immigrant Students in the United States and Korean Immigrant Students in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Kathryn; Dymes, Laurie; Wiggan, Greg

    2017-01-01

    Students in the United States and Japan from high and middle socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds are afforded greater academic opportunities due to the systemic presence of hegemony in public schools (Darvin and Norton in "J Lang Identity Educ" 13(2):111-117, 2014). Minority and immigrant students, the majority coming from low SES, are more…

  12. Exploring AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of female Mexican migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organista, P B; Organista, K C; Soloff, P R

    1998-05-01

    AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were assessed in female Mexican migrant laborers. Thirty-two women were administered a modified version of the Hispanic Condom Questionnaire. Respondents were knowledgeable about the major modes of HIV transmission, but one-third to one-half of the women believed that they could contract AIDS from unlikely casual sources. Although respondents reported few negative beliefs about condom use, actual condom use with sex partners was low and knowledge of proper condom use was problematic. Consequently, 75 percent reported never carrying condoms. Implications of these findings for future research and provision of services for female Mexican migrants are discussed.

  13. The Impact of Education and Socioeconomic and Occupational Conditions on Self-Perceived and Mental Health Inequalities Among Immigrants and Native Workers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuela, Ana; Malmusi, Davide; López-Jacob, María José; Gotsens, Mercè; Ronda, Elena

    2015-12-01

    There is limited evidence on the influence of social determinants on the self-perceived and mental health of immigrants settled at least 8 years in Spain. The aim of this study was to examine differences between workers related to migrant-status, self-perceived and mental health, and to assess their relationship to occupational conditions, educational level and occupational social class, stratified by sex. Using data from the Spanish National Health Survey of 2011/12, we computed prevalence, odds ratios and explicative fractions. Mental (OR 2.02; CI 1.39-2.93) and self-perceived health (OR 2.64; CI 1.77-3.93) were poorer for immigrant women compared to natives. Occupational social class variable contributes 25% to self-perceived health OR in immigrant women. Settled immigrant women workers are a vulnerable group in Spain.

  14. Are new work practices and new technologies biased against immigrant workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Røed, Marianne; Pål, Schøne

    2013-01-01

    regression Tobit models are estimated. The dependent variable is wage costs share of immigrants at the plant. The important explanatory variables are measures of new technologies and work practices. Findings – The results show that workplaces where employees use personal computers intensively and have broad...... autonomy hire fewer non-western immigrants who have not been raised in Norway. The negative relationship is especially strong for low-skilled non-western immigrants. Originality/value – The estimation framework for studying this topic is new. The paper also presents original evidence on the relationship...

  15. Cultural Production of a Decolonial Imaginary for a Young Chicana: Lessons from Mexican Immigrant Working-Class Woman's Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Rosario; Moreno, Melissa; Zintsmaster, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Chicanas and Mexican women share a history of colonialism that has (a) sustained oppressive constructions of gender roles and sexuality, (b) produced and reproduced them as racially inferior and as able to be silenced, conquered, and dominated physically and mentally, and (c) contributed to the exploitation of their labor. Given that colonialism…

  16. Using community-based participatory research to design and initiate a study on immigrant worker health and safety in San Francisco's Chinatown restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkler, Meredith; Lee, Pam Tau; Tom, Alex; Chang, Charlotte; Morales, Alvaro; Liu, Shaw San; Salvatore, Alicia; Baker, Robin; Chen, Feiyi; Bhatia, Rajiv; Krause, Niklas

    2010-04-01

    Restaurant workers have among the highest rates of work-related illness and injury in the US, but little is known about the working conditions and occupational health status of Chinese immigrant restaurant workers. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) was employed to study restaurant working conditions and worker health in San Francisco's Chinatown. A community/academic/health department collaborative was formed and 23 restaurant workers trained on research techniques and worker health and safety. A worker survey instrument and a restaurant observational checklist were collaboratively developed. The checklist was piloted in 71 Chinatown restaurants, and the questionnaire administered to 433 restaurant workers. Restaurant workers, together with other partners, made substantial contributions to construction of the survey and checklist tools and improved their cultural appropriateness. The utility of the checklist tool for restaurant-level data collection was demonstrated. CBPR holds promise for both studying worker health and safety among immigrant Chinese restaurant workers and developing culturally appropriate research tools. A new observational checklist also has potential for restaurant-level data collection on worker health and safety conditions. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Socioeconomic Status, Ethnicity, Culture, and Immigration: Examining the Potential Mechanisms Underlying Mexican-Origin Adolescents' Organized Activity Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Sandra D.; Delgado, Melissa Y.; Price, Chara D.; Quach, Alex; Starbuck, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The integrative model for child development and ecodevelopmental theory suggest that macro factors, such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration influence the settings in which adolescents engage. The goal of this investigation was to use a combination of deductive and inductive qualitative analysis to describe the mechanisms…

  18. Mexican Perspectives on Mexican-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    while serving in the United States military, working in the Bracero program and in American factories. By working with Americans, Mexicans learned that...Mexican government blames the problem on the United States. During the history of the Bracero Program (1942 -1964) 4.6 million Mexicans traveled to...and became familiar to Mexican migrants.ŕ The termination of the Bracero Program did not discourage Mexican agricultural workers from entering the

  19. Factors Influencing Health Service Utilization Among Asian Immigrant Nail Salon Workers in the Greater New York City Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin Young; Chao, Ying-Yu; Yeung, Ka Man; Strauss, Shiela M

    2018-06-23

    Most nail salon workers in the greater New York City area are Asian immigrant women. They are exposed daily to potentially toxic chemicals and hazards in their workplace, making them more vulnerable for possible health problems. The study's primary purpose was to identify factors influencing past year healthcare utilization among Asian immigrant women working in nail salons. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on a modification of Andersen's behavioral model of healthcare utilization in which 148 Korean and Chinese immigrant women currently working in nail salons were surveyed. The questionnaire included: (1) individual health determinants, (2) health service utilization in the past year, and (3) work environment, work-related health concerns, and work-related health problems. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models assessed factors related to past year healthcare utilization. Women who had health insurance (p < .01), a usual source of care (p < .01), low educational attainment (p < .05), and more work-related health symptoms (p < .05) were more likely to visit a primary care provider. Women who had health insurance (p < .01), a usual source of care (p < .05), and low educational attainment (p < .05), were also more likely to visit a woman's health provider. Korean (rather than Chinese) women (p < .05) and women who perceived themselves to be in fair/poor health (p < .05) were more likely to see a traditional provider of Eastern medicine. Asian immigrant women who work in nail salons have workplace health and safety concerns. They generally use Western rather than traditional medicine, with different factors related to these two types of medicine.

  20. Economics of Illegal Work and Illegal Workers (Immigrants: Are They Protected under South African Labour Law and the Constitution, 1996?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashele Rapatsa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses whether prostitution (illegal work and illegal immigrants have access to the protective ambits of statutory framework regulating employment relations. Its objective is to examine the scope of labour law, considerate of ever changing trends in the modern world of work. It utilizes the two notable precedents founded in Kylie v CCMA and Discovery Health v CCMA. This is considerate of inherent dynamics in contemporary labour relations where the majority of workers have been displaced into grey areas that offer little or no protection, thus rendering workers vulnerable to exploitation. The article highlights a rising tension arising out of exploitative labour practices and socio-economic factors, and the need for labour law to respond. It has been found that courts have creatively invented strategic methods that have successfully aided efforts of protecting vulnerable workers engaged in economic activities under precarious circumstances. This is to the extent that the Constitution, 1996 and the Labour Relations Act 66 of 1995 have been interpreted in a manner that enhances worker protection, which fulfils the purpose for which labour law was enacted.

  1. Physical activity and calorie intake mediate the relationship from depression to body fat mass among female Mexican health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Amado D; Macías-Waldman, Nayeli; Salmerón, Jorge; Swigart, Tessa; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia

    2017-11-17

    Depression is a foremost cause of morbidity throughout the world and the prevalence of depression in women is about twice as high as men. Additionally, overweight and obesity are major global health concerns. We explored the relationship between depression and body fat, and the role of physical activity and diet as mediators of this relationship in a sample of 456 adult female Mexican health workers. Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses using data from adult women of the Health Workers Cohort Study (HWCS) Measures of body fat mass (kg from DEXA), dietary intake (kcal from FFQ), leisure time activity (METs/wk) and depression (CES-D) were determined in two waves (2004-2006 and 2010-2011). We explored the interrelation between body fat, diet, leisure time, physical activity, and depression using a cross-lagged effects model fitted to longitudinal data. We also fitted a structural equations model to cross-sectional data with body fat as the main outcome, and dietary intake and physical activity from leisure time as mediators between depression and body fat. Baseline depression was significantly related to higher depression, higher calorie intake, and lower leisure time physical activity at follow-up. From our cross-sectional model, each standard deviation increase in the depression score was associated with an average increase of 751 ± 259 g (± standard error) in body fat through the mediating effects of calorie intake and physical activity. The results of this study show how depression may influence energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended, resulting in higher body fat among those with a greater depression score. Evaluating the role of mental conditions like depression in dietary and physical activity behaviors should be positioned as a key research goal for better designed and targeted public health interventions. The HealthWorkers Cohort Study (HWCS) has been approved by the Institutional IRB. Number: 2005-785-012.

  2. Assessment of the probability of introduction of bovine tuberculosis to Danish cattle farms via imports of live cattle from abroad and immigrant workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    obtained from data analysis, expert opinion, the questionnaire and literature were fed into three stochastic scenario tree models used to simulate the effect of import trade patterns, and contact between immigrant workers and cattle. We also investigated the opportunity of testing animals imported from OTF...... cattle herds. Data from 2000 to 2013 with date, number and origin of imported live cattle were obtained from the Danish Cattle Federation. Information on immigrants working in Danish cattle herds was obtained through a questionnaire sent by email to a sample of Danish cattle farmers (N = 460). Inputs...... of introducing M. bovis into the Danish cattle population by either imported live cattle or infectious immigrant workers, ranged from 0.3% (90% prediction interval (P.I.): 0.04%:1.4%) in 2001 to 4.9% (90% P.I.: 0.6%; 19.2%) in 2009. The median of the median PIntro estimates from the 14 years was 0.7% (median...

  3. Immigrant incorporation in the garment industry of Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, I; Bernard, R B; Kim, R

    1999-01-01

    This study expands immigrant social network theory and examined employment patterns in the garment industry in Los Angeles, California, among Latino workers employed by Asian immigrant entrepreneurs. The study determined that a large percentage of immigrant employees found their jobs through the immigrant economy. Entrepreneurship increased the supply of local jobs and expanded the economy at destination at no expense to natives. Immigrant entrepreneurs bought firms from nonimmigrant owners or started new ones with an immigrant labor supply. Massey's index is flawed due to its exclusion of the role of entrepreneurs. Migration networks facilitate entrepreneurship, but some ethnic groups have fewer entrepreneurs, such as Mexicans and Central Americans. A 1993 Los Angeles survey identified 3642 garment factories in its county. Mean employment was 27.1 persons. The garment industry was the 4th largest industry in the area in 1996, with 98,700 employees. It represented 6% of all wage and salary employees in the City and 5.5% of the immigrant labor force in the County in 1990. 93% of garment workers in 1990 were immigrants. It is estimated that 51% of garment factory owners were Asians; most employees were Latinos. Census figures on sewing machine operators indicated 47.3% of owners were Whites and 42.45 were Asians. 53.3% of employees were other ethnic groups, 14.5% were Asians, and 32.2% were Whites. It is estimated that 47.2% of total employment was due to the immigration economy. 71.5% of the total employment in the garment industry was in the immigrant sector.

  4. Are New Work Practices and New Technologies Biased against Immigrant Workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Røed, Marianne; Schøne, Pål

    New technologies and new work practices have been introduced and implemented over a broad range in the production process in most advanced industrialised countries during the last two decades. New work organisation practices like team organisation and job rotation require interpersonal...... fewer non-Western immigrants who have not been raised in Norway (i.e. arrived as adults). Furthermore, the negative relationships are especially strong for low-skilled non-Western immigrants. These results may add support to the hypothesis stating that new technologies and (some) new work practices...... communication to a larger extent compared to the traditional assembly line types of production. In addition to handling the formal language, communication in this respect includes country-specific skills related to understanding social and cultural codes, unwritten rules, implicit communication, norms etc...

  5. Association between long work hours and poor self-reported general health among Latin American immigrant and native workers in the United States and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Sadie H; Cayuela, Ana; Delclos, George L; Pompeii, Lisa A; Ronda, Elena

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between hours worked per week and self-reported general health (SRGH) has not been assessed in Latin American immigrant and native workers across host countries. Cross-sectional study of the association between long work hours (LWH) (i.e., >51 hr per week) and poor SRGH using data from 2,626 workers in the United States (immigrants = 10.4%) and 8,306 workers in Spain (immigrants = 4.1%). Both countries' natives working >51 hr per week had increased odds of reporting poor SRGH compared to those working fewer hours (U.S.: OR = 1.59; 95%CI = 1.01-2.49; Spain: OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.71-2.75); when stratified by sex, increased odds also were observed among immigrant female workers in Spain (OR = 3.47; 95%CI = 1.15-10.5). LWH were associated with differential health outcomes in populations of native and Latin American immigrant workers in the United States and Spain, which may reflect social or occupational inequalities in general or resulting from the 2008 financial crisis. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:1105-1111, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Self-reported skin symptoms and skin-related quality of life among Latino immigrant poultry processing and other manual workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, Sara A; Newman, Jill C; Pichardo-Geisinger, Rita; Mora, Dana C; Chen, Haiying; Feldman, Steven R; Arcury, Thomas A

    2014-05-01

    Manual labor employment occurs in environments with exposures likely to impact skin-related quality of life (SRQOL). The objectives of this paper are to (1) document the dimensions of SRQOL, (2) examine its association with skin symptoms, and (3) identify the predictors of SRQOL in Latino manual workers. A population-based survey of 733 Latino manual workers obtained Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and skin symptoms in the prior year. Two-thirds of workers were employed in production. Skin symptoms in prior year were reported by 23%. Impaired SRQOL was reported by 23%. In multivariate analyses, reduced SRQOL was associated with age, occupation, childhood indigenous language use, and experience of skin symptoms in the prior year. Despite overall high SRQOL exposures in some immigrant occupational groups produce reduce SRQOL. This rural, immigrant population faces significant obstacles to obtaining dermatological care; efforts are needed to improve their SRQOL. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The effect of immigration on the employment opportunities of native-born workers : some evidence for Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, Raquel; Jimeno, Juan F.; Ortega, Ana Carolina

    2004-01-01

    Spain is one of the European countries where immigration flows during the last decade have increased noticeably. The Spanish labor market institutions and the Spanish immigration policy exhibit some peculiarities which may be relevant when analyzing the impact of immigration. This paper provides a first approximation to the labor market effects of immigrants in Spain during the second half of the 1990s, the period in which immigration flows to Spain have accelerated. By usin...

  8. Projecting labor demand and worker immigration at nuclear power plant construction sites: an evaluation of methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, H.W. Jr; Schlottmann, A.M.; Schriver, W.R.

    1981-12-01

    The study evaluates methodology employed for the projection of labor demand at, and worker migration to, nuclear power plant construction sites. In addition, suggestions are offered as to how this projection methodology might be improved. The study focuses on projection methodologies which forecast either construction worker migration or labor requirements of alternative types of construction activity. Suggested methodological improvements relate both to institutional factors within the nuclear power plant construction industry, and to a better use of craft-specific data on construction worker demand/supply. In addition, the timeliness and availability of the regional occupational data required to support, or implement these suggestions are examined

  9. Is health a labour, citizenship or human right? Mexican seasonal agricultural workers in Leamington, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Nielan

    2013-07-01

    Post-North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) trade liberalisation combined with post-9/11 border securitisation means North America increasingly relies on pools of temporary foreign labour, particularly in the agricultural and service sectors. Despite being temporary, these workers often spend most of their years on foreign soil, living and working in isolated rural communities, far from their own families and communities. Migrants' mental and physical health suffers due to hazardous and stressful working conditions, sub-standard housing, lack of social support and limited access to health and social welfare services. Assuming access to health is a basic human right, who is responsible for the health of temporary foreign migrant workers? Is it the nation-state? or the Employers and/or unions? or Civil society? Research and practice show that a combined multisector approach is best; however, such initiatives are often uneven due to questions of sovereignty and citizenship rights. Community-based organisations (CBOs) have emerged to advocate for and serve migrants' social and welfare needs; analysis of CBO projects reveals an uneven application of rights to migrants. Using a comparative case study from Canada, this project contributes to understanding how civil-society helps to activate different types of health care rights for migrants, and to create an informed policy that provides migrant workers with access to a wider range of human and health rights.

  10. The effects of work organization on the health of immigrant manual workers: A longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcury, Thomas A; Chen, Haiying; Mora, Dana C; Walker, Francis O; Cartwright, Michael S; Quandt, Sara A

    2016-01-01

    This analysis uses a longitudinal design to examine the associations of work organization and health outcomes among Latino manual workers. Participants included 247 Latino workers who completed baseline and 1-year follow-up interviews and clinical examinations. Health outcome measures were epicondylitis, rotator cuff syndrome, back pain, and depressive symptoms. Independent measures were measures of job demand, job control, and job support. Workers commonly experienced rotator cuff syndrome (6.5%), back pain (8.9%), and depressive symptoms (11.2%); fewer experienced epicondylitis (2.4%). Psychological demand was associated with rotator cuff syndrome; awkward position and decision latitude were associated with back pain. Decreased skill variety but increased decision latitude was associated with elevated depressive symptoms. Work context factors are important for health outcomes among vulnerable workers. Further research is needed to expand upon this work, particularly cultural perspectives on job support.

  11. Perceived social stress, pregnancy-related anxiety, depression and subjective social status among pregnant Mexican and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in subjective social status, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and pregnancy-related anxiety between pregnant Mexican American and Mexican immigrant women. Three hundred pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in South Texas were surveyed for pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and subjective social status. Pregnant Mexican immigrant women had higher levels of pregnancy-related anxiety and lower levels of depression and perceived social stress than pregnant Mexican American women. Change in these variables among Mexican immigrant women was relatively linear as time of residence in the United States increased. Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women had significantly different correlations between subjective social status, self-esteem and perceived social stress. Results indicate that subjective social status is an important psychosocial variable among pregnant Hispanic women. Results contribute to ongoing efforts to provide culturally responsive prenatal psychosocial support services.

  12. Social capital at work: psychometric analysis of a short scale in Spanish among Mexican health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo, Alvaro J; Camacho-Avila, Anabel; García-Rivas, Javier; Juárez-García, Arturo

    2012-09-01

    Most studies on social capital and health are carried out with large home-based surveys, neglecting that many interactions among individuals occur in the workplace. The objective of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of a scale in Spanish used to measure social capital at work. The scale designed by Kouvonen et al was translated into Spanish and tested under classical test theory, item response theory, and confirmatory factorial analysis; 152 public health workers from different socio-cultural contexts participated in the survey. Internal consistency was high (Chronbach's alpha = 0.88). Social capital at work correlated properly with two Job Content Questionnaire dimensions. A ceiling effect was detected and item difficulty was quantified. The confirmatory factor analysis showed the expected theoretical components of social capital: bonding, bridging and trust. The scale has acceptable psychometric properties, thus it can be used in future studies.

  13. Seasonal immigrant workers and programs in UK, France, Spain and Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Sala, A.; Molinero Gerbeau, Y.; Eremenko, T.; Beauchemin, C.; Samuk, S.; Consterdine, E.

    2016-01-01

    Programmes aimed at channelling seasonal workers to the labour market of European countries have a long tradition. Many of them started in the decades following World War II, but have changed a great deal over time, alt hough the majority are aimed seasonal economic sectors, such as agriculture or

  14. Occupational health and safety experiences among self-identified immigrant workers living or working in Somerville, MA by ethnicity, years in the US, and English proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikkar, Bindu; Woodin, Mark A; Brugge, Doug; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Hyatt, Raymond; Goldman, Rose; Pirie, Alex; Goldstein-Gelb, Marcy; Galvão, Heloisa; Chianelli, Monica; Vasquez, Ismael; McWhinney, Melissa; Dalembert, Franklin; Gute, David M

    2012-12-06

    In this community based research initiative, we employed a survey instrument predominately developed and administered by Teen Educators to assess occupational health risks for Haitian, Salvadoran, and Brazilian immigrants (n = 405) in Somerville, MA, USA. We demonstrate that a combined analysis of ethnicity, years in the US, and English proficiency better characterized the occupational experience of immigrant workers than considering these variables individually. While years in the US (negatively) and English proficiency (positively) explained the occurrence of health risks, the country of origin identified the most vulnerable populations in the community. Brazilians, Salvadorans, and other Hispanic, all of whom who have been in the US varying length of time, with varying proficiency in English language had twice the odds of reporting injuries due to work compared to other immigrants. Although this observation was not significant it indicates that years in the US and English proficiency alone do not predict health risks among this population. We recommend the initiation of larger studies employing c community based participatory research methods to confirm these differences and to further explore work and health issues of immigrant populations. This study is one of the small number of research efforts to utilize a contemporaneous assessment of occupational health problems in three distinct immigrant populations at the community level within a specific Environmental Justice context and social milieu.

  15. Occupational Health and Safety Experiences among Self-Identified Immigrant Workers Living or Working in Somerville, MA by Ethnicity, Years in the US, and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikkar, Bindu; Woodin, Mark A.; Brugge, Doug; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Hyatt, Raymond; Goldman, Rose; Pirie, Alex; Goldstein-Gelb, Marcy; Galvão, Heloisa; Chianelli, Monica; Vasquez, Ismael; McWhinney, Melissa; Dalembert, Franklin; Gute, David M.

    2012-01-01

    In this community based research initiative, we employed a survey instrument predominately developed and administered by Teen Educators to assess occupational health risks for Haitian, Salvadoran, and Brazilian immigrants (n = 405) in Somerville, MA, USA. We demonstrate that a combined analysis of ethnicity, years in the US, and English proficiency better characterized the occupational experience of immigrant workers than considering these variables individually. While years in the US (negatively) and English proficiency (positively) explained the occurrence of health risks, the country of origin identified the most vulnerable populations in the community. Brazilians, Salvadorans, and other Hispanic, all of whom who have been in the US varying length of time, with varying proficiency in English language had twice the odds of reporting injuries due to work compared to other immigrants. Although this observation was not significant it indicates that years in the US and English proficiency alone do not predict health risks among this population. We recommend the initiation of larger studies employing c community based participatory research methods to confirm these differences and to further explore work and health issues of immigrant populations. This study is one of the small number of research efforts to utilize a contemporaneous assessment of occupational health problems in three distinct immigrant populations at the community level within a specific Environmental Justice context and social milieu. PMID:23222180

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Client-Perpetrated Violence against Female Sex Workers in 13 Mexican Cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley J Semple

    Full Text Available Globally, client-perpetrated violence against female sex workers (FSWs has been associated with multiple health-related harms, including high-risk sexual behavior and increased exposure to HIV/STIs. This study examined correlates of client-perpetrated sexual, physical, and economic violence (e.g., robbery against FSWs in 13 cities throughout Mexico.FSWs (N = 1,089 who were enrolled in a brief, evidence-based, sexual risk reduction intervention for FSWs (Mujer Segura were interviewed about their work context, including experiences of violence perpetrated by clients, sexual risk and substance use practices, financial need, and social supports. Three broad categories of factors (sociodemographic, work context, behavioral and social characteristics of FSWs were examined as correlates of sexual, physical, and economic violence.The prevalence of different types of client-perpetrated violence against FSWs in the past 6 months was: sexual (11.7%, physical (11.8%, economic (16.9%, and any violence (22.6%. Greater financial need, self-identification as a street worker, and lower perceived emotional support were independently associated with all three types of violence. Alcohol use before or during sex with clients in the past month was associated with physical and sexual violence. Using drugs before or during sex with clients, injection drug use in the past month, and population size of city were associated with sexual violence only, and FSWs' alcohol use score (AUDIT-C was associated with economic violence only.Correlates of client-perpetrated violence encompassed sociodemographic, work context, and behavioral and social factors, suggesting that approaches to violence prevention for FSWs must be multi-dimensional. Prevention could involve teaching FSWs strategies for risk avoidance in the workplace (e.g., avoiding use of alcohol with clients, enhancement of FSWs' community-based supports, development of interventions that deliver an anti

  17. The Impact of Education and Socioeconomic and Occupational Conditions on Self-Perceived and Mental Health Inequalities Among Immigrants and Native Workers in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Cayuela, Ana; Malmusi, Davide; López Jacob, María José; Gotsens, Mercè; Ronda-Pérez, Elena

    2015-01-01

    There is limited evidence on the influence of social determinants on the self-perceived and mental health of immigrants settled at least 8 years in Spain. The aim of this study was to examine differences between workers related to migrant-status, self-perceived and mental health, and to assess their relationship to occupational conditions, educational level and occupational social class, stratified by sex. Using data from the Spanish National Health Survey of 2011/12, we computed prevalence, ...

  18. Correlates of unprotected sex with male clients among female sex workers in 13 Mexican cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Chavarin, Claudia V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Mendoza, Doroteo V; Aarons, Gregory A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2017-12-01

    This study examined correlates of unprotected vaginal and anal sex (UVA) with male clients among female sex workers (FSWs). Baseline data were gathered from 1089 FSWs recruited from 13 cities across Mexico enrolled in an evidence-based sexual risk reduction intervention. We used generalised estimating equations (GEE) to predict total UVA while controlling for the nested structure of the data. Total UVA with clients in the past month was examined in relation to selected sociodemographic, substance-use, and micro- and macro-environmental factors. A greater number of UVA acts was associated with three micro-level environmental factors (i.e. never getting condoms for free, unaffordability of condoms, greater number of clients per month), and three macro-level environmental factors (i.e. lower health and higher education indices, greater population size of city). These findings suggest the development of social and structural approaches to HIV prevention for FSWs in Mexico, including modification of venue-based policies that pressure FSWs to maximise client volume, changes to the work environment that promote availability and affordability of condoms, and improved population health. Moreover, our findings call for the development of context-specific HIV interventions that take into account variations in the sexual risk behaviours and HIV risk environments of FSWs throughout Mexico.

  19. Voting over Selective Immigration Policies with Immigration Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Russo

    2011-01-01

    The claim that "skilled immigration is welcome" is often associated to the increasing adoption of selective immigration policies. I study the voting over differentiated immigration policies in a two-country, three-factor general equilibrium model where there exist skilled and unskilled workers, migration decisions are endogenous, enforcing immigration restriction is costly, and natives dislike unskilled immigration. According to my findings, decisions over border closure are made to protect t...

  20. [Cultural Competence in Intervention with Immigrants: A Comparative Analysis Between Health Professionals, Social Workers and Police Officers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Mariana; Matos, Marlene

    2016-10-01

    Cultural diversity places increased demands on services to multicultural populations, so the development of cultural competence by help professionals is currently a concern in institutional practices. This study evaluated the perception of cultural competence of help professional of three distinct areas: health services, social services and criminal police. Through an online questionnaire, we questioned the perception of cultural competence, at four dimensions: cultural awareness, cultural knowledge, technical skills, and organizational support. There were 610 participants, mostly female (58%), with a mean age of 39.74 years, developing activity in the social area (37%), health (33%) or the police (30%). The professionals showed, in general, a positive perception of their cultural competence. Those who had formative experiences on the subject and had more time service, perceived themselves, significantly, as more culturally competent. Significant differences were found between professionals from different areas: health professionals were more effective in terms of technical skills, the social workers at the level of cultural knowledge and polices at the level of cultural awareness. Health professionals were the ones that showed a lower perception at the level of organizational support. Despite the positive perception that technicians have about their awareness and knowledge of the values, norms and customs of immigrant communities, they realize technical aptitude as less positive, showing difficulty in practical application of their knowledge. Cultural competence has implications for good professional practice in serving multicultural populations, being urgent to invest in the development of culturally competent interventions to ensure more effective services, namely in hospitals and health centres.

  1. Health workers' perceptions of access to care for children and pregnant women with precarious immigration status: health as a right or a privilege?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanthuyne, Karine; Meloni, Francesca; Ruiz-Casares, Monica; Rousseau, Cécile; Ricard-Guay, Alexandra

    2013-09-01

    The Canadian government's recent cuts to healthcare coverage for refugee claimants has rekindled the debate in Canada about what medical services should be provided to individuals with precarious immigration status, and who should pay for these services. This article further explores this debate, focussing on the perceptions of healthcare workers in Montreal, a large multiethnic Canadian city. In April-June 2010, an online survey was conducted to assess how clinicians, administrators, and support staff in Montreal contend with the ethical and professional dilemmas raised by the issue of access to healthcare services for pregnant women and children who are partially or completely uninsured. Drawing on qualitative analysis of answers (n = 237) to three open-ended survey questions, we identify the discursive frameworks that our respondents mobilized when arguing for, or against, universal access to healthcare for uninsured patients. In doing so, we highlight how their positions relate to their self-evaluations of Canada's socioeconomic situation, as well as their ideological representations of, and sense of social connection to, precarious status immigrants. Interestingly, while abstract values lead some healthcare workers to perceive uninsured immigrants as "deserving" of universal access to healthcare, negative perceptions of these migrants, coupled with pragmatic considerations, pushed most workers to view the uninsured as "underserving" of free care. For a majority of our respondents, the right to healthcare of precarious status immigrants has become a "privilege", that as taxpayers, they are increasingly less willing to contribute to. We conclude by arguing for a reconsideration of access to healthcare as a right, and offer recommendations to move in this direction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Immigrants Equilibrate Local Labor Markets: Evidence from the Great Recession*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Brian C.; Kovak, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that low-skilled Mexican-born immigrants’ location choices in the U.S. respond strongly to changes in local labor demand, and that this geographic elasticity helps equalize spatial differences in labor market outcomes for low-skilled native workers, who are much less responsive. We leverage the substantial geographic variation in employment losses that occurred during Great Recession, and our results confirm the standard finding that high-skilled populations are quite geographically responsive to employment opportunities while low-skilled populations are much less so. However, low-skilled immigrants, especially those from Mexico, respond even more strongly than high-skilled native-born workers. Moreover, we show that natives living in metro areas with a substantial Mexican-born population are insulated from the effects of local labor demand shocks compared to those in places with few Mexicans. The reallocation of the Mexican-born workforce reduced the incidence of local demand shocks on low-skilled natives’ employment outcomes by more than 50 percent. PMID:27551329

  3. Economic Assimilation and Outmigration of Immigrants in West-Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellemare, C.

    2003-01-01

    By analyzing earnings of observed immigrants workers, the literature on the economic assimilation of immigrants has generally overlooked two potentially important selectivity issues.First, earnings of immigrant workers may di¿er substantially from those of non-workers.Second, earnings of immigrants

  4. Religious and secular volunteering: A comparison between immigrants and non-immigrants in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carabain, C.L.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Using new survey data from the Netherlands, we find that non-immigrants are more likely to volunteer for secular organisations than guest worker immigrants and postcolonial citizen immigrants. In contrast, non-immigrants are less likely to engage in religious volunteering than both immigrant groups.

  5. Information behaviour of migrant Hispanic farm workers and their families in the Pacific Northwest Information grounds, Information behaviour, Behavior, Washington, Immigrants, Information habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Fisher

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigrants are generally perceived to be information poor, meaning they face major challenges with finding and using greatly needed everyday information. However, little research exists from an information behaviour perspective as differences in language, culture, and other factors such as access make immigrants a difficult population to study. We explored the everyday information behaviour and information grounds of migrant Hispanic farm workers through field observation and interviews with users, non-users, and staff of community technology centres in a major agricultural area. Findings suggest that personal networks having various levels of credibility were used more readily than any other type of information source. Credibility and use of various sources seemed to relate to personal status as well as interest in information.

  6. Condiciones de trabajo y salud en inmigrantes (Proyecto ITSAL: entrevistas a informantes clave Occupational health of immigrant workers in Spain [ITSAL Project]: key informants survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. García

    2009-04-01

    health situation of immigrant workers in Spain through key informants. Method: We performed a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study using indepth interviews carried out in 2006. Organizations and associations working with immigrant collectives in Alicante, Barcelona, Huelva, Madrid and Valencia were identified and the most representative and accessible entities in each location were selected. Fortythree interviews were performed with key informants from 34 different organisms. A narrative content analysis was performed. Results: Informants described difficulties in having health problems recognized as workrelated, due to irregular and precarious employment, employers' and insurance companies' reluctance, and immigrants' lack of knowledge. Informants coincided in reporting that the occupational risks for immigrant workers did not differ from those affecting Spanish workers in the same occupations and circumstances. However, exposure to occupational risks was exacerbated in immigrants because of their greater presence in unqualified jobs and their economic need to prolong working hours. Immigrants had little knowledge of their occupational health and safetyrelated rights, although some informants detected an increase in empowerment in this area, mostly through greater participation in trade unions. Conclusions: This first step allowed us to identify some of the general factors influencing the health and safety of immigrant workers in Spain. This information will be used in a longterm, ongoing research project [Project Immigration, Work and Health (Proyecto Inmigración, Trabajo y Salud [ITSAL], which aims to evaluate occupational health problems in inmigrants working in Spain through both qualitative and quantitative methods.

  7. Nuestras Escuelas: A Grounded Theory Study of the Barriers to Family Involvement in Special Education Faced by Undocumented Mexican Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Immigration has played an important role in the history of the United States of America. As a country founded by immigrants more than two hundred years ago, it continues to attract individuals from across the globe. People journey to the United States in search of political and economic freedom as well as opportunities that may have been…

  8. Organization of work in the agricultural, forestry, and fishing sector in the US southeast: implications for immigrant workers' occupational safety and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Lipscomb, Hester J; Casanova, Vanessa; Neis, Barbara; Fraser, Clermont; Monaghan, Paul; Vallejos, Quirina M

    2013-08-01

    There is widespread agreement that work organization is an important element of occupational safety and health, but the health effects of many aspects of work organization are likely to vary considerably across different sectors of work and geographies. We examined existing employment policies and work organization-related research relevant specifically to immigrant workers in the Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing (AgFF) Sector of the US workforce focusing, when possible, on the southeastern US. A number of specific aspects of work organization within AgFF subsectors have been described, but most of this literature exists outside the purview of occupational health. There are few studies that directly examine how attributes of work organization relevant to the AgFF Sector affect workers', much less immigrant workers', occupational health exposures and outcomes. In contrast to the broader literature, research linking occupational health outcomes to work organization in the AgFF Sector is limited and weak. A systematic program of research and intervention is needed to develop strategies that eliminate or substantially mitigate the deleterious health effects of occupational exposures whose origins likely lie in the organization of AgFF work. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Cognitive Skill, Skill Demands of Jobs, and Earnings among Young European American, African American, and Mexican American Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, George; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Analyses of National Longitudinal Survey data indicate that cognitive skill level affects access to high-skill occupations and earnings. Lower cognitive skill levels for African Americans and U.S.-born Mexican Americans explain a substantial proportion of income differences between these groups and European Americans but not the gender gap in pay…

  10. Prejudice and Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo E Giordani; Michele Ruta

    2008-01-01

    We study immigration policy in a small open receiving economy under self-selection of migrants. We show that immigration policy choice affects and is affected by the migratory decisions of skilled and unskilled foreign workers. From this interaction multiple equilibria may arise, which are driven by the natives' expectations on the migrants' size and skill composition (and, hence, on the welfare effects of immigration). In particular, pessimistic (optimistic) beliefs induce a country to impos...

  11. Mexican Women, Migration and Sex Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Reynaldo; Dexter, Bryan

    1985-01-01

    Compares Mexican women involved in migration to understand how their sex roles and status have been affected. Uses data from two separate studies: ethnography on migrants' wives left at home in a Mexican village and a survey of unauthorized immigrants in the Los Angeles area. (SA)

  12. Factorial invariance, scale reliability, and construct validity of the job control and job demands scales for immigrant workers: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Landsbergis, Paul; Roux, Ana V. Diez; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Shrager, Sandi; Baron, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    Immigrants have a different social context from those who stay in their home country or those who were born to the country that immigrants now live. Cultural theory of risk perception suggests that social context influences one’s interpretation of questionnaire items. We examined psychometric properties of job control and job demand scales with US- and foreign-born workers who preferred English, Spanish, or Chinese (n=3114, mean age=58.1). Across all groups, the job control scale had acceptable Cronbach’s alpha (0.78–0.83) and equivalent factor loadings (ΔCFIjob demands scale regardless of language, education, or age of migration. Two job-demand items had different factor loadings across groups. Among immigrants, both scales had inconsistent associations with perceived job stress and self-rated health. For a better understanding of immigrants’ job stress, the concept of job demands should be expanded and immigrants’ expectations for job control explored. (149/150 limit) PMID:20582720

  13. The making of an immigrant niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, R

    1994-01-01

    "This article speaks to the conceptual and methodological issues in research on the making of an immigrant niche through a case study of immigrant professionals in New York City government." The author argues that "the growth of this immigrant niche resulted from changes in the relative supply of native workers and in the structure of employment, which opened the bureaucracy to immigrants and reduced native/immigrant competition. These shifts opened hiring portals; given the advantages of network hiring for workers and managers, and an immigrant propensity for government employment, network recruitment led to a rapid buildup in immigrant ranks." excerpt

  14. Migrant workers’ occupation and healthcare-seeking preferences for TB-suspicious symptoms and other health problems: a survey among immigrant workers in Songkhla province, southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naing Tinzar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of the unskilled and semi-skilled workforce in Thailand comprises migrant workers from neighbouring countries. While, in principle, healthcare facilities in the host country are open to those migrants registered with the Ministry of Labour, their actual healthcare-seeking preferences and practices, as well as those of unregistered migrants, are not well documented. This study aimed to describe the patterns of healthcare-seeking behaviours of immigrant workers in Thailand, emphasizing healthcare practices for TB-suspicious symptoms, and to identify the role of occupation and other factors influencing these behaviours. Methods A survey was conducted among 614 immigrant factory workers (FW, rubber tappers (RT and construction workers (CW, in which information was sought on socio-demography, history of illness and related healthcare-seeking behaviour. Mixed effects logistic regression modeling was employed in data analysis. Results Among all three occupations, self-medication was the most common way of dealing with illnesses, including the development of TB-suspicious symptoms, for which inappropriate drugs were used. Only for GI symptoms and obstetric problems did migrant workers commonly seek healthcare at modern healthcare facilities. For GI illness, FW preferred to attend the in-factory clinic and RT a private facility over government facilities owing to the quicker service and greater convenience. For RT, who were generally wealthier, the higher cost of private treatment was not a deterrent. CW preferentially chose a government healthcare facility for their GI problems. For obstetric problems, including delivery, government facilities were utilized by RT and CW, but most FW returned to their home country. After adjusting for confounding, having legal status in the country was associated with overall greater use of government facilities and being female and being married with use of both types of modern healthcare

  15. Immigration in American Economic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramitzky, Ran; Boustan, Leah

    2016-01-01

    The United States has long been perceived as a land of opportunity for immigrants. Yet, both in the past and today, US natives have expressed concern that immigrants fail to integrate into US society and lower wages for existing workers. This paper reviews the literatures on historical and contemporary migrant flows, yielding new insights on migrant selection, assimilation of immigrants into US economy and society, and the effect of immigration on the labor market. PMID:29398723

  16. Immigration, Endogenous Technology Adoption and Wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.; Pandey, Manish

    2015-01-01

    We document that immigration to U.S. states has increased the mass of workers at the lower range of the skill distribution. We use this change in skill distribution of workers to analyze the effect of immigration on wages. Our model allows firms to endogenously respond to the immigration-induced

  17. Childhood asthma, air quality, and social suffering among Mexican Americans in California's San Joaquin Valley: "Nobody talks to us here".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Norah Anita; Pepper, David

    2009-10-01

    Nearly one in five Mexican American children residing in California's San Joaquin Valley (the Valley) in 2007 had an asthma attack at some point in their life. Numerous epidemiological studies have suggested that compared with other ethnic groups and Latino subgroups residing in the United States, Mexican origin children have the lowest rates of pediatric asthma. Ethnographic research conducted in central California, however, suggests otherwise. Known for its agricultural produce, extreme poverty, and poor air quality, the Valley is a magnet for the Mexican immigrant farm worker population. We conducted an exploratory ethnographic study to examine health disparities, social suffering, and childhood asthma in the Valley. Many Valley residents believe that their children's health concerns are being ignored. Open-ended interviews uncovered a largely rural community suffering not only from the effects of childhood asthma but the inability to have their experiences taken seriously.

  18. “Columns of the House” and Proud Workers: Greek Immigrant Women in Vancouver, 1954-1975

    OpenAIRE

    Kalogeropoulou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, I study the experiences of eight first-generation Greek immigrant women who moved to Vancouver between 1954 and 1975 by listening to and contextualizing their oral life histories. Looking at their lives before they immigrated, I explore how these women’s gender experiences were very much shaped by religion, class, and rural vis-à-vis urban locations in Greece. I also demonstrate that many exercised agency in this patriarchal culture, and that they were part of the decision-mak...

  19. Longitudinal association of obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes with risk of elevated aminotransferase levels in a cohort of Mexican health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Yvonne N; Auslander, Allyn; Crespi, Catherine M; Rodriguez, Michael; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Durazo, Francisco; Salmerón, Jorge

    2016-05-01

    In Mexico, chronic liver disease have been increasingly found along with the rapidly growing prevalence of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MS). We aimed to investigate the longitudinal association between these three factors and risk of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (>40 U/L), a marker for liver damage, in a cohort of Mexican adults. Data were obtained from two separate waves of the Mexican Health Worker Cohort Study: Wave 1 (2004-2006) and Wave 2 (2011-2013). Unconditional logistic regression models were employed to determine the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between these risk factors and elevated ALT levels. The prevalence of elevated ALT was significantly higher among men, individuals aged under 60 years, those who were overweight or obese, diabetic, with MS or heavy/binge drinkers. The longitudinal results indicated that weight gain between waves that resulted in a change in body mass index, along with remaining overweight or obese, were significantly associated with an increased risk of elevated ALT levels. A significantly increased risk of developing elevated ALT was also observed among those who acquired diabetes or MS from Wave 1 to Wave 2. Weight gain and acquiring diabetes or MS are associated with a significant risk of having elevated ALT. These results, within the context of the rapid increase in global obesity rates, call urgently for programs to help to prevent chronic liver disease. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. The health of California's immigrant hired farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarejo, Don; McCurdy, Stephen A; Bade, Bonnie; Samuels, Steve; Lighthall, David; Williams, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    Hispanic immigrant workers dominate California's hired farm workforce. Little is known about their health status; even less is known about those lacking employment authorization. The California Agricultural Workers Health Survey (CAWHS) was a statewide cross-sectional household survey conducted in 1999. Six hundred fifty-four workers completed in-person interviews, comprehensive physical examinations, and personal risk behavior interviews. The CAWHS PE Sample is comprised mostly of young Mexican men who lack health insurance and present elevated prevalence of indicators of chronic disease: overweight, obesity, high blood pressure, and high serum cholesterol. The self-reported, cumulative, farm work career incidence of paid claims for occupational injury under workers compensation was 27% for males and 11% for females. The survey finds elevated prevalence of indicators of chronic disease but lack of health care access. Participants without employment authorization reported a greater prevalence of high-risk behaviors, such as binge drinking, and were less knowledgeable about workplace protections. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. [French immigration policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  2. The industrial division of labor among immigrants and internal migrants to the Los Angeles economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, M; Wright, R

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the industrial division of labor among immigrants and in-migrants in the Los Angeles, California, metropolitan area. It addresses debates about channeling of new arrivals into jobs among similar ethnic groups and human capital views. Data were obtained from the 1990 Census on resident native-born, resident foreign-born, in-migrants, and recent immigrants who arrived during 1985-90. Light and Rosenstein's (1995) concepts of groups and their resources were used to organize ideas about ethnic networks and their effectiveness in channeling migrant workers into 15 industrial sectors. Sectoral differences were revealed with the familiarity index of dissimilarity. Findings reveal that social networks were the strongest for Koreans, who supplied work for recent arrivals in the same sectors as Korean-born residents, regardless of education. Mexican new arrivals were less likely to work in the same sectors as their resident Mexican counterparts. Mexican networks placed new arrivals in durable manufacturing in the 1960s and 1970s when it was a key source of employment. By the 1980s and 1990s, the economy shifted and employment went down in durable manufacturing. Mexicans thus found employment elsewhere. Native White and Black in-migrants had the strongest channeling into same sector jobs. This is attributed to the small streams, the ability of the labor market to absorb these workers, and the availability of job vacancies among native out-migrants. Filipino migrants had similar patterns as Whites and Blacks. Mexican and Central American residents had more inter-ethnic competition over jobs than Whites or Blacks.

  3. Moving In and Out of Bilingualism: Investigating Native Language Maintenance and Shift in Mexican-Descent Children. Research Report: 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease-Alvarez, Lucinda

    A study investigated patterns and influences in Mexican-American children's Spanish language maintenance and shift toward English dominance or monolingualism. Subjects were 64 Mexican-descent children, ages 8-9, of varying immigration backgrounds (Mexican-born, U.S.-born of Mexican-born parents, U.S.-born of U.S.-born parents), and their families…

  4. Qualitative needs assessment of HIV services among Dominican, Mexican and Central American immigrant populations living in the New York City area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlin, M G; Shulman, L

    2004-05-01

    This paper reports on research designed to assess access to care by Latino immigrant populations in the New York area. A qualitative approach and methods were employed, involving focus groups with PLWAs (persons living with AIDS) and affected men and women from Mexico, the Dominican Republic and Central America to explore the perceptions, beliefs, experiences and knowledge of HIV care issues. A total of 57 men and women participated, ranging in age from 19-61. Results included detailed information on cultural meanings of HIV/AIDS; experience of stigma and rejection; gendered health-seeking behaviour; testing issues; and satisfaction with services. Data support the conclusion that to be effective in reaching and providing services to these immigrant groups, it is crucial to understand the environment from which they come and the impact of immigration. Poverty, repressive governments, lack of education/literacy, ethnicity, class, colour-based stigma and cultural norms are crucial factors in determining their attitudes, motivations, decisions and behaviour. AIDS agencies were seen to play a crucial role in connecting PLWAs to services and resources. The key elements for the provision of services to this population appear to be those that build on cultural norms and network human and institutional resources.

  5. [Immigration and work. Roles and opportunities for occupational medicine in the health and safety of migrant workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porru, S; Arici, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    It is estimated that in Italy there are 4 million migrant workers, accounting for about 10 percent of the total workforce. They contribute to national economic development but they are also heavily involved in the so-called "3D jobs" (dangerous, dirty and demanding/degrading). To draw occupational physicians' (OP) attention to the necessity of dealing with occupational health and safety problems related to migrant workers, highlighting his/her role and opportunities, in order to guarantee access to health services and prevent occupational health inequalities. The available data on occupational diseases and accidents among migrant workers are discussed, as well as conditions of individual susceptibility; as an example, data are commented obtained in many years of health surveillance in a foundry. Migrant workers may suffer from occupational health inequalities. The OP, by means of focused risk assessment, health surveillance, fitness for work and health promotion, can substantially improve migrant workers' health. In fact, data from our experience showed how a migrant workforce may be well characterized and also represent an opportunity, instead of being a "risk factor". Within the framework of needs for further methodological and applied research, the OP can play a proactive role in workplaces, aimed at real integration of migrant workers, with overall benefits for workers, enterprises and society.

  6. Alcohol Use Disorders in National Samples of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans: The Mexican National Addiction Survey and the U.S. National Alcohol Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Lown, Anne; Ye, Yu; Robertson, Marjorie J.; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Greenfield, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The authors show associations between immigration and alcohol disorders using data from the 1995 and 2000 U.S. National Alcohol Surveys and the 1998 Mexico National Household Survey on Addictions. The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 4.8% for the Mexicans, 4.2% for the Mexico-born immigrants, and 6.6% for the U.S.-born Mexican Americans. They…

  7. The Vote of the Mexican Immigrants. An Analysis of the Results of the 2006 Presidential Election, to the light of political behavior theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mgt. Octavio Adolfo Pérez Preciado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2 of July of the 2006, the Mexican residents abroad could for the first time voted in a presidential election. According to the results given by the electoral federal institute (IFE, Felipe Calderon, candidate by the National Action Party (PAN of right oriented, was the one that obtained the majority of these suffrages, followed by Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador, candidate of the “alliance for the good of the people,” of leftist orientation. These was the most competitive election ever take place in Mexico. In the essay, electoral results of this election are analyzed to the light of different theories about the voting behavior of the emigrants. We concludes the vote of the Mexicans abroad reproduces and reflects so much the way in which the emigrants in their native place vote, as well as the political and cultural influence that exerts the conduct of the voter the political and electoral system of the new country of residence.

  8. Immigrant-Native Substitutability: The Role of Language Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Ethan G. Lewis

    2011-01-01

    Wage evidence suggests that immigrant workers are imperfectly substitutable for native-born workers with similar education and experience. Using U.S. Censuses and recent American Community Survey data, I ask to what extent differences in language skills drive this. I find they are important. I estimate that the response of immigrants' relative wages to immigration is concentrated among immigrants with poor English skills. Similarly, immigrants who arrive at young ages, as adults, both have st...

  9. Transferable Training Modules: Building Environmental Education Opportunities With and for Mexican Community Health Workers (Promotores de Salud).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Denise Moreno; Vea, Lourdes; Field, James A; Baker, Paul B; Gandolfi, A Jay; Maier, Raina M

    Community health workers (promotores de salud) have the ability to empower communities to mitigate negative health outcomes. Current training efforts in environmental topics are lacking. This project addressed this gap by developing 4 transferable training modules on environmental health. By applying a series of surveys, interviews, and trainings, we evaluated their relevance. Partners provided favorable feedback for 3 of the 4 modules. It was also learned that the development method could be improved by engaging technically trained promotores de salud in the role of co-creators. This project has implications for environmental justice communities as it can lessen information disparities.

  10. Immigrants in the Sexual Revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shield, Andrew DJ

    newspapers, foreign worker organizations’ archives, and interviews, this book shows that immigrants in the Netherlands and Denmark held a variety of viewpoints about European gender and sexual cultures. Some immigrants felt solidarity with, and even participated in, European social movements that changed...... norms and laws in favor of women’s equality, gay and lesbian rights, and sexual liberation. These histories challenge today’s politicians and journalists who strategically link immigration to sexual conservatism, misogyny, and homophobia....

  11. Anxiety disorders among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karno, M; Golding, J M; Burnam, M A; Hough, R L; Escobar, J I; Wells, K M; Boyer, R

    1989-04-01

    This report from the Los Angeles site of the NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area study reveals significant ethnic and national origin differences in lifetime prevalence rates for three out of six specific, DSM-III-defined anxiety disorders. In the case of simple phobia, United States-born Mexican Americans report higher rates than native non-Hispanic whites or immigrant Mexican Americans, the latter two groups having similar rates. Mexican Americans born in the United States had higher rates of agoraphobia than immigrant Mexican Americans, and non-Hispanic whites reported higher lifetime rates of generalized anxiety disorder compared with both immigrant and native Mexican Americans. Neither ethnic nor national origin differences in lifetime prevalence rates were found for panic disorder, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Selective migration is postulated as a potential factor influencing prevalence differences between native and immigrant Mexican Americans.

  12. Workplace Concentration of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer–employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37% of an immigrant’s coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14% of a native-born worker’s coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452

  13. Generational Variations in Mexican-Origin Intermarriage

    OpenAIRE

    Cedillo, Rosalio

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines intermarriage across generations of the Mexican-origin population in order to better understand how this population is incorporating in U.S. society, and looks at parental migration status and parental nativity as factors that may impede or facilitate intermarriage incorporation. Using data from the Immigration and Intergenerational Mobility in Metropolitan Los Angeles (IIMMLA) survey the research shows that: the majority of intermarriages among the Mexican-origin ...

  14. The Mexican Health Paradox: Expanding the Explanatory Power of the Acculturation Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horevitz, Elizabeth; Organista, Kurt C.

    2013-01-01

    The Mexican health paradox refers to initially favorable health and mental health outcomes among recent Mexican immigrants to the United States. The subsequent rapid decline in Mexican health outcomes has been attributed to the process of acculturation to U.S. culture. However, the construct of acculturation has come under significant criticism…

  15. Immigrants from Mexico experience serious behavioral and psychiatric problems at far lower rates than US-born Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; Goings, Trenette Clark

    2017-10-01

    To examine the prevalence of self-reported criminal and violent behavior, substance use disorders, and mental disorders among Mexican immigrants vis-à-vis the US born. Study findings are based on national data collected between 2012 and 2013. Binomial logistic regression was employed to examine the relationship between immigrant status and behavioral/psychiatric outcomes. Mexican immigrants report substantially lower levels of criminal and violent behaviors, substance use disorders, and mental disorders compared to US-born individuals. While some immigrants from Mexico have serious behavioral and psychiatric problems, Mexican immigrants in general experience such problems at far lower rates than US-born individuals.

  16. Los Dos Mundos: Rural Mexican Americans, Another America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard

    This book explores race relations between Mexican Americans and Anglo Americans in "Middlewest," a fictitious name for an actual rural Idaho community with the highest proportion of Mexican Americans in the state. Many Mexican Americans in this predominantly agricultural area are current or former migrant workers. The first chapter…

  17. Musculoskeletal and neurological injuries associated with work organization among immigrant Latino women manual workers in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcury, Thomas A; Cartwright, Michael S; Chen, Haiying; Rosenbaum, Daryl A; Walker, Francis O; Mora, Dana C; Quandt, Sara A

    2014-04-01

    This analysis examines the associations of work organization attributes among Latino women in manual occupations with musculoskeletal and neurological injuries. Participants included 234 women in western North Carolina. Outcome measures included epicondylitis, rotator cuff syndrome, back pain, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Independent measures included indicators of job demand, job control, and job support, as well as personal characteristics. Latina workers commonly experienced epicondylitis, rotator cuff syndrome, back pain, and CTS. Awkward posture and decision latitude were associated with epicondylitis. Rotator cuff syndrome was associated with awkward posture and psychological demand. Awkward posture and psychological demand, and decreased skill variety and job control were related to CTS. Work organization factors are potentially important for musculoskeletal and neurological injury among vulnerable workers. Research is required to understand the associations of work and health outcomes of these women. Policy initiatives need to consider how work organization affects health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Niños Sanos, Familia Sana: Mexican immigrant study protocol for a multifaceted CBPR intervention to combat childhood obesity in two rural California towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Adela; Sadeghi, Banafsheh; Green, Richard D; Kaiser, Lucia L; Flores, Yvette G; Jackson, Carlos F; Shaikh, Ulfat; Whent, Linda; Schaefer, Sara E

    2013-10-31

    Overweight and obese children are likely to develop serious health problems. Among children in the U.S., Latino children are affected disproportionally by the obesity epidemic. Niños Sanos, Familia Sana (Healthy Children, Healthy Family) is a five-year, multi-faceted intervention study to decrease the rate of BMI growth in Mexican origin children in California's Central Valley. This paper describes the methodology applied to develop and launch the study. Investigators use a community-based participatory research approach to develop a quasi-experimental intervention consisting of four main components including nutrition, physical activity, economic and art-community engagement. Each component's definition, method of delivery, data collection and evaluation are described. Strategies to maintain engagement of the comparison community are reported as well. We present a study methodology for an obesity prevention intervention in communities with unique environmental conditions due to rural and isolated location, limited infrastructure capacity and limited resources. This combined with numerous cultural considerations and an unstable population with limited exposure to researcher expectations necessitates reassessment and adaptation of recruitment strategies, intervention delivery and data collection methods. Trial registration # NCT01900613. NCT01900613.

  19. Temps migratoires en tension Tense times for immigration. The production and experiences of temporalities for migrant workers in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Bret

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La kafala, système de garantie sur l’étranger propre au monde arabe, produit au Liban un environnement normatif très contraignant pour les migrants non arabes dont elle organise l’immigration : en très grande majorité des femmes, originaires du Sri Lanka et des Philippines, employées domestiques. Elle impose sa temporalité d’institution globale à la migration, et se confronte aux autres temporalités qui structurent l’espace migratoire : celles des individus mobiles, dont la carrière migratoire s’encastre dans la hiérarchie socio-économique de la situation de départ, ainsi que dans dans la hiérarchie des contextes d’accueil ; la temporalité des industries d’émigration, qui développent une rationalité clivée qui leur est propre. Dans cet article, nous souhaitons mettre en scène ces tensions du temps migratoire dans des temporalités en conflit, en évoquant la négativité des rapports sociaux qui en résulte et les contournements normatifs que les migrants et les autres acteurs de cette scène globalisée opèrent dans la poursuite de leurs objectifs.The kafala is a system of guarantee for immigrants in the Arab world. In Lebanon, it produces a highly restrictive regulatory environment for non-Arab migrants; this institution organizes the import of a vast majority of women from Sri Lanka and the Philippines to become domestic employees. It imposes its - as defined - global institution's temporality to migration. It conflicts with the other temporalities that shape the migratory space : temporalities of individuals on the move, whose careers fit into the hierarchy of socio-economic baseline and into the hierarchy between host countries; temporalities of migration industry, that develop a cleaved rationality of their own. In this paper, we want to present the contradiction of migration time and temporalities, in order to understand the resulting negative social relationships. We also study the normative

  20. A Turnover Model for the Mexican Maquiladoras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertz, Carl P.; Stevens, Michael J.; Campion, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    From interviews with 47 Mexican maquiladora workers, a model of voluntary turnover was created and compared with models from the United States, Canada, England, and Australia. Despite similarities, the cultural and economic environment affected the precise content of antecedents in the Mexican model. (Contains 63 references.) (SK)

  1. A direct comparison of popular models of normal memory loss and Alzheimer's disease in samples of African Americans, Mexican Americans, and refugees and immigrants from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauf, Robert W; Iris, Madelyn

    2011-04-01

    To understand how people differentiate normal memory loss from Alzheimer's disease (AD) by investigating cultural models of these conditions. Ethnographic interviews followed by a survey. Cultural consensus analysis was used to test for the presence of group models, derive the "culturally correct" set of beliefs, and compare models of normal memory loss and AD. Chicago, Illinois. One hundred eight individuals from local neighborhoods: African Americans, Mexican Americans, and refugees and immigrants from the former Soviet Union. Participants responded to yes-or-no questions about the nature and causes of normal memory loss and AD and provided information on ethnicity, age, sex, acculturation, and experience with AD. Groups held a common model of AD as a brain-based disease reflecting irreversible cognitive decline. Higher levels of acculturation predicted greater knowledge of AD. Russian speakers favored biological over psychological models of the disease. Groups also held a common model of normal memory loss, including the important belief that "normal" forgetting involves eventual recall of the forgotten material. Popular models of memory loss and AD confirm that patients and clinicians are speaking the same "language" in their discussions of memory loss and AD. Nevertheless, the presence of coherent models of memory loss and AD, and the unequal distribution of that knowledge across groups, suggests that clinicians should include wider circles of patients' families and friends in their consultations. These results frame knowledge as distributed across social groups rather than simply the possession of individual minds. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Relationship between human paraoxonase-1 activity and PON1 polymorphisms in Mexican workers exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Flores, I; Lacasaña, M; Blanco-Muñoz, J; Aguilar-Garduño, C; Sanchez-Villegas, P; Pérez-Méndez, O A; Gamboa-Avila, R

    2009-07-24

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a serum enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of organophosphate pesticides. In this study we conducted a cross-sectional study and reported on the distribution of three common genetic polymorphisms of the PON1 gene in a population of floriculture workers from Mexico as well as the association between those polymorphisms and other predictors with serum PON1 activity on paraoxon, diazoxon and phenylacetate. The genotype frequencies at position PON1(55) were 89% (LL), 10% (LM) and 0.6% (MM), at position PON1(192) they were 16% (QQ), 47% (QR) and 37% (RR), and 26% (TT), 42% (TC) and 32% (CC) at position PON1(-108). Thus, the frequencies of alleles L, Q and T were 0.94, 0.40 and 0.47, respectively. The PON1(55) polymorphism had no significant effect on serum PON1 activity on any substrate. We found a significant association between the PON1(192) polymorphism and PON1 activity towards paraoxon and diazoxon, which increased in genotypes as follows: 192RR>192QR>192QQ for paraoxonase activity and, inversely, 192QQ>192QR>192RR for diazoxonase activity. The PON1(-108) polymorphism also had a significant effect on PON1 activity level towards paraoxon in the following order among the genotype groups: -108CC>-108TC>-108TT. Serum PON1 activity towards diazoxon was not associated with the PON1(-108) polymorphism but it was influenced by the intensity exposure to pesticides at the floriculture industry and the years of the occupational exposure to pesticides. No polymorphism significantly influenced serum PON1 activity on phenylacetate.

  3. Predictors of Immigrant Children's School Achievement: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung Seek; Kang, Suk-Young; An, Soonok

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the predictors and indicators of immigrant children's school achievement, using the two of the most predominant groups of American immigrants (103 Koreans and 100 Mexicans). Regression analyses were conducted to determine which independent variables (acculturation, parenting school involvement, parenting style, parent…

  4. Humor in Father-Daughter Immigration Narratives of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This article draws from an ethnography on Mexican immigrant fathers and their children to examine humor in immigration narratives as acts of resistance. The analysis focuses on the devices employed by a father and daughter during their everyday talk and co-narration of an incident with police officers. Findings illustrate how the form and content…

  5. Evaluating Short-Form Versions of the CES-D for Measuring Depressive Symptoms among Immigrants from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Hovey, Joseph D.; Seligman, Laura D.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the feasibility of using a short-form version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) in community mental health research with Mexican immigrants. Several features of three published short versions of the CES-D were examined using data combined from seven diverse Mexican immigrant samples from across…

  6. Do Immigrants Affect Firm-Specific Wages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob R.; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2012-01-01

    We propose and test a novel effect of immigration on wages. Existing studies have focused on the wage effects that result from changes in the aggregate labour supply in a competitive labour market. We argue that if labour markets are not fully competitive, immigrants might also affect wage...... formation at the most disaggregate level – the workplace. Using linked employer-employee data, we find that an increased use of low-skilled immigrant workers has a significantly negative effect on the wages of native workers at the workplace – also when controlling for potential endogeneity of the immigrant...

  7. Mexican Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuzger, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    It was the complex and far-reaching transformation of the Mexican Revolution rather than the First World War that left its mark on Mexican history in the second decade of the 20th century. Nevertheless, although the country maintained its neutrality in the international conflict, it was a hidden theatre of war. Between 1914 and 1918, state actors in Germany, Great Britain and the United States defined their policies towards Mexico and its nationalist revolution with a view not only to improve...

  8. Immigrant Charter Schools: A Better Choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Camille

    2010-01-01

    Third-grader Jaime of Denver, Colorado, was having a hard time concentrating in school. The son of Mexican immigrants, he had learned to speak English perfectly in his dual-language public school, but reading and writing was another story. When her mother knew about Cesar Chavez Academy, a new tuition-free charter school where the majority of…

  9. Crime and immigration: evidence from large immigrant waves

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Bell; Stephen Machin; Francesco Fasani

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between immigration and crime in a setting where large migration flows offer an opportunity to carefully appraise whether the populist view that immigrants cause crime is borne out by rigorous evidence. We consider possible crime effects from two large waves of immigration that recently occurred in the UK. The first of these was the late 1990s/early 2000s wave of asylum seekers, and the second the large inflow of workers from EU accession countries that to...

  10. Immigration, Wages, and Compositional Amenities

    OpenAIRE

    David Card; Christian Dustmann; Ian Preston

    2009-01-01

    Economists are often puzzled by the stronger public opposition to immigration than trade, since the two policies have symmetric effects on wages. Unlike trade, however, immigration changes the composition of the local population, imposing potential externalities on natives. While previous studies have focused on fiscal spillovers, a broader class of externalities arise because people value the "compositional amenities" associated with the characteristics of their neighbors and co-workers. In ...

  11. A conceptual framework for the study of social capital in new destination immigrant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernosky de Flores, Catherine H

    2010-07-01

    Mexican immigration to the United States is an intragenerational phenomenon. Young adult Mexicans leave their families of origin in search of employment opportunities that pull them to new destination communities. A conceptual framework that defines and relates the concepts of human capital, personal networks, social capital, and resources is introduced. The influence of social capital on the capacity of immigrants to access resources is described. The framework informed the design of a study to examine the approaches used by Mexican immigrant women to access resources for healthy childbearing in the absence of traditional family support systems in a new destination community.

  12. Immigrant health workers in Chile: is there a Latin American "brain drain"? Inmigración de personal sanitario hacia Chile: ¿hay una "fuga de cerebros" hacia América Latina?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltica Cabieses

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Most research on the phenomenon of "brain drain" (one-way flow of highly skilled/educated individuals has focused on movement between the least developed and most highly developed countries. Therefore, the significance of patterns of migration to middle-income countries such as those in Latin America is less clear. The aim of this study was to outline key features of international health worker "brain drain" to Chile to promote discussion and further research on this phenomenon as it pertains to the Latin American region. The study compared immigrant health workers living in Chile to both Chilean-born health workers and other immigrants living in Chile using a qualitative nationwide dataset (the results of Chile's 2009 National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey. Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables were included in the analyses, which were weighted by population to obtain nationally representative estimates. In 2009, immigrant health workers represented 2.2% of all health personnel and 2.6% of all resident immigrants in the country. While most immigrant health workers had a universitylevel education, about 25% had only a high school-level education or less. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of immigrant health workers' household income and that of Chilean-born health workers. A significantly higher proportion of the immigrant group reported no entitlement to health care provision. While the results of this study do not indicate a significant international health worker "brain drain" to Chile, they do suggest distinctive patterns of migration within the Latin American region. Future studies in Chile could confirm the validity of these results, using a larger sample of immigrant health workers.La mayoría de las investigaciones sobre el fenómeno de la "fuga de cerebros" (migración unidireccional de individuos sumamente capacitados y educados se ha centrado en la migración desde pa

  13. Employers mexican migrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández Guzmán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this paper is to, through a general literature review of official statistical data, a preliminary analysis of mexican migrant entrepreneurship in the United States, that is to say in recent years has been growing in importance.

  14. Hopelessness, Family Stress, and Depression among Mexican-Heritage Mothers in the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Kulis, Stephen; Perez, Hilda Garcia; Bermudez-Parsai, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a study conducted with a sample of 136 Mexican-heritage mothers residing in a large southwestern metropolitan area. From a risk-and-resiliency perspective, hopelessness was approached as a culturally specific response to family stress and other challenges encountered by Mexican immigrants. Although…

  15. Problems Faced by Mexican Asylum Seekers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Anna Cabot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Violence in Mexico rose sharply in response to President Felipe Calderón’s military campaign against drug cartels which began in late 2006. As a consequence, the number of Mexicans who have sought asylum in the United States has grown significantly. In 2013, Mexicans made up the second largest group of defensive asylum seekers (those in removal proceedings in the United States, behind only China (EOIR 2014b. Yet between 2008 and 2013, the grant rate for Mexican asylum seekers in immigration court fell from 23 percent to nine percent (EOIR 2013, 2014b. This paper examines—from the perspective of an attorney who represented Mexican asylum seekers on the US-Mexico border in El Paso, Texas—the reasons for low asylum approval rates for Mexicans despite high levels of violence in and flight from Mexico from 2008 to 2013. It details the obstacles faced by Mexican asylum seekers along the US-Mexico border, including placement in removal proceedings, detention, evidentiary issues, narrow legal standards, and (effectively judicial notice of country conditions in Mexico. The paper recommends that asylum seekers at the border be placed in affirmative proceedings (before immigration officials, making them eligible for bond. It also proposes increased oversight of immigration judges.

  16. [The declining socioeconomic prospects of Latinos of Mexican origin in the United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, E

    1998-01-01

    "This document analyzes how the changes in the labor market conditions in the U.S. and the ongoing crisis in Mexico interact to create conditions under which it becomes increasingly more difficult for Mexican immigrants and their children to advance economically in the U.S. Even for second and third generation of [Latinos] from Mexico the educational levels, and hence wage and salary levels, are extremely low. Given the transformation that currently characterize the U.S. labor market--the growth of the service sector employment and a decline in the number of manufacturing jobs, the increased participation of women and [Latinos] in the labor force, and the rising number of contingent workers--the future perspectives for [Latinos] from Mexico, and even [Latinos] in general, do not look good." (EXCERPT)

  17. Another Mexican birthweight paradox? The role of residential enclaves and neighborhood poverty in the birthweight of Mexican-origin infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osypuk, Theresa L; Bates, Lisa M; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores

    2010-02-01

    Examining whether contextual factors influence the birth outcomes of Mexican-origin infants in the US may contribute to assessing rival explanations for the so-called Mexican health paradox. We examined whether birthweight among infants born to Mexican-origin women in the US was associated with Mexican residential enclaves and exposure to neighborhood poverty, and whether these associations were modified by nativity (i.e. mother's place of birth). We calculated metropolitan indices of neighborhood exposure to Mexican-origin population and poverty for the Mexican-origin population, and merged with individual-level, year 2000 natality data (n=490,332). We distinguished between neighborhood exposure to US-born Mexican-origin population (i.e. ethnic enclaves) and neighborhood exposure to foreign-born (i.e. Mexico-born) Mexican-origin population (i.e. immigrant enclaves). We used 2-level hierarchical linear regression models adjusting for individual, metropolitan, and regional covariates and stratified by nativity. We found that living in metropolitan areas with high residential segregation of US-born Mexican-origin residents (i.e. high prevalence of ethnic enclaves) was associated with lower birthweight for infants of US-born Mexican-origin mothers before and after covariate adjustment. When simultaneously adjusting for exposure to ethnic and immigrant enclaves, the latter became positively associated with birthweight and the negative effect of the former increased, among US-born mothers. We found no contextual birthweight associations for mothers born in Mexico in adjusted models. Our findings highlight a differential effect of context by nativity, and the potential health effects of ethnic enclaves, which are possibly a marker of downward assimilation, among US-born Mexican-origin women. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Immigration and the American Industrial Revolution From 1880 to 1920

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschman, Charles; Mogford, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we measure the contribution of immigrants and their descendents to the growth and industrial transformation of the American workforce in the age of mass immigration from 1880 to 1920. The size and selectivity of the immigrant community, as well as their disproportionate residence in large cities, meant they were the mainstay of the American industrial workforce. Immigrants and their children comprised over half of manufacturing workers in 1920, and if the third generation (the ...

  19. Heavy metals exposures among Mexican farmworkers in eastern North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quandt, Sara A.; Jones, Bradley T.; Talton, Jennifer W.; Whalley, Lara E.; Galvan, Leonardo; Vallejos, Quirina M.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Chen, Haiying; Pharr, Kathryn E.; Isom, Scott; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Immigrant farmworkers are a population at risk for numerous environmental and occupational exposures. The metals arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium are known neurotoxins to which workers can be exposed both in the US and in their country of origin. Because farmworkers are exposed to neurotoxic pesticides, they may be at risk for adverse health effects from the combined exposure. Objectives: To examine the relationship between exposure to metals, as measured in urine, with personal and work-related characteristics of Mexican migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the US. Methods: We analyzed data on metals found in urine of 258 farmworkers recruited from 44 camps in eastern North Carolina in 2007. Geometric means and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to compare data with data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We used multivariate regression models fitted for each metal to estimate the association of creatinine-corrected urinary metals and worker characteristics related to environmental and occupational exposures. Results: Geometric mean urinary metals concentrations (μg/g creatinine) exceeded NHANES reference values for arsenic (13.23 [CI 11.11, 15.35] vs. 8.55 [CI 7.23, 9.86]) and lead (1.26 [CI 1.08, 1.43] vs. 0.63 [CI 0.60, 0.66]). Age, being from the central region of Mexico, and pack years of cigarette smoking were significant predictors of metals exposure; being a current smoker and years worked in US agriculture were not. Conclusions: This first study to examine indicators of worker body burdens of metals shows that workers have body burdens related to exposures other than work in the US. Further research should address their risk for adverse health outcomes due to combined exposures to neurotoxins in pesticides.

  20. Heavy metals exposures among Mexican farmworkers in eastern North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quandt, Sara A., E-mail: squandt@wfubmc.edu [Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Jones, Bradley T. [Department of Chemistry, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Talton, Jennifer W. [Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Whalley, Lara E. [Department of Family and Community Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Galvan, Leonardo [North Carolina Farmworkers Project, Benson, NC (United States); Vallejos, Quirina M.; Grzywacz, Joseph G. [Department of Family and Community Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Chen, Haiying [Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Pharr, Kathryn E. [Department of Chemistry, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Isom, Scott [Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Arcury, Thomas A. [Department of Family and Community Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Immigrant farmworkers are a population at risk for numerous environmental and occupational exposures. The metals arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium are known neurotoxins to which workers can be exposed both in the US and in their country of origin. Because farmworkers are exposed to neurotoxic pesticides, they may be at risk for adverse health effects from the combined exposure. Objectives: To examine the relationship between exposure to metals, as measured in urine, with personal and work-related characteristics of Mexican migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the US. Methods: We analyzed data on metals found in urine of 258 farmworkers recruited from 44 camps in eastern North Carolina in 2007. Geometric means and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to compare data with data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We used multivariate regression models fitted for each metal to estimate the association of creatinine-corrected urinary metals and worker characteristics related to environmental and occupational exposures. Results: Geometric mean urinary metals concentrations ({mu}g/g creatinine) exceeded NHANES reference values for arsenic (13.23 [CI 11.11, 15.35] vs. 8.55 [CI 7.23, 9.86]) and lead (1.26 [CI 1.08, 1.43] vs. 0.63 [CI 0.60, 0.66]). Age, being from the central region of Mexico, and pack years of cigarette smoking were significant predictors of metals exposure; being a current smoker and years worked in US agriculture were not. Conclusions: This first study to examine indicators of worker body burdens of metals shows that workers have body burdens related to exposures other than work in the US. Further research should address their risk for adverse health outcomes due to combined exposures to neurotoxins in pesticides.

  1. Training and Occupational Choice of Highly Skilled Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Sarit Cohen; Zvika Eckstein

    2000-01-01

    The transition pattern of post schooling individuals, displaced workers and immigrants to the labor market has similar characteristics. Unemployment falls quickly as workers first find blue-collar jobs, followed by a gradual movement to white-collar occupations. For immigrants the transition includes the learning of the new country language as well as the skills demanded by the new labor market. This paper focuses on male immigrants who moved from the former Soviet Union to Israel and are cha...

  2. Problems Faced by Mexican Asylum Seekers in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    J. Anna Cabot

    2014-01-01

    Violence in Mexico rose sharply in response to President Felipe Calderón’s military campaign against drug cartels which began in late 2006. As a consequence, the number of Mexicans who have sought asylum in the United States has grown significantly. In 2013, Mexicans made up the second largest group of defensive asylum seekers (those in removal proceedings) in the United States, behind only China (EOIR 2014b). Yet between 2008 and 2013, the grant rate for Mexican asylum seekers in immigration...

  3. Environmental and occupational exposures in immigrant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamranond, Pracha P; Hu, Howard

    2008-09-23

    Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation's health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status.

  4. Environmental and Occupational Exposures in Immigrant Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pracha P. Eamranond

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation’s health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status.

  5. Latino Immigrant Parents' Financial Stress, Depression, and Academic Involvement Predicting Child Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lauren R.; Spears Brown, Christia; Mistry, Rashmita S.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examines Mexican-heritage immigrant parents' financial stress, English language fluency, and depressive symptoms as risk factors for parental academic involvement and child academic outcomes. Participants were 68 Latino immigrant (from Mexico) third and fourth graders and their parents. Results from a structural equation model…

  6. Living and working in ethnic enclaves: English Language proficiency of immigrants in US metropolitan areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckhusen, J.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; de Graaff, T.; Poot, H.J.; Waldorf, B.S.

    2013-01-01

    We use data on Mexican and Chinese immigrants in the US to calculate the average marginal effects of residential and occupational segregation on immigrants' ability to speak English, and similarly the effects of English fluency of family members. Our results confirm that residential segregation is

  7. Exploring the Borderlands: Elementary School Teachers' Navigation of Immigration Practices in a New Latino Diaspora Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sarah; Link, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Drawing primarily on interview data from a 5-year ethnography on the school experiences of Mexican immigrant children in a New Latino Diaspora community, we explore how their teachers understood and responded to increasing deportation-based immigration practices affecting children's lives. We illustrate how teachers fell along a continuum…

  8. Unemployment of Non-western Immigrants in the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Cerveny, J.; Ours, J.C. van

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines whether unemployment of non-western immigrant workers in the Netherlands was disproportionally affected by the Great Recession. We analyze unemployment data covering the period November 2007 to February 2013 finding that the Great Recession affected unemployment rates of non-western immigrant workers in absolute terms more than unemployment rates of native workers. However, in relative terms there is not much of a difference. We also find that the sensitivity of ...

  9. Prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants: probability survey in the north border of Mexico Prevalencia de factores de riesgo para la infección por VIH entre migrantes mexicanos: encuesta probabilística en la frontera norte de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gudelia Rangel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants (MMIs in different geographic contexts, including the sending communities in Mexico, the receiving communities in the United States (US, and the Mexican North border region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a probability survey among MMIs traveling through key border crossing sites in the Tijuana (Baja California, Mexico-San Diego (California, US border region (N=1 429. RESULTS: The survey revealed substantial rates of reported sexually transmitted infections, needle-sharing and sexual risk practices in all migration contexts. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated levels of HIV risk call for further binational research and preventive interventions in all key geographic contexts of the migration experience to identify and tackle the different personal, environmental, and structural determinants of HIV risk in each of these contexts.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de prácticas de riesgo para la infección por VIH en migrantes mexicanos durante su estancia en distintos contextos geográficos, incluyendo sus comunidades de origen en México, las comunidades de destino en Estados Unidos de América (EUA, y la frontera Norte de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Encuesta probabilística de migrantes mexicanos que transitan por la región fronteriza Tijuana (Baja California, México-San Diego (California, EUA (N=1 429. RESULTADOS: La encuesta reveló una alta prevalencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual, uso compartido de agujas, y prácticas sexuales de riesgo en todos los contextos geográficos estudiados. CONCLUSIONES: Los niveles de riesgo de infección por VIH estimados para migrantes mexicanos en diferentes contextos geográficos exigen estudios e intervenciones preventivas binacionales que identifiquen y aborden los distintos factores de riesgo personales, ambientales, y estructurales que contribuyen al riesgo de infección por VIH en cada

  10. [Tuberculosis and immigration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Coronas, Joaquín; Rogado-González, M Cruz; Lozano-Serrano, Ana Belén; Cabezas-Fernández, M Teresa

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis worldwide is declining. However, in Western countries this decline is slower due to the impact of immigration. Tuberculosis in the immigrant population is related to health status in the country of origin and with overcrowding and poverty conditions in the host country. Immigrants with tuberculosis are younger, have a higher prevalence of extrapulmonary forms, greater proportion of drug resistance and higher treatment default rates than those of natives. New molecular techniques not only reduce diagnostic delay time but also allow the rapid identification of resistances and improve knowledge of transmission patterns. It is necessary to implement measures to improve treatment compliance in this population group like facilitating access to health card, the use of fixed-dose combination drugs, the participation of cultural mediators and community health workers and gratuity of drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  11. K-12 educational outcomes of immigrant youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Turley, Ruth N López

    2011-01-01

    The children from immigrant families in the United States make up a historically diverse population, and they are demonstrating just as much diversity in their experiences in the K-12 educational system. Robert Crosnoe and Ruth López Turley summarize these K-12 patterns, paying special attention to differences in academic functioning across segments of the immigrant population defined by generational status, race and ethnicity, and national origin. A good deal of evidence points to an immigrant advantage in multiple indicators of academic progress, meaning that many youths from immigrant families outperform their peers in school. This apparent advantage is often referred to as the immigrant paradox, in that it occurs despite higher-than-average rates of social and economic disadvantages in this population as a whole. The immigrant paradox, however, is more pronounced among the children of Asian and African immigrants than other groups, and it is stronger for boys than for girls. Furthermore, evidence for the paradox is far more consistent in secondary school than in elementary school. Indeed, school readiness appears to be one area of potential risk for children from immigrant families, especially those of Mexican origin. For many groups, including those from Latin America, any evidence of the immigrant paradox usually emerges after researchers control for family socioeconomic circumstances and youths' English language skills. For others, including those from Asian countries, it is at least partially explained by the tendency for more socioeconomically advantaged residents of those regions to leave their home country for the United States. Bilingualism and strong family ties help to explain immigrant advantages in schooling; school, community, and other contextual disadvantages may suppress these advantages or lead to immigrant risks. Crosnoe and Turley also discuss several policy efforts targeting young people from immigrant families, especially those of Latin

  12. K–12 Educational Outcomes of Immigrant Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; López Turley, Ruth N.

    2017-01-01

    Summary The children from immigrant families in the United States make up a historically diverse population, and they are demonstrating just as much diversity in their experiences in the K–12 educational system. Robert Crosnoe and Ruth López Turley summarize these K–12 patterns, paying special attention to differences in academic functioning across segments of the immigrant population defined by generational status, race and ethnicity, and national origin. A good deal of evidence points to an immigrant advantage in multiple indicators of academic progress, meaning that many youths from immigrant families outperform their peers in school. This apparent advantage is often referred to as the immigrant paradox, in that it occurs despite higher-than-average rates of social and economic disadvantages in this population as a whole. The immigrant paradox, however, is more pronounced among the children of Asian and African immigrants than other groups, and it is stronger for boys than for girls. Furthermore, evidence for the paradox is far more consistent in secondary school than in elementary school. Indeed, school readiness appears to be one area of potential risk for children from immigrant families, especially those of Mexican origin. For many groups, including those from Latin America, any evidence of the immigrant paradox usually emerges after researchers control for family socioeconomic circumstances and youths’ English language skills. For others, including those from Asian countries, it is at least partially explained by the tendency for more socioeconomically advantaged residents of those regions to leave their home country for the United States. Bilingualism and strong family ties help to explain immigrant advantages in schooling; school, community, and other contextual disadvantages may suppress these advantages or lead to immigrant risks. Crosnoe and Turley also discuss several policy efforts targeting young people from immigrant families, especially

  13. Immigrant Enhoming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogelman, Tatiana

    the difficulties that integration practitioners encounter in their attempts. I then highlight how the initial necessity of social spaces that are culturally and linguistically familiar to recent immigrants has, in conjunction with other factors, led to the establishment of at times solidified Russian-language...... fieldwork in socio-economically marginalized neighborhoods of eastern Berlin-Marzahn which are a home to a large number of Russian-speaking immigrants of German origin, I examine these projects’ attempts to construct communal social spaces shared by migrants and local residents. I start by noting...

  14. Discrimination, Stress, and Acculturation among Dominican Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Beverly Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have well established the association between discriminatory experiences, life chances, and mental health outcomes among Latino/as, especially among Mexican Americans. However, few studies have focused on the impact of stress or the moderating effects of low acculturation levels among recent immigrants, such as Dominicans. Using the…

  15. Social Support Strategies for Immigrants: The Context of Social Work Practice in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aistė Bartkevičienė

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of migration flows makes Lithuania one of the immigrants host countries which, like other European Union countries, faces the challenge of integration of immigrants and in this process an important role has a social worker. The aim of research was to reveal the social support strategies used by social workers in solving social problems of immigrants during the process of their integration. The qualitative research using semi-structured interview method and content analysis method was done. The survey results suggest that immigrants during the process of integration face these social problems: the search for housing, employment, legal, financial, lack of access to relevant information. The results revealed that social workers, solving the social problems of immigrants, evaluate their nature and level and then apply the appropriate level of intervention. Social workers apply these micro level interventions: information and consultancy of immigrants, mediation and emotional support, which include individual social assistance. Social workers, solving the social problems of immigrants, apply these mezzo level interventions: development of social network of immigrants, organization of socio-cultural events, organization and coordination of volunteer activities. Social workers providing social assistance to immigrants' integration process, use the following macro level interventions: dissemination of information onimmigrantissues, conduction and dissemination of researches based on immigrant integration issues, dissemination of best practice of social workers.

  16. Genetic ancestry in relation to the metabolic response to a U.S. versus traditional Mexican diet: a randomized crossover feeding trial among women of Mexican descent

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago-Torres, Margarita; De Dieu Tapsoba, Jean; Kratz, Mario; Lampe, Johanna W.; Breymeyer, Kara L.; Levy, Lisa; Song, Xiaoling; Villase?or, Adriana; Wang, Ching-Yun; Fejerman, Laura; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Carlson, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Certain populations with a large proportion of Indigenous American (IA) genetic ancestry may be evolutionarily adapted to traditional diets high in legumes and complex carbohydrates, and may have a detrimental metabolic response to U.S. diets high in refined carbohydrates and added sugars. We tested whether IA ancestry modified the metabolic response to a U.S. versus traditional Mexican diet in a controlled dietary intervention. Methods First and second generation Mexican immigrant...

  17. On the Macroeconomic and Welfare Effects of Illegal Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiangbo

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the macroeconomic and welfare effects of illegal immigration on the native born within a dynamic general equilibrium framework with labor market frictions. A key feature of the model is that job competition is allowed for between domestic workers and illegal immigrants. We calibrate the model to match some key statistics of the postwar U.S. economy. The model predicts that in the long run illegal immigration is a boon, but the employment opportunities of domestic wo...

  18. Work, Immigration, Gender: New Subjects of Cultural Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Lisa

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the construction of Asian immigrant women's work in the context of the "racialized feminization of labor" in the global restructuring of capitalism. Illustrates the intersection of work, immigration, and gender through a discussion of Asian female garment workers in the United States. (SLD)

  19. Poverty risk among older immigrants in a Scandinavian welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Vibeke; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2016-01-01

    Focus in the paper is on poverty among immigrants and refugees 50 years and older coming to Denmark from countries outside the OECD, with main emphasis on immigrants coming as guest workers before 1974, as refugees and as family members and marriage partners – tied movers – relative to individuals...

  20. Social Impact of Entrepreneurial Immigrants on Florida's Gold Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltea, Noemi

    2014-01-01

    At the dawn of a new presidential election, we are reminded that what separates the United States from the rest of the world are the immigrants who came here in the pursuit of the American Dream. These immigrants do not just come to the United States as workers, but also as consumers and entrepreneurs who contribute to the American economy, and…

  1. Germany - an immigration country

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Horst

    2003-01-01

    Germany has about the same proportion of foreigners in its population as the United States, it is an immigration country. In a way, Germany has let immigration happen, but it did not really have an explicit immigration policy in the past. Now it has to make up its mind on its immigration policy in the future. The paper looks at the experience with immigration in the past, at the integration of foreigners and at the issues of immigration policy.

  2. Generational Patterns in Mexican Americans' Academic Performance in an Unwelcoming Political Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosmann, Danyel A. V.; Roosa, Mark W.; Knight, George P.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that immigrant students often do better academically than their U.S.-born peers from the same ethnic group but it is unclear whether this pattern holds for Mexican Americans. We examined the academic performance of four generations of Mexican American students from fifth to 10th grade looking for generation differences and explanations for them. Using data from 749 families, we tested a model with fifth grade variables that differed by generation as potential mediators linking student generation to 10th grade academic performance. Results showed that immigrants were academically behind at fifth grade but caught up by seventh. Only economic hardship mediated the long term relationship between student generation and 10th grade academic performance; maternal educational expectations and child language hassles, English usage, discrimination, and mainstream values helped explained the early academic deficit of immigrant children. The results identified potential targets for interventions to improve Mexican American students' academic performance. PMID:24578588

  3. Immigration in a Changing Economy: California's Experience - Questions and Answers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    .... This three-year study, the first to take a 30-year perspective, profiles the changing character of recent immigrants and considers their contribution to the economy, their effects on other workers...

  4. THE MEXICAN CALORIE ALLOCATION AMONG THE WORKING CLASS IN THE AMERICAN WEST, 1870-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Alan Carson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When measures for material conditions are sparse or unreliable, height and weight measurements are now widely accepted proxies that reflect changing economic conditions. This study uses two biological measurements related to height and weight: the basal metabolic rate (BMR and calorie accounting. BMRs and calories of Mexicans in the American West remained constant, indicating that their diets did not vary with United States economic development, but Mexican BMRs and diets varied with occupations. Farmers and unskilled workers had greater BMRs and received more calories per day than workers in other occupations. During much of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Mexicans born in Mexico received fewer calories in the US than Mexicans born in the West. Mexican nutrition and diets also did not vary by residence within the US, indicating that Mexican diets were similar across western states.

  5. Critères pour apprécier les difficultés d’accès à l’indemnisation des travailleurs immigrants victimes de lésions professionnelles Criteria for assessing the compensation obtention difficulties of immigrant workers who are occupational injury victims Criterios para apreciar las dificultades de acceso a la indemnización de los trabajadores inmigrantes víctimas de lesiones profesionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Champagne

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Règle générale, presque tous les travailleurs du Québec victimes de lésions professionnelles peuvent se prévaloir d’indemnités. Mais l’accès à l’indemnisation est difficile pour bon nombre d’entre eux dont les travailleurs immigrants. Cet article décrit le processus d’évaluation et les critères ayant permis de juger des difficultés rencontrées par des travailleurs lors de leur parcours d’indemnisation. Trois groupes d’experts ont attribué des scores de difficulté à un échantillon de 104 travailleurs immigrants et non-immigrants de la région montréalaise victimes de lésions musculo-squelettiques. La comparaison des scores a été faite sous trois angles d’évaluation (médical, juridique et administratif et le résultat demeure le même : les travailleurs immigrants ont des scores de difficultés supérieurs aux autres travailleurs et particulièrement lorsque l’analyse est faite sous les angles juridique et administratif. Les critères retenus ciblent les dimensions humaines liées aux incompréhensions lors des procédures, des problèmes de communication à lire la documentation ainsi qu’à compléter les formulaires et à s’exprimer précisément lorsqu’il s’agit de décrire les événements accidentels ou les circonstances entourant l’apparition de la lésion et les symptômes médicaux.As a general rule, almost all of Quebec’s workers who suffer work injuries will be taken care of by the worker compensation system. However, access to worker compensation is difficult for many workers, including immigrant workers. This article describes the evaluation process and the criteria used for assessing the difficulties encountered by workers during the compensation process. Three groups of experts assigned difficulty scores to a sample group from the Montreal region consisting of 104 immigrant and non-immigrant musculoskeletal injury victims. The difficulty scores were compared using three aspects

  6. Foreign citizens with the right to work in the Republic of Moldova with no status of immigrant workers who do not fall under the provisions of the Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae ROMANDAȘ,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Among foreigners (foreign citizens or stateless persons, who legally reside on the territory of Republic of Moldova for work purposes, there are several categories of such persons who, in reality benefit of a special legal status being regulated by other legal acts than those regulating labour migration. In the Law of Moldova no. 180 on labour migration, there are identified 12 categories of foreigners who do not fall under this law and therefore cannot be treated as migrant workers. In our paper, we classified these categories of foreigners in four blocks as follows: a based on a particular profession, activity; b according to a profession and a determined period of activity in the Republic of Moldova; c depending on the conditions of the international treaty and d depending on other circumstances.

  7. Illegal Immigration and Agrarian Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venancio Salcines

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyse the relation which exists between a landowner and the immigrant workers contracted illegally by this person. For this reason, a theoretical model is developed based on the interconnection between the illegal and legal labour market. The big landowner analysed exercises a monopolistic power in the contracting of illegal manual labour. The application of a tariff in two parts permits this big landowner to obtain a greater surplus from the worker.

  8. Higher education and children in immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sandy; Flores, Stella M

    2011-01-01

    The increasing role that immigrants and their children, especially those from Latin America, are playing in American society, Sandy Baum and Stella Flores argue, makes it essential that as many young newcomers as possible enroll and succeed in postsecondary education. Immigrant youths from some countries find the doors to the nation's colleges wide open. But other groups, such as those from Latin America, Laos, and Cambodia, often fail to get a postsecondary education. Immigration status itself is not a hindrance. The characteristics of the immigrants, such as their country of origin, race, and parental socioeconomic status, in addition to the communities, schools, and legal barriers that greet them in the United States, explain most of that variation. Postsecondary attainment rates of young people who come from low-income households and, regardless of income or immigration status, whose parents have no college experience are low across the board. Exacerbating the financial constraints is the reality that low-income students and those whose parents have little education are frequently ill prepared academically to succeed in college. The sharp rise in demand for skilled labor over the past few decades has made it more urgent than ever to provide access to postsecondary education for all. And policy solutions, say the authors, require researchers to better understand the differences among immigrant groups. Removing barriers to education and to employment opportunities for undocumented students poses political, not conceptual, problems. Providing adequate funding for postsecondary education through low tuition and grant aid is also straightforward, if not easy to accomplish. Assuring that Mexican immigrants and others who grow up in low-income communities have the opportunity to prepare themselves academically for college is more challenging. Policies to improve the elementary and secondary school experiences of all children are key to improving the postsecondary

  9. The New Asian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  10. Engaging in Security Work: Selective Disclosure in Friendships of Korean and Mexican Undocumented Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Esther Y

    2017-01-01

    While much of the literature on undocumented immigrants has focused on employment and education outcomes, we know little about the effects of their precarious legal status on interpersonal relationships. Based on interviews with 50 Korean and Mexican undocumented young adults, I find that, regardless of ethnoracial background, undocumented immigrants approach relationships cautiously, engaging in "security work" to protect themselves and their loved ones. Security work is a negotiated process...

  11. Immigration and the American industrial revolution from 1880 to 1920.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Charles; Mogford, Elizabeth

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we measure the contribution of immigrants and their descendents to the growth and industrial transformation of the American workforce in the age of mass immigration from 1880 to 1920. The size and selectivity of the immigrant community, as well as their disproportionate residence in large cities, meant they were the mainstay of the American industrial workforce. Immigrants and their children comprised over half of manufacturing workers in 1920, and if the third generation (the grandchildren of immigrants) are included, then more than two-thirds of workers in the manufacturing sector were of recent immigrant stock. Although higher wages and better working conditions might have encouraged more long-resident native-born workers to the industrial economy, the scale and pace of the American industrial revolution might well have slowed. The closing of the door to mass immigration in the 1920s did lead to increased recruitment of native born workers, particularly from the South, to northern industrial cities in the middle decades of the 20th century.

  12. School Context and the Effect ESL Placement on Mexican-Origin Adolescents' Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Immigrant adolescents' academic achievement is crucial to our future economic stability, and Mexican-origin linguistic minority youth in U.S. schools generally demonstrate lower levels of achievement. English as a Second Language (ESL) programs provide an institutional response to these students' needs, the effect of which may vary by the proportion of immigrant students in the school. MEASURES: Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study (AHAA) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we estimate the effect of ESL placement on Mexican-origin achievement for first-, second-, and third-generation adolescents separately in schools with many and few immigrant students. RESULTS: The estimated effect of ESL placement varies by both immigrant concentration in the school and by students' generational status. CONCLUSIONS: We find that ESL enrollment may be protective for second-generation Mexican-origin adolescents in high immigrant concentration schools, and may prove detrimental for first-generation adolescents in contexts with few other immigrant students.

  13. School Context and the Effect ESL Placement on Mexican-Origin Adolescents’ Achievement*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Immigrant adolescents’ academic achievement is crucial to our future economic stability, and Mexican-origin linguistic minority youth in U.S. schools generally demonstrate lower levels of achievement. English as a Second Language (ESL) programs provide an institutional response to these students’ needs, the effect of which may vary by the proportion of immigrant students in the school. Measures Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study (AHAA) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we estimate the effect of ESL placement on Mexican-origin achievement for first-, second-, and third-generation adolescents separately in schools with many and few immigrant students. Results The estimated effect of ESL placement varies by both immigrant concentration in the school and by students’ generational status. Conclusions We find that ESL enrollment may be protective for second-generation Mexican-origin adolescents in high immigrant concentration schools, and may prove detrimental for first-generation adolescents in contexts with few other immigrant students. PMID:20354570

  14. Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canedo, Luis

    2008-01-01

    In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years

  15. The Mexican Committee against Racism and What It Reveals about Relations between Mexican and American Jews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Katz Gugenheim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work reconstructs the origin, organization, development, and disappearance of the Mexican Committee against Racism (Comité Mexicano contra el Racismo, CMR, active in Mexico City from 1944 to 1946, inthe context of the relations between a leading Jewish organization in the United States and a Mexican Jewish institution. The CMR appears in historiography as a Mexican anti-fascist institution, but this research reveals that it was conceived, implemented, financed, and supervised by the American Jewish Committee (AJC, a Jewish social action organization based in the United States, with the aim of fighting against racist and anti-Semitic prejudices, creating a friendly climate towards Jewish-refugee immigration, and quelling anti-American feelings in Mexico. The AJC's involvement was kept a secret for Mexicans in general and for the Jewish community in Mexico. Drawing on archives in Mexico and the United States, this work details the reasons that led to its organization, describes its implementation, explains why the AJC's involvement was kept a secret, and why the CMR failed to prosper and eventually disappeared.

  16. Mexican and Mexican-American children's funds of knowledge as interventions into deficit thinking: opportunities for praxis in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licona, Miguel M.

    2013-12-01

    In this case study, I use an ethnographic-style approach to understand the funds of knowledge of immigrant families living in colonias on both sides of the US/Mexico border. I focus on how these "knowledges" and concomitant experiences impact the ways we perceive and treat immigrant students who have all too often been viewed through deficit lenses that relegate them to the lowest expectations and outcomes in the classroom. I find that Mexican and Mexican-American families hold unusually sophisticated and relevant "knowledges" to mitigate their everyday lives. In this paper, I will refer to citizens of Mexico, whether they reside in Mexico or have crossed to the United States legally or without documentation for purposes of work, as Mexican. People who have crossed the border and are living in the US as legal residents or have gained citizenship are referred to as Mexican-Americans. They live a hybrid identity that is varied and dynamic, an issue that adds to the complexity of the content and contexts of this study. These families know and use these "knowledges" on a daily basis, yet they are not recognized by teachers in the US as a starting point to affirm and support immigrant children. Instead, immigrant children are relegated to the non-gifted and lower track classes where science is taught from an abstract and non-contextual and therefore less engaged basis. The approach I outline here, based on insights from my case study, can greatly improve teachers' abilities to prepare their curricula for diversity in science education and science literacy as well as for broad expectations for student success.

  17. Historical, Socio-Cultural, and Conceptual Issues to Consider When Researching Mexican American Children and Families, and other Latino Subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Buriel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order for the field of psychology in the United States to maintain its relevance and validity, it must become more inclusive in its theory and research of Latinos, who are now the largest "minority" group in the nation. In particular, due to immigration and birth rates, Mexican Americans are the largest and fastest growing segment of the Latino population. This paper addresses some of the most significant historical and socio-cultural factors contributing to the psychological nature and wellbeing of Mexican Americans. These factors should be understood and used to guide research and theory in order to make the discipline of psychology relevant for Mexican Americans. The concept of mestizaje is used to explain the biological and cultural mixing constituting the diverse origins of the Mexican people. Immigration to the U.S. is described in terms of selective socio-cultural variables giving rise to a diverse Mexican American culture that is resistant to complete assimilation. Within a U.S. context, the constructs of generational status, acculturation, and biculturalism are used to explain the socio-cultural adaptation of Mexican Americans. The special role of children in immigrant families as language and cultural brokers are also discussed, and used to explain the adjustment of Mexican American families.

  18. Environmental Inequality and Pollution Advantage among Immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtsiyarava, Maryia; Nawrotzki, Raphael J

    2017-04-01

    Environmental inequality scholarship has paid little attention to the disproportional exposure of immigrants in the United States (U.S.) to unfavorable environmental conditions. This study investigates whether new international migrants in the U.S. are exposed to environmental hazards and how this pattern varies among immigrant subpopulations (e.g., Hispanics, Asian, European). We combine sociodemographic information from the American Community Survey with toxicity-weighted chemical concentrations (Toxics Release Inventory) to model the relationship between toxin exposure and the relative population of recent immigrants across Public Use Microdata Areas (PUMAs, n=2,054) during 2005-2011. Results from spatial panel models show that immigrants tend to be less exposed to toxins, suggesting resilience instead of vulnerability. This pattern was pronounced among immigrants from Europe and Latin America (excluding Mexico). However, our results revealed that Mexican immigrants are disproportionately exposed to environmental hazards in wealthy regions.

  19. The Role of Acculturation in the Civic Engagement of Latino Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Michele Tucker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite continued growth and dispersion of the Latino immigrant population in the United States, the lingering effects of a sluggish national economy and growing anti-immigrant sentiments have contributed to ongoing marginalization and exclusion, further hindering their participation in American civic life. Despite these challenges, Latino immigrants have remained engaged, yet the factors and processes that facilitate participation in American society remain poorly understood. Data from the Latino National Survey and focus groups with Latino immigrants were used to examine how variations in levels of acculturation, demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status (SES, and characteristics of the immigrant experience influence the civic engagement of Latino immigrants in American society. We found that citizenship, length of residence in the United States, and higher SES enhanced civic engagement, while brown skin color, migration for economic reasons, and Mexican ancestry decreased participation. The level of acculturation significantly moderated the effects of these contextual factors.

  20. Experiences with treating immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Sima; Bjerre, Neele V; Dauvrin, Marie

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: While there has been systematic research on the experiences of immigrant patients in mental health services within certain European countries, little research has explored the experiences of mental health professionals in the delivery of services to immigrants across Europe. This study...... sought to explore professionals' experiences of delivering care to immigrants in districts densely populated with immigrants across Europe. METHODS: Forty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with mental health care professionals working in 16 European countries. Professionals in each country...... were recruited from three areas with the highest proportion of immigrants. For the purpose of this study, immigrants were defined as first-generation immigrants born outside the country of current residence, including regular immigrants, irregular immigrants, asylum seekers, refugees and victims...

  1. Sectoral Economies, Economic Contexts, and Attitudes toward Immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancygier, Rafaela M; Donnelly, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Do economic considerations shape attitudes toward immigration? In this article, we consider the relationship between economic interests and immigration preferences by examining how developments in individuals' sectors of employment affect these views. Using survey data across European countries from 2002 to 2009 and employing new measures of industry-level exposure to immigration, we find that sectoral economies shape opinions about immigration. Individuals employed in growing sectors are more likely to support immigration than are those employed in shrinking sectors. Moreover, the economic context matters: Making use of the exogenous shock to national economies represented by the 2008 financial crisis, we show that sector-level inflows of immigrant workers have little effect on preferences when economies are expanding, but that they dampen support for immigration when economic conditions deteriorate and confidence in the economy declines. These sectoral effects remain even when controlling for natives' views about the impact of immigration on the national economy and culture. When evaluating immigration policy, individuals thus appear to take into account whether their sector of employment benefits economically from immigration.

  2. Sectoral Economies, Economic Contexts, and Attitudes toward Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Do economic considerations shape attitudes toward immigration? In this article, we consider the relationship between economic interests and immigration preferences by examining how developments in individuals' sectors of employment affect these views. Using survey data across European countries from 2002 to 2009 and employing new measures of industry-level exposure to immigration, we find that sectoral economies shape opinions about immigration. Individuals employed in growing sectors are more likely to support immigration than are those employed in shrinking sectors. Moreover, the economic context matters: Making use of the exogenous shock to national economies represented by the 2008 financial crisis, we show that sector-level inflows of immigrant workers have little effect on preferences when economies are expanding, but that they dampen support for immigration when economic conditions deteriorate and confidence in the economy declines. These sectoral effects remain even when controlling for natives' views about the impact of immigration on the national economy and culture. When evaluating immigration policy, individuals thus appear to take into account whether their sector of employment benefits economically from immigration. PMID:24363457

  3. The Politics of Organic Phylogeny: The Art of Parenting and Surviving as Transnational Multilingual Latino Indigenous Immigrants in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Casas, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    This three-year qualitative research study took place in a new immigrant-receiving community in North Carolina. Utilizing narrative analysis, it explores how Mexican, Salvadoran, and Guatemalan immigrants of indigenous backgrounds use language as a survival tool to move in and out of transnational social spaces. In addition, it explores the ways…

  4. The Mexican American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Helen

    The purpose of this paper, prepared for the U. S. Commission on Civil Rights, is to indicate the types and ranges of problems facing the Mexican American community and to suggest ways in which these problems are peculiar to Mexican Americans. Specific examples are cited to illustrate major problems and personal experiences. Topics covered in the…

  5. Mexican American Parents' Perceptions of Childhood Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Barbara J.; Barr, Kathleen L.; Baker, Sharon K.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the norms, values, and perceptions of urban immigrant Mexican American (MA) parents of school children relative to physical activity, healthy eating, and child risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Investigators facilitated five focus groups in an urban elementary school setting and analyzed data using qualitative…

  6. Differing Cognitive Trajectories of Mexican American Toddlers: The Role of Class, Nativity, and Maternal Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; Bein, Edward; Kim, Yoonjeon; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies reveal early and wide gaps in cognitive and oral language skills--whether gauged in English or Spanish--among Latino children relative to White peers. Yet, other work reports robust child health and social development, even among children of Mexican American immigrants raised in poor households, the so-called "immigrant…

  7. Mother-Child Attachment Representation and Relationships over Time in Mexican-Heritage Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Carollee; Vu, Jennifer A.; Hamilton, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Continuity and intergenerational transmission of representations of attachment were examined in a longitudinal sample of 88 Mexican immigrant mothers and their children who participated in the local intervention group of the Early Head Start Evaluation Study. The authors interviewed mothers with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Parent…

  8. The shape of things to come? Obesity prevalence among foreign-born vs. US-born Mexican youth in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Pebley, Anne R; Hsih, Katie; Chung, Chang Y; Goldman, Noreen

    2013-02-01

    Obesity among the Mexican-origin adult population in the US has been associated with longer stays in the US and with being US- vs. Mexican-born, two proxies for acculturation. This pattern is less clear for Mexican-origin children and young adults: recent evidence suggests that it may be reversed, with foreign-born Mexican youth in the US at higher risk of obesity than their US-born Mexican-American counterparts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the hypothesis that the immigrant advantage in obesity prevalence for Mexican-origin populations in the US does not hold for children and young adults. We use data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (N = 1143) and the California Health Interview Survey (N = 25,487) for respondents ages 4-24 to calculate the odds of overweight/obesity by ethnicity and nativity. We find support for the hypothesis that overweight/obesity prevalence is not significantly lower for first-generation compared to second- and third-generation Mexican-origin youth. Significantly higher obesity prevalence among the first generation was observed for young adult males (ages 18-24) and adolescent females (ages 12-17). The previously-observed protective effect against obesity risk among recent adult immigrants does not hold for Mexican-origin youth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Immigration in a Changing Economy; California’s Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    34 Bracero ") program . The result was the conver- sion of a predominately legal and seasonal flow of Mexican immi- grants into a predominately illegal...1964 termination of the Bracero program and the 1965 Immigration and Naturalization Act. In combination, these federal laws reversed the national...were sub- sequently joined by their families, compounding the initial effect. Although the Bracero program operated nationwide, its effects were

  10. Attitudes towards immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2008-01-01

    Using the European Social Survey 2002/3, we develop a new test of whether economic self-interest influences people's attitudes towards immigration, exploiting that people have widely different perceptions of the consequences of immigration......Using the European Social Survey 2002/3, we develop a new test of whether economic self-interest influences people's attitudes towards immigration, exploiting that people have widely different perceptions of the consequences of immigration...

  11. Crime and immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Bell

    2014-01-01

    Immigration is one of the most important policy debates in Western countries. However, one aspect of the debate is often mischaracterized by accusations that higher levels of immigration lead to higher levels of crime. The evidence, based on empirical studies of many countries, indicates that there is no simple link between immigration and crime. Crucially, the evidence points to substantial differences in the impact on property crime, depending on the labor market opportunities of immigrant ...

  12. What drives immigration amnesties?

    OpenAIRE

    Casarico, Alessandra; Facchini, Giovanni; Frattini, Tommaso

    2012-01-01

    We develop a general model of legal and illegal immigration to understand the basic tradeoffs faced by a government in the decision to implement an immigration amnesty in the presence of a selective immigration policy. We show that two channels play an important role: an amnesty is more likely the more restricted are the occupational opportunities of undocumented immigrants and the less redistributive is the welfare state. Empirical evidence based on a novel panel dataset of legalizations car...

  13. Characteristics and assimilation of Chinese immigrants in the U.S. labour market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S J

    1998-01-01

    "Using U.S. Public Use Samples, this article examines differences in the quality and assimilation rate of different Chinese immigrant groups (immigrants from Hong Kong, Taiwan and Mainland China) in the U.S. labour market. The descriptive statistics show great differences among Chinese immigrants from the three areas in their ages, wage rates, years of schooling and industrial and occupational distributions. This article also finds that the three Chinese immigrant groups have much more dispersed wage distributions than U.S.-born workers have. The three Chinese immigrant groups also experienced substantial assimilation into the U.S. labour market during the 1980s." (EXCERPT)

  14. The Mexican oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos-Giacoman, E.

    1991-01-01

    In the environment of growing domestic demand and enhanced international competitiveness, Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX)-the Mexican national oil company-faces the challenge of not only responding adequately to the rapid changes taking place in the Mexican economy, but making a significant contribution towards solid and stable growth. This paper reports that the relevant concern is how PEMEX is going to live up to these expectations. The Mexican oil industry, especially including the petrochemical sector, has great potential in terms of an ample domestic market as well as external foreign-currency-generating markets

  15. Effect of acculturation and mutuality on family loyalty among Mexican American caregivers of elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hsueh-Fen S; An, Kyungeh

    2012-06-01

    Informal family care for elders is conventional in Mexican American communities despite increasing intergenerational gaps in filial values. In our study, we explored whether acculturation and dyadic mutuality, as perceived by Mexican American family caregivers, explain the caregivers' expectations of family loyalty toward elderly relatives. A nonexperimental, correlational design with convenience sampling was used in El Paso, Texas, from October 2007 to January 2008. Three bilingual promotoras collected data from 193 Mexican American adult caregivers of community-dwelling elders using three scales designed for Mexican Americans: the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans II-Short Form, the Mutuality Scale, and the Expectations of Family Loyalty of Children Toward Elderly Relatives Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to analyze the data. Acculturation had a marginal effect (r = .21, p loyalty toward elderly relatives. There was no significant correlation between acculturation and mutuality (r = .05). Although Mexican American caregivers with strong Mexican orientation may have high expectations of family loyalty toward elderly relatives, mutuality exhibits more significant effects on expectations. Among Mexican Americans, mutuality between the caregiving dyad, as perceived by caregivers, may be a better predictor of filial values than caregivers' acculturation alone. It may be useful to incorporate the dual paradigm of acculturation and mutuality into immigrant family care for elderly relatives. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  16. Age at migration and disability-free life expectancy among the elder Mexican-origin population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Garcia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migration selectivity is thought to shape the health profiles of Mexican immigrants. Objective: This study examines how the experience of Mexican migration to the United States affects the health process and the quality of life in old age by age at migration, specific to sex. Methods: We use 20 years of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to estimate the proportion of life spent disability-free prior to death across eight subgroups by sex, nativity, and age at migration among Mexican-origin elderly in the United States. Results: Female migrants are at a significant disadvantage in terms of IADL disability-free life expectancy relative to US-born women, particularly late-life migrants. Conversely, mid- and late-life male migrants exhibit an advantage in ADL disability-free life expectancy compared to their US-born counterparts. Conclusions: Foreign-born Mexican elders are not a homogeneous group. This issue merits special attention in the development of community-based long-term care programs in order to appropriately target the specific needs of different subgroups of older Mexican individuals entering their last decades of life. Contribution: This study contributes to immigrant health literature by providing a more comprehensive documentation of nativity differentials, by distinguishing subgroups of Mexican elderly by sex, nativity, and age at migration.

  17. Age at Immigration and Substance Use and Problems Among Males and Females at the U.S.-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Li, Libo; Borges, Guilherme; Zemore, Sarah

    2017-11-01

    Although substance use and problems among Mexican Americans are associated with both immigration to the United States and living at the U.S.-Mexico border, little is known about relationships between age at immigration and substance use by gender within the border context. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association of age at immigration with heavy alcohol use, alcohol use disorders (AUD), and drug use among Mexicans Americans living both on and off the U.S.-Mexico border. Household surveys were conducted, using area probability sampling of 2,336 Mexican Americans (1,185 female), ages 18-65, living at the Texas-Mexico border in the metropolitan areas of Laredo and McAllen/Brownsville, and in the nonborder location of San Antonio. Females immigrating before age 12 were less likely to report heavy alcohol use (odds ratio [OR] = 0.309), and those immigrating before age 21 were less likely to report any drug use during the last year compared with their U.S.-born counterparts (OR = 0.473; OR = 0.386, respectively). Males immigrating after age 20 were less likely to report heavy alcohol use (OR = 0.478), and those immigrating between ages 12 and 20 were less likely to report AUD (OR = 0.479) and drug use (OR = 0.255) compared with their U.S.-born counterparts. Early age at immigration (before age 12) was significantly associated with drug use for males living on the border compared with those living off the border. Findings suggest that among females, immigrating before age 12 (vs. being born in the United States) is protective against heavy alcohol and drug use, but among males, immigrating before age 12 results in similarly heavy patterns of use as their U.S.-born counterparts, partially supporting previous findings that early immigration is particularly risky in relation to substance use and AUD.

  18. Implementing Task-Oriented Content-Based Instruction for First- and Second-Generation Immigrant Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Williamson, Eliana

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how the ESL program at an ethnically/linguistically diverse community college (between San Diego and the Mexican border) moved from a general, grammar-based ESL curriculum to a content-based instruction (CBI) curriculum. The move was designed to better prepare 1st- and 2nd-generation immigrant students for freshman…

  19. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...... the impact of the increased number of immigrants differs between the two countries. We find higher inequality for immigrants than natives in Denmark but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this particular inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution...... of immigrants to overall inequality has increased, primarily caused by increased between-group inequality. The share of immigrants in the population is more important for the change in overall inequality in Denmark than in Germany, while the opposite is the case for inequality among immigrants....

  20. Evidence from the 1920s U.S.Immigration Quota Acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ager, Philipp; Hansen, Casper Worm

    2017-01-01

    in population growth in areas with larger pre-existing immigrant communities of affected nationalities. This effect was largely driven by the policy-restricted supply of immigrants from quota-affected nationalities and lower fertility of first- and second-generation immigrant women. In the more affected areas...... labor productivity growth in manufacturing declined substantially and native workers were pushed into lower-wage occupations. While native white workers faced sizable earnings losses, black workers benefited from the quota system and improved their relative economic status within the more affected areas....

  1. Immigration policy and birth weight: Positive externalities in Italian law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Luca; Pieroni, Luca

    2015-09-01

    A decade ago, the political party of the Italian center-right voted a law restricting immigration. The law became effective in early 2005, when the Italian parliament approved the decree for its application, but one of its articles, granting amnesty for illegal immigrant workers, became immediately effective in July 2002. As a result, 650,000 immigrants were granted the status of foreign nationals in Italy. In this paper, we examine whether the increase in the prevalence of "regular immigrants" has led to an improvement in health outcomes of babies born to migrant women, measured in terms of birth weight. Two hitherto unexploited birth sample surveys published by Italian Institute of Statistics were used for this study. Our estimates show that regularized immigration reduced the probability of low birth weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Minutemen and Anti-immigration Attitudes in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérick Douzet

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of the Minutemen in building up popular pressure for immigration reform and capturing the growing frustration of some of residents at the way the Bush administration is handling immigration in a context of heightened fear about national security. The immigration issue in California had quieted down after anti-immigration proposition 187 was passed –yet never enacted- in 1994. Pete Wilson had unsuccessfully used this divisive issue to win presidential nomination, alienating minority voters in the State and therefore undermining the strength of the Republican party.Despite an apparent growing tolerance about diversity and good economic times, the issue came back to California both through the deterioration of the situation at the border and through the national debate over immigration reform in the mid-2000s. Based on field work at the California-Mexican border, the author gives a portrait of the Minutemen, explaining their motivations, hopes, fears and action which help understand the perceptions and strategies of congressmen and legislators and the fascinating radicalization of their positions on immigration over the past two years.

  3. Children’s Migration to the United States from Mexico and Central America: Evidence from the Mexican and Latin American Migration Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine M. Donato

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of rising numbers of unaccompanied minors at the Mexico-US border in 2014, this article examines child migration from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua. Using data from the Mexican and Latin American Migration Projects that permit us to go beyond simple descriptive analysis about children apprehended at the border, we investigate the extent to which children from these countries: (1 enter without legal authorization to do so; (2 are more likely to cross the border now than in the past; and (3 are tied to their parents’ migration. In theory, if immigration and refugee protections worked well for children and offered them legal pathways to reunify with their families, then we would expect low levels of unauthorized entry and no dramatic shifts over time. However, our examination of child migration shows that it is strongly linked to unauthorized entry, period of entry, and parents’ US experience.The findings show that the migration of children is closely linked to their parents’ migration history. Although the overall likelihood of a Mexican child making a first US trip is quite low, it is practically non-existent for children whose parents have no US experience. Thus, the increase in child migration from Central America, and the continued high levels of child migration from Mexico result from widespread migration networks and the United States’ long-standing reliance on the children’s parents as immigrant workers. The findings suggest that these children need protection in the form of family reunification and permanent legal status.

  4. Explaining the Immigrant Health Advantage: Self-selection and Protection in Health-Related Factors Among Five Major National-Origin Immigrant Groups in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riosmena, Fernando; Kuhn, Randall; Jochem, Warren C.

    2017-01-01

    Despite being newcomers, immigrants often exhibit better health relative to native-born populations in industrialized societies. We extend prior efforts to identify whether self-selection and/or protection explain this advantage. We examine migrant height and smoking levels just prior to immigration to test for self-selection; and we analyze smoking behavior since immigration, controlling for self-selection, to assess protection. We study individuals aged 20–49 from five major national origins: India, China, the Philippines, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. To assess self-selection, we compare migrants, interviewed in the National Health and Interview Surveys (NHIS), with nonmigrant peers in sending nations, interviewed in the World Health Surveys. To test for protection, we contrast migrants’ changes in smoking since immigration with two counterfactuals: (1) rates that immigrants would have exhibited had they adopted the behavior of U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites in the NHIS (full —assimilation ); and (2) rates that migrants would have had if they had adopted the rates of nonmigrants in sending countries (no-migration scenario). We find statistically significant and substantial self-selection, particularly among men from both higher-skilled (Indians and Filipinos in height, Chinese in smoking) and lower-skilled (Mexican) undocumented pools. We also find significant and substantial protection in smoking among immigrant groups with stronger relative social capital (Mexicans and Dominicans). PMID:28092071

  5. Formation et initiation à la tâche : éléments de ritualisation favorisant le développement d’une culture de santé et sécurité au travail auprès des travailleurs immigrants Training and initiation to the task: ritual elements promoting the development of a culture of health and safety at work for immigrant workers Formación e iniciación a la tarea : elementos de ritualización que favorecen el desarrollo de una cultura de salud y seguridad en los trabajadores inmigrantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Gravel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Le présent article traite une partie des résultats d’une étude portant sur les stratégies favorables à la prise en charge des mesures de santé et sécurité au travail (SST dans les petites entreprises montréalaises (PE embauchant une main-d’œuvre immigrante. Dans cet article est abordée entre autres l’influence de l’immigration sur la capacité et la motivation des superviseurs et des travailleurs à participer à la gestion des mesures de SST dont celles de la formation et de l’initiation à la tâche.. L’échantillon comprend 28 PE de Montréal ayant entre 10 et 50 travailleurs répartis en deux groupes : a PE d’observation ayant 25 % et plus de travailleurs immigrants (n=19; b PE de comparaison ayant 75 % et plus de travailleurs nés au Canada (n=9. Les résultats indiquent que les compétences des dirigeants et la formation acquise dans leur pays d’origine orientent l’adoption de rituels de prévention dès l’embauche des nouveaux travailleurs. Enfin, malgré l’importance de la présence de travailleurs immigrants dans les PE, seulement deux entreprises de notre échantillon ont adapté leur formation aux nouveaux employés immigrants.This study examines the influence of immigration on motivation and ability of supervisors and workers in small business (SB to participate in health and safety measures (OSH management. The sample consists of 28 Montreal’s SB between 10 and 50 workers divided into two groups: a SB observation with 25 % or more immigrant workers (n=19; b SB compared with 75 % and more Canadian-born workers (n=9. The results indicate that managers’ competencies and training developed in their country of origin condition their approach concerning hiring and training rituals. Despite the importance of immigrant workers’ presence, only two companies in our sample have adapted their training for new immigrant employees.El presente artículo trata una parte de los resultados de un estudio sobre

  6. Hospitalization rates among economic immigrants to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Edward; Sanmartin, Claudia; Manuel, Douglas G

    2017-07-19

    Economic immigrants generally, and economic class principal applicants (ECPAs) specifically, tend to have better health than other immigrants. However, health outcomes vary among subcategories within this group, especially by sex. This study examines hospitalization rates among ECPAs aged 25 to 74 who arrived in Canada between 1980 and 2006 as skilled workers, business immigrants, or live-in caregivers. The analysis used two linked databases to estimate age-standardized hospitalization rates (ASHRs) overall and for leading causes by sex. ASHRs of ECPA subcategories were compared with each other and with those of the Canadian-born population. Logistic regression was used to derive odds ratios for hospitalization among ECPAs, by sex. Male and female ECPAs aged 25 to 74 had significantly lower all-cause ASHRs than did the Canadian-born population in the same age range. This pattern prevailed for each ECPA subcategory and for each disease examined. Compared with skilled workers, business immigrants had lower odds of hospitalization; live-in caregivers who arrived after 1992 had higher odds. Adjustment for education, official language proficiency, and world region reduced the strength of or eliminated these associations. Compared with the Canadian-born population, ECPAs generally had low hospitalization rates. Differences were apparent among ECPA subcategories.

  7. The association between acculturation and health insurance coverage for immigrant children from socioeconomically disadvantaged regions of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2013-06-01

    Among immigrant children whose parents have historically had lower education, the study explored which immigrant children were most likely to have coverage based on maternal region of origin. The direct and indirect relationship of acculturation on immigrant children's coverage was also assessed. A subsample of US-born children with foreign-born mothers from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort was analyzed using multinomial logistic regressions (n = 1,686). Children whose mothers emigrated from the Caribbean or Indochina had greater odds of being insured compared to children whose mothers emigrated from Mexico. Moreover, Latin American children did not statistically differ from Mexican children in being uninsured. Maternal citizenship was positively associated with children's coverage; while living in a household with a mother who migrated as a child was negatively associated with private insurance. To increase immigrant children's coverage, Latin American and Mexican families may benefit from additional financial assistance, rather than cultural assistance.

  8. “Why We Stay”: Immigrants’ motivations for remaining in communities impacted by anti-immigration policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Valentine, Jessa L.; Padilla, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Although restrictive immigration policy reduces incentives for unauthorized immigrants to remain in the United States, many immigrants remain in their U.S. community in spite of the anti-immigration climate surrounding them. This study explores motivations shaping immigrants’ intentions to stay in Arizona after passage of Senate Bill 1070 in 2010, one of the most restrictive immigration policies in recent decades. We conducted three focus groups in a large metropolitan city in Arizona with Mexican immigrant parents (N = 25). Themes emerging from the focus groups described multiple and interlocking personal, family and community, and contemporary sociopolitical motivations to stay in their community, and suggest that some important motivating factors have evolved as a result of immigrants’ changing environment. Implications for research and social policy reform are discussed. PMID:23875853

  9. Sex work, immigration and social difference

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Public discourses around ‘migrant sex workers’ are often more confident about what migrant sex workers signify morally (i.e. vulnerability, criminality) but are less clear about who the ‘migrant’ is. This thesis interrogates the implications of the ‘migrant sex worker’ category based on semi-structured interviews with 65 immigrant, migrant and racialised women in sex work and two support staff in Melbourne, Australia and Vancouver, Canada during 2013–2014. Specifically, I employ an intersecti...

  10. Mental Health Consultation Among Ontario's Immigrant Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Farah; Khanlou, Nazilla; Macpherson, Alison; Tamim, Hala

    2017-11-16

    To determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of past-year mental health consultation for Ontario's adult (18 + years old) immigrant populations. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2012 was used to calculate the prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation by service provider type. Characteristics associated with mental health consultation were determined by carrying out multivariable logistic regression analysis on merged CCHS 2008-2012 data. Adult immigrant populations in Ontario (n = 3995) had lower estimated prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation across all service provider types compared to Canadian-born populations (n = 14,644). Amongst those who reported past-year mental health consultation, 57.89% of Ontario immigrants contacted their primary care physician, which was significantly higher than the proportion who consulted their family doctor from Canadian-born populations (45.31%). The factors of gender, age, racial/ethnic background, education level, working status, food insecurity status, self-perceived health status, smoking status, alcohol drinking status, years since immigration, and age at time of immigration were significantly associated with past-year mental health consultation for immigrant populations. Ontario's adult immigrant populations most commonly consult their family doctor for mental health care. Potential exists for expanding the mental health care role of primary care physicians as well as efforts to increase accessibility of specialized mental health services. Integrated, coordinated care where primary care physicians, specialized mental health professionals, social workers, and community educators, etc. working together in a sort of "one-stop-shop" may be the most effective way to mitigate gaps in the mental health care system. In order to effectively tailor mental health policy, programming, and promotion to suit the needs of immigrant populations initiatives that focus on

  11. The Work Experience of Undocumented Mexican Women Migrants in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Rita J.; DeLey, Margo

    1984-01-01

    Undocumented Mexican women workers in Los Angeles were interviewed about their work experience in the United States. Most of them work in factories, not in domestic service. Most earn a salary above minimum wage but below that earned by documented women, and 80 percent believe their treatment at work equals that of other workers. (KH)

  12. Comprehensive Immigration Reform: Becoming Americans - U.S. Immigrant Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbaut, RG

    2007-01-01

    Hearing on 'Comprehensive Immigration Reform: Becoming Americans - US Immigrant Integration,' Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Serial No. 110-27. May 16, 2007. Abstract: In this statement to a House Hearing on comprehensive immigration reform focusing on immigrant integration, English and foreign language competencies, preferences and use among immigrants and thei...

  13. Concentrations of the urinary pyrethroid metabolite 3-phenoxybenzoic acid in farm worker families in the MICASA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trunnelle, Kelly J., E-mail: kjtrunnelle@ucdavis.edu [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bennett, Deborah H. [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Ahn, Ki Chang [Department of Entomology and Cancer Center, University of California, Davis 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Schenker, Marc B. [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Tancredi, Daniel J. [Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, 4610 X Street Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Gee, Shirley J. [Department of Entomology and Cancer Center, University of California, Davis 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T. [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hammock, Bruce D. [Department of Entomology and Cancer Center, University of California, Davis 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Indoor pesticide exposure is a growing concern, particularly from pyrethroids, a commonly used class of pesticides. Pyrethroid concentrations may be especially high in homes of immigrant farm worker families who often live in close proximity to agricultural fields, and are faced with poor housing conditions, causing higher pest infestation and more pesticide use. We investigate exposure of farm worker families to pyrethroids in a study of mothers and children living in Mendota, CA within the population-based Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) Study. We present pyrethroid exposure based on an ELISA analysis of urinary metabolite 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA) levels among 105 women and 103 children. The median urinary 3PBA levels (children=2.56 ug/g creatinine, mothers=1.46 ug/g creatinine) were higher than those reported in population based studies for the United States general population, but similar to or lower than studies with known high levels of pyrethroid exposure. A positive association was evident between poor housing conditions and the urinary metabolite levels, showing that poor housing conditions are a contributing factor to the higher levels of 3PBA seen in the urine of these farm worker families. Further research is warranted to fully investigate sources of exposure. - Highlights: • We investigate exposure of farm worker families to pyrethroids. • We present pyrethroid exposure based on an ELISA analysis of urinary 3PBA levels. • 3PBA levels were higher than those reported for the U.S. general population. • Poor housing conditions may be associated with pyrethroid exposure.

  14. Concentrations of the urinary pyrethroid metabolite 3-phenoxybenzoic acid in farm worker families in the MICASA study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trunnelle, Kelly J.; Bennett, Deborah H.; Ahn, Ki Chang; Schenker, Marc B.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Gee, Shirley J.; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Indoor pesticide exposure is a growing concern, particularly from pyrethroids, a commonly used class of pesticides. Pyrethroid concentrations may be especially high in homes of immigrant farm worker families who often live in close proximity to agricultural fields, and are faced with poor housing conditions, causing higher pest infestation and more pesticide use. We investigate exposure of farm worker families to pyrethroids in a study of mothers and children living in Mendota, CA within the population-based Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) Study. We present pyrethroid exposure based on an ELISA analysis of urinary metabolite 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA) levels among 105 women and 103 children. The median urinary 3PBA levels (children=2.56 ug/g creatinine, mothers=1.46 ug/g creatinine) were higher than those reported in population based studies for the United States general population, but similar to or lower than studies with known high levels of pyrethroid exposure. A positive association was evident between poor housing conditions and the urinary metabolite levels, showing that poor housing conditions are a contributing factor to the higher levels of 3PBA seen in the urine of these farm worker families. Further research is warranted to fully investigate sources of exposure. - Highlights: • We investigate exposure of farm worker families to pyrethroids. • We present pyrethroid exposure based on an ELISA analysis of urinary 3PBA levels. • 3PBA levels were higher than those reported for the U.S. general population. • Poor housing conditions may be associated with pyrethroid exposure

  15. Immigrants as crime victims: Experiences of personal nonfatal victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Krista; Zhao, Weiyan; Kelleher, Kelly; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun

    2010-04-01

    Immigrants to the United States are disproportionately victims of homicide mortality in and outside the workplace. Examining their experiences with nonfatal victimization may be helpful in understanding immigrant vulnerability to violence. We compared the annual prevalence of nonfatal personal victimization experienced by immigrant and US-born adults by sociodemographics, employment, occupation, industry, smoking, alcohol and drug use using data from Wave 1 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The prevalence of victimization among immigrants was comparable to that among US-born adults [3.84% (95% CI: 3.18-4.63) vs. 4.10% (95% CI: 3.77-4.44)]. Lower percentages of victimization experienced by immigrants were seen among the unmarried, those age 30-44 years, and among residents of central city areas as compared to those groups among the US-born. For immigrants entering the US as youth, the victimization prevalence declines with greater years of residency in US. Multivariate logistic regression models suggest that, the odds of victimization was significantly associated with age, family income, marital status, central city residency, smoking, and drug use while employment status was not a significant factor. Immigrant workers with farming/forestry occupations might face a higher risk of being victims of violence than their US-born counterparts. The prevalence of victimization among immigrants was comparable to that among US-born adults. Employment status and industry/occupation overall were not significant risk factors for becoming victims of violence. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. African immigrants in South Africa: Job takers or job creators?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivence Kalitanyi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade African immigrants have been met with and exposed to severe forms of hostility towards their presence in this country. A significant number of these migrants have successfully applied their entrepreneurial flair in establishing small enterprises and employing workers, often to the envy of their local counterparts. This paper presents the findings of an empirical study conducted in 2007 on job creation by African immigrant entrepreneurs for South Africans with face-to-face interviews with 120 African immigrant entrepreneurs. These findings were triangulated 7 non-governmental organisations that interact with immigrants in Cape Town. A review of the literature on migration, entrepreneurship and immigrant entrepreneurs formed the basis for the study The findings indicate that more than 80% of African immigrant entrepreneurs interviewed employ South Africans in their businesses. Despite a generally negative national perception towards immigrants, this study has also revealed that entrepreneurial skills are transferred from immigrant entrepreneurs to their South African employees. Whilst the study was only conducted in the suburban areas of Cape Town, the researcher believes that the results represent the general trend for South Africa. Furthermore, the study only involved those migrants who come from African continent. The overall result is the acknowledgement of the contribution that non-citizens are making to the country’s growth and development. The findings suggest recommendations geared towards policy changes regarding South African immigration law, an inclusive research about the role of immigrants on job creation in South Africa, as well as the consideration of immigrant entrepreneurs when allocating financial support.

  17. Immigrant entrepreneurship in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Vinogradov, Evgueni

    2008-01-01

    Doctoral thesis (Ph.D.) – Bodø Graduate School of Business, 2008 The purpose of this doctoral thesis is to add to the knowledge about immigrant entrepreneurship in Norway and to test the existing theories relating to immigrant entrepreneurship. In this work, an immigrant entrepreneur is defined as a business owner born outside Norway with both parents born abroad who is involved into the activities characterised by economic innovation, organisation creation, and profit-seeking in the marke...

  18. Linked migration systems: immigration and internal labor flows in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Walker; M. Ellis; R. Barff

    1992-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between immigration and internal labor movements in the US. Wedding the literatures on immigration and internal migration, we develop a mobility model linking these various flows on the basis of occupational status of worker, producction and institutional relations in the economy, and economic restructuring.

  19. Revisiting the Underclass Debate: Contemporary Applications to Immigrants and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Abigail E.; Cabaniss, Emily R.; Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie M.

    2012-01-01

    The "underclass" concept pervades social science research on poverty, racial relations, and more recently, immigration. In this article, we elaborate and extend Massey's critique of the underclass concept by briefly reviewing the history of this concept and emphasizing its contemporary application to immigrants and undocumented workers. We also…

  20. Social Citizenship, Integration and Collective Action: Immigrant Civic Engagement in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kim; Okamoto, Dina G.

    2013-01-01

    Collective action has been examined in studies of worker insurgency, homeless protest, the Civil Rights movement and white backlash against racial minorities. Relatively few studies, however, focus on noncontentious forms of immigrant collective action. Utilizing a new data set comprising over 1,000 immigrant "civic" events, we examine whether the…

  1. "We Only Speak English Here": English Dominance in Language Diverse, Immigrant After-School Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Melanie Jones; Okamoto, Dina G.; Feldman, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Past research suggests that community after-school programs (ASPs) are crucial sites for culturally relevant programming for minority and immigrant youth; yet, we know little about how ASPs address language in their programming. Using an ethnographic fieldwork approach, we examine the goals and practices of ASP workers serving immigrant youth with…

  2. [The remittances in U.S. dollars that Mexican migrants send home from the United States (a study based on data from the Survey of Migration in the Northern Frontier Region of Mexico)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona Vasquez, R

    1998-01-01

    The difficulties in obtaining reliable data on remittances to Mexico by Mexican immigrants in the United States are first outlined. An analysis of such remittances is then attempted using data from a recent survey, the Encuesta sobre Migracion en la Frontera Norte. Data from this survey are used to analyze several aspects of remittances "such as the direct determination of the amount of the remittances and the identification of the immigrants that send them according to their social and demographic features, and the location of Mexican zones where the remittances arrive, [and] the variations in the amount and frequency of the remittances among the different groups of immigrants." (EXCERPT)

  3. The integration of immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Bauböck, Rainer

    1995-01-01

    from the Table of Contents: Migration and integration - Basic concepts and definitions; Immigration and Integration policies; The legal framework for integration; Dimension of social integration; Cultural integration; Conclusions;

  4. Mothers' Parenting Dimensions and Adolescent Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors in a Low-Income, Urban Mexican American Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manongdo, Jennifer A.; Garcia, Jorge I. Ramirez

    2007-01-01

    The relation between adolescent-reported parenting behaviors and mother-reported youth externalizing and internalizing behaviors was examined among 91 Mexican American mother-adolescent (ages 13-17) dyads recruited from an immigrant enclave in a large midwestern metropolitan area. Two major dimensions of mothers' parenting emerged: supportive…

  5. Examining the Effects of Mexican Serial Migration and Family Separations on Acculturative Stress, Depression, and Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Dana; Reyes, Karina

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of parent-child separations during serial migration to the United States in predicting individual- and family-level outcomes in Mexican immigrant families. We assessed parents' subjective appraisals of their family's separation and reunion experiences to explore associations with self-reported acculturative stress,…

  6. [Categories of immigrants and "levels of immigration" in Canada: a voluntarist policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepeau, F

    1986-11-01

    Because Canada has no terrestrial border other than that with the US, the potential for significant uncontrolled migration is low and the country is able to implement a selective and relatively voluntarist immigration policy. The government prepares an annual report indicating the number of immigrants to be admitted and the demographic considerations used to arrive at the number. Immigrants are classified as familial, humanitarian, or economic, and each category has its own selection criteria designed to determine the capacity of the candidate to become successfully established in Canada. Canadian immigration authorities have very wide latitude in interpreting selection criteria and evaluating candidates. Family members can seek entry if they will be sponsored by a Canadian citizen or permanent resident at least 18 years old who is judged able to do so by an immigration agent. Humanitarian immigration includes refugees, "voluntary exiles" from Eastern European countries excluding Yugoslavia, "Indochinese", and "political prisoners and oppressed persons" from Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala, Uruguay, and Poland. Special arrangements sometimes made in emergencies have benefitted Haitians, Italian earthquake victims, unaccompanied Indochinese minors, Iranian Bahais, and others. The category of "economic immigrants" includes independent, unsponsored individuals who wish to establish themselves in Canada to exercise a profession. Such candidates are awarded points for educational level, specific professional preparation, experience, need for workers in their profession, age, knowledge of English or French, and other factors, but the immigration agent can disregard the points if in his opinion they do not accurately reflect the candidate's chances of establishing himself successfully in Canada. Various categories of workers have slightly different admissions criteria: retired persons, businessmen and investers, and other workers. The order of priority for consideration of

  7. Immigration: Coming to America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    To say that immigration is currently a controversial issue would be an understatement. The media is rife with misinformation and does a very poor job of making the critical distinction between legal and illegal immigration. Because of this, it is vitally important that libraries provide students with clear and unbiased material on the topic. In…

  8. What's Values Got to Do with It? Thriving among Mexican/Mexican American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Consoli, Melissa L.; Llamas, Jasmín; Consoli, Andrés J.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined traditional Mexican/Mexican American and perceived U.S. mainstream cultural values as predictors of thriving. One hundred twenty-four (37 men, 87 women) self-identified Mexican/Mexican American college students participated in the study. The traditional Mexican/Mexican American cultural values of family support and religion…

  9. On the move: Analyzing immigration determinants and immigrant outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcke, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372640060

    2017-01-01

    Given the increased number of immigrants worldwide, the determinants of immigration and the social and economic integration of immigrants into the countries of destination are of particular importance. The contributions of this dissertation address the determinants of immigration by looking at the

  10. Age at Immigration and Educational Attainment of Young Immigrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Veenman, J.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    For immigrants who arrive in a country at a young age it is easier to assimilate than for teenagers.This paper investigates up to what immigration age the educational attainment of young immigrants in the Netherlands is similar to the educational attainment of secondgeneration immigrants, who were

  11. Attitudes towards Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Klemmensen, Robert; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne

    2016-01-01

    This article examines if deep-seated psychological differences add to the explanation of attitudes toward immigration. We explore whether the Big Five personality traits matter for immigration attitudes beyond the traditional situational factors of economic and cultural threat and analyze how...... individuals with different personalities react when confronted with the same situational triggers. Using a Danish survey experiment, we show that different personality traits have different effects on opposition toward immigration. We find that Openness has an unconditional effect on attitudes toward...... high on Conscientiousness are more sensitive to the skill level of immigrants. The results imply that personality is important for attitudes toward immigration, and in the conclusion, we further discuss how the observed conditional and unconditional effects of personality make sense theoretically....

  12. Holdninger til Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Roland Munch, Jakob; Schroll, Sanne

    2006-01-01

    Denne artikel belyser holdninger til immigration blandt borgere i Danmark og de øvrige EU-15 lande - herunder holdningerne til immigration, der følger af den seneste EU-udvidelse. Det analyseres, hvilke faktorer der ligger til frund for disse holdninger, samt i hvilken udstrækning danskere afviger...... fra EU-gennemsnittet. Den typiske dansker er lidt mere skeptisk overfor immigration end andre europæere. Danskerne afskiller sig desuden ved, at forholdsvis få forbinder øget immigration med negative konsekvenser for arbejdsmarkedet, men forholdsvis mange forbinder det med højere omkostninger...... for velfærdsstaten. Når der tages hensyn til opfattelserne af de økonomiske konsekvenser af immigration, kommer Danmark til at fremstå som et væsentligt mere immigrationsskeptisk land, end hvad der kommer til udtryk i de ukorrigerede holdninger....

  13. Holdninger til immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne

    Denne artikel belyser holdninger til immigration blandt borgere i Danmark og de øvrige EU-15 lande - herunder holdningerne til immigration, der følger af den seneste EU-udvidelse. Det analyseres, hvilke faktorer der ligger til frund for disse holdninger, samt i hvilken udstrækning danskere afviger...... fra EU-gennemsnittet. Den typiske dansker er lidt mere skeptisk overfor immigration end andre europæere. Danskerne afskiller sig desuden ved, at forholdsvis få forbinder øget immigration med negative konsekvenser for arbejdsmarkedet, men forholdsvis mange forbinder det med højere omkostninger...... for velfærdsstaten. Når der tages hensyn til opfattelserne af de økonomiske konsekvenser af immigration, kommer Danmark til at fremstå som et væsentligt mere immigrationsskeptisk land, end hvad der kommer til udtryk i de ukorrigerede holdninger...

  14. The ILO and the new UN convention on migrant workers: the past and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohning, R

    1991-01-01

    Migrant workers are less protected than nationals against the actions of states and employers. These workers therefore require special global protection of their rights while employed in countries other than their own. Accordingly, the UN International Labor Organization (ILO) is constitutionally charged with developing international measures to protect the interests of migrant workers from developing countries. The ILO, however, had little involvement in molding the International Convention on the protection of the Rights of All Migrants Workers and Members of their Families, adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1990. Instead, final adoption of the Convention stems largely from developing state dissatisfaction with the former 1975 ILO Migrant Workers Convention No. 143, and Mexican and Moroccan government machinations outside of the ILO in support of modifications. Convention No. 143 threatened to sever employment opportunities and hard foreign exchange remittances in North America and western Europe from illegally employed immigrant workers from developing countries. By working in the UN outside of the ILO, developing nations would enjoy automatic majority, and greater potential for success in reforming the Convention. Soon, developing nations squelched a delay tactic proffered by the Swedes, and succeeded in bringing the UN General Assembly to adopt resolution 34/172 in December 1979, which led to the establishment of an Open-Ended Working Group. This group then elaborated the 1990 Convention over 19 sessions. At the expense of the ILO and more developed nations, developing nations successfully challenged and changed the international order to benefit their peoples and national economies. Finally, the paper considers the interests of immigrant businesspeople and asylum seekers during or immediately upon entry to a foreign country, who are not specifically covered by the Convention. While the university of international humanitarian law suggests that

  15. Mexican Folkart for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Graciela; And Others

    Directions, suggested materials, and illustrations are given for making paper mache pinatas and masks, cascarones, Ojos de Dios, maracas, dresser scarf embroidery, burlap murals, yarn designs, paper plate trays, paper cut designs, the poppy, sarape aprons, and paper Mexican dolls. Filled with candy and broken, the pinata is used on most Mexican…

  16. Mexican Identification. Project Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Rita

    This document presents an outline and teacher's guide for a community college-level teaching module in Mexican identification, designed for students in introductory courses in the social sciences. Although intended specifically for cultural anthropology, urban anthropology, comparative social organization and sex roles in cross-cultural…

  17. Becoming Overweight Without Gaining a Pound: Weight Evaluations and the Social Integration of Mexicans in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Claire E; Van Hook, Jennifer; Gonzalez, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Mexican women gain weight with increasing duration in the United States. In the United States, body dissatisfaction tends to be associated with depression, disordered eating, and incongruent weight evaluations, particularly among white women and women of higher socioeconomic status. However, it remains unclear how overweight and obesity is interpreted by Mexican women. Using comparable data of women ages 20-64 from both Mexico (the 2006 Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutricion; N=17,012) and the United States (the 1999-2009 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys; N=8,487), we compare weight status evaluations among Mexican nationals, Mexican immigrants, U.S.-born Mexicans, U.S.-born non-Hispanic Whites, and U.S.-born non-Hispanic blacks. Logistic regression analyses, which control for demographic and social-economic variables and measured body mass index and adjust for the likelihood of migration for Mexican nationals, indicate that the tendency to self-evaluate as overweight among Mexicans converges with levels among non-Hispanic whites and diverges from blacks over time in the United States. Overall, the results suggest a U.S. integration process in which Mexican-American women's less critical self-evaluations originate in Mexico but fade with time in the United States as they gradually adopt U.S. white norms for thinner body sizes. These results are discussed in light of social comparison and negative health assimilation.

  18. The Human Face of Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    In the past, nativists opposed immigration, period. The sharp distinction between "legal" and "illegal" immigrants emerged fairly recently, according to immigration historian David Reimers, a professor of history at New York University. "Basically, by the mid-90s 'legal' immigration was no longer an issue," he says.…

  19. Empower Educators to Teach Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Sara; Kugler, Eileen Gale; Tesh, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, U.S. immigration has changed significantly, yet the way we teach about immigration in schools has changed little. The American Immigration Council has developed a two-year program on Long Island, an area experiencing an increase of new arrivals and anti-immigrant sentiment. The program empowers teachers with the knowledge to…

  20. Latino Immigration, Education, and Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Immigration is often framed as a problem, yet it is also a time of remarkable opportunity. While immigrants come to the United States from all over the world, the author focuses on the unique and urgent issues related to Latino immigration. Immigrant Latinos have changed the face of America and U.S. schools. Approximately one in five K-12 students…

  1. Producing citizens, reproducing the "French race": immigration, demography, and pronatalism in early twentieth-century France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camiscioli, E

    2001-01-01

    This essay examines how, in the context of depopulation and mass immigration, members of the French pronatalist movement advanced a policy favouring immigrants from Italy, Spain, and Poland. Because the 'demographic crisis' created a shortage of citizens as well as workers, pronatalists held that foreign workers must also be assimilable, and able to produce French offspring. While the racial difference of colonial subjects was deemed immutable, pronatalists called for the immigration of white foreigners whose less 'modern' condition promoted fecundity, traditionalism, and gender dimorphism. Evidence is drawn from demographic studies, the press of France's largest pronatalist movement, and a pronatalist advisory committee created by the Ministry of Health in 1920.

  2. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and Mexican nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Allison

    2011-03-01

    In the context of nurse migration, experts view trade agreements as either vehicles for facilitating migration or as contributing to brain-drain phenomena. Using a case study design, this study explored the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on the development of Mexican nursing. Drawing results from a general thematic analysis of 48 interviews with Mexican nurses and 410 primary and secondary sources, findings show that NAFTA changed the relationship between the State and Mexican nursing. The changed relationship improved the infrastructure capable of producing and monitoring nursing human resources in Mexico. It did not lead to the mass migration of Mexican nurses to the United States and Canada. At the same time, the economic instability provoked by the peso crisis of 1995 slowed the implementation of planned advances. Subsequent neoliberal reforms decreased nurses' security as workers by minimizing access to full-time positions with benefits, and decreased wages. This article discusses the linkages of these events and the effects on Mexican nurses and the development of the profession. The findings have implications for nursing human resources policy-making and trade in services.

  3. Genetic ancestry in relation to the metabolic response to a US versus traditional Mexican diet: a randomized crossover feeding trial among women of Mexican descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Torres, M; De Dieu Tapsoba, J; Kratz, M; Lampe, J W; Breymeyer, K L; Levy, L; Song, X; Villaseñor, A; Wang, C-Y; Fejerman, L; Neuhouser, M L; Carlson, C S

    2017-03-01

    Certain populations with a large proportion of indigenous American (IA) genetic ancestry may be evolutionarily adapted to traditional diets high in legumes and complex carbohydrates, and may have a detrimental metabolic response to US diets high in refined carbohydrates and added sugars. We tested whether IA ancestry modified the metabolic response to a US versus traditional Mexican diet in a controlled dietary intervention. First and second generation Mexican immigrant women (n=53) completed a randomized crossover feeding trial testing the effects of a US versus traditional Mexican diet. The metabolic response to the diets was measured by fasting serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), adiponectin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and computed homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA IR ). Blood collected at baseline was used for genotyping, and estimation of African, European and IA ancestries with the use of 214 ancestry informative markers. The genetic ancestral background was 56% IA, 38% European and 6% African. Women in the highest IA ancestry tertile (>62%) were shorter in height, less educated and less acculturated to the US lifestyle, and tended to have higher waist-to-hip ratio compared with women in the middle and lowest IA ancestry tertiles, respectively. Compared with the US diet, the traditional Mexican diet tended to reduce glucose, insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and HOMA IR among women in the middle IA ancestry group (IA ancestry ⩽45-62%), whereas having no effect on biomarkers related to inflammation. We observed modest interactions between IA ancestry and the metabolic response to a US versus traditional Mexican diet among Mexican immigrant women.

  4. Overeducation among immigrants in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson Joona, Pernilla; Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Wadensjo, Eskil

    2014-01-01

    The utilization and reward of the human capital of immigrants in the labor market of the host country has been studied extensively. Using Swedish register data from 2001–2008, we extend the immigrant educational mismatch literature by analyzing incidence, wage effects and state dependence...... in overeducation among natives and immigrants. In line with previous research we find a higher incidence and a lower return to overeducation among immigrants indicating that immigrants lose more from being overeducated. We find a high degree of state dependence in overeducation both among natives and immigrants......, but considerably higher among immigrants....

  5. Disparities by ethnicity, language, and immigrant status in occupational health experiences among Las Vegas hotel room cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premji, Stéphanie; Krause, Niklas

    2010-10-01

    We examined disparities in workers' occupational health experiences. We surveyed 941 unionized Las Vegas hotel room cleaners about their experiences with work-related pain and with employers, physicians, and workers' compensation. Data were analyzed for all workers and by ethnicity, language, and immigrant status. Hispanic and English as second language (ESL) workers were more likely than their counterparts to report work-related pain and, along with immigrant workers, to miss work because of this pain. Hispanic, ESL, and immigrant workers were not consistently at a disadvantage with regard to their own responses to work-related pain but were so with respect to reported responses by workers' compensation, physicians, and employers. There are indications of disparities in occupational health experiences within this job title. The use of different group classifications, while implying different mechanisms, produced similar results. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. The Voces Project: Investigating How Latino/a Immigrant Children Make Sense of Engaging in School and School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson-Martin, John C.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how a group of Mexican immigrant children in the United States made sense of engaging in school and school mathematics. The research focused on a population of Latino/a middle school students who were a distinct minority, building a model that shows how a complex set of cognitive, sociocultural, and institutional factors…

  7. Carolina del Norte and the New South: Social Work Practice with New Latino Immigrant Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa de Saxe Zerden

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the Latino population in North Carolina has increased 111%. More than half of North Carolina Latinos are foreign-born and most face issues related to immigration, acculturation, and often, discrimination. This article provides a brief overview of the historical context in which social workers engaged with immigrant communities, and argues that the profession brings strengths and unique skills to address North Carolina’s Latino immigrant population, historically, and within the current context. Key social demographics of Latino populations, sociopolitical realities, as well as theoretical and methodological issues related to the complex needs of this diverse population group are addressed. Two examples of Latino vulnerability in North Carolina, HIV/AIDS and discriminatory local immigration enforcement practices, are discussed to further highlight the unique strengths and challenges social workers in North Carolina and the New South face when working with Latino immigrants.

  8. Unemployment of Non-western Immigrants in the Great Recession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervený, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines whether unemployment of non-western immigrant workers in the Netherlands was disproportionally affected by the Great Recession. We analyze unemployment data covering the period November 2007 to February 2013 finding that the Great Recession affected unemployment rates

  9. Unemployment of non-western immigrants in the Great Recession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervený, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines whether unemployment of non-western immigrant workers in the Netherlands was disproportionally affected by the Great Recession. We analyze unemployment data covering the period November 2007–February 2013 finding that the Great Recession affected unemployment rates of non-western

  10. Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Immigrants in a Large City with Large-Scale Immigration (1991-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Jesús E; Orcau, Àngels; Millet, Joan-Pau; Ros, Miriam; Gil, Sonia; Caylà, Joan A

    2016-01-01

    The increase in immigration in Barcelona between 2000 and 2008 forced a reorganization of the control of tuberculosis (TB). TB clinical units (TBCU) were created and community health workers (CHW) were gradually included. To understand trends in the incidence of TB among immigrants, their main characteristics and treatment compliance during the period 1991-2013. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study of cases detected among immigrants by the Tuberculosis Program in Barcelona, Spain. Sociodemographic, clinical characteristics and risk factors were described. The annual incidence was calculated for various periods and geographical areas of origin. In the linear trend analysis, a p-value of immigrants is decreasing in Barcelona. Organizational actions, such as incorporating CHWs and TBCUs, have been decisive for the observed improvements.

  11. Immigration And Self-Selection

    OpenAIRE

    George J. Borjas

    1988-01-01

    Self-selection plays a dominant role in determining the size and composition of immigrant flows. The United States competes with other potential host countries in the "immigration market". Host countries vary in their "offers" of economic opportunities and also differ in the way they ration entry through their immigration policies. Potential immigrants compare the various opportunities and are non-randomly sorted by the immigration market among the various host countries. This paper presents ...

  12. Toward immigration reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Mark

    2005-01-01

    For the most part, immigrants in the United States do not have access to the very safety-net benefits supported by their taxes, nor to essential due-process rights, simply because they are not citizens or legal residents. Contemporary demographics of immigration and post-9/11 security concerns have colored our traditional hospitality as a nation of immigrants and made life more difficult for immigrants. The Catholic Church has a rich history of scriptural and social teaching that addresses the question of immigration. Stories of forced migration in the Pentateuch led to commandments regarding strangers and the responsibility to be welcoming. In the New Testament, we see that the Holy Family themselves were refugees. The Gospel of St. Matthew tells us that we will be judged by the way we respond to migrants and others in need. In Exsul Familia, Pope Pius XII reaffirms the commitment of the church to care for pilgrims, aliens, exiles, and migrants. In Ecclesia in America, Pope John Paul II states that the ultimate solution to illegal immigration is the elimination of global underdevelopment and that, in the meantime, the human rights of all migrants must be respected. In 2003, the bishops of Mexico and the United States jointly issued the pastoral letter Strangers No Longer: Together on the Journey of Hope. In this letter, the bishops say that U.S. immigration policy should protect the human rights and dignity of immigrants and asylum seekers. The bishops also offer a number of proposed public policy responses toward that end. To advance the principles contained in Strangers No Longer, the bishops have decided to mount a national campaign designed to unite and mobilize a growing network of Catholic organizations and individuals, as well as others of good faith. In addition, the campaign will seek to dispel myths and misperceptions about immigrants.

  13. "A Day Without Immigrants"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiskanen, Benita

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This article considers the debates surrounding the "Day Without Immigrants" protests organized in major U.S. cities on 1 May 2006, prompted by H.R. 4437, the Border Protection, Anti-Terrorism, and Illegal Immigration Control Act of 2005, from the multiple perspectives of scholars, pundits...... that the rhetoric used in these discourses pitted various class-based ethnoracial groups against each other not so much to tackle the proposed immigration bill but, rather, to comment on the ramifications of an increasingly multiracial United States. Udgivelsesdato: 01 December 2009...

  14. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Azhar, Hussain

    Four income inequality measures (Gini-coefficient, 90/10-decile ratio, and two generalized entropy indices) are applied to analyse immigrants’ income position relative to natives in a comparative perspective. Administrative data is used for Denmark, while survey data is used for Germany. We find...... higher inequality among immigrants than natives in Denmark, but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution of immigrants to overall inequality has increased systematically, primarily caused by the increased...... share of immigrants in the population....

  15. Obesity and Regional Immigrant Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Scott D; Carbert, Nicole S

    2017-11-24

    Canada has an increasingly large immigrant population. Areas of higher immigrant density, may relate to immigrants' health through reduced acculturation to Western foods, greater access to cultural foods, and/or promotion of salubrious values/practices. It is unclear, however, whether an association exists between Canada-wide regional immigrant density and obesity among immigrants. Thus, we examined whether regional immigrant density was related to obesity, among immigrants. Adult immigrant respondents (n = 15,595) to a national population-level health survey were merged with region-level immigrant density data. Multi-level logistic regression was used to model the odds of obesity associated with increased immigrant density. The prevalence of obesity among the analytic sample was 16%. Increasing regional immigrant density was associated with lower odds of obesity among minority immigrants and long-term white immigrants. Immigrant density at the region-level in Canada may be an important contextual factor to consider when examining obesity among immigrants.

  16. ""Una Persona Derechita" (Staying Right in the Mind)": Perceptions of Spanish-Speaking Mexican American Older Adults in South Texas "Colonias"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R.; Sharf, Barbara F.; St. John, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the perceptions of brain health among older Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans who reside in colonia areas of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Design and Methods: In 2007, 33 Mexican American older adults (9 men and 24 women) were recruited by "promotoras" (community health workers) from clusters of…

  17. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect in the Mexican American Community (1st, Laredo, Texas, May 26-29, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Guadalupe, Ed.,; Torres, Angelina Moreno

    The conference focused attention on the severe problems of abuse and neglect among Mexican American children, particularly among migrant children. The welcome address discussed the plight and hardship endured by the Mexican American migrant worker and family. The keynote address emphasized the fact that minority families, who are usually poor, and…

  18. Gender and national origin differences in healthcare utilization among U.S. Immigrants from Mexico, China, and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jen'nan Ghazal; Smith, Paige Borelli

    2017-02-28

    To examine gender and national origin differences in the healthcare utilization of immigrants from the three largest populations in the U.S. today (Mexico, China, and India) and to determine if barriers to utilization operate similarly across groups. The analysis uses nationally-representative data from the 2003 New Immigrant Survey (NIS) to compare utilization behaviors among legal permanent residents from Mexico, China, and India (n = 2244). Conceptually, the study draws on Andersen's Behavioral Model to hypothesize gender and national origin differences in utilization based on factors that might predispose, enable, or necessitate healthcare. Multivariate logistic regression models are used to predict the odds of having seen a doctor in the past year and to test whether obstacles to utilization differ across immigrant groups. Chinese immigrants are less likely than Mexican and Indian immigrants to have seen a doctor in the past year, a finding that is largely driven by a lack of health insurance. Female immigrants are more likely than males to have done so, despite having fewer resources that enable access to care (e.g. income, English proficiency). Moreover, the relationship between gender and utilization is moderated by English language proficiency: among immigrants with low levels of proficiency, women are significantly more likely than men to have seen a doctor in the past year, while no difference exists between men and women who are proficient in English. This pattern is most evident among Mexican, and to a lesser extent, Indian immigrants. Barriers to immigrant healthcare utilization vary by gender and national origin. Research will need to continue documenting such variation in order to better inform policy makers and health practitioners of potential solutions for improving health outcomes in increasingly diverse immigrant communities.

  19. Helping Immigrants Become Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Flynn

    2001-01-01

    Describes Newcomers Entering Teaching, a program designed by the Portland (Maine) Public Schools to prepare recent immigrants and refugees to enter local university's 9-month teacher-certification program. (PKP)

  20. Liberal nationalism on immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2009-01-01

    Liberal nationalists such as David Miller and Will Kymlicka have claimed that liberal principles have implausible implications with regard to the issue of immigration. They hold that nationality should play a normative role in this regard, and that this is necessary in order to justify restrictions...... on immigration. The present chapter discusses the envisaged role for considerations of nationality with regard to admission and residence, and examines the actual implications of arguments advanced by liberal nationalists as to why nationality should play this role. It is argued that the connection between...... nationality and immigration on liberal nationalist premises is not as straightforward as one might expect, and that the addition of considerations of nationality to liberal principles makes no practical difference with regard to reasons for restricting immigration or criteria of selection among applicants...

  1. Libertarianism and Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Virginia Todea

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I investigate the libertarian account of immigration. In the first section I distinguish between right-libertarianism and left-libertarianism. In the second section I analyze the arguments focused on immigration from the perspective of self-ownership focused on Nozick’s case and Steiner’s analogy. In the third section I discuss the conflict between the collective consent on the issue of immigration and the individuals’ decision. The conclusion sets the libertarian framework as being flawed in its argumentation on the issue of immigration because it fails to provide strong arguments about the fact that the individuals are free to choose to open or close the borders.

  2. Immigrant Child Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galloway, Taryn Ann; Gustafsson, Björn; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2015-01-01

    Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993–2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years studied the increasing proportion of immigrant children...... with an origin in middle- and low-income countries have poverty risks that vary from 38 up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period, one third of the poor children in Norway and as high as about a half in Denmark and in Sweden are of immigrant origin. The strong overrepresentation...... of immigrant children from low- and middle-income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period for poverty measurement. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country and typically decrease with years since...

  3. Discrimination, work and health in immigrant populations in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés; Gil-González, Diana; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Porthé, Victoria; Paramio-Pérez, Gema; García, Ana M; Garí, Aitana

    2009-05-01

    One of the most important social phenomena in the global context is the flow of immigration from developing countries, motivated by economic and employment related issues. Discrimination can be approached as a health risk factor within the immigrant population's working environment, especially for those immigrants at greater risk from social exclusion and marginalisation. The aim of this study is to research perceptions of discrimination and the specific relationship between discrimination in the workplace and health among Spain's immigrant population. A qualitative study was performed by means of 84 interviews and 12 focus groups held with immigrant workers in five cities in Spain receiving a large influx of immigrants (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Alicante and Huelva), covering representative immigrant communities in Spain (Romanians, Moroccans, Ecuadorians, Colombians and Sub-Saharan Africans). Discourse narrative content analysis was performed using pre-established categories and gradually incorporating other emerging categories from the immigrant interviewees themselves. The participants reported instances of discrimination in their community and working life, characterised by experiences of racism, mistreatment and precarious working conditions in comparison to the Spanish-born population. They also talked about limitations in terms of accessible occupations (mainly construction, the hotel and restaurant trade, domestic service and agriculture), and described major difficulties accessing other types of work (for example public administration). They also identified political and legal structural barriers related with social institutions. Experiences of discrimination can affect their mental health and are decisive factors regarding access to healthcare services. Our results suggest the need to adopt integration policies in both the countries of origin and the host country, to acknowledge labour and social rights, and to conduct further research into individual

  4. The Ethics of Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Matt S. Whitt

    2014-01-01

    Joseph H. Carens. The Ethics of Immigration(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013). 384 pages. ISBN 9780199933839. US$35 (Hardback).When philosophers and political theorists turn their attention to migration, they often prioritize general normative commitments, giving only secondary concern to whether these commitments are reflected in policy. As a result, pressing issues affecting the status, rights, and life-chances of immigrants can get lost in abstract debates over the right of states to ...

  5. Immigrant children and school interculturality in northern Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Segura Herrera

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Mexican context, interculturality represents a discourse of recognition and respect for cultural diversity, in particular of indigenous peoples. The purpose of this article is to explore how interculturality among immigrant children of indigenous and mixed-race origins is constructed. The starting premise is that interculturality is also an interactive process of communication between individuals of different cultures. The methodology is based on the results of an anthropological study carried out at the Center for Comprehensive Attention to Migrant Children, in Ascension, Chihuahua. Based on observations and interviews, it was found that immigrant children construct interculturality in the classrooms, in the recreation areas, and during the journey to school. Therefore, the conclusion is that they do so in these school spaces, through relationships and meanings, sometimes in dispute, which they establish among themselves and with the teaching staff.

  6. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  7. Italians and Foreign Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Bonifazi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Opinion surveys on attitudes towards immigration are becoming more and more important, owing to the increasing role of political debate on migration issues in Western European countries. CNR has conducted four surveys on this topic, collecting data on the evolution of Italians attitudes towards migration issues. In fact, the ? rst survey was conducted in the second half of the eighties, when foreign immigration was in its early stages. The last survey took place in 2002, when immigration was already well established in Italy. The article focuses on three main issues: the global impact of immigration on Italian society, the immigrants role in the labour market, and immigration policy. In general, the results of the last survey con? rm a trend that appeared already in 1997, of more balanced and realistic opinion that were less of a response to circumstances perceived as special emergencies. Highly educated people, teachers and students continue to be the most open and receptive groups, whereas the less favourably inclined and more worried continue to be old people, those with less education, the unemployed, housewives, and retirees.

  8. Mexican-Origin Youth's Cultural Orientations and Adjustment: Changes from Early to Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; McHale, Susan M.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Perez-Brena, Norma

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from developmental and cultural adaptation perspectives and using a longitudinal design, this study examined: (a) mean-level changes in Mexican-origin adolescents’ cultural orientations and adjustment from early to late adolescence; and (b) bidirectional associations between cultural orientations and adjustment using a cross-lag panel model. Participants included 246 Mexican-origin, predominantly immigrant families that participated in home interviews and a series of nightly phone calls when target adolescents were 12 years and 18 years of age. Girls exhibited more pronounced declines in traditional gender role attitudes than did boys, and all youth declined in familism values, time spent with family, and involvement in Mexican culture. Bidirectional relations between cultural orientations and adjustment emerged, and some associations were moderated by adolescent nativity and gender. PMID:22966929

  9. Just Not Like Us: The Interactive Impact of Dimensions of Identity and Race in Attitudes towards Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Byrne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, more Mexicans have been leaving rather than coming to the USA; likewise, illegal immigration from Mexico has declined. Yet, immigration remains a hotly contested issue in the 2016 presidential election, with a seemingly marked increase in anti-immigrant policy and rhetoric, much of which is directed at immigrants from Mexico. In this paper, we seek to explain how individual ethnocultural and civic-based conceptions of what it means to be an American influence attitudes towards immigration. Past theoretical research on national identity has framed the effects of these dimensions as interactive but past empirical work has yet to demonstrate an important interaction between race and ethnocultural identity. Failure to account for these interaction effects has led to inaccurate assumptions about the levels of hostility towards immigrants and how widespread anti-immigrant sentiment really is. We demonstrate a clear interactive effect between identification as white and ethnocultural dimensions of identity and show that this effect has masked the root of the most ardent anti-immigrant sentiment. We also show that while there is a sizeable minority of the population that identifies as both white and have high levels of ethnocultural identity, a majority of Americans prefer to keep immigration levels at the status quo and have an identity that is balanced between ethnoculturalism and civic-based conceptions of identity.

  10. Perceived ethnic and language-based discrimination and Latina immigrant women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, May Ling; Moy, Keith H; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2017-01-01

    Perceiving ethnic discrimination can have aversive consequences for health. However, little is known about whether perceiving language-based (how one speaks a second language) discrimination poses the same risks. This study examined whether perceptions of language-based and ethnic discrimination are associated with mental and physical health. Among 132 Mexican and Dominican immigrant women, perceiving ethnic and language-based discrimination each predicted psychological distress and poorer physical health. When examined together, only ethnic discrimination remained a significant predictor. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how perceived ethnic and language-based discrimination play an integral role in the health of Latina immigrant women.

  11. Immigration policy and economic cycle effects on spousal reunification in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Mato Díaz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the influence of immigration policy and the Great Recession on spousal reunification in Spain. After a significant immigration boom (2000-2008, family-related migration has contributed to the significant flows that continued to arrive in Spain during the economic crisis. But this type of migration was subject to both the crisis and immigration policy changes, such as visa conditions, which may not have been specifically addressed to influence these flows. Using data from the Spanish Labor Force Survey (LFS, the research considers married primary immigrants who came to Spain from the four main countries of origin (Ecuador, Colombia, Romania and Morocco and concludes, first, that tighter conditions to visit the country—particularly tourist border controls—discourage spousal reunification. The reason could be that during the immigration boom, illicit immigration abounded and secondary immigrants were arriving as tourists. Secondly, reunification was slowed down by the Great Recession for the majority of the countries considered, except Ecuador. Unsurprisingly, given the job losses in typical male jobs, the negative influence of the crisis is greater for female primary immigrants. Third, contrary to the expectations that placed secondary immigrants as people with relatively low ties to the labor market, the research shows that because spousal reunification coincided with a deep economic and job crisis, female secondary immigrants increased the family labor supply in order to maintain consumption and/or remittance in what looks like an added-worker effect.

  12. New perspectives on occupational health and safety in immigrant populations: studying the intersection between immigrant background and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousaid, Sarah; De Moortel, Deborah; Malmusi, Davide; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Few studies investigating health inequalities pay attention to the intersection between several social determinants of health. The purpose of this article is to examine the relation between perceptions of work-related health and safety risk (WHSR) and (1) immigrant background and (2) gender in the EU-15. The effects are controlled for educational attainment, the quality of work (QOW) and occupation. Pooled data from the European Social Survey 2004 and 2010 are used in this study. The sample is restricted to respondents of working age (16-65 years) (N = 17,468). The immigrants are divided into two groups according to their country of origin: (semi-)periphery and core countries. Both groups of immigrants are compared to natives. Additionally, the research population is stratified by gender. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses are used. Core immigrants (both men and women) do not differ from natives in terms of QOW. (Semi-)periphery immigrants (both men and women) are employed in jobs with lower QOW. While no differences in WHSR are found among men, female immigrants (both (semi-)periphery and core) have significantly more WHSR compared to native women. Although WHSR is generally lower in women, (semi-)periphery women have a similar prevalence of WHSR as men. (Semi-)periphery immigrants are employed in lower quality jobs, while core immigrants do not differ from natives in that regard. Female immigrant workers--especially those from (semi-)periphery countries--have higher WHSR compared to native women. Our findings highlight the importance of an intersectional approach in the study of work-related health inequalities.

  13. Transmission of Cultural Values among Mexican American Parents and their Adolescent and Emerging Adult Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths’ adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents’ and two offspring’s cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers’ values were associated with increases in youths’ values five years later. In contrast, youths’ familism values were associated with increases in fathers’ familism values five years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant-status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support are crucial. PMID:25470657

  14. Transmission of cultural values among Mexican-origin parents and their adolescent and emerging adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2015-06-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths' adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents' and two offspring's cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers' values were associated with increases in youths' values 5 years later. In contrast, youths' familism values were associated with increases in fathers' familism values 5 years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support is crucial. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  15. Self-Socialization of Gender in African American, Dominican Immigrant, and Mexican Immigrant Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.

    2014-01-01

    This article advances a self-socialization perspective demonstrating that children's understanding of "both" gender categories represents an intergroup cognition that is foundational to the development of gender-stereotyped play. Children's (N = 212) gender category knowledge was assessed at 24 months and play was observed at…

  16. Self-socialization of gender in African American, Dominican immigrant, and Mexican immigrant toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosuls, Kristina M; Ruble, Diane N; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S

    2014-01-01

    This article advances a self-socialization perspective demonstrating that children's understanding of both gender categories represents an intergroup cognition that is foundational to the development of gender-stereotyped play. Children's (N = 212) gender category knowledge was assessed at 24 months and play was observed at 24 and 36 months. Higher levels of gender category knowledge and, more specifically, passing multiple measures of knowledge of both gender categories at 24 months was related to increases in play over time with gender-stereotyped toys (doll, truck), but not gender-stereotyped forms of play (nurturing, motion). In contrast to the long-standing focus on self-labeling, findings indicate the importance of intergroup cognitions in self-socialization processes and demonstrate the generalizability of these processes to a diverse sample. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Segmented Assimilation Theory and the Life Model: An Integrated Approach to Understanding Immigrants and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedra, Lissette M.; Engstrom, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The life model offers social workers a promising framework to use in assisting immigrant families. However, the complexities of adaptation to a new country may make it difficult for social workers to operate from a purely ecological approach. The authors use segmented assimilation theory to better account for the specificities of the immigrant…

  18. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the U.S. labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  19. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the US labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  20. Type 2 diabetes in Mexican workers exponed to a potential source of dioxins in the cement industry determined by a job exposure matrix Diabetes tipo 2 en trabajadores Mexicanos expuestos a una fuente potencial de dioxinas en la industria del cemento determinado a través de una matriz de exposición ocupacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Haro-García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify association between type 2 diabetes (DM2 with occupational exposure to potential dioxins source in Mexican cement industry workers. Materials and Methods: 56 medical files of cement industry workers with diagnosis of DM2 were included; 56 medical files of workers from the same industry without DM2 were the controls. The daily dose of exposure (DDE to the potential dioxins source per work years was estimated by a job exposure matrix and categorized as low, moderate, and high. Logistic regression model that correlated high exposure to potential source of dioxins (cement clinker confinement per work years and presence of DM2 was adjusted by work seniority, patient age at which DM2 diagnosis was established and DM2 familiar background. Results: the OR for the presence of DM2 in workers with moderate and high exposure to potential source of dioxins in the cement industry was 3.25 (1.10-9.57, p= 0.03, adjusted by work seniority, worker age at which DM2 diagnosis was established, and DM2 familiar background. Conclusions: In according with the data explored in the medical files of cement industry workers, there is an association between high exposure to the industrial confinement of the cement clinker as a potential source of dioxins and presence of DM2 in a modest dose-response gradient.Propósito: Identificar asociación entre diabetes tipo 2 (DM2 en trabajadores Mexicanos con la exposición ocupacional a una fuente potencial de dioxinas de la industria cementera. Material y métodos: Se incluyeron 56 expedientes clínicos de trabajadores de la industria cementera con diagnóstico de DM2; los controles lo constituyeron 56 expedientes clínicos de trabajadores de la misma industria pero sin DM2. La dosis diaria de exposición (DDE a la fuente potencial de dioxinas por años trabajados se estimó a través de una matriz de exposición ocupacional y fue categorizada como baja, moderada y alta. El modelo de regresión logística que

  1. Mexican-origin parents' work conditions and adolescents' adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Crouter, Ann

    2015-06-01

    Mexican-origin parents' work experiences are a distal extrafamilial context for adolescents' adjustment. This 2-wave multiinformant study examined the prospective mechanisms linking parents' work conditions (i.e., self-direction, work pressure, workplace discrimination) to adolescents' adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, depressive symptoms, risky behavior) across the transition to high school drawing on work socialization and spillover models. We examined the indirect effects of parental work conditions on adolescent adjustment through parents' psychological functioning (i.e., depressive symptoms, role overload) and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship (i.e., parental solicitation, parent-adolescent conflict), as well as moderation by adolescent gender. Participants were 246 predominantly immigrant, Mexican-origin, 2-parent families who participated in home interviews when adolescents were approximately 13 and 15 years of age. Results supported the positive impact of fathers' occupational self-direction on all 3 aspects of adolescents' adjustment through decreased father-adolescent conflict, after controlling for family socioeconomic status and earner status, and underemployment. Parental work pressure and discrimination were indirectly linked to adolescents' adjustment, with different mechanisms emerging for mothers and fathers. Adolescents' gender moderated the associations between fathers' self-direction and girls' depressive symptoms, and fathers' experiences of discrimination and boys' risk behavior. Results suggest that Mexican-origin mothers' and fathers' perceptions of work conditions have important implications for multiple domains of adolescents' adjustment across the transition to high school. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. [Discrimination at the workplace among immigrants in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, M A; Baglio, G; Cacciani, Laura; Spagnolo, A; Rosano, A

    2012-01-01

    Discrimination at the workplace can be considered a risk factor for immigrants' health. In this study we compared the occurrence of episodes of arrogance or discrimination perceived at the workplace between documented immigrants coming from countries with high migration pressure and Italians, and evaluated the role of selected risk factors among immigrants. Using data from the 2007 Labour Force Survey conducted by the Italian National Institute of Statistics, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for socio-demographic and occupational variables were estimated among a nationally representative sample of 61,214 employed persons aged 15 years or more. The occurrence of perceived arrogance or discrimination was higher among immigrant compared to Italian males for all geographical areas of origin considered. Adjusted ORs were 4.6 (95% CI: 3.6-5.8) for Africans, 3.4 (95% CI: 2.5-4.6) for Asians, 2.1 (95% CI :1.6-2.8) for Eastern Europeans, and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.0-3.7) for Latin Americans. Among male immigrants a higher occurrence of arrogance or discrimination was found for construction and other industrial workers and for those residing in central-southern regions of Italy. Among female workers only Latin Americans and Africans showed a higher occurrence of perceived arrogance or discrimination compared to Italians: adjusted ORs were respectively 3.9 (95% CI: 2.6-5.7) and 2.6 (95% CI:1.5-4.5). Female immigrants with a medium-to-high level of education or a highly skilled job, and those residing in the central-southern regions of ltaly perceived the highest occurrence of arrogance or discrimination. The study highlighted the need for policies to protect the wellbeing of immigrants that seem to be particularly exposed to patterns of discrimination at the workplace.

  3. Value Preferences of Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene; Walsh, Sophie D

    2018-04-01

    The current study examines value preferences of social workers in Israel. Using a theoretical framework of person-environment fit paradigm and theory of values, the study compared social workers (N = 641, mean age = 37.7 years, 91 percent female) with a representative sample of Israeli Jews (N = 1,600, mean age = 44.2, 52 percent female). Questionnaires included personal value preferences and sociodemographic variables (gender, age, education, religiosity, and immigrant status). Multivariate analysis of covariance showed that value preferences of social workers differed significantly from those of the general population. Analyses of covariance showed that social workers reported a higher preference for self-transcendence and a lower preference for conservation and self-enhancement values. Results have significance for the selection, training, and supervision of social workers. They suggest that it is important to assess to what extent selection processes for social workers are primarily recruiting social workers with shared values, thus creating an overly homogenous population of social workers. An understanding of personal value motivations can help social workers in their own process of self-development and growth, and to understand how the profession can fulfill their basic motivations.

  4. [Precarious employment in undocumented immigrants in Spain and its relationship with health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porthé, Victoria; Benavides, Fernando G; Vázquez, M Luisa; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos; García, Ana M; Ahonen, Emily; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Benach, Joan

    2009-12-01

    To describe the characteristics of precarious employment in undocumented immigrants in Spain and its relationship with health. A qualitative study was conducted using analytic induction. Criterion sampling, based on the Immigration, Work and Health project (Inmigración, Trabajo y Salud [ITSAL]) criterion (current definitions of 'legal immigrant' in Spain and in the literature) was used to recruit 44 undocumented immigrant workers from four different countries, living in four Spanish cities. The characteristics of precariousness perceived by undocumented immigrants included high job instability; disempowerment due to lack of legal protection; high vulnerability exacerbated by their legal and immigrant status; perceived insufficient wages and lower wages than coworkers; limited social benefits and difficulty in exercising their rights; and finally, long hours and fast-paced work. Our informants reported they had no serious health problems but did describe physical and mental problems associated with their employment conditions and legal situation. Our results suggest that undocumented immigrants' situation may not fit the model of precarious employment exactly. However, the model's dimensions can be expanded to better represent undocumented immigrants' situation, thus strengthening the general model. Precarious employment in this group can be defined as , as it affects their working and social lives. If these workers continue to be exposed to such precarious conditions, the impact on their health may increase.

  5. On financing the internal enforcement of illegal immigration policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, G A; Tenorio, R

    1996-02-01

    "We introduce a government budget constraint into an illegal immigration model, and show that the effect of increasing internal enforcement of immigration laws on the host country's disposable national income depends on the mix of employer fines and income taxation used to finance the added enforcement. These issues are addressed under alternative assumptions about (a) the ability of host country employers to discern between legal and illegal workers, and (b) host country labor market conditions. Empirical evidence for the United States indicates that the employer sanctions program may have had a negative impact on disposable national income." excerpt

  6. Psychosocial factor exposures in the workplace: differences between immigrants and Spaniards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Ariadna; Moncada, Salvador; Llorens, Clara; Benavides, Fernando G

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse psychosocial factor exposures in the workplace for immigrant workers in Spain and identify differences in exposure at work between immigrants and Spaniards. A multi-stage sample was taken by conglomerates (final sample size: 7555 workers). The information was obtained in 2004 and 2005 using a standardized questionnaire administered by interviewing participants in their homes. The analysis focused on eight psychosocial factors. For quantitative demands and insecurity, the exposure was defined according to the higher third, and for the others, the exposure was defined according to the lower third. The prevalence ratio (PR) and confidence interval (CI) for unfavourable psychosocial factor, both crude and adjusted, were calculated using log binomial models. Those with highest prevalence of unfavourable psychosocial factor were immigrant manual workers, particularly in low possibilities for development (PR=2.87; 95% CI 2.44-3.73), and immigrant women, particularly in low control over working times (PR=1.72; 95% CI 1.55-1.91). Immigrant workers with manual jobs and immigrant women are the groups most exposed to psychosocial factor. In efforts to prevent these exposures, these inequalities should be taken into account.

  7. Perception of change in living conditions and diet among rural Latino immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Hermosa, Maroly; Tineo, María; Aranda, Yesid; Posada, Germán

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen percent of the total population of the United States (US) is composed of immigrants. Mexicans accounted for about three-quarters of the increase in the Hispanic population from 2000 to 2010. The social and economic problems facing this population in their countries of origin are fueling migration to the US, in search of new opportunities. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the changes in living conditions (housing, health, education) and the dietary intake (ex - an...

  8. The incorporation of Mexican women in seasonal migration: a study of gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, S

    1987-09-01

    "This article compares sex differences in migratory behaviors, work patterns and conjugal relations in a cohort of male and female immigrants who move seasonally between Mexico and the United States. Gender comparisons are made using survey data and information from in-depth group interviews. The findings indicate that among Mexicans immigration to the United States reinstates men's traditional roles as providers while making women assume non-traditional roles. Female role expansion, through employment in the U.S., strongly influences conjugal relations in the direction of more equality. In contrast, failure to enter the American labor force implies a role restriction resulting in a loss of autonomy for many immigrant women." (SUMMARY IN SPA) excerpt

  9. Immigration and Swiss House Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Kathrin Degen; Andreas M. Fischer

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the behavior of Swiss house prices to immigration flows for 85 districts from 2001 to 2006. The results show that the nexus between immigration and house prices holds even in an environment of low house price inflation, nationwide rent control, and modest immigration flows. An immigration inflow equal to 1% of an area's population is coincident with an increase in prices for single-family homes of about 2.7%: a result consistent with previous studies. The overall immigrati...

  10. Worker Entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucouliagos, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Evaluates the experience of worker entrepreneurship, highlighting successes and failures in Europe, and analyzes the relative importance of factors to worker entrepreneurship such as access to finance, education and training, organizational culture, and worker risk taking. (JOW)

  11. Machismo sustains health and illness beliefs of Mexican American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobralske, Mary

    2006-08-01

    To inform nurse practitioners (NPs) about Mexican American men's health and illness beliefs and the ways in which these are influenced by their masculine identity and how they view themselves as men in their culture. The data sources used were based on a selected review of the literature about Mexican American men's health and illness beliefs and the concept of machismo. Several studies, including the author's study on Mexican American men's healthcare-seeking beliefs and behaviors and experience in providing primary health care to men across cultures, contributed new data. The meaning of manhood in the Mexican American culture is critical in understanding how men perceive health and illness and what they do when they are ill. Machismo enhances men's awareness of their health because they have to be healthy to be good fathers, husbands, brothers, sons, workers, and community members. Pain and disability are motivating factors in finding ways to regain their health. Men's health beliefs across cultures need further investigation by nurse researchers and NPs. How culture influences healthcare delivery to men should be better understood. If NPs are aware of men's views on masculinity, they are better prepared to understand and assist men in becoming more aware of their health status and to seek health care when appropriate.

  12. Attitudes Towards Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne

    In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people’s attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternative and more direct test of whether economic self-interest matters for people’s attitudes towards immigration. We find that while...... the "original" relationship between education and attitudes found in the literature is unlikely to reflect economic self-interest, there is considerable evidence of economic self-interest when using the more direct test...

  13. Attitudes Towards Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Roland Munch, Jakob; Schroll, Sanne

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people's attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternativeand more direct test of whether economic self-interest mattersfor people's attitudes towards immigration. We find that whilethe...... "original" relationship between education and attitudes found in the literature is unlikely to reflect economic self-interest, there is considerable evidence of economic self-interest when using the more directtest....

  14. European immigration a sourcebook

    CERN Document Server

    Triandafyllidou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Fully updated and containing chapters on the new EU member states and the attempt to form a common EU migration policy, this new edition of European Immigration: A Sourcebook provides a comprehensive overview of the trends and developments in migration in all EU countries. With chapters following a common structure to facilitate direct international comparisons, it not only examines the internal affairs of each member state, but also explores both migratory trends within the EU itself and the implications for European immigration of wider global events, including the Arab Spring and the world financial crisis.

  15. Broken Promises? NAFTA, Immigration, and ‘Shadow’ Regionalism Promesses Rompues ? L’ALENA, l’immigration et le régionalisme informel ¿Promesas incumplidas? El TLCAN, la inmigración y el regionalismo informal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Lauby

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of immigration was never an official objective of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Yet, it was generally supposed to be one of its long-term consequences. Fifteen years later, Mexican immigration to the United States has in fact increased. The agreement has failed to reduce the attractiveness of the U.S. labor market for Mexican workers and to provide sustainable alternatives to immigration. Over the same period of time, American politicians and the American media have consistently embraced a narrative in which immigration control has become a matter of national security. A paradox has emerged from these two conflicting trends. While the measures taken by the federal government have failed to prevent unauthorized migrants from entering the country, they have also encouraged them to stay longer in the U.S. by making border-crossings too risky. The 1990s therefore witnessed a significant growth of the undocumented population of the United States. This paper analyzes the emergence of a “shadow” regional system between Mexico and the U.S., driven by immigrants themselves, as well as those who profit from undocumented immigration, rather than by institutional actors. This shadow integration is the product of two types of flows: people moving north of the border and, increasingly, remittances moving south. Remittances in turn reinforce immigration trends since they perpetuate the expectations of immigrants. This article examines the development of this parallel form of integration that has taken place at the same time as the implementation of the trade agreement, beyond the control of the Mexican and American governments.La réduction des flux d’immigration n’a jamais été un objectif officiel de l’Accord de Libre Échange Nord Américain. Cependant, elle a souvent été envisagée comme une conséquence à long terme de sa mise en place. Quinze ans plus tard, l’immigration vers les États-Unis en provenance du

  16. Mexican renewable electricity law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C. [Institute of Engineering of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, Edificio 12 Bernardo Quintana, Piso 3, Cubiculo 319, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegacion Coyoacan, CP 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  17. Mexican renewable electricity law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  18. The metabolic syndrome, biomarkers, and the acculturation-health relationship among older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Hector M; Tarraf, Wassim; Haan, Mary N

    2011-10-01

    To examine the acculturation-health relationship using metabolic syndrome biomarkers. Cross-sectional sample data. 1,789 Mexican Americans (60 years and older) from northern California. Biomarkers (waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipids) were used to construct the metabolic syndrome indicator using American Heart Association criteria. MAIN PREDICTOR: Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II scores. Higher acculturation scores were associated with a significantly lower risk for the metabolic syndrome for foreign-born, but not U.S.-born, Mexican Americans. Immigrant health advantages over U.S.-born Mexican Americans are not evident in older adulthood. Higher acculturation was associated with lowered metabolic syndrome risk among older foreign-born Mexican Americans. This suggests that the prevailing acculturative stress hypothesis may not apply to the health of older adults and that any negative relationship between acculturation and health found in younger adults may yield to different developmental health influences in later adulthood.

  19. Pubertal Timing and Mexican-Origin Girls’ Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms: The Influence of Harsh Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, J.; Cham, H.; Gonzales, NA.; White, R.M.B.; Tein, J.-Y.; Wong, J.; Roosa, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    Early-maturing girls are at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. Scarce research has examined pubertal timing and mental health among Mexican Americans, or examined the influence of parenting behaviors on these relations. This study addressed these gaps. This was a prospective examination of 362 Mexican-origin girls and their mothers using three waves of data. Measures included girls’ self-report of pubertal development and girls’ and mothers’ report of maternal harsh parenting and daughters’ mental health. Using structural equation modeling, we examined whether pubertal timing in 5th grade predicted girls’ internalizing and externalizing outcomes in 10th grade. We also examined the mediating and moderating effects of harsh parenting on the relations between pubertal timing and internalizing and externalizing behaviors, as well as the influence of mothers’ and daughters’ nativity on these relations. Results differed depending on reporter and maternal nativity. Using daughters’ report, Mexican American mothers’ harsh parenting acted as a moderator. At high levels of harsh parenting, early pubertal timing predicted higher externalizing scores, while at low levels of harsh parenting, early timing predicted lower externalizing scores. For Mexican immigrant mothers, harsh parenting mediated the effects of pubertal timing on girls’ internalizing and externalizing problems. There were no significant pubertal effects for mothers’ report. Findings suggest that maternal harsh parenting plays a key role in the relations between early pubertal timing and behavioral and emotional outcomes among Mexican-origin girls. PMID:23231686

  20. Does helping them benefit me? Examining the emotional cost and benefit of immigrants' pecuniary remittance behaviour in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoyaw, Jonathan Anim; Abada, Teresa

    2016-03-01

    The existing literature has largely focused on how immigrants' pre/post-migration experiences affect their health in destination societies. Hence, little is known about the extent to which immigrants' choice to maintain transnational ties to their family and friends abroad influences their health. This study makes a theoretical and empirical contribution to the sociology of health literature by examining how immigrants' pecuniary remittance behaviour affects their emotional health using data from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC, 2001-2005). Our weighted logistic regression analyses demonstrate that sending remittances within the first six months of arrival predisposes immigrants to emotional health problems. However, remitting after six months of arrival provides an "emotional advantage" for immigrants, but this advantage is greater for female immigrants compared to their male counterparts. The study clearly shows that immigrants' remittance behaviour has far reaching gendered implications on their emotional health, which underscores the importance of including transnational theory and gender in the conceptual toolbox for explaining immigrants' health transitions. Admittedly, insights from this study can help professional healthcare staff, and immigrant settlement and integration agency workers better understand and address the mental health needs of immigrants in order to enhance their contribution to the Canadian economy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Levels of Acculturation, Marital Satisfaction, and Depression among Chicana Workers: A Psychological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ortiz, Yvette G.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 37 Mexican immigrant and Chicana working women, aged 18-58, mostly married or formerly married, examined the interrelationships among acculturation, educational attainment, family life and structure, work attitudes, marital satisfaction, and psychiatric symptoms. More acculturated and more highly educated women continued to have strong…

  2. Quest for Integrity: The Mexican-U.S. Drug Issue in the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    migrant workers, and drugs into the United States and have provided medical treatments (e.g., for cancer , AIDS) that Americans want but find prohibited in...with North Africa for the European cannabis market, which in any case prefers hashish to marijuana. - 53 - and that Mexican marijuana is of lower

  3. Culturally Competent Diabetes Self-Management Education for Mexican Americans: The Starr County Border Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sharon A.; Garcia, Alexandra A.; Kouzekanani, Kamiar; Hanis, Craig L.

    2002-01-01

    In a culturally competent diabetes self-management intervention in Starr County, Texas, bilingual Mexican American nurses, dieticians, and community workers provided weekly instruction on nutrition, self-monitoring, exercise and other self-care topics. A biweekly support group promoted behavior change. Interviews and examinations with 256 Mexican…

  4. Employers’ Openness to Labour Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Mikalauskiene

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the elucidation of the concept of migration and theories describing the process of migration, determines the issue of openness to immigration and presents its theoretical explanation.. The analysis of the empirical studies conducted in Lithuania assessing the openness of employers to labour immigrants was performed including the analysis of immigration trends in this country. The factors determining the attitudes towards immigration and immigrants are presented being divided into the main groups of economic and social-cultural factors.

  5. One Size May Not Fit All: How Obesity Among Mexican-Origin Youth Varies by Generation, Gender, and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisco, Michelle L; Quiros, Susana; Van Hook, Jennifer

    2016-12-01

    Immigrants' health (dis)advantages are increasingly recognized as not being uniform, leading to calls for studies investigating whether immigrant health outcomes are dependent on factors that exacerbate health risks. We answer this call, considering an outcome with competing evidence about immigrants' vulnerability versus risk: childhood obesity. More specifically, we investigate obesity among three generations of Mexican-origin youth relative to one another and to U.S.-born whites. We posit that risk is dependent on the intersection of generational status, gender, and age, which all influence exposure to U.S. society and weight concerns. Analyses of National Health and Nutrition Examination Studies (NHANES) data suggest that accounting for ethnicity and generation alone misses considerable gender and age heterogeneity in childhood obesity among Mexican-origin and white youth. For example, second-generation boys are vulnerable to obesity, but the odds of obesity for first-generation girls are low and on par with those of white girls. Findings also indicate that age moderates ethnic/generational differences in obesity among boys but not among girls. Overall, ethnic/generational patterns of childhood obesity do not conform to a "one size fits all" theory of immigrant health (dis)advantage, leading us to join calls for more research considering how immigrants' characteristics and contexts differentially shape vulnerability to disease and death.

  6. Migrant Workers and Their Occupational Health and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyce, Sally C; Schenker, Marc

    2018-04-01

    In 2015, approximately 244 million people were transnational migrants, approximately half of whom were workers, often engaged in jobs that are hazardous to their health. They work for less pay, for longer hours, and in worse conditions than do nonmigrants and are often subject to human rights violations, abuse, human trafficking, and violence. Worldwide, immigrant workers have higher rates of adverse occupational exposures and working conditions, which lead to poor health outcomes, workplace injuries, and occupational fatalities. Health disparities of immigrant workers are related to environmental and occupational exposures and are a result of language/cultural barriers, access to health care, documentation status, and the political climate of the host country. Recommendations on global and local scales are offered as potential solutions to improving the health of immigrant workers.

  7. Validez de constructo, confiabilidad y punto de corte de la Prueba de Síntomas Subjetivos de Fatiga en trabajadores mexicanos Construct validity, reliability, and cutoff point of the Subjective Symptoms of Fatigue Test in Mexican workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutiérrez

    2004-12-01

    best cutoff point. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The SSFT was developed in Japan to measure fatigue in a population of workers; the test includes 30 items in three spheres. Construct validity was explored through differences among groups, using a population of 1399 workers from eight industries studied in Mexico City in 1999. We used the Theorell and Karasek's control-demand model as our nomological network, from which we derived two work hypotheses. Workers were divided into nine groups according to their level of control-demand; fatigue differences were assessed using analysis of covariance. The internal reliability level was tested with Cronbach's alpha. The cutoff point was obtained by means of the expected linear relation between the labor demands and fatigue. RESULTS: The distribution of SSFT values was similar to the expected values, increasing proportionally with increasing demands or with decreasing control. The differences between groups were statistically significant. Cronbach's alpha was 0.89, while the value per sphere was always above 0.70. The cut-off points most closely correlated were 6 and 7 affirmative answers. CONCLUSIONS: The observed score obtained in the distinct groups was as expected, in agreement with the study hypotheses. The internal reliability of the test was adequate. The proposed cutoff point for the general population was seven affirmative responses.

  8. Socioeconomic status and health of immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacková, Jitka; Brabcová, Iva

    2015-01-01

    with length of residence, or that the health status of immigrants with a residence duration of less than 5 to 10 years is statistically significantly better than immigrants who have resided in the Czech Republic for 10 years or more. We conclude that, by increasing the education levels of immigrants, or actively selecting qualified foreign workers (according to set criteria), the number of people in the Czech Republic who positively assess their health status will surge. In terms of prevention, it is essential to focus on manual laborers and to differentiate specific methods to improve their health status (e.g. awareness-raising campaigns in large plants and factories), given that they comprise the weakest group in this regard.

  9. Intersectionality at Work: Determinants of Labor Supply among Immigrant Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippen, Chenoa

    2014-06-01

    This article borrows from the intersectionality literature to investigate how legal status, labor market position, and family characteristics structure the labor supply of immigrant Latinas in Durham, NC, a new immigrant destination. The analysis takes a broad view of labor force participation, analyzing the predictors of whether or not women work; whether and how the barriers to work vary across occupations; and variation in hours and weeks worked among the employed. I also explicitly investigate the extent to which family constraints interact with other social characteristics, especially legal status, in shaping women's labor market position. Results highlight that immigrant Latinas experience multiple, interrelated constraints on employment owing to their position as low-skill workers in a labor market highly segregated by gender and nativity, to their status as members of a largely undocumented population, and as wives and mothers in an environment characterized by significant work-family conflict.

  10. Immigrants' location preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment...

  11. Encounters with immigrant customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Espersen, Sacha; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2013-01-01

    were not sufficiently assessed at the counter (n = 55, 65%), and that their latest encounter with an immigrant customer was less satisfactory than a similar encounter with an ethnic Danish customer (n = 48, 57%) (significantly more pharmacists than assistants: odds ratio, OR, 3.19; 95% confidence...

  12. Wealth & Immigration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Wolffsen, Poul; Mortensen, Mia

    2014-01-01

    Applying newly developed methods this paper quantifies human capital in Denmark and analyzes highly qualified immigration as a potential source of wealth generation. In order to quantify human capital, we use the methodology of Lettau and Ludvigson (2001, 2004), Zhang (2006) and Dreyer et al. (2013...

  13. Academic Mobility and Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Karine

    2005-01-01

    In the late 1990s, sustained economic growth in most Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and the development of the information economy led to a considerable increase in migration of highly skilled individuals, especially in science and technology. Some OECD countries relaxed their immigration policies to attract…

  14. Immigration policy index

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vikhrov, Dmytro

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2017), s. 3-46 ISSN 0967-0750 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : immigration policy * visa * differences-in-differences estimation Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics , Econometrics Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2016

  15. Gay Immigrants and Grindr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shield, Andrew DJ

    2018-01-01

    In this (open-access) essay, I assess the idea that Grindr and related apps render urban gay spaces obsolete, and offer three counter-arguments based on my research with immigrants and tourists who use Grindr. In short: newcomers who use Grindr might actually bring new life to queer urban spaces...

  16. Developing an immigration policy for Germany on the basis of a nonparametric labor market classification

    OpenAIRE

    Froelich, Markus; Puhani, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Based on a nonparametrically estimated model of labor market classifications, this paper makes suggestions for immigration policy using data from western Germany in the 1990s. It is demonstrated that nonparametric regression is feasible in higher dimensions with only a few thousand observations. In sum, labor markets able to absorb immigrants are characterized by above average age and by professional occupations. On the other hand, labor markets for young workers in service occupations are id...

  17. Immigrants in the Working Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vlachadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Immigration constitutes an all time and multi-dimensional social phenomenon. There are quite a few people that in every time period seek a new place of residence and employment, in order to be able to survive or get a better life. The causes which lead to immigration are various and the immigration itself affects not only the immigrants but also the countries of departure and arrival. The immigration phenomenon has occupied and continues to occupy the majority of countries, among which is Greece which has been one of the new host countries for immigrants. The moving of the population presents when the social and economic environment in which an individual lives and moves, does not provide him with the capability to fulfill his pursuits and satisfy his ambitions. The most frequent reason of immigration nowadays is the economic factor and the objective of the individual that immigrates is finding work. In the present project we will study unemployment and employment in the host countries and more specifically in Greece. In Greece during the last years there appears to be an intense influx of immigrants converting it from a departure country to a host country for immigrants. What happens with the working conditions and insurance, how does immigration affect the unemployment of the permanent population, in what kind of jobs are immigrants occupied and do age and sex play a role in finding work? These are some of the questions we are called to answer through this project. The project not only will deal with how immigration affects the working market but also the economy in general (Cholezas and Tsakloglou, 2008. The research part of the project is based on the Greek and European Statistics Service. The statistical data are presented in the form of charts and diagrams. The data actually concern the legal immigrants in the area of Greece and countries of the E.U. (Vgenopoulos, 1988.

  18. Immigrant Capital and Entrepreneurial Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malavika Sundararajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study is to define and operationalize the concept of immigrant capital, a key factor that differentiates immigrant from host country entrepreneurs in how they recognize and start new ventures. Research Design & Methods: A detailed analysis of contemporary immigrant entrepreneurship and opportunity recognition literature was carried out. Using grounded theory, we synthesized the outcomes from the analysis of eight Canadian and U.S. case studies of successful immigrant entrepreneurs with the key findings from the literature to define and develop a model of immigrant capital. Findings: Based on our grounded theory development process we show that the concept of immigrant capital as a distillate of human, cultural, economic and social capital that goes beyond expected opportunity recognition (OR drivers like prior knowledge and prior experience to differentiate and enhance the immigrant entrepreneur’s ability to recognize business opportunities compared to host country entrepreneurs. We found immigrant capital to be a consequence of being boundary spanners in host and home country networks. Implications & Recommendations: Understanding a unique resource like immigrant capital, will help immigrant as well as host country entrepreneurs further develop their opportunity recognition ability by bridging gaps and fulfilling the needs for both, immigrant and host country consumers. Contribution & Value Added: The main contribution is the theoretical development, identification and definition of the immigrant capital model and propositions that will articulate the factors that lead to the conceptualization and operationalization of immigrant capital. Furthermore, the immigrant capital model can serve host country entrepreneurs to develop cross-cultural networks and jump-start entrepreneurial activities in their home countries as well as learn how to expand their operations into global markets.

  19. 75 FR 16000 - Temporary Employment of Foreign Workers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... out the policies of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), that a nonimmigrant alien worker not be admitted to fill a particular temporary job opportunity unless no qualifed U.S. worker is available to fill the job opportunity, and unless the employment of the foreign worker in the job opportunity will not...

  20. HIV Prevention among Mexican Migrants at Different Migration Phases: Exposure to Prevention Messages and Association With Testing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Zhang, Xiao; Simon, Norma-Jean; Rhoads, Natalie; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J. Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ahmed Asadi

    2016-01-01

    Mobile populations are at increased risk for HIV infection. Exposure to HIV prevention messages at all phases of the migration process may help decrease im/migrants’ HIV risk. We investigated levels of exposure to HIV prevention messages, factors associated with message exposure, and the association between exposure to prevention messages and HIV testing behavior among Mexican im/migrants at different phases of the migration process. We conducted a cross-sectional, probability survey of Mexican im/migrants (N=3,149) traveling through the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. The results indicate limited exposure to prevention messages (57%–75%) and suboptimal last 12-month HIV testing rates (14%–25%) across five migration phases. Compared to pre-departure levels (75%), exposure to messages decreases at all post-departure migration phases (57%–63%, pmigration continuum. PMID:26595267

  1. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration Judge § 1003.10 Immigration judges...

  2. 22 CFR 42.33 - Diversity immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diversity immigrants. 42.33 Section 42.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Immigrants Subject to Numerical Limitations § 42.33 Diversity immigrants. (a...

  3. Portrayal of Immigrants in Newsmagazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Goldberger

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how United States newsmagazines represented immigrants in the aftermath of September 11th terrorist attacks. Methodologically, the paper uses the frame analysis from a social constructivist standpoint, identifying the four functions of frame, as defined by Entman. Three months prior to the attacks, newsmagazines framed immigrants as “needed” and, in most cases, they portrayed them positively. In the period after the attacks, the frame shifted and newsmagazines started representing immigrants as “feared”, potential harborers of terrorists, and so on. Before the attacks, illegal immigrants were represented as the greatest immigration problem. After the attacks, the attention of newsmagazines shifted to legal immigrants with terrorist intentions. The results suggest that the issue of immigrants and immigration policy in the media collided with the threat of terrorism as a foreign policy issue. Thus, it became a security issue that influenced the representation of immigrants. In newsmagazines’ portrayal of immigrants, political features became more prominent than economic ones.

  4. The evolution of Malaysia’s immigration policy since 1970

    OpenAIRE

    Avila, Michelle B.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In the 1970s, Malaysia’s government promoted economic growth through an economic structural change from agriculture to industry. During the economic changeover, Malaysia’s lack of human capital contributed to the persistent labor shortages. To meet the demand for labor, especially in manufacturing and construction, the government adopted a liberal immigration policy that permitted large numbers of workers to enter the country. Although...

  5. Intolerance toward immigrants in Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitag, Markus; Rapp, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    Intolerance toward immigrants has recently reached noticeable highs in Switzerland. Referring to the conflict theory, the perception of a specific group as a threat tends to lead to intolerance toward that group. The expectation of a negative relationship between threat and tolerance is neverthel......Intolerance toward immigrants has recently reached noticeable highs in Switzerland. Referring to the conflict theory, the perception of a specific group as a threat tends to lead to intolerance toward that group. The expectation of a negative relationship between threat and tolerance...... that Swiss who view rising immigration to mean a loss of economic privileges and an erosion of Swiss cultural values are less tolerant toward immigrants. Moreover, our results indicate that contact with immigrants may moderate this effect. However, not all group settings are able to reduce the perceived...... threats in a similar way, and not all sorts of social contact are able to foster tolerance toward immigrants....

  6. Immigration, employment relations, and health: Developing a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benach, Joan; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Benavides, Fernando G

    2010-04-01

    International migration has emerged as a global issue that has transformed the lives of hundreds of millions of persons. Migrant workers contribute to the economic growth of high-income countries often serving as the labour force performing dangerous, dirty and degrading work that nationals are reluctant to perform. Critical examination of the scientific and "grey" literatures on immigration, employment relations and health. Both lay and scientific literatures indicate that public health researchers should be concerned about the health consequences of migration processes. Migrant workers are more represented in dangerous industries and in hazardous jobs, occupations and tasks. They are often hired as labourers in precarious jobs with poverty wages and experience more serious abuse and exploitation at the workplace. Also, analyses document migrant workers' problems of social exclusion, lack of health and safety training, fear of reprisals for demanding better working conditions, linguistic and cultural barriers that minimize the effectiveness of training, incomplete OHS surveillance of foreign workers and difficulty accessing care and compensation when injured. Therefore migrant status can be an important source of occupational health inequalities. Available evidence shows that the employment conditions and associated work organization of most migrant workers are dangerous to their health. The overall impact of immigration on population health, however, still is poorly understood and many mechanisms, pathways and overall health impact are poorly documented. Current limitations highlight the need to engage in explicit analytical, intervention and policy research. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Labor market outcomes of immigrant women in the United States: 1970 to 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeni, R F

    1998-01-01

    42% of immigrant workers in the US are women. Data from the 1970, 1980, and 1990 US censuses are analyzed in the study of differences in labor market outcomes between US-born and immigrant women, and among immigrant women born in different countries or regions of the world. There was little difference between US-born and immigrant women as a whole in 1970. However, over the next 20 years, immigrants women's labor force participation rate and weekly earnings relative to natives became lower, and their unemployment rates became higher. By 1990, the wage gap was 14%. At the same time, the share of self-employed women and the amount of time worked among employed women were almost the same for immigrant women and the US-born throughout the period 1970-90. Immigrants born in the UK, Canada, Europe, Japan, Korea, China, the Philippines, and the Middle East have had steady or improved wages and unemployment relative to US-born women. Immigrants from Mexico and Central America have experienced relatively high unemployment and low earnings, with the wage gap reaching 35% in 1990. Disparities in the number of completed years of schooling explains a substantial share of the observed differences in labor market outcomes.

  8. The timing is never right: Mexican views of condom use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiston, C; Gordon, A

    2000-06-01

    Unprotected sex is a critical issue in the Hispanic community, with the incidence of new Hispanic acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases three times that of non-Hispanic Whites. The researchers used focus groups to examine: (a) whether newly immigrated Mexican men and women in the Southeast United States discussed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention with each other, and (b) how condom use was discussed. For the women, communication was safe sex, and for the men, trust was safe sex. Both communication and trust were dependent on timing in the relationship. Participants could not discuss condoms in a new or established relationship because of issues of trust. This study highlights the complexity of HIV/STD prevention and suggests that trust and timing should be considered within the cultural context of condom introduction.

  9. Immigrant Capital and Entrepreneurial Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Malavika Sundararajan; Binod Sundararajan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study is to define and operationalize the concept of immigrant capital, a key factor that differentiates immigrant from host country entrepreneurs in how they recognize and start new ventures. Research Design & Methods: A detailed analysis of contemporary immigrant entrepreneurship and opportunity recognition literature was carried out. Using grounded theory, we synthesized the outcomes from the analysis of eight Canadian and U.S. case studies of successf...

  10. Ethnic pluralism, immigration and entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Mickiewicz, T; Hart, M; Nyakudya, FW; Theodorakopoulos, N

    2017-01-01

    We consider the effects of immigration and ethnicity on entrepreneurship, distinguishing between the individual traits and the environmental characteristics. We look beyond the resource-opportunity framework and occupational choice: culture and values matter. Yet, instead of assigning the latter to specific ethnic features, we relate them to both immigration, and to the social environment defined by the share of immigrants, and by ethnic diversity. Empirical evidence we provide is based on Gl...

  11. [Immigration to Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picouet, M; Pellegrino, A; Papail, J

    1986-11-01

    Immigration to Venezuela is examined using census data with the focus on the period 1971-1981. A brief overview of trends since the beginning of the twentieth century is first presented. The analysis indicates that "immigration to Venezuela is clearly of a short-term nature. Flows follow job opportunities and adjust to the labour market and to the financial capacity of the exchange market. The large increase of migratory movements to Venezuela in the 1970's is characterized by a diversification of their places of origin and by a greater instability. To a large extent, the migrants are illegal, especially those coming from Colombia and the Caribbean islands. Because of the crisis of the early 1980's, which is now worsened by the down trend of both oil prices and the U.S. dollar, Venezuela has become less attractive to immigrants, particularly from neighbouring countries." The authors observe that migrants in Venezuela are not well integrated and may depart, disrupting the labor supply in certain technical and specialized occupations (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  12. Migrant workers and labor market segmentation in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, H

    1994-01-01

    The amended Immigration Control Act of 1990 focused on 1) redefinition of the resident status of foreign nationals, 2) clarification of immigration regulations, and 3) countermeasures to cope with the problem of illegal migrant workers. Tough penalties were introduced for illegal employment. The reform paved the way for third generation Nikkei (foreigners of Japanese ancestry) and also opened the door to non-Nikkei married to second generation Nikkei to reside in the country. The migration of Nikkei workers to Japan dates back to the beginning of the 1980s. The Technical Intern Training Program introduced in 1993 also opened a legal channel for the employment of unskilled or semi-skilled foreigners. The categories of foreign workers were heavily concentrated in the automobile and electric appliances industries, mostly as assembly line workers. Foreign students and clandestine workers had a wider dispersion in the labor force than the Nikkei. Students often find work in the urban service sector while attending school. Clandestine male workers predominate in the construction industry as unskilled workers. According to the size of firms, small firms had had the most acute labor shortages in the past 15 years prior to 1994, especially in the late 1980s. The Immigration Law of 1990 brought major changes in the hiring practices of large firms that began hiring legal workers such as the Nikkei, while small firms continued hiring clandestine workers from Asian countries. Foreign workers also earned almost as much as native part-time workers and sometimes even outstripped native seasonal workers. In terms of wages, Nikkei South Americans were on the top followed by Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, Sri Lankans, Nepalese, Ghanians, and Iranians on the bottom. Unskilled foreign workers generally had a high turnover rate with the Nikkei showing the lowest rate. Only 7% of the Nikkei changed jobs more than four times vs. 16-17% of foreign students and 21% of clandestine workers.

  13. Technological change and salary variation in Mexican regions: Analyzing panel data for the service sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Camberos C.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Hypothesis Biased Technological Change is applied for Mexican workers services sector, belonging several Mexican regions. Economics Census microdata, 1998, 2003 and 2008 are used. Hypothesis is proved with technological gaps, under consideration of different index and result statistics consistency by taking account panel analysis. Mayor wages differences at 2008 year were find out between Capital region and South one, about five hundred percent on 1998 year; but it was lower on 2008, two hundred percent. This result is in correspondence with diminishing technological gap, perhaps caused by economic crisis impact.

  14. The Self-Employment Experience of Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    George J. Borjas

    1986-01-01

    Self-employment is an important aspect of the immigrant experience in the labor market. Self-employment rates for immigrants exceed 15 percent for some national groups. This paper addresses three related questions on the self-employment experience of immigrants. First, how do self-employment rates of immigrants compare to those of native-born men? Second, is there an "assimilation" effect on the self-employment propensity of immigrants? Finally, are the more recent waves of immigrants facing ...

  15. Immigrant language barriers and house prices

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Andreas M.

    2011-01-01

    Are language skills important in explaining the nexus between house prices and immigrant inflows? The language barrier hypothesis says immigrants from a non common language country value amenities more than immigrants from common language countries.> ; In turn, immigrants from non common language countries are less price sensitive to house price changes than immigrants from a common language country. Tests of the language barrier hypothesis with Swiss house prices show that an immigration inf...

  16. Immigration Enforcement Actions - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  17. From Multiculturalism to Immigration Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Lauter

    2009-01-01

    Immigration is a tense political topic in virtually every Western country, and in many others as well. In fact, immigration is an international issue: 3 percent of the world's population, 191,000,000 people, now live in countries other than those in which they were born. This paper discusses why immigration is so fraught, the relation of the crisis over immigration to the growing fracture of the Western world's economy, as well as to terrorism like September 11 and the train bombings...

  18. Immigration, Work, and Health: A Literature Review of Immigration Between Mexico and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael A.; Carreón, Tania; Eggerth, Donald E.; Johnson, Antoinette I.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the influence someone’s job or career has on their health goes beyond the physical, emotional and social hazards, risks and conditions that they face at work. One’s job or career also exerts a significant influence over other aspects of life that contribute or detract from their health and that of their family. Work is the major incentive for Latin American migration to the United States. Latino immigrants experience increasingly poorer outcomes for physical health and chronic diseases the longer they remain in the U.S. The strong link between work and immigration suggests that, for many Latin Americans, immigration can be understood as a career path which puts them, and their family members, in situations that can change their physical, emotional, and social health as a condition of their employment. Given the large number of Latin Americans who emigrate for work, it is essential that the unique physical, mental and social impacts of emigration are accounted for when working with clients impacted by emigration at the individual, family and community level as well as those social workers practicing at the system level. This paper is a literature review that explores the impact that emigrating for work has on the health of those that emigrate and their family members that stay behind. PMID:28260831

  19. Technology evaluation of a USA-Mexico health information system for epidemiological surveillance of Mexican migrant workers Evaluación tecnológica de un sistema de información de salud mexicano-estadounidense para la vigilancia epidemiológica de los trabajadores itinerantes mexicanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Eduardo Velasco-Mondragón

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available From 1994 through 1996, federal, state, and nongovernmental organizations in Mexico and in the United States of America developed and piloted a Binational Health Information System for Epidemiological Surveillance of Mexican migrant workers. The system allowed data exchange for epidemiological surveillance between the state of Guanajuato in Mexico and the Commonwealth (state of Pennsylvania in the United States, for case detection, prevention, and treatment, through shared contact investigation and case management of communicable diseases. The target population consisted of migrant workers traveling between Guanajuato and Pennsylvania to work mainly in the mushroom industry, and their sexual partners in their Mexican communities of origin. Computerized migrant health information modules were set up in Guanajuato and in Pennsylvania. Patient information and epidemiological surveillance data were encrypted and communicated electronically between the modules, using the WONDER communications system of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Evaluation of the Guanajuato-Pennsylvania Binational Health Information System showed that major barriers to binational epidemiological surveillance and control are: a lack of communication binationally; b interrupted medical care due to migration; c inconsistent diagnosis and treatment criteria between the two countries; d lack of referral clinical records from one country to the other; and e deficient legal regulations concerning binational clinical data transfer. To our knowledge, this is the first project that has successfully demonstrated the technological feasibility of a binational disease control system linking a state in the interior of one country with a state in the interior of another country, rather than just states in the border region. The project also advanced the understanding of health service organizational issues that facilitate or hinder communication, outreach, disease

  20. El Arte Culinario Mexicano (Mexican Culinary Art).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Michelle

    This unit in Mexican cooking can be used in Junior High School home economics classes to introduce students to Mexican culture or as a mini-course in Spanish at almost any level. It is divided into two parts. Part One provides historical background and information on basic foods, the Mexican market, shopping tips, regional cooking and customs.…

  1. Connecting Gender, Race, Class, and Immigration Status to Disease Management at the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Chronic diseases are the leading causes of death in the United States. Chronic disease management occurs within all aspects of an individual's life, including the workplace. Though the social constructs of gender, race, class, and immigration status within the workplace have been considered, their connection to disease management among workers has been less explicitly explored. Using a sample of immigrant hotel housekeepers, we explored the connections between these four social constructs and hypertension management. This qualitative research study was guided by critical ethnography methodology. Twenty-seven hotel room cleaners and four housemen were recruited ( N = 31) and invited to discuss their experiences with hypertension and hypertension management within the context of their work environments. Being a woman worker within the hotel industry was perceived to negatively influence participants' experience with hypertension and hypertension management. In contrast, being a woman played a protective role outside the workplace. Being an immigrant played both a positive and a negative role in hypertension and its management. Being black and from a low socioeconomic class had only adverse influences on participants' experience with hypertension and its management. Being a woman, black, lower class, and an immigrant simultaneously contribute to immigrant hotel housekeepers' health and their ability to effectively manage their hypertension. The connection between these four constructs (gender, race, class, and immigration status) and disease management must be considered during care provision. Hotel employers and policy stakeholders need to consider those constructs and how they impact workers' well-being. More studies are needed to identify what mitigates the associations between the intersectionality of these constructs and immigrant workers' health and disease management within their work environment.

  2. Metabolic responses to a traditional Mexican diet compared with a commonly consumed US diet in women of Mexican descent: a randomized crossover feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Torres, Margarita; Kratz, Mario; Lampe, Johanna W; Tapsoba, Jean De Dieu; Breymeyer, Kara L; Levy, Lisa; Villaseñor, Adriana; Wang, Ching-Yun; Song, Xiaoling; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2016-02-01

    Mexican immigrants are disproportionally affected by diet-related risk of metabolic dysfunction. Whether adhering to a traditional Mexican diet or adopting a US diet contributes to metabolic changes associated with future risk of type 2 diabetes and other chronic diseases has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to test in a randomized crossover feeding trial the metabolic responses to a Mexican diet compared with a commonly consumed US diet. First- and second-generation healthy women of Mexican descent (n = 53) were randomly assigned in a crossover design to consume a Mexican or US diet for 24 d each, separated by a 28-d washout period. Diets were eucaloric and similar in macronutrient composition. The metabolic responses to diets were assessed by measuring fasting serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin 6 (IL-6), as well as the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) at the beginning and end of each period. Linear mixed models tested the intervention effect on the biomarkers, while adjusting for diet sequence, feeding period, baseline and washout biomarker concentrations, age, acculturation, and BMI. Compared with the US diet, the Mexican diet reduced insulin by 14% [geometric means (95% CIs): 9.3 (8.3, 10.3) compared with 8.0 (7.2, 8.9) μU/mL; P = 0.02], HOMA-IR by 15% [2.0 (1.8, 2.3) compared with 1.7 (1.6, 2.0); P = 0.02], and IGFBP-3 by 6% (mean ± SEM: 2420 ± 29 compared with 2299 ± 29 ng/mL; P diet. Compared with the commonly consumed US diet, the traditional Mexican diet modestly improved insulin sensitivity under conditions of weight stability in healthy women of Mexican descent, while having no impact on biomarkers of inflammation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01369173. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Reconnecting Alaska: Mexican Movements and the Last Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara V. Komarnisky

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the initial findings of on-going research with Mexican migrants and immigrants to Alaska. The paper outlines the historical and on-going connections between Alaska and Mexico and explores how and why those connections have been obscured or ignored. Powerful imaginaries are associated with places: Alaska, and 'the north' more generally, and Latin America, and Mexico specifically. My research shows how interesting things happen when they are brought together through movement. People from Acuitzio del Canje, Michoacán began travelling to Alaska (Anchorage, and elsewhere to work in the 1950s, and movement between Mexico and Alaska has continued across generations since then. Today, many Acuitzences who live in Anchorage maintain a close relationship with friends and family members in Acuitzio, and travel back and forth regularly. However, this movement is obscured by ideological work that makes Alaska seem separate, isolated, wild, and a place where Mexicans are not imagined to be. Mexican movements into Alaska over time disrupt this vision, showing how Alaska is connected to multiple other geographies, and making the US-Mexico border a salient reference point in everyday life in Anchorage. When the South moves into the North, it can make us think about both 'Alaska' and 'Mexico' in different ways. When the US-Mexico border is relocated to Anchorage, if only for a moment, it can elicit a reaction of humour or surprise. Why is that? And what does this have to do with how people actually live in an interconnected place?

  4. A Study of New Mexico Migrant Agricultural Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, John G.; And Others

    The intent of this report, as stated, is to bring about an awareness of the kinds of problems faced by migrant agricultural workers (Mexican Americans and Navajos), by farmers, and by agencies offering services to these migrants in New Mexico. An overview of the national and state migrant situation is presented, as well as case studies of various…

  5. Habaneros and shwarma: Jewish Mexicans in Israel as a transnational community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulette Kershenovich Schuster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Food is the cultural expression of society food as a marker of class, ethnic, and religious identity. What happens when the location changes? Does food continue to play such an important role or do other cultural nodes take over? Do layers of traditions, adaptation and cultural blends emerge? This seems to be the case with third and fourth generation Mexican Jews who have moved to Israel. Not only have they brought their spiritual and cultural connections from Mexico, their birth country; they have also brought the food experiences of their great-grandparents and grandparents who were they themselves immigrants. Jewish Mexicans have transplanted their sense of community to Israel and in doing so they have also brought overlooked cultural interactions and unique food experiences. Are these simply by-products of religious and migration patterns? Or are there other elements that have affected this cultural hybridity?

  6. Large-scale immigration and political response: popular reaction in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, W A

    1998-03-01

    Over the past 3 years, the level of political debate has grown over the nature and extent of the recent large-scale immigration to the US in general, and to California in particular. California's Proposition 187 to deny welfare benefits to illegal immigrants brought national attention to the immigration debate, and no doubt influenced recent decisions to significantly change the US's welfare program. The author studied the vote on Proposition 187 in the November 1994 California election to better understand the nature of reaction to large-scale immigration and recent arguments about anti-immigrant sentiment and nativism. The only counties which voted against the proposition were Sonoma, Marin, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, Yolo, Alameda, and Santa Clara, as well as the population of San Francisco. The vote generated political responses from across the border as well as within California. Statements from Mexican and other Central American governments reflected their concern over the possibility of returning populations, for whom there are neither jobs nor public services in their countries of origin. Findings are presented from a spatial analysis of the vote by census tracts in Los Angeles County.

  7. Self-Employed Foreign Workers In Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Trinidad Luisa García

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a full study of the legal system applicable to selfemployed foreigners wishing to carry out an economic activity in Spain. The focus varies according to the country of origin of the individual, whether it lies within the European Economic Community, whether it is a country with which the European Union has co-operation and association agreements or finally, whether it is under the general regime. The utilitarian perspective which considers immigration as necessary manual labour has justified more efficient legal mechanisms to facilitate the employment of immigrant manual workers. These mechanisms do not apply to self-employed workers. The lack of interest of legislators in this type of worker is highlighted by the suppression of motivation and refusal of the mandatory visa. The detailed analysis of the anticipated administrative requirements emphasises that within the labour legislation for immigrants there is a marked difference between those who work for an employer and those who are self-employed and there is no correspondence or comparison with the more far reaching policies of the labour doctrine with regard to the rights and guarantees of both categories of workers.

  8. Immigration and Religion in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2009-01-01

    An overview over legal framework for immigration into Denmark, special clauses on religion as a parameter for residence permit and asylum in churches......An overview over legal framework for immigration into Denmark, special clauses on religion as a parameter for residence permit and asylum in churches...

  9. Immigrant Education: A Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Steven R.

    This report provides information on immigrant education in the United States in the areas of funding, participation, population, services, and allocation method. Additionally, it explores reauthorization issues confronting the Emergency Immigrant Education Act for fiscal year 1994. The report shows that: (1) there has been a steady decrease in…

  10. Identity Transformation of Korean Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Saekyung; Gaa, John; Swank, Paul; Liberman, Dov

    Immigration is one of the most significant changes which can occur in one's lifetime. Immigrants struggle with their foreign environment and renewed crises; they suffer from "uprootedness" and "missed embeddedness" and have difficulty integrating their identity roles. Erikson's psychosocial development theory and Marcia's…

  11. From Multiculturalism to Immigration Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Lauter

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Immigration is a tense political topic in virtually every Western country, and in many others as well. In fact, immigration is an international issue: 3 percent of the world's population, 191,000,000 people, now live in countries other than those in which they were born. This paper discusses why immigration is so fraught, the relation of the crisis over immigration to the growing fracture of the Western world's economy, as well as to terrorism like September 11 and the train bombings in Madrid, Mumbai, and London, and how these factors—growing economic disparity, immigration, and terrorism—have altered one of the basic cultural phenomena of the United States in the last three decades, namely, what we call multiculturalism.

  12. From Multiculturalism to Immigration Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Lauter

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Immigration is a tense political topic in virtually every Western country, and in many others as well. In fact, immigration is an international issue: 3 percent of the world's population, 191,000,000 people, now live in countries other than those in which they were born. This paper discusses why immigration is so fraught, the relation of the crisis over immigration to the growing fracture of the Western world's economy, as well as to terrorism like September 11 and the train bombings in Madrid, Mumbai, and London, and how these factors—growing economic disparity, immigration, and terrorism—have altered one of the basic cultural phenomena of the United States in the last three decades, namely, what we call multiculturalism.

  13. Of peasants, plantations, and immigrant proletarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Martí­nez

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Dominican Sugar Plantations: Production and Foreign Labor Integration. MARTIN F. MURPHY. New York: Praeger, 1991. xii + 186 pp. (Cloth US$49.95 Peasants in Distress: Poverty and Unemployment in the Dominican Republic. ROSEMARY VARGAS-LUNDIUS. Boulder CO: Westview 1991. xxi + 387 pp. (Paper US$ 32.95 Few other places in the Caribbean region have as great a potential for international conflict as the island of Hispaniola. The historical antagonism between Haiti and the Dominican Republic is no doubt known to readers of this journal, as is the recent upsurge in tension between the two countries, which culminated in the expulsion of tens of thousands of Haitian immigrants from the Dominican Republic, from June to September 1991. The quickening pace of events, added to the worsening spiral of economic hardship gripping both nations, threaten to render obsolete even the most recent analyses of relations between the two countries. Even so, against the background of an increasingly acrimonious debate between the Dominican government and international human rights organizations accusing it of enslaving Haitian immigrants in the cane flelds, the appearance of two works by long-time students of the migration of Haitians as cane workers to the Dominican Republic is particularly timely.

  14. AIDS in Mexican prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, J M; Roberts, J B

    1995-01-01

    The human rights organization Americas Watch, which toured Mexican prisons, reported in 1991 that all prisoners with HIV infection in the Mexico City area were housed in a single AIDS ward in Santa Marta Prison. In 1991, the 16-bed facility had 15 patients; in 1993, this number had increased by 5. In Mexico City, with 3 prisons holding over 2000 male adults each, there were only 20 known infected prisoners in the AIDS ward at Santa Marta. In 1991, authorities at Matamoros, in the state of Tamaulipas, insisted that none of their inmates had ever been diagnosed as infected with HIV. The prison physician at Reynosa indicated that only 2 inmates since 1985 had ever been diagnosed as infected. In 1992, the prison in Saltillo, in the state of Coahuila, reported that here had yet to be a single positive test for HIV. The prison at Reynosa held 1500 people and only 2 inmates were diagnosed as having AIDS between 1985 and 1991. Prisons at Matamoros and Saltillo held similar numbers but had no experience of infected inmates. A survey of 2 prisons in the state of Tamaulipas indicates that around 12% of the population may use IV drugs, and 9% indicate sharing needles. It is possible for prisoners to die of diseases like pneumonia, associated with AIDS, without the connection to AIDS being diagnosed. Each state, and possibly each prison in Mexico, has its own particular AIDS policies. Santa Marta was the single facility in Mexico City used to house AIDS-infected prisoners, who were segregated. Finally, the prison at Saltillo required all women entering the facility to have a medical examination, including a test for HIV. High-level prison personnel have demonstrated ignorance and fear of AIDS and intolerance of infected prisoners. Mexico must reassess the need to provide adequate medical care to offenders who are sick and dying behind bars.

  15. Mexican agencies reach teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Lemus, R; Beamish, J

    1992-08-01

    The Gente Joven project of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) trains young volunteers in 19 cities to spread messages about sexually transmitted diseases and population growth to their peers. They also distribute condoms and spermicides. It also uses films and materials to spread its messages. The project would like to influence young men's behavior, but the Latin image of machismo poses a big challenge. It would like to become more responsible toward pregnancy prevention. About 50% of adolescents have sexual intercourse, but few use contraceptives resulting in a high adolescent pregnancy rate. Many of these pregnant teenagers choose not to marry. Adolescent pregnancy leads to girls leaving school, few marketable skills, and rearing children alone. Besides women who began childbearing as a teenager have 1.5 times more children than other women. Male involvement in pregnancy prevention should improve these statistics. As late as 1973, the Health Code banned promotion and sales of contraceptives, but by 1992 about 50% of women of reproductive age use contraceptives. The Center for the Orientation of Adolescents has organized 8 Young Men's Clubs in Mexico City to involve male teenagers more in family planning and to develop self-confidence. It uses a holistic approach to their development through discussions with their peers. A MEXFAM study shows that young men are not close with their fathers who tend to exude a machismo attitude, thus the young men do not have a role model for responsible sexual behavior. MEXFAM's work is cut out for them, however, since the same study indicates that 50% of the young men believe it is fine to have 1 girlfriend and 33% think women should earn more than men. A teenager volunteer reports, however, that more boys have been coming to him for contraception and information than girls in 1992 while in other years girls outnumbered the boys.

  16. More Similar than Different? Exploring Cultural Models of Depression among Latino Immigrants in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinorah (Dina Martinez Tyson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Surgeon General's report, “Culture, Race, and Ethnicity: A Supplement to Mental Health,” points to the need for subgroup specific mental health research that explores the cultural variation and heterogeneity of the Latino population. Guided by cognitive anthropological theories of culture, we utilized ethnographic interviewing techniques to explore cultural models of depression among foreign-born Mexican (n=30, Cuban (n=30, Columbian (n=30, and island-born Puerto Ricans (n=30, who represent the largest Latino groups in Florida. Results indicate that Colombian, Cuban, Mexican, and Puerto Rican immigrants showed strong intragroup consensus in their models of depression causality, symptoms, and treatment. We found more agreement than disagreement among all four groups regarding core descriptions of depression, which was largely unexpected but can potentially be explained by their common immigrant experiences. Findings expand our understanding about Latino subgroup similarities and differences in their conceptualization of depression and can be used to inform the adaptation of culturally relevant interventions in order to better serve Latino immigrant communities.

  17. 78 FR 32989 - Visas: Documentation of Immigrants under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Immigrants under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Final... aliens who seek immigrant visas and does not affect any small entities, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 601(6). C... with the following change: PART 42--VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND...

  18. Do post-migration perceptions of social mobility matter for Latino immigrant health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, Carmela; Chen, Chih-Nan; Alegría, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Latino immigrants exhibit health declines with increasing duration in the United States, which some attribute to a loss in social status after migration or downward social mobility. Yet, research into the distribution of perceived social mobility and patterned associations to Latino health is sparse, despite extensive research to show that economic and social advancement is a key driver of voluntary migration. We investigated Latino immigrant sub-ethnic group variation in the distribution of perceived social mobility, defined as the difference between respondents’ perceived social status of origin had they remained in their country of origin and their current social status in the U.S. We also examined the association between perceived social mobility and past-year major depressive episode (MDE) and self-rated fair/poor physical health, and whether Latino sub-ethnicity moderated these associations. We computed weighted logistic regression analyses using subsample (N = 1561 the Latino immigrant) of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Puerto Rican migrants were more likely to perceive downward social mobility relative to Mexican and Cuban immigrants who were more likely to perceive upward social mobility. Perceived downward social mobility was associated with increased odds of fair/poor physical health and MDE. Latino sub-ethnicity was a statistically significant moderator, such that perceived downward social mobility was associated with higher odds of MDE only among Puerto Rican and Other Latino immigrants. In contrast, perceived upward social mobility was not associated with self-rated fair/poor physical health. Our findings suggest that perceived downward social mobility might be an independent correlate of health among Latino immigrants, and might help explain Latino sub-ethnic group differences in mental health status. Future studies on Latino immigrant health should use prospective designs to examine the physiological and psychological costs

  19. Minority and Immigrant Youth Exposure to Community Violence: The Differential Effects of Family Management and Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Maria João Lobo; Ahlin, Eileen M

    2018-02-01

    Experiences with neighborhood violence can produce negative consequences in youth, including stress, anxiety, and deviant behavior. Studies report that immigrant and minority youth are more likely to be exposed to violence but less likely to perpetrate it. Similarly, research shows parenting practices are differentially adopted by Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics. Although family management strategies can often act as a barrier to the detrimental effects of exposure to community violence (ETV-C), there is a paucity of investigation on how Hispanic subgroups (e.g., Puerto Rican, Mexican) and immigrant families employ such practices in protecting their children against victimization and violence in the community. Applying an ecological framework, we use data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine the role of parenting and peer relationships on youth ETV-C, across race/ethnicity and immigrant generational status. Our sample is drawn from Cohorts 9, 12, and 15, and is over 40% Hispanic-Latino. We investigate the differences in within and outside the home family management strategies in terms of both race/ethnicity and immigrant generational status. Our work also seeks to determine the effects of race/ethnicity and immigrant status on youth ETV-C, while examining the influence of family management and peer relations. Results indicate that the adoption of family management practices is not homogeneous across Hispanic subgroups or immigrant generational status, and parenting practices seem to mediate the relationship between these characteristics and exposure to violence. Variations in parenting practices underscore the need to disentangle the cultural plurality of racial/ethnic grouping and how immigrant generational status influences parenting choices that protect children from exposure to violence in the community.

  20. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act, the...

  1. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part the...

  2. The Changing Face of Immigration Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on laws that influence U.S. immigration, such as the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (1996), the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996), the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (1996), and the Legal Immigration and Family Equity Act (2000). Includes discussion…

  3. The U.S. immigration crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, G P; Lutton, W

    1985-01-01

    A review of the factors affecting immigration to the United States is presented. The authors develop the argument that present levels of immigration, particularly illegal immigration, are detrimental to U.S. interests, and that current global population trends will make this situation progressively worse. Stricter controls on immigration are considered.

  4. Relationship between job dissatisfaction and physical and psychological health among Filipino immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, A B; Gee, Gilbert C; Takeuchi, David

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between job dissatisfaction and psychological and physical health among Filipino immigrants in the United States. Cross-sectional data from the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Study were analyzed for 1,381 Filipino immigrants. The primary independent variable of interest was job dissatisfaction. Linear and negative binomial regression analyses were conducted to determine separate associations between job dissatisfaction and the outcomes of psychological distress and physical health conditions, respectively. Job dissatisfaction was positively associated with both psychological distress (beta = 0.32, p job category. This community-based study demonstrated that job dissatisfaction has implications for health and well-being among an understudied, immigrant group of workers. Findings also suggest that job-related experiences should be considered when examining disparate health for immigrant, minority populations.

  5. La Artesania Mexicana (Mexican Handicrafts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Bettina

    This booklet contains instructions in English and Spanish for making eleven typical Mexican craft articles. The instructions are accompanied by pen-and-ink drawings. The objects are (1) "La Rosa" (The Rose); (2) "El Crisantemo" (The Chrysanthemum); (3) "La Amapola" (The Poppy); (4) "Ojos de Dios" (God's Eyes); (5) "Ojitos con dos caras" (Two-Sided…

  6. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology.

  7. The Mexican Axolotl in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests and describes laboratory activities in which the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum Shaw) is used, including experiments in embryology and early development, growth and regeneration, neoteny and metamorphosis, genetics and coloration, anatomy and physiology, and behavior. Discusses care and maintenance of animals. (CS)

  8. Proverbs in Mexican American Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shirley L.

    1982-01-01

    Examines proverb use among 304 Mexican Americans (aged 16-85) of Los Angeles (California), assembling information on how or where particular proverbs were learned, with whom or what kind of individual their use is associated, the occasions on which they are used, and general attitudes toward the use of proverbs. (LC)

  9. [Emigration and immigration in Italy. (1861-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The creation of the Italian Kingdom was characterized by the mass emigration of Italian people, mainly peasants towards European and American destinations. Poverty, unemployment, diseases, like pellagra, malaria and tubercolosis forced millions of Italians to leave the Country. The phenomenon of emigration is usually divided in three periods: the mass emigration from 1976 to 1914, the second one between the two world wars, the third one from 1946 to 1976. In the last quarter of the 20th century the number of repatriations overcome expatriations and the number of immigrants from Albania, Romania, Senegal, Tunisia, China, Philippines grew up becoming more and more important. Italy was a country of emigrants, now is a country of immigrants. It is difficult to compare the work conditions of the Italian emigrants with the new immigrants. At the end of the 19th Century or in the first decades of the 20th Century there were no consideration for human rights, no legislations to protect workers. Immigration from North Africa and from all the low and middle income countries should be studied in all its aspects because it will characterize our future. In the new era of economical globalization, Universities should prepare the new medical doctors to extend their professional culture to a international dimension to be able to cope with the new challenges of our time.

  10. Unemployment and Long-Term Unemployment of Immigrants in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerija Botrić

    2016-04-01

    for the labour market outcomes of immigrants in Croatia, the scope of the results is limited. In order to assess the effects of the crises on the labour market outcomes of immigrants in Croatia, the empirical analyses have been separately performed for two distinct years: the first one (a pre-crisis year being 2007 and the second one (a crisis year is 2012. The second analysed year refers to the period of deep economic crisis in Croatia, which had profound effects on the labour market. Thus, there is special interest whether the predictors of unemployment status have changed as a consequence. The choice of the unemployment status predictors is based on the standard set of individual characteristics, limited by their availability in the Labour Force Survey. Descriptive analysis has revealed that there are important differences in the sample structure between the two analysed years. The average age of immigrants is higher in the year 2012, and they are more concentrated in urban areas. In both years, employed and unemployed immigrants are most likely to have upper secondary education. The structure of their occupations has significantly changed. While in 2007 the higher percentages of immigrants were employed craft and related trade workers, in 2012 their employment was higher in service and sales workers and professionals. The increased share of the unemployed with elementary occupation, as well as craft and related trade workers, and plant and machine operators occurred during the same period. Due to the binary nature of dependent variables, empirical analysis rests on the probit methodology. The additional benefits of binary predictors have been utilized by exploring the size of the estimated marginal effects. The analysis for the 2007 (pre-crisis year has identified the following significant predictors of the unemployment status for immigrants in Croatia, listed in the decreasing marginal effects order: positive predictors: service and sales occupation and persons

  11. African Immigrants in Low-Wage Direct Health Care: Motivations, Job Satisfaction, and Occupational Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington-Ward, Yolanda

    2017-06-01

    This study explores motivations, job satisfaction, and overall perceived occupational mobility for African immigrants working in low-wage direct health care occupations. The study uses qualitative semi-structured interviews with a sample of thirty African immigrant workers in the greater Pittsburgh metropolitan area. Results show that four major themes captured the motivations of interviewees for doing direct care work: passion for care work, quick money, easily obtained employment, and direct care work as a pathway to other health occupations. The majority of the interviewees were satisfied with their jobs, yet almost all of them saw their occupations as temporary or transitional employment. Most of the interviewees also saw their jobs as lacking occupational mobility. In light of the increased national demand for direct care workers, the growing numbers of immigrants in the direct care labor force, and the high turnover and low retention rates of direct care workers overall, the study suggests that more must be done to make direct care work attractive and rewarding for African immigrant workers.

  12. Learning Language for Work and Life: The Linguistic Socialization of Immigrant Canadians Seeking Careers in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Patricia A.; Wong, Ping; Early, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Discusses research in English-as-a-Second-Language in the workplace, identifying gaps in the existing literature and promising directions for new explorations. Reports on a qualitative study conducted in one type of program for immigrant women and men in Western Canada seeking to become long-term resident care aides or home support workers.…

  13. The Politics of Illegal Immigration, Bilingual Education, and the Commodity of the Post-Technological Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Heliodoro T., Jr.; Sanchez, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing number of undocumented workers entering the United States and the costs associated with educating their children, bilingual education may soon become the target of opponents of illegal immigration. Furthermore, recent leftist shifts in Latin American governments have provided an impetus for an educated biliterate population…

  14. Going beyond Language: Soft Skill-ing Cultural Difference and Immigrant Integration in Toronto, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Kori

    2016-01-01

    This article traces how a language and soft skills training approach to Canadian immigrant integration emerged with Canada's shift towards a post-industrial tertiary economy. In this economy, soft skills index characteristics of ideal workers that fit the needs of Canada's post-Fordist labour regime. It examines how skills' training is not viewed…

  15. Haiti. Educating factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, H

    1990-04-01

    There are approximately 50,000 workers employed in the light assembly industry in Haiti. About 70% are women, the majority of whom are aged between 25 and 34 years, and are either single or in a nonpermanent relationship with the father of their children. Many live and work in appalling conditions, surviving on very low wages to support several children and an extended family. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is now a visible problem in many factories. In October 1988, the Center for the Promotion of Women Workers (Centre de Promotion des Femmes Ouvriers/CPFO) launched a pilot AIDS education program for factory women. The Center, based in a large industrial zone near the airport, runs a health clinic and courses in literacy, communications skills, health promotion and family planning. The new AIDS program allowed CPFO staff to gain entry into factories for the 1st time. Other courses were held outside working hours and outside factory premises. Staff contacted manages by telephone to arrange a meeting to discuss AIDS and to ask permission to hold educational "round tables" with workers. Of 18 managers in the factories approached over a 12-month period, only 2 refused entry to CPFO staff. Almost all managers reported they had registered between 2 and 5 deaths from AIDS among their employees over the past couple of years. A total of 85 educational sessions, each lasting about 2 hours, were held within 28 different factories, community or labor organizations reaching 3063 workers (male and female). In each session, the presentation was carried out by 2 CPFO trained monitors and included a slide show, flip charts, and the video "Met ko," originally produced for Haitian immigrants in New York. The most important aspect of the program was the training of 38 volunteer factory-based health promoters. These promoters attended the round table sessions, where they facilitated discussion and distributed condoms and were subsequently available for counseling co-workers

  16. Is the New Immigration Really So Bad?

    OpenAIRE

    Card, David Edward

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent evidence on U.S. immigration, focusing on two key questions: (1) Does immigration reduce the labor market opportunities of less-skilled natives? (2) Have immigrants who arrived after the 1965 Immigration Reform Act successfully assimilated? Looking across major cities, differential immigrant inflows are strongly correlated with the relative supply of high school dropouts. Nevertheless, data from the 2000 Census shows that relative wages of native dropouts are unc...

  17. Examining Difference in Immigration Stress, Acculturation Stress and Mental Health Outcomes in Six Hispanic/Latino Nativity and Regional Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Richard C; Gattamorta, Karina A; Berger-Cardoso, Jodi

    2018-02-27

    Little is known about the specific behavioral health impact of acculturation stressors that affect Hispanic/Latino immigrant sub-groups. These immigration-related stressors and traumatic events may have differential impact on depression depending on country/region of origin. Using a measure of immigration and acculturation stress, the current study sought to determine differences in the impact of stress on six sub-groups of Hispanic immigrants. Data on stress and depression were examined using a large, representative adult immigrant sample (N = 641). Controlling for age, gender and years in the US, factorial analysis of covariance revealed significant differences on total Hispanic Stress Inventory 2 (HSI2) stress appraisal scores based on country/region of origin. Pair wise comparisons between country/region of origin groups revealed that Mexicans had higher levels of stress compared to Cuban or Dominican immigrants. Several patterns of differential stress were also found within sub-domains of the HSI2. Using regression models, HSI2 stress appraisals and their interaction with country of origin proved to not be significant predictors of depression (PHQ9), while gender and age were significant. Differences in HSI2 stress that are based on nativity may be moderated by cultural resilience that ultimately serves a protective role to prevent the onset of depression.

  18. Only English by the third generation? Loss and preservation of the mother tongue among the grandchildren of contemporary immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Richard; Logan, John; Lutz, Amy; Stults, Brian

    2002-08-01

    We investigate whether a three-generation model of linguistic assimilation, known from previous waves of immigration, can be applied to the descendants of contemporary immigrant groups. Using the 5% Integrated Public Use Microdata Sample 1990 file, we examine the home languages of second- and third-generation children and compare the degree of their language shift against that among the descendants of European immigrants, as evidenced in the 1940 and 1970 censuses. Overall, the rates of speaking only English for a number of contemporary groups suggest that Anglicization is occurring at roughly the same pace for Asians as it did for Europeans, but is slower among the descendants of Spanish speakers. Multivariate models for three critical groups--Chinese, Cubans, and Mexicans--indicate that the home languages of third-generation children are most affected by factors, such as intermarriage, that determine the languages spoken by adults and by the communal context.

  19. Immigrants' language skills: the immigrant experience in a longitudinal survey

    OpenAIRE

    Barry CHISWICK; Yew LEE; Paul W. MILLER

    2003-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the determinants of English language proficiency among immigrants. It presents a model based on economic incentives, exposure, and efficiency in language acquisition, which it tests using the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Australia. Probit and bivariate probit analyses are employed. The hypotheses are supported by the data. The bivariate probit analysis across waves indicates a "regression to the mean" in the unobserved components of English language profic...

  20. Rural wood consumption patterns of local and immigrant households with differentiated access to resources in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, Charlotte Filt; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Schmidt-Vogt, Dietrich; He, Jun; Neergaard, Andreas de

    2015-01-01

    In Xishuangbanna, China, rubber production has spread rapidly, resulting in extensive land use changes and an increasing influx of migrant workers who have come to find work on the plantations. These migrant workers have limited access to subsidies and the local collective forest due to the household registration system in China called hukou. To assess how these policy-based restrictions on access affect wood consumption and local communities, a case study was conducted in Manlin village, Xishuangbanna, undertaking a household and weight survey with local and immigrant households. The results show no significant difference in firewood consumption between the subpopulations, despite predominantly more local than immigrant households have access to subsidised alternative energy sources. On the other hand, limited access to the collective forest is found to influence the choice of housing materials and living standards in immigrant households as they cannot access timber or afford brick houses. This paper highlights rural issues connected to the hukou system and suggests that rural energy and resource policies should take the growing population of immigrant workers into consideration in future to expand the reach of the polices to the de facto and not only de jure rural population and thus optimise policy efficiency. - Highlights: • The hukou system directly affects rural wood access and consumption. • Immigrant households have little or no access to timber. • Registration status does not have a significant effect on firewood consumption. • Excluding immigrant households will limit policy outreach and efficiency

  1. Attitudes toward unauthorized immigrants, authorized immigrants, and refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kate E; Marx, David M

    2013-07-01

    Rates of human migration are steadily rising and have resulted in significant sociopolitical debates over how to best respond to increasing cultural diversity and changing migration patterns. Research on prejudicial attitudes toward immigrants has focused on the attitudes and beliefs that individuals in the receiving country hold about immigrants. The current study enhances this literature by examining how young adults view authorized and unauthorized immigrants and refugees. Using a between-groups design of 191 undergraduates, we found that participants consistently reported more prejudicial attitudes, greater perceived realistic threats, and greater intergroup anxiety when responding to questions about unauthorized compared with authorized immigrants. Additionally, there were differences in attitudes depending on participants' generational status, with older-generation participants reporting greater perceived realistic and symbolic threat, prejudice, and anxiety than newer-generation students. In some instances, these effects were moderated by participant race/ethnicity and whether they were evaluating authorized or unauthorized immigrants. Lastly, perceived realistic threat, symbolic threat, and intergroup anxiety were significant predictors of prejudicial attitudes. Overall, participants reported positive attitudes toward refugees and resettlement programs in the United States. These findings have implications for future research and interventions focused on immigration and prejudice toward migrant groups. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Strong trade unions meet EEC workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Kaj; Hansen, Jens Arnholtz

    2008-01-01

    (EEC) workers. The argument is that migrant and, in particular, posted workers' conditions of employment often are characterised by evasions of collective agreements, whether in the form of underpayment or other violations of terms and conditions specified in the agreements. However, the trade union...... response is not straightforward: they could pursue a strategy of surveillance and control, leading to closer cooperation with public authorities (e.g., tax and immigration authorities) in order to impose sanctions and fines on employers violating existing agreements and legislation - a strategy often met...

  3. Mathematics Achievement by Immigrant Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary G. Huang

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I examined academic achievement of immigrant children in the United States, Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand. Analyzing data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS, I gauged the performance gaps relating to the generation of immigration and the home language background. I found immigrant children's math and science achievement to be lower than the others only in England, the U.S., and Canada. Non-English language background was found in each country to relate to poor math and science learning and this disadvantage was stronger among native-born children—presumably children of indigenous groups—than among immigrant children. I also examined the school variation in math performance gaps, using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM to each country's data. The patterns in which language- and generation-related math achievement gaps varied between schools are different in the five countries.

  4. Stigmatized Biologies: Examining the Cumulative Effects of Oral Health Disparities for Mexican American Farmworker Children

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, Sarah; Barker, Judith C.

    2010-01-01

    Severe early childhood caries (ECC) can leave lasting effects on children’s physical development, including malformed oral arches and crooked permanent dentition. This article examines the way that ECC sets up Mexican American farm worker children in the United States for lasting dental problems and social stigma as young adults. We examine the role of dietary and environmental factors in contributing to what we call “stigmatized biologies,” and that of market-based dental public health insur...

  5. Immigrant Women and Partner Violence

    OpenAIRE

    KUUSELA, HANNA

    2011-01-01

    Violence against women is a global problem, which can be recognized in every society and culture. Both in Canada and Finland the research about violence against immigrant women has begun quite recently and therefore, there is still a lot we do not know about this phenomenon and thus a demand for research. Immigrant women face unique circumstances and are in a vulnerable position of being abused. They are not a homogeneous group, on the contrary, they have individual life experiences but they ...

  6. Immigrant Entrepreneurs, Diasporas and Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Bratti, Massimiliano; De Benedictis, Luca; Santoni, Gianluca

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we highlight a new complementary channel to the business and social network effect à la Rauch (2001) through which immigrants generate increased export flows from the regions in which they settle to their countries of origin: they can become entrepreneurs. Using very small-scale (NUTS-3) administrative data on immigrants’ location in Italy, the local presence of immigrant entrepreneurs (i.e. firms owned by foreign-born entrepreneurs) in the manufacturing sector, and on trade ...

  7. Chinese Immigrant Wealth: Heterogeneity in Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius Vallejo, Jody; Aronson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Chinese immigrants are a diverse and growing group whose members provide a unique opportunity to examine within-immigrant group differences in adaptation. In this paper, we move beyond thinking of national-origin groups as homogenous and study variation among Chinese immigrants in wealth ownership, a critical indicator of adaptation that attracts relatively little attention in the immigration literature. We develop an analytical approach that considers national origin, tenure in the U.S., and age to examine heterogeneity in economic adaptation among the immigrant generation. Our results show that variations among Chinese immigrants explain within-group differences in net worth, asset ownership, and debt. These differences also account for important variation between Chinese immigrants, natives, and other immigrant groups and provide important, new insight into the processes that lead to immigrant adaptation and long-term class stability. PMID:27977737

  8. Chinese Immigrant Wealth: Heterogeneity in Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keister, Lisa A; Agius Vallejo, Jody; Aronson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Chinese immigrants are a diverse and growing group whose members provide a unique opportunity to examine within-immigrant group differences in adaptation. In this paper, we move beyond thinking of national-origin groups as homogenous and study variation among Chinese immigrants in wealth ownership, a critical indicator of adaptation that attracts relatively little attention in the immigration literature. We develop an analytical approach that considers national origin, tenure in the U.S., and age to examine heterogeneity in economic adaptation among the immigrant generation. Our results show that variations among Chinese immigrants explain within-group differences in net worth, asset ownership, and debt. These differences also account for important variation between Chinese immigrants, natives, and other immigrant groups and provide important, new insight into the processes that lead to immigrant adaptation and long-term class stability.

  9. Chinese Immigrant Wealth: Heterogeneity in Adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Keister

    Full Text Available Chinese immigrants are a diverse and growing group whose members provide a unique opportunity to examine within-immigrant group differences in adaptation. In this paper, we move beyond thinking of national-origin groups as homogenous and study variation among Chinese immigrants in wealth ownership, a critical indicator of adaptation that attracts relatively little attention in the immigration literature. We develop an analytical approach that considers national origin, tenure in the U.S., and age to examine heterogeneity in economic adaptation among the immigrant generation. Our results show that variations among Chinese immigrants explain within-group differences in net worth, asset ownership, and debt. These differences also account for important variation between Chinese immigrants, natives, and other immigrant groups and provide important, new insight into the processes that lead to immigrant adaptation and long-term class stability.

  10. Crisis, Xenophobia and Repatriation. The Spanish Immigrants in the City of Mexico, 1910-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia GIL LÁZARO

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the influence of economic crisis in migrant groups. It starts with a reflection about the current situation, putting forward a comparative view with a study case in the past, that is, the circumstances around the Spanish immigrants in Mexico City at the time of Mexican Revolution until the crisis of the Great Depression (1910-1936. Three aspects are explored: first of all, the close relationship between the spreading of the economic crisis and the increase of restrains in migratory public policies in host countries. Secondly, the concomitant growth of xenophobic attitudes in native populations and, finally, the return to the homeland as one of the essential strategies developed by immigrants to confront the crisis drawing upon the social and associative networks of migration movements.

  11. "Not Everything That the Bourgeois World Created Is Bad": Aesthetics and Politics in Women Workers' Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboukou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I look into the papers of Fannia Cohn, an immigrant labour organizer, who served the Education Department of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU) between 1918 and 1962 and became one of its few women vice-presidents. As an internationally recognized figure in the history of workers' education, Cohn left a rich…

  12. New tariffs confuse Mexican market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeyman, M.

    1992-01-01

    Indelpro - the Grupo Alfa/Himont joint venture 150,000-m.t./year polypropylene (PP) plant in Altamira, Mexico - has been working to find its place in the Mexican market since coming onstream in March. At the same time, that market has been complicated by the imposition of import and export tariffs by the U.S. Department of Commerce early this fall. Commerce's accession to a 10% ad valorem tax on US PP exports to Mexico surprised some industry observers. The tariff is scheduled to be phased out within 10 years and is partly countermanded by a 5% tariff over a five-year period on Mexican PP exports to the US. But some market analysts say the arrangement is baffling

  13. NAFTA and the Mexican Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-04

    its loans. Then President Miguel de la Madrid took steps to open and liberalize the Mexican economy and initiated procedures to replace import...capita income in countries. 24 Lessons from NAFTA, 2005. 25 Economia , “NAFTA and Convergence in North America: High Expectations, Big Events, Little Time...Easterly, Norbert Fiess, and Daniel Lederman, Economia , “NAFTA and Convergence in North America: High Expectations, Big Events, Little Time,” Fall 2003. The

  14. Trends in food insecurity among California residents from 2001 to 2011: Inequities at the intersection of immigration status and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsemann, Katrina M; Ro, Annie; Gee, Gilbert C

    2017-12-01

    Although immigrants are healthier than non-immigrants on numerous outcomes, the reverse appears to be true with regards to food insecurity. Most studies ignore heterogeneity in the risk for food insecurity within immigration status and by ethnicity, even though significant variation likely exists. We consider how immigration status and ethnicity are related to trends in food insecurity among Latinos and Asians in California from 2001 through 2011. Data come from the 2001 to 2011 restricted California Health Interview Survey (n=245,679). We categorized Latinos and Asians as US-born, naturalized/legal permanent residents (naturalized/LPR), and non-LPRs (students, temporary workers, refugees, and undocumented persons). Multivariable weighted logistic regression analyses assessed temporal trends over the 10-year period after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic characteristics, and program participation. Across this period, US-born Asians reported similar levels of food insecurity as US-born Whites. Conversely, Latinos, regardless of immigration status or nativity, and Asian immigrants (i.e., naturalized/LPR and non-LPR) reported greater food insecurity than US-born Whites. Further, from 2001 through 2009, non-LPR Latinos reported higher risk of food insecurity than naturalized/LPR Latinos. Thus, food insecurity differs between ethnic groups, but also differs within ethnic group by immigration status. Efforts to reduce food insecurity should consider the additional barriers to access that are faced by immigrants, particularly those without legal permanent residency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Social Work Practice with Latinos: Key Issues for Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Rich; Negi, Nalini Junko; Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Rowan, Diana; Shukraft, Allison; Gragg, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The Latino population is the fastest growing group in the United States; thus, it is imperative that social workers and other mental health practitioners be knowledgeable about the current literature on how to effectively serve this population. This article elucidates key issues and knowledge, such as immigration and migration concerns; discusses…

  16. Different paths: gender, immigration and political participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-correa, M

    1998-01-01

    "Building on arguments made by Grasmuck and Pessar (1991), Hardy-Fanta (1993), and Hondagneu-Sotelo (1994), among others, this article makes the case for a gendered understanding of immigrant political socialization. Looking at recent Latin American immigrants to New York City, the article argues that immigrant Latino men are more likely to favor continuity in patterns of socialization and organization, and immigrant Latinas are more likely to favor change. This finding helps bridge theoretical and empirical literatures in immigration studies, applying the logic of gender-differentiated decisionmaking to the area of immigrant political socialization and behavior." excerpt

  17. Immigration Ethnic Diversity and Political Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe

    2017-01-01

    I study the impact of immigration and increasing ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on immigration and election outcomes in Danish municipalities 1981-2001. A rich set of control variables isolates ethnic diversity effects from those of other immigrant...... characteristics and a novel IV strategy based on historical housing stock data addresses issues of endogenous location choices of immigrants. Increases in local ethnic diversity lead to right-ward shifts in election outcomes by shifting electoral support away from traditional "big government" left-wing parties...... and towards anti-immigrant nationalist parties in particular. These effects appear in both local and national elections....

  18. [The intervention of the immigration factor in Turco-European relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmas, H B

    1998-01-01

    The legal dispositions governing Turkish immigration to European countries, the imperfect success of European efforts to discourage immigration, and factors in the elevated potential for continuing Turkish emigration are examined in this article. Turkey's 1963 5-year plan clearly revealed the government's intention to utilize external assistance to finance development efforts, while depending on labor migration to European countries to absorb surplus labor and provide remittances to ease the chronic balance of payments deficit. The Turkish government viewed with satisfaction the adoption in the 1963 Ankara Accord (a preliminary document in Turkey's quest for European Community membership) of articles concerning free circulation of workers, but the dispositions were never put into practice. The termination of immigration by the European countries in 1973-74 initially appeared to be a temporary response to the petroleum crisis and worldwide recession, but the measure became permanent policy, contributing to the deterioration of Turkish-European relations. Because of its internal policies of repression of minorities, sharp regional and ethnic disparities in development and income, and continuing high rate of population growth, Turkey has a very strong potential for further emigration. Some 4 million Turks constitute the largest foreign group in Europe. Immigration control measures have slowed entry of workers, but they have not prevented immigration for family regrouping or influx of refugees seeking asylum.

  19. Labour Market Interactions Between Legal and Illegal Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Gil S

    2000-01-01

    This paper looks at the situation of legal immigrants who employ illegal immigrants to provide them with various services. This enables the legal immigrants to allocate more time to other work, thereby increasing their earnings. Illegal immigrants employed by legal immigrants may specialize in certain professions and may themselves employ other illegal immigrants. An economy is evolving whose sole purpose is the provision of services by illegal immigrants for legal immigrants.

  20. Labor Market Interactions Between Legal and Illegal Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Gil S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper looks at the situation of legal immigrants who employ illegal immigrants to provide them with various services. This enables the legal immigrants to allocate more time to other work, thereby increasing their earnings. Illegal immigrants employed by legal immigrants may specialize in certain professions and may themselves employ other illegal immigrants. An economy is evolving whose sole purpose is the provision of services by illegal immigrants for legal immigrants.

  1. Work related injuries: estimating the incidence among illegally employed immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadda Emanuela

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statistics on occupational accidents are based on data from registered employees. With the increasing number of immigrants employed illegally and/or without regular working visas in many developed countries, it is of interest to estimate the injury rate among such unregistered workers. Findings The current study was conducted in an area of North-Eastern Italy. The sources of information employed in the present study were the Accidents and Emergencies records of a hospital; the population data on foreign-born residents in the hospital catchment area (Health Care District 4, Primary Care Trust 20, Province of Verona, Veneto Region, North-Eastern Italy; and the estimated proportion of illegally employed workers in representative samples from the Province of Verona and the Veneto Region. Of the 419 A&E records collected between January and December 2004 among non European Union (non-EU immigrants, 146 aroused suspicion by reporting the home, rather than the workplace, as the site of the accident. These cases were the numerator of the rate. The number of illegally employed non-EU workers, denominator of the rate, was estimated according to different assumptions and ranged from between 537 to 1,338 individuals. The corresponding rates varied from 109.1 to 271.8 per 1,000 non-EU illegal employees, against 65 per 1,000 reported in Italy in 2004. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that there is an unrecorded burden of illegally employed immigrants suffering from work related injuries. Additional efforts for prevention of injuries in the workplace are required to decrease this number. It can be concluded that the Italian National Institute for the Insurance of Work Related Injuries (INAIL probably underestimates the incidence of these accidents in Italy.

  2. Work related injuries: estimating the incidence among illegally employed immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Rylander, Ragnar; Buja, Alessandra; Marangi, Gianluca; Fadda, Emanuela; Fedeli, Ugo; Cegolon, Luca

    2010-12-08

    Statistics on occupational accidents are based on data from registered employees. With the increasing number of immigrants employed illegally and/or without regular working visas in many developed countries, it is of interest to estimate the injury rate among such unregistered workers. The current study was conducted in an area of North-Eastern Italy. The sources of information employed in the present study were the Accidents and Emergencies records of a hospital; the population data on foreign-born residents in the hospital catchment area (Health Care District 4, Primary Care Trust 20, Province of Verona, Veneto Region, North-Eastern Italy); and the estimated proportion of illegally employed workers in representative samples from the Province of Verona and the Veneto Region. Of the 419 A&E records collected between January and December 2004 among non European Union (non-EU) immigrants, 146 aroused suspicion by reporting the home, rather than the workplace, as the site of the accident. These cases were the numerator of the rate. The number of illegally employed non-EU workers, denominator of the rate, was estimated according to different assumptions and ranged from between 537 to 1,338 individuals. The corresponding rates varied from 109.1 to 271.8 per 1,000 non-EU illegal employees, against 65 per 1,000 reported in Italy in 2004. The results of this study suggest that there is an unrecorded burden of illegally employed immigrants suffering from work related injuries. Additional efforts for prevention of injuries in the workplace are required to decrease this number. It can be concluded that the Italian National Institute for the Insurance of Work Related Injuries (INAIL) probably underestimates the incidence of these accidents in Italy.

  3. Asian Immigration: The View from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Examines contemporary Asian immigration to the United States from a U.S. perspective. Analyzes immigration policies and data on recent immigration from Asia. Discusses impacts concerning the United States and the immigrants themselves and speculates on future immigration. The composition of Asian immigration might change, and the number might…

  4. Organizing Immigrant Workers in the Los Angeles Apparel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Bonacich

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The apparel industry in the United States is declining. Every month new reports are put out enumerating the loss of jobs. Meanwhile, parallel numbers report the monthly rise of imports. However, even though apparel jobs are moving offshore, U.S.-based manufacturers and retailers still play a critical role in the production of apparel for the U.S. market. They have become multinational corporations. They now arrange for the production of their clothing in other countries, but they still remain in charge of ordering and marketing.

  5. Connecting Gender, Race, Class, and Immigration Status to Disease Management at the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S.; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chronic diseases are the leading causes of death in the United States. Chronic disease management occurs within all aspects of an individual's life, including the workplace. Though the social constructs of gender, race, class, and immigration status within the workplace have been considered, their connection to disease management among workers has been less explicitly explored. Using a sample of immigrant hotel housekeepers, we explored the connections between these four social constructs and hypertension management. Methods This qualitative research study was guided by critical ethnography methodology. Twenty-seven hotel room cleaners and four housemen were recruited (N = 31) and invited to discuss their experiences with hypertension and hypertension management within the context of their work environments. Results Being a woman worker within the hotel industry was perceived to negatively influence participants’ experience with hypertension and hypertension management. In contrast, being a woman played a protective role outside the workplace. Being an immigrant played both a positive and a negative role in hypertension and its management. Being black and from a low socioeconomic class had only adverse influences on participants’ experience with hypertension and its management. Conclusion Being a woman, black, lower class, and an immigrant simultaneously contribute to immigrant hotel housekeepers’ health and their ability to effectively manage their hypertension. The connection between these four constructs (gender, race, class, and immigration status) and disease management must be considered during care provision. Hotel employers and policy stakeholders need to consider those constructs and how they impact workers’ well-being. More studies are needed to identify what mitigates the associations between the intersectionality of these constructs and immigrant workers’ health and disease management within their work environment. PMID:27695659

  6. Hospitalisation among immigrants in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraci Salvatore

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigration is increasing in Italy. In 2003, 2.6 million foreign citizens lived in the country; 52% were men and the majority were young adults who migrated for work. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in hospitalisation between immigrants and the resident population during the year 2000 in the Lazio region. Methods Hospital admissions of immigrants from Less Developed Countries were compared to those of residents. We measured differences in hospitalisation rates and proportions admitted. Results Adult immigrants have lower hospitalisation rates than residents (134.6 vs. 160.5 per thousand population for acute care; 26.4 vs. 38.3 for day care. However, hospitalisation rates for some specific causes (injuries, particularly for men, infectious diseases, deliveries and induced abortions, ill-defined conditions were higher for immigrants than for residents. Immigrants under 18 years seem to be generally healthy; causes of admission in this group are similar to those of residents of the same age (respiratory diseases, injuries and poisoning. The only important differences are for infectious and parasitic diseases, with a higher proportion among immigrant youths. Conclusion The low hospitalisation rates for foreigners may suggest that they are a population with good health status. However, critical areas, related to poor living and working conditions and to social vulnerability, have been identified. Under-utilisation of services and low day care rates may be partially due to administrative, linguistic, and cultural barriers. As the presence of foreigners becomes an established phenomenon, it is important to evaluate their epidemiological profile, develop instruments to monitor and fulfil their specific health needs and plan health services for a multi-ethnic population.

  7. Assessing the burden of intestinal parasites affecting newly arrived immigrants in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Behnke, Jerzy M; Ismail, Ahmed; Boughattas, Sonia

    2016-12-01

    In the last decades, the enormous influx of immigrants to industrialized countries has led to outbreaks of parasitic diseases, with enteric infections being amongst the most frequently encountered. In its strategy to control such infection, Qatar has established the Pre-Employment Certificate (PEC) program which requires medical inspection before arrival in Qatar and which is mandatory for immigrant workers travelling to the country. To assess the reliability of the PEC, we conducted a survey of intestinal parasites, based on examination of stool samples provided by immigrant workers (n = 2,486) recently arrived in Qatar. Overall prevalence of helminths was 7.0% and that of protozoa was 11.7%. Prevalence of combined helminths was highest among the western Asians and the highest prevalence of combined protozoan parasites was among workers from North to Saharan Africa. Analysis of temporal changes showed an increasing trend of protozoan infections over the investigated 3 years. A major contribution to this temporal change in prevalence came from Blastocystis hominis as well as from other protozoan species: Giardia duodenalis and Endolimax nana. Analysis of the temporal trend in species richness of the protozoan species showed a significant increase in the mean number of species harboured per subject across this period. The increase of protozoan infections over recent years raises some concerns. It suggests that screening protocols for applicants for visas/work permits needs to be revised giving more careful attention to the intestinal protozoan infections that potential immigrants may harbor.

  8. Medical tourism's impacts on health worker migration in the Caribbean: five examples and their implications for global justice

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, Jeremy; Crooks, Valorie A.; Johnston, Rory; Adams, Krystyna; Whitmore, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Medical tourism is a practice where individuals cross international borders in order to access medical care. This practice can impact the global distribution of health workers by potentially reducing the emigration of health workers from destination countries for medical tourists and affecting the internal distribution of these workers. Little has been said, however, about the impacts of medical tourism on the immigration of health workers to medical tourism destinations. We discuss five patt...

  9. Immigrants' use of primary health care services for mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straiton, Melanie; Reneflot, Anne; Diaz, Esperanza

    2014-08-13

    Equity in health care across all social groups is a major goal in health care policy. Immigrants may experience more mental health problems than natives, but we do not know the extent to which they seek help from primary health care services. This study aimed to determine a) the rate immigrants use primary health care services for mental health problems compared with Norwegians and b) the association between length of stay, reason for immigration and service use among immigrants. National register data covering all residents in Norway and all consultations with primary health care services were used. We conducted logistic regression analyses to compare Norwegians' with Polish, Swedish, German, Pakistani and Iraqi immigrants' odds of having had a consultation for a mental health problem (P-consultation). After accounting for background variables, all immigrants groups, except Iraqi men had lower odds of a P-consultation than their Norwegian counterparts. A shorter length of stay was associated with lower odds of a P-consultation. Service use varies by country of origin and patterns are different for men and women. There was some evidence of a possible 'healthy migrant worker' effect among the European groups. Together with previous research, our findings however, suggest that Iraqi women and Pakistanis in particular, may experience barriers in accessing care for mental health problems.

  10. Intergenerational differences in occupational injury and fatality rates among Canada's immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiagi, R

    2016-12-01

    Empirical evidence on occupational injury and/or fatality rates among Canada's immigrants has been largely mixed and has almost exclusively focused on the first generation. Over time, as immigrants assimilate into the economy, future generations may be expected to work in less hazardous occupations compared with prior generations. There has been no prior analysis of the differences in occupational injury and fatality rates among later generations. To analyse whether there are intergenerational differences in occupational injury and fatality rates among the first, second and third (or more) immigrant generations in Canada. Data drawn from the 2011 National Household Survey and the Association of Workers' Compensation Boards of Canada were used to determine the difference in occupational injury and fatality rates between the first or the third generation and the second generation, using a Poisson regression framework. Second-generation immigrants worked in jobs with lower occupational injury rates compared with the first generation and the third generation (or more). Similar results were observed for occupational fatality rates. Second-generation immigrants worked in less hazardous jobs compared with the first generation and compared with the third (or more) generations. These results suggest that the second generation may not face the same economic hurdles and challenges, in terms of workplace injuries or fatalities, as those faced by the first or third (or more) generations of immigrants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. 78 FR 31398 - Visas: Documentation of Immigrants Under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Immigrants Under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Final... method of recording an alien's entitlement to an immigrant visa classification. Due to the availability of automated systems at all immigrant visa-issuing posts, this entitlement is now recorded...

  12. Alberta immigrant integration into the petroleum industry : final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    Alberta is in the midst of a labour shortage, especially in the petroleum industry. Traditionally, the petroleum industry has secured employees by hiring them away from competitors, service providers, other geographic locations, or other industries, mostly by escalating worker compensation. However, this is no longer seen to be a sustainable solution due to higher industry costs and inflation. A good opportunity exists for Alberta's oil and gas industry to address worker demand and minimize the negative impacts associated with current and future labour concerns by increasing the participation of workers who are under-represented in the workforce, such as Aboriginals, women, and internationally trained workers. This report presented the details of a project called the Alberta immigrant integration into the petroleum industry project in order to determine the tools, resources and support processes needed by petroleum industry employers to increase the employment and retention of internationally trained workers already living in Alberta into the upstream petroleum industry. The report outlined the gaps in information, tools, resources and services that were preventing the petroleum industry from taking advantage of the skills and experience offered by Alberta's labour pool of internationally trained workers in any significant way. The report also presented an overview of strategic priorities and recommended activities, duly endorsed by stakeholders, in order to improve the recruitment and integration of internationally trained workers into the petroleum industry workforce. It was concluded that employers who develop the skills and capability to effectively recruit and integrate internationally trained workers into their workforce will have a clear advantage in the competition for skilled employees. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Immigration Policy and Agriculture: Possible Directions for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Martin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Presidential candidate Trump in 2016 promised to prevent unauthorized migration and deport unauthorized foreigners in the United States, and President Trump issued executive orders after taking office in January 2017 that could lead to a 2,000-mile wall on the Mexico-US border and the removal of many of the 11 million unauthorized foreigners, including one million who work in US agriculture. This paper emphasizes that, especially agriculture in the western United States, has long relied on newcomers to fill seasonal farm jobs. The slowdown in Mexico-US migration since 2008-09 means that there are fewer flexible newcomers to supplement the current workforce, which is aging and settled. Farm employers are responding by offering bonuses to satisfy current workers, stretching them with productivity-increasing tools, substituting machines for workers, and supplementing current workforces with legal H-2A guest workers. Immigration policy will influence the choice between mechanization, guest workers, and imports. Several factors suggest that the United States may be poised to embark on another large-scale guest worker program for agriculture.  If it does, farmers should begin to pay Social Security and Unemployment Insurance (UI taxes on the wages of H-2A workers to foster mechanization and development in the workers’ communities of origin by dividing these payroll taxes equally between workers as they depart and commodity-specific boards. Worker departure bonuses could be matched by governments in migrant-sending areas to promote development, and commodity-specific boards could spend monies to reduce dependence on hand labor over time. The economic incentives provided by payroll taxes could help to usher in a new and better era of farm labor.

  14. Living Outside the Gender Box in Mexico: Testimony of Transgender Mexican Asylum Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K; Gowin, Mary J; Taylor, E Laurette; Frey, Melissa; Dunnington, Jamie; Alshuwaiyer, Ghadah; Huber, J Kathleen; Garcia, Mary Camero; Wray, Grady C

    2017-10-01

    To explore preimmigration experiences of violence and postimmigration health status in male-to-female transgender individuals (n = 45) from Mexico applying for asylum in the United States. We used a document review process to examine asylum declarations and psychological evaluations of transgender Mexican asylum seekers in the United States from 2012. We coded documents in 2013 and 2014 using NVivo, a multidisciplinary team reviewed them, and then we analyzed them for themes. Mexican transgender asylum applicants experienced pervasive verbal, physical, and sexual abuse from multiple sources, including family, school, community, and police. Applicants also experienced discrimination in school and in the workplace. Applicants immigrated to the United States to escape persistent assaults and threats to their life. Applicants suffered health and psychological effects from their experiences in Mexico that affected opportunities in the United States for employment, education, and social inclusion. Additional social protections for transgender individuals and antidiscrimination measures in Mexican schools and workplaces are warranted as are increased mental health assessment and treatment, job training, and education services for asylum seekers in the United States.

  15. Uninsured Migrants: Health Insurance Coverage and Access to Care Among Mexican Return Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassink, Joshua

    2018-01-01

    Despite an expansive body of research on health and access to medical care among Mexican immigrants in the United States, research on return migrants focuses primarily on their labor market mobility and contributions to local development. Motivated by recent scholarship that documents poor mental and physical health among Mexican return migrants, this study investigates return migrants' health insurance coverage and access to medical care. I use descriptive and multivariate techniques to analyze data from the 2009 and 2014 rounds of Mexico's National Survey of Demographic Dynamics (ENADID, combined n=632,678). Analyses reveal a large and persistent gap between recent return migrants and non-migrants, despite rising overall health coverage in Mexico. Multivariate analyses suggest that unemployment among recent arrivals contributes to their lack of insurance. Relative to non-migrants, recently returned migrants rely disproportionately on private clinics, pharmacies, self-medication, or have no regular source of care. Mediation analysis suggests that returnees' high rate of uninsurance contributes to their inadequate access to care. This study reveals limited access to medical care among the growing population of Mexican return migrants, highlighting the need for targeted policies to facilitate successful reintegration and ensure access to vital resources such as health care.

  16. Generation and acculturation status are associated with dietary intake and body weight in Mexican American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Hong; Chu, Yong H; Frongillo, Edward A; Probst, Janice C

    2012-02-01

    Mexican American children are disproportionately affected by obesity. Data on how the acculturation process influences diet and body weight among adolescents are limited. We used the data from the 1999-2004 NHANES, restricting to 2286 Mexican American children between 12 and 19 y old. Acculturation was measured by generation status and language preference. Diet was assessed using 24-h diet recall. Multiple linear, Tobit, logistic, and quantile regression models were used. We found, after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, health, dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors compared to the first generation, second and third generations had greater odds of overweight and obesity. Adolescents in the second generation had higher BMI Z-scores than adolescents in the first and third generations. Both second and third generation adolescents consumed less fruit, whole fruit, vegetables, grains, and meats but more sweetened beverages, whole grains, saturated fat, sodium, oil, and energy from discretionary foods. Higher language acculturation was associated with poorer diet and greater body weight. Our findings suggest that Mexican American adolescents face challenges in terms of poorer diet and excessive weight gain associated with their immigration experience.

  17. Business opportunities in the Mexican dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Armenta Gutierrez, B.M.; Poelarends, J.J.; Valk, van der O.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the Mexican and Dutch business opportunities in the dairy industry in Mexico. The report discusses first the external environment of the Mexican dairy sector: the economic developments, the country's overall competitiveness, and the economic and agricultural policies. Next, it

  18. Stress Resilience among Border Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern; Dugas, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors distinguishing Mexican American women living near the U.S.-Mexican border who are resilient to the experience of stress from those who are not. The study sample consisted of 418 participants ranging in age from 20 to 61 years. Data were gathered through a self-report survey instrument composed of…

  19. Differences in contraceptive use across generations of migration among women of Mexican origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ellen K

    2009-09-01

    To explore differences in contraceptive use among women of Mexican origin across generations of migration. Logit models were used to assess contraceptive use among 1,830 women of Mexican origin in Cycles 5 (1995) and 6 (2002) of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Analyses were stratified by age. Initial models controlled for survey year and underlying differences across generations of migration in age and parity; subsequent models added a range of potential mediating variables. Models account for significant interactions between generation of migration and parity. Among women under age 30 who have not yet had any children, women in their twenties with parity 3 or more, and women 30 or older with parity 1 or 2, those born in the US are much more likely to use contraception than immigrant women. For other levels of parity, there are no significant differences in contraceptive use across generations of migration. Generational differences in marital status, socio-economic status, health insurance coverage, and catholic religiosity did little to mediate the association between generation of migration and contraceptive use. Among women of Mexican origin, patterns of contraceptive use among first-generation immigrants and women of generation 1.5 are similar to those of women in Mexico, with very low rates of contraceptive use among young women who have not yet had a child. Further research is needed to investigate the extent to which this pattern is due to fertility preferences, contraceptive access, or concerns about side effects and infertility. Patterns of contraceptive use appear to change more slowly with acculturation than many other factors, such as education, income, and work force participation.

  20. U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Authorization All USCIS Forms Filing Fees USCIS Electronic Immigration System Order Forms by Mail Order Forms by ... Ask a Question, Get a Trusted Answer Find Immigration Options File Online Manage Your Case Check your ...