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Sample records for mexican immigrant lived

  1. Explanatory Emotion Talk in Mexican Immigrant and Mexican American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Christi A.

    2002-01-01

    Mother-child conversations during story-telling play were analyzed for patterns of emotion talk. Subjects were 48 Mexican immigrant and Mexican American mothers and their children aged 3-4. Contrary to previous findings, Mexican immigrant mothers used more explanations of emotions than labels. Mexican American mothers used both, equally. Results…

  2. Acculturation and Life Satisfaction Among Immigrant Mexican Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio F. Marsiglia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The numbers of Mexican Americans living in the United States, many of whom are first generation immigrants, are increasing. The process of immigration and acculturation can be accompanied by stress, as an individual attempts to reconcile two potentially competing sets of norms and values and to navigate a new social terrain. However, the outcomes of studies investigating the relationship between levels of acculturation and well-being are mixed. To further investigate the dynamic of acculturation, this article will address the impact of acculturation and familismo, on reported life satisfaction and resilience among Mexican American adults living in the Southwest (N=307, the majority (89% of which are immigrants. The findings indicate that bilingual individuals report significantly higher levels of life satisfaction and resilience than their Spanish-speaking counterparts do. Speaking primarily English only predicted higher levels of resilience but not life satisfaction. Implications for social work practice with Mexican American immigrants are discussed.

  3. Undocumented immigration status and diabetes care among Mexican immigrants in two immigration "sanctuary" areas.

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    Iten, A Elizabeth; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Lahiff, Maureen; Fernández, Alicia

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between immigration status and the patient experience of health care, diabetes self-management, and clinical outcomes among Mexican immigrants with diabetes receiving health care in two immigration sanctuary cities. We used data from the Immigration, Culture and Health Care study, a cross-sectional survey and medical record study of low-income patients with diabetes recruited from public hospitals and community clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area and Chicago. Undocumented Mexican, documented Mexican immigrants, and US-born Mexican-Americans' health care experiences, diabetes self-management, and clinical outcomes were compared using multivariate linear and logistic regressions. We found no significant differences in reports of physician communication, or in measures of diabetes management between undocumented and documented immigrants. All three groups had similar clinical outcomes in glycemic, systolic blood pressure, and lipid control. These results indicate that, at least in some settings, undocumented Mexican immigrants with diabetes can achieve similar clinical outcomes and report similar health care experiences as documented immigrants and US-born Mexican-Americans.

  4. Higher risk for obesity among Mexican-American and Mexican immigrant children and adolescents than among peers in Mexico.

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    Hernández-Valero, María A; Bustamante-Montes, L Patricia; Hernández, Mike; Halley-Castillo, Elizabeth; Wilkinson, Anna V; Bondy, Melissa L; Olvera, Norma

    2012-08-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1,717 children and adolescents of Mexican origin ages 5-19 years living in Mexico and Texas to explore the influence of country of birth and country of longest residence on their overweight and obesity status. Descriptive statistics were used to compare demographic and anthropometric characteristics of participants born and raised in Mexico (Mexicans), born in Mexico and raised in the United States (Mexican immigrants), and born and raised in the United States (Mexican-Americans). Univariate and multivariate nominal logistic regression was used to determine the demographic predictors of obesity adjusted by country of birth, country of residence, age, and gender. Almost half (48.8%) of the Mexican-Americans and 43.2% of the Mexican immigrants had body mass index at the 85th percentile or above, compared to only 29.3% of the Mexicans (P obese than their Mexican peers [Mexican-Americans: odds ratio (OR) = 2.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-3.4); Mexican immigrants: OR = 2.2 (95% CI 1.6-3.0)]. In addition, males were more likely than females to be obese [OR = 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.1)], and adolescents 15-19 years of age were less likely than their younger counterparts [OR = 0.5 (95% CI 0.4-0.7)] to be obese. The high prevalence of obesity among children of Mexican origin in the United States is of great concern and underscores the urgent need to develop and implement obesity preventive interventions targeting younger children of Mexican origin, especially newly arrived immigrant children. In addition, future obesity research should take into consideration the country of origin of the study population to develop more culturally specific obesity interventions.

  5. Reproductive habitus, psychosocial health, and birth weight variation in Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in south Texas.

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    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-08-01

    The Latina Paradox, or persistent, unexplained variation in low birth weight rates in recently immigrated Mexican women and the trend toward higher rates in subsequent generations of Mexican American women, is most often attributed to unidentified sociocultural causes. We suggest herein that different disciplinary approaches can be synthesized under the constructs of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to identify influences of sociocultural processes on birth weight. Reproductive habitus are "modes of living the reproductive body, bodily practices, and the creation of new subjects through interactions between people and structures" (Smith-Oka, 2012: 2276). Subjective social status infers comparison of self to others based on community definitions of status or socioeconomic status (Adler 2007). We present results from a prospective study of low-income Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women from south Texas that tested the ability of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to elucidate the Latina Paradox. We hypothesized that reproductive habitus between Mexican immigrant women and Mexican American women inform different subjective social statuses during pregnancy, and different subjective social statuses mediate responses to psychosocial stressors known to correlate with low birth weight. Six hundred thirty-one women were surveyed for psychosocial health, subjective social status, and reproductive histories between 2011 and 2013. Eighty-three women were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 for status during pregnancy, prenatal care practices, and pregnancy narratives and associations. Birth weight was extracted from medical records. Results were mixed. Subjective social status and pregnancy-related anxiety predicted low birth weight in Mexican immigrant but not Mexican American women. Mexican immigrant women had significantly lower subjective social status scores but a distinct reproductive habitus that could explain improved psychosocial

  6. Mexican immigration and the port-of-entry school.

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    Baca, R; Bryan, D; Mclean-bardwell, C; Gomez, F

    1989-01-01

    The results of an immigrant student census in a California port-of-entry school district are used to describe the educational backgrounds of Mexican immigrant students and to distinguish types of Mexican immigrant students by school entry patterns. Interviews with recently arrived Mexican immigrant parents reveal the educational and occupational expectations they hold for their children in the US. The study findings are used as a basis for raising policy questions and generating research issues. The most notable observation from the study is that the children of Mexican immigrants in La Entrada do not migrate once they are in school. Parents may be migrating back and forth between the US and Mexico, but children once in La Entrada do not leave the school to return to school in Mexico. The study suggests that the parents of immigrant students do not know how the US educational system works but they are interested in helping teachers educate their children.

  7. Immigrant Sexual Citizenship: Intersectional Templates among Mexican Gay Immigrants to the United States

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    Epstein, Steven; Carrillo, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    Existing literature on sexual citizenship has emphasized the sexuality-related claims of de jure citizens of nation-states, generally ignoring immigrants. Conversely, the literature on immigration rarely attends to the salience of sexual issues in understanding the social incorporation of migrants. This article seeks to fill the gap by theorizing and analyzing immigrant sexual citizenship. While some scholars of sexual citizenship have focused on the rights and recognition granted formally by the nation-state and others have stressed more diffuse, cultural perceptions of community and local belonging, we argue that the lived experiences of immigrant sexual citizenship call for multiscalar scrutiny of templates and practices of citizenship that bridge national policies with local connections. Analysis of ethnographic data from a study of 76 Mexican gay and bisexual male immigrants to San Diego, California reveals the specific citizenship templates that these men encounter as they negotiate their intersecting social statuses as gay/bisexual and as immigrants (legal or undocumented); these include an “asylum” template, a “rights” template, and a “local attachments” template. However, the complications of their intersecting identities constrain their capacity to claim immigrant sexual citizenship. The study underscores the importance of both intersectional and multiscalar approaches in research on citizenship as social practice. PMID:25013360

  8. Immigrant Sexual Citizenship: Intersectional Templates among Mexican Gay Immigrants to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Steven; Carrillo, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    Existing literature on sexual citizenship has emphasized the sexuality-related claims of de jure citizens of nation-states, generally ignoring immigrants. Conversely, the literature on immigration rarely attends to the salience of sexual issues in understanding the social incorporation of migrants. This article seeks to fill the gap by theorizing and analyzing immigrant sexual citizenship . While some scholars of sexual citizenship have focused on the rights and recognition granted formally by the nation-state and others have stressed more diffuse, cultural perceptions of community and local belonging, we argue that the lived experiences of immigrant sexual citizenship call for multiscalar scrutiny of templates and practices of citizenship that bridge national policies with local connections. Analysis of ethnographic data from a study of 76 Mexican gay and bisexual male immigrants to San Diego, California reveals the specific citizenship templates that these men encounter as they negotiate their intersecting social statuses as gay/bisexual and as immigrants (legal or undocumented); these include an "asylum" template, a "rights" template, and a "local attachments" template. However, the complications of their intersecting identities constrain their capacity to claim immigrant sexual citizenship. The study underscores the importance of both intersectional and multiscalar approaches in research on citizenship as social practice.

  9. Consequences of Arizona's Immigration Policy on Social Capital among Mexican Mothers with Unauthorized Immigration Status

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    Valdez, Carmen R.; Padilla, Brian; Valentine, Jessa Lewis

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the consequences of increasingly restrictive immigration policies on social capital among Mexican mothers with unauthorized immigrant status in Arizona. Three focus groups conducted in Arizona explore how mothers' experiences with immigration policies have affected their neighborhood, community, and family ties. Focus group…

  10. Women's Networks and the Social Needs of Mexican Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mary I.

    1990-01-01

    Reports on the persistence of a two-tiered economic and political system that routinely excludes Mexican immigrants. Focuses on the predominantly female employees of a wholesale nursery in Carpinteria (California), who have adapted the Mexican tradition of "confianza"-based relationships to form networks that facilitate communication and…

  11. Positive pregnancy outcomes in Mexican immigrants: what can we learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Robin L

    2004-01-01

    To provide an integrated review of the literature of potential explanations for better than expected pregnancy outcomes in Mexican immigrants, focusing on socioeconomics, social support, desirability of pregnancy, nutrition, substance use, religion, acculturation, and prenatal care. Computerized searches of MEDLINE and CINAHL databases, as well as reference lists from published articles on low birth weight and prematurity in immigrants and acculturation in immigrants from January 1989 to December 2002. Search terms were Mexican immigrant women, childbearing, and pregnancy outcome, and only English-language articles were reviewed. Literature was selected from refereed publications in the areas of nursing, medicine, public health, family, and sociology. Data were extracted using keywords pertinent to pregnancy outcome in Mexican immigrants. Despite having many of the risk factors for poor pregnancy outcomes, Mexican immigrants have superior birth outcomes when compared to U.S.-born women. Social support, familism, healthy diet, limited use of cigarettes and alcohol, and religion may play a role in improved outcomes. The superior outcomes diminish with the process of acculturation as the individual adapts to her new culture. Low birth weight and prematurity are public health concerns in the United States. Through further study of the factors that lead to superior birth outcomes among Mexican immigrant women, rates of low birth weight and prematurity in the United States may be reduced.

  12. "Ganando Confianza": Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we…

  13. Qualitative needs assessment of HIV services among Dominican, Mexican and Central American immigrant populations living in the New York City area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlin, M G; Shulman, L

    2004-05-01

    This paper reports on research designed to assess access to care by Latino immigrant populations in the New York area. A qualitative approach and methods were employed, involving focus groups with PLWAs (persons living with AIDS) and affected men and women from Mexico, the Dominican Republic and Central America to explore the perceptions, beliefs, experiences and knowledge of HIV care issues. A total of 57 men and women participated, ranging in age from 19-61. Results included detailed information on cultural meanings of HIV/AIDS; experience of stigma and rejection; gendered health-seeking behaviour; testing issues; and satisfaction with services. Data support the conclusion that to be effective in reaching and providing services to these immigrant groups, it is crucial to understand the environment from which they come and the impact of immigration. Poverty, repressive governments, lack of education/literacy, ethnicity, class, colour-based stigma and cultural norms are crucial factors in determining their attitudes, motivations, decisions and behaviour. AIDS agencies were seen to play a crucial role in connecting PLWAs to services and resources. The key elements for the provision of services to this population appear to be those that build on cultural norms and network human and institutional resources.

  14. Troubling the Proletarianization of Mexican Immigrant Students in an Era of Neoliberal Immigration

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    Choudry, Aziz

    2010-01-01

    In response to Richardson Bruna's "Mexican immigrant transnational social capital and class transformation: examining the role of peer mediation in insurgent science", this paper draws on the author's research on organizing, mobilization and knowledge production among adult im/migrant workers in Canada. While appreciative of the content…

  15. Employer Sanctions and the Wages of Mexican Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brownell

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wage differences between authorized and unauthorized Mexican immigrants can be explained by human capital factors prior to the 1986 passage of employer sanctions, which prohibited knowingly hiring unauthorized aliens. However, a significant post-1986 wage differential has been interpreted as employers “passing along” expected costs of sanctions through lower wages for unauthorized immigrants. I test this explanation using administrative data on employer sanctions enforcement, finding employer sanctions enforcement levels are related to Mexican immigrants’ wages but have no statistically significant differential effect based on legal status. Estimated savings to employers due to the pay gap are orders of magnitude larger than actual fines.

  16. Immigration and Wage Dynamics: Evidence from the Mexican Peso Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Monras , Joan

    2015-01-01

    How does the US labor market absorb low-skilled immigration? I address this question using the 1995 Mexican Peso Crisis, an exogenous push factor that raised Mexican migration to the US. In the short run, high-immigration states see their low-skilled labor force increase and native low-skilled wages decrease, with an implied local labor demand elasticity of -.7. Internal relocation dissipates this shock spatially. In the long run, the only lasting consequences are for low-skilled natives who ...

  17. Subjective Social Status, Mental and Psychosocial Health, and Birth Weight Differences in Mexican-American and Mexican Immigrant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-12-01

    Recent Mexican immigrant women on average have an unexpectedly low incidence of low birth weight (LBW). Birth weights decline and LBW incidence increases in post-immigrant generations. This pilot project tested the hypothesis that subjective social status (SSS) of pregnant women predicts variation in birth weight between Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women. 300 low-income pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women in South Texas were surveyed for SSS, depression, pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress and self-esteem and subsequent birth weight. No significant difference in SSS levels between pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women were found. However, SSS better predicted variation in birth weight across both groups than mental and psychosocial health variables. Results suggest distinct relationships among SSS, mental and psychosocial health that could impact birth weight. They underscore the relevance of a multilevel, biopsychosocial analytical framework to studying LBW.

  18. The Diffusion of Mexican Immigrants During the 1990s: Explanations and Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    David Card; Ethan G. Lewis

    2005-01-01

    Mexican immigrants were historically clustered in a few cities, mainly in California and Texas. During the past 15 years, however, arrivals from Mexico established sizeable immigrant communities in many "new" cities. We explore the causes and consequences of the widening geographic diffusion of Mexican immigrants. A combination of demand-pull and supply push factors explains most of the inter-city variation in inflows of Mexican immigrants over the 1990s, and also illuminates the most importa...

  19. Using Media Literacy to Explore Stereotypes of Mexican Immigrants.

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    Vargas, Lucila; dePyssler, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Examines media portrayals of Mexican immigrants, and interplay between these images and portrayals of U.S.-born Latinos. Argues that examining media images is imperative because the influence of media saturation is almost overwhelming. Suggests a media-literacy framework for developing abilities for interpreting media and giving students control…

  20. Ganando Confianza: Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-03-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we conducted sustained focus groups through which we could learn more about our participants and thereby improve services. This paper reports on the challenges and lessons learned from these groups. We characterize the key lessons as (a) recruitment and retention is more than agreement to participate; (b) confidentiality is not just a word but an activity; (c) the complicated nature of language; (d) cultural norms shape the group process; (e) appreciating the value of taking time; and (f) gender issues and group interaction. Service providers and researchers who work with Mexican families may benefit from our experiences as they promote and develop programs and projects in the developmental disabilities field.

  1. Durational and generational differences in Mexican immigrant obesity: Is acculturation the explanation?

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    Creighton, Mathew J.; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne R.; Chung, Chang Y.

    2012-01-01

    Using the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A.FANS-2; n = 1610), we explore the link between Mexican immigrant acculturation, diet, exercise and obesity. We distinguish Mexican immigrants and 2nd generation Mexicans from 3rd+ generation whites, blacks and Mexicans. First, we examine variation in social and linguistic measures by race/ethnicity, duration of residence and immigrant generation. Second, we consider the association between acculturation, diet and exercise. Third, we evaluate the degree to which acculturation, diet, exercise, and socioeconomic status explain the association between race/ethnicity, immigrant exposure to the US (duration since immigration/generation), and adult obesity. Among immigrants, we find a clear relationship between acculturation measures, exposure to the US, and obesity-related behaviors (diet and exercise). However, the acculturation measures do not clearly account for the link between adult obesity, immigrant duration and generation, and race/ethnicity. PMID:22575698

  2. Weight status of Mexican immigrant women: a comparison with women in Mexico and with US-born Mexican American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia D; Ritterman-Weintraub, Miranda L; Fernald, Lia C H; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha

    2013-09-01

    We assessed the association between birthplace, residence, or years in the United States and actual weight (body mass index), perceived weight accuracy, or provider screens for overweight or obesity among Mexican immigrant women. We used linked data from Health and Nutrition Examination Survey waves 2001-2006 and 2006 National Mexican Health and Nutrition Survey to compare 513 immigrants with 9527 women in Mexico and 342 US-born Mexican American women. Immigrants were more likely than women in Mexico to be obese and to perceive themselves as overweight or obese after adjustment for confounders. Recent immigrants had similar weight-related outcomes as women in Mexico. Immigrants were less likely to be obese than were US-born Mexican Americans. Within the overweight or obese population, reported provider screens were higher among immigrants than among women in Mexico, but lower than among US-born Mexican Americans. US residency of at least 5 years but less than 20 years and reporting insufficient provider screens elevated obesity risk. Mexican-origin women in the United States and Mexico are at risk for overweight and obesity. We found no evidence of a "healthy immigrant" effect.

  3. Examining the sexual harassment experiences of Mexican immigrant farmworking women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Irma Morales

    2010-03-01

    This study examined sexual harassment experiences of Mexican immigrant farmworking women (n = 150) employed on California farms. Of the estimated one million California farmworkers, 78% are Latino, mostly from Mexico, and 28% are women. Unlike gender-segregated worksites of Mexico, women farmworkers in the United States labor alongside men, facilitating harassment from coworkers and supervisors. Simultaneous sexist, racist, and economic discrimination are comparable to converging lanes of automobile traffic (Crenshaw, 2000) that women, standing at the intersections, manage to avoid harm. Findings highlight how discrimination shapes women's experiences and demonstrate the need for institutional policies to protect them.

  4. Marianismo and Caregiving Role Beliefs Among U.S.-Born and Immigrant Mexican Women.

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    Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A; Anthony, Katherine P

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to explore how women of Mexican-origin conceptualized caregiving as a construct in terms of cultural beliefs, social norms, role functioning, and familial obligations. We examined the personal experiences of U.S-born and immigrant Mexican female caregivers to identify how these 2 groups differed in their views of the caregiver role. We conducted 1-time in-depth interviews with 44 caregivers living in Southern California. Our study was guided by marianismo, a traditional role occupied by women in the Mexican family. We analyzed data from a grounded theory approach involving the constant comparative method to refine and categorize the data. The majority of all caregivers had similar views about caregiving as an undertaking by choice, and almost all caregivers engaged in self-sacrificing actions to fulfill the marianismo role. Despite these similarities, U.S.-born and immigrant caregivers used different words to describe the same concepts or assigned different meanings to other key aspects of caregiving, suggesting that these 2 groups had different underlying motivations for caregiving and orientations to the role. Our findings highlight the complexity of language and culture in underlying caregiving concepts, making the concepts challenging to operationalize and define in a heterogeneous sample of Latinos. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Unemployment Among Mexican Immigrant Men in the United States, 2003 – 2012

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    Laird, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Based on their socioeconomic characteristics, Mexican immigrant men should have very high un-employment. More than half do not have a high school diploma. One in four works in construction; at the height of the recent recession, 20% of construction workers were unemployed. Yet their unemployment rates are similar to those of native-born white men. After controlling for education and occupation, Mexican immigrant men have lower probabilities of unemployment than native-born white men – both before and during the recent recession. I consider explanations based on eligibility for unemployment benefits, out-migrant selection for unemployment, and employer preferences for Mexican immigrant labor. PMID:25432614

  6. Amor and Social Stigma: ASD Beliefs Among Immigrant Mexican Parents.

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    Cohen, Shana R; Miguel, Jessica

    2018-06-01

    This study examined cultural beliefs about ASD and its causes among Mexican-heritage families. In focus group interviews, we asked 25 immigrant parents of children with ASD to identify words they associated with ASD and its causes. Participants free-listed, ranked, and justified their responses. Mixed methods analyses utilized saliency scores to calculate responses. Deductive interview analyses justified participants' responses. Salient responses for ASD perceptions included specific characteristics about the child (e.g., loving) and perceptions about lack of resources. Salient responses for ASD causes were vaccines, genetics, and a combination of genetics and environment. Inductive analyses revealed distinct beliefs about social stigma, child characteristics, factors supporting development, and parents' emotional stress. Interpretations linked these beliefs to promising adaptations in diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Changes in health selection of obesity among Mexican immigrants: a binational examination.

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    Ro, Annie; Fleischer, Nancy

    2014-12-01

    Health selection is often measured by comparing the health of more recent immigrants to the native born of their new host country. However, this comparison fails to take into account two important factors: (1) that changes in the health profile of sending countries may impact the health of immigrants over time, and (2) that the best comparison group for health selection would be people who remain in the country of origin. Obesity represents an important health outcome that may be best understood by taking into account these two factors. Using nationally-representative datasets from Mexico and the US, we examined differences in obesity-related health selection, by gender, in 2000 and 2012. We calculated prevalence ratios from log-binomial models to compare the risk of obesity among recent immigrants to the US to Mexican nationals with varying likelihood of migration, in order to determine changes in health selection over time. Among men in 2000, we found little difference in obesity status between recent immigrants to the US and Mexican non-migrants. However, in 2012, Mexican men who were the least likely to migrate had higher obesity prevalence than recent immigrants, which may reflect emerging health selection. The trends for women, however, indicated differences in obesity status between recent Mexican immigrants and non-migrants at both time points. In both 2000 and 2012, Mexican national women had significantly higher obesity prevalence than recent immigrant women, with the biggest difference between recent immigrants and Mexican women who were least likely to migrate. There was also indication that selection increased with time for women, as the differences between Mexican nationals and recent immigrants to the US grew from 2000 to 2012. Our study is among the first to use a binational dataset to examine the impact of health selectivity, over time, on obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An Anthropology of "Familismo": On Narratives and Description of Mexican/Immigrants

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    Smith-Morris, Carolyn; Morales-Campos, Daisy; Alvarez, Edith Alejandra Castaneda; Turner, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Research on core cultural values has been central to behavioral and clinical research in ethnic groups. "Familismo" is one such construct, theorized as the strong identification and attachment of Hispanic persons with their nuclear and extended families. Our anthropological research on this concept among Mexicans and Mexican immigrants in the…

  9. Contextualizing immigrants' lived experience: story of Taiwanese immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun

    2003-01-01

    Immigration involves extensive changes in living environments. Nonetheless, the predominant approach in the health science literature has been to utilize individual characteristics (including ethnic background) to explain and predict immigrants' lived experiences and health outcomes. Contexts, particularly the larger societal contexts by which immigrants are constituted, are generally ignored. Data from a critical ethnography regarding immigrants' experiences with language, occupation, and economic survival in the United States are utilized to illustrate that immigrants' lives are inseparable from the larger societal contexts, such as immigration policy, Western imperialism, and structural discrimination. The implications for practice, education, and research are discussed.

  10. Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Mexican Immigrant Men in South Mississippi: An Exploratory Study

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    Lee, Joohee; Rehner, Tim; Castellanos, Diana Cuy

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased interest in mental health among Latino immigrants in the United States, it is particularly salient to note that minimal or marginal attention has been paid to Mexican immigrant men settling in non-metro or rural areas outside of traditional settlement places. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with…

  11. Past and Current Realities about Mexican/Latino Immigration. Looking Beyond the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Martinez-Brawley,

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The literature including social media shows that Mexican/Latino immigrants have attracted contempt and have been traditionally objected to as a minority in the U.S. The intent here is to search for historical and other factors that might explain the public antipathy and to identify reasons that could, either in isolation or in combination with others, explain anti-immigrant sentiments among people, many of whom are descendants of immigrants. The perusal of the challenges of Mexican immigrants to the U.S through the decades will highlight some similarities related to discrimination against waves “peoples of color”, not only in the U.S. but in other parts of the world. The daily treatment within the society of immigrants of color as well as the frequent lower immigration quotas imposed on certain groups, including Mediterranean people, makes the topic quite relevant to today’s concerns.

  12. Social Security Contributions and Return Migration Among Older Male Mexican Immigrants.

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    Aguila, Emma; Vega, Alma

    2017-06-01

    For decades, scholars have studied the effects of immigration on the U.S. social security system. To date, this research has been primarily limited to migrants within the United States and does not consider those who return to their countries of origin. We estimate the proportion of male Mexican return migrants who contributed to the U.S. social security system and analyze their socioeconomic characteristics and migration histories. We also estimate the proportion that receive or expect to receive U.S. social security benefits. Using probit regression on the 2012 Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), we describe the predictors of having contributed to the U.S. social security system among Mexican males in Mexico aged 50 years and older who at some point lived in the United States. We find that 32% of male return migrants reported having contributed to the U.S. social security system, but only 5% of those who contributed, received or expected to receive benefits. Those who reported having contributed spent more years in the United States and were more likely to be U.S. citizens or legal permanent residents than those who did not contribute. Immigrants often pay Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance taxes using legitimate or illegitimate social security numbers and return to their home countries without collecting U.S. social security benefits. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. 'He supported me 100%': Mexican-immigrant fathers, daughters, and adolescent sexual health.

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    Coleman-Minahan, Kate; Samari, Goleen

    2018-02-19

    First and second generation Mexican-origin adolescents in the U.S. face social and economic disadvantage and sexual health disparities. Although fathers can support child and adolescent development, the literature has portrayed Mexican-origin immigrant fathers as emotionally distant and sexist. This study aims to treat migration as a social determinant of health to examine father-daughter relationships and adolescent sexual health in Mexican-origin immigrant families. Integrating qualitative data from life history interviews with 21 Mexican-origin young women in immigrant families with quantitative data on first and second generation Mexican-origin young women in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, this study describes father-daughter relationships, examines the association between father-daughter relationships and daughters' early sexual initiation, and considers the impact of migration on the father-daughter relationship and sexual health among Mexican-origin young women. Qualitative data identify four types of father-daughter relationships: 'good,' hostile, distant, and conflicted. Supporting the qualitative patterns, quantitative data find that positive or 'good' father-daughter relationship quality is significantly associated with reduced risk of early sexual initiation. Importantly, father-daughter separation across borders and economic inequality facing immigrant families is associated with hostile or distant father-daughter relationship quality and increased risk of early sexual initiation. Reports of good father-daughter relationships are common and may protect against early sexual initiation in Mexican-origin immigrant families. Policies that keep families together and reduce economic inequality among immigrants may also reduce sexual health disparities among immigrant adolescents.

  14. Perception of change in living conditions and diet among rural Latino immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Hermosa, Maroly; Tineo, María; Aranda, Yesid; Posada, Germán

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen percent of the total population of the United States (US) is composed of immigrants. Mexicans accounted for about three-quarters of the increase in the Hispanic population from 2000 to 2010. The social and economic problems facing this population in their countries of origin are fueling migration to the US, in search of new opportunities. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the changes in living conditions (housing, health, education) and the dietary intake (ex - an...

  15. Mexican immigration to the US and alcohol and drug use opportunities: does it make a difference in alcohol and/or drug use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Rafful, Claudia; Benjet, Corina; Tancredi, Daniel J; Saito, Naomi; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Breslau, Joshua

    2012-09-01

    Mexican immigrants in the US do not have increased risk for alcohol use or alcohol use disorders when compared to Mexicans living in Mexico, but they are at higher risk for drug use and drug use disorders. It has been suggested that both availability and social norms are associated with these findings. We aimed to study whether the opportunity for alcohol and drug use, an indirect measure of substance availability, determines differences in first substance use among people of Mexican origin in both the US and Mexico, accounting for gender and age of immigration. Data come from nationally representative surveys in the United States (2001-2003) and Mexico (2001-2002) (combined n=3432). We used discrete time proportional hazards event history models to account for time-varying and time-invariant characteristics. The reference group was Mexicans living in Mexico without migration experience. Female immigrants were at lower risk of having opportunities to use alcohol if they immigrated after the age of 13, but at higher risk if they immigrated prior to this age. Male immigrants showed no differences in opportunity to use alcohol or alcohol use after having the opportunity. Immigration was associated with having drugs opportunities for both sexes, with larger risk among females. Migration was also associated with greater risk of using drugs after having the opportunity, but only significantly for males. The impacts of immigration on substance use opportunities are more important for drugs than alcohol. Public health messages and educational efforts should heed this distinction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of immigration age on alcohol and drug use among border and non-border Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingle, Jennifer M; Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A; Vaeth, Patrice A C

    2014-07-01

    To determine the age of immigration at which the marked increase in risk for alcohol- and drug-use problems in adulthood is observed among Mexican American adults residing in 2 distinct contexts: the U.S.-Mexico border, and cities not proximal to the border. We used 2 samples of Mexican American adults: specifically, 1,307 who resided along the U.S.-Mexico border, and 1,288 non-border adults who were interviewed as a part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey study. Survey logistic and Poisson regression methods were used to examine how immigration age during adolescence is related to alcohol- and drug-use behavior in adulthood. We found that participants who immigrate to the United States prior to age 14 have qualitatively different alcohol- and drug-related outcomes compared to those who immigrate later in life. Adults who immigrated at younger ages have alcohol- and drug-use patterns similar to those who were U.S.-born. Adults who immigrated at young ages and reside distal from the U.S.-Mexico border are at greater risk for alcohol and drug use than those who live in border contexts. Immigration from Mexico to the U.S. before age 14 results in alcohol- and drug-related behavior that mirrors the behavior of U.S.-born residents, and the alcohol- and drug-use effects were more pronounced among adults who did not reside proximal to the U.S.-Mexico border. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. The Transformation of Ms. Corazon: Creating Humanizing Spaces for Mexican Immigrant Students in Secondary ESL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Maria del Carmen; Franquiz, Maria E.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the journey of one English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher who held rigid boundaries that negatively impacted the academic resiliency of her Mexican immigrant students. As she transformed her pedagogical orientation, she created permeability in her curricular practices. With the elements of "respeto" (respect), "confianza"…

  18. The Relationship between Print Literacy, Acculturation, and Acculturative Stress among Mexican Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintron, Alexander Modesto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine print literacy, acculturation, and acculturative stress among one-hundred and six Mexican immigrant women participating in a family literacy program. The two hypotheses were: (1.) There is a relationship between (a) print literacy as measured by the Print Literacy Questionnaire and (b) acculturation as…

  19. Mexican Ancestry, Immigrant Generation, and Educational Attainment in the United States

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    Stephen L. Morgan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available After introducing alternative perspectives on assimilation and acculturation, we use the 2002-2012 waves of the Education Longitudinal Study to model differences in educational attainment for students sampled as high school sophomores in 2002. We focus on patterns observed for the growing Mexican immigrant population, analyzing separately the trajectories of 1st, 1.5th, 2nd, and 3rd+ generation Mexican immigrant students, in comparison to 3rd+ generation students who self-identify as non-Hispanic whites and students who self-identify as non-Hispanic blacks or African Americans. The results suggest that the dissonant acculturation mechanism associated with the segmented assimilation perspective is mostly unhelpful for explaining patterns of educational attainment, especially for the crucial groups of 1.5th and 2nd generation Mexican immigrant students. Instead, standard measures of family background can account for large portions of group differences in bachelor’s degree attainment, with or without additional adjustments for behavioral commitment to schooling, occupational plans, and educational expectations. The broad structure of inequality in the United States, as well as the rising costs of bachelor’s degrees, should be the primary source of concern when considering the prospects for the incorporation of the children of recent Mexican immigrants into the mainstream.

  20. Mexican immigrants in the United States. A review of the literature on integration, segregation and discrimination

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    Judith Pérez-Soria

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This article reviews the literature on integration, segregation and discrimination against Mexican immigrants in the United States. It is an assessment of the different theoretical approaches and empirical research results published from the first decades of the twentieth century until present days. Our review suggests that the assimilation model is the dominant theoretical approach, while empirical findings in the field reveal the permanence of patterns of occupational and residential segregation among Mexican-born population and their offspring. Results reported by studies on discrimination vary broadly, as a result of the different methodological perspectives adopted in each study. We conclude with a note encouraging the use of new approaches and complementary methodologies in the study about segregation and discrimination against Mexican immigrants in the United States.

  1. Conflicting Ideologies of Mexican Immigrant English across Levels of Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sarah; Link, Holly; Allard, Elaine; Wortham, Stanton; Mortimer, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how language ideologies--beliefs about immigrant students' language use--carry conflicting images of Spanish speakers in one New Latino Diaspora town. We describe how teachers and students encounter, negotiate, and appropriate divergent ideologies about immigrant students' language use during routine schooling practices, and…

  2. Domestic Dramas: Mexican American Music as an Archive of Immigrant Women's Experiences, 1920s-1950s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Magdalena L.

    2012-01-01

    Mexican women's working and romantic lives were frequent subject matter in early-twentieth-century Mexican American music. Surprisingly, this trend is rendered nearly invisible by the corpus of scholarly work that focuses on the male-centered "heroic corrido," particularly the class and race conflicts represented in that "masculine" genre. This…

  3. Immigration Restrictions as Active Labor Market Policy: Evidence from the Mexican Bracero Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens, Michael A.; Lewis, Ethan Gatewood; Postel, Hannah M.

    2017-01-01

    An important class of active labor market policy has received little rigorous impact evaluation: immigration barriers intended to improve the terms of employment for domestic workers by deliberately shrinking the workforce. Recent advances in the theory of endogenous technical change suggest that such policies could have limited or even perverse labor-market effects, but empirical tests are scarce. We study a natural experiment that excluded almost half a million Mexican 'bracero' seasonal ag...

  4. "One Scar Too Many:" The Associations Between Traumatic Events and Psychological Distress Among Undocumented Mexican Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcini, Luz M; Peña, Juan M; Gutierrez, Angela P; Fagundes, Christopher P; Lemus, Hector; Lindsay, Suzanne; Klonoff, Elizabeth A

    2017-10-01

    Undocumented immigration often presents with multiple stressors and contextual challenges, which may diminish mental health. This study is the first to provide population-based estimates for the prevalence of traumatic events and its association to clinically significant psychological distress among undocumented Mexican immigrants in the United States. This cross-sectional study used respondent-driven sampling to obtain and analyze data from clinical interviews with 248 undocumented Mexican immigrants residing in high-risk neighborhoods near the California-Mexico border. Overall, 82.7% of participants reported a history of traumatic events, with 47.0% of these meeting the criteria for clinically significant psychological distress. After controlling for relevant covariates, having experienced material deprivation, odds ratio (OR) = 2.26, 95% CI [1.18, 4.31], p = .013, and bodily injury, OR = 2.96, 95% CI [1.50, 5.83], p = .002, and not having a history of deportation, OR = 0.36, 95% CI [0.17, 0.79], p = .011, were associated with clinically significant psychological distress. These results support the need to revisit health and immigration policies and to devise solutions grounded in empirical evidence aimed at preventing the negative effects of trauma and psychological distress in this population. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  5. Determinants of Adherence to Living on Dialysis for Mexican Americans

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    Shirley A. Wells

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores perceptions that affect adherence behaviors among Mexican Americans living with dialysis. In-depth narrative interviews were conducted with 15 Mexican Americans with end-stage renal disease (ESRD living on dialysis, 15 family members, and 6 health care personnel who provided care to them. Four themes emerged: (a positive influences to adherence, (b obstacles to adherence, (c daily activity losses, and (d fears about living with dialysis. From the findings, the perceptions given for non-adherence with the dialysis regimen ranged from denial of the condition, lack of pre-education, to cultural factors. Those given for adherence included prolonged life, family, and hope of getting a transplant. Health care providers were the reminder to adhere. Several cultural factors influenced their adherence perceptions. Strategies to enhance adherence behaviors should focus on knowledge about dialysis, use of the collective efficacy of the family, and the inclusion of cultural values.

  6. Self-reported discrimination and mental health status among African descendants, Mexican Americans, and other Latinos in the New Hampshire REACH 2010 Initiative: the added dimension of immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Gilbert C; Ryan, Andrew; Laflamme, David J; Holt, Jeanie

    2006-10-01

    We examined whether self-reported racial discrimination was associated with mental health status and whether this association varied with race/ethnicity or immigration status. We performed secondary analysis of a community intervention conducted in 2002 and 2003 for the New Hampshire Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health 2010 Initiative, surveying African descendants, Mexican Americans, and other Latinos. We assessed mental health status with the Mental Component Summary (MCS12) of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 12, and measured discrimination with questions related to respondents' ability to achieve goals, discomfort/anger at treatment by others, and access to quality health care. Self-reported discrimination was associated with a lower MCS12 score. Additionally, the strength of the association between self-reported health care discrimination and lower MCS12 score was strongest for African descendants, then Mexican Americans, then other Latinos. These patterns may be explained by differences in how long a respondent has lived in the United States. Furthermore, the association of health care discrimination with lower MCS12 was weaker for recent immigrants. Discrimination may be an important predictor of poor mental health status among Black and Latino immigrants. Previous findings of decreasing mental health status as immigrants acculturate might partly be related to experiences with racial discrimination.

  7. Associations of doctor-diagnosed asthma with immigration status, age at immigration, and length of residence in the United States in a sample of Mexican American School Children in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldeirawi, Kamal; McConnell, Rob; Furner, Sylvia; Freels, Sally; Stayner, Leslie; Hernandez, Eva; Amoruso, Lisa; Torres, Shioban; Persky, Victoria W

    2009-10-01

    Among Mexican Americans in the United States, children who were born in the US had higher rates of asthma than their Mexico-born peers. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of doctor-diagnosed asthma with immigration-related variables and to investigate whether these associations could be explained by factors that may change with migration. We surveyed parents of 2,023 school children of Mexican descent and examined the associations of asthma with nativity, age at immigration, and length of residence in the US after adjusting for potential confounding variables. In multivariate analyses, US-born children had a 2.42-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.52-3.83) increased odds of asthma compared with their Mexico-born peers. Mexico-born participants who moved to the US before 2 years of age were almost twice as likely to experience asthma compared with Mexico-born children who moved to the US >or=2 years of age. In addition, Mexico-born participants who lived in the US for 10 years or more were 2.37 times more likely to have asthma than Mexico-born students who lived in the US for less than 10 years. These associations were not explained by a wide variety of factors such as place of residence in infancy; exposure to animals/pets; history of infections, Tylenol use, and antibiotic use in infancy; breastfeeding; exposure to environmental tobacco smoke; daycare attendance and number of siblings; and language use. Our findings point to the effects of nativity, age at immigration, and duration of residence in the US on the risk of asthma in Mexican American children, suggesting that potentially modifiable factors that change with migration may be linked with the disease. The findings of this study should stimulate further research to explain factors that may be responsible for the observed differentials in the risk of asthma among Mexican Americans.

  8. Traditional beliefs and practices among Mexican American immigrants with type II diabetes: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemley, Megan; Spies, Lori A

    2015-04-01

    To describe selected common health beliefs and practices among Mexican American immigrants with type II diabetes. Selected clinical trials, qualitative studies, and systematic reviews. The Hispanic folk illness belief susto refers to an episode of severe fright, and Mexican American immigrants hold varying views on its relation to diabetes. Culturally and in the research, susto has also been linked with depression. Sabila (aloe vera) and nopal (prickly pear cactus) are herbal remedies that have had widespread, longstanding use in Mexican culture and while this is not the gold standard of research, it does provide ample evidence and a strong cultural belief that these therapies work. There is some evidence in the literature to support their efficacy as glucose-lowering agents, but lack of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation, potential side effects, and a dearth of rigorous clinical trials preclude aloe vera and nopal from being recommended therapy. Awareness about susto beliefs, commonly used herbal remedies, and development of culturally sensitive communication skills are essential for nurse practitioners to effectively assist patients in this population achieve their glycemic goals. Research on the effects of nopal and aloe vera on diabetes is needed to guide clinical decisions. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  9. The unauthorized Mexican immigrant population and welfare in Los Angeles County: a comparative statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, E A; Heer, D M

    1998-01-01

    "Using a unique 1994 Los Angeles County Household Survey of foreign-born Mexicans and the March 1994 and 1995 Current Population Surveys, we estimate the number of unauthorized Mexican immigrants (UMIs) residing in Los Angeles County, and compare their use of seven welfare programs with that of other non-U.S. citizens and U.S. citizens. Non-U.S. citizens were found to be no more likely than U.S. citizens to have used welfare, and UMIs were 11% (14%) less likely than other non-citizens (U.S.-born citizens).... We demonstrate how results differ depending on the unit of analysis employed, and on which programs constitute ¿welfare'." excerpt

  10. A qualitative study of family healthy lifestyle behaviors of Mexican-American and Mexican immigrant fathers and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Barbara J; Navuluri, Neelima; Winkler, Paula; Vale, Shruthi; Finley, Erin

    2014-04-01

    This study qualitatively examines contrasting parental decision-making styles about family food choices and physical activities as well as willingness to change behaviors among Mexican-American and Mexican immigrant mothers and fathers of school-aged children. Twelve sex-specific focus groups were held in English or Spanish in 2012. Qualitative analysis informed by grounded theory examined parenting styles (ie, authoritative, authoritarian, or permissive), barriers to healthy lifestyle, and parents' stage of change about healthy lifestyles. One third of the 33 participating couples were born in Mexico. The majority of mothers and fathers described being permissive and allowing unhealthy food choices, and a minority of mothers reported more authoritarian approaches to promoting a healthier diet for their children. Mothers were more permissive than fathers about family physical activities and less engaged in these activities. Most mothers and fathers described only contemplating a healthier diet and more physical activity, while wanting their children to have a healthier lifestyle. These data suggest that clinicians need to assess and address differential parental roles when promoting a healthy lifestyle for children. Clinicians should also adopt culturally competent approaches to overcome barriers to parental engagement in diverse aspects of a healthy family lifestyle. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Living and working in ethnic enclaves: English Language proficiency of immigrants in US metropolitan areas

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    Beckhusen, J.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; de Graaff, T.; Poot, H.J.; Waldorf, B.S.

    2013-01-01

    We use data on Mexican and Chinese immigrants in the US to calculate the average marginal effects of residential and occupational segregation on immigrants' ability to speak English, and similarly the effects of English fluency of family members. Our results confirm that residential segregation is

  12. Strain, Psychological Conflicts, Aspirations-Attainment Gap, and Depressive Tendencies among Youth of Mexican Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paat, Yok-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Using Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS), this study examined the links between strain, psychological conflicts, aspiration-attainment gap, and depressive tendencies of 755 youth of Mexican origin. Two research questions were raised: (a) What types of strain and psychological conflict induced depressive tendencies? (b) What types of aspirations were relevant to these depressive symptoms? Overall, this study showed that factors implicated by collision of values, perceived discrepancies between aspiration and attainment, and negative appraisal of self could induce depressive mood, feelings, and behaviors, an important finding revealing that this underserved population can benefit from better public health services.

  13. Mobile Technology in the Lives of Thai Immigrants in Germany

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    Sirima Thongsawang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of mobile technology in the lives of Thai immigrants in Berlin. By using qualitative research methods, this research investigates how new digital and social media applications have affected the organization of Thai immigrants on both individual and institutional levels, with a particular focus on the Royal Thai Embassy in Berlin. Mobile technologies today are widely used in the diaspora, by both individuals and social institutions, to maintain relationships with the homeland and to promote national affairs. Both individual Thai immigrants and official staff of the embassy rely significantly on Internet sites, particularly on social networking sites such as Facebook, to gain information on Thailand and to expand their networks. This paper explores changes in communication and their implications for Thais and their respective institutions in Germany.

  14. Educational and Mothering Discourses and Learner Goals: Mexican Immigrant Women Enacting Agency in a Family Literacy Program. Research Brief #8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toso, Blaire Willson

    2012-01-01

    Family literacy programs promote certain ideas about literacy and parenting. This study examined how Mexican immigrant women in a family literacy program used mainstream ideas, or discourses, of mothering and parent involvement in education to pursue their own personal and academic goals. The findings revealed that women were at times faced with…

  15. Adaptation and Feasibility of a Communication Intervention for Mexican Immigrant Mothers and Children in a School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Diane B.; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Fogg, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Children of Mexican immigrants are exposed to multiple ecological risks that heighten their likelihood of experiencing depressive symptoms. In previous studies, affirming parent-child communication has been found to be protective against depressive symptoms in Hispanic youth. Interventions focused on enhancing communication between parents and…

  16. An Analysis of Communicative Language Functions in the Speech Patterns of Bilingual Korean and Mexican Immigrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sook Lee, Jin; Choi, Jane Y.; Marqués-Pascual, Laura

    2016-01-01

    For children from immigrant families, opportunities to develop additive bilingualism exist, yet bilingual attainment has varied widely. Given the significance of language development opportunities in home settings, this study examines the home language use of 20 second-generation children (ages 6-8) of Mexican and Korean descent in the United…

  17. Don't end up in the fields: identity construction among Mexican adolescent immigrants, their parents, and sociocontextual processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Jose A; Knudson-Martin, Carmen

    2014-10-01

    This grounded theory study of 16 Mexican immigrant adolescents and 20 of their parents examines how they construct relational identities within their families, at school, with friends, and in the larger society. Results focus on a core identity bind faced by the adolescents: immigration messages from parents that say, "don't be like me" and the societal message, "you're not like us." Response to this bind was guided by two contrasting sets of identity narratives: Empowering narratives invited an intentional approach to school and life choices. Restricting narratives maintained an ambivalent approach to school and life choices. Resolution of the identity bind was a collective, ongoing process that has implications for Mexican immigrant families and the professionals who work with them. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  18. Perception of change in living conditions and diet among rural Latino immigrants

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    Maroly Hermosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen percent of the total population of the United States (US is composed of immigrants. Mexicans accounted for about three-quarters of the increase in the Hispanic population from 2000 to 2010. The social and economic problems facing this population in their countries of origin are fueling migration to the US, in search of new opportunities. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the changes in living conditions (housing, health, education and the dietary intake (ex - ante and ex - post of the Latino immigrant population that emigrated from rural areas in Mexico. The participants were attendees of the Purdue Extension Learning Network of Clinton County, who filled out a questionnaire with open and closed questions. The results evidenced the perception of improved quality of life variables related to housing, access to utilities and education, and a change with a tendency for increases in their consumption of fast food, processed food and soda, generating negative effects in terms of an increase in being overweight and obesity, and particularly a lowered consumption of products from their traditional diet.

  19. Do Mexican immigrants substitute health care in Mexico for health insurance in the United States? The role of distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Henry Shelton

    2008-12-01

    Although language and culture are important contributors to uninsurance among immigrants, one important contributor may have been overlooked - the ability of immigrants to return to their home country for health care. This paper examines the extent to which uninsurance (private insurance and Medicaid) is related to the ability of immigrants to return to Mexico for health care, as measured by spatial proximity. The data for this study are from the Mexican Migration Project. After controlling for household income, acculturation and demographic characteristics, arc distance to the place of origin plays a role in explaining uninsurance rates. Distance within Mexico is quite important, indicating that immigrants from the South of Mexico are more likely to seek care in their communities of origin (hometowns).

  20. Bilingualism in older Mexican-American immigrants is associated with higher scores on cognitive screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Claudia; Mendez, Mario F; Jimenez, Elvira E; Teng, Edmond

    2016-11-24

    Bilingualism may protect against cognitive aging and delay the onset of dementia. However, studies comparing monolinguals and bilinguals on such metrics have produced inconsistent results complicated by confounding variables and methodological concerns. We addressed this issue by comparing cognitive performance in a more culturally homogeneous cohort of older Spanish-speaking monolingual (n = 289) and Spanish-English bilingual (n = 339) Mexican-American immigrants from the Sacramento Longitudinal Study on Aging. After adjusting for demographic differences and depressive symptoms, both groups performed similarly at baseline on verbal memory but the bilingual group performed significantly better than the monolingual group on a cognitive screening test, the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS; p bilingual group, neither language of testing nor degree of bilingualism was significantly associated with 3MS or verbal memory scores. Amongst individuals who performed in the normal or better range on both tests at baseline and were followed for an average of 6 years, both monolinguals and bilinguals exhibited similar rates of cognitive decline on both measures. These findings suggest that bilingualism is associated with modest benefits in cognitive screening performance in older individuals in cross-sectional analyses that persist across longitudinal analyses. The effects of bilingualism should be considered when cognitively screening is performed in aging immigrant populations.

  1. Bilingualism in older Mexican-American immigrants is associated with higher scores on cognitive screening

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    Claudia Padilla

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bilingualism may protect against cognitive aging and delay the onset of dementia. However, studies comparing monolinguals and bilinguals on such metrics have produced inconsistent results complicated by confounding variables and methodological concerns. Methods We addressed this issue by comparing cognitive performance in a more culturally homogeneous cohort of older Spanish-speaking monolingual (n = 289 and Spanish-English bilingual (n = 339 Mexican-American immigrants from the Sacramento Longitudinal Study on Aging. Results After adjusting for demographic differences and depressive symptoms, both groups performed similarly at baseline on verbal memory but the bilingual group performed significantly better than the monolingual group on a cognitive screening test, the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS; p < 0.001. Group differences on the 3MS were driven by language/executive and language/praxis factors. Within the bilingual group, neither language of testing nor degree of bilingualism was significantly associated with 3MS or verbal memory scores. Amongst individuals who performed in the normal or better range on both tests at baseline and were followed for an average of 6 years, both monolinguals and bilinguals exhibited similar rates of cognitive decline on both measures. Conclusions These findings suggest that bilingualism is associated with modest benefits in cognitive screening performance in older individuals in cross-sectional analyses that persist across longitudinal analyses. The effects of bilingualism should be considered when cognitively screening is performed in aging immigrant populations.

  2. Living (in) Class: Contexts of Immigrant Lives and the Movements of Children with(in) Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which immigrant children in Cyprus negotiated and perceived their class positions amidst the transnational activities of their parents. As findings indicate, children develop acute understandings of the impact money has on their lives. Drawing on resources physically or imaginarily available to them, children…

  3. Parent Perceptions of Child Weight Status in Mexican-Origin Immigrant Families: An Investigation of Acculturation, Stress, and Coping Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Dorothy L; Bates, Carolyn R; Heard, Amy M; Bohnert, Amy M; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo

    2018-04-01

    Parents often underestimate their child's weight status, particularly when the child is overweight or obese. This study examined acculturation, stress, coping, and involuntary responses to stress and their relation to estimation of child's weight status among Mexican-origin immigrant families. Eighty-six families provided data on child's height and weight, caregiver's perception of their child's weight status, and caregiver's responses to acculturation, stress, and coping scales. Parents underestimated their child's weight status, particularly when the child was overweight or obese. Although acculturation and stress were not associated with accuracy, parents' responses to stress were linked to parent perceptions. Parents who reported more frequent use of involuntary engagement (e.g., rumination, physiological arousal) were more accurate. Future research, as well as healthcare providers, should consider how parents manage and respond to stress in order to fully understand the factors that explain weight perceptions among Mexican-origin immigrant parents.

  4. Mexican Parenting Questionnaire (MPQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgunseth, Linda C.; Ispa, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted in four phases and constructed a self-report parenting instrument for use with Mexican immigrant mothers of children aged 6 to 10. The 14-item measure was based on semistructured qualitative interviews with Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 10), was refined by a focus group of Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 5), and was…

  5. Living (and work of Peruvian immigrants in Madrid

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    G. Pérez Pérez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article is based on the analysis of the information obtained by means of a statistical analysis of a survey conduct among 110 Peruvian immigrants in Madrid. The living conditions of these workers are presented under a series of headings which include the job sectors in which they settle, various aspects of their working conditions and salaries, dwellings, leisure time activities, contact with their country of origin and the strength of their associationism. Previously, a sociodemographic description of the sample in set out based on an analysis of their distribution by age, sex, level of education and other variables of interest such as when and how they came to Spain or their legal situation.

  6. Validity of a parent vocabulary checklist for young Spanish speaking children of Mexican immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of the current investigation was to examine the concurrent and predictive validity of a parent vocabulary checklist with young Spanish speaking children of Mexican immigrants. This study implemented a longitudinal approach. Nineteen families participated when children were 15-16 months of age, and then again at 30-32 months of age. The Spanish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (Inventarios del Desarrollo de Habilidades Communicativas, INV) and spontaneous language samples collected during naturalistic play were used to examine the relationship between observed and reported vocabulary. Vocabulary reported through the INV-II and vocabulary observed at 30-32 months were significantly correlated, suggesting that the INV-II captures a valid representation of vocabulary at this age. Comparatively, vocabulary reported on the INV-I, was not correlated with observed vocabulary at 15-16 months of age or reported or observed vocabulary at 30-32 months of age. These results suggest that the INV-I, when used with 14-16-month-olds, demonstrates limited concurrent and predictive validity. Implications for the clinical use of the INV-I and INV-II are presented.

  7. Accessibility and use of primary healthcare for immigrants living in the Niagara Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Irene D; Swartz, Rebecca H; Kwan, Matthew Y W

    2016-05-01

    Although the challenges of accessing and using primary healthcare for new immigrants to Canada have been fairly well documented, the focus has primarily been on large cities with significant immigrant populations. The experiences of immigrants living in smaller, less diverse urban centres remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the lived experiences of immigrants living in a small urban centre with regards to the primary healthcare system. A total of 13 immigrants living in the Greater Niagara Region participated in semi-structured interviews. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded and analyzed for emergent themes using NVivo. Five factors were found to impact primary care access and use: lack of social contacts, lack of universal healthcare coverage during their initial arrival, language as a barrier, treatment preferences, and geographic distance to primary care. Overall findings suggest that immigrants moving to smaller areas such as the Niagara Region face similar barriers to primary care as those moving into large cities. Some barriers, however, appear to be specific to the context of smaller urban centres, further exacerbated by living in a small city due to a smaller immigrant population, fewer services for immigrants, and less diversity in practicing physicians. More research is required to understand the contextual factors inhibiting primary care access and use among immigrants moving to smaller urban centres, and determine effective strategies to overcome these barriers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants: probability survey in the north border of Mexico

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    Gudelia Rangel M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants (MMIs in different geographic contexts, including the sending communities in Mexico, the receiving communities in the United States (US, and the Mexican North border region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a probability survey among MMIs traveling through key border crossing sites in the Tijuana (Baja California, Mexico-San Diego (California, US border region (N=1 429. RESULTS: The survey revealed substantial rates of reported sexually transmitted infections, needle-sharing and sexual risk practices in all migration contexts. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated levels of HIV risk call for further binational research and preventive interventions in all key geographic contexts of the migration experience to identify and tackle the different personal, environmental, and structural determinants of HIV risk in each of these contexts.

  9. Life Satisfaction among Ethnic Minorities in the Netherlands: Immigration Experience or Adverse Living Conditions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vroome, Thomas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323040969; Hooghe, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that immigrants' levels of life satisfaction tend to be lower than among natives. We do not know, however, whether this is due to the immigration experience as such, or rather is a result of the fact that on average this group is faced with less prosperous living

  10. Assessing the Prayer Lives of Older Whites, Older Blacks and Older Mexican Americans: A Descriptive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see whether differences emerge between older whites, older blacks, and older Mexican Americans in 12 measures of prayer. These measures assess four dimensions of prayer: The social context of prayer, interpersonal aspects of prayer, beliefs about how prayer operates, and the content or focus of prayers. Data from two nationwide surveys of older adults suggest that with respect to all four dimensions, the prayer lives of older whites appear be less developed than the prayer lives of older blacks and older Mexican Americans. In contrast, relatively few differences were found in the prayer lives of older African Americans and older Mexican Americans. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22523464

  11. The Relation of Drug Trafficking Fears and Cultural Identity to Attitudes Toward Mexican Immigrants in Five South Texas Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Manuel; Argueta, Nanci L; Castro, Yessenia; Perez, Ricardo; Dawson, Darius B

    This paper reports the findings of research investigating the relationship of spill-over fears related to drug trafficking and of cultural identity to Mexican Americans' attitudes toward recent immigrants from Mexico in five non-metropolitan communities in the US-Mexico borderlands of South Texas. A mixed methods design was used to collect data from 91 participants (30 intact families with two parents and at least one young adult). Quantitative findings showed that the majority of participants expressed the view that most people in their communities believed that newcomers were involved in drug trafficking and in defrauding welfare programs. A significant interaction indicated that Mexican cultural identity buffered the negative effects of drug trafficking fears as related to the view that the newcomers were creating problems in the communities and region. Qualitative data yielded positive and negative themes, with those that were negative being significantly more numerous. The findings have implications for intra-ethnic relations in borderlands communities as well as for immigration policy.

  12. Mexican immigrant mothers' perceptions of their children's communication disabilities, emergent literacy development, and speech-language therapy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerer, Sharon E; Lopez-Reyna, Norma A; Hughes, Marie Tejero

    2007-08-01

    This qualitative study explored mothers' perceptions of their children's communication disabilities, emergent literacy development, and speech-language therapy programs. Participants were 14 Mexican immigrant mothers and their children (age 17-47 months) who were receiving center-based services from an early childhood intervention program, located in a large urban city in the Midwestern United States. Mother interviews composed the primary source of data. A secondary source of data included children's therapy files and log notes. Following the analysis of interviews through the constant comparative method, grounded theory was generated. The majority of mothers perceived their children as exhibiting a communication delay. Causal attributions were diverse and generally medical in nature (i.e., ear infections, seizures) or due to familial factors (i.e., family history and heredity, lack of extended family). Overall, mothers seemed more focused on their children's speech intelligibility and/or expressive language in comparison to emergent literacy abilities. To promote culturally responsive intervention, mothers recommended that professionals speak Spanish, provide information about the therapy process, and use existing techniques with Mexican immigrant families.

  13. Changing behaviours and continuing silence: sex in the post-immigration lives of mainland Chinese immigrants in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanqiu Rachel

    2012-01-01

    In China, reluctance to discuss sex continues to be widely observed despite the sexual revolution there. That silence generates questions about health risks in the contexts of HIV/AIDS and international migration. Based on a qualitative study of mainland Chinese immigrants in Canada, this paper explores the impacts of immigration processes on sex and sexuality. The findings reveal a gap between these individuals' changing sexual behaviours and the continuing silence on sex. Although Canada has exposed them to a new living environment that has shaped the dynamics and patterns of their sexual practices, their incomplete integration into the host society and their close connections with China as the home country mean that traditional Chinese norms continue to influence their understanding of these changes. With the increasing openness of these immigrants' sexual relationships, the obsolescence of their consciousness and knowledge of sexuality should be addressed in order to reduce their vulnerability to sexual inequalities and consequent health risks.

  14. Associations between language acculturation, age of immigration, and obesity in the Mexican American Mano A Mano cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisman, Matthew; Chow, Wong-Ho; Daniel, Carrie R; Wu, Xifeng; Zhao, Hua

    As Mexican immigrants to the U.S. become acculturated, they face worsening health outcomes such as obesity. The role of language acculturation in the development of obesity has not been thoroughly examined. To examine associations between language acculturation and obesity, data were drawn from the Mexican-American Mano A Mano cohort study. Participants aged 20 years and over (n=18,298) completed baseline questionnaires on socio-demographic and behavioural factors, including physical activity and sitting time. The Bi-dimensional Acculturation Scale for Hispanics assessed language acculturation. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression was conducted to investigate associations between language acculturation, immigration age, and obesity, and whether sitting time and physical activity mediated these associations. Individuals with obesity were more linguistically acculturated than individuals who were normal weight or overweight (Pobesity (OR=1.35, 95% CI: 1.12-1.62) in U.S.-born participants and lower risk in Mexico-born participants (OR=0.90, 95%CI=0.81-1.00). For Mexico-born participants, arrival in the U.S. as an adult (≥20years old) was associated with a reduced obesity risk (OR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.67-0.80). Sitting time mediated the association between language acculturation and obesity. Language acculturation may influence obesity development among the U.S.-born Mexican Americans in this cohort, but not their Mexico-born counterparts. Sitting time could be targeted in obesity prevention efforts in this population. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tobacco Use Among Arab Immigrants Living in Colorado: Prevalence and Cultural Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajj, Dana G; Cook, Paul F; Magilvy, Kathy; Galbraith, Michael E; Gilbert, Lynn; Corwin, Marla

    2017-03-01

    The authors determined the prevalence of smoking among Arab immigrants living in Colorado. The authors also evaluated the relationship between acculturation and tobacco use, including both cigarettes and hookah among Arab immigrants. A cross-sectional survey of 100 adult Arab immigrants living in Colorado was carried out. The results revealed that 19% of the study participants were current cigarette smokers and 21% were current hookah smokers. Participants who were more integrated into Arab culture were more likely to use tobacco products ( p = .03) and to have family members ( p = .02) and friends who use tobacco products ( p = .007). Acculturation plays a major role in affecting the health habits of Arab immigrants living in Colorado, especially in the area of hookah smoking. Understanding some culturally relevant predictors of tobacco use might assist health care providers in designing successful smoking cessation programs.

  16. Are immigrant enclaves healthy places to live? The Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osypuk, Theresa L; Diez Roux, Ana V; Hadley, Craig; Kandula, Namratha R

    2009-07-01

    The growing size and changing composition of the foreign-born population in the USA highlights the importance of examining the health consequences of living in neighborhoods with higher proportions of immigrants. Using data from the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis in four US cities, we examined whether neighborhood immigrant composition was associated with health behaviors (diet, physical activity) among Hispanic and Chinese Americans (n=1902). Secondarily we tested whether neighborhoods with high proportions of immigrants exhibited better or worse neighborhood quality, and whether these dimensions of neighborhood quality were associated with healthy behaviors. Neighborhood immigrant composition was defined based on the Census 2000 tract percent of foreign-born from Latin-America, and separately, percent foreign-born from China. After adjustment for age, gender, income, education, neighborhood poverty, and acculturation, living in a tract with a higher proportion of immigrants was associated with lower consumption of high-fat foods among Hispanics and Chinese, but with being less physically active among Hispanics. Residents in neighborhoods with higher proportions of immigrants reported better healthy food availability, but also worse walkability, fewer recreational exercise resources, worse safety, lower social cohesion, and lower neighborhood-based civic engagement. Associations of neighborhood immigrant composition with diet persisted after adjustment for reported neighborhood characteristics, and associations with physical activity were attenuated. Respondent-reported neighborhood healthy food availability, walkability, availability of exercise facilities and civic participation remained associated with behaviors after adjusting for immigrant composition and other covariates. Results show that living in an immigrant enclave is not monolithically beneficial and may have different associations with different health behaviors.

  17. Drug consumption in Mexican immigrants interviewed in northwest Mexico-USA border cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sánchez–Huesca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to confirm the existence of a relationship between the immigration stay in the United States and the use of illicit drugs. By applying a nonprobabilistic sample in Tijuana, Nogales and Ciudad Juarez 567 immigrants, were interviewed 77.8% were males (average of 29 years old. The main reason of their immigration was the search for an “economic improvement”; the most of they did not have the documentation to cross the border. The main destinations were California, Arizona and Texas. When comparing the use of illicit drugs before and after the immigration experience, the number of users of cocaine and methamphetamine were found to significantly increase. The “curiosity” was the main reason to drug use, as well as the fact of being “invited by friends”. Other reasons seem to be associated to the immigration experience: some used drugs because they felt depressed or because they needed to take a break and feel relaxed after working. These findings make it possible to confirm that the immigration experience modifies the pattern of use of drugs in some immigrants who have previously used this kind of substances; some others start using them during the immigration stay.

  18. "Las Siete Historias": Perceptions of Parent Involvement among Mexican Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Duckwitz, Claire M.; Hess, Robyn S.; Atcherly, Elsa

    2013-01-01

    This multiple case study examined parent involvement perspectives among seven immigrant mothers from Mexico. All the participants came from limited educational and socioeconomic backgrounds, and reported that they immigrated to the United States for greater opportunity. These background experiences seemed to shape their current role…

  19. Barriers Experienced by Mexican Immigrants: Implications for Educational Achievement and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Melissa L. Morgan; Consoli, Andres J.; Orozco, Graciela Leon; Gonzales, Rufus R.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    The adversities faced by Latina/o individuals and their families in the U.S. negatively impact educational outcomes as well as their mental and physical health. These adversities are often related to immigration status and acculturation and include difficulties with immigration, language barriers, and discrimination. Given that recent immigrants…

  20. Living Outside the Gender Box in Mexico: Testimony of Transgender Mexican Asylum Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K; Gowin, Mary J; Taylor, E Laurette; Frey, Melissa; Dunnington, Jamie; Alshuwaiyer, Ghadah; Huber, J Kathleen; Garcia, Mary Camero; Wray, Grady C

    2017-10-01

    To explore preimmigration experiences of violence and postimmigration health status in male-to-female transgender individuals (n = 45) from Mexico applying for asylum in the United States. We used a document review process to examine asylum declarations and psychological evaluations of transgender Mexican asylum seekers in the United States from 2012. We coded documents in 2013 and 2014 using NVivo, a multidisciplinary team reviewed them, and then we analyzed them for themes. Mexican transgender asylum applicants experienced pervasive verbal, physical, and sexual abuse from multiple sources, including family, school, community, and police. Applicants also experienced discrimination in school and in the workplace. Applicants immigrated to the United States to escape persistent assaults and threats to their life. Applicants suffered health and psychological effects from their experiences in Mexico that affected opportunities in the United States for employment, education, and social inclusion. Additional social protections for transgender individuals and antidiscrimination measures in Mexican schools and workplaces are warranted as are increased mental health assessment and treatment, job training, and education services for asylum seekers in the United States.

  1. Socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration: examining the potential mechanisms underlying Mexican-origin adolescents' organized activity participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Sandra D; Delgado, Melissa Y; Price, Chara D; Quach, Alex; Starbuck, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    The integrative model for child development and ecodevelopmental theory suggest that macro factors, such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration influence the settings in which adolescents engage. The goal of this investigation was to use a combination of deductive and inductive qualitative analysis to describe the mechanisms by which these macro factors might be related to Mexican-origin adolescents' participation in organized after-school activities. Qualitative data were collected through focus group interviews with 44 adolescents, 50 parents, and 18 activity leaders from 2 neighborhoods that varied in ethnic composition and average family income. Results indicated that family socioeconomic status might be related to adolescents' participation through financial resources and parents' work. Ethnicity was identified as a predictor of participation via experiences with ethnic discrimination, particularly in the neighborhood with a low percentage of Hispanic families. Cultural values and practices were related to participants' preferences for particular activities (e.g., bilingual, church-sponsored) and adolescents' participation in activities. Immigration seemed to be a factor in parents' familiarity with and beliefs about organized activities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Capital, Alienation, and Challenge: How U.S. Mexican Immigrant Students Build Pathways to College and Career Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Catherine R; Domínguez, Elizabeth; Cooper, Robert G; Higgins, Ashleigh; Lipka, Alex

    2018-06-01

    This article considers how the global "academic pipeline problem" constrains immigrant, low-income, and ethnic minority students' pathways to higher education, and how some students build pathways to college and career identities. After aligning theories of social capital, alienation/belonging, and challenge and their integration in Bridging Multiple Worlds Theory, we summarize six longitudinal studies based on this theory from a 23-year university-community partnership serving low-income, primarily U.S. Mexican immigrant youth. Spanning from childhood to early adulthood, the studies revealed two overarching findings: First, students built pathways to college and career identities while experiencing capital, alienation/belonging, and challenges across their evolving cultural worlds. Second, by "giving back" to families, peers, schools, and communities, students became cultural brokers and later, institutional agents, transforming institutional cultures. Findings highlight the value of integrating interdisciplinary theories, research evidence, and educational systems serving diverse communities to open individual pathways and academic pipelines in multicultural societies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Unsuccessful immigration: the peculiarities of homeless Lithuanians’ lives in London

    OpenAIRE

    Malinauskas, Gedas; Blažytė, Vilma

    2010-01-01

    Using the data of a pilot study, this article deals with unsuccessful cases of Lithuanian immigration, i.e., lifestyle peculiarities of Lithuanians who became homeless in the capital of Great Britain. While analyzing the phenomenon in a descriptive manner, the authors sought an answer the question of why Lithuanian emigrants who had family and work in their homeland became homeless after they had come to search for a better life. The issues of homeless Lithuanians‘ daily life and life princip...

  4. Quality of life and coping strategies among immigrant women living with pain in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelis, Camilla; Kristiansen, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    . Conclusions Chronic pain had a severe negative impact on quality of life and necessitated alterations in everyday life and active health-seeking strategies. Implications for practice imply a need for a more holistic approach to immigrant women with chronic pain, including a family-centred approach. Further......Objective To examine quality of life and coping strategies among immigrant women living with chronic pain. Design Qualitative content analysis based on in-depth semistructured interviews. Setting A clinic specifically targeting immigrants at a larger university hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark....... Participants Non-western female immigrant patients suffering from chronic pain (n=13). Main outcome measures Experiences of the impact of chronic pain on quality of life. Results Chronic pain was perceived to have an extensive, adverse effect on all aspects of quality of life, including physical health, mental...

  5. Somos Hermanas Del Mismo Dolor (We Are Sisters of the Same Pain): Intimate Partner Sexual Violence Narratives Among Mexican Immigrant Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tiffany; Draucker, Claire B; Bradway, Christine; Grisso, Jeanne Ann; Sommers, Marilyn S

    2016-04-28

    Migration across international borders places tremendous stress on immigrant families and may put women at greater risk for intimate partner violence. In this study, we used narrative analysis methods to explore how nine Mexican immigrant women in the Northeastern United States described their experiences of intimate partner sexual violence, and how these stories were embedded within narratives of transition and movement across borders. We identified three major themes: The Virgin and the Whore, The Family, and Getting Ahead. We share important implications for researchers and health and social service providers working with this population. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Identity profiles and well-being of multicultural immigrants: The case of Canadian immigrants living in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle eCarpentier

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies worldwide point toward increased risk of mental health issues among immigrants. Immigrants’ ability to integrate the cultural identity of their new country has been found to be a key factor in their psychological well-being. Even though researchers agree on the crucial role of identity integration in immigrants’ well-being, the current literature has two main limitations: 1 researchers do not agree on the importance that should be allocated to each of the cultural identities, and 2 research has focused on bicultural individuals as opposed to multicultural individuals. The present paper proposes to study Canadians immigrants living in the province of Quebec who, because of the political and linguistic situation of the province, face the challenge of integrating two new cultural identities (Quebecer and Canadian to their original one. Specifically, cluster analysis was used to observe identity profiles that naturally emerge among 120 Canadian immigrants from the province of Quebec. Identity profiles were then compared on various indices of well-being to identify the optimal identity structure. In total, four identity profiles emerged, differing in their levels of identity coherence (i.e., similar levels of identification with each group and identification to either the original group or the Quebecers. ANOVA results confirmed that identity profiles differed in their average level of well-being. First, immigrants with coherent profiles displayed higher levels of well-being. Second, among incoherent profiles, the profile where identification to the original group is the highest showed the greatest well-being. Implications suggest that in order to maximize immigrants’ well-being, psychologists should focus on the coherence between cultural groups as well as identification to the original group.

  7. Identity Profiles and Well-Being of Multicultural Immigrants: The Case of Canadian Immigrants Living in Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Joëlle; de la Sablonnière, Roxane

    2013-01-01

    Studies worldwide point toward increased risk of mental health issues among immigrants. Immigrants’ ability to integrate the cultural identity of their new country has been found to be a key factor in their psychological well-being. Even though researchers agree on the crucial role of identity integration in immigrants’ well-being, the current literature has two main limitations: (1) researchers do not agree on the importance that should be allocated to each of the cultural identities, and (2) research has focused on bicultural individuals as opposed to multicultural individuals. The present paper proposes to study Canadians immigrants living in the province of Quebec who, because of the political and linguistic situation of the province, face the challenge of integrating two new cultural identities (Quebecer and Canadian) to their original one. Specifically, cluster analysis was used to observe identity profiles that naturally emerge among 120 Canadian immigrants from the province of Quebec. Identity profiles were then compared on various indices of well-being to identify the optimal identity structure. In total, four identity profiles emerged, differing in their levels of identity coherence (i.e., similar levels of identification with each group) and identification to either the original group or the Quebecers. ANOVA results confirmed that identity profiles differed in their average level of well-being. First, immigrants with coherent profiles displayed higher levels of well-being. Second, among incoherent profiles, the profile where identification to the original group is the highest showed the greatest well-being. Implications suggest that in order to maximize immigrants’ well-being, psychologists should focus on the coherence between cultural groups as well as identification to the original group. PMID:23450648

  8. Dietary intake and habits of South Asian immigrants living in Western countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCroy, Madison N; Stevens, June

    2017-06-01

    Previous reviews have indicated that immigration from South Asian to Western countries leads to unhealthy changes in diet; however, these reviews have been limited by the methods used in some included studies. This critical narrative review summarizes findings from original research articles that performed appropriate statistical analyses on diet data obtained using culturally appropriate diet assessment measures. All studies quantitatively compared the diets of South Asian immigrants with those of residents of Western or South Asian countries or with those of South Asian immigrants who had varying periods of time since immigration. Most studies examined total energy and nutrient intake among adults. Total energy intake tended to decrease with increasing duration of residence and immigrant generation, and immigrants consumed less protein and monounsaturated fat compared with Westerners. However, findings for intakes of carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and micronutrients were mixed. Studies that examine food group intake and include South Asians living in South Asia as a comparison population are needed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. METABOLIC SYNDROME AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN CHILEAN IMMIGRANTS LIVING IN RIO GALLEGOS, SANTA CRUZ, ARGENTINA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Sally Padilla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the frequency of metabolic syndrome, its components and its relationship with physical activity in Chilean immigrants living in Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Argentina.314 Chilean immigrants (165 women and 149 men were interviewed in Rio Gallegos in 2010, with healthy status in medical records (2000. Anthropometry, blood pressure control, blood test to measure glucose, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol were determined. Metabolic syndrome was established by criteria of the NCEPATPIII.The metabolic syndrome had an overall prevalence of 28.9% (95%CI: 23.9 to 34. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was larger in women (32.1% than in men (25.5%. The prevalence of its components were: abdominal obesity 56%, low levels of HDL cholesterol 48.3%, high levels of triglycerides 68.1%, hypertension 46.1% and high levels of glucose 72.5%. Inadequate physical activity was 66.2% (95%CI: 60.1 to 71.5. Immigrants had more likelihood of metabolic syndrome living in Río Gallegos for 15 years or more(β: 5.74,95%CI:2,81-11,73, p=0.000 and with inadequate physical activity (β: 3.36, 95%CI: 1.57to7.21,p=0.002. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Chilean immigrants living in Río Gallegos is higher than that reported in Argentina and Chile

  10. Exploring the Borderlands: Elementary School Teachers' Navigation of Immigration Practices in a New Latino Diaspora Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sarah; Link, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Drawing primarily on interview data from a 5-year ethnography on the school experiences of Mexican immigrant children in a New Latino Diaspora community, we explore how their teachers understood and responded to increasing deportation-based immigration practices affecting children's lives. We illustrate how teachers fell along a continuum…

  11. Epidemiologic Observations on Diarrhea Developing in U.S. and Mexican Students Living in Guadalajara, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson; DuPont; Mathewson

    1995-03-01

    Background: A previous study suggested that U.S. students who lived in Mexico for 1 year had a risk of diarrhea intermediate between the rate for newly arrived U.S. students and Mexican students; however, the study was not controlled for changes of risky behavior over time. Methods: An analysis of acute diarrhea occurring among U.S. and Mexican student groups living in Guadalajara, Mexico was conducted to explore the association of diarrhea developing during selected 28-day periods with length of residence, season, and risk factors such as locations of food consumption, consumption of tap water, unsafe ice, alcohol, and antibiotics. Results: Compared to U.S. and Mexican student groups, newly arrived U.S. college students in July had the highest rate of diarrhea (55%), highest enteropathogen isolation rate (46%), and most consumption of alcohol and antibiotics; they also ate most frequently at restaurants and in Mexican family homes. Compared to a 34% rate of diarrhea among newly arrived U.S. medical students in August, the rate was only 6% among established medical students in January. This drop in attack rate was attended by less tap water and unsafe ice consumption by established students in January compared to the habits of newly arrived students in January or August when risky behavior was otherwise similar among these groups. The role of tap water and unsafe ice in the acquisition of wintertime diarrhea is further supported by the relatively high 29% rate of diarrhea among U.S. medical students newly arrived in January, who also consumed more tap water and ice than established students in January. Enterotoxigenic E. coli disease was observed only during the summer months; whereas, Campylobacter jejuni disease and disease associated with no detected pathogen were more common in winter. Conclusions: These data imply that wintertime diarrhea in Guadalajara is more likely than summertime diarrhea to be waterborne and to be caused by agents such as viruses or

  12. Exploring experiences of the food environment among immigrants living in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Paulina I; Dean, Jennifer; Kirkpatrick, Sharon; Berbary, Lisbeth; Scott, Steffanie

    2016-06-09

    This exploratory study aimed to shed light on the role of the food environment in shaping food access among immigrants living in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario. In this qualitative case study, in-depth interviews aided by photovoice were conducted with nine immigrants, and key informant (KI) interviews were conducted with nine community stakeholders (e.g., settlement workers, planners) who held expert knowledge of the local context with respect to both the food system and experiences of immigrants in interacting with this system. In this paper, we focus specifically on insights related to the food environment, applying the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity Framework to assess economic, physical, socio-cultural and political aspects. Economic features of the food environment, including food prices and differential costs of different types of food, emerged as factors related to food access. However, interactions with the food environment were shaped by broader economic factors, such as limited employment opportunities and low income. Most immigrants felt that they had good geographic access to food, though KIs expressed concerns about the types of outlet and food that were most accessible. Immigrants discussed social networks and cultural food practices, whereas KIs discussed political issues related to supporting food security in the Region. This exploratory case study is consistent with prior research in highlighting the economic constraints within which food access exists but suggests that there may be a need to further dissect food environments.

  13. The Spillover of US Immigration Policy on Citizens and Permanent Residents of Mexican Descent: How Internalizing ‘Illegality’ Impacts Public Health in the Borderlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha eSabo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The militarization of the U.S.-Mexico border region exacerbates the process of ‘Othering’ Latino immigrants—as illegal aliens. The internalization of ‘illegality’ can manifest as a sense of undeservingness of legal protection in the population and be detrimental on a biopsychological level. Objective: We explore the impacts of ‘illegality’ among a population of US citizen and permanent resident farmworkers of Mexican descent. We do so through the lens of immigration enforcement-related stress and the ability to file formal complaints of discrimination and mistreatment perpetrated by local immigration enforcement agents, including local police authorized to enforce immigration law. Methods: Drawing from cross-sectional data gathered through the National Institute of Occupation Safety and Health, Challenges to Farmworker Health at the US-Mexico Border study, a community-based participatory research project conducted at the Arizona-Sonora border, we compared Arizona resident farmworkers (N=349 to Mexico-based farmworkers (N=140 or Transnational farmworkers who cross the US-Mexico border daily or weekly to work in US agriculture. Results: Both samples of farmworkers experience significant levels of stress in anticipation of encounters with immigration officials. Fear was cited as the greatest factor preventing individuals from reporting immigration abuses. The groups varied slightly in the relative weight attributed to different types of fear. Conclusion: The militarization of the border has consequences for individuals who are not the target of immigration enforcement. These spillover effects cause harm to farmworkers in multiple ways. Multi institutional and community-centered systems for reporting immigration related victimization is required. Applied participatory research with affected communities can mitigate the public health effects of state-sponsored immigration discrimination and violence among US citizen and

  14. Importance of Content and Format of Oral Health Instruction to Low-income Mexican Immigrant Parents: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Corissa P; Barker, Judith C; Hoeft, Kristin S; Guerra, Claudia; Chung, Lisa H; Burke, Nancy J

    2018-01-01

    This study's purpose was to explore how content and format of children's oral health instruction in the dental clinic is perceived by parents and might affect parents' knowledge and behaviors. Thirty low-income Mexican immigrant parents of children age five years and under were recruited from dental clinics in 2015 to 2016. In-person qualitative interviews in Spanish about their children's and their own experiences of dental care and home oral hygiene practices were conducted, digitally recorded, translated, and transcribed. Data analysis involved iteratively reading text data and developing and refining codes to find common themes. Twenty-five of 30 parents recalled receiving oral hygiene instruction, and 18 recalled receiving nutrition instruction and were included in analyses. The format and effectiveness of instruction varied. More engaging educational approaches were recalled and described in more detail than less engaging educational approaches. As a result of oral hygiene and nutritional instruction, most parents reported changing their oral hygiene home behaviors for their children; half aimed to reduce purchasing sugary foods and drinks. Most parents recalled receiving oral hygiene and nutrition instruction as part of their child's dental visit and reported incorporating the instruction and recommendations they received into their children's home routine.

  15. Self-perceived health among Eastern European immigrants over 50 living in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanari, D; Bussini, O; Minelli, L

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines whether Eastern European immigrants aged 50 and over living in Northern and Western Europe face a health disadvantage in terms of self-perceived health, with respect to the native-born. We also examined health changes over time (2004-2006-2010) through the probabilities of transition among self-perceived health states, and how they vary according to nativity status and age group. Data were obtained from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Logistic regressions and probabilities of transition were used. Results emphasise the health disadvantage of Eastern European immigrants living in Germany, France and  Sweden with respect to the native-born, even after controlling for socio-economic status. Probabilities of transition also evidenced that people born in Eastern Europe were more likely to experience worsening health and less likely to recover from sickness. This paper suggests that health inequalities do not affect immigrant groups in equal measure and confirm the poorer and more steeply deteriorating health status of Eastern European immigrants.

  16. Differences in Attitudes Toward Living Kidney Donation Among Dominican Immigrants Living in Spain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; López-Navas, A I; Sánchez, Á; Flores-Medina, J; Ayala, M A; Garrido, G; Sebastián, M J; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ramis, G; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    The Dominican population has a double-emigration pathway: one is to the USA, by proximity, and the other is to Spain, by sociocultural identification. Our aim was to determine attitudes toward living organ donation among Dominicans residing in Florida (USA) and Spain. All study participants were at least 15 years old and living in either Florida (USA) or Spain, and stratified by gender and age. A questionnaire on attitudes toward living kidney donation ("PCID-LKD Ríos") was used. The support of immigrant associations in Florida and Spain was required to advise on survey locations. Data obtained were anonymized and self-administered. The study questionnaire was completed by 123 Dominicans, 68% of whom were in favor of living related kidney donation. There were differences (P = .004) according to the country of residence. Eighty-one percent of Spain's Dominican residents were in favor, compared with 56% of Florida's residents. Factors associated with attitude toward donation were level of education (P donation (P = .006), attitude toward cadaveric organ donation (P donation (P = .046). Attitudes toward living kidney donation among immigrant Dominicans varies between Spain and the USA, with the former showing a more positive view. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Korean immigrant women's lived experience of childbirth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin Young; Kim, Wooksoo; Dickerson, Suzanne S

    2014-01-01

    To understand Korean immigrant women's common experiences and practices of utilizing health care services in the United States during childbirth. A qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design. Recruitment was conducted through advertisement on the MissyUSA.com website, which is the largest online community for married Korean women who live in North America. A purposive sample of 15 Korean immigrant women who experienced childbirth in the United States within the past 5 years was recruited. Data were collected using semistructured telephone interviews and were analyzed using the Heideggerian hermeneutical methodology. During childbirth in the United States, participants faced multifaceted barriers in unfamiliar sociocultural contexts yet maintained their own cultural heritages. They navigated the unfamiliar health care system and developed their own strategies to overcome barriers to health care access. Korean immigrant women actively sought health information on the Internet and through social networking during childbirth. Korean immigrant women selectively accepted new cultural beliefs with some modifications from their own cultural contexts and developed their own distinct birth cultures. Understanding a particular culture and respecting women's traditions, beliefs, and practices about their childbirth could help nurses to provide culturally sensitive care. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  18. Nigerian Immigrant Population in Spain Is Little Sensitized to Living-Related Kidney Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; Carrillo, J; López-Navas, A I; Ayala, M A; Garrido, G; Sebastián, M J; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ramis, G; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    The Nigerian population is an emerging group in Spain and in Europe, but their sensitization toward living kidney donation has not been studied. The aim of this work was to analyze the attitude toward related renal donation while alive among the population born in Nigeria resident in Spain. A population older than 15 years born in Nigeria and resident in Spain, stratified by age and sex, was studied with the use of the attitude questionnaire about living kidney donation, "PCID-DVR-Ríos." People were randomly selected based on stratification. African immigration support associations advised on the location of potential respondents. Completion of the questionnaire was anonymous and self-administered. Verbal consent was requested to assist in the study. Statistical methods included Student t test, χ 2 , Fisher exact test, and logistic regression analysis. A total of 179 respondents were included in the study: 70% (n = 125) were in favor of living-related kidney donation, and 30% (n = 54) remained against or undecided. This attitude was associated with different psychosocial factors: marital status (P = .001), having offspring (P = .029), risk assessment of live donation (P donation (P donation and/or transplantation (P donation (P donation and/or transplantation (odds ratio, 8.064) persisted as the main related factor. The Nigerian immigrant population in Spain has a less favorable attitude toward living kidney donation than the native western European and Spanish population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of maquiladora employment on the monthly flow of Mexican undocumented immigration to the U.S., 1978-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, A; Saenz, R

    1990-01-01

    "Some controversy has surrounded the extent to which employment in maquiladoras (assembly plants located along the Mexican border) has stimulated undocumented immigration to the United States. This study uses monthly data of maquiladora employment and INS [Immigration and Naturalization Service] apprehensions in a 'push-pull' migration framework to study the association between these two variables during the April 1978 to January 1982 period. The findings suggest that there is a significantly negative relationship between the one month lag of maquiladora employment and INS apprehensions. Employment growth in the maquiladora sector tends to be followed by a reduction of apprehensions one month later. The study also finds that male and female apprehensions appear to respond to relatively similar economic factors." excerpt

  20. TRADITIONAL WOMEN’S APPARELS OF BULGARIA N IMMIGRANTS LIVING IN ESKİŞEHİR

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    Başak BOĞDAY SAYĞILI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of culture, clothing is a phenomenon which develops with humanity, which is specific to communities, being shap ed according to the ir taste, and reflecting the community’s living conditions and li fe styles . T he Turks who e migrated changed their clothing to adapt to the geo graphical and physical features as well as the living conditions at the places they migrated to, and through being influenced by the people in their region. Bulgaria is one of the countries to which great e migrations from the Ottoman empire took place. Having lived together for many years, the Turks and the Bulgarians were influenced by each other in clothing culture just as in every other field. These migrations , which took place intensively from time to time , are still co ntinuing. This research aims to reveal the traditional women’s apparels of immigrants from Bulgaria living in Eskişehir and the characteristics of their apparel . Historical and review methods were used in the research. From the sources reached using the survey form prepared as data collection tool, apparels reflecting general characteristics of the traditional women’s apparels of the immigrants from Bulgaria livi ng in Eskişehir were examined.

  1. Between Mexico and New York City: Mexican Maternal Migration's Influences on Separated Siblings' Social and Educational Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    There are negative consequences for children and youth when a primary caregiver leaves to migrate. However there are unforeseen experiences related to schooling. I compare how Mexican maternal migration has influenced the education experiences of the children left behind in Mexico and their siblings living in the United States. These microcontexts…

  2. An Exploration of Smoking Behavior of African Male Immigrants Living in Glasgow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezika, Ejiofor Augustine

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this research study was to explore the smoking behavior of adult African male immigrant smokers living in Glasgow to inform and contribute to primary health promotion frameworks. METHODS 25 adult African male immigrant smokers living in Glasgow were recruited via consecutive sampling by soliciting for participation through the use of flyers, posters and word of mouth. Data collection occurred via semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The interviews were audio taped, after which verbatim transcription was carried out and the data analyzed thematically. RESULTS The participants’ smoking habits were influenced by cold weather environment as well as societal norms that appear to make the smoking habit more acceptable in Glasgow than Africa. It appears the more educated the participants were, the fewer cigarettes they smoked. However, there was only a slight difference in the number of cigarettes smoked between participants with a degree and those with a postgraduate degree. CONCLUSION The participants’ smoking habits in Glasgow appear to have increased because of environmental variables associated with living in Glasgow, specifically the cold weather environment and high acceptability of smoking habits in Glasgow. PMID:25741179

  3. Living conditions and access to health services by Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio Silveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bolivian immigrants in Brazil experience serious social problems: precarious work conditions, lack of documents and insufficient access to health services. The study aimed to investigate inequalities in living conditions and access to health services among Bolivian immigrants living in the central area of São Paulo, Brazil, using a cross-sectional design and semi-structured interviews with 183 adults. According to the data, the immigrants tend to remain in Brazil, thus resulting in an aging process in the group. Per capita income increases the longer the immigrants stay in the country. The majority have secondary schooling. Work status does not vary according to time since arrival in Brazil. The immigrants work and live in garment sweatshops and speak their original languages. Social networks are based on ties with family and friends. Access to health services shows increasing inclusion in primary care. The authors conclude that the immigrants' social exclusion is decreasing due to greater access to documentation, work (although precarious, and the supply of health services from the public primary care system.

  4. Living conditions and access to health services by Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Cássio; Carneiro Junior, Nivaldo; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos Sampaio de Almeida; Barata, Rita de Cássia Barradas

    2013-10-01

    Bolivian immigrants in Brazil experience serious social problems: precarious work conditions, lack of documents and insufficient access to health services. The study aimed to investigate inequalities in living conditions and access to health services among Bolivian immigrants living in the central area of São Paulo, Brazil, using a cross-sectional design and semi-structured interviews with 183 adults. According to the data, the immigrants tend to remain in Brazil, thus resulting in an aging process in the group. Per capita income increases the longer the immigrants stay in the country. The majority have secondary schooling. Work status does not vary according to time since arrival in Brazil. The immigrants work and live in garment sweatshops and speak their original languages. Social networks are based on ties with family and friends. Access to health services shows increasing inclusion in primary care. The authors conclude that the immigrants' social exclusion is decreasing due to greater access to documentation, work (although precarious), and the supply of health services from the public primary care system.

  5. Another Mexican birthweight paradox? The role of residential enclaves and neighborhood poverty in the birthweight of Mexican-origin infants.

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    Osypuk, Theresa L; Bates, Lisa M; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores

    2010-02-01

    Examining whether contextual factors influence the birth outcomes of Mexican-origin infants in the US may contribute to assessing rival explanations for the so-called Mexican health paradox. We examined whether birthweight among infants born to Mexican-origin women in the US was associated with Mexican residential enclaves and exposure to neighborhood poverty, and whether these associations were modified by nativity (i.e. mother's place of birth). We calculated metropolitan indices of neighborhood exposure to Mexican-origin population and poverty for the Mexican-origin population, and merged with individual-level, year 2000 natality data (n=490,332). We distinguished between neighborhood exposure to US-born Mexican-origin population (i.e. ethnic enclaves) and neighborhood exposure to foreign-born (i.e. Mexico-born) Mexican-origin population (i.e. immigrant enclaves). We used 2-level hierarchical linear regression models adjusting for individual, metropolitan, and regional covariates and stratified by nativity. We found that living in metropolitan areas with high residential segregation of US-born Mexican-origin residents (i.e. high prevalence of ethnic enclaves) was associated with lower birthweight for infants of US-born Mexican-origin mothers before and after covariate adjustment. When simultaneously adjusting for exposure to ethnic and immigrant enclaves, the latter became positively associated with birthweight and the negative effect of the former increased, among US-born mothers. We found no contextual birthweight associations for mothers born in Mexico in adjusted models. Our findings highlight a differential effect of context by nativity, and the potential health effects of ethnic enclaves, which are possibly a marker of downward assimilation, among US-born Mexican-origin women. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Addressing cultural orientations in fear appeals: promoting AIDS-protective behaviors among Mexican immigrant and African American adolescents and American and Taiwanese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Johnson, L; Witte, K; Liu, W Y; Hubbell, A P; Sampson, J; Morrison, K

    2001-01-01

    Fear appeals threatening the individual have been shown to be powerful persuasive devices in the cultures where they have been studied. However, most fear appeal research has been conducted with members of individualist cultures. Individualist cultures place self-needs above group concerns, while collectivist cultures place group needs above self-concerns. Little is known about the effectiveness of fear appeals (or other persuasive strategies) in collectivist cultures. Two studies assessed the effectiveness of AIDS-prevention fear appeals threatening the self versus fear appeals threatening the group (i.e., family) on members of individualist and collectivist cultures. The first study focuses on African American and Mexican immigrant junior high school youth. The second study focuses on U.S. and Taiwanese college undergraduates. The results indicated that fear appeals should address cultural orientation (i.e., individualist versus collectivist orientation) to achieve maximum effectiveness. The results also indicate that one cannot assume cultural orientation based on ethnicity.

  7. Culture and sun exposure in immigrant East Asian women living in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Haeyoung; Koo, Fung Kuen; Ke, Liang; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Fraser, David R; Seibel, Marcus J; Tseng, Marilyn; Mpofu, Elias; Mason, Rebecca S; Brock, Kaye

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, researchers examined cultural and attitudinal factors that might be related to sun-exposure behaviors among East Asian women living in Australia. Researchers asked Chinese (n = 20) and Korean (n = 16) immigrant women who participated in a larger cross-sectional quantitative study of vitamin D blood levels to volunteer to participate in an in-depth interview in 2010. These women reported a number of cultural factors related to their attitudes and behaviors with regard to sun exposure. They expressed preference for fair skin, a tradition of covering skin when outdoors, and no sunbathing culture. They believed that fair skin was more beautiful than tanned skin. They reported that beauty was the reason for active avoidance of sunlight exposure. Although they reported knowledge of the need for sun avoidance due to skin cancer risk, few reported knowledge about the benefits of sun exposure for adequate vitamin D levels. These findings may provide some reasons for vitamin D deficiency previously reported in these populations. Thus, researchers recommend that these attitudes of excessive sun protection and limiting sun exposure be further investigated as they may have implications for planning and delivery of health promotion programs to this growing population of immigrants in Australia.

  8. Duration of US residence is associated with overweight risk in Filipino immigrants living in NY metro area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afable, Aimee; Ursua, Rhodora; Wyatt, Laura C.; Aguilar, David; Kwon, Simona C.; Islam, Nadia S.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between years living in the US and overweight risk among a community sample of Filipino adult immigrants living in the New York (NY) metropolitan area. We found a significant and adverse association between years living in the US and overweight risk. Compared to Filipinos who lived in the US less than 5 years, those who lived in the US 10 years or longer had a higher overweight risk; this association was only present among Filipinos who migrated to NY metropolitan area at 30 years or younger. Studies on causal mechanisms explaining this pattern are needed. PMID:26605951

  9. Tracking Students through Life: A Critical Structural Analysis of Academic Tracking of Mexican Immigrant Students in the United States and Korean Immigrant Students in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Kathryn; Dymes, Laurie; Wiggan, Greg

    2017-01-01

    Students in the United States and Japan from high and middle socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds are afforded greater academic opportunities due to the systemic presence of hegemony in public schools (Darvin and Norton in "J Lang Identity Educ" 13(2):111-117, 2014). Minority and immigrant students, the majority coming from low SES, are more…

  10. Between Three Worlds: Host, Homeland, and Global Media in the Lives of Russian Immigrant Families in Israel and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Nelly; Lemish, Dafna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated various roles played by host, homeland, and global media in the lives of immigrant families from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS, former USSR) to Israel and Germany, as well as the place of different media in family conflicts, consolidation, and parenting strategies. The study was based on focus group interviews…

  11. ``How am I going to work?'' Barriers to employment for immigrant Latinos and Latinas living with HIV in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Angel

    2015-06-05

    For individuals with HIV positive status, multiple barriers exist to accessing and re-entering employment. Studies on employment for people living with HIV lack a detailed consideration of race and ethnicity. This is the first article that focuses on barriers to employment for the HIV positive Latino community in the Canadian context. To document the barriers that a sample of HIV positive Latinos and Latinas encounter in finding and maintaining employment in Toronto. A non-probability sample of immigrant and refugee Latino men and women living with HIV/AIDS in Toronto participated in in-depth interviews concerning their experiences in the labor market, emphasizing the barriers that they have faced in access to employment. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and later analysed with NVivo 9. Two sets of barriers emerged from the analysis: structural barriers that immigrants encounter in access to employment, such as language difficulties, lack of Canadian work experience and anti-immigrant feelings and barriers to employment for HIV positive individuals, principally HIV related stigma and health related issues. Due to their intersectional identities as immigrants/refugees and HIV positive individuals, participants face compounded barriers to employment: Language difficulties, lack of migrant status and Canadian work experience, anti-immigrant sentiments in the labor market, ageism, HIV related stigma and side effects of medications among other barriers related with an HIV positive condition. Such barriers locate participants in a marginalized position in Canadian society.

  12. The Lived Experiences of Bulgarian Immigrants in the Chicagoland Area: Their Perceptions of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Iva Ventzislavova

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Bulgarian immigrants' narratives with respect to their perceptions of immigrant work challenges; learning at work; work or occupational preferences; immigrant careers, including job transitions and professional development; strategies with respect to work; support at work; satisfaction gained from work; and…

  13. Lived Experiences of Diversity Visa Lottery Immigrants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, Tekleab Elos; Mendoza, Bernadette M.; Lahman, Maria K. E.; Richard, Veronica M.

    2012-01-01

    Every year approximately 50,000 people immigrate to the United States through the avenue referred to as the Diversity Visa (DV) Lottery. In this article, the authors present a literature review of immigration to the U.S. through the DV Lottery, reflect on their own immigration histories, and utilize phenomenology to investigate and describe…

  14. Age at Immigration and Substance Use and Problems Among Males and Females at the U.S.-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Li, Libo; Borges, Guilherme; Zemore, Sarah

    2017-11-01

    Although substance use and problems among Mexican Americans are associated with both immigration to the United States and living at the U.S.-Mexico border, little is known about relationships between age at immigration and substance use by gender within the border context. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association of age at immigration with heavy alcohol use, alcohol use disorders (AUD), and drug use among Mexicans Americans living both on and off the U.S.-Mexico border. Household surveys were conducted, using area probability sampling of 2,336 Mexican Americans (1,185 female), ages 18-65, living at the Texas-Mexico border in the metropolitan areas of Laredo and McAllen/Brownsville, and in the nonborder location of San Antonio. Females immigrating before age 12 were less likely to report heavy alcohol use (odds ratio [OR] = 0.309), and those immigrating before age 21 were less likely to report any drug use during the last year compared with their U.S.-born counterparts (OR = 0.473; OR = 0.386, respectively). Males immigrating after age 20 were less likely to report heavy alcohol use (OR = 0.478), and those immigrating between ages 12 and 20 were less likely to report AUD (OR = 0.479) and drug use (OR = 0.255) compared with their U.S.-born counterparts. Early age at immigration (before age 12) was significantly associated with drug use for males living on the border compared with those living off the border. Findings suggest that among females, immigrating before age 12 (vs. being born in the United States) is protective against heavy alcohol and drug use, but among males, immigrating before age 12 results in similarly heavy patterns of use as their U.S.-born counterparts, partially supporting previous findings that early immigration is particularly risky in relation to substance use and AUD.

  15. Cultural Production of a Decolonial Imaginary for a Young Chicana: Lessons from Mexican Immigrant Working-Class Woman's Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Rosario; Moreno, Melissa; Zintsmaster, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Chicanas and Mexican women share a history of colonialism that has (a) sustained oppressive constructions of gender roles and sexuality, (b) produced and reproduced them as racially inferior and as able to be silenced, conquered, and dominated physically and mentally, and (c) contributed to the exploitation of their labor. Given that colonialism…

  16. Western environment/lifestyle is associated with increased genome methylation and decreased gene expression in Chinese immigrants living in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guicheng; Wang, Kui; Schultz, Ennee; Khoo, Siew-Kim; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Annamalay, Alicia; Laing, Ingrid A; Hales, Belinda J; Goldblatt, Jack; Le Souëf, Peter N

    2016-01-01

    Several human diseases and conditions are disproportionally distributed in the world with a significant "Western-developed" vs. "Eastern-developing" gradient. We compared genome-wide DNA methylation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 25 newly arrived Chinese immigrants living in a Western environment for less than 6 months ("Newly arrived") with 23 Chinese immigrants living in the Western environment for more than two years ("Long-term") with a mean of 8.7 years, using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In a sub-group of both subject groups (n = 12 each) we also investigated genome-wide gene expression using a Human HT-12 v4 expression beadChip. There were 62.5% probes among the total number of 382,250 valid CpG sites with greater mean Beta (β) in "Long-term" than in "Newly arrived". In the regions of CpG islands and gene promoters, compared with the CpG sites in all other regions, lower percentages of CpG sites with mean methylation levels in "Long-term" greater than "Newly arrived" were observed, but still >50%. The increase of methylation was associated with a general decrease of gene expression in Chinese immigrants living in the Western environment for a longer period of time. After adjusting for age, gender and other confounding factors the findings remained. Chinese immigrants living in Australia for a longer period of time have increased overall genome methylation and decreased overall gene expression compared with newly arrived immigrants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Neighbourhood immigration, health care utilization and outcomes in patients with diabetes living in the Montreal metropolitan area (Canada): a population health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasse, Alain; Courteau, Josiane; Orzanco, Maria Gabriela; Bergeron, Patrick; Cohen, Alan A; Niyonsenga, Théophile

    2015-04-09

    Understanding health care utilization by neighbourhood is essential for optimal allocation of resources, but links between neighbourhood immigration and health have rarely been explored. Our objective was to understand how immigrant composition of neighbourhoods relates to health outcomes and health care utilization of individuals living with diabetes. This is a secondary analysis of administrative data using a retrospective cohort of 111,556 patients living with diabetes without previous cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and living in the metropolitan region of Montreal (Canada). A score for immigration was calculated at the neighbourhood level using a principal component analysis with six neighbourhood-level variables (% of people with maternal language other than French or English, % of people who do not speak French or English, % of immigrants with different times since immigration (immigration scores, those living in neighbourhoods with high immigration scores were less likely to die, to suffer a CVD event, to frequently visit general practitioners, but more likely to visit emergency departments or a specialist and to use an antidiabetic drug. These differences remained after controlling for patient-level variables such as age, sex, and comorbidities, as well as for neighbourhood attributes like material and social deprivation or living in the urban core. In this study, patients with diabetes living in neighbourhoods with high immigration scores had different health outcomes and health care utilizations compared to those living in neighbourhoods with low immigration scores. Although we cannot disentangle the individual versus the area-based effect of immigration, these results may have an important impact for health care planning.

  18. Socioeconomic Status, Ethnicity, Culture, and Immigration: Examining the Potential Mechanisms Underlying Mexican-Origin Adolescents' Organized Activity Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Sandra D.; Delgado, Melissa Y.; Price, Chara D.; Quach, Alex; Starbuck, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The integrative model for child development and ecodevelopmental theory suggest that macro factors, such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration influence the settings in which adolescents engage. The goal of this investigation was to use a combination of deductive and inductive qualitative analysis to describe the mechanisms…

  19. Risk factors for non-adherence to cART in immigrants with HIV living in the Netherlands: Results from the Rotterdam ADherence (ROAD) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K. Been; D.A.M.C. van de Vijver (David); P.T. Nieuwkerk (Pythia); Brito, I. (Inês); J. Stutterheim (Janine); A.E.R. Bos (Arjan); M.E.G. Wolfers (Mireille); K. Pogány (Katalin); A. Verbon (Annelies)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn the Netherlands, immigrant people living with HIV (PLWH) have poorer psychological and treatment outcomes than Dutch PLWH. This cross-sectional field study examined risk factors for non-adherence to combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) among immigrant PLWH. First and second

  20. Risk Factors for Non-Adherence to cART in Immigrants with HIV Living in the Netherlands: Results from the ROtterdam ADherence (ROAD) Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, Sabrina K.; van de Vijver, David A. M. C.; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.; Brito, Inês; Stutterheim, Sarah E.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; Wolfers, Mireille E. G.; Pogány, Katalin; Verbon, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, immigrant people living with HIV (PLWH) have poorer psychological and treatment outcomes than Dutch PLWH. This cross-sectional field study examined risk factors for non-adherence to combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) among immigrant PLWH. First and second generation

  1. New-old discourses on immigration and its lived experience reflect of racism, xenophobia and xenophile in nowadays immigrant Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Ángeles Cea D’Ancona

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we deal with the first results of the qualitative phase of the MEXEES 3 Project that aims at the improvement of xenophobia measurement via survey. The more comprehensive research has been oriented by four specific objectives: 1. To develop more efficient indicators for registering the forms of xenophobia (and xenophile; 2. To analyze the factors affecting its manifestation or concealment; 3. To inquire about the main experiential axes of today’s xenophobic discourse and its correspondence with theoretical knowledge, 4. To test which survey design favors the declaration of xenophobic attitudes or attitudes against immigration. Although the qualitative study has provided some relevant materials for the first three objectives, here we focus mainly on the third. Together with the reflection over our methodological design and implementation, we highlight some of the concrete experiences of xenophobia and xenophile that arose whilst qualitatively interviewing natives and foreigners. Both the prevalence and actualization of the dimensions underlined in the literature are detected (the one of national-cultural identity, the one of competence for limited resources, and the one related with citizen security; to these is added the emergence of some variants related to the pre sent context of high immigration visibility in Spain, in daily life, in political discourses and the media

  2. Acculturation Strategies Among South Asian Immigrants: The Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Belinda L; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Bagchi, Pramita; Kim, Catherine; Mukherjea, Arnab; Kandula, Namratha R; Kanaya, Alka M

    2017-04-01

    In the past, epidemiologic research on acculturation and health has been criticized for its conceptual ambiguity and simplistic measurement approaches. This study applied a widely-used theoretical framework from cross-cultural psychology to identify acculturation strategies among South Asian immigrants in the US and to examine sociodemographic correlates of acculturation strategies. Data were from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study. We used latent class analysis to identify groups of individuals that were similar based on cultural attitudes and behaviors. We used latent class regression analysis to examine sociodemographic correlates of acculturation strategies. We found that South Asian immigrants employed three acculturation strategies, including separation (characterized by a relatively high degree of preference for South Asian culture over US culture), assimilation (characterized by a relatively high degree of preference for US culture over South Asian culture), and integration (characterized by a similar level of preference for South Asian and US cultures). Respondents with no religious affiliation, those with higher levels of income, those who lived a greater percentage of their lives in the US, and those who spoke English well or very well were less likely to use the separation strategy than the assimilation or integration strategies. Using epidemiologic cohort data, this study illustrated a conceptual and methodological approach that addresses limitations of previous research on acculturation and health. More work is needed to understand how the acculturation strategies identified in this study affect the health of South Asian immigrants in the US.

  3. Family Cohesion in the Lives of Mexican American and European American Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, Andrew O.; MacDermid, Shelley M.; Coltrane, Scott L.; Parke, Ross D.; Duffy, Sharon; Widaman, Keith F.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated similarities and differences in relations between stress and parenting behaviors for 509 Mexican American and European American fathers and mothers in Southern California. Our model posited that family cohesion mediates the relation between stressors and parenting behavior, and we found that family cohesion strongly…

  4. The relationship between acculturation factors and symptoms of depression: a cross-sectional study with immigrants living in Athens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Korakakis, Panagiotis; Ploumpidis, Dimitris; Karapavlou, Dafni-Alexandra; Rogakou, Efi; Madianos, Michael G

    2011-09-01

    The process of acculturation observed in immigrants is part of an adjustment to the values and norms of a new society, and possibly the loss of norms of the society of origin. Acculturation has been linked to stress-related psychological disorders such as depression. The present study investigates the relationship between three acculturation domains (everyday life behaviors, wishful orientation/nostos, and ethnic identity) and symptoms of depression in a sample of foreign immigrants living in Athens, Greece. The sample consisted of 317 immigrants who visited two non-governmental organization polyclinics. All participants were interviewed using the Immigrant Acculturation Scale (IAS) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The results showed that 133 (42%) out of the 317 interviewees were in a depressive state (CES-D > 15). The main finding was that high CES-D scores were related to low scores in the IAS Everyday Life and Wishful Orientation factors, while no relationship was found between depressive symptomatology and the IAS Identity factor. Short duration of stay in Greece, lack of steady job, and lack of residence permit were also related to high CES-D scores. In conclusion, adaptation to mainstream culture daily behaviors as well as the wish to integrate with individuals from the mainstream culture and settle permanently in the new country could be seen as part of an adaptive mechanism that protects the individual from experiencing depressive symptomatology.

  5. Mexican and Mexican-American children's funds of knowledge as interventions into deficit thinking: opportunities for praxis in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licona, Miguel M.

    2013-12-01

    In this case study, I use an ethnographic-style approach to understand the funds of knowledge of immigrant families living in colonias on both sides of the US/Mexico border. I focus on how these "knowledges" and concomitant experiences impact the ways we perceive and treat immigrant students who have all too often been viewed through deficit lenses that relegate them to the lowest expectations and outcomes in the classroom. I find that Mexican and Mexican-American families hold unusually sophisticated and relevant "knowledges" to mitigate their everyday lives. In this paper, I will refer to citizens of Mexico, whether they reside in Mexico or have crossed to the United States legally or without documentation for purposes of work, as Mexican. People who have crossed the border and are living in the US as legal residents or have gained citizenship are referred to as Mexican-Americans. They live a hybrid identity that is varied and dynamic, an issue that adds to the complexity of the content and contexts of this study. These families know and use these "knowledges" on a daily basis, yet they are not recognized by teachers in the US as a starting point to affirm and support immigrant children. Instead, immigrant children are relegated to the non-gifted and lower track classes where science is taught from an abstract and non-contextual and therefore less engaged basis. The approach I outline here, based on insights from my case study, can greatly improve teachers' abilities to prepare their curricula for diversity in science education and science literacy as well as for broad expectations for student success.

  6. Perceptions of Health among adolescents in Ethiopian immigrant families living in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merja Nikkonen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: From the developmental perspectives children acquire and widen their perceptions of health as they mature and grow up. The main purpose of this study was to describe health through the eyes of adolescents in immigrant Ethiopian families living in Finland.Methods: Ten boys and five girls participated. The adolescents’ ages ranged from 12 to17. Theme interviews were used in data collection. Snowball sampling technique was used. Consent was obtained from the adolescents and adolescents’ parents. Inductive content analysis technique was used to analyse the data.Results: Adolescents indicated that health is the wellbeing of all dimensions that make us intact and complete. Adolescents believed relaxation, physical activity, good hygiene, good social relationship, avoiding consumption of poison substances, green nature, hygienic environment and peace are health supportive elements. On the contrary adolescents said insufficient resting, violent behaviors, difficulty, irritation, being inactive physically, addiction to alcohol and smoking, eating fatty food, not respecting meal time and use of drugs are health damaging behaviors. Adolescents consumed soft drink and alcohol frequently ,were physical inactive, practiced unhealthy eating habits, felt lazy to go and grab food from food store, faced financial difficulty to pay for Gym and healthy food that threatened their health. Adolescents used sport, socialization, moderate alcohol intake, avoid eating unhealthy food and smoking as their strategies to enhance their health.Conclusions: Adolescents were able to identify unhealthy lifestyles and healthy lifestyles. However adolescents were engaged in healthy and unhealthy lifestyles simultaneously. Thus family, school, neighbours and health care workers should work together and vigilant in assessing and removing factors that prevent adolescents from adopting healthy lifestyles.

  7. Living Between Two Cultures : Intercultural communication of Chinese immigrants in Uppsala

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zhenggang

    2013-01-01

    The research has focused on Chinese immigrants in Uppsala and the purpose of the research is to find out how intercultural communication has influenced the beliefs of Chinese immigrants in Uppsala. The beliefs here refer to ideas about family, education, workplace, and the state with regard to Hofstede et al.’s dimensions of national cultures. The thesis will focus on two dimensions: power distance and masculinity versus femininity. Two main concepts that are used in the thesis are intercultu...

  8. Traumatic events, post-migration living difficulties and post-traumatic symptoms in first generation immigrants: a primary care study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Aragona

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To study potentially traumatic events (PTE, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, anxiety, depression, somatization and post-migration living difficulties (PMLD in primary care immigrants. DESIGN: Patients self-rated transculturally validated questionnaires. Those with and without PTSD were compared on all variables. The influence of the number of PTE and of PMLD on PTSD was measured. RESULTS: 391 patients completed the questionnaires. Prevalence of PTSD was 10.2%. PTE and PMLD were frequent in the whole sample but more common in PTSD subjects. Either the number of PTE and of PMLD significantly increased the likelihood to have a PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: PTE, PMLD, PTSD and related conditions (anxiety, depression and somatization are frequent among immigrants in primary care, and either PTE and PMLD significantly influence resulting psychopathology. The implications in clinical practice are discussed.

  9. Quality of life and coping strategies among immigrant women living with pain in Denmark: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaëlis, Camilla; Kristiansen, Maria; Norredam, Marie

    2015-07-10

    To examine quality of life and coping strategies among immigrant women living with chronic pain. Qualitative content analysis based on in-depth semistructured interviews. A clinic specifically targeting immigrants at a larger university hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark. Non-western female immigrant patients suffering from chronic pain (n=13). Experiences of the impact of chronic pain on quality of life. Chronic pain was perceived to have an extensive, adverse effect on all aspects of quality of life, including physical health, mental well-being and social relations. This included the ability to maintain activities of daily living and the ability to work. Chronic pain was further experienced as a cause of emotional distress, depression and altered personalities, which all had great consequences on women's social interactions, causing change and loss of social relations. A variety of coping strategies were used to cope with the pain, manage its consequences, and restore a level of health that would enable women to function and fulfil social roles. Many participants coped with the pain by altering everyday life, keeping daily activities to a minimum and taking pain-killing drugs, offering temporary relief. Seeking healthcare was another coping strategy used as an active means to assert agency and as a temporary distraction from pain. However, accessing healthcare also involved a risk of disagreement and disappointments. Chronic pain had a severe negative impact on quality of life and necessitated alterations in everyday life and active health-seeking strategies. Implications for practice imply a need for a more holistic approach to immigrant women with chronic pain, including a family-centred approach. Further research is needed to explore similarities or differences in and between populations with diverse ethnic, socioeconomic and psychosocial backgrounds, and to assess how ethnicity and culture might influence the experiences of chronic pain. Published by the BMJ

  10. Factors Associated with Depression Among Mexican Americans Living in U.S.-Mexico Border and Non-Border Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, Patrice A C; Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A

    2016-08-01

    Factors associated with CES-D depression among Mexican Americans living on and off the U.S.-Mexico border are examined. Data are from two studies of Mexican American adults. The Border Survey conducted face-to-face interviews in urban U.S.-Mexico border counties of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas (N = 1307). The non-border HABLAS survey conducted face-to-face interviews in Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, and Miami (N = 1288). Both surveys used a multistage cluster sample design with response rates of 67 and 76 %, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that border residence and higher perceived neighborhood collective efficacy were protective for depression among men. Among men, lower education, unemployment, increased weekly drinking, and poor health status were associated with depression. Among women, alcohol-related problems and poorer health status were also associated with depression. Further examinations of how neighborhood perceptions vary by gender and how these perceptions influence the likelihood of depression are warranted.

  11. Perceived social stress, pregnancy-related anxiety, depression and subjective social status among pregnant Mexican and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in subjective social status, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and pregnancy-related anxiety between pregnant Mexican American and Mexican immigrant women. Three hundred pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in South Texas were surveyed for pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and subjective social status. Pregnant Mexican immigrant women had higher levels of pregnancy-related anxiety and lower levels of depression and perceived social stress than pregnant Mexican American women. Change in these variables among Mexican immigrant women was relatively linear as time of residence in the United States increased. Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women had significantly different correlations between subjective social status, self-esteem and perceived social stress. Results indicate that subjective social status is an important psychosocial variable among pregnant Hispanic women. Results contribute to ongoing efforts to provide culturally responsive prenatal psychosocial support services.

  12. Labour-market marginalisation after mental disorders among young natives and immigrants living in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesson, Magnus; Tinghög, Petter; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Saboonchi, Fredrik; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2017-06-23

    The aim was to investigate the associations between mental disorders and three different measures of labour-market marginalisation, and differences between native Swedes and immigrants. The study comprised 1,753,544 individuals, aged 20-35 years, and resident in Sweden 2004. They were followed 2005-2011 with regard to disability pension, sickness absence (≥90 days) and unemployment (≥180 days). Immigrants were born in Western countries (Nordic countries, EU, Europe outside EU or North-America/Oceania), or in non-Western countries (Africa, Asia or South-America). Mental disorders were grouped into seven subgroups based on a record of in- or specialised outpatient health care 2001-2004. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed by Cox regression models with both fixed and time-dependent covariates and competing risks. We also performed stratified analyses with regard to labour-market attachment. Individuals with mental disorders had a seven times higher risk of disability pension, a two times higher risk of sickness absence, and a 20% higher risk of unemployment than individuals without mental disorders. Individuals with personality disorders and schizophrenia/non-affective psychoses had highest risk estimates for having disability pension and long-term sickness absence, while the risk estimates of long-term unemployment were similar among all subgroups of mental disorders. Among persons with mental disorders, native Swedes had higher risk estimates for disability pension (HR:6.6; 95%CI:6.4-6.8) than Western immigrants (4.8; 4.4-5.2) and non-Western immigrants (4.8; 4.4-5.1), slightly higher risk estimates for sickness absence (2.1;2.1-2.2) than Western (1.9;1.8-2.1), and non-Western (1.9;1.7-2.0) immigrants but lower risk estimates for unemployment (1.4;1.3-1.4) than Western (1.8;1.7-1.9) and non-Western immigrants (2.0;1.9-2.1). There were similar risk estimates among sub-regions within both Western and non-Western countries

  13. Immigration as a crisis tendency for HIV vulnerability among racialised women living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: an anti-oppressive lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kteily-Hawa, Roula N; Islam, Shazia; Loutfy, Mona

    2018-04-16

    South Asian immigrant women in Canada face unique structural barriers that influence their HIV vulnerability. Using an intersectional and anti-oppressive lens, we explored the role of immigration in bringing about changes in gender roles and the structure of gender relations and their effect on HIV risk among immigrant women as they experienced crisis tendencies in the face of hegemonic masculinity. Informed by Connell's theory of gender, the study entailed in-depth interviews with 12 self-identified South Asian immigrant women living in the Greater Toronto Area, in Ontario, Canada. A thematic analysis yielded four themes: power relations, emotional relations, gendered division of labour and social norms. Our findings revealed interdependencies between immigration and each of structural, individual and normative factors (the themes) as they pertain to crisis tendencies when patriarchy is disrupted. Given the rapid increase in global immigration, the connections between transnationalism and hegemony, and the established link between immigration and HIV, future research should extend this work to other immigrant communities.

  14. A study of acculturation in psychotic and non-psychotic immigrants living in Athens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonidakis, F; Lembesi, E; Kontaxakis, V P; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B J; Ploumpidis, D; Madianos, M; Papadimitriou, G N

    2013-03-01

    Acculturation is the phenomenon that results when a group with one culture comes into continuous contact with a host culture. To investigate the correlation between acculturation and psychotic symptomatology in a group of immigrants suffering from psychosis and to explore differences in demographic factors related with the acculturation process between individuals with and without psychosis. Sixty-five patients and 317 non-psychotic immigrants were interviewed using the Immigrant Acculturation Scale (IAS) and a structured questionnaire for demographic data. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) were also administered to all immigrants suffering from psychosis. Total IAS scores, as well as IAS everyday life scores, were positively correlated with GAF scores. IAS everyday life score in the patient group related with religion, marital status, gender and years in Greece, while in the non-psychosis group it was related with gender and years in Greece. IAS wishful orientation/nostos (the strong desire for one's homeland) related with religion in both groups. The IAS identity in the psychosis group did not show any significant relation with any of the variables, while in the non-patient group, it was related with marital status, gender and years in Greece. Age, duration of residence in Greece and higher adoption of Greek ethnic identity were the variables that differentiated the two groups of immigrants. Acculturation in immigrants suffering from psychosis could be seen as a process that does not correlate strongly with the severity of the symptomatology but is probably influenced by different set of factors.

  15. Immigration-related mental health disorders in refugees 5-18 years old living in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalın Sapmaz, Şermin; Uzel Tanrıverdi, Bengisu; Öztürk, Masum; Gözaçanlar, Özge; Yörük Ülker, Gülsüm; Özkan, Yekta

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed early-onset psychiatric disorders and factors related to these disorders in a group of refugee children after immigration due to war. This study was conducted between January 2016 and June 2016. Clinical interviews were conducted with 89 children and their families, and were performed by native speakers of Arabic and Persian who had been primarily educated in these languages and were living in Turkey. A strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) that had Arabic and Persian validity and reliability was applied to both children and their families. Independent variables for cases with and without a psychiatric disorder were analyzed using the χ 2 test for categorical variables, Student's t -test for those that were normally distributed, and Mann-Whitney U -test for data that were not normally distributed. Data that showed significant differences between groups who had a psychiatric disorder and on common effects in emerging psychiatric disorders were analyzed through binary logistic regression analysis. A total of 89 children and adolescents were interviewed within the scope of the study. The mean age of cases was 9.96±3.98 years, and 56.2% (n=50) were girls, while 43.8% (n=39) were boys. Among these children, 47 (52.8%) had come from Syria, 27 (30.3%) from Iraq, 14 (15.7%) from Afghanistan, and 1 (1.1%) from Iran. A psychiatric disorder was found in 44 (49.4%) of the children. A total of 26 children were diagnosed with anxiety disorders, 12 with depressive disorders, 8 with trauma and related disorders, 5 with elimination disorders, 4 with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and 3 with intellectual disabilities. It was determined that seeing a dead or injured person during war/emigration and the father's unemployment increased the risk of psychopathology. The OR was 7.077 (95% CI 1.722-29.087) for having seen a dead or injured individual and 4.51 (95% GA 1.668-12.199) for father's employment status. Within the context of war and

  16. The association between acculturation and health insurance coverage for immigrant children from socioeconomically disadvantaged regions of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2013-06-01

    Among immigrant children whose parents have historically had lower education, the study explored which immigrant children were most likely to have coverage based on maternal region of origin. The direct and indirect relationship of acculturation on immigrant children's coverage was also assessed. A subsample of US-born children with foreign-born mothers from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort was analyzed using multinomial logistic regressions (n = 1,686). Children whose mothers emigrated from the Caribbean or Indochina had greater odds of being insured compared to children whose mothers emigrated from Mexico. Moreover, Latin American children did not statistically differ from Mexican children in being uninsured. Maternal citizenship was positively associated with children's coverage; while living in a household with a mother who migrated as a child was negatively associated with private insurance. To increase immigrant children's coverage, Latin American and Mexican families may benefit from additional financial assistance, rather than cultural assistance.

  17. Post-migration living difficulties as a significant risk factor for PTSD in immigrants: a primary care study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimilano Aragona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: recent research shows that severe/very severe post-migration living difficulties (PMLD have a negative impact on the mental health and social integration of refugees and asylum seekers. This study focuses on the role of PMLD in primary care “ordinary” immigrants.

    Methods: 443 primary care immigrants were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire measuring the number and severity of pre-migratory potentially traumatic events (PTE, PMLD, and the current prevalence of a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The frequency of PMLD was assessed in the whole sample and compared in patients with and without PTSD. The effect of the number of PMLD on the risk of having a PTSD was studied by means of a regression analysis, adjusted by the number of PTE.

    Results: 391 patients completed the questionnaire and were enrolled into the study. The prevalence of PTSD was 10.2%. In the whole sample the most frequent PMLD were “no permission to work” (38.6% and “poverty” (34.5%. All PMLD (except “communication difficulties” were more frequent in patients with a PTSD. The number of PMLD significantly increased the likelihood to have a PTSD independently from PTE. Conclusions: severe/very severe post-migration living difficulties (PMLD increase significantly the risk of PTSD in primary care “ordinary” migrants. Our hypothesis is that they have a retraumatizing effect on individuals who are already vulnerable and with a low capacity to handle resettlement stress due to their previous traumatic history. The implications in clinical practice and for immigration policies are discussed.

  18. Immigration-related mental health disorders in refugees 5–18 years old living in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Sapmaz Ş

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Şermin Yalın Sapmaz,1 Bengisu Uzel Tanrıverdi,2 Masum Öztürk,1 Özge Gözaçanlar,1 Gülsüm Yörük Ülker,2 Yekta Özkan1 1Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2Department of Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey Purpose: This study assessed early-onset psychiatric disorders and factors related to these disorders in a group of refugee children after immigration due to war.Materials and methods: This study was conducted between January 2016 and June 2016. Clinical interviews were conducted with 89 children and their families, and were performed by native speakers of Arabic and Persian who had been primarily educated in these languages and were living in Turkey. A strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ that had Arabic and Persian validity and reliability was applied to both children and their families. Independent variables for cases with and without a psychiatric disorder were analyzed using the χ2 test for categorical variables, Student’s t-test for those that were normally distributed, and Mann–Whitney U-test for data that were not normally distributed. Data that showed significant differences between groups who had a psychiatric disorder and on common effects in emerging psychiatric disorders were analyzed through binary logistic regression analysis.Results: A total of 89 children and adolescents were interviewed within the scope of the study. The mean age of cases was 9.96±3.98 years, and 56.2% (n=50 were girls, while 43.8% (n=39 were boys. Among these children, 47 (52.8% had come from Syria, 27 (30.3% from Iraq, 14 (15.7% from Afghanistan, and 1 (1.1% from Iran. A psychiatric disorder was found in 44 (49.4% of the children. A total of 26 children were diagnosed with anxiety disorders, 12 with depressive disorders, 8 with trauma and related disorders, 5 with elimination disorders, 4 with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and 3 with intellectual disabilities. It was

  19. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration from Mexican children living in the southeastern region in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N; Martínez-Salinas, Rebeca I; Pruneda Alvarez, Lucia G; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco J

    2014-04-01

    Biomass combustion indoors has been associated with generation of various pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, respirable particles, toluene, benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), among others. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (as a biomarker exposure to PAHs) levels in children living in three states in Mexico. We evaluated children living in communities that use biomass fuels to cook and to heat homes in the next states: Chiapas, Oaxaca and Quintana Roo. We found similar levels of 1-OHP in urine of children living in the three studied states, with mean levels of 3.5 ± 1.0; 4.5 ± 2.8 and 4.4 ± 2.5 μg/L (geometric mean ± standard deviation), respectively for Chiapas, Oaxaca and Quintana Roo. In conclusion, our data indicate high exposure levels to PAHs in children living in the states studied in this work.

  20. Expectations of filial obligation and their impact on preferences for future living arrangements of middle-aged and older Asian Indian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Sadhna; Lee, Sang E; Sen, Soma

    2011-03-01

    Filial obligation, described as culturally-defined rights and duties that prescribe how family members are expected to care for and provide support to each other, is an important variable that influences older immigrants' preferences for living and care arrangements. This exploratory study examined variables associated with expectations of filial obligation among middle-aged and older, Asian Indian, first generation immigrants and explored the relationship between variations in expectations of filial obligation and expressed preferences for future living arrangements. Data were collected through telephone surveys of 226 English-speaking immigrants in Atlanta, GA. Although no significant relationships were observed between filial obligation expectations and length of residence in the U.S., respondents indicated a variety of preferred future living arrangements. Contrary to current living arrangement patterns found among older immigrants, very few respondents preferred to move in with their children. The most popular preference was to "move closer to children," followed by "moving to a retirement community" with the majority preferring a retirement community geared to Asian Indians. Other preferences included "not moving" and "returning to India." Variations in expectations of filial obligation, length of residence in the U.S., and self-rated health were significantly associated with these preferences. Implications are discussed for building capacity within ethnic communities to address living arrangement preferences and their repercussions for caregiving in ethnic families and in communities.

  1. Psychological well-being of older Chinese immigrants living in Australia: a comparison with older Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoping; Bryant, Christina; Boldero, Jennifer; Dow, Briony

    2016-10-01

    Few current studies explore psychological well-being among older Chinese immigrants in Australia. The study addressed this gap and provided preliminary data on psychological well-being among this group. Four indicators, namely depression, anxiety, loneliness, and quality of life, were used to present a comprehensive picture of psychological well-being. Participants were two groups of community-dwelling older people, specifically 59 Chinese immigrants and 60 Australian-born people (median age=77 and 73, respectively). Data were collected through standardized interviews. The Geriatric Depression Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the de Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale and the WHO Quality of Life questionnaire were used to measure depression, anxiety, loneliness, and quality of life, respectively. Chinese participants' median quality of life score was higher than the scale mid-point, indicating relatively high levels of quality of life. However, 10% exhibited symptoms of depression, 6% had symptoms of anxiety, and 49% felt lonely. Compared to Australian participants, Chinese participants reported poorer quality of life and higher levels of loneliness. Importantly, the difference in quality of life remained when the impact of socio-demographic factors was controlled for. This study was the first to use multiple indicators to explore psychological well-being among older Chinese immigrants in Australia. Its results suggest that their psychological well-being might be worse than that of Australian-born people when using loneliness and quality of life as indicators. In particular, loneliness is a common psychological problem among this group, and there is a need for public awareness of this problem.

  2. Family adaptability and cohesion in families consisting of Asian immigrant women living in South Korea: A 3-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Pyo; Kim, Sun; Joh, Ju-Youn

    2015-06-01

    South Korea's low birth rate, aging society, and female migration to urban areas due to industrialization have caused an accelerated inflow of Asian female immigrants into Korea to marry Korean men, especially in rural areas. This study was performed to determine how family function of multicultural families changes over time and what factors affect the changes in family function of multicultural families. The study subjects were 62 Asian immigrant women married to South Korean men living in South Korea. In a 1st wave study in August 2008, the socioeconomic factors and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale III (FACES III) scores were measured. A 3-year follow-up study was then conducted in August 2011, and the results were compared with the 1st wave study results. The mean family adaptability score was 24.6 in the 1st wave study and 26.1 at the 3-year follow-up. The average family cohesion score was 31.0 in the 1st wave study and 36.7 at the 3-year follow-up. There was a statistically significant increase in family cohesion after 3 years (P adaptability did not change over time; however, conversely, family cohesion increased. The age difference between husband and wife and the subjective SES had a positive association with the changes in family cohesion. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Intellectual function in Mexican children living in a mining area and environmentally exposed to manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Solís-Vivanco, Rodolfo; Schilmann, Astrid; Montes, Sergio; Rodríguez, Sandra; Ríos, Camilo; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Yaneth

    2010-10-01

    Excessive exposure to manganese (Mn), an essential trace element, has been shown to be neurotoxic, especially when inhaled. Few studies have examined potential effects of Mn on cognitive functions of environmentally exposed children. This study was intended to estimate environmental exposure to Mn resulting from mining and processing and to explore its association with intellectual function of school-age children. Children between 7 and 11 years of age from the Molango mining district in central Mexico (n = 79) and communities with similar socioeconomic conditions that were outside the mining district (n = 93) participated in the cross-sectional evaluation. The revised version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children adapted for the Mexican population was applied. Concentrations of Mn in blood (MnB) and hair (MnH) were used as biomarkers of exposure. Exposed children had significantly higher median values for MnH (12.6 μg/g) and MnB (9.5 μg/L) than did nonexposed children (0.6 μg/g and 8.0 μg/L, respectively). MnH was inversely associated with Verbal IQ [β = -0.29; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.51 to -0.08], Performance IQ (β = -0.08; 95% CI, -0.32 to 0.16), and Total Scale IQ (β = -0.20; 95% CI, -0.42 to 0.02). MnB was inversely but nonsignificantly associated with Total and Verbal IQ score. Age and sex significantly modified associations of MnH, with the strongest inverse associations in young girls and little evidence of associations in boys at any age. Associations with MnB did not appear to be modified by sex but appeared to be limited to younger study participants. The findings from this study suggest that airborne Mn environmental exposure is inversely associated with intellectual function in young school-age children.

  4. Assessment of the probability of introduction of bovine tuberculosis to Danish cattle farms via imports of live cattle from abroad and immigrant workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    obtained from data analysis, expert opinion, the questionnaire and literature were fed into three stochastic scenario tree models used to simulate the effect of import trade patterns, and contact between immigrant workers and cattle. We also investigated the opportunity of testing animals imported from OTF...... cattle herds. Data from 2000 to 2013 with date, number and origin of imported live cattle were obtained from the Danish Cattle Federation. Information on immigrants working in Danish cattle herds was obtained through a questionnaire sent by email to a sample of Danish cattle farmers (N = 460). Inputs...... of introducing M. bovis into the Danish cattle population by either imported live cattle or infectious immigrant workers, ranged from 0.3% (90% prediction interval (P.I.): 0.04%:1.4%) in 2001 to 4.9% (90% P.I.: 0.6%; 19.2%) in 2009. The median of the median PIntro estimates from the 14 years was 0.7% (median...

  5. Exploring the Lived Experiences and Intersectionalities of Mexican Community College Transfer Students: Qualitative Insights toward Expanding a Transfer Receptive Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Erin L.; Cortez, Edén

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the experiences of six Mexican community college transfer students attending a research-intensive institution in the Pacific Northwest. Using semi-structured interviews, the objectives of this study were to 1) understand how Mexican students made meaning of their transfer experiences and 2) how those experiences…

  6. Strangers in strange lands: a metasynthesis of lived experiences of immigrant asian nurses working in Western countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu

    2007-01-01

    Nurses from Asian countries make up the majority of immigrant nurses globally. Although there are a limited number of studies on the lived experiences of Asian nurses working in Western countries, the development of nursing science will be impeded if the rich understanding gleaned from these studies is not synthesized. Using Noblit and Hare's (Meta-ethnography: Synthesizing Qualitative Studies. Newbury Park, Calif: Sage; 1988) procedures, a metasynthesis was conducted on 14 studies that met preset selection criteria. Four overarching themes emerged: (a) communication as a daunting challenge; (b) differences in nursing practice; (c) marginalization, discrimination, and exploitation; and (d) cultural differences. Based on the metasynthesis, a large narrative and expanded interpretation was constructed and implications for nursing knowledge development, clinical practice, and policy making are elaborated.

  7. Electrocardiographic findings in Mexican chagasic subjects living in high and low endemic regions of Trypanosoma cruzi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Sosa-Jurado

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In México the first human chronic chagasic case was recognized in 1940. In spite of an increasing number of cases detected since that time, Chagas disease in México has been poorly documented. In the present work we studied 617 volunteers subjects living in high and low endemic regions of Trypanosoma cruzi infection with seroprevalence of 22% and 4% respectively. Hemoculture performed in those seropositive subjects failed to demonstrate circulating parasites, however polymerase chain reaction identified up to 60% of them as positives. A higher level of anti-T. cruzi antibodies was observed in seropositive residents in high endemic region, in spite of similar parasite persistence (p < 0.05. On standard 12 leads electrocardiogram (ECG 20% to 22% seropositive individuals from either region showed right bundle branch block or ventricular extrasystoles which were more prevalent in seropositive than in seronegative individuals (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the frequency or type of ECG abnormality was influenced by serologic status but not by endemicity or parasite persistence. Furthermore, Mexican indeterminate patients have a similar ECG pattern to those reported in South America.

  8. Mexican migrants experiences about emotions lived during their migration process, with alcohol and drugs consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Margarita Torres López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze migrant experiences in México and United States of America (USA about emotions lived during the migration process along with alcohol and drugs consumption. It was an ethnographic study with depth interviews, 19 in Mexico and 19 in USA. The analysis was phenomenological. The participants pointed out negative and depressive emotions, in connection with different consume patterns of alcohol and drugs, along the migration phases.

  9. Nuestras Escuelas: A Grounded Theory Study of the Barriers to Family Involvement in Special Education Faced by Undocumented Mexican Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Immigration has played an important role in the history of the United States of America. As a country founded by immigrants more than two hundred years ago, it continues to attract individuals from across the globe. People journey to the United States in search of political and economic freedom as well as opportunities that may have been…

  10. Explanations for inter-ethnic differences regarding immigrants' preferences for living in ‘ethnic enclaves’ or in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    In European countries there are large differences between the settlements patterns of different ethnic immigrant groups. One explanation is that different groups to a different extent have been successful immigrants. Differences regarding their social and cultural integration and their economic...... network they can rely on, so-called ethnic enclaves, or for preferences for living in so-called multi-ethnic neighbourhoods, where there are few Danes but many other ethnic groups. The results of the study thus supports that the American ‘spatial assimilation theory’ has some importance also in Europe...

  11. An exploration of reminiscence and post-war European immigrants living in a multicultural aged-care setting in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Cherie; Schmidt, Rachael

    2009-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores the experiences and perceptions of the telling of life stories of four post-war immigrants living in a multicultural residential aged-care setting in Australia. This study aims to shed light on what participants feel about life stories, and the prospect of involvement in the documentation of their life story in order to provide insight and understanding for optimum programme facilitation and better resident care.Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the four participants. Data were audiotaped and transcribed. Phenomenological methods were used to explicate data.Three main themes emerged: diminution of guilt, social sharing - common bonds and, the urge to 'feel' the past to 'fill' the present. It is apparent that aged survivors of war, and displacement to a new country, feel residual guilt regarding the leaving of their homeland. The prospect of documenting their life stories offers an opportunity to provide an explanation for their decision.Immersion in life stories allows the re-experiencing and sharing of past emotions and sensations. Engagement in occupational reminiscence enhances understanding a person's lived life experience, which adds meaning to one's life. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Dialects and standard language: the language education of the italians living in Italy, and contexts of immigration (1861-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Garcia de Freitas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the relationship existent between the standard Italian language, and the dialects used both in the language education of Italians living in Italy, and of Italians living in Brazil, to where they emigrated in search of better opportunities from the middle of the century XIX. This relationship is analyzed under the prism of different political and educational measures sanctioned by both countries, which somehow represent a subjective position on the language concept. Initially, the analysis was focused on how unstable such a relationship has been in Italy, varying from phases of great antagonism to phases of cooperation, since the dialects were used as a complementary tool in the teaching/learning process of the standard Italian language. Secondly, the analysis was focused on how this same relationship happened in the immigration context, particularly with regards to Brazil, where the Italian language and its dialects were mixed with Portuguese. Our conclusion offers an overview on the current stage, and the perspectives for the teaching of the Italian language both in Italy and in Brazil.

  13. Mexican Women, Migration and Sex Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Reynaldo; Dexter, Bryan

    1985-01-01

    Compares Mexican women involved in migration to understand how their sex roles and status have been affected. Uses data from two separate studies: ethnography on migrants' wives left at home in a Mexican village and a survey of unauthorized immigrants in the Los Angeles area. (SA)

  14. The association of depression and anxiety with glycemic control among Mexican Americans with diabetes living near the U.S.-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Chen, Minxing; Reininger, Belinda M; Businelle, Michael S; Stewart, Diana W; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; Rentfro, Anne R; Wetter, David W; McCormick, Joseph B

    2014-02-18

    The prevalence of diabetes is alarmingly high among Mexican American adults residing near the U.S.-Mexico border. Depression is also common among Mexican Americans with diabetes, and may have a negative influence on diabetes management. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the associations of depression and anxiety with the behavioral management of diabetes and glycemic control among Mexican American adults living near the border. The characteristics of Mexican Americans with diabetes living in Brownsville, TX (N = 492) were compared by depression/anxiety status. Linear regression models were conducted to evaluate the associations of depression and anxiety with BMI, waist circumference, physical activity, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Participants with clinically significant depression and/or anxiety were of greater age, predominantly female, less educated, more likely to have been diagnosed with diabetes, and more likely to be taking diabetes medications than those without depression or anxiety. In addition, anxious participants were more likely than those without anxiety to have been born in Mexico and to prefer study assessments in Spanish rather than English. Greater depression and anxiety were associated with poorer behavioral management of diabetes (i.e., greater BMI and waist circumference; engaging in less physical activity) and poorer glycemic control (i.e., higher fasting glucose, HbA1c). Overall, depression and anxiety appear to be linked with poorer behavioral management of diabetes and glycemic control. Findings highlight the need for comprehensive interventions along the border which target depression and anxiety in conjunction with diabetes management.

  15. Dose response and efficacy of a live, attenuated human rotavirus vaccine in Mexican infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; Guerrero, M Lourdes; Bautista-Márquez, Aurora; Ortega-Gallegos, Hilda; Tuz-Dzib, Fernando; Reyes-González, Leticia; Rosales-Pedraza, Gustavo; Martínez-López, Julia; Castañón-Acosta, Erika; Cervantes, Yolanda; Costa-Clemens, SueAnn; DeVos, Beatrice

    2007-08-01

    Immunization against rotavirus has been proposed as the most cost-effective intervention to reduce the disease burden associated with this infection worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the dose response, immunogenicity, and efficacy of 2 doses of an oral, attenuated monovalent G1[P8] human rotavirus vaccine in children from the same setting in Mexico, where the natural protection against rotavirus infection was studied. From June 2001 through May 2003, 405 healthy infants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 vaccine groups (virus concentrations 10(4.7), 10(5.2), and 10(5.8) infectious units) and to a placebo group and were monitored to the age of 2 years. The vaccine/placebo was administered concurrently with diphtheria-tetanus toxoid-pertussis/hepatitis B/Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine at 2 and 4 months of age. After the administration of the first vaccine/placebo dose, weekly home visits to collect information regarding infant health were conducted. Stool samples were collected during each gastroenteritis episode and tested for rotavirus antigen and serotype. The vaccine was well tolerated and induced a greater rate of seroconversion than observed in infants who received placebo. For the pooled vaccine groups, efficacy after 2 oral doses was 80% and 95% against any and severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, respectively. Efficacy was 100% against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and 70% against severe gastroenteritis of any cause with the vaccine at the highest virus concentration (10(5.8) infectious units). The predominant infecting rotavirus serotype in this cohort was wild-type G1 (85%). Adverse events, including fever, irritability, loss of appetite, cough, diarrhea, and vomiting, were similar among vaccinees and placebo recipients. This new oral, live, attenuated human rotavirus vaccine was safe, immunogenic, and highly efficacious in preventing any and, more importantly, severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in healthy infants. This vaccine

  16. A Phenomenological Study of the Lived Experiences of Digital Immigrants in a Fully Online Master's Degree Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieschnick, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to investigate the challenges encountered and support systems needed by digital immigrants enrolled in an online master's degree program. Participants were digital immigrants who were born before 1980 and enrolled or recently graduated from an online master's degree program. Survey data and demographic data were…

  17. The importance of culturally meaningful activity for health benefits among older Korean immigrant living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, May; Han, Areum; Chin, Seungtae

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that participation in culturally meaningful activity is beneficial for immigrants' health and well-being, yet older Korean immigrants struggle with accepting new cultural perspectives, which can negatively affect their health and well-being. Using in-depth interviews, this study was designed to capture the value of culturally meaningful activities for health among older Korean immigrants. Three themes were identified: (a) improved psychological well-being, (b) enhanced positive emotions and feelings, and (c) social connections developed with others. The findings suggest that by engaging in various culturally meaningful activities, older Korean immigrants gain a sense of social, cultural, and psychological significance in life. This study also provided evidence that older Korean immigrants maintain and develop their cultural identity through culturally meaningful activities.

  18. Long-term immigrant adaptation: eight-year follow-up study among immigrants from Russia and Estonia living in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga

    2008-02-01

    This study was a longitudinal investigation of the three different dimensions of long-term immigrant adaptation (i.e., psychological, sociocultural, and socioeconomic adaptation) and the relationships between them in an 8-year follow-up with panel data. The 282 respondents were immigrants in Finland, born between 1961 and 1976, coming from the former Soviet Union. The results suggest that the adaptation of these immigrants has developed favourably. In 8 years, the respondents had improved their Finnish language skills and their position in the labour market. No differences were observed in their levels of psychological well-being between the two assessments. Of the three adaptation dimensions assessed, sociocultural adaptation, measured as proficiency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing Finnish, turned out to be the most significant predictor of the two other long-term outcomes of immigrant adaptation (i.e., socioeconomic and psychological). In particular, the better the initial command of the Finnish language, the better were their socioeconomic and psychological adaptation outcomes after 8 years of residence. These results demonstrate the importance of parallel and longitudinal assessments of the different outcomes of immigrant adaptation in order to address which particular dimensions of adaptation are most critical in the beginning of acculturation in terms of determining positive development and long-term immigrant adaptation. This study was supported by City of Helsinki Urban Facts. The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Anniina Lahtinen and Riku Perhoniemi in the data collection, and in addition, Riku Perhoniemi for the preliminary data analysis, and advice on the Amos analyses. Cette étude longitudinale a examiné trois différentes dimensions de l'adaptation à long-terme de l'immigré (i.e., adaptation psychologique, socio-culturelle et socio-économique) et de la relation entre elles dans un suivi de 8 ans avec des données de

  19. The Mexican oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos-Giacoman, E.

    1991-01-01

    In the environment of growing domestic demand and enhanced international competitiveness, Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX)-the Mexican national oil company-faces the challenge of not only responding adequately to the rapid changes taking place in the Mexican economy, but making a significant contribution towards solid and stable growth. This paper reports that the relevant concern is how PEMEX is going to live up to these expectations. The Mexican oil industry, especially including the petrochemical sector, has great potential in terms of an ample domestic market as well as external foreign-currency-generating markets

  20. The importance of culturally meaningful activity for health benefits among older Korean immigrant living in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyoung Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that participation in culturally meaningful activity is beneficial for immigrants’ health and well-being, yet older Korean immigrants struggle with accepting new cultural perspectives, which can negatively affect their health and well-being. Using in-depth interviews, this study was designed to capture the value of culturally meaningful activities for health among older Korean immigrants. Three themes were identified: (a improved psychological well-being, (b enhanced positive emotions and feelings, and (c social connections developed with others. The findings suggest that by engaging in various culturally meaningful activities, older Korean immigrants gain a sense of social, cultural, and psychological significance in life. This study also provided evidence that older Korean immigrants maintain and develop their cultural identity through culturally meaningful activities.

  1. Learning to live with a child with diabetes--problems related to immigration and cross-cultural diabetes care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Ringsberg, Karin C

    2009-01-01

    with diabetes, in a more doubtful and negative way. The findings further indicate that the establishment of a trustful relationship between the immigrant families and the health-care professionals should be given high priority. The study concludes that parents with an immigrant background are likely to require...... special pedagogic, psychological and social support to learn to adapt and come to terms with the diagnosis of a chronic disease in a child....

  2. The role of post-migration living difficulties on somatization among first-generation immigrants visited in a primary care service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Aragona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of post-migration living difficulties (PMLD on somatization was studied in 101 first generation immigrants visited in primary care. Premigratory traumas and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD were also assessed. About one third of patients somatized. Sociodemographic variables were similar in somatizers and non-somatizers. Premigratory traumas, PTSD and the likelihood to report at least one serious or very serious PMLD were higher in somatizers. Four kinds of PMLD were more frequent in somatizers: worries about unavailability of health assistance, working problems, discrimination and poor social help. Traumas and PTSD influenced the effect of PMLD on somatization. Findings suggest that in specific samples of primary care immigrants severe premigratory traumas increase the sensitivity to PMLD and in turn distress due to PMLD amplifies the tendency to somatize.

  3. Moving In and Out of Bilingualism: Investigating Native Language Maintenance and Shift in Mexican-Descent Children. Research Report: 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease-Alvarez, Lucinda

    A study investigated patterns and influences in Mexican-American children's Spanish language maintenance and shift toward English dominance or monolingualism. Subjects were 64 Mexican-descent children, ages 8-9, of varying immigration backgrounds (Mexican-born, U.S.-born of Mexican-born parents, U.S.-born of U.S.-born parents), and their families…

  4. Alcohol Use Disorders in National Samples of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans: The Mexican National Addiction Survey and the U.S. National Alcohol Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Lown, Anne; Ye, Yu; Robertson, Marjorie J.; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Greenfield, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The authors show associations between immigration and alcohol disorders using data from the 1995 and 2000 U.S. National Alcohol Surveys and the 1998 Mexico National Household Survey on Addictions. The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 4.8% for the Mexicans, 4.2% for the Mexico-born immigrants, and 6.6% for the U.S.-born Mexican Americans. They…

  5. The Vote of the Mexican Immigrants. An Analysis of the Results of the 2006 Presidential Election, to the light of political behavior theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mgt. Octavio Adolfo Pérez Preciado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2 of July of the 2006, the Mexican residents abroad could for the first time voted in a presidential election. According to the results given by the electoral federal institute (IFE, Felipe Calderon, candidate by the National Action Party (PAN of right oriented, was the one that obtained the majority of these suffrages, followed by Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador, candidate of the “alliance for the good of the people,” of leftist orientation. These was the most competitive election ever take place in Mexico. In the essay, electoral results of this election are analyzed to the light of different theories about the voting behavior of the emigrants. We concludes the vote of the Mexicans abroad reproduces and reflects so much the way in which the emigrants in their native place vote, as well as the political and cultural influence that exerts the conduct of the voter the political and electoral system of the new country of residence.

  6. Immigrants Equilibrate Local Labor Markets: Evidence from the Great Recession*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Brian C.; Kovak, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that low-skilled Mexican-born immigrants’ location choices in the U.S. respond strongly to changes in local labor demand, and that this geographic elasticity helps equalize spatial differences in labor market outcomes for low-skilled native workers, who are much less responsive. We leverage the substantial geographic variation in employment losses that occurred during Great Recession, and our results confirm the standard finding that high-skilled populations are quite geographically responsive to employment opportunities while low-skilled populations are much less so. However, low-skilled immigrants, especially those from Mexico, respond even more strongly than high-skilled native-born workers. Moreover, we show that natives living in metro areas with a substantial Mexican-born population are insulated from the effects of local labor demand shocks compared to those in places with few Mexicans. The reallocation of the Mexican-born workforce reduced the incidence of local demand shocks on low-skilled natives’ employment outcomes by more than 50 percent. PMID:27551329

  7. HIV among immigrants living in high-income countries: a realist review of evidence to guide targeted approaches to behavioural HIV prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon Tadgh

    2012-11-01

    of ethnicity and the use of settings were also critical elements in culturally appropriate HIV prevention. There was mixed evidence for the roles of ‘authenticity’ and ‘framing’ mechanisms and only partial evidence to support role of ‘endorsement’ mechanisms. Conclusions This realist review contributes to the explanatory framework of behavioural HIV prevention among immigrants living in high-income countries and, in particular, builds a greater understanding of the suite of mechanisms that underpin adaptations of interventions by the cultural context and population being targeted.

  8. HIV among immigrants living in high-income countries: a realist review of evidence to guide targeted approaches to behavioural HIV prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    settings were also critical elements in culturally appropriate HIV prevention. There was mixed evidence for the roles of ‘authenticity’ and ‘framing’ mechanisms and only partial evidence to support role of ‘endorsement’ mechanisms. Conclusions This realist review contributes to the explanatory framework of behavioural HIV prevention among immigrants living in high-income countries and, in particular, builds a greater understanding of the suite of mechanisms that underpin adaptations of interventions by the cultural context and population being targeted. PMID:23168134

  9. Risk Factors for Non-Adherence to cART in Immigrants with HIV Living in the Netherlands: Results from the ROtterdam ADherence (ROAD Project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina K Been

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands, immigrant people living with HIV (PLWH have poorer psychological and treatment outcomes than Dutch PLWH. This cross-sectional field study examined risk factors for non-adherence to combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART among immigrant PLWH. First and second generation immigrant PLWH attending outpatient clinics at two HIV-treatment centers in Rotterdam were selected for this study. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics for all eligible participants were collected from an existing database. Trained interviewers subsequently completed questionnaires together with consenting participants (n = 352 to gather additional data on socio-demographic characteristics, psychosocial variables, and self-reported adherence to cART. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted among 301 participants who had used cART ≥6 months prior to inclusion. Independent risk factors for self-reported non-adherence were (I not having attended formal education or only primary school (OR = 3.25; 95% CI: 1.28-8.26, versus University, (II experiencing low levels of social support (OR = 2.56; 95% CI: 1.37-4.82, and (III reporting low treatment adherence self-efficacy (OR = 2.99; 95% CI: 1.59-5.64. Additionally, HIV-RNA >50 copies/ml and internalized HIV-related stigma were marginally associated (P<0.10 with non-adherence (OR = 2.53; 95% CI: 0.91-7.06 and OR = 1.82; 95% CI: 0.97-3.43. The findings that low educational attainment, lack of social support, and low treatment adherence self-efficacy are associated with non-adherence point to the need for tailored supportive interventions. Establishing contact with peer immigrant PLWH who serve as role models might be a successful intervention for this specific population.

  10. Anxiety disorders among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karno, M; Golding, J M; Burnam, M A; Hough, R L; Escobar, J I; Wells, K M; Boyer, R

    1989-04-01

    This report from the Los Angeles site of the NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area study reveals significant ethnic and national origin differences in lifetime prevalence rates for three out of six specific, DSM-III-defined anxiety disorders. In the case of simple phobia, United States-born Mexican Americans report higher rates than native non-Hispanic whites or immigrant Mexican Americans, the latter two groups having similar rates. Mexican Americans born in the United States had higher rates of agoraphobia than immigrant Mexican Americans, and non-Hispanic whites reported higher lifetime rates of generalized anxiety disorder compared with both immigrant and native Mexican Americans. Neither ethnic nor national origin differences in lifetime prevalence rates were found for panic disorder, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Selective migration is postulated as a potential factor influencing prevalence differences between native and immigrant Mexican Americans.

  11. “Como Arrancar una Planta”: Women’s Reflections about Influences of Im/Migration on Their Everyday Lives and Health in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva K. Robertson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze women’s reflections about how experiences of im/migration from rural to urban settings in Monterrey, Mexico, influence their everyday life experience and health and that of their families. The participants were eight women from heterogeneous indigenous backgrounds, one woman with a mestizo background, two health professionals, three persons from organizations supporting indigenous groups, and two researchers. I collected data from personal observations, documents, and interviews that I then analyzed with a critical ethnography methodology developed by Carspecken. The women emphasized that food habits were the first to be adapted to circumstances in an urban everyday life constrained by working conditions. Together with their experiences of discrimination and violence, urban living determines the challenges and the priorities of daily life. Urban life affects how they perceive and treat their own and their family’s health and wellbeing. Nevertheless, their sense of belonging and home remains in their communities of origin, and they strive to reach a balance in their lives and preserve a connection to their roots, motherhood, and traditional knowledge. However, the women handle their im/migration experiences in diverse ways depending on their own conditions and the structural forces limiting or allowing them to act in decisive life situations. Im/migration is not just a matter of choice; it is about survival and is influenced by social determinants and “structural vulnerability” that influences and/or limit human agency. These, together with an unsustainable economic situation, make migration the only option, a forced decision within households. Structural forces such as social injustice in welfare policies restrict human rights and rights for health. Social determinants of health can constrain decision making and frame choices concerning health and childbearing in everyday life.

  12. Generational Variations in Mexican-Origin Intermarriage

    OpenAIRE

    Cedillo, Rosalio

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines intermarriage across generations of the Mexican-origin population in order to better understand how this population is incorporating in U.S. society, and looks at parental migration status and parental nativity as factors that may impede or facilitate intermarriage incorporation. Using data from the Immigration and Intergenerational Mobility in Metropolitan Los Angeles (IIMMLA) survey the research shows that: the majority of intermarriages among the Mexican-origin ...

  13. The Mexican Health Paradox: Expanding the Explanatory Power of the Acculturation Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horevitz, Elizabeth; Organista, Kurt C.

    2013-01-01

    The Mexican health paradox refers to initially favorable health and mental health outcomes among recent Mexican immigrants to the United States. The subsequent rapid decline in Mexican health outcomes has been attributed to the process of acculturation to U.S. culture. However, the construct of acculturation has come under significant criticism…

  14. Immigrants from Mexico experience serious behavioral and psychiatric problems at far lower rates than US-born Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; Goings, Trenette Clark

    2017-10-01

    To examine the prevalence of self-reported criminal and violent behavior, substance use disorders, and mental disorders among Mexican immigrants vis-à-vis the US born. Study findings are based on national data collected between 2012 and 2013. Binomial logistic regression was employed to examine the relationship between immigrant status and behavioral/psychiatric outcomes. Mexican immigrants report substantially lower levels of criminal and violent behaviors, substance use disorders, and mental disorders compared to US-born individuals. While some immigrants from Mexico have serious behavioral and psychiatric problems, Mexican immigrants in general experience such problems at far lower rates than US-born individuals.

  15. A Qualitative Study of Breast Reconstruction Decision-Making among Asian Immigrant Women Living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Rose; Chang, Michelle Milee; Chen, Margaret; Rohde, Christine Hsu

    2017-02-01

    Despite research supporting improved psychosocial well-being, quality of life, and survival for patients undergoing postmastectomy breast reconstruction, Asian patients remain one-fifth as likely as Caucasians to choose reconstruction. This study investigates cultural factors, values, and perceptions held by Asian women that might impact breast reconstruction rates. The authors conducted semistructured interviews of immigrant East Asian women treated for breast cancer in the New York metropolitan area, investigating social structure, culture, attitudes toward surgery, and body image. Three investigators independently coded transcribed interviews, and then collectively evaluated them through axial coding of recurring themes. Thirty-five immigrant East Asian women who underwent surgical treatment for breast cancer were interviewed. Emerging themes include functionality, age, perceptions of plastic surgery, inconvenience, community/family, fear of implants, language, and information. Patients spoke about breasts as a function of their roles as a wife or mother, eliminating the need for breasts when these roles were fulfilled. Many addressed the fear of multiple operations. Quality and quantity of information, and communication with practitioners, impacted perceptions about treatment. Reconstructive surgery was often viewed as cosmetic. Community and family played a significant role in decision-making. Asian women are statistically less likely than Caucasians to pursue breast reconstruction. This is the first study to investigate culture-specific perceptions of breast reconstruction. Results from this study can be used to improve cultural competency in addressing patient concerns. Improving access to information regarding treatment options and surgical outcomes may improve informed decision-making among immigrant Asian women.

  16. Niños Sanos, Familia Sana: Mexican immigrant study protocol for a multifaceted CBPR intervention to combat childhood obesity in two rural California towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Adela; Sadeghi, Banafsheh; Green, Richard D; Kaiser, Lucia L; Flores, Yvette G; Jackson, Carlos F; Shaikh, Ulfat; Whent, Linda; Schaefer, Sara E

    2013-10-31

    Overweight and obese children are likely to develop serious health problems. Among children in the U.S., Latino children are affected disproportionally by the obesity epidemic. Niños Sanos, Familia Sana (Healthy Children, Healthy Family) is a five-year, multi-faceted intervention study to decrease the rate of BMI growth in Mexican origin children in California's Central Valley. This paper describes the methodology applied to develop and launch the study. Investigators use a community-based participatory research approach to develop a quasi-experimental intervention consisting of four main components including nutrition, physical activity, economic and art-community engagement. Each component's definition, method of delivery, data collection and evaluation are described. Strategies to maintain engagement of the comparison community are reported as well. We present a study methodology for an obesity prevention intervention in communities with unique environmental conditions due to rural and isolated location, limited infrastructure capacity and limited resources. This combined with numerous cultural considerations and an unstable population with limited exposure to researcher expectations necessitates reassessment and adaptation of recruitment strategies, intervention delivery and data collection methods. Trial registration # NCT01900613. NCT01900613.

  17. A direct comparison of popular models of normal memory loss and Alzheimer's disease in samples of African Americans, Mexican Americans, and refugees and immigrants from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauf, Robert W; Iris, Madelyn

    2011-04-01

    To understand how people differentiate normal memory loss from Alzheimer's disease (AD) by investigating cultural models of these conditions. Ethnographic interviews followed by a survey. Cultural consensus analysis was used to test for the presence of group models, derive the "culturally correct" set of beliefs, and compare models of normal memory loss and AD. Chicago, Illinois. One hundred eight individuals from local neighborhoods: African Americans, Mexican Americans, and refugees and immigrants from the former Soviet Union. Participants responded to yes-or-no questions about the nature and causes of normal memory loss and AD and provided information on ethnicity, age, sex, acculturation, and experience with AD. Groups held a common model of AD as a brain-based disease reflecting irreversible cognitive decline. Higher levels of acculturation predicted greater knowledge of AD. Russian speakers favored biological over psychological models of the disease. Groups also held a common model of normal memory loss, including the important belief that "normal" forgetting involves eventual recall of the forgotten material. Popular models of memory loss and AD confirm that patients and clinicians are speaking the same "language" in their discussions of memory loss and AD. Nevertheless, the presence of coherent models of memory loss and AD, and the unequal distribution of that knowledge across groups, suggests that clinicians should include wider circles of patients' families and friends in their consultations. These results frame knowledge as distributed across social groups rather than simply the possession of individual minds. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. Predictors of Immigrant Children's School Achievement: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung Seek; Kang, Suk-Young; An, Soonok

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the predictors and indicators of immigrant children's school achievement, using the two of the most predominant groups of American immigrants (103 Koreans and 100 Mexicans). Regression analyses were conducted to determine which independent variables (acculturation, parenting school involvement, parenting style, parent…

  19. Humor in Father-Daughter Immigration Narratives of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This article draws from an ethnography on Mexican immigrant fathers and their children to examine humor in immigration narratives as acts of resistance. The analysis focuses on the devices employed by a father and daughter during their everyday talk and co-narration of an incident with police officers. Findings illustrate how the form and content…

  20. Evaluating Short-Form Versions of the CES-D for Measuring Depressive Symptoms among Immigrants from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Hovey, Joseph D.; Seligman, Laura D.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the feasibility of using a short-form version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) in community mental health research with Mexican immigrants. Several features of three published short versions of the CES-D were examined using data combined from seven diverse Mexican immigrant samples from across…

  1. Immigrants in the Working Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vlachadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Immigration constitutes an all time and multi-dimensional social phenomenon. There are quite a few people that in every time period seek a new place of residence and employment, in order to be able to survive or get a better life. The causes which lead to immigration are various and the immigration itself affects not only the immigrants but also the countries of departure and arrival. The immigration phenomenon has occupied and continues to occupy the majority of countries, among which is Greece which has been one of the new host countries for immigrants. The moving of the population presents when the social and economic environment in which an individual lives and moves, does not provide him with the capability to fulfill his pursuits and satisfy his ambitions. The most frequent reason of immigration nowadays is the economic factor and the objective of the individual that immigrates is finding work. In the present project we will study unemployment and employment in the host countries and more specifically in Greece. In Greece during the last years there appears to be an intense influx of immigrants converting it from a departure country to a host country for immigrants. What happens with the working conditions and insurance, how does immigration affect the unemployment of the permanent population, in what kind of jobs are immigrants occupied and do age and sex play a role in finding work? These are some of the questions we are called to answer through this project. The project not only will deal with how immigration affects the working market but also the economy in general (Cholezas and Tsakloglou, 2008. The research part of the project is based on the Greek and European Statistics Service. The statistical data are presented in the form of charts and diagrams. The data actually concern the legal immigrants in the area of Greece and countries of the E.U. (Vgenopoulos, 1988.

  2. From Multiculturalism to Immigration Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Lauter

    2009-01-01

    Immigration is a tense political topic in virtually every Western country, and in many others as well. In fact, immigration is an international issue: 3 percent of the world's population, 191,000,000 people, now live in countries other than those in which they were born. This paper discusses why immigration is so fraught, the relation of the crisis over immigration to the growing fracture of the Western world's economy, as well as to terrorism like September 11 and the train bombings...

  3. Mexican Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuzger, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    It was the complex and far-reaching transformation of the Mexican Revolution rather than the First World War that left its mark on Mexican history in the second decade of the 20th century. Nevertheless, although the country maintained its neutrality in the international conflict, it was a hidden theatre of war. Between 1914 and 1918, state actors in Germany, Great Britain and the United States defined their policies towards Mexico and its nationalist revolution with a view not only to improve...

  4. Immigrant Charter Schools: A Better Choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Camille

    2010-01-01

    Third-grader Jaime of Denver, Colorado, was having a hard time concentrating in school. The son of Mexican immigrants, he had learned to speak English perfectly in his dual-language public school, but reading and writing was another story. When her mother knew about Cesar Chavez Academy, a new tuition-free charter school where the majority of…

  5. A conceptual framework for the study of social capital in new destination immigrant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernosky de Flores, Catherine H

    2010-07-01

    Mexican immigration to the United States is an intragenerational phenomenon. Young adult Mexicans leave their families of origin in search of employment opportunities that pull them to new destination communities. A conceptual framework that defines and relates the concepts of human capital, personal networks, social capital, and resources is introduced. The influence of social capital on the capacity of immigrants to access resources is described. The framework informed the design of a study to examine the approaches used by Mexican immigrant women to access resources for healthy childbearing in the absence of traditional family support systems in a new destination community.

  6. Stress Resilience among Border Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern; Dugas, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors distinguishing Mexican American women living near the U.S.-Mexican border who are resilient to the experience of stress from those who are not. The study sample consisted of 418 participants ranging in age from 20 to 61 years. Data were gathered through a self-report survey instrument composed of…

  7. Reconnecting Alaska: Mexican Movements and the Last Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara V. Komarnisky

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the initial findings of on-going research with Mexican migrants and immigrants to Alaska. The paper outlines the historical and on-going connections between Alaska and Mexico and explores how and why those connections have been obscured or ignored. Powerful imaginaries are associated with places: Alaska, and 'the north' more generally, and Latin America, and Mexico specifically. My research shows how interesting things happen when they are brought together through movement. People from Acuitzio del Canje, Michoacán began travelling to Alaska (Anchorage, and elsewhere to work in the 1950s, and movement between Mexico and Alaska has continued across generations since then. Today, many Acuitzences who live in Anchorage maintain a close relationship with friends and family members in Acuitzio, and travel back and forth regularly. However, this movement is obscured by ideological work that makes Alaska seem separate, isolated, wild, and a place where Mexicans are not imagined to be. Mexican movements into Alaska over time disrupt this vision, showing how Alaska is connected to multiple other geographies, and making the US-Mexico border a salient reference point in everyday life in Anchorage. When the South moves into the North, it can make us think about both 'Alaska' and 'Mexico' in different ways. When the US-Mexico border is relocated to Anchorage, if only for a moment, it can elicit a reaction of humour or surprise. Why is that? And what does this have to do with how people actually live in an interconnected place?

  8. Employers mexican migrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández Guzmán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this paper is to, through a general literature review of official statistical data, a preliminary analysis of mexican migrant entrepreneurship in the United States, that is to say in recent years has been growing in importance.

  9. How Does the Context of Reception Matter? The Role of Residential Enclaves in Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy Among Mexican-Origin Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Aggie J; Landale, Nancy S; Sparks, Corey S

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated whether and how different patterns of group exposure within residential contexts (i.e., living in a Mexican immigrant enclave, a Mexican ethnic enclave, a pan-Hispanic enclave, or a non-Hispanic white neighborhood) are associated with smoking during pregnancy among Mexican-origin mothers. Using a hierarchical linear modeling approach, we found that Mexican-origin mothers' residential contexts are important for understanding their smoking during pregnancy. Residence in an ethnic enclave is associated with decreased odds of smoking during pregnancy, while residence in a non-Hispanic white neighborhood is associated with increased odds of smoking during pregnancy, above and beyond the mothers' individual characteristics. The magnitude of the associations between residence in an ethnic enclave and smoking during pregnancy is similar across the different types of ethnic enclaves examined. The important roles of inter- and intra-group exposures suggests that in order to help Mexican-origin women, policy makers should more carefully design place-based programs and interventions that target geographic areas and the specific types of residential contexts in which women are at greater risk.

  10. Forced Dependency and Legal Barriers: Implications of the UK’s Immigration and Social Security Policies for Minoritized Women Living in Abusive Intimate Relationships in Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica McWilliams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the complexities of the help-seeking process of minoritized women (primarily asylum-seekers and immigrants experiencing domestic violence in Northern Ireland. The term ‘minoritized’ is used here to emphasize that “minority” status is not a static or innate trait of certain groups but instead is the outcome of a process of being positioned as a minority. The paper addresses the intersections of ethnicity, nationality, class and gender and shows how state policies in relation to immigration and social security reinforce inequalities in gendered power relations. Despite attempts to improve the social security and immigration systems, the findings from a Northern Ireland study show how recent policy changes have not addressed the systemic institutional racism and institutionalised patriarchy in these agencies. Where avenues for action are undermined by such practices, the policies raise concerns about the safety and protection of minoritized women living in abusive relationships. We argue that the UK is failing to meet its human rights responsibilities to provide adequate support and assistance to minoritized women in abusive relationships and conclude that delivering state accountability alongside a human rights framework based on security, autonomy, liberty and equality is what is needed. Este artículo analiza las complejidades del proceso de búsqueda de ayuda en Irlanda del Norte para mujeres pertenecientes a minorías (principalmente solicitantes de asilo e inmigrantes que sufren violencia doméstica. El término 'minoritarizadas' se utiliza aquí para hacer hincapié en que la situación de "minoría" no es un rasgo estático o innato de ciertos grupos, sino que es el resultado de un proceso de ser posicionado como una minoría. El artículo aborda las intersecciones de origen étnico, nacionalidad, clase y género y muestra cómo las políticas estatales en relación a la inmigración y la seguridad social

  11. Hopelessness, Family Stress, and Depression among Mexican-Heritage Mothers in the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Kulis, Stephen; Perez, Hilda Garcia; Bermudez-Parsai, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a study conducted with a sample of 136 Mexican-heritage mothers residing in a large southwestern metropolitan area. From a risk-and-resiliency perspective, hopelessness was approached as a culturally specific response to family stress and other challenges encountered by Mexican immigrants. Although…

  12. Problems Faced by Mexican Asylum Seekers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Anna Cabot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Violence in Mexico rose sharply in response to President Felipe Calderón’s military campaign against drug cartels which began in late 2006. As a consequence, the number of Mexicans who have sought asylum in the United States has grown significantly. In 2013, Mexicans made up the second largest group of defensive asylum seekers (those in removal proceedings in the United States, behind only China (EOIR 2014b. Yet between 2008 and 2013, the grant rate for Mexican asylum seekers in immigration court fell from 23 percent to nine percent (EOIR 2013, 2014b. This paper examines—from the perspective of an attorney who represented Mexican asylum seekers on the US-Mexico border in El Paso, Texas—the reasons for low asylum approval rates for Mexicans despite high levels of violence in and flight from Mexico from 2008 to 2013. It details the obstacles faced by Mexican asylum seekers along the US-Mexico border, including placement in removal proceedings, detention, evidentiary issues, narrow legal standards, and (effectively judicial notice of country conditions in Mexico. The paper recommends that asylum seekers at the border be placed in affirmative proceedings (before immigration officials, making them eligible for bond. It also proposes increased oversight of immigration judges.

  13. From Multiculturalism to Immigration Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Lauter

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Immigration is a tense political topic in virtually every Western country, and in many others as well. In fact, immigration is an international issue: 3 percent of the world's population, 191,000,000 people, now live in countries other than those in which they were born. This paper discusses why immigration is so fraught, the relation of the crisis over immigration to the growing fracture of the Western world's economy, as well as to terrorism like September 11 and the train bombings in Madrid, Mumbai, and London, and how these factors—growing economic disparity, immigration, and terrorism—have altered one of the basic cultural phenomena of the United States in the last three decades, namely, what we call multiculturalism.

  14. From Multiculturalism to Immigration Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Lauter

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Immigration is a tense political topic in virtually every Western country, and in many others as well. In fact, immigration is an international issue: 3 percent of the world's population, 191,000,000 people, now live in countries other than those in which they were born. This paper discusses why immigration is so fraught, the relation of the crisis over immigration to the growing fracture of the Western world's economy, as well as to terrorism like September 11 and the train bombings in Madrid, Mumbai, and London, and how these factors—growing economic disparity, immigration, and terrorism—have altered one of the basic cultural phenomena of the United States in the last three decades, namely, what we call multiculturalism.

  15. Older Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders with Activities of Daily Living (ADL Limitations: Immigration and Other Factors Associated with Institutionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esme Fuller-Thomson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the national prevalence and profile of Asian Americans with Activities of Daily Living (ADL limitations and identified factors associated with institutionalization. Data were obtained from 2006 American Community Survey, which replaced the long-form of the US Census. The data are nationally representative of both institutionalized and community-dwelling older adults. Respondents were Vietnamese (n = 203, Korean (n = 131, Japanese (n = 193, Filipino (n = 309, Asian Indian (n = 169, Chinese (n = 404, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 54, and non-Hispanic whites (n = 55,040 aged 55 and over who all had ADL limitations. The prevalence of institutionalized among those with ADL limitations varies substantially from 4.7% of Asian Indians to 18.8% of Korean Americans with ADL limitations. Every AAPI group had a lower prevalence of institutionalization than disabled Non-Hispanic whites older adults (23.8% (p < 0.001. After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, Asian Indians, Vietnamese, Japanese, Filipino, and Chinese had significantly lower odds of institutionalization than non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.29, 0.31, 0.58, 0.51, 0.70, respectively. When the sample was restricted to AAPIs, the odds of institutionalization were higher among those who were older, unmarried, cognitively impaired and those who spoke English at home. This variation suggests that aggregating data across the AAPI groups obscures meaningful differences among these subpopulations and substantial inter-group differences may have important implications in the long-term care setting.

  16. Health-Related Quality of Life, Subjective Health Complaints, Psychological Distress and Coping in Pakistani Immigrant Women With and Without the Metabolic Syndrome : The InnvaDiab-DEPLAN Study on Pakistani Immigrant Women Living in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjellset, Victoria Telle; Ihlebæk, Camilla M; Bjørge, Benedikte; Eriksen, Hege R; Høstmark, Arne T

    2011-08-01

    The increasingly high number of immigrants from South-East Asia with The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is an important challenge for the public health sector. Impaired glucose is essential in MetS. The blood glucose concentration is not only governed by diet and physical activity, but also by psychological distress which could contribute to the development of MetS. The aim of this study is to describe health-related quality of life, subjective health complaints (SHC), psychological distress, and coping in Pakistani immigrant women, with and without MetS. As a part of an randomized controlled intervention study in Oslo, Norway, female Pakistani immigrants (n = 198) answered questionnaires regarding health related quality of life, SHC, psychological distress, and coping. Blood variables were determined and a standardized oral glucose tolerance test was performed. The participants had a high score on SHC and psychological distress. About 40% of the participants had MetS, and this group showed significantly lower general health, lower physical function, and more bodily pain, than those without MetS. Those with MetS also had more SHC, depressive symptoms, higher levels of somatisation, and scored significantly lower on the coping strategy of active problem solving. Pakistani immigrant women seem to have a high prevalence of SHC and psychological distress, especially those with MetS.

  17. Problems Faced by Mexican Asylum Seekers in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    J. Anna Cabot

    2014-01-01

    Violence in Mexico rose sharply in response to President Felipe Calderón’s military campaign against drug cartels which began in late 2006. As a consequence, the number of Mexicans who have sought asylum in the United States has grown significantly. In 2013, Mexicans made up the second largest group of defensive asylum seekers (those in removal proceedings) in the United States, behind only China (EOIR 2014b). Yet between 2008 and 2013, the grant rate for Mexican asylum seekers in immigration...

  18. Occupational health and safety experiences among self-identified immigrant workers living or working in Somerville, MA by ethnicity, years in the US, and English proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikkar, Bindu; Woodin, Mark A; Brugge, Doug; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Hyatt, Raymond; Goldman, Rose; Pirie, Alex; Goldstein-Gelb, Marcy; Galvão, Heloisa; Chianelli, Monica; Vasquez, Ismael; McWhinney, Melissa; Dalembert, Franklin; Gute, David M

    2012-12-06

    In this community based research initiative, we employed a survey instrument predominately developed and administered by Teen Educators to assess occupational health risks for Haitian, Salvadoran, and Brazilian immigrants (n = 405) in Somerville, MA, USA. We demonstrate that a combined analysis of ethnicity, years in the US, and English proficiency better characterized the occupational experience of immigrant workers than considering these variables individually. While years in the US (negatively) and English proficiency (positively) explained the occurrence of health risks, the country of origin identified the most vulnerable populations in the community. Brazilians, Salvadorans, and other Hispanic, all of whom who have been in the US varying length of time, with varying proficiency in English language had twice the odds of reporting injuries due to work compared to other immigrants. Although this observation was not significant it indicates that years in the US and English proficiency alone do not predict health risks among this population. We recommend the initiation of larger studies employing c community based participatory research methods to confirm these differences and to further explore work and health issues of immigrant populations. This study is one of the small number of research efforts to utilize a contemporaneous assessment of occupational health problems in three distinct immigrant populations at the community level within a specific Environmental Justice context and social milieu.

  19. Occupational Health and Safety Experiences among Self-Identified Immigrant Workers Living or Working in Somerville, MA by Ethnicity, Years in the US, and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikkar, Bindu; Woodin, Mark A.; Brugge, Doug; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Hyatt, Raymond; Goldman, Rose; Pirie, Alex; Goldstein-Gelb, Marcy; Galvão, Heloisa; Chianelli, Monica; Vasquez, Ismael; McWhinney, Melissa; Dalembert, Franklin; Gute, David M.

    2012-01-01

    In this community based research initiative, we employed a survey instrument predominately developed and administered by Teen Educators to assess occupational health risks for Haitian, Salvadoran, and Brazilian immigrants (n = 405) in Somerville, MA, USA. We demonstrate that a combined analysis of ethnicity, years in the US, and English proficiency better characterized the occupational experience of immigrant workers than considering these variables individually. While years in the US (negatively) and English proficiency (positively) explained the occurrence of health risks, the country of origin identified the most vulnerable populations in the community. Brazilians, Salvadorans, and other Hispanic, all of whom who have been in the US varying length of time, with varying proficiency in English language had twice the odds of reporting injuries due to work compared to other immigrants. Although this observation was not significant it indicates that years in the US and English proficiency alone do not predict health risks among this population. We recommend the initiation of larger studies employing c community based participatory research methods to confirm these differences and to further explore work and health issues of immigrant populations. This study is one of the small number of research efforts to utilize a contemporaneous assessment of occupational health problems in three distinct immigrant populations at the community level within a specific Environmental Justice context and social milieu. PMID:23222180

  20. Latino Immigrant Parents' Financial Stress, Depression, and Academic Involvement Predicting Child Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lauren R.; Spears Brown, Christia; Mistry, Rashmita S.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examines Mexican-heritage immigrant parents' financial stress, English language fluency, and depressive symptoms as risk factors for parental academic involvement and child academic outcomes. Participants were 68 Latino immigrant (from Mexico) third and fourth graders and their parents. Results from a structural equation model…

  1. Membership Contests: Encountering Immigrant Youth in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinen, Paivi; Suurpaa, Leena; Hoikkala, Tommi; Hautaniemi, Petri; Perho, Sini; Keskisalo, Anne-Mari; Kuure, Tapio; Kunnapuu, Krista

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses different aspects of social and societal membership, when minority groups of young immigrants living in Finland are under consideration. During its history, Finland has mainly been a country of emigration. In the 1990s the direction of moving turned to the contrary and the amount of immigrants in Finland increased relatively…

  2. Prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants: probability survey in the north border of Mexico Prevalencia de factores de riesgo para la infección por VIH entre migrantes mexicanos: encuesta probabilística en la frontera norte de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gudelia Rangel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants (MMIs in different geographic contexts, including the sending communities in Mexico, the receiving communities in the United States (US, and the Mexican North border region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a probability survey among MMIs traveling through key border crossing sites in the Tijuana (Baja California, Mexico-San Diego (California, US border region (N=1 429. RESULTS: The survey revealed substantial rates of reported sexually transmitted infections, needle-sharing and sexual risk practices in all migration contexts. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated levels of HIV risk call for further binational research and preventive interventions in all key geographic contexts of the migration experience to identify and tackle the different personal, environmental, and structural determinants of HIV risk in each of these contexts.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de prácticas de riesgo para la infección por VIH en migrantes mexicanos durante su estancia en distintos contextos geográficos, incluyendo sus comunidades de origen en México, las comunidades de destino en Estados Unidos de América (EUA, y la frontera Norte de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Encuesta probabilística de migrantes mexicanos que transitan por la región fronteriza Tijuana (Baja California, México-San Diego (California, EUA (N=1 429. RESULTADOS: La encuesta reveló una alta prevalencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual, uso compartido de agujas, y prácticas sexuales de riesgo en todos los contextos geográficos estudiados. CONCLUSIONES: Los niveles de riesgo de infección por VIH estimados para migrantes mexicanos en diferentes contextos geográficos exigen estudios e intervenciones preventivas binacionales que identifiquen y aborden los distintos factores de riesgo personales, ambientales, y estructurales que contribuyen al riesgo de infección por VIH en cada

  3. K-12 educational outcomes of immigrant youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Turley, Ruth N López

    2011-01-01

    The children from immigrant families in the United States make up a historically diverse population, and they are demonstrating just as much diversity in their experiences in the K-12 educational system. Robert Crosnoe and Ruth López Turley summarize these K-12 patterns, paying special attention to differences in academic functioning across segments of the immigrant population defined by generational status, race and ethnicity, and national origin. A good deal of evidence points to an immigrant advantage in multiple indicators of academic progress, meaning that many youths from immigrant families outperform their peers in school. This apparent advantage is often referred to as the immigrant paradox, in that it occurs despite higher-than-average rates of social and economic disadvantages in this population as a whole. The immigrant paradox, however, is more pronounced among the children of Asian and African immigrants than other groups, and it is stronger for boys than for girls. Furthermore, evidence for the paradox is far more consistent in secondary school than in elementary school. Indeed, school readiness appears to be one area of potential risk for children from immigrant families, especially those of Mexican origin. For many groups, including those from Latin America, any evidence of the immigrant paradox usually emerges after researchers control for family socioeconomic circumstances and youths' English language skills. For others, including those from Asian countries, it is at least partially explained by the tendency for more socioeconomically advantaged residents of those regions to leave their home country for the United States. Bilingualism and strong family ties help to explain immigrant advantages in schooling; school, community, and other contextual disadvantages may suppress these advantages or lead to immigrant risks. Crosnoe and Turley also discuss several policy efforts targeting young people from immigrant families, especially those of Latin

  4. K–12 Educational Outcomes of Immigrant Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; López Turley, Ruth N.

    2017-01-01

    Summary The children from immigrant families in the United States make up a historically diverse population, and they are demonstrating just as much diversity in their experiences in the K–12 educational system. Robert Crosnoe and Ruth López Turley summarize these K–12 patterns, paying special attention to differences in academic functioning across segments of the immigrant population defined by generational status, race and ethnicity, and national origin. A good deal of evidence points to an immigrant advantage in multiple indicators of academic progress, meaning that many youths from immigrant families outperform their peers in school. This apparent advantage is often referred to as the immigrant paradox, in that it occurs despite higher-than-average rates of social and economic disadvantages in this population as a whole. The immigrant paradox, however, is more pronounced among the children of Asian and African immigrants than other groups, and it is stronger for boys than for girls. Furthermore, evidence for the paradox is far more consistent in secondary school than in elementary school. Indeed, school readiness appears to be one area of potential risk for children from immigrant families, especially those of Mexican origin. For many groups, including those from Latin America, any evidence of the immigrant paradox usually emerges after researchers control for family socioeconomic circumstances and youths’ English language skills. For others, including those from Asian countries, it is at least partially explained by the tendency for more socioeconomically advantaged residents of those regions to leave their home country for the United States. Bilingualism and strong family ties help to explain immigrant advantages in schooling; school, community, and other contextual disadvantages may suppress these advantages or lead to immigrant risks. Crosnoe and Turley also discuss several policy efforts targeting young people from immigrant families, especially

  5. Immigrant Enhoming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogelman, Tatiana

    the difficulties that integration practitioners encounter in their attempts. I then highlight how the initial necessity of social spaces that are culturally and linguistically familiar to recent immigrants has, in conjunction with other factors, led to the establishment of at times solidified Russian-language...... fieldwork in socio-economically marginalized neighborhoods of eastern Berlin-Marzahn which are a home to a large number of Russian-speaking immigrants of German origin, I examine these projects’ attempts to construct communal social spaces shared by migrants and local residents. I start by noting...

  6. Environmental and occupational exposures in immigrant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamranond, Pracha P; Hu, Howard

    2008-09-23

    Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation's health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status.

  7. Environmental and Occupational Exposures in Immigrant Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pracha P. Eamranond

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation’s health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status.

  8. A preventive groupwork intervention with new immigrants to Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, M

    1986-03-01

    The act of immigration brings with it numerous major life changes and requires considerable social readjustment. Immigrants are, however, seldom offered specific training in how to effectively interact in a new culture. This paper describes an initial preventive groupwork effort to help English-speaking immigrants living in an Israeli absorption center to adjust successfully to life in a new culture. Suggestions for future preventive interventions with immigrants are considered.

  9. [Psychotherapy with Immigrants and Traumatized Refugees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erim, Yesim; Morawa, Eva

    2016-09-01

    In view of the growing proportion of immigrants and refugees in the population of Germany the knowledge on the influence of culture and migration on identity, and mental health presents a substantial basis for effective therapy. This article addresses important topics of psychotherapy with immigrants in general and with refugees in particular. Following issues selected according to their relevance and actuality are highlighted: definition of persons with migration background, migrants and refugees, facts on immigration to Germany, main results and theories on mental health of immigrants, social psychological aspects of intercultural psychotherapy (individualism vs. collectivism, stereotypes, discrimination etc.), psychosomatic diagnostics in intercultural context, diversity management in institutions, language and use of translators, living conditions of immigrants - stress and protective factors in immigrant mental health, post traumatic stress disorders among refugees: their prevalence, risk factors, diagnostics, course, multimodal psychosocial interventions in consulting centers, trauma focused interventions, trauma pedagogics, education and prevention of the volunteers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Discrimination, Stress, and Acculturation among Dominican Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Beverly Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have well established the association between discriminatory experiences, life chances, and mental health outcomes among Latino/as, especially among Mexican Americans. However, few studies have focused on the impact of stress or the moderating effects of low acculturation levels among recent immigrants, such as Dominicans. Using the…

  11. Molecular diversity in irregular or refugee immigrant patients with HBV-genotype-E infection living in the metropolitan area of Naples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnelli, Caterina; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Coppola, Nicola; Minichini, Carmine; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Starace, Mario; Alessio, Loredana; Macera, Margherita; Cella, Eleonora; Gualdieri, Luciano; Caprio, Nunzio; Pasquale, Giuseppe; Sagnelli, Evangelista

    2017-06-01

    In a recent testing in the metropolitan area of Naples, Italy, on 945 irregular immigrants or refugees, 87 HBsAg chronic carriers were identified, 53 of whom were infected by HBV-genotype E. The aim of the present study was to identify the genetic diversity of HBV-genotype E in these 53 immigrants. The 53 immigrant patients with HBV-genotype-E infection were born in Africa, central or eastern Asia, eastern Europe or Latin America. These patients had been seen for a clinical consultation at one of the four first-level units from January 2012 to 2013. The first dataset contained 53 HBV-S gene isolates plus 128 genotype/subgenotype specific reference sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The second dataset, comprising the 53 HBV-S gene isolates, previously classified as HBV-genotype E, was used to perform the time-scaled phylogeny reconstruction using a Bayesian approach. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all 53 HBV-S isolates belonged to HBV-genotype E. Bayes factor analysis showed that the relaxed clock exponential growth model fitted the data significantly better than the other models. The time-scaled Bayesian phylogenetic tree of the second dataset showed that the root of the tree dated back to the year 1990 (95% HPD:1984-2000). Four statistically supported clusters were identified. Cluster A dated back to 2012 (95% HPD:1997-2012); cluster B dated back to 2008 (95% HPD:2001-2015); cluster C to 2006 (95% HPD:1999-2013); cluster D to 2004 (95% HPD:1998-2011). This study disclosed the genetic evolution and phylogenesis in a group of HBV-genotype-E-infected immigrants. J. Med. Virol. 89:1015-1024, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Genetic ancestry in relation to the metabolic response to a U.S. versus traditional Mexican diet: a randomized crossover feeding trial among women of Mexican descent

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago-Torres, Margarita; De Dieu Tapsoba, Jean; Kratz, Mario; Lampe, Johanna W.; Breymeyer, Kara L.; Levy, Lisa; Song, Xiaoling; Villase?or, Adriana; Wang, Ching-Yun; Fejerman, Laura; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Carlson, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Certain populations with a large proportion of Indigenous American (IA) genetic ancestry may be evolutionarily adapted to traditional diets high in legumes and complex carbohydrates, and may have a detrimental metabolic response to U.S. diets high in refined carbohydrates and added sugars. We tested whether IA ancestry modified the metabolic response to a U.S. versus traditional Mexican diet in a controlled dietary intervention. Methods First and second generation Mexican immigrant...

  13. Hospitalisation among immigrants in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraci Salvatore

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigration is increasing in Italy. In 2003, 2.6 million foreign citizens lived in the country; 52% were men and the majority were young adults who migrated for work. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in hospitalisation between immigrants and the resident population during the year 2000 in the Lazio region. Methods Hospital admissions of immigrants from Less Developed Countries were compared to those of residents. We measured differences in hospitalisation rates and proportions admitted. Results Adult immigrants have lower hospitalisation rates than residents (134.6 vs. 160.5 per thousand population for acute care; 26.4 vs. 38.3 for day care. However, hospitalisation rates for some specific causes (injuries, particularly for men, infectious diseases, deliveries and induced abortions, ill-defined conditions were higher for immigrants than for residents. Immigrants under 18 years seem to be generally healthy; causes of admission in this group are similar to those of residents of the same age (respiratory diseases, injuries and poisoning. The only important differences are for infectious and parasitic diseases, with a higher proportion among immigrant youths. Conclusion The low hospitalisation rates for foreigners may suggest that they are a population with good health status. However, critical areas, related to poor living and working conditions and to social vulnerability, have been identified. Under-utilisation of services and low day care rates may be partially due to administrative, linguistic, and cultural barriers. As the presence of foreigners becomes an established phenomenon, it is important to evaluate their epidemiological profile, develop instruments to monitor and fulfil their specific health needs and plan health services for a multi-ethnic population.

  14. Examining the influence of family environments on youth violence: a comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, non-Latino Black, and non-Latino White adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martínez, Lorena M; Padilla, Mark B; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy Jo

    2011-08-01

    Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of familism, we examine differences in the risk for severe youth violence, as well its associations with family cohesion, parental engagement, adolescent autonomy, household composition, and immigrant generation among Mexican (n = 1,594), Puerto Rican (n = 586), Cuban (n = 488), and non-Latino Black (n = 4,053), and White (n = 9,921) adolescents with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicate a gradient of risk; White youth had the lowest risk for severe violence and Puerto Rican youth had the highest risk compared to all other racial/ethnic subgroups. Within-group analysis indicates that family factors are not universally protective or risk-inducing. While family cohesion decreased the risk of severe violence among all groups, parental engagement was associated with increased risk among Blacks and Whites, and adolescent autonomy was associated with increased risk among Puerto Ricans and Cubans. In addition, Cuban and White adolescents who lived in single parent households or who did not live with their parents, had higher risk for severe violent behaviors than their counterparts who lived in two parent households. Among Latinos, the association of immigrant generation was in opposite directions among Mexicans and Cubans. We conclude that family and immigration factors differentially influence risk for violence among Latino subgroups and highlight the significance of examining subgroup differences and developing intervention strategies that are tailored to the needs of each ethnic subgroup.

  15. Racial Identity and Racial Treatment of Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Vilma; Telles, Edward

    2012-04-01

    How racial barriers play in the experiences of Mexican Americans has been hotly debated. Some consider Mexican Americans similar to European Americans of a century ago that arrived in the United States with modest backgrounds but were eventually able to participate fully in society. In contrast, others argue that Mexican Americans have been racialized throughout U.S. history and this limits their participation in society. The evidence of persistent educational disadvantages across generations and frequent reports of discrimination and stereotyping support the racialization argument. In this paper, we explore the ways in which race plays a role in the lives of Mexican Americans by examining how education, racial characteristics, social interactions, relate to racial outcomes. We use the Mexican American Study Project, a unique data set based on a 1965 survey of Mexican Americans in Los Angeles and San Antonio combined with surveys of the same respondents and their adult children in 2000, thereby creating a longitudinal and intergenerational data set. First, we found that darker Mexican Americans, therefore appearing more stereotypically Mexican, report more experiences of discrimination. Second, darker men report much more discrimination than lighter men and than women overall. Third, more educated Mexican Americans experience more stereotyping and discrimination than their less-educated counterparts, which is partly due to their greater contact with Whites. Lastly, having greater contact with Whites leads to experiencing more stereotyping and discrimination. Our results are indicative of the ways in which Mexican Americans are racialized in the United States.

  16. The Smell of Memories. A Mexican Migrant’s Search for Emotional Sustainability through Mexican Films.

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Coronado

    2011-01-01

    For more than 10 years living as a Mexican migrant, between two countries (Mexico and Australia), two cities (Mexico City and Sydney), and two social worlds (Mexican and multicultural Australian ‘families-friends’), I have been immersed in a systematic process of self observation and self reflection on my life in my country of destination. During this time I have explored my memories of place and their relationship with my emotional experiences, looking for strategies to continue to be connec...

  17. Immigration within European Union – Does health immigration make a difference in analgesic use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airaksinen M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available European integration has facilitated the emigration inside Europe and it has been predicted that the amount of immigrants in Southern European countries will increase in the future. As these people age and their morbidity increases, they will demand more services from local health care than immigrants do at the moment. The aim of this study is to determine the amount of Finnish people who have moved to Spain for health reasons (health immigrants and whether their health service and analgesic usage patterns differed from those of non-health immigrants. Methods: This study was carried out among Finnish people living in Costa del Sol area, southern Spain. The data were collected by questionnaire during 2002 by using a convenience sample of 1,000 Finns living permanently in the area (response rate 53%, n=530. Statistical analyses were conducted using statistical software SPSS 11.5.Results: Two-thirds of the respondents were categorised as health immigrants. Health immigrants were more often suffering from chronic morbidity, their perceived health status was poorer and they used public health services more often than the non-health immigrants. Half (50% of the all respondents had used some analgesics during the two weeks before the survey. There were more analgesic users among the health immigrant group (54 % vs. 43 %, p = 0.034 and they also used analgesics more frequently than the non-health immigrants (27 % vs. 9 %, p= 0.020. Conclusions: Our study indicates, that high amount of Finnish immigrants suffer from some degree of health problems and the health state factors have a large influence on the emigration into Spain. As this kind of trend might also exist among immigrants from other EU-nations, immigrants might burden the local Spanish health care services in the future. Therefore the Providers of health care services in immigrant areas should consider these trends in planning health care in the future.

  18. Comparison of two methods for estimating the number of undocumented Mexican adults in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, D M; Passel, J F

    1987-01-01

    This article compares 2 different methods for estimating the number of undocumented Mexican adults in Los Angeles County. The 1st method, the survey-based method, uses a combination of 1980 census data and the results of a survey conducted in Los Angeles County in 1980 and 1981. A sample was selected from babies born in Los Angeles County who had a mother or father of Mexican origin. The survey included questions about the legal status of the baby's parents and certain other relatives. The resulting estimates of undocumented Mexican immigrants are for males aged 18-44 and females aged 18-39. The 2nd method, the residual method, involves comparison of census figures for aliens counted with estimates of legally-resident aliens developed principally with data from the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). For this study, estimates by age, sex, and period of entry were produced for persons born in Mexico and living in Los Angeles County. The results of this research indicate that it is possible to measure undocumented immigration with different techniques, yet obtain results that are similar. Both techniques presented here are limited in that they represent estimates of undocumented aliens based on the 1980 census. The number of additional undocumented aliens not counted remains a subject of conjecture. The fact that the proportions undocumented shown in the survey (228,700) are quite similar to the residual estimates (317,800) suggests that the number of undocumented aliens not counted in the census may not be an extremely large fraction of the undocumented population. The survey-based estimates have some significant advantages over the residual estimates. The survey provides tabulations of the undocumented population by characteristics other than the limited demographic information provided by the residual technique. On the other hand, the survey-based estimates require that a survey be conducted and, if national or regional estimates are called for, they may

  19. Germany - an immigration country

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Horst

    2003-01-01

    Germany has about the same proportion of foreigners in its population as the United States, it is an immigration country. In a way, Germany has let immigration happen, but it did not really have an explicit immigration policy in the past. Now it has to make up its mind on its immigration policy in the future. The paper looks at the experience with immigration in the past, at the integration of foreigners and at the issues of immigration policy.

  20. Weight Loss Success Among Overweight and Obese Women of Mexican-Origin Living in Mexico and the United States: A Comparison of Two National Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha

    2017-02-01

    We assessed variations in and correlates of weight-loss success (WLS) among overweight/obese women in Mexico (WIMX) and Mexican-American women (MA). We used cross-national data from 2006 ENSANUT (Mexico) and NHANES (2001-2008) to compare 5061 WIMX with 550 MA's without known metabolic conditions. WLS was defined as losing ≥5 % of body weight over 1 year. MA's were more likely to attain WLS (OR 1.31; 95 % CI 1.01-1.70). WLS among WIMX was higher in those with at least high school, a provider screen of overweight and a lower BMI. Among MA's, an incomplete high school versus primary education reduced the odds of WLS. Among women who lost ≥10 lbs, weight-loss strategies such as eating less were higher among MA's. MA women were more likely than WIMX to attain WLS. Understanding these disparities can help design customized public health interventions that curb the obesity epidemic in these women in both countries.

  1. [Socioeconomic inequalities in oral health service utilization any time in their lives for Mexican schoolchildren from 6 to 12 years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Gayosso, Sandra Isabel; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Lara-Carrillo, Edith; Scougal-Vilchis, Rogelio José; de la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Márquez-Rodríguez, Sonia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Navarrete-Hernández, José de Jesús

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and the existence of socioeconomic inequalities in dental health service utilization (DHSU) any time in the life of Mexican schoolchildren aged 6-12 years of Pachuca Hidalgo, Mexico. We performed a cross-sectional study in 1,404 school children 6-12 years of age from 14 public schools in the city of Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Questionnaires were distributed to determine socioeconomic position variables (SEP). The dependent variable was DHSU once in life (0 = No, 1 = Yes). The analysis was performed in Stata 9 using chi-square tests. The mean age was 8.97 ± 1.99 years, 50.1% were boys. The prevalence of DHSU any time in life was 71.4%. The DHSU percentage increased according increasing age (p insurance, car ownership in the home, dwelling and household characteristics, a better level of SEP increased prevalence of DHSU. Although in the mother's schooling no differences were observed (p > 0.05), father's schooling was associated (p < 0.05) inversely to expectations. The findings of this study demonstrate that the prevalence of DHSU was not 100%; 28.6% of children have never had contact with a dentist. We identified certain indicator variables of SEP associated with DHSU, indicating the existence of inequalities in this oral health indicator.

  2. Generational Patterns in Mexican Americans' Academic Performance in an Unwelcoming Political Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosmann, Danyel A. V.; Roosa, Mark W.; Knight, George P.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that immigrant students often do better academically than their U.S.-born peers from the same ethnic group but it is unclear whether this pattern holds for Mexican Americans. We examined the academic performance of four generations of Mexican American students from fifth to 10th grade looking for generation differences and explanations for them. Using data from 749 families, we tested a model with fifth grade variables that differed by generation as potential mediators linking student generation to 10th grade academic performance. Results showed that immigrants were academically behind at fifth grade but caught up by seventh. Only economic hardship mediated the long term relationship between student generation and 10th grade academic performance; maternal educational expectations and child language hassles, English usage, discrimination, and mainstream values helped explained the early academic deficit of immigrant children. The results identified potential targets for interventions to improve Mexican American students' academic performance. PMID:24578588

  3. Immigrant Families over the Life Course: Research Directions and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rebecca L.; Glick, Jennifer E.; Bures, Regina M.

    2009-01-01

    Family researchers and policy makers are giving increasing attention to the consequences of immigration for families. Immigration affects the lives of family members who migrate as well as those who remain behind and has important consequences for family formation, kinship ties, living arrangements, and children's outcomes. We present a selective…

  4. Foreign-Born Concentration and Acculturation to Volunteering among Immigrant Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yuying

    2010-01-01

    Using children of immigrants sample from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study investigates how immigrant youth acculturating to the American social norm of volunteering and how the acculturation is modified by living in immigrant neighborhoods. Multilevel logistic regression produces distinct patterns for children living in…

  5. Rethinking sexual initiation: pathways to identity formation among gay and bisexual Mexican male youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Héctor; Fontdevila, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    The topic of same-sex sexual initiation has generally remained understudied in the literature on sexual identity formation among sexual minority youth. This article analyzes the narratives of same-sex sexual initiation provided by 76 gay and bisexual Mexican immigrant men who participated in interviews for the Trayectos Study, an ethnographic study of sexuality and HIV risk. These participants were raised in a variety of locations throughout Mexico, where they also realized their same-sex attraction and initiated their sexual lives with men. We argue that Mexican male same-sex sexuality is characterized by three distinct patterns of sexual initiation--one heavily-based on gender roles, one based on homosociality, and one based on object choice--which inform the men's interpretations regarding sexual roles, partner preferences, and sexual behaviors. We analyzed the social factors and forms of cultural/sexual socialization that lead sexual minority youth specifically to each of these three patterns of sexual initiation. Our findings confirm the importance of studying same-sex sexual initiation as a topic in its own right, particularly as a tool to gain a greater understanding of the diversity of same-sex sexual experiences and sexual identities within and among ethnic/cultural groups.

  6. Association between Integration Policies and Immigrants' Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Malmusi, Davide; Juel, Knud

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To integrate immigrants into their societies, European countries have adopted different types of policies, which may influence health through both material and psychosocial determinants. Recent studies have suggested poorer health outcomes for immigrants living in countries with poorly...... confounders and data comparability issues (e.g., French cross-sectional data) may affect the findings, this study suggests that different macro-level policy contexts may influence immigrants' mortality. Comparable mortality registration systems across Europe along with detailed socio-demographic information...... with their peers in the Netherlands, Turkish-born immigrants had higher all-cause mortality in Denmark (MRR men 1.92; 95% CI 1.74-2.13 and women 2.11; 1.80-2.47) but lower in France (men 0.64; 0.59-0.69 and women 0.58; 0.51-0.67). A similar pattern emerged for Moroccan-born immigrants. The relative differences...

  7. Higher education and children in immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sandy; Flores, Stella M

    2011-01-01

    The increasing role that immigrants and their children, especially those from Latin America, are playing in American society, Sandy Baum and Stella Flores argue, makes it essential that as many young newcomers as possible enroll and succeed in postsecondary education. Immigrant youths from some countries find the doors to the nation's colleges wide open. But other groups, such as those from Latin America, Laos, and Cambodia, often fail to get a postsecondary education. Immigration status itself is not a hindrance. The characteristics of the immigrants, such as their country of origin, race, and parental socioeconomic status, in addition to the communities, schools, and legal barriers that greet them in the United States, explain most of that variation. Postsecondary attainment rates of young people who come from low-income households and, regardless of income or immigration status, whose parents have no college experience are low across the board. Exacerbating the financial constraints is the reality that low-income students and those whose parents have little education are frequently ill prepared academically to succeed in college. The sharp rise in demand for skilled labor over the past few decades has made it more urgent than ever to provide access to postsecondary education for all. And policy solutions, say the authors, require researchers to better understand the differences among immigrant groups. Removing barriers to education and to employment opportunities for undocumented students poses political, not conceptual, problems. Providing adequate funding for postsecondary education through low tuition and grant aid is also straightforward, if not easy to accomplish. Assuring that Mexican immigrants and others who grow up in low-income communities have the opportunity to prepare themselves academically for college is more challenging. Policies to improve the elementary and secondary school experiences of all children are key to improving the postsecondary

  8. The New Asian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  9. Engaging in Security Work: Selective Disclosure in Friendships of Korean and Mexican Undocumented Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Esther Y

    2017-01-01

    While much of the literature on undocumented immigrants has focused on employment and education outcomes, we know little about the effects of their precarious legal status on interpersonal relationships. Based on interviews with 50 Korean and Mexican undocumented young adults, I find that, regardless of ethnoracial background, undocumented immigrants approach relationships cautiously, engaging in "security work" to protect themselves and their loved ones. Security work is a negotiated process...

  10. [Haiti, new immigrant community in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez P, Katherin; Valderas J, Jaime; Messenger C, Karen; Sánchez G, Carolina; Barrera Q, Francisco

    2018-04-01

    Migration is a growing phenomenon in Latin America influenced by several factors such as economic stability, employment, social welfare, education and health system. Currently Chile has a positive migration flow rate. Particularly, a significant number of Haitian immigrants has been observed du ring the last years, especially after earthquake of 2010. These immigrants present a different cultural background expressed in relevant aspects of living including parenting and healthcare. Knowing the Haitian culture and its health situation is relevant for a better understanding of their health needs. Haitian people come to Chile looking for a cordial reception and willing to find a place with better perspectives of wellbeing in every sense. Immigration represents a major challenge for Chilean health system that must be embraced. Integration efforts in jobs, health, education system and community living should be enhanced to ensure a prosper settlement in our country. A new immigration law is crucial to solving major problems derived from current law created in 1975.

  11. School Context and the Effect ESL Placement on Mexican-Origin Adolescents' Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Immigrant adolescents' academic achievement is crucial to our future economic stability, and Mexican-origin linguistic minority youth in U.S. schools generally demonstrate lower levels of achievement. English as a Second Language (ESL) programs provide an institutional response to these students' needs, the effect of which may vary by the proportion of immigrant students in the school. MEASURES: Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study (AHAA) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we estimate the effect of ESL placement on Mexican-origin achievement for first-, second-, and third-generation adolescents separately in schools with many and few immigrant students. RESULTS: The estimated effect of ESL placement varies by both immigrant concentration in the school and by students' generational status. CONCLUSIONS: We find that ESL enrollment may be protective for second-generation Mexican-origin adolescents in high immigrant concentration schools, and may prove detrimental for first-generation adolescents in contexts with few other immigrant students.

  12. School Context and the Effect ESL Placement on Mexican-Origin Adolescents’ Achievement*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Immigrant adolescents’ academic achievement is crucial to our future economic stability, and Mexican-origin linguistic minority youth in U.S. schools generally demonstrate lower levels of achievement. English as a Second Language (ESL) programs provide an institutional response to these students’ needs, the effect of which may vary by the proportion of immigrant students in the school. Measures Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study (AHAA) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we estimate the effect of ESL placement on Mexican-origin achievement for first-, second-, and third-generation adolescents separately in schools with many and few immigrant students. Results The estimated effect of ESL placement varies by both immigrant concentration in the school and by students’ generational status. Conclusions We find that ESL enrollment may be protective for second-generation Mexican-origin adolescents in high immigrant concentration schools, and may prove detrimental for first-generation adolescents in contexts with few other immigrant students. PMID:20354570

  13. Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canedo, Luis

    2008-01-01

    In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years

  14. The impact of immigration on the breastfeeding practices of Mainland Chinese immigrants in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Kris Yuet Wan; Bai, Dorothy Li; Chan, Noel P T; Wong, Janet Y H; Tarrant, Marie

    2018-03-01

    Researchers have found breastfeeding disparities between immigrant and native-born women in many countries. However, most studies on immigration and breastfeeding practices have been in Western countries. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of length of time since immigration on the breastfeeding practices of Mainland Chinese immigrants living in Hong Kong. We recruited 2704 mother-infant pairs from the postnatal wards of four public hospitals in Hong Kong. We examined the effect of migration status on the duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding. Breastfeeding duration was progressively shorter as the time since immigration increased. When compared with mothers who had lived in Hong Kong for Hong Kong-born participants had a 30% higher risk of stopping any breastfeeding (hazard ratio [HR] 1.34 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.10-1.63]) and exclusive breastfeeding (HR 1.33 [95% CI 1.11-1.58]). In both Hong Kong-born and immigrant participants, breastfeeding cessation was associated with return to work postpartum and the husband's preference for infant formula or mixed feeding. Intention to exclusively breastfeed and to breastfeed for >6 months, and previous breastfeeding experience substantially reduced the risk of breastfeeding cessation for both Hong Kong-born and immigrant participants. Health care professionals should consider immigration history in their assessment of pregnant women and provide culturally adapted breastfeeding support and encouragement to this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Does Immigrant Employment Matter for Exports? Evidence From Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiller, Sanne

    Immigration impacts the economy in ample ways: it affects growth, wages and total factor productivity. This study deals with the effects of immigration on firm exports. Can firms benefit from hiring immigrants to expand their export sales? Or do immigrants who live in the firm’s region affect trade...... evidence on the adjustment of firms’ product portfolio in response to immigration. Our results show that firms can reap the benefits from immigration only through hiring foreigners. This implies that the trade-cost reducing intercultural knowledge embedded in foreign expatriates can only be accessed via...... employment. Thus, to tap the full potential of foreign labor movements for international trade, political efforts should be targeted towards labor market integration of immigrants....

  16. The Mexican Committee against Racism and What It Reveals about Relations between Mexican and American Jews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Katz Gugenheim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work reconstructs the origin, organization, development, and disappearance of the Mexican Committee against Racism (Comité Mexicano contra el Racismo, CMR, active in Mexico City from 1944 to 1946, inthe context of the relations between a leading Jewish organization in the United States and a Mexican Jewish institution. The CMR appears in historiography as a Mexican anti-fascist institution, but this research reveals that it was conceived, implemented, financed, and supervised by the American Jewish Committee (AJC, a Jewish social action organization based in the United States, with the aim of fighting against racist and anti-Semitic prejudices, creating a friendly climate towards Jewish-refugee immigration, and quelling anti-American feelings in Mexico. The AJC's involvement was kept a secret for Mexicans in general and for the Jewish community in Mexico. Drawing on archives in Mexico and the United States, this work details the reasons that led to its organization, describes its implementation, explains why the AJC's involvement was kept a secret, and why the CMR failed to prosper and eventually disappeared.

  17. Historical, Socio-Cultural, and Conceptual Issues to Consider When Researching Mexican American Children and Families, and other Latino Subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Buriel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order for the field of psychology in the United States to maintain its relevance and validity, it must become more inclusive in its theory and research of Latinos, who are now the largest "minority" group in the nation. In particular, due to immigration and birth rates, Mexican Americans are the largest and fastest growing segment of the Latino population. This paper addresses some of the most significant historical and socio-cultural factors contributing to the psychological nature and wellbeing of Mexican Americans. These factors should be understood and used to guide research and theory in order to make the discipline of psychology relevant for Mexican Americans. The concept of mestizaje is used to explain the biological and cultural mixing constituting the diverse origins of the Mexican people. Immigration to the U.S. is described in terms of selective socio-cultural variables giving rise to a diverse Mexican American culture that is resistant to complete assimilation. Within a U.S. context, the constructs of generational status, acculturation, and biculturalism are used to explain the socio-cultural adaptation of Mexican Americans. The special role of children in immigrant families as language and cultural brokers are also discussed, and used to explain the adjustment of Mexican American families.

  18. Communication and cultural issues in providing reproductive health care to immigrant women: health care providers' experiences in meeting the needs of [corrected] Somali women living in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degni, Filio; Suominen, Sakari; Essén, Birgitta; El Ansari, Walid; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2012-04-01

    Communication problems due to language and cultural differences between health care professionals and patients are widely recognized. Finns are described as more silent whereas one concurrent large immigrant group, the Somalis, are described as more open in their communication. The aim of the study was to explore physicians-nurses/midwives' communication when providing reproductive and maternity health care to Somali women in Finland. Four individual and three focus group interviews were carried out with 10 gynecologists/obstetricians and 15 nurses/midwives from five selected clinics. The health care providers considered communication (including linguistic difficulties), cultural traditions, and religious beliefs to be problems when working with Somali women. Male and female physicians were generally more similar in communication style, interpersonal contacts, and cultural awareness than the nurses/midwives who were engaged in more partnership-building with the Somali women in the clinics. Despite the communication and cultural problems, there was a tentative mutual understanding between the Finnish reproductive health care professionals and the Somali women in the clinics.

  19. Environmental Inequality and Pollution Advantage among Immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtsiyarava, Maryia; Nawrotzki, Raphael J

    2017-04-01

    Environmental inequality scholarship has paid little attention to the disproportional exposure of immigrants in the United States (U.S.) to unfavorable environmental conditions. This study investigates whether new international migrants in the U.S. are exposed to environmental hazards and how this pattern varies among immigrant subpopulations (e.g., Hispanics, Asian, European). We combine sociodemographic information from the American Community Survey with toxicity-weighted chemical concentrations (Toxics Release Inventory) to model the relationship between toxin exposure and the relative population of recent immigrants across Public Use Microdata Areas (PUMAs, n=2,054) during 2005-2011. Results from spatial panel models show that immigrants tend to be less exposed to toxins, suggesting resilience instead of vulnerability. This pattern was pronounced among immigrants from Europe and Latin America (excluding Mexico). However, our results revealed that Mexican immigrants are disproportionately exposed to environmental hazards in wealthy regions.

  20. The Role of Acculturation in the Civic Engagement of Latino Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Michele Tucker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite continued growth and dispersion of the Latino immigrant population in the United States, the lingering effects of a sluggish national economy and growing anti-immigrant sentiments have contributed to ongoing marginalization and exclusion, further hindering their participation in American civic life. Despite these challenges, Latino immigrants have remained engaged, yet the factors and processes that facilitate participation in American society remain poorly understood. Data from the Latino National Survey and focus groups with Latino immigrants were used to examine how variations in levels of acculturation, demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status (SES, and characteristics of the immigrant experience influence the civic engagement of Latino immigrants in American society. We found that citizenship, length of residence in the United States, and higher SES enhanced civic engagement, while brown skin color, migration for economic reasons, and Mexican ancestry decreased participation. The level of acculturation significantly moderated the effects of these contextual factors.

  1. Experiences with treating immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Sima; Bjerre, Neele V; Dauvrin, Marie

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: While there has been systematic research on the experiences of immigrant patients in mental health services within certain European countries, little research has explored the experiences of mental health professionals in the delivery of services to immigrants across Europe. This study...... sought to explore professionals' experiences of delivering care to immigrants in districts densely populated with immigrants across Europe. METHODS: Forty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with mental health care professionals working in 16 European countries. Professionals in each country...... were recruited from three areas with the highest proportion of immigrants. For the purpose of this study, immigrants were defined as first-generation immigrants born outside the country of current residence, including regular immigrants, irregular immigrants, asylum seekers, refugees and victims...

  2. The Politics of Organic Phylogeny: The Art of Parenting and Surviving as Transnational Multilingual Latino Indigenous Immigrants in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Casas, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    This three-year qualitative research study took place in a new immigrant-receiving community in North Carolina. Utilizing narrative analysis, it explores how Mexican, Salvadoran, and Guatemalan immigrants of indigenous backgrounds use language as a survival tool to move in and out of transnational social spaces. In addition, it explores the ways…

  3. The Mexican American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Helen

    The purpose of this paper, prepared for the U. S. Commission on Civil Rights, is to indicate the types and ranges of problems facing the Mexican American community and to suggest ways in which these problems are peculiar to Mexican Americans. Specific examples are cited to illustrate major problems and personal experiences. Topics covered in the…

  4. NEIGHBORHOOD IMMIGRANT CONCENTRATION, ACCULTURATION, AND CULTURAL ALIENATION IN FORMER SOVIET IMMIGRANT WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arlene Michaels; Birman, Dina; Zenk, Shannon; Wang, Edward; Sorokin, Olga; Connor, Jorgia

    2009-01-01

    Several acculturation theories note the importance of surrounding context, but few studies describe neighborhood influences on immigrant adaptation. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among neighborhood immigrant concentration, acculturation, and alienation for 151 women aged 44-80 from the former Soviet Union who lived in the US fewer than 13 years. Participants resided in 65 census tracts in the Chicago area with varying concentrations of Russian-speaking and diverse immigrants. Results from self-report questionnaires suggest that the effect of acculturation on alienation varies depending on neighborhood characteristics. The study also demonstrates the complexity of individual and contextual influences on immigrant adoption. Understanding these relationships is important for developing community-based and neighborhood-level interventions to enhance the mental health of immigrants.

  5. Mexican Perspectives on Mexican-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    while serving in the United States military, working in the Bracero program and in American factories. By working with Americans, Mexicans learned that...Mexican government blames the problem on the United States. During the history of the Bracero Program (1942 -1964) 4.6 million Mexicans traveled to...and became familiar to Mexican migrants.ŕ The termination of the Bracero Program did not discourage Mexican agricultural workers from entering the

  6. Immigrant incorporation in the garment industry of Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, I; Bernard, R B; Kim, R

    1999-01-01

    This study expands immigrant social network theory and examined employment patterns in the garment industry in Los Angeles, California, among Latino workers employed by Asian immigrant entrepreneurs. The study determined that a large percentage of immigrant employees found their jobs through the immigrant economy. Entrepreneurship increased the supply of local jobs and expanded the economy at destination at no expense to natives. Immigrant entrepreneurs bought firms from nonimmigrant owners or started new ones with an immigrant labor supply. Massey's index is flawed due to its exclusion of the role of entrepreneurs. Migration networks facilitate entrepreneurship, but some ethnic groups have fewer entrepreneurs, such as Mexicans and Central Americans. A 1993 Los Angeles survey identified 3642 garment factories in its county. Mean employment was 27.1 persons. The garment industry was the 4th largest industry in the area in 1996, with 98,700 employees. It represented 6% of all wage and salary employees in the City and 5.5% of the immigrant labor force in the County in 1990. 93% of garment workers in 1990 were immigrants. It is estimated that 51% of garment factory owners were Asians; most employees were Latinos. Census figures on sewing machine operators indicated 47.3% of owners were Whites and 42.45 were Asians. 53.3% of employees were other ethnic groups, 14.5% were Asians, and 32.2% were Whites. It is estimated that 47.2% of total employment was due to the immigration economy. 71.5% of the total employment in the garment industry was in the immigrant sector.

  7. Mexican American Parents' Perceptions of Childhood Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Barbara J.; Barr, Kathleen L.; Baker, Sharon K.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the norms, values, and perceptions of urban immigrant Mexican American (MA) parents of school children relative to physical activity, healthy eating, and child risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Investigators facilitated five focus groups in an urban elementary school setting and analyzed data using qualitative…

  8. Differing Cognitive Trajectories of Mexican American Toddlers: The Role of Class, Nativity, and Maternal Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; Bein, Edward; Kim, Yoonjeon; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies reveal early and wide gaps in cognitive and oral language skills--whether gauged in English or Spanish--among Latino children relative to White peers. Yet, other work reports robust child health and social development, even among children of Mexican American immigrants raised in poor households, the so-called "immigrant…

  9. Mother-Child Attachment Representation and Relationships over Time in Mexican-Heritage Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Carollee; Vu, Jennifer A.; Hamilton, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Continuity and intergenerational transmission of representations of attachment were examined in a longitudinal sample of 88 Mexican immigrant mothers and their children who participated in the local intervention group of the Early Head Start Evaluation Study. The authors interviewed mothers with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Parent…

  10. The shape of things to come? Obesity prevalence among foreign-born vs. US-born Mexican youth in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Pebley, Anne R; Hsih, Katie; Chung, Chang Y; Goldman, Noreen

    2013-02-01

    Obesity among the Mexican-origin adult population in the US has been associated with longer stays in the US and with being US- vs. Mexican-born, two proxies for acculturation. This pattern is less clear for Mexican-origin children and young adults: recent evidence suggests that it may be reversed, with foreign-born Mexican youth in the US at higher risk of obesity than their US-born Mexican-American counterparts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the hypothesis that the immigrant advantage in obesity prevalence for Mexican-origin populations in the US does not hold for children and young adults. We use data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (N = 1143) and the California Health Interview Survey (N = 25,487) for respondents ages 4-24 to calculate the odds of overweight/obesity by ethnicity and nativity. We find support for the hypothesis that overweight/obesity prevalence is not significantly lower for first-generation compared to second- and third-generation Mexican-origin youth. Significantly higher obesity prevalence among the first generation was observed for young adult males (ages 18-24) and adolescent females (ages 12-17). The previously-observed protective effect against obesity risk among recent adult immigrants does not hold for Mexican-origin youth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Immigration in a Changing Economy; California’s Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    34 Bracero ") program . The result was the conver- sion of a predominately legal and seasonal flow of Mexican immi- grants into a predominately illegal...1964 termination of the Bracero program and the 1965 Immigration and Naturalization Act. In combination, these federal laws reversed the national...were sub- sequently joined by their families, compounding the initial effect. Although the Bracero program operated nationwide, its effects were

  12. "Unapologetic and Unafraid": Immigrant Youth Come out from the Shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, Hinda

    2011-01-01

    Young immigrants are challenging the boundaries of citizenship and insisting on their human rights. This chapter examines the civic lives of immigrant youth through the case of Latina/os, exploring the paradox of their apparent low civic education and engagement levels and remarkable participation in recent protests. After an overview of…

  13. Attitudes towards immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2008-01-01

    Using the European Social Survey 2002/3, we develop a new test of whether economic self-interest influences people's attitudes towards immigration, exploiting that people have widely different perceptions of the consequences of immigration......Using the European Social Survey 2002/3, we develop a new test of whether economic self-interest influences people's attitudes towards immigration, exploiting that people have widely different perceptions of the consequences of immigration...

  14. Crime and immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Bell

    2014-01-01

    Immigration is one of the most important policy debates in Western countries. However, one aspect of the debate is often mischaracterized by accusations that higher levels of immigration lead to higher levels of crime. The evidence, based on empirical studies of many countries, indicates that there is no simple link between immigration and crime. Crucially, the evidence points to substantial differences in the impact on property crime, depending on the labor market opportunities of immigrant ...

  15. What drives immigration amnesties?

    OpenAIRE

    Casarico, Alessandra; Facchini, Giovanni; Frattini, Tommaso

    2012-01-01

    We develop a general model of legal and illegal immigration to understand the basic tradeoffs faced by a government in the decision to implement an immigration amnesty in the presence of a selective immigration policy. We show that two channels play an important role: an amnesty is more likely the more restricted are the occupational opportunities of undocumented immigrants and the less redistributive is the welfare state. Empirical evidence based on a novel panel dataset of legalizations car...

  16. [Mental disorders among immigrants in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Graciela; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Castro, Ariel; Guajardo, Viviana; Torres, Pamela; Díaz, Berta

    2011-10-01

    Chile is receiving immigrant populations coming from other Latin-American countries. To determine the prevalence of Common Mental Disorders (CMD) among immigrants who live in Independencia, a quarter in Santiago, Chile. A cross sectional study was carried out in the primary health care clinic and in the state-funded school of Independencia. A representative sample of 282 adults and 341 children were interviewed. Mental disorders were diagnosed using CIS-R and MINI structured interviews. The interviewed immigrants came mostly from Peru. The prevalence of mental disorders in the adult population was 17.8% and among children, it was 29.3%. The adult immigrants have a lower prevalence of mental disorders than the Chilean population but it increases among children. Barriers of access to health services, that should be solved, were detected.

  17. Determinants of changes in dietary patterns among Chinese immigrants: a cross-sectional analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenmöller, Doenja L.; Gasevic, Danijela; Seidell, Jaap; Lear, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese individuals who have immigrated to a Western country initially tend to have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to people who are already living there. Some studies have found, however, that CVD risk increases over time in immigrants and that immigration to a western

  18. The health and safety concerns of immigrant women workers in the Toronto sportswear industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannagé, C M

    1999-01-01

    Immigrant women's conditions of work have worsened with new government and managerial strategies to restructure the Canadian apparel industry. Changes in occupational health and safety legislation have both given and taken away tools that immigrant women workers could use to improve the quality of their working lives. The author outlines a methodology for eliciting the health and safety concerns of immigrant women workers.

  19. Effect of acculturation and mutuality on family loyalty among Mexican American caregivers of elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hsueh-Fen S; An, Kyungeh

    2012-06-01

    Informal family care for elders is conventional in Mexican American communities despite increasing intergenerational gaps in filial values. In our study, we explored whether acculturation and dyadic mutuality, as perceived by Mexican American family caregivers, explain the caregivers' expectations of family loyalty toward elderly relatives. A nonexperimental, correlational design with convenience sampling was used in El Paso, Texas, from October 2007 to January 2008. Three bilingual promotoras collected data from 193 Mexican American adult caregivers of community-dwelling elders using three scales designed for Mexican Americans: the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans II-Short Form, the Mutuality Scale, and the Expectations of Family Loyalty of Children Toward Elderly Relatives Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to analyze the data. Acculturation had a marginal effect (r = .21, p loyalty toward elderly relatives. There was no significant correlation between acculturation and mutuality (r = .05). Although Mexican American caregivers with strong Mexican orientation may have high expectations of family loyalty toward elderly relatives, mutuality exhibits more significant effects on expectations. Among Mexican Americans, mutuality between the caregiving dyad, as perceived by caregivers, may be a better predictor of filial values than caregivers' acculturation alone. It may be useful to incorporate the dual paradigm of acculturation and mutuality into immigrant family care for elderly relatives. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  20. Age at migration and disability-free life expectancy among the elder Mexican-origin population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Garcia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migration selectivity is thought to shape the health profiles of Mexican immigrants. Objective: This study examines how the experience of Mexican migration to the United States affects the health process and the quality of life in old age by age at migration, specific to sex. Methods: We use 20 years of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to estimate the proportion of life spent disability-free prior to death across eight subgroups by sex, nativity, and age at migration among Mexican-origin elderly in the United States. Results: Female migrants are at a significant disadvantage in terms of IADL disability-free life expectancy relative to US-born women, particularly late-life migrants. Conversely, mid- and late-life male migrants exhibit an advantage in ADL disability-free life expectancy compared to their US-born counterparts. Conclusions: Foreign-born Mexican elders are not a homogeneous group. This issue merits special attention in the development of community-based long-term care programs in order to appropriately target the specific needs of different subgroups of older Mexican individuals entering their last decades of life. Contribution: This study contributes to immigrant health literature by providing a more comprehensive documentation of nativity differentials, by distinguishing subgroups of Mexican elderly by sex, nativity, and age at migration.

  1. Implementing Task-Oriented Content-Based Instruction for First- and Second-Generation Immigrant Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Williamson, Eliana

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how the ESL program at an ethnically/linguistically diverse community college (between San Diego and the Mexican border) moved from a general, grammar-based ESL curriculum to a content-based instruction (CBI) curriculum. The move was designed to better prepare 1st- and 2nd-generation immigrant students for freshman…

  2. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...... the impact of the increased number of immigrants differs between the two countries. We find higher inequality for immigrants than natives in Denmark but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this particular inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution...... of immigrants to overall inequality has increased, primarily caused by increased between-group inequality. The share of immigrants in the population is more important for the change in overall inequality in Denmark than in Germany, while the opposite is the case for inequality among immigrants....

  3. Mobile and Home-based Vendors’ Contributions to the Retail Food Environment in Rural South Texas Mexican-origin Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Zulema; Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R

    2012-01-01

    A growing concern with high rates of obesity and overweight among immigrant minority populations in the U.S. has focused attention on the availability and accessibility to healthy foods in such communities. Small-scale vending in rural, impoverished and underserved areas, however, is generally overlooked; yet, this type of informal activity and source for food is particularly important in such environs, or “food desserts,” where traditional forms of work and mainstream food outlets are limited or even absent. This exploratory study investigates two types of small-scale food vending that take place in rural colonias, or Mexican-origin settlements along the South Texas border with Mexico: mobile and home-based. Using a convenience sample of 23 vendors who live and work in Texas colonias, this study identifies the characteristics associated with mobile and home-based food vendors and their businesses and its contributions to the rural food environment. Findings reveal that mobile and home-based vending provides a variety of food and beverage options to colonia residents, and suggests that home-based vendors contribute a greater assortment of food options, including some healthier food items, than mobile food vendors, which offer and sell a limited range of products. Findings may contribute to the development of innovative policy solutions and interventions aimed at increasing healthy food options or reducing health disparities in immigrant communities. PMID:22531289

  4. The Minutemen and Anti-immigration Attitudes in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérick Douzet

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of the Minutemen in building up popular pressure for immigration reform and capturing the growing frustration of some of residents at the way the Bush administration is handling immigration in a context of heightened fear about national security. The immigration issue in California had quieted down after anti-immigration proposition 187 was passed –yet never enacted- in 1994. Pete Wilson had unsuccessfully used this divisive issue to win presidential nomination, alienating minority voters in the State and therefore undermining the strength of the Republican party.Despite an apparent growing tolerance about diversity and good economic times, the issue came back to California both through the deterioration of the situation at the border and through the national debate over immigration reform in the mid-2000s. Based on field work at the California-Mexican border, the author gives a portrait of the Minutemen, explaining their motivations, hopes, fears and action which help understand the perceptions and strategies of congressmen and legislators and the fascinating radicalization of their positions on immigration over the past two years.

  5. Poverty and program participation among immigrant children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjas, George J

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have long known that poverty in childhood is linked with a range of negative adult socioeconomic outcomes, from lower educational achievement and behavioral problems to lower earnings in the labor market. But few researchers have explored whether exposure to a disadvantaged background affects immigrant children and native children differently. George Borjas uses Current Population Survey (CPS) data on two specific indicators of poverty-the poverty rate and the rate of participation in public assistance programs-to begin answering that question. He finds that immigrant children have significantly higher rates both of poverty and of program participation than do native children. Nearly half of immigrant children are being raised in households that receive some type of public assistance, compared with roughly one-third of native children. Although the shares of immigrant and native children living in poverty are lower, the rate for immigrant children is nonetheless about 15 percentage points higher than that for native children-about the same as the gap in public assistance. Poverty and program participation rates among different groups of immigrant children also vary widely, depending in part on place of birth (foreign- or U.S.-born), parents (immigrant or native), and national origin. According to the CPS data, these native-immigrant differences persist into young adulthood. In particular, the program participation and poverty status of immigrant children is strongly correlated with their program participation and poverty status when they become young adults. But it is not possible, says Borjas, to tell whether the link results from a set of permanent factors associated with specific individuals or groups that tends to lead to "good" or "bad" outcomes systematically over time or from exposure during childhood to adverse socioeconomic outcomes, such as poverty or welfare dependency. Future research must explore the causal impact of childhood poverty on

  6. Explaining the Immigrant Health Advantage: Self-selection and Protection in Health-Related Factors Among Five Major National-Origin Immigrant Groups in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riosmena, Fernando; Kuhn, Randall; Jochem, Warren C.

    2017-01-01

    Despite being newcomers, immigrants often exhibit better health relative to native-born populations in industrialized societies. We extend prior efforts to identify whether self-selection and/or protection explain this advantage. We examine migrant height and smoking levels just prior to immigration to test for self-selection; and we analyze smoking behavior since immigration, controlling for self-selection, to assess protection. We study individuals aged 20–49 from five major national origins: India, China, the Philippines, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. To assess self-selection, we compare migrants, interviewed in the National Health and Interview Surveys (NHIS), with nonmigrant peers in sending nations, interviewed in the World Health Surveys. To test for protection, we contrast migrants’ changes in smoking since immigration with two counterfactuals: (1) rates that immigrants would have exhibited had they adopted the behavior of U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites in the NHIS (full —assimilation ); and (2) rates that migrants would have had if they had adopted the rates of nonmigrants in sending countries (no-migration scenario). We find statistically significant and substantial self-selection, particularly among men from both higher-skilled (Indians and Filipinos in height, Chinese in smoking) and lower-skilled (Mexican) undocumented pools. We also find significant and substantial protection in smoking among immigrant groups with stronger relative social capital (Mexicans and Dominicans). PMID:28092071

  7. “Why We Stay”: Immigrants’ motivations for remaining in communities impacted by anti-immigration policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Valentine, Jessa L.; Padilla, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Although restrictive immigration policy reduces incentives for unauthorized immigrants to remain in the United States, many immigrants remain in their U.S. community in spite of the anti-immigration climate surrounding them. This study explores motivations shaping immigrants’ intentions to stay in Arizona after passage of Senate Bill 1070 in 2010, one of the most restrictive immigration policies in recent decades. We conducted three focus groups in a large metropolitan city in Arizona with Mexican immigrant parents (N = 25). Themes emerging from the focus groups described multiple and interlocking personal, family and community, and contemporary sociopolitical motivations to stay in their community, and suggest that some important motivating factors have evolved as a result of immigrants’ changing environment. Implications for research and social policy reform are discussed. PMID:23875853

  8. Supporting Two Households: Unaccompanied Mexican Minors and Their Absences from U.S. Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This article illustrates simultaneous household participation in the lives of undocumented, unaccompanied Mexican teenage minors in New York City and its impact on their school attendance. Emigrating without parents, some Mexican youths arrive to enter into the labor market, not school. Unable to assume monetary dependence, these youths' absences…

  9. Stories of Social Class: Self-Identified Mexican Male College Students Crack the Silence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jana L.; Donovan, Jody; Guido-DiBrito, Florence

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the meaning of social class in the lives of five self-identified Mexican male college students. Participants shared the significant influence social class has on their college experience. Intersections of social class and students' Mexican identity are illuminated throughout the findings. Themes include: social class rules and…

  10. Comprehensive Immigration Reform: Becoming Americans - U.S. Immigrant Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbaut, RG

    2007-01-01

    Hearing on 'Comprehensive Immigration Reform: Becoming Americans - US Immigrant Integration,' Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Serial No. 110-27. May 16, 2007. Abstract: In this statement to a House Hearing on comprehensive immigration reform focusing on immigrant integration, English and foreign language competencies, preferences and use among immigrants and thei...

  11. Plasticity, political economy, and physical growth status of Guatemala Maya children living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, B; Loucky, J

    1997-01-01

    Migration of Maya refugees to the United States since the late 1970s affords the opportunity to study the consequences of life in a new environment on the growth of Maya children. The children of this study live in Indiantown, Florida, and Los Angeles, California. Maya children between 4 and 14 years old (n = 240) were measured for height, weight, fatness, and muscularity. Overall, compared with reference data for the United States, the Maya children are, on average, healthy and well nourished. They are taller and heavier and carry more fat and muscle mass than Maya children living in a village in Guatemala. However, they are shorter, on average, than children of black, Mexican-American, and white ethnicity living in Indiantown. Children of Maya immigrants born in the United States tend to be taller than immigrant children born in Guatemala or Mexico. Families that invest economic and social resources in their children have taller children. More economic successful families have taller children. Migration theory and political economy theory from the social sciences are combined with plasticity theory and life history theory (parental investment) from biology to interpret these data.

  12. Immigration and Sleep Problems in a Southern European Country: Do Immigrants Get the Best Sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Nazmy; Artazcoz, Lucía

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes the differences in the prevalence of insomnia symptoms and nonrestorative sleep (NRS) between people born in Spain and immigrants from 7 countries with most immigrants in Spain. Data come from the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey. The sample was composed of all individuals aged 16 to 64 years from Spain and the 7 countries with most immigrants in Spain (N = 22,224). In both sexes, people from Bolivia had a higher prevalence of insomnia symptoms and NRS. Conversely, people from Ecuador, Morocco, and Romania had less insomnia symptoms and NRS than Spanish-born participants. No differences were found between Spanish-born participants and Colombian, Peruvian, and Argentinian women. Poor living conditions in the country of origin and in the host country, discrimination, and culturally related lifestyles could be related to poorer sleep health among Bolivian men. Acculturation may explain the similar sleep health patterns noted between Spanish-born participants and long-term immigrants.

  13. Immigrant entrepreneurship in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Vinogradov, Evgueni

    2008-01-01

    Doctoral thesis (Ph.D.) – Bodø Graduate School of Business, 2008 The purpose of this doctoral thesis is to add to the knowledge about immigrant entrepreneurship in Norway and to test the existing theories relating to immigrant entrepreneurship. In this work, an immigrant entrepreneur is defined as a business owner born outside Norway with both parents born abroad who is involved into the activities characterised by economic innovation, organisation creation, and profit-seeking in the marke...

  14. Prejudice and Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo E Giordani; Michele Ruta

    2008-01-01

    We study immigration policy in a small open receiving economy under self-selection of migrants. We show that immigration policy choice affects and is affected by the migratory decisions of skilled and unskilled foreign workers. From this interaction multiple equilibria may arise, which are driven by the natives' expectations on the migrants' size and skill composition (and, hence, on the welfare effects of immigration). In particular, pessimistic (optimistic) beliefs induce a country to impos...

  15. The Effects of Immigration and Media Influence on Body Image Among Pakistani Men

    OpenAIRE

    Saghir, Sheeba; Hyland, Lynda

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of media influence and immigration on body image among Pakistani men. Attitudes toward the body were compared between those living in Pakistan (n = 56) and those who had immigrated to the United Arab Emirates (n = 58). Results of a factorial analysis of variance demonstrated a significant main effect of immigrant status. Pakistani men living in the United Arab Emirates displayed poorer body image than those in the Pakistan sample. Results also indicated a second m...

  16. [The remittances in U.S. dollars that Mexican migrants send home from the United States (a study based on data from the Survey of Migration in the Northern Frontier Region of Mexico)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona Vasquez, R

    1998-01-01

    The difficulties in obtaining reliable data on remittances to Mexico by Mexican immigrants in the United States are first outlined. An analysis of such remittances is then attempted using data from a recent survey, the Encuesta sobre Migracion en la Frontera Norte. Data from this survey are used to analyze several aspects of remittances "such as the direct determination of the amount of the remittances and the identification of the immigrants that send them according to their social and demographic features, and the location of Mexican zones where the remittances arrive, [and] the variations in the amount and frequency of the remittances among the different groups of immigrants." (EXCERPT)

  17. Underemployment of Immigrant Women in Iceland – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Burdikova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of immigrants living in Iceland has been steadily on the rise for the last decade; between 2007 and 2017, the percentage of immigrants living in Iceland has increased from 7.6 % to 11.9%. Akureyri, the largest town in the North of Iceland with considerable industry and service, has seen its immigrant population double in the last decade, and is now home to 931 immigrants for a total of 18 488 inhabitants. New research from the University of Akureyri[1]shows that immigrant women are the most vulnerable people in the labour market in Iceland. Many occupy positions that do not fit with their level of education; despite having received higher education than men. For example, in the survey conducted 30% of immigrant women in Akureyri answered that they are in employment that does not suit their background, compared to the same answer by only 8% of Icelandic women. This difference has a direct impact on the income: just 11% of immigrant women answered that they earn 300 000 ISK or more per month, compared to 37% for Icelandic women and 22% for immigrant men.

  18. The integration of immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Bauböck, Rainer

    1995-01-01

    from the Table of Contents: Migration and integration - Basic concepts and definitions; Immigration and Integration policies; The legal framework for integration; Dimension of social integration; Cultural integration; Conclusions;

  19. Golden Years or Retirement Fears? Private Pension Inequality Among Canada's Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Josh; Lightman, Naomi

    2017-06-01

    Currently, many immigrants are disqualified from Canada's public pension scheme because of residency requirements. In addition, decades of low income and labour market exclusion prohibit many Canadian immigrants from building adequate private pension savings throughout their working life. Together, these factors present serious concerns for immigrant seniors' economic well-being. Using Canadian census data spanning a twenty-year period (1991-2011), we find that income from personal savings plans and investments has declined sharply for both native-born and immigrant Canadians, with recent immigrant cohorts faring worst. However, since 1991, native-born and immigrant men living in Canada for 40-plus years had major gains in private employer pensions (Registered Pension Plans; [RPPs]). Yet RPP income for all other immigrant cohorts remained stable or declined during these decades. Thus, the data demonstrate a worrisome growing private savings gap between native-born men and all others in Canada, with newer immigrants and women faring worst.

  20. Navigating between two cultures: Immigrants' gender attitudes toward working women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Pessin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gender attitudes toward women's employment are of particular importance because they positively influence gender-equal outcomes in the labor market. Our understanding of the mechanisms that promote egalitarian gender attitudes among immigrants, however, remains limited. Objective: By studying first- and second-generation immigrants from multiple origins and living in different countries, this article seeks to explain under what conditions the prevalent cultural attitudes toward gender roles at the origin and destination influence immigrants' gender attitudes. We address three main research questions. First, does the country-of-origin gender ideology influence immigrants' views toward working women? Second, does the country-of-destination gender ideology influence immigrants' views toward working women? And third, are these relationships moderated by (1 the immigrant generation; (2 the age at arrival in the country of destination; (3 the length of residence at the destination? Methods: Using data from the European Social Survey, we model immigrants' gender attitudes toward working women by using linear cross-classified models to account for clustering into the country of origin and destination. Results: The results highlight the importance of the context of early socialization in shaping immigrants' gender attitudes. First-generation immigrants, and more specifically adult migrants, hold gender attitudes that reflect more strongly the country of origin's gender culture. In contrast, the positive association between gender ideology at destination and immigrants' gender attitudes is stronger among second-generation immigrants and child migrants. Contribution: We add to the literature on gender ideology formation by analyzing the influence of gender ideology at the origin and destination levels on the gender attitudes of immigrants from 96 countries of origin and residing across 32 countries of destination.

  1. Identity Reconfiguration of Immigrants in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vieira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The starting point is the principle that there is no immigrant culture, but rather, different ways of living, coexisting and identifying oneself within the cultural worlds that each subject crosses on his or her social path. Here we study Brazilian immigrants in Portugal, working with the first wave (starting at the end of the 1980s and the second wave (at the turn of the 20th to 21st century. We intend, firstly, to show how identity is reconstructed between two banks: the departure culture and the arrival culture. Secondly, we intend to give a voice to the most silent in the understanding of immigrants: the process of identity reconstruction of Brazilian immigrants is presented, resulting from ethno-biographic interviews. We will consider the cultural transfusion theory and observe the heterogeneous ways of living between cultures, whether by rejecting the departure culture (the Oblato‘s case, refusing the arrival one at a given moment (the mono-cultural subject according to the source culture, living in an ambivalent manner between the two (the multicultural self, or, finally, inventing a third bank, as the poets say, which corresponds to an attitude of including the cultural differences through which one crosses during his or her life history in an intercultural self (the Intercultural Transfuga.

  2. Mothers' Parenting Dimensions and Adolescent Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors in a Low-Income, Urban Mexican American Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manongdo, Jennifer A.; Garcia, Jorge I. Ramirez

    2007-01-01

    The relation between adolescent-reported parenting behaviors and mother-reported youth externalizing and internalizing behaviors was examined among 91 Mexican American mother-adolescent (ages 13-17) dyads recruited from an immigrant enclave in a large midwestern metropolitan area. Two major dimensions of mothers' parenting emerged: supportive…

  3. Examining the Effects of Mexican Serial Migration and Family Separations on Acculturative Stress, Depression, and Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Dana; Reyes, Karina

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of parent-child separations during serial migration to the United States in predicting individual- and family-level outcomes in Mexican immigrant families. We assessed parents' subjective appraisals of their family's separation and reunion experiences to explore associations with self-reported acculturative stress,…

  4. SES Gradients Among Mexicans in the United States and in Mexico: A New Twist to the Hispanic Paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Palloni, Alberto; Riosmena, Fernando; Wong, Rebeca

    2016-10-01

    Recent empirical findings have suggested the existence of a twist in the Hispanic paradox, in which Mexican and other Hispanic foreign-born migrants living in the United States experience shallower socioeconomic status (SES) health disparities than those in the U.S. In this article, we seek to replicate this finding and test conjectures that could explain this new observed phenomenon using objective indicators of adult health by educational attainment in several groups: (1) Mexican-born individuals living in Mexico and in the United States, (2) U.S.-born Mexican Americans, and (3) non-Hispanic American whites. Our analytical strategy improves upon previous research on three fronts. First, we derive four hypotheses from a general framework that has also been used to explain the standard Hispanic paradox. Second, we study biomarkers rather than self-reported health and related conditions. Third, we use a binational data platform that includes both Mexicans living in Mexico (Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006) and Mexican migrants to the United States (NHANES 1999-2010). We find steep education gradients among Mexicans living in Mexico's urban areas in five of six biomarkers of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and in the overall MetS score. Mexican migrants living in the United States experience similar patterns to Mexicans living in Mexico in glucose and obesity biomarkers. These results are inconsistent with previous findings, suggesting that Mexican migrants in the United States experience significantly attenuated health gradients relative to the non-Hispanic white U.S. Our empirical evidence also contradicts the idea that SES-health gradients in Mexico are shallower than those in the United States and could be invoked to explain shallower gradients among Mexicans living in the United States.

  5. Determinants of changes in dietary patterns among Chinese immigrants: a cross-sectional analysis : a cross-sectional analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenmöller, D.L.; Gasevic, D.; Seidell, J.C.; Lear, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chinese individuals who have immigrated to a Western country initially tend to have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to people who are already living there. Some studies have found, however, that CVD risk increases over time in immigrants and that immigration to a

  6. [Immigrants from across the border in Tandil: Chileans and Bolivians in the 1990s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almandoz, M G

    1997-12-01

    "This article deals with [the] settlement of immigrants from Chile and Bolivia in a town in the province of Buenos Aires [Argentina], far away from the borders and from the metropolitan area. Although underrepresented when compared with the overall percentage of immigrants from those two countries in Argentina, the interest of this case lies in the possibility of understanding settlement of new immigrants in dynamic areas of the country. Chilean immigrants live in Tandil in greater number than Bolivian immigrants, but are also older. Though a certain mobility is not unknown, they usually hold low skilled jobs and are only by exception granted social security and medical insurance." (EXCERPT)

  7. Immigration: Coming to America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    To say that immigration is currently a controversial issue would be an understatement. The media is rife with misinformation and does a very poor job of making the critical distinction between legal and illegal immigration. Because of this, it is vitally important that libraries provide students with clear and unbiased material on the topic. In…

  8. Workplace Concentration of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer–employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37% of an immigrant’s coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14% of a native-born worker’s coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452

  9. IMMIGRATION GROWTH TENDENCIES IN OECD COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran SARIHASAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Immigration became one of the relevant economic topics in recent years. Over the centuries millions of people have migrated, despite the physical, cultural etc. obstacles, to other lands in search of better lives for themselves and their children. In the context of development, globalization and labor market mobility, it is necessary to further analyze the determinants and consequences of migration not only on the host country, but also on the sending country. The increased interest and availability of data keeps this subject in the attention of economists all over the world. In this case an increase in immigration became very significant ıssue for policymakers. The aims of this study are to describe immigration growth tendencies and to answer how much is the average growth rate of foreıgn born population. Thus, in order to measure the native and foreign-born unemployed migrants, twenty-seven OECD countries were used in this research paper.

  10. What's Values Got to Do with It? Thriving among Mexican/Mexican American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Consoli, Melissa L.; Llamas, Jasmín; Consoli, Andrés J.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined traditional Mexican/Mexican American and perceived U.S. mainstream cultural values as predictors of thriving. One hundred twenty-four (37 men, 87 women) self-identified Mexican/Mexican American college students participated in the study. The traditional Mexican/Mexican American cultural values of family support and religion…

  11. On the move: Analyzing immigration determinants and immigrant outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcke, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372640060

    2017-01-01

    Given the increased number of immigrants worldwide, the determinants of immigration and the social and economic integration of immigrants into the countries of destination are of particular importance. The contributions of this dissertation address the determinants of immigration by looking at the

  12. Age at Immigration and Educational Attainment of Young Immigrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Veenman, J.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    For immigrants who arrive in a country at a young age it is easier to assimilate than for teenagers.This paper investigates up to what immigration age the educational attainment of young immigrants in the Netherlands is similar to the educational attainment of secondgeneration immigrants, who were

  13. Attitudes towards Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Klemmensen, Robert; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne

    2016-01-01

    This article examines if deep-seated psychological differences add to the explanation of attitudes toward immigration. We explore whether the Big Five personality traits matter for immigration attitudes beyond the traditional situational factors of economic and cultural threat and analyze how...... individuals with different personalities react when confronted with the same situational triggers. Using a Danish survey experiment, we show that different personality traits have different effects on opposition toward immigration. We find that Openness has an unconditional effect on attitudes toward...... high on Conscientiousness are more sensitive to the skill level of immigrants. The results imply that personality is important for attitudes toward immigration, and in the conclusion, we further discuss how the observed conditional and unconditional effects of personality make sense theoretically....

  14. Holdninger til Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Roland Munch, Jakob; Schroll, Sanne

    2006-01-01

    Denne artikel belyser holdninger til immigration blandt borgere i Danmark og de øvrige EU-15 lande - herunder holdningerne til immigration, der følger af den seneste EU-udvidelse. Det analyseres, hvilke faktorer der ligger til frund for disse holdninger, samt i hvilken udstrækning danskere afviger...... fra EU-gennemsnittet. Den typiske dansker er lidt mere skeptisk overfor immigration end andre europæere. Danskerne afskiller sig desuden ved, at forholdsvis få forbinder øget immigration med negative konsekvenser for arbejdsmarkedet, men forholdsvis mange forbinder det med højere omkostninger...... for velfærdsstaten. Når der tages hensyn til opfattelserne af de økonomiske konsekvenser af immigration, kommer Danmark til at fremstå som et væsentligt mere immigrationsskeptisk land, end hvad der kommer til udtryk i de ukorrigerede holdninger....

  15. Holdninger til immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne

    Denne artikel belyser holdninger til immigration blandt borgere i Danmark og de øvrige EU-15 lande - herunder holdningerne til immigration, der følger af den seneste EU-udvidelse. Det analyseres, hvilke faktorer der ligger til frund for disse holdninger, samt i hvilken udstrækning danskere afviger...... fra EU-gennemsnittet. Den typiske dansker er lidt mere skeptisk overfor immigration end andre europæere. Danskerne afskiller sig desuden ved, at forholdsvis få forbinder øget immigration med negative konsekvenser for arbejdsmarkedet, men forholdsvis mange forbinder det med højere omkostninger...... for velfærdsstaten. Når der tages hensyn til opfattelserne af de økonomiske konsekvenser af immigration, kommer Danmark til at fremstå som et væsentligt mere immigrationsskeptisk land, end hvad der kommer til udtryk i de ukorrigerede holdninger...

  16. [French immigration policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  17. Mexican Folkart for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Graciela; And Others

    Directions, suggested materials, and illustrations are given for making paper mache pinatas and masks, cascarones, Ojos de Dios, maracas, dresser scarf embroidery, burlap murals, yarn designs, paper plate trays, paper cut designs, the poppy, sarape aprons, and paper Mexican dolls. Filled with candy and broken, the pinata is used on most Mexican…

  18. Mexican Identification. Project Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Rita

    This document presents an outline and teacher's guide for a community college-level teaching module in Mexican identification, designed for students in introductory courses in the social sciences. Although intended specifically for cultural anthropology, urban anthropology, comparative social organization and sex roles in cross-cultural…

  19. Becoming Overweight Without Gaining a Pound: Weight Evaluations and the Social Integration of Mexicans in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Claire E; Van Hook, Jennifer; Gonzalez, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Mexican women gain weight with increasing duration in the United States. In the United States, body dissatisfaction tends to be associated with depression, disordered eating, and incongruent weight evaluations, particularly among white women and women of higher socioeconomic status. However, it remains unclear how overweight and obesity is interpreted by Mexican women. Using comparable data of women ages 20-64 from both Mexico (the 2006 Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutricion; N=17,012) and the United States (the 1999-2009 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys; N=8,487), we compare weight status evaluations among Mexican nationals, Mexican immigrants, U.S.-born Mexicans, U.S.-born non-Hispanic Whites, and U.S.-born non-Hispanic blacks. Logistic regression analyses, which control for demographic and social-economic variables and measured body mass index and adjust for the likelihood of migration for Mexican nationals, indicate that the tendency to self-evaluate as overweight among Mexicans converges with levels among non-Hispanic whites and diverges from blacks over time in the United States. Overall, the results suggest a U.S. integration process in which Mexican-American women's less critical self-evaluations originate in Mexico but fade with time in the United States as they gradually adopt U.S. white norms for thinner body sizes. These results are discussed in light of social comparison and negative health assimilation.

  20. Away from home: experiences of Mexican American families in pediatric palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contro, Nancy; Davies, Betty; Larson, Judith; Sourkes, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors describe the experiences of Mexican American family members who immigrated to the United States and then experienced the death of a child. Participants described difficulties they encountered crossing the border, leaving the culture of their homeland, and then caring for a seriously ill child. Key themes that characterized their experience of being far from home included a backdrop of poverty, absence of traditional social support, and challenges caring for healthy siblings. Participants made comparisons between health care in Mexico and the United States and assessed the trade-off they made to come to the United States, discussing access to medical care and how they were able to relate to health care providers. Further, participants conveyed how rituals from their home country were important in maintaining connections with the child who died. Based on these themes, clinical implications and strategies that focus on understanding participants' experiences with past traumas, communication and literacy needs, and the challenges of living in poverty--especially with a critically ill child--are needed.

  1. Voting over Selective Immigration Policies with Immigration Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Russo

    2011-01-01

    The claim that "skilled immigration is welcome" is often associated to the increasing adoption of selective immigration policies. I study the voting over differentiated immigration policies in a two-country, three-factor general equilibrium model where there exist skilled and unskilled workers, migration decisions are endogenous, enforcing immigration restriction is costly, and natives dislike unskilled immigration. According to my findings, decisions over border closure are made to protect t...

  2. The Human Face of Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    In the past, nativists opposed immigration, period. The sharp distinction between "legal" and "illegal" immigrants emerged fairly recently, according to immigration historian David Reimers, a professor of history at New York University. "Basically, by the mid-90s 'legal' immigration was no longer an issue," he says.…

  3. Empower Educators to Teach Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Sara; Kugler, Eileen Gale; Tesh, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, U.S. immigration has changed significantly, yet the way we teach about immigration in schools has changed little. The American Immigration Council has developed a two-year program on Long Island, an area experiencing an increase of new arrivals and anti-immigrant sentiment. The program empowers teachers with the knowledge to…

  4. Latino Immigration, Education, and Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Immigration is often framed as a problem, yet it is also a time of remarkable opportunity. While immigrants come to the United States from all over the world, the author focuses on the unique and urgent issues related to Latino immigration. Immigrant Latinos have changed the face of America and U.S. schools. Approximately one in five K-12 students…

  5. Genetic ancestry in relation to the metabolic response to a US versus traditional Mexican diet: a randomized crossover feeding trial among women of Mexican descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Torres, M; De Dieu Tapsoba, J; Kratz, M; Lampe, J W; Breymeyer, K L; Levy, L; Song, X; Villaseñor, A; Wang, C-Y; Fejerman, L; Neuhouser, M L; Carlson, C S

    2017-03-01

    Certain populations with a large proportion of indigenous American (IA) genetic ancestry may be evolutionarily adapted to traditional diets high in legumes and complex carbohydrates, and may have a detrimental metabolic response to US diets high in refined carbohydrates and added sugars. We tested whether IA ancestry modified the metabolic response to a US versus traditional Mexican diet in a controlled dietary intervention. First and second generation Mexican immigrant women (n=53) completed a randomized crossover feeding trial testing the effects of a US versus traditional Mexican diet. The metabolic response to the diets was measured by fasting serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), adiponectin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and computed homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA IR ). Blood collected at baseline was used for genotyping, and estimation of African, European and IA ancestries with the use of 214 ancestry informative markers. The genetic ancestral background was 56% IA, 38% European and 6% African. Women in the highest IA ancestry tertile (>62%) were shorter in height, less educated and less acculturated to the US lifestyle, and tended to have higher waist-to-hip ratio compared with women in the middle and lowest IA ancestry tertiles, respectively. Compared with the US diet, the traditional Mexican diet tended to reduce glucose, insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and HOMA IR among women in the middle IA ancestry group (IA ancestry ⩽45-62%), whereas having no effect on biomarkers related to inflammation. We observed modest interactions between IA ancestry and the metabolic response to a US versus traditional Mexican diet among Mexican immigrant women.

  6. Overeducation among immigrants in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson Joona, Pernilla; Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Wadensjo, Eskil

    2014-01-01

    The utilization and reward of the human capital of immigrants in the labor market of the host country has been studied extensively. Using Swedish register data from 2001–2008, we extend the immigrant educational mismatch literature by analyzing incidence, wage effects and state dependence...... in overeducation among natives and immigrants. In line with previous research we find a higher incidence and a lower return to overeducation among immigrants indicating that immigrants lose more from being overeducated. We find a high degree of state dependence in overeducation both among natives and immigrants......, but considerably higher among immigrants....

  7. The Voces Project: Investigating How Latino/a Immigrant Children Make Sense of Engaging in School and School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson-Martin, John C.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how a group of Mexican immigrant children in the United States made sense of engaging in school and school mathematics. The research focused on a population of Latino/a middle school students who were a distinct minority, building a model that shows how a complex set of cognitive, sociocultural, and institutional factors…

  8. Hospitalization rates among economic immigrants to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Edward; Sanmartin, Claudia; Manuel, Douglas G

    2017-07-19

    Economic immigrants generally, and economic class principal applicants (ECPAs) specifically, tend to have better health than other immigrants. However, health outcomes vary among subcategories within this group, especially by sex. This study examines hospitalization rates among ECPAs aged 25 to 74 who arrived in Canada between 1980 and 2006 as skilled workers, business immigrants, or live-in caregivers. The analysis used two linked databases to estimate age-standardized hospitalization rates (ASHRs) overall and for leading causes by sex. ASHRs of ECPA subcategories were compared with each other and with those of the Canadian-born population. Logistic regression was used to derive odds ratios for hospitalization among ECPAs, by sex. Male and female ECPAs aged 25 to 74 had significantly lower all-cause ASHRs than did the Canadian-born population in the same age range. This pattern prevailed for each ECPA subcategory and for each disease examined. Compared with skilled workers, business immigrants had lower odds of hospitalization; live-in caregivers who arrived after 1992 had higher odds. Adjustment for education, official language proficiency, and world region reduced the strength of or eliminated these associations. Compared with the Canadian-born population, ECPAs generally had low hospitalization rates. Differences were apparent among ECPA subcategories.

  9. Migration, Quality of Life And Health of Brazilian Immigrants in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliany Nazaré Oliveira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immigrants face many challenges when settling in a foreign country, numerous factors influence this immigrant experience including the resources they bring with them and those they find in the host society. The literature has indicated that a significant number of individuals migrate in search of a better quality of life. In this context, the objective of the study was to analyze the quality of life and health of Brazilian immigrants living in Portugal, using the "Medical Outcomes Study: 36-Item Short Form Survey" (SF-36. Methods and Results: A cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach developed under the project titled: Health status and quality of life of Brazilian immigrants in Portugal conducted in the first half of 2016, with 682 Brazilian immigrant women over 18 living in Portugal. This study adopted as reference SF-36, a generic instrument for the evaluation of Quality of Life. It can be affirmed that the quality of life and health of Brazilian immigrants living in Portugal is good, since all dimensions presented values above 50%. It was evidenced that Brazilian immigrants who live alone have lower levels of quality of life and health than those who live with someone and, that Brazilian immigrants who are unemployed, have low levels of quality of life and health compared to those who are in another employment situation, and Brazilian immigrants entering the labor market with a workload of more than 40 hours per week present similar levels of quality of life and health compared to those who work fewer hours. Conclusion: In general, one can affirm that the quality of life and health of Brazilian immigrants living in Portugal is good, but due to the particularities of the migration process in the current political and international context, a systematic monitoring of living conditions and health of this population is necessary. Keywords: Emigrants and Immigrants; Quality of life; Women, Mental health

  10. Immigration And Self-Selection

    OpenAIRE

    George J. Borjas

    1988-01-01

    Self-selection plays a dominant role in determining the size and composition of immigrant flows. The United States competes with other potential host countries in the "immigration market". Host countries vary in their "offers" of economic opportunities and also differ in the way they ration entry through their immigration policies. Potential immigrants compare the various opportunities and are non-randomly sorted by the immigration market among the various host countries. This paper presents ...

  11. Toward immigration reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Mark

    2005-01-01

    For the most part, immigrants in the United States do not have access to the very safety-net benefits supported by their taxes, nor to essential due-process rights, simply because they are not citizens or legal residents. Contemporary demographics of immigration and post-9/11 security concerns have colored our traditional hospitality as a nation of immigrants and made life more difficult for immigrants. The Catholic Church has a rich history of scriptural and social teaching that addresses the question of immigration. Stories of forced migration in the Pentateuch led to commandments regarding strangers and the responsibility to be welcoming. In the New Testament, we see that the Holy Family themselves were refugees. The Gospel of St. Matthew tells us that we will be judged by the way we respond to migrants and others in need. In Exsul Familia, Pope Pius XII reaffirms the commitment of the church to care for pilgrims, aliens, exiles, and migrants. In Ecclesia in America, Pope John Paul II states that the ultimate solution to illegal immigration is the elimination of global underdevelopment and that, in the meantime, the human rights of all migrants must be respected. In 2003, the bishops of Mexico and the United States jointly issued the pastoral letter Strangers No Longer: Together on the Journey of Hope. In this letter, the bishops say that U.S. immigration policy should protect the human rights and dignity of immigrants and asylum seekers. The bishops also offer a number of proposed public policy responses toward that end. To advance the principles contained in Strangers No Longer, the bishops have decided to mount a national campaign designed to unite and mobilize a growing network of Catholic organizations and individuals, as well as others of good faith. In addition, the campaign will seek to dispel myths and misperceptions about immigrants.

  12. "A Day Without Immigrants"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiskanen, Benita

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This article considers the debates surrounding the "Day Without Immigrants" protests organized in major U.S. cities on 1 May 2006, prompted by H.R. 4437, the Border Protection, Anti-Terrorism, and Illegal Immigration Control Act of 2005, from the multiple perspectives of scholars, pundits...... that the rhetoric used in these discourses pitted various class-based ethnoracial groups against each other not so much to tackle the proposed immigration bill but, rather, to comment on the ramifications of an increasingly multiracial United States. Udgivelsesdato: 01 December 2009...

  13. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Azhar, Hussain

    Four income inequality measures (Gini-coefficient, 90/10-decile ratio, and two generalized entropy indices) are applied to analyse immigrants’ income position relative to natives in a comparative perspective. Administrative data is used for Denmark, while survey data is used for Germany. We find...... higher inequality among immigrants than natives in Denmark, but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution of immigrants to overall inequality has increased systematically, primarily caused by the increased...... share of immigrants in the population....

  14. Obesity and Regional Immigrant Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Scott D; Carbert, Nicole S

    2017-11-24

    Canada has an increasingly large immigrant population. Areas of higher immigrant density, may relate to immigrants' health through reduced acculturation to Western foods, greater access to cultural foods, and/or promotion of salubrious values/practices. It is unclear, however, whether an association exists between Canada-wide regional immigrant density and obesity among immigrants. Thus, we examined whether regional immigrant density was related to obesity, among immigrants. Adult immigrant respondents (n = 15,595) to a national population-level health survey were merged with region-level immigrant density data. Multi-level logistic regression was used to model the odds of obesity associated with increased immigrant density. The prevalence of obesity among the analytic sample was 16%. Increasing regional immigrant density was associated with lower odds of obesity among minority immigrants and long-term white immigrants. Immigrant density at the region-level in Canada may be an important contextual factor to consider when examining obesity among immigrants.

  15. Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in recently fled asylum seekers in comparison to permanently settled immigrants and non-immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, R; Reich, H; Skoluda, N; Seele, F; Nater, U M

    2017-03-07

    Recently fled asylum seekers generally live in stressful conditions. Their residency status is mostly insecure and, similar to other immigrants, they experience stress due to acculturation. Moreover, they often suffer from traumatization and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). All of these factors can result in chronic maladaptive biological stress responses in terms of hyper- or hypocortisolism and, ultimately, illness. We believe the current study is the first to compare hair cortisol concentration (HCC) of recently fled asylum seekers with PTSD to those without PTSD, and to compare HCC of asylum seekers to HCC of permanently settled immigrants and non-immigrant individuals. HCC of the previous 2 months was compared between 24 asylum seekers without PTSD, 32 asylum seekers with PTSD, 24 permanently settled healthy Turkish immigrants and 28 non-immigrant healthy Germans as the reference group. Statistical comparisons were controlled for age, sex and body mass index. No significant difference in HCC was found between asylum seekers with and without PTSD. However, the asylum seekers showed a 42% higher HCC than the reference group. In contrast, the permanently settled immigrants exhibited a 23% lower HCC than the reference group. We found relative hypercortisolism in recently fled asylum seekers, but no difference between persons with and without PTSD. These findings add to the very few studies investigating HCC in groups with recent traumatization and unsafe living conditions. Contrary to the findings in asylum seekers, permanently settled immigrants showed relative hypocortisolism. Both hyper- and hypocortisolism may set the stage for the development of stress-related illnesses.

  16. The United Mexican States: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R; Aguirre, E J

    1988-09-01

    Although the popular North American opinion of Mexico is one that paints a picture of a poor, disadvantaged country, South America sees Mexico has a richer more prosperous nation. It is observed that only in the Latin American countries of Venezuela, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago do consumers have higher incomes than Mexican consumers. Moreover, while millions of Mexicans migrate to the United States to seek a better standard of living, several thousand Central American refugees illegally migrate to Mexico in search of a better life. This better life includes an increased age of lie expectancy from 51 years in the 1950s to 64 years in the late 1970s. There have also been improvements in health care and school enrollments and in the low cost availability of education. Tourism and the prospect of the manufacturing of energy are significant, positive factors working in favor of an improved Mexican economy and a higher overall quality of life. However, Mexico faces serious problems such as a mounting foreign debt. Also rising is Mexico's population which has doubled since 1964 and which continues to grow at a rate of 1.9%. Economic programs and reforms and family development planning have been instituted in response to the countries' current recession and population growth and have begun to show positive results.

  17. Gender and national origin differences in healthcare utilization among U.S. Immigrants from Mexico, China, and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jen'nan Ghazal; Smith, Paige Borelli

    2017-02-28

    To examine gender and national origin differences in the healthcare utilization of immigrants from the three largest populations in the U.S. today (Mexico, China, and India) and to determine if barriers to utilization operate similarly across groups. The analysis uses nationally-representative data from the 2003 New Immigrant Survey (NIS) to compare utilization behaviors among legal permanent residents from Mexico, China, and India (n = 2244). Conceptually, the study draws on Andersen's Behavioral Model to hypothesize gender and national origin differences in utilization based on factors that might predispose, enable, or necessitate healthcare. Multivariate logistic regression models are used to predict the odds of having seen a doctor in the past year and to test whether obstacles to utilization differ across immigrant groups. Chinese immigrants are less likely than Mexican and Indian immigrants to have seen a doctor in the past year, a finding that is largely driven by a lack of health insurance. Female immigrants are more likely than males to have done so, despite having fewer resources that enable access to care (e.g. income, English proficiency). Moreover, the relationship between gender and utilization is moderated by English language proficiency: among immigrants with low levels of proficiency, women are significantly more likely than men to have seen a doctor in the past year, while no difference exists between men and women who are proficient in English. This pattern is most evident among Mexican, and to a lesser extent, Indian immigrants. Barriers to immigrant healthcare utilization vary by gender and national origin. Research will need to continue documenting such variation in order to better inform policy makers and health practitioners of potential solutions for improving health outcomes in increasingly diverse immigrant communities.

  18. Helping Immigrants Become Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Flynn

    2001-01-01

    Describes Newcomers Entering Teaching, a program designed by the Portland (Maine) Public Schools to prepare recent immigrants and refugees to enter local university's 9-month teacher-certification program. (PKP)

  19. Liberal nationalism on immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2009-01-01

    Liberal nationalists such as David Miller and Will Kymlicka have claimed that liberal principles have implausible implications with regard to the issue of immigration. They hold that nationality should play a normative role in this regard, and that this is necessary in order to justify restrictions...... on immigration. The present chapter discusses the envisaged role for considerations of nationality with regard to admission and residence, and examines the actual implications of arguments advanced by liberal nationalists as to why nationality should play this role. It is argued that the connection between...... nationality and immigration on liberal nationalist premises is not as straightforward as one might expect, and that the addition of considerations of nationality to liberal principles makes no practical difference with regard to reasons for restricting immigration or criteria of selection among applicants...

  20. Libertarianism and Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Virginia Todea

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I investigate the libertarian account of immigration. In the first section I distinguish between right-libertarianism and left-libertarianism. In the second section I analyze the arguments focused on immigration from the perspective of self-ownership focused on Nozick’s case and Steiner’s analogy. In the third section I discuss the conflict between the collective consent on the issue of immigration and the individuals’ decision. The conclusion sets the libertarian framework as being flawed in its argumentation on the issue of immigration because it fails to provide strong arguments about the fact that the individuals are free to choose to open or close the borders.

  1. Immigrants and Native Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find...... that the increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability...

  2. Immigrant Child Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galloway, Taryn Ann; Gustafsson, Björn; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2015-01-01

    Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993–2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years studied the increasing proportion of immigrant children...... with an origin in middle- and low-income countries have poverty risks that vary from 38 up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period, one third of the poor children in Norway and as high as about a half in Denmark and in Sweden are of immigrant origin. The strong overrepresentation...... of immigrant children from low- and middle-income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period for poverty measurement. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country and typically decrease with years since...

  3. The Effects of Immigration and Media Influence on Body Image Among Pakistani Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghir, Sheeba; Hyland, Lynda

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the role of media influence and immigration on body image among Pakistani men. Attitudes toward the body were compared between those living in Pakistan ( n = 56) and those who had immigrated to the United Arab Emirates ( n = 58). Results of a factorial analysis of variance demonstrated a significant main effect of immigrant status. Pakistani men living in the United Arab Emirates displayed poorer body image than those in the Pakistan sample. Results also indicated a second main effect of media influence.Those highly influenced by the media displayed poorer body image. No interaction effect was observed between immigrant status and media influence on body image. These findings suggest that media influence and immigration are among important risk factors for the development of negative body image among non-Western men. Interventions designed to address the negative effects of the media and immigration may be effective at reducing body image disorders and other related health problems in this population.

  4. The Ethics of Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Matt S. Whitt

    2014-01-01

    Joseph H. Carens. The Ethics of Immigration(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013). 384 pages. ISBN 9780199933839. US$35 (Hardback).When philosophers and political theorists turn their attention to migration, they often prioritize general normative commitments, giving only secondary concern to whether these commitments are reflected in policy. As a result, pressing issues affecting the status, rights, and life-chances of immigrants can get lost in abstract debates over the right of states to ...

  5. Immigrant children and school interculturality in northern Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Segura Herrera

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Mexican context, interculturality represents a discourse of recognition and respect for cultural diversity, in particular of indigenous peoples. The purpose of this article is to explore how interculturality among immigrant children of indigenous and mixed-race origins is constructed. The starting premise is that interculturality is also an interactive process of communication between individuals of different cultures. The methodology is based on the results of an anthropological study carried out at the Center for Comprehensive Attention to Migrant Children, in Ascension, Chihuahua. Based on observations and interviews, it was found that immigrant children construct interculturality in the classrooms, in the recreation areas, and during the journey to school. Therefore, the conclusion is that they do so in these school spaces, through relationships and meanings, sometimes in dispute, which they establish among themselves and with the teaching staff.

  6. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  7. Italians and Foreign Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Bonifazi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Opinion surveys on attitudes towards immigration are becoming more and more important, owing to the increasing role of political debate on migration issues in Western European countries. CNR has conducted four surveys on this topic, collecting data on the evolution of Italians attitudes towards migration issues. In fact, the ? rst survey was conducted in the second half of the eighties, when foreign immigration was in its early stages. The last survey took place in 2002, when immigration was already well established in Italy. The article focuses on three main issues: the global impact of immigration on Italian society, the immigrants role in the labour market, and immigration policy. In general, the results of the last survey con? rm a trend that appeared already in 1997, of more balanced and realistic opinion that were less of a response to circumstances perceived as special emergencies. Highly educated people, teachers and students continue to be the most open and receptive groups, whereas the less favourably inclined and more worried continue to be old people, those with less education, the unemployed, housewives, and retirees.

  8. Mexican-Origin Youth's Cultural Orientations and Adjustment: Changes from Early to Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; McHale, Susan M.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Perez-Brena, Norma

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from developmental and cultural adaptation perspectives and using a longitudinal design, this study examined: (a) mean-level changes in Mexican-origin adolescents’ cultural orientations and adjustment from early to late adolescence; and (b) bidirectional associations between cultural orientations and adjustment using a cross-lag panel model. Participants included 246 Mexican-origin, predominantly immigrant families that participated in home interviews and a series of nightly phone calls when target adolescents were 12 years and 18 years of age. Girls exhibited more pronounced declines in traditional gender role attitudes than did boys, and all youth declined in familism values, time spent with family, and involvement in Mexican culture. Bidirectional relations between cultural orientations and adjustment emerged, and some associations were moderated by adolescent nativity and gender. PMID:22966929

  9. Just Not Like Us: The Interactive Impact of Dimensions of Identity and Race in Attitudes towards Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Byrne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, more Mexicans have been leaving rather than coming to the USA; likewise, illegal immigration from Mexico has declined. Yet, immigration remains a hotly contested issue in the 2016 presidential election, with a seemingly marked increase in anti-immigrant policy and rhetoric, much of which is directed at immigrants from Mexico. In this paper, we seek to explain how individual ethnocultural and civic-based conceptions of what it means to be an American influence attitudes towards immigration. Past theoretical research on national identity has framed the effects of these dimensions as interactive but past empirical work has yet to demonstrate an important interaction between race and ethnocultural identity. Failure to account for these interaction effects has led to inaccurate assumptions about the levels of hostility towards immigrants and how widespread anti-immigrant sentiment really is. We demonstrate a clear interactive effect between identification as white and ethnocultural dimensions of identity and show that this effect has masked the root of the most ardent anti-immigrant sentiment. We also show that while there is a sizeable minority of the population that identifies as both white and have high levels of ethnocultural identity, a majority of Americans prefer to keep immigration levels at the status quo and have an identity that is balanced between ethnoculturalism and civic-based conceptions of identity.

  10. Perceived ethnic and language-based discrimination and Latina immigrant women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, May Ling; Moy, Keith H; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2017-01-01

    Perceiving ethnic discrimination can have aversive consequences for health. However, little is known about whether perceiving language-based (how one speaks a second language) discrimination poses the same risks. This study examined whether perceptions of language-based and ethnic discrimination are associated with mental and physical health. Among 132 Mexican and Dominican immigrant women, perceiving ethnic and language-based discrimination each predicted psychological distress and poorer physical health. When examined together, only ethnic discrimination remained a significant predictor. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how perceived ethnic and language-based discrimination play an integral role in the health of Latina immigrant women.

  11. The Smell of Memories. A Mexican Migrant’s Search for Emotional Sustainability through Mexican Films.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Coronado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For more than 10 years living as a Mexican migrant, between two countries (Mexico and Australia, two cities (Mexico City and Sydney, and two social worlds (Mexican and multicultural Australian ‘families-friends’, I have been immersed in a systematic process of self observation and self reflection on my life in my country of destination. During this time I have explored my memories of place and their relationship with my emotional experiences, looking for strategies to continue to be connected with my country of origin and my people. In this process I discovered films were especially significant in sustaining me emotionally. I benefited from the memory associations triggered by representations of Mexico in films produced by Mexicans or by filmmakers from other nationalities. By reflecting on my responses to those films, in this paper I explore how representations of their country of origin can impact on migrants’ emotional life. Using autoethnography, examining my own subjectivity as a way to arrive at a deeper grasp of these processes, I analyse the roles played by different senses in the process of recollection and in the emotional effects produced, which come to embody the experience. My particular focus in this article is the sense of smell triggered by complex interactions within the sensorium while watching films, producing associations and feelings through which I re-live my memories and maintain my emotional sustainability.

  12. Spain: From massive immigration to vast emigration?

    OpenAIRE

    Izquierdo, Mario; Jimeno, Juan F.; Lacuesta, Aitor

    2016-01-01

    Large immigration flows during the 1995-2007 period increased the weight of foreigners living in Spain to 12 % of the total population. The rapid increase in unemployment associated with the Great Recession and the subsequent European debt crisis, substantially changed migration flows, so that, from the beginning of the 2010s, Spain experienced positive net outflows. In this paper, we take on three tasks. First, we show that sensitivity of migration flows to unemployment is similar between Sp...

  13. Transmission of Cultural Values among Mexican American Parents and their Adolescent and Emerging Adult Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths’ adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents’ and two offspring’s cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers’ values were associated with increases in youths’ values five years later. In contrast, youths’ familism values were associated with increases in fathers’ familism values five years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant-status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support are crucial. PMID:25470657

  14. Transmission of cultural values among Mexican-origin parents and their adolescent and emerging adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2015-06-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths' adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents' and two offspring's cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers' values were associated with increases in youths' values 5 years later. In contrast, youths' familism values were associated with increases in fathers' familism values 5 years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support is crucial. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  15. Self-Socialization of Gender in African American, Dominican Immigrant, and Mexican Immigrant Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.

    2014-01-01

    This article advances a self-socialization perspective demonstrating that children's understanding of "both" gender categories represents an intergroup cognition that is foundational to the development of gender-stereotyped play. Children's (N = 212) gender category knowledge was assessed at 24 months and play was observed at…

  16. Self-socialization of gender in African American, Dominican immigrant, and Mexican immigrant toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosuls, Kristina M; Ruble, Diane N; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S

    2014-01-01

    This article advances a self-socialization perspective demonstrating that children's understanding of both gender categories represents an intergroup cognition that is foundational to the development of gender-stereotyped play. Children's (N = 212) gender category knowledge was assessed at 24 months and play was observed at 24 and 36 months. Higher levels of gender category knowledge and, more specifically, passing multiple measures of knowledge of both gender categories at 24 months was related to increases in play over time with gender-stereotyped toys (doll, truck), but not gender-stereotyped forms of play (nurturing, motion). In contrast to the long-standing focus on self-labeling, findings indicate the importance of intergroup cognitions in self-socialization processes and demonstrate the generalizability of these processes to a diverse sample. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the U.S. labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  18. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the US labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  19. M_Depression, a Hidden Mental Health Disparity in an Asian Indian Immigrant Community

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa R. Roberts; Semran K. Mann; Susanne B. Montgomery

    2015-01-01

    Cultural influences are deeply rooted, and continue to affect the lives of Asian-Indian (AI) immigrants living in Western culture. Emerging literature suggests the powerful nature of traditions and culture on the lives, mental and physical health of AI immigrants, particularly women. The purpose of this study was to explore depression among AI women in Central California (CC). This mixed-methods research was conducted in collaboration with the CC Punjabi community and the support of local rel...

  20. Rural and urban married Asian immigrants in Taiwan: determinants of their physical and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Walter; Shiao, Wen-Been; Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2013-12-01

    Different geographical areas with unique social cultures or societies might influence immigrant health. This study examines whether health inequities and different social factors exist regarding the health of rural and urban married Asian immigrants. A survey was conducted on 419 rural and 582 urban married Asian immigrants in Taiwan in 2009. Whereas the descriptive results indicate a worse mental health status between rural and urban married Asian immigrants, rural married immigrants were as mentally healthy as urban ones when considering different social variables. An analysis of regional stratification found different social-determinant patterns on rural and urban married immigrants. Whereas social support is key for rural immigrant physical and mental health, acculturation (i.e., language proficiency), socioeconomics (i.e., working status), and family structure (the number of family members and children living in the family) are key to the mental health of urban married immigrants in addition to social support. This study verifies the key roles of social determinants on the subjective health of married Asian immigrants. Area-differential patterns on immigrant health might act as a reference for national authorities to (re)focus their attention toward more area-specific approaches for married Asian immigrants.

  1. Favorable neonatal outcomes among immigrants in Taiwan: evidence of healthy immigrant mother effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Liao, Hua-Fang; Su, Yi-Ning; Lin, Shio-Jean; Chang, Pei-Jen; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2011-07-01

    Although racial/ethnic disparities in neonatal and infant health are well known, positive associations between migration and perinatal health exist among immigrant mothers in western countries. There are unique marriage migration, East Asia culture, universal national health insurance system, and adequate social support in Taiwan that may differ from the situation in western countries. We aimed to assess the neonatal outcomes among live births to married immigrant mothers in recent years in Taiwan. We conducted a population-based analysis among all the live births in Taiwan during the period 1998-2003 to assess neonatal outcomes, including incidence of low birth weight and preterm birth and of early and late neonatal mortality, according to maternal nationality. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) associated with low birth weight and preterm birth, and Cox proportional hazards were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) associated with mortality in the neonatal period. There were a total of 1,405,931 single live births, including 6.6% born to immigrant mothers and 93.4% born to Taiwanese mothers. Disparities existed among the intercultural couples, including paternal age, parental educational level, and residential distribution. Fewer low birth weight and fewer preterm babies were born to immigrant mothers than to Taiwanese mothers. In addition, babies born to immigrant mothers had lower early neonatal and neonatal mortalities than those born to Taiwanese mothers. There were lower risks of having a low birth weight (adjusted OR [AOR] 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-0.75) or preterm (AOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.69-0.74) baby and lower hazard ratios (HRs) of having an early neonatal death (adjusted HR [AHR] 0.68, 95% CI 0.56-0.82) or neonatal death (AHR 0.74, 95% CI 0.64-0.87) in babies born to immigrant mothers. There is a gradual increase in the risks of adverse neonatal outcomes associated with increases in length of residence

  2. Mexican-origin parents' work conditions and adolescents' adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Crouter, Ann

    2015-06-01

    Mexican-origin parents' work experiences are a distal extrafamilial context for adolescents' adjustment. This 2-wave multiinformant study examined the prospective mechanisms linking parents' work conditions (i.e., self-direction, work pressure, workplace discrimination) to adolescents' adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, depressive symptoms, risky behavior) across the transition to high school drawing on work socialization and spillover models. We examined the indirect effects of parental work conditions on adolescent adjustment through parents' psychological functioning (i.e., depressive symptoms, role overload) and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship (i.e., parental solicitation, parent-adolescent conflict), as well as moderation by adolescent gender. Participants were 246 predominantly immigrant, Mexican-origin, 2-parent families who participated in home interviews when adolescents were approximately 13 and 15 years of age. Results supported the positive impact of fathers' occupational self-direction on all 3 aspects of adolescents' adjustment through decreased father-adolescent conflict, after controlling for family socioeconomic status and earner status, and underemployment. Parental work pressure and discrimination were indirectly linked to adolescents' adjustment, with different mechanisms emerging for mothers and fathers. Adolescents' gender moderated the associations between fathers' self-direction and girls' depressive symptoms, and fathers' experiences of discrimination and boys' risk behavior. Results suggest that Mexican-origin mothers' and fathers' perceptions of work conditions have important implications for multiple domains of adolescents' adjustment across the transition to high school. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Neighborhood Quality and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from Quasi-Random Neighborhood Assignment of Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    2012-01-01

    of men living in the neighborhood, but positively affected by the employment rate of non-Western immigrant men and co-national men living in the neighborhood. This is strong evidence that immigrants find jobs in part through their employed immigrant and co-ethnic contacts in the neighborhood of residence...... successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes of refugee men. Furthermore, their labor market outcomes are not affected by the overall employment rate...

  4. The incorporation of Mexican women in seasonal migration: a study of gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, S

    1987-09-01

    "This article compares sex differences in migratory behaviors, work patterns and conjugal relations in a cohort of male and female immigrants who move seasonally between Mexico and the United States. Gender comparisons are made using survey data and information from in-depth group interviews. The findings indicate that among Mexicans immigration to the United States reinstates men's traditional roles as providers while making women assume non-traditional roles. Female role expansion, through employment in the U.S., strongly influences conjugal relations in the direction of more equality. In contrast, failure to enter the American labor force implies a role restriction resulting in a loss of autonomy for many immigrant women." (SUMMARY IN SPA) excerpt

  5. Ah Dai Comes to Hawaii: The Story of a Chinese Immigrant Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Dai Sen; And Others

    The story presented in this booklet is concerned with the life of an eighty year old Chinese immigrant woman living in Hawaii. The narration provides a brief overview of the woman's birth, childhood, early adulthood in China, and immigration to Hawaii. Her life in Hawaii is described in terms of the work she did, her arranged marriage, her…

  6. Immigrant Voices: Pursuing an American Dream = Voces de inmigrantes: En busca de un sueno americano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira Costa Coll., Oceanside, CA.

    Dedicated to the 1.6 million Californians newly legalized under the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, this booklet summarizes interviews with 148 immigrants conducted as part of the Amnesty Education Outreach Project. The interviews included the following topics: why they came, their educational experiences, changes in their lives, their…

  7. Raising Children in Chinese Immigrant Families: Evidence from the Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Children of Chinese culture are raised differently from children of other cultural groups. There is research evidence which contends that, regardless of where they live, the child-rearing practices within Chinese immigrant families are still influenced by Chinese traditional culture. Some studies also point out that Chinese immigrant parents…

  8. Immigration and Swiss House Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Kathrin Degen; Andreas M. Fischer

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the behavior of Swiss house prices to immigration flows for 85 districts from 2001 to 2006. The results show that the nexus between immigration and house prices holds even in an environment of low house price inflation, nationwide rent control, and modest immigration flows. An immigration inflow equal to 1% of an area's population is coincident with an increase in prices for single-family homes of about 2.7%: a result consistent with previous studies. The overall immigrati...

  9. Immigration in American Economic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramitzky, Ran; Boustan, Leah

    2016-01-01

    The United States has long been perceived as a land of opportunity for immigrants. Yet, both in the past and today, US natives have expressed concern that immigrants fail to integrate into US society and lower wages for existing workers. This paper reviews the literatures on historical and contemporary migrant flows, yielding new insights on migrant selection, assimilation of immigrants into US economy and society, and the effect of immigration on the labor market. PMID:29398723

  10. Gastronomic nostalgia: Salvadoran immigrants' cravings for their ideal meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowers, Sharon L

    2012-01-01

    Immigrants typically express cravings for the food of their homeland, but for undocumented and temporarily documented Salvadoran immigrants living in the United States, the hunger for their traditional cuisine is particularly poignant. To cope with a history of food scarcity in El Salvador and their documentation liminality in the United States, Salvadoran immigrants in this study crave symbolically rich foods. Salvadoran women provide these foods by recreating for their families an ideal Salvadoran meal into which they "groom" meanings of an imagined past and a hoped for present and future. Salvadoran immigrants' cravings, more cultural than physiological, are not readily satisfied, thus contributing to the overconsumption of food and the high rate of overweight among first-generation Salvadoran-American children.

  11. Refugee children's sandplay narratives in immigration detention in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronick, Rachel; Rousseau, Cécile; Cleveland, Janet

    2018-04-01

    Asylum seeking children arriving in Canada regularly face incarceration in medium-security-style immigration detention centres. Research demonstrates the human cost of detaining migrant children and families and the psychiatric burden linked with such imprisonment. This study aims to understand the lived experiences of children aged 3-13 held in detention. Informed by a qualitative methodology of narrative inquiry, child participants created worlds in the sand and generated stories to express their subjective experience. Results suggest that children's sandplay confirms the traumatic nature of immigration detention while also revealing children's sometimes conflicting understanding of the meaning of detention and their own migration. The results are contextualized by a description of detention conditions and the psychiatric symptoms associated with immigration incarceration. The study highlights the need for more research examining the impact of immigration detention on children's mental health, while also underlining how refugee children's voices provide important direction for policy change.

  12. Protective factors for HIV infection among Mexican American men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mark A; Champion, Jane Dimmitt

    2010-01-01

    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic. The purpose of this study was to identify potential themes for inclusion in effective HIV prevention interventions for Mexican American men who have sex with men (MSM). The authors used a phenomenological design to explore the lived experiences of Mexican American MSM who had grown up in Dallas, Texas, regarding protective factors for HIV infection. A total of 20 30- to 60-year-old Mexican American MSM participated in semistructured interviews. During data analysis, the following themes concerning protective behaviors for HIV emerged: (a) accepting one's sexuality; (b) machismo; (c) being in love; (d) respect for family, self, and life; and (e) having HIV-living now. Strategies for potential inclusion in HIV prevention interventions geared toward Mexican American MSM were identified based on these themes. The recommendations encompass modification of behavioral interventions and related social policies.

  13. Attitudes Towards Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne

    In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people’s attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternative and more direct test of whether economic self-interest matters for people’s attitudes towards immigration. We find that while...... the "original" relationship between education and attitudes found in the literature is unlikely to reflect economic self-interest, there is considerable evidence of economic self-interest when using the more direct test...

  14. Attitudes Towards Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Roland Munch, Jakob; Schroll, Sanne

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people's attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternativeand more direct test of whether economic self-interest mattersfor people's attitudes towards immigration. We find that whilethe...... "original" relationship between education and attitudes found in the literature is unlikely to reflect economic self-interest, there is considerable evidence of economic self-interest when using the more directtest....

  15. Differences in hospital attendance for anaphylaxis between immigrants and non-immigrants: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norredam, M; Sheikh, A; Dynnes Svendsen, K; Holm Petersen, J; Garvey, L H; Kristiansen, M

    2016-07-01

    The impact of migration on the risk of anaphylaxis remains unknown. We hypothesized that non-Western immigrants have a lower incidence of anaphylaxis compared to Danish-born. We investigated variations in hospital attendance for anaphylaxis between immigrants and Danish-born including time- and age- trends. A register-based, historical prospective cohort design. Refugees or family reunified immigrants (n = 127 250) who, between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 2010, obtained residency permits in Denmark were included and matched in a 1 : 6 ratio on age and sex with Danish-born individuals (n = 740 600). Personal identification numbers were cross-linked to the Danish National Patient Registry identifying all first-time hospital attendances for anaphylaxis from January 1, 1994 and December 31, 2010. Incidence rate ratios were estimated, stratified for sex and region of birth, adjusting for age using a Cox regression model including the influence of duration of residence and age when residence was obtained. In total 1053 hospital attendances for anaphylaxis were identified: 89 among non-Western immigrants, 9 among Western immigrants and 955 among Danish-born patients. Both male (RR = 0.65; 95%CI: 0.46;0.90) and female (RR = 0.64; 95%CI: 0.48;0.85) non-Western immigrants had a significantly lower risk ratio of hospital attendance for anaphylaxis compared to Danish-born. Compared to Danish-born, non-Western immigrants living in Denmark during the entire follow-up period also showed a decreased risk (RR = 0.65; 95%CI: 0.34;1.25). Compared to Danish-born, non-Western immigrants who obtained residence permission as children had a decreased risk of hospital attendance for anaphylaxis (RR = 0.48; 95%CI: 0.25;0.91). This Danish register-based study using nationwide data revealed fewer hospital attendances for anaphylaxis among non-Western immigrants compared to Danish-born; however this protection was lost over time. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Acculturation, immigration status and cardiovascular risk factors among Portuguese immigrants to Luxembourg: findings from ORISCAV-LUX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Pagny, Sybil; Beissel, Jean; Delagardelle, Charles; Lair, Marie-Lise

    2012-10-11

    No previous study has examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and explored the influence of immigration status and acculturation on overweight/obesity among the Portuguese immigrants to Luxembourg. Our objectives were to (1) compare the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors between native Luxembourgers and Portuguese immigrants, (2) examine the relationship between immigrant generation status, proportion of life spent in Luxembourg and language proficiency or preference (as proxy variables of acculturation) and overweight/obesity among Portuguese immigrants, and (3) elucidate the role of underlying socioeconomic, behavioral and dietary factors in overweight/obesity differences among the two populations. Recent national cross-sectional data from ORISCAV-LUX survey 2007-2008, composed of 843 subjects were analyzed. Overweight/obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m(2). Acculturation score was measured by using immigrant generation status, proportion of life spent in Luxembourg, and language proficiency or preference. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between acculturation markers and overweight/obesity. Further, a series of successive models were fitted to explore the separated and added impact of potential mediators (socioeconomic status, physical activity, dietary factors) on overweight/obesity among Luxembourgers and Portuguese immigrants. Compared to Luxembourgers, Portuguese immigrants of first and second generation were younger and currently employed. About 68% of first generation Portuguese had only primary school, and about 44% were living below poverty threshold. Although the cardiovascular risk factors were comparable, Portuguese immigrants were more frequently overweight and obese than Luxembourgers, even after age and gender standardization to the European population. Overweight/obesity was significantly higher among Portuguese of first generation compared

  17. Acculturation, immigration status and cardiovascular risk factors among Portuguese immigrants to Luxembourg: findings from ORISCAV-LUX study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkerwi Ala’a

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No previous study has examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and explored the influence of immigration status and acculturation on overweight/obesity among the Portuguese immigrants to Luxembourg. Our objectives were to (1 compare the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors between native Luxembourgers and Portuguese immigrants, (2 examine the relationship between immigrant generation status, proportion of life spent in Luxembourg and language proficiency or preference (as proxy variables of acculturation and overweight/obesity among Portuguese immigrants, and (3 elucidate the role of underlying socioeconomic, behavioral and dietary factors in overweight/obesity differences among the two populations. Methods Recent national cross-sectional data from ORISCAV-LUX survey 2007–2008, composed of 843 subjects were analyzed. Overweight/obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI >25kg/m2. Acculturation score was measured by using immigrant generation status, proportion of life spent in Luxembourg, and language proficiency or preference. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between acculturation markers and overweight/obesity. Further, a series of successive models were fitted to explore the separated and added impact of potential mediators (socioeconomic status, physical activity, dietary factors on overweight/obesity among Luxembourgers and Portuguese immigrants. Results Compared to Luxembourgers, Portuguese immigrants of first and second generation were younger and currently employed. About 68% of first generation Portuguese had only primary school, and about 44% were living below poverty threshold. Although the cardiovascular risk factors were comparable, Portuguese immigrants were more frequently overweight and obese than Luxembourgers, even after age and gender standardization to the European population. Overweight/obesity was significantly

  18. European immigration a sourcebook

    CERN Document Server

    Triandafyllidou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Fully updated and containing chapters on the new EU member states and the attempt to form a common EU migration policy, this new edition of European Immigration: A Sourcebook provides a comprehensive overview of the trends and developments in migration in all EU countries. With chapters following a common structure to facilitate direct international comparisons, it not only examines the internal affairs of each member state, but also explores both migratory trends within the EU itself and the implications for European immigration of wider global events, including the Arab Spring and the world financial crisis.

  19. Mexican Americans With Type 2 Diabetes: Perspectives on Definitions, Motivators, and Programs of Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mier, Nelda; Medina, Alvaro A; Ory, Marcia G

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Research documents that Mexican Americans bear excess health risk because of physical inactivity and have higher morbidity and mortality rates from chronic diseases than do other ethnic groups. Factors influencing physical activity in this minority population, however, are not well understood. This study examines perceptions of physical activity in a population of Mexican Americans who have type 2 diabetes and live in the Texas-Mexico border region and identifies motivators and b...

  20. Religiosity and Migration Aspirations among Mexican Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Ayers, Stephanie L

    2015-02-01

    International migration has become an important topic of discussion from a policy and humanitarian perspective. Part of the debate includes a renewed interest in understanding the factors that influence decisions about migration to the US among Mexican youth still residing in their country of origin. The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge specifically about internal and external religiosity and their influence on youths' migration aspirations. The data for this study were collected in 2007 from students enrolled in an alternative high school program located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico. The findings indicated that as external religiosity increases, the desire to work or live in the USA decreases. Furthermore, as internal religiosity increases, the desire to work or live in the USA and plans to migrate increase. The results are interpreted and discussed in light of previous research on religious and cultural norm adherence.

  1. Mexican renewable electricity law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C. [Institute of Engineering of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, Edificio 12 Bernardo Quintana, Piso 3, Cubiculo 319, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegacion Coyoacan, CP 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  2. Mexican renewable electricity law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  3. The metabolic syndrome, biomarkers, and the acculturation-health relationship among older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Hector M; Tarraf, Wassim; Haan, Mary N

    2011-10-01

    To examine the acculturation-health relationship using metabolic syndrome biomarkers. Cross-sectional sample data. 1,789 Mexican Americans (60 years and older) from northern California. Biomarkers (waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipids) were used to construct the metabolic syndrome indicator using American Heart Association criteria. MAIN PREDICTOR: Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II scores. Higher acculturation scores were associated with a significantly lower risk for the metabolic syndrome for foreign-born, but not U.S.-born, Mexican Americans. Immigrant health advantages over U.S.-born Mexican Americans are not evident in older adulthood. Higher acculturation was associated with lowered metabolic syndrome risk among older foreign-born Mexican Americans. This suggests that the prevailing acculturative stress hypothesis may not apply to the health of older adults and that any negative relationship between acculturation and health found in younger adults may yield to different developmental health influences in later adulthood.

  4. Pubertal Timing and Mexican-Origin Girls’ Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms: The Influence of Harsh Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, J.; Cham, H.; Gonzales, NA.; White, R.M.B.; Tein, J.-Y.; Wong, J.; Roosa, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    Early-maturing girls are at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. Scarce research has examined pubertal timing and mental health among Mexican Americans, or examined the influence of parenting behaviors on these relations. This study addressed these gaps. This was a prospective examination of 362 Mexican-origin girls and their mothers using three waves of data. Measures included girls’ self-report of pubertal development and girls’ and mothers’ report of maternal harsh parenting and daughters’ mental health. Using structural equation modeling, we examined whether pubertal timing in 5th grade predicted girls’ internalizing and externalizing outcomes in 10th grade. We also examined the mediating and moderating effects of harsh parenting on the relations between pubertal timing and internalizing and externalizing behaviors, as well as the influence of mothers’ and daughters’ nativity on these relations. Results differed depending on reporter and maternal nativity. Using daughters’ report, Mexican American mothers’ harsh parenting acted as a moderator. At high levels of harsh parenting, early pubertal timing predicted higher externalizing scores, while at low levels of harsh parenting, early timing predicted lower externalizing scores. For Mexican immigrant mothers, harsh parenting mediated the effects of pubertal timing on girls’ internalizing and externalizing problems. There were no significant pubertal effects for mothers’ report. Findings suggest that maternal harsh parenting plays a key role in the relations between early pubertal timing and behavioral and emotional outcomes among Mexican-origin girls. PMID:23231686

  5. Employers’ Openness to Labour Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Mikalauskiene

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the elucidation of the concept of migration and theories describing the process of migration, determines the issue of openness to immigration and presents its theoretical explanation.. The analysis of the empirical studies conducted in Lithuania assessing the openness of employers to labour immigrants was performed including the analysis of immigration trends in this country. The factors determining the attitudes towards immigration and immigrants are presented being divided into the main groups of economic and social-cultural factors.

  6. One Size May Not Fit All: How Obesity Among Mexican-Origin Youth Varies by Generation, Gender, and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisco, Michelle L; Quiros, Susana; Van Hook, Jennifer

    2016-12-01

    Immigrants' health (dis)advantages are increasingly recognized as not being uniform, leading to calls for studies investigating whether immigrant health outcomes are dependent on factors that exacerbate health risks. We answer this call, considering an outcome with competing evidence about immigrants' vulnerability versus risk: childhood obesity. More specifically, we investigate obesity among three generations of Mexican-origin youth relative to one another and to U.S.-born whites. We posit that risk is dependent on the intersection of generational status, gender, and age, which all influence exposure to U.S. society and weight concerns. Analyses of National Health and Nutrition Examination Studies (NHANES) data suggest that accounting for ethnicity and generation alone misses considerable gender and age heterogeneity in childhood obesity among Mexican-origin and white youth. For example, second-generation boys are vulnerable to obesity, but the odds of obesity for first-generation girls are low and on par with those of white girls. Findings also indicate that age moderates ethnic/generational differences in obesity among boys but not among girls. Overall, ethnic/generational patterns of childhood obesity do not conform to a "one size fits all" theory of immigrant health (dis)advantage, leading us to join calls for more research considering how immigrants' characteristics and contexts differentially shape vulnerability to disease and death.

  7. Parenting and later substance use among Mexican-origin youth: Moderation by preference for a common language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J; Toro, Rosa I; Parke, Ross D; Cookston, Jeffrey T; Fabricius, William V; Coltrane, Scott

    2017-04-01

    The primary goal of the current study was to test whether parent and adolescent preference for a common language moderates the association between parenting and rank-order change over time in offspring substance use. A sample of Mexican-origin 7th-grade adolescents (Mage = 12.5 years, N = 194, 52% female) was measured longitudinally on use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. Mothers, fathers, and adolescents all reported on consistent discipline and monitoring of adolescents. Both consistent discipline and monitoring predicted relative decreases in substance use into early adulthood but only among parent-offspring dyads who expressed preference for the same language (either English or Spanish). This moderation held after controlling for parent substance use, family structure, having completed schooling in Mexico, years lived in the United States, family income, and cultural values. An unintended consequence of the immigration process may be the loss of parenting effectiveness that is normally present when parents and adolescents prefer to communicate in a common language. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Perceived Discrimination and Health among Immigrants in Europe According to National Integration Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Carme; Palència, Laia; Bartoll, Xavier; Ikram, Umar; Malmusi, Davide

    2015-08-31

    Discrimination harms immigrants' health. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between perceived discrimination and health outcomes among first and second generation immigrants from low-income countries living in Europe, while accounting for sex and the national policy on immigration. Cross-sectional study including immigrants from low-income countries aged ≥15 years in 18 European countries (European Social Survey, 2012) (sample of 1271 men and 1335 women). The dependent variables were self-reported health, symptoms of depression, and limitation of activity. The independent variables were perceived group discrimination, immigrant background and national immigrant integration policy. We tested for association between perceived group discrimination and health outcomes by fitting robust Poisson regression models. We only observed significant associations between perceived group discrimination and health outcomes in first generation immigrants. For example, depression was associated with discrimination among both men and women (Prevalence Ratio-, 1.55 (95% CI: 1.16-2.07) and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.15-1.89) in the multivariate model, respectively), and mainly in countries with assimilationist immigrant integration policies. Perceived group discrimination is associated with poor health outcomes in first generation immigrants from low-income countries who live in European countries, but not among their descendants. These associations are more important in assimilationist countries.

  9. Immigrant Health Inequalities in the United States: Use of Eight Major National Data Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight major federal data systems, including the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS, National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, National Survey of Children’s Health, National Longitudinal Mortality Study, and American Community Survey, were used to examine health differentials between immigrants and the US-born across the life course. Survival and logistic regression, prevalence, and age-adjusted death rates were used to examine differentials. Although these data systems vary considerably in their coverage of health and behavioral characteristics, ethnic-immigrant groups, and time periods, they all serve as important research databases for understanding the health of US immigrants. The NVSS and NHIS, the two most important data systems, include a wide range of health variables and many racial/ethnic and immigrant groups. Immigrants live 3.4 years longer than the US-born, with a life expectancy ranging from 83.0 years for Asian/Pacific Islander immigrants to 69.2 years for US-born blacks. Overall, immigrants have better infant, child, and adult health and lower disability and mortality rates than the US-born, with immigrant health patterns varying across racial/ethnic groups. Immigrant children and adults, however, fare substantially worse than the US-born in health insurance coverage and access to preventive health services. Suggestions and new directions are offered for improvements in health monitoring and for strengthening and developing databases for immigrant health assessment in the USA.

  10. Padrões de casamento dos imigrantes brasileiros residentes em Portugal Patrones de matrimonio de los inmigrantes brasileños residentes en Portugal Marriage patterns of Brazilian immigrants living in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    ía esperar, reflejos en otros niveles, en particular en el contexto del matrimonio. Contrariando la tendencia decreciente, observada para el total de matrimonios producidos entre 2001 y 2009, aquellos en que por lo menos uno de los cónyuges nació en Brasil casi se cuadruplicaron en ese período. Para muchos autores, los matrimonios mixtos son un buen indicador de la integración de las comunidades inmigrantes en la sociedad de acogida. Así pues, dada la importancia de la comunidad brasileña residente en Portugal, es relevante observar cuál es el peso de los matrimonios mixtos en esta comunidad y analizar sus patrones de matrimonio. El análisis estadístico de los microdatos de los matrimonios, puestos a nuestra disposición por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística, posibilitó estudiar y caracterizar la evolución de los matrimonios registrados en Portugal, entre 2001 y 2009, involucrando a brasileños residentes en Portugal. Quedó patente la existencia de un elevado nivel de matrimonios mixtos, en especial con portugueses, durante este período, lo que indicia su integración en la comunidad de acogida. Se verificaron igualmente algunas diferencias en los patrones de matrimonio entre los sexos, así como una tendencia a la disminución de la importancia de los matrimonios mixtos, en especial entre los hombres.Over the past decades, the number of foreign residents in Portugal has increased significantly. In this context, the Brazilian community is of increasing importance, and was, in 2009, the most represented nationality, with a 25% share in the total of foreign residents in Portugal. As expected, this development reflects on other levels, particularly in the context of marriage. Contrary to the downward trend observed for total marriages occurring between 2001 and 2009, those in which at least one spouse was born in Brazil almost quadrupled during the period. For many authors, mixed marriages are a good indicator of immigrant community integration in the host

  11. Aspects of Integration and Adaptation of Croatian Immigrants in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Perić

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The emigration of Croats to Chile was a part of transoceanic migration that occurred at the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century. Croatia at the time was within the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. The most important area of emigration was Dalmatia, especially the island of Brač. Emigration went on without organisation, with no emigration policy or legislative framework. The main routes of emigration to Chile were to its northern parts (Antofagasta and Tarapaca and southern parts (the province Magallanes. In the new social milieu, in the immigration country – i.e. Chile, Croatian immigrants passed through various processes of integration and adaptation. The openness of Chilean society and politics to cultural pluralism gave them the opportunity to freely express themselves and their ethnicity. On the other hand, Chilean laws did not permit dual citizenship, and thus the children of the immigrants automatically became Chileans. Croatian immigrants at first nurtured a mechanical type of solidarity, since their migration was a chain development and they lived in groups of relatives and friends. After they assured for themselves the material necessities of life, they began to establish societies and were recognized from the outside as an immigrant group, distinct from other such groups. With time social stratification developed among them. They lived in communion with many other immigrant groups. They were attracted to all Slavic immigrant groups and they also have good relations with Chileans. Mixed marriages, mostly with Chileans, quickened the process of assimilation and brought about the almost total disappearance of the Croatian language. This paper is based on research, until the present, made by Croatian and Chilean authors into the historical sources and newspaper articles analysing the process of integration of immigrants on three social levels: within Chilean society, within their own immigrant groups and in regard to

  12. Immigrants' location preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment...

  13. Encounters with immigrant customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Espersen, Sacha; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2013-01-01

    were not sufficiently assessed at the counter (n = 55, 65%), and that their latest encounter with an immigrant customer was less satisfactory than a similar encounter with an ethnic Danish customer (n = 48, 57%) (significantly more pharmacists than assistants: odds ratio, OR, 3.19; 95% confidence...

  14. Wealth & Immigration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Wolffsen, Poul; Mortensen, Mia

    2014-01-01

    Applying newly developed methods this paper quantifies human capital in Denmark and analyzes highly qualified immigration as a potential source of wealth generation. In order to quantify human capital, we use the methodology of Lettau and Ludvigson (2001, 2004), Zhang (2006) and Dreyer et al. (2013...

  15. Academic Mobility and Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Karine

    2005-01-01

    In the late 1990s, sustained economic growth in most Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and the development of the information economy led to a considerable increase in migration of highly skilled individuals, especially in science and technology. Some OECD countries relaxed their immigration policies to attract…

  16. Immigration policy index

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vikhrov, Dmytro

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2017), s. 3-46 ISSN 0967-0750 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : immigration policy * visa * differences-in-differences estimation Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics , Econometrics Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2016

  17. Gay Immigrants and Grindr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shield, Andrew DJ

    2018-01-01

    In this (open-access) essay, I assess the idea that Grindr and related apps render urban gay spaces obsolete, and offer three counter-arguments based on my research with immigrants and tourists who use Grindr. In short: newcomers who use Grindr might actually bring new life to queer urban spaces...

  18. Immigrant Capital and Entrepreneurial Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malavika Sundararajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study is to define and operationalize the concept of immigrant capital, a key factor that differentiates immigrant from host country entrepreneurs in how they recognize and start new ventures. Research Design & Methods: A detailed analysis of contemporary immigrant entrepreneurship and opportunity recognition literature was carried out. Using grounded theory, we synthesized the outcomes from the analysis of eight Canadian and U.S. case studies of successful immigrant entrepreneurs with the key findings from the literature to define and develop a model of immigrant capital. Findings: Based on our grounded theory development process we show that the concept of immigrant capital as a distillate of human, cultural, economic and social capital that goes beyond expected opportunity recognition (OR drivers like prior knowledge and prior experience to differentiate and enhance the immigrant entrepreneur’s ability to recognize business opportunities compared to host country entrepreneurs. We found immigrant capital to be a consequence of being boundary spanners in host and home country networks. Implications & Recommendations: Understanding a unique resource like immigrant capital, will help immigrant as well as host country entrepreneurs further develop their opportunity recognition ability by bridging gaps and fulfilling the needs for both, immigrant and host country consumers. Contribution & Value Added: The main contribution is the theoretical development, identification and definition of the immigrant capital model and propositions that will articulate the factors that lead to the conceptualization and operationalization of immigrant capital. Furthermore, the immigrant capital model can serve host country entrepreneurs to develop cross-cultural networks and jump-start entrepreneurial activities in their home countries as well as learn how to expand their operations into global markets.

  19. HIV Prevention among Mexican Migrants at Different Migration Phases: Exposure to Prevention Messages and Association With Testing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Zhang, Xiao; Simon, Norma-Jean; Rhoads, Natalie; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J. Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ahmed Asadi

    2016-01-01

    Mobile populations are at increased risk for HIV infection. Exposure to HIV prevention messages at all phases of the migration process may help decrease im/migrants’ HIV risk. We investigated levels of exposure to HIV prevention messages, factors associated with message exposure, and the association between exposure to prevention messages and HIV testing behavior among Mexican im/migrants at different phases of the migration process. We conducted a cross-sectional, probability survey of Mexican im/migrants (N=3,149) traveling through the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. The results indicate limited exposure to prevention messages (57%–75%) and suboptimal last 12-month HIV testing rates (14%–25%) across five migration phases. Compared to pre-departure levels (75%), exposure to messages decreases at all post-departure migration phases (57%–63%, pmigration continuum. PMID:26595267

  20. Mexican journalists: an investigation of their emotional health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Anthony

    2012-08-01

    Mexican journalists are frequently the victims of violence, often drug related. The purpose of the study was to assess their mental well-being. Of 104 journalists recruited from 3 news organizations, those who had stopped working on drug-related stories because of intimidation from the criminal drug cartels (n = 26) had significantly greater social dysfunction (p = .024); and more depressive (p = .001) and higher intrusive (p = .027), avoidance (p = .005), and arousal (p = .033) symptoms than journalists living and working under threat in regions of drug violence (n = 61). They also had more arousal (p = .05) and depressive (p = .027) symptoms than journalists (n = 17) never threatened before and living in regions without a drug problem. These findings provide preliminary data on the deleterious effects of drug-related violence on the Mexican media, amplifying the concerns expressed by journalist watchdog organizations monitoring the state of the press in the country. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  1. Paths to Lawful Immigration Status: Results and Implications from the PERSON Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom K. Wong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal evidence suggests that a significant percentage of unauthorized immigrants are potentially eligible for some sort of immigration relief, but they either do not know it or are not able to pursue lawful immigration status for other reasons. However, no published study that we are aware of has systematically analyzed this question. The purpose of this study is thus to evaluate and quantify the number of unauthorized immigrants who, during the course of seeking out legal services, have been determined to be potentially eligible for some sort of immigration benefit or relief that provides lawful immigration status. Using the recent implementation of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA program as a laboratory for this work, this study attempts to answer the question of the number of unauthorized immigrants who, without knowing it, may already be potentially eligible for lawful immigration status. In surveying 67 immigrant-serving organizations that provide legal services, we find that 14.3 percent of those found to be eligible for DACA were also found to be eligible for some other form of immigration relief—put otherwise, 14.3 percent of individuals that were found to be eligible for DACA, which provides temporary relief from deportation, may now be on a path towards lawful permanent residency. We find that the most common legal remedies available to these individuals are family-based petitions (25.5 percent, U-Visas (23.9 percent, and Special Immigrant Juvenile Status (12.6 percent. These findings make clear that—with comprehensive immigration reform legislation or eligibility for administrative relief —legal screening can have significant and long-lasting implications on the lives of unauthorized immigrants and their families.

  2. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration Judge § 1003.10 Immigration judges...

  3. 22 CFR 42.33 - Diversity immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diversity immigrants. 42.33 Section 42.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Immigrants Subject to Numerical Limitations § 42.33 Diversity immigrants. (a...

  4. Portrayal of Immigrants in Newsmagazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Goldberger

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how United States newsmagazines represented immigrants in the aftermath of September 11th terrorist attacks. Methodologically, the paper uses the frame analysis from a social constructivist standpoint, identifying the four functions of frame, as defined by Entman. Three months prior to the attacks, newsmagazines framed immigrants as “needed” and, in most cases, they portrayed them positively. In the period after the attacks, the frame shifted and newsmagazines started representing immigrants as “feared”, potential harborers of terrorists, and so on. Before the attacks, illegal immigrants were represented as the greatest immigration problem. After the attacks, the attention of newsmagazines shifted to legal immigrants with terrorist intentions. The results suggest that the issue of immigrants and immigration policy in the media collided with the threat of terrorism as a foreign policy issue. Thus, it became a security issue that influenced the representation of immigrants. In newsmagazines’ portrayal of immigrants, political features became more prominent than economic ones.

  5. Ethnic enclaves and risk of psychiatric disorders among first- and second-generation immigrants in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezuk, Briana; Li, Xinjun; Cederin, Klas; Concha, Jeannie; Kendler, Kenneth S; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-11-01

    Some non-Western immigrant groups in Europe have elevated risk of psychosis relative to native-born. It is hypothesized that neighborhood ethnic density moderates this risk. Immigration to Sweden has increased substantially recently, particularly from the Middle East. This study examined the relationship between neighborhood ethnic density (i.e., living in an immigrant enclave) and risk of psychotic and affective disorders among three groups: Iraqi immigrants, immigrants from other nations, and native-born Swedes. Individuals aged 15-60, without prevalent psychopathology, were drawn from Swedish population-based registries and followed from 2005 to 2010 (N = 950,979). Multi-level logistic regression was used to examine the association between neighborhood ethnic composition and incident psychopathology. Cumulative incidence of psychopathology was greater in Iraqi enclaves relative to predominantly Swedish neighborhoods (6.3 vs. 4.5%). Iraqis living in enclaves did not have significantly greater risk of psychosis (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.66, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.92-2.97) or affective disorders (OR: 1.04, 95%CI 0.85-1.27) relative to those in predominantly Swedish neighborhoods. There was no increased risk of psychosis (OR: 0.93, p > 0.05) or affective disorders (OR: 0.93, p > 0.05) for other immigrants living in an enclave. Swedes living in an enclave had elevated risk of both psychosis (OR: 1.37, p immigrants in Sweden. Findings regarding Swedes are consistent with social drift.

  6. Dental Care Issues for African Immigrant Families of Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Cecilia S.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines dental health issues for African immigrant families of preschoolers living in the United States. The study was done within the framework of narrative inquiry and ethnographic impressionism. Through personal interviews and questionnaire completion, 125 parents of children ages 3 to 5 answered questions about ways in which…

  7. Social Policy and Immigrant Joblessness in Britain, Germany and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Christel

    2006-01-01

    I examine patterns of joblessness among immigrant men and women from 33 countries of origin now living in Britain, Germany and Sweden. Access to welfare, access to the labor market, job segregation and institutional support for women's employment define distinct policy configurations in these three destinations. Findings show that gaps in…

  8. Everyday urban public space : Turkish immigrant women's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ünlü Yücesoy, E.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines the use, experience, and appropriation of everyday urban public spaces by Turkish immigrant women living in Enschede, the Netherlands. Based on the two premises of conceptualizing the urban public space as a social construct and of valorizing users as social actors, the main

  9. Health, growth and psychosocial adaptation of immigrant children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Toselli, Stefania; Masotti, Sabrina; Marzouk, Diaa; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan

    2014-08-01

    The increasing population diversity in Europe demands clarification of possible ethnic influences on the growth and health of immigrant children and their psychosocial adaptation to the host countries. This article assesses recent data on immigrant children in Europe in comparison to European natives by means of a systematic review of the literature on growth patterns and data on children's health and adaptation. There were wide variations across countries in growth patterns and development of immigrant children and natives, with different trends in Central and Northern Europe with respect to Southern Europe. In general, age at menarche was lower in immigrant girls, while male pubertal progression seemed faster in immigrants than in European natives, even when puberty began after. Owing to the significant differences in anthropometric traits (mainly stature and weight), new reference growth curves for immigrant children were constructed for the largest minority groups in Central Europe. Possible negative effects on growth, health and psychosocial adaptation were pointed out for immigrant children living in low income, disadvantaged communities with a high prevalence of poor lifestyle habits. In conclusion, this review provides a framework for the health and growth of immigrant children in Europe in comparison to native-born children: the differences among European countries in growth and development of migrants and non-migrants are closely related to the clear anthropological differences among the ethnic groups due to genetic influences. Higher morbidity and mortality was frequently associated with the minority status of these children and their low socio-economic status. The observed ethnic differences in health reveal the need for adequate health care in all groups. Therefore, we provide suggestions for the development of health care strategies in Europe. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association

  10. Enforcement, Integration, and the Future of Immigration Federalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rodriguez

    2017-06-01

    immigrants with different legal statuses. While this essay remains largely (though not entirely agnostic on these questions, it offers four basic principles to frame any future federalism agenda. First, when it comes to enforcement federalism, the federal government ought to acknowledge the reasons that localities might resist federal enforcement efforts, at least as a matter of politics, and if only to ensure that federal policy is subjected to accountability checks by competing, external pressures. Second, whatever the value of resistance to enforcement, a federalism agenda should include efforts by all levels of government to identify a manageable equilibrium that reconciles the federal government’s constitutional and statutory responsibilities for maintaining an enforcement regime with the local politics of immigration and the lived realities of immigrant communities. Third, when it comes to integration federalism, the problem of illegal immigration must be solved, and only the federal government can do so decisively. Federalism can only mediate the political conflict over status and help set the terms for its ultimate resolution. And yet, the structural reasons that have given rise to integration federalism should re-enforce the country’s commitment to locally driven integration policy, supported by a national-level commitment to information sharing, coordination, and resource support. Finally, because both enforcement and integration policy require systemic flexibility, it is important not to confuse arguments on the merits of immigration policy with structural claims. In other words, scholars, advocates, or policymakers should exercise humility and circumspection when developing conversation-stopping claims that a certain intergovernmental relation is required by law, especially in a context as charged as immigration policy.

  11. Depression among elderly Chinese-Canadian immigrants from Mainland China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel W.L. Lai

    2004-01-01

    Background This study examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms among elderly immigrants from Mainland China to Canada and the impact of various psychosocial factors as predictors of the number of depressive symptoms reported by the elderly Chinese immigrants.Methods The participants were 444 elderly immigrants who migrated from Mainland China to Canada. They were a part of a random sample of 2272 elderly Chinese living in the communities and took part in a face-to-face interview to answer questions in an orally administrated questionnaire. The depressive symptoms of the participants were measured by a Chinese version of the Geriatric Depression Scale. Data obtained from the 444 elderly Chinese immigrants was analyzed to assess the impact of various psychosocial factors on the number of depressive symptoms that they reported.Results The findings indicated that 23.2% of the elderly immigrants were assessed to have some depressive symptoms. When other predicting variables were adjusted, elderly immigrants with more chronic illnesses, less positive attitude towards ageing, poorer physical health, less adequate financial situation, lower level of ethnic identification as Chinese, more service barriers, lower level of life satisfaction, shorter length of residency in Canada and those who lived alone tended to have more depressive symptoms.Conclusions The findings indicate that the prevalence rate of depressive symptoms among our elderly immigrant sample is higher than the one reported in a general elderly population. While further research is recommended to examine the reasons for such a difference, culturally appropriate health services, including health promotion programs, should be promoted to reduce mental health disparities.

  12. ADOLESCENT IMMIGRANTS’ HOST SATISFACTION IN A RECENT IMMIGRATION RECEIVING COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BRIONES

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Host country satisfaction, as an index of immigr ants’ psychological adaptation, has particular importance for immigrant communities in the destination country. We explain immigrant adolescents’ satisfaction with their level of life in Spain by examining the contribution of sociodemographic variables, ethnic and mainstream identification, the perception of ethnic group discrimination, and the length of time lived in the host country. We examine a group of 347 Moroccans and Ecuadorians adolescent immigrants, two of the biggest immigrant communities in Spain that differ in their cultural distance (e.g., language, religion to the mainstream culture. We provide empirical evidences that; first, Spanish language proficiency, mainstream (and not ethnic identification, and time lived in Spain are positivel y related to host country satisfaction; second, immigrants’ perception of ethnic discrimination is negatively associated with host country satisfaction; and third, cultural distance to the mainstream does not significantly moderate these associations (i.e. the relationships are similar for the two ethnic groups. Considering these results, social policies aimed at promoting positive attitudes towards cultural diversity and supporting immigrants’ participation in the host society should be encouraged.

  13. The Chinese-born immigrant infant feeding and growth hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy A. Bolton

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid growth in the first six months of life is a well-established risk factor for childhood obesity, and child feeding practices (supplementation or substitution of breast milk with formula and early introduction of solids have been reported to predict this. The third largest immigrant group in Australia originate from China. Case-studies reported from Victorian Maternal and Child Health nurses suggest that rapid growth trajectories in the infants of Chinese parents is common place. Furthermore, these nurses report that high value is placed by this client group on rapid growth and a fatter child; that rates of breastfeeding are low and overfeeding of infant formula is high. There are currently no studies which describe infant growth or its correlates among this immigrant group. Presentation of hypothesis We postulate that in Australia, Chinese-born immigrant mothers will have different infant feeding practices compared to non-immigrant mothers and this will result in different growth trajectories and risk of overweight. We present the Chinese-born immigrant infant feeding and growth hypothesis - that less breastfeeding, high formula feeding and early introduction of solids in infants of Chinese-born immigrant mothers living in Australia will result in a high protein intake and subsequent rapid growth trajectory and increased risk of overweight and obesity. Testing the hypothesis Three related studies will be conducted to investigate the hypothesis. These will include two quantitative studies (one cross-sectional, one longitudinal and a qualitative study. The quantitative studies will investigate differences in feeding practices in Chinese-born immigrant compared to non-immigrant mothers and infants; and the growth trajectories over the first 3.5 years of life. The qualitative study will provide more in-depth understanding of the influencing factors on feeding practices in Chinese-born immigrant mothers. Implications of the

  14. Intolerance toward immigrants in Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitag, Markus; Rapp, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    Intolerance toward immigrants has recently reached noticeable highs in Switzerland. Referring to the conflict theory, the perception of a specific group as a threat tends to lead to intolerance toward that group. The expectation of a negative relationship between threat and tolerance is neverthel......Intolerance toward immigrants has recently reached noticeable highs in Switzerland. Referring to the conflict theory, the perception of a specific group as a threat tends to lead to intolerance toward that group. The expectation of a negative relationship between threat and tolerance...... that Swiss who view rising immigration to mean a loss of economic privileges and an erosion of Swiss cultural values are less tolerant toward immigrants. Moreover, our results indicate that contact with immigrants may moderate this effect. However, not all group settings are able to reduce the perceived...... threats in a similar way, and not all sorts of social contact are able to foster tolerance toward immigrants....

  15. Labor market integration, immigration experience, and psychological distress in a multi-ethnic sample of immigrants residing in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ana F; Dias, Sónia F

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at examining how factors relating to immigrants' experience in the host country affect psychological distress (PD). Specifically, we analyzed the association among socio-economic status (SES), integration in the labor market, specific immigration experience characteristics, and PD in a multi-ethnic sample of immigrant individuals residing in Lisbon, Portugal. Using a sample (n = 1375) consisting of all main immigrant groups residing in Portugal's metropolitan area of Lisbon, we estimated multivariable linear regression models of PD regressed on selected sets of socio-economic independent variables. A psychological distress scale was constructed based on five items (feeling physically tired, feeling psychologically tired, feeling happy, feeling full of energy, and feeling lonely). Variables associated with a decrease in PD are being a male (demographic), being satisfied with their income level (SES), living with the core family and having higher number of children (social isolation), planning to remain for longer periods of time in Portugal (migration project), and whether respondents considered themselves to be in good health condition (subjective health status). Study variables negatively associated with immigrants' PD were job insecurity (labor market), and the perception that health professionals were not willing to understand immigrants during a clinical interaction. The study findings emphasized the importance of labor market integration and access to good quality jobs for immigrants' psychological well-being, as well as the existence of family ties in the host country, intention to reside long term in the host country, and high subjective (physical) health. Our research suggests the need to foster cross-national studies of immigrant populations in order to understand the social mechanisms that transverse all migrant groups and contribute to lower psychological well-being.

  16. Childhood asthma, air quality, and social suffering among Mexican Americans in California's San Joaquin Valley: "Nobody talks to us here".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Norah Anita; Pepper, David

    2009-10-01

    Nearly one in five Mexican American children residing in California's San Joaquin Valley (the Valley) in 2007 had an asthma attack at some point in their life. Numerous epidemiological studies have suggested that compared with other ethnic groups and Latino subgroups residing in the United States, Mexican origin children have the lowest rates of pediatric asthma. Ethnographic research conducted in central California, however, suggests otherwise. Known for its agricultural produce, extreme poverty, and poor air quality, the Valley is a magnet for the Mexican immigrant farm worker population. We conducted an exploratory ethnographic study to examine health disparities, social suffering, and childhood asthma in the Valley. Many Valley residents believe that their children's health concerns are being ignored. Open-ended interviews uncovered a largely rural community suffering not only from the effects of childhood asthma but the inability to have their experiences taken seriously.

  17. Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in recently fled asylum seekers in comparison to permanently settled immigrants and non-immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, R; Reich, H; Skoluda, N; Seele, F; Nater, U M

    2017-01-01

    Recently fled asylum seekers generally live in stressful conditions. Their residency status is mostly insecure and, similar to other immigrants, they experience stress due to acculturation. Moreover, they often suffer from traumatization and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). All of these factors can result in chronic maladaptive biological stress responses in terms of hyper- or hypocortisolism and, ultimately, illness. We believe the current study is the first to compare hair cortisol concentration (HCC) of recently fled asylum seekers with PTSD to those without PTSD, and to compare HCC of asylum seekers to HCC of permanently settled immigrants and non-immigrant individuals. HCC of the previous 2 months was compared between 24 asylum seekers without PTSD, 32 asylum seekers with PTSD, 24 permanently settled healthy Turkish immigrants and 28 non-immigrant healthy Germans as the reference group. Statistical comparisons were controlled for age, sex and body mass index. No significant difference in HCC was found between asylum seekers with and without PTSD. However, the asylum seekers showed a 42% higher HCC than the reference group. In contrast, the permanently settled immigrants exhibited a 23% lower HCC than the reference group. We found relative hypercortisolism in recently fled asylum seekers, but no difference between persons with and without PTSD. These findings add to the very few studies investigating HCC in groups with recent traumatization and unsafe living conditions. Contrary to the findings in asylum seekers, permanently settled immigrants showed relative hypocortisolism. Both hyper- and hypocortisolism may set the stage for the development of stress-related illnesses. PMID:28267148

  18. The timing is never right: Mexican views of condom use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiston, C; Gordon, A

    2000-06-01

    Unprotected sex is a critical issue in the Hispanic community, with the incidence of new Hispanic acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases three times that of non-Hispanic Whites. The researchers used focus groups to examine: (a) whether newly immigrated Mexican men and women in the Southeast United States discussed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention with each other, and (b) how condom use was discussed. For the women, communication was safe sex, and for the men, trust was safe sex. Both communication and trust were dependent on timing in the relationship. Participants could not discuss condoms in a new or established relationship because of issues of trust. This study highlights the complexity of HIV/STD prevention and suggests that trust and timing should be considered within the cultural context of condom introduction.

  19. Immigrants in the Sexual Revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shield, Andrew DJ

    newspapers, foreign worker organizations’ archives, and interviews, this book shows that immigrants in the Netherlands and Denmark held a variety of viewpoints about European gender and sexual cultures. Some immigrants felt solidarity with, and even participated in, European social movements that changed...... norms and laws in favor of women’s equality, gay and lesbian rights, and sexual liberation. These histories challenge today’s politicians and journalists who strategically link immigration to sexual conservatism, misogyny, and homophobia....

  20. Immigrant Capital and Entrepreneurial Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Malavika Sundararajan; Binod Sundararajan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study is to define and operationalize the concept of immigrant capital, a key factor that differentiates immigrant from host country entrepreneurs in how they recognize and start new ventures. Research Design & Methods: A detailed analysis of contemporary immigrant entrepreneurship and opportunity recognition literature was carried out. Using grounded theory, we synthesized the outcomes from the analysis of eight Canadian and U.S. case studies of successf...

  1. Ethnic pluralism, immigration and entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Mickiewicz, T; Hart, M; Nyakudya, FW; Theodorakopoulos, N

    2017-01-01

    We consider the effects of immigration and ethnicity on entrepreneurship, distinguishing between the individual traits and the environmental characteristics. We look beyond the resource-opportunity framework and occupational choice: culture and values matter. Yet, instead of assigning the latter to specific ethnic features, we relate them to both immigration, and to the social environment defined by the share of immigrants, and by ethnic diversity. Empirical evidence we provide is based on Gl...

  2. Socioeconomic status and health of immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacková, Jitka; Brabcová, Iva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to acquaint the general public with select socioeconomic status (SES) parameters (type of work, education level, employment category, and net monthly income) of select nationalities (Ukrainians, Slovaks, Vietnamese, Poles, and Russians) from a total of 1,014 immigrants residing in the Czech Republic. It will also present a subjective assessment of socioeconomic status and its interconnection with subjective assessment of health status. This work was carried out as part of the "Social determinants and their impact on the health of immigrants living in the Czech Republic" project (identification number LD 13044), which was conducted under the auspices of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) agency. Quantitative methodology in the form of a questionnaire was selected to facilitate the research aim. Data was processed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical analyses were performed using the Pearson chi-square test, adjusted residual analysis, and multivariate correspondence analysis. The results of these tests demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between subjective assessments of socioeconomic status and the following related select characteristics: type of work performed (manual/intellectual), employment categories, education, and net monthly income. Results indicate that those situated lowest on the socioeconomic ladder feel the poorest in terms of health; not only from a subjective perspective, but also in terms of objective parameter comparisons (e.g. manual laborers who earn low wages). As the level of subjective SES assessment increases, the level of subjective health assessment increases, as well. Thus, the relationship has a natural gradient, as was described by Wilkinson and Marmot in 2003. Our study found no evidence of a healthy immigrant effect. Therefore, it was not possible to confirm that health status deteriorates

  3. [Tuberculosis and immigration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Coronas, Joaquín; Rogado-González, M Cruz; Lozano-Serrano, Ana Belén; Cabezas-Fernández, M Teresa

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis worldwide is declining. However, in Western countries this decline is slower due to the impact of immigration. Tuberculosis in the immigrant population is related to health status in the country of origin and with overcrowding and poverty conditions in the host country. Immigrants with tuberculosis are younger, have a higher prevalence of extrapulmonary forms, greater proportion of drug resistance and higher treatment default rates than those of natives. New molecular techniques not only reduce diagnostic delay time but also allow the rapid identification of resistances and improve knowledge of transmission patterns. It is necessary to implement measures to improve treatment compliance in this population group like facilitating access to health card, the use of fixed-dose combination drugs, the participation of cultural mediators and community health workers and gratuity of drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  4. [Immigration to Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picouet, M; Pellegrino, A; Papail, J

    1986-11-01

    Immigration to Venezuela is examined using census data with the focus on the period 1971-1981. A brief overview of trends since the beginning of the twentieth century is first presented. The analysis indicates that "immigration to Venezuela is clearly of a short-term nature. Flows follow job opportunities and adjust to the labour market and to the financial capacity of the exchange market. The large increase of migratory movements to Venezuela in the 1970's is characterized by a diversification of their places of origin and by a greater instability. To a large extent, the migrants are illegal, especially those coming from Colombia and the Caribbean islands. Because of the crisis of the early 1980's, which is now worsened by the down trend of both oil prices and the U.S. dollar, Venezuela has become less attractive to immigrants, particularly from neighbouring countries." The authors observe that migrants in Venezuela are not well integrated and may depart, disrupting the labor supply in certain technical and specialized occupations (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  5. Immigrants Coping with Transnational Deaths and Bereavement: The Influence of Migratory Loss and Anticipatory Grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesteruk, Olena

    2017-12-14

    This study examines immigrants' experiences of bereavement and coping with the deaths of family members in a transnational context. Data were collected through in-depth personal interviews with middle-aged and older immigrants from different countries of origin, who have been living in the United States for a majority of their adult lives. Thematic analysis of participants' narratives showed that immigrants' geographic distance from family complicated caregiving circumstances and rituals surrounding burial, and impacted the grieving process. At the same time, this distance also served as an emotional barrier and provided protection from prolonged grief. Immigrants' U.S.-based family and work responsibilities served as buffers from prolonged grief. Over time, immigrants became Americanized in their attitudes toward coping with death and favored a fast return to productive activities. Finally, immigrants' experience of migratory loss and anticipatory grief early in immigration, along with their personal growth and resilience developed over time, impacted their bereavement experiences later in life. Considering the limitations and the exploratory nature of the present study, further research is needed to investigate the specifics of coping with loss and bereavement among immigrants. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  6. [Precarious employment in undocumented immigrants in Spain and its relationship with health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porthé, Victoria; Benavides, Fernando G; Vázquez, M Luisa; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos; García, Ana M; Ahonen, Emily; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Benach, Joan

    2009-12-01

    To describe the characteristics of precarious employment in undocumented immigrants in Spain and its relationship with health. A qualitative study was conducted using analytic induction. Criterion sampling, based on the Immigration, Work and Health project (Inmigración, Trabajo y Salud [ITSAL]) criterion (current definitions of 'legal immigrant' in Spain and in the literature) was used to recruit 44 undocumented immigrant workers from four different countries, living in four Spanish cities. The characteristics of precariousness perceived by undocumented immigrants included high job instability; disempowerment due to lack of legal protection; high vulnerability exacerbated by their legal and immigrant status; perceived insufficient wages and lower wages than coworkers; limited social benefits and difficulty in exercising their rights; and finally, long hours and fast-paced work. Our informants reported they had no serious health problems but did describe physical and mental problems associated with their employment conditions and legal situation. Our results suggest that undocumented immigrants' situation may not fit the model of precarious employment exactly. However, the model's dimensions can be expanded to better represent undocumented immigrants' situation, thus strengthening the general model. Precarious employment in this group can be defined as , as it affects their working and social lives. If these workers continue to be exposed to such precarious conditions, the impact on their health may increase.

  7. The Self-Employment Experience of Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    George J. Borjas

    1986-01-01

    Self-employment is an important aspect of the immigrant experience in the labor market. Self-employment rates for immigrants exceed 15 percent for some national groups. This paper addresses three related questions on the self-employment experience of immigrants. First, how do self-employment rates of immigrants compare to those of native-born men? Second, is there an "assimilation" effect on the self-employment propensity of immigrants? Finally, are the more recent waves of immigrants facing ...

  8. Immigrant language barriers and house prices

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Andreas M.

    2011-01-01

    Are language skills important in explaining the nexus between house prices and immigrant inflows? The language barrier hypothesis says immigrants from a non common language country value amenities more than immigrants from common language countries.> ; In turn, immigrants from non common language countries are less price sensitive to house price changes than immigrants from a common language country. Tests of the language barrier hypothesis with Swiss house prices show that an immigration inf...

  9. Immigration Enforcement Actions - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  10. How are Immigrant Children in Sweden Faring? Mean Income, Affluence and Poverty Since the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Björn; Österberg, Torun

    2018-01-01

    This article presents new research on income-based child indicators for immigrant children from 17 different national backgrounds and children of parents born in Sweden observed during the 3-year periods 1983-85, 1995-97 and 2008-10. This research examines mean household income, representation at the top of the income distribution and relative poverty differ for immigrant children from the corresponding levels among children with native born parents. Most of the analysis is concentrated on the second generation of immigrant children. It is shown that the relative position of immigrant children deteriorated between 1983-85 and 1995-97 when the labour market situation of immigrant parents weakened more than among native born parents. Changes thereafter were more complex. Children born in Sweden to parents from Denmark, Norway or Germany were as likely as children of native born parents to be observed at the top of the income distribution in contrast to children of parents from countries with middle or low human development. Poverty rates among immigrant children were higher among all categories of immigrant children in 2008-10 than among children of native born parents. These cross origin differences in income-based child indicators can be attributed to the reasons and qualifications parents had when they entered Sweden and the number of years since their immigration. A majority of children living in Sweden that are classified as poor in 2008-10 were immigrant children of various categories.

  11. Survival and Transcendence of Transnational Indigenous Latina Immigrants (ILIs in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Machado-Casas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Transnational indigenous Latino immigrants today seem to live multiple lives across multiple borders. Based on a 3-year Mix methods research study that took place in a new immigrant-receiving community in North Carolina, the manuscript describes the experiences of Indigenous Latina Immigrants (ILIs living in the United States, specifically pedagogies of survival based on fluid social identities. The indigenous women who took part in this study had to adopt fluid unknown identities both in the home for cultural survival, and also outside the home (external identities for physical and social survival, often in hostile environments. In addition, it raises questions about the ways multilingualism affects border mobility and transnationality as well as how indigenous Latina immigrants become Camaleónas guerreras (Chameleon Warriors who use “critical survival tools” as a transnational bridge to facilitate their survival in a hostile US environment, the community, and in schools.

  12. Mandatory HIV Screening Policy & Everyday Life: A Look Inside the Canadian Immigration Medical Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA BISAILLON

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Findings that detail the social organization of day-to-day practices associated with the Canadian government policy of mandatory HIV testing of permanent residence applicants to Canada are reported. Institutional ethnography was used to investigate interactions between HIV-positive applicants and immigration physicians during the immigration medical examination. A composite narrative recounts details of a woman applicant's discovery through immigration testing that she was living with HIV. Mandatory HIV testing gives rise to serious difficulties for applicants to Canada living with HIV. Applicant, physician and federal state employee work practices associated with mandatory HIV testing are analysed. These practices contribute to the ideological work of the Canadian state, where interest bounds up in the examination serve the state and not the applicant. Findings should be useful for Canadian immigration policy makers who wish to develop constructive and functional strategies to address issues that matter in people's lives

  13. The industrial division of labor among immigrants and internal migrants to the Los Angeles economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, M; Wright, R

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the industrial division of labor among immigrants and in-migrants in the Los Angeles, California, metropolitan area. It addresses debates about channeling of new arrivals into jobs among similar ethnic groups and human capital views. Data were obtained from the 1990 Census on resident native-born, resident foreign-born, in-migrants, and recent immigrants who arrived during 1985-90. Light and Rosenstein's (1995) concepts of groups and their resources were used to organize ideas about ethnic networks and their effectiveness in channeling migrant workers into 15 industrial sectors. Sectoral differences were revealed with the familiarity index of dissimilarity. Findings reveal that social networks were the strongest for Koreans, who supplied work for recent arrivals in the same sectors as Korean-born residents, regardless of education. Mexican new arrivals were less likely to work in the same sectors as their resident Mexican counterparts. Mexican networks placed new arrivals in durable manufacturing in the 1960s and 1970s when it was a key source of employment. By the 1980s and 1990s, the economy shifted and employment went down in durable manufacturing. Mexicans thus found employment elsewhere. Native White and Black in-migrants had the strongest channeling into same sector jobs. This is attributed to the small streams, the ability of the labor market to absorb these workers, and the availability of job vacancies among native out-migrants. Filipino migrants had similar patterns as Whites and Blacks. Mexican and Central American residents had more inter-ethnic competition over jobs than Whites or Blacks.

  14. El Arte Culinario Mexicano (Mexican Culinary Art).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Michelle

    This unit in Mexican cooking can be used in Junior High School home economics classes to introduce students to Mexican culture or as a mini-course in Spanish at almost any level. It is divided into two parts. Part One provides historical background and information on basic foods, the Mexican market, shopping tips, regional cooking and customs.…

  15. Metabolic responses to a traditional Mexican diet compared with a commonly consumed US diet in women of Mexican descent: a randomized crossover feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Torres, Margarita; Kratz, Mario; Lampe, Johanna W; Tapsoba, Jean De Dieu; Breymeyer, Kara L; Levy, Lisa; Villaseñor, Adriana; Wang, Ching-Yun; Song, Xiaoling; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2016-02-01

    Mexican immigrants are disproportionally affected by diet-related risk of metabolic dysfunction. Whether adhering to a traditional Mexican diet or adopting a US diet contributes to metabolic changes associated with future risk of type 2 diabetes and other chronic diseases has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to test in a randomized crossover feeding trial the metabolic responses to a Mexican diet compared with a commonly consumed US diet. First- and second-generation healthy women of Mexican descent (n = 53) were randomly assigned in a crossover design to consume a Mexican or US diet for 24 d each, separated by a 28-d washout period. Diets were eucaloric and similar in macronutrient composition. The metabolic responses to diets were assessed by measuring fasting serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin 6 (IL-6), as well as the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) at the beginning and end of each period. Linear mixed models tested the intervention effect on the biomarkers, while adjusting for diet sequence, feeding period, baseline and washout biomarker concentrations, age, acculturation, and BMI. Compared with the US diet, the Mexican diet reduced insulin by 14% [geometric means (95% CIs): 9.3 (8.3, 10.3) compared with 8.0 (7.2, 8.9) μU/mL; P = 0.02], HOMA-IR by 15% [2.0 (1.8, 2.3) compared with 1.7 (1.6, 2.0); P = 0.02], and IGFBP-3 by 6% (mean ± SEM: 2420 ± 29 compared with 2299 ± 29 ng/mL; P diet. Compared with the commonly consumed US diet, the traditional Mexican diet modestly improved insulin sensitivity under conditions of weight stability in healthy women of Mexican descent, while having no impact on biomarkers of inflammation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01369173. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Non-western immigrants' satisfaction with the general practitioners' services in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Else; Nafstad, Per; Rosvold, Elin O

    2008-02-27

    Over the last few years the number of immigrants from the non-western parts of the world living in Oslo, has increased considerably. We need to know if these immigrants are satisfied with the health services they are offered. The aim of this study was to assess whether the immigrants' level of satisfaction with visits to general practitioners was comparable with that for ethnic Norwegians. Two population-based surveys, the Oslo Health Study and the Oslo Immigrant Health Study, were performed on selected groups of Oslo citizens in 2000 and 2002. The response rates were 46% and 33%, respectively. In all, 11936 Norwegians and 1102 non-western immigrants from the Oslo Health Study, and 1774 people from the Oslo Immigrant Health Study, were included in this analysis. Non-western immigrants' and ethnic Norwegians' level of satisfaction with visits to general practitioners were analysed with respect to age, gender, health, working status, and use of translators. Bivariate (Chi square) and multivariate analyses (logistic regression) were performed. Most participants were either moderately or very satisfied with their last visit to a general practitioner. Non-western immigrants were less satisfied than Norwegians. Dissatisfaction among the immigrants was associated with young age, a feeling of not having good health, and coming from Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, or Vietnam as compared to Sri Lanka. The attendance rates in the surveys were rather low and lowest among the non-western immigrants. Although the degree of satisfaction with the primary health care was relatively high among the participants in these surveys, the non-western immigrants in this study were less satisfied than ethnic Norwegians with their last visit to a general practitioner. The rather low response rates opens for the possibility that the degree of satisfaction may not be representative for all immigrants.

  17. Race, Ethnicity, and Self-Rated Health Among Immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alang, Sirry M; McCreedy, Ellen M; McAlpine, Donna D

    2015-12-01

    Previous work has not fully explored the role of race in the health of immigrants. We investigate race and ethnic differences in self-rated health (SRH) among immigrants, assess the degree to which socio-economic characteristics explain race and ethnic differences, and examine whether time in the USA affects racial and ethnic patterning of SRH among immigrants. Data came from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (N = 16, 288). Using logistic regression, we examine race and ethnic differences in SRH controlling for socio-economic differences and length of time in the country. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black immigrants were the most socio-economically disadvantaged. Asian immigrants were socio-economically similar to non-Hispanic White immigrants. Contrary to U.S. racial patterning, Black immigrants had lower odds of poor SRH than did non-Hispanic White immigrants when socio-demographic factors were controlled. When length of stay in the USA was included in the model, there were no racial or ethnic differences in SRH. However, living in the USA for 15 years and longer was associated with increased odds of poor SRH for all immigrants. Findings have implications for research on racial and ethnic disparities in health. Black-White disparities that have received much policy attention do not play out when we examine self-assessed health among immigrants. The reasons why non-Hispanic Black immigrants have similar self-rated health than non-Hispanic White immigrants even though they face greater socio-economic disadvantage warrant further attention.

  18. The health of California's immigrant hired farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarejo, Don; McCurdy, Stephen A; Bade, Bonnie; Samuels, Steve; Lighthall, David; Williams, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    Hispanic immigrant workers dominate California's hired farm workforce. Little is known about their health status; even less is known about those lacking employment authorization. The California Agricultural Workers Health Survey (CAWHS) was a statewide cross-sectional household survey conducted in 1999. Six hundred fifty-four workers completed in-person interviews, comprehensive physical examinations, and personal risk behavior interviews. The CAWHS PE Sample is comprised mostly of young Mexican men who lack health insurance and present elevated prevalence of indicators of chronic disease: overweight, obesity, high blood pressure, and high serum cholesterol. The self-reported, cumulative, farm work career incidence of paid claims for occupational injury under workers compensation was 27% for males and 11% for females. The survey finds elevated prevalence of indicators of chronic disease but lack of health care access. Participants without employment authorization reported a greater prevalence of high-risk behaviors, such as binge drinking, and were less knowledgeable about workplace protections. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Psychological Adjustment among Israeli Adolescent Immigrants: A Report on Life Satisfaction, Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Chana; Tatar, Moshe

    2001-01-01

    Examined self-concept, self-esteem, and life satisfaction among 119 immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union and 135 Israeli classmates. Immigrant adolescents reported less satisfaction with their lives and less congruence between their self-concept and the ways in which they were perceived by others. (SLD)

  20. Language and Opportunity in the "Land of Opportunity": Latina Immigrants' Reflections on Language Learning and Professional Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Liv Thorstensson

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes the goals and realities of four educated, working, adult Latina, English as a Second language (ESL) students living in North Carolina, a region seeing particularly intense migration of Latino immigrants. The study conceptually frames adjustment issues confronted by these Latina immigrants in terms of gender, language,…

  1. Mother Tongue as a Determining Variable in Language Attitudes. The Case of Immigrant Latin American Students in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Angel; Janes, Judit

    2008-01-01

    Bearing in mind the relevance of immigration in Spain, we consider the linguistic idiosyncrasy of the autonomous community of Catalonia in the present study to describe and analyse language attitudes to Catalan and Spanish in a sample of 225 students of immigrant origin living in different parts of the region. We focus on language attitudes in so…

  2. Habaneros and shwarma: Jewish Mexicans in Israel as a transnational community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulette Kershenovich Schuster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Food is the cultural expression of society food as a marker of class, ethnic, and religious identity. What happens when the location changes? Does food continue to play such an important role or do other cultural nodes take over? Do layers of traditions, adaptation and cultural blends emerge? This seems to be the case with third and fourth generation Mexican Jews who have moved to Israel. Not only have they brought their spiritual and cultural connections from Mexico, their birth country; they have also brought the food experiences of their great-grandparents and grandparents who were they themselves immigrants. Jewish Mexicans have transplanted their sense of community to Israel and in doing so they have also brought overlooked cultural interactions and unique food experiences. Are these simply by-products of religious and migration patterns? Or are there other elements that have affected this cultural hybridity?

  3. Large-scale immigration and political response: popular reaction in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, W A

    1998-03-01

    Over the past 3 years, the level of political debate has grown over the nature and extent of the recent large-scale immigration to the US in general, and to California in particular. California's Proposition 187 to deny welfare benefits to illegal immigrants brought national attention to the immigration debate, and no doubt influenced recent decisions to significantly change the US's welfare program. The author studied the vote on Proposition 187 in the November 1994 California election to better understand the nature of reaction to large-scale immigration and recent arguments about anti-immigrant sentiment and nativism. The only counties which voted against the proposition were Sonoma, Marin, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, Yolo, Alameda, and Santa Clara, as well as the population of San Francisco. The vote generated political responses from across the border as well as within California. Statements from Mexican and other Central American governments reflected their concern over the possibility of returning populations, for whom there are neither jobs nor public services in their countries of origin. Findings are presented from a spatial analysis of the vote by census tracts in Los Angeles County.

  4. Immigration and Religion in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2009-01-01

    An overview over legal framework for immigration into Denmark, special clauses on religion as a parameter for residence permit and asylum in churches......An overview over legal framework for immigration into Denmark, special clauses on religion as a parameter for residence permit and asylum in churches...

  5. Immigrant Education: A Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Steven R.

    This report provides information on immigrant education in the United States in the areas of funding, participation, population, services, and allocation method. Additionally, it explores reauthorization issues confronting the Emergency Immigrant Education Act for fiscal year 1994. The report shows that: (1) there has been a steady decrease in…

  6. Identity Transformation of Korean Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Saekyung; Gaa, John; Swank, Paul; Liberman, Dov

    Immigration is one of the most significant changes which can occur in one's lifetime. Immigrants struggle with their foreign environment and renewed crises; they suffer from "uprootedness" and "missed embeddedness" and have difficulty integrating their identity roles. Erikson's psychosocial development theory and Marcia's…

  7. 1946: The Transition of the Kuomintang Government’s Policies towards Korean Immigrants in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyun Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Northeast China, which witnessed many controversial incidents, was the arena of Korea, China and Japan in the modern history. Meanwhile, Korean immigrants in Northeast China were the target to be won over by various political powers during the twentieth century. When the World War Ⅱended, nearly five-sixths of Korean immigrants lived in the liberated areas (the Communist Party of China- controlled areas. Some young Korean immigrants were mobilized by the CPC to join the Chinese civil war. To strengthen its reign and gain support, KMT government changed the policies of settling Korean on June 10th of 1946 and established the Northeast Korean Immigrants Department to address the problems in the fields of education, welfare and repatriation in 1947.This paper, with careful analysis of the historical documents, aims to build the ground for future research on the Korean immigrants in Northeast China.

  8. The Association between Stress Measured by Allostatic Load Score and Physiologic Dysregulation in African Immigrants: The Africans in America Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna A Bingham

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Allostatic load score (ALS summarizes the physiological effect of stress on cardiovascular, metabolic and immune systems. As immigration is stressful, ALS could be affected.Objective: Associations of age of immigration, reason for immigration and unhealthy assimilation behavior with ALS were determined in 238 African immigrants to the United States (US (age 40±10, mean±SD, range 21-64y. Methods: ALS was calculated using ten variables from three domains; cardiovascular (SBP, DBP, cholesterol, triglyceride, homocysteine, metabolic (BMI, A1C, albumin, eGFR and immunological (hsCRP. Variables were divided into sex-specific quartiles with high-risk defined as the highest quartile for each variable except for albumin and eGFR which used the lowest quartile. One point was assigned if the variable was in the high-risk range and zero if not. Unhealthy assimilation behavior was defined by a higher prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption or sedentary activity in immigrants who lived in the US for ≥10y compare to <10y.Results: Sixteen percent of the immigrants arrived in the US as children (age<18y; 84% arrived as adults (age≥18y. Compared to adulthood immigrants, childhood immigrants were younger (30±7 vs. 42±9, P<0.01, but had lived in the US longer (20±8 vs. 12±9y, P<0.01. Age-adjusted ALS were similar in childhood and adulthood immigrants (2.78±1.83 vs. 2.73±1.69, P=0.87. For adulthood immigrants, multiple regression analysis (adjR2=0.20 revealed older age at immigration and more years in the US were associated with higher ALS (both P<0.05; whereas current age, education, income and gender had no significant influence (all P≥0.4. The prevalence of smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity did not differ in adulthood immigrants living in the US for ≥10y vs. <10y (all P≥0.2. Reason for immigration was available for 77 participants. The reasons included: family reunification, lottery, marriage, work, education and

  9. AIDS in Mexican prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, J M; Roberts, J B

    1995-01-01

    The human rights organization Americas Watch, which toured Mexican prisons, reported in 1991 that all prisoners with HIV infection in the Mexico City area were housed in a single AIDS ward in Santa Marta Prison. In 1991, the 16-bed facility had 15 patients; in 1993, this number had increased by 5. In Mexico City, with 3 prisons holding over 2000 male adults each, there were only 20 known infected prisoners in the AIDS ward at Santa Marta. In 1991, authorities at Matamoros, in the state of Tamaulipas, insisted that none of their inmates had ever been diagnosed as infected with HIV. The prison physician at Reynosa indicated that only 2 inmates since 1985 had ever been diagnosed as infected. In 1992, the prison in Saltillo, in the state of Coahuila, reported that here had yet to be a single positive test for HIV. The prison at Reynosa held 1500 people and only 2 inmates were diagnosed as having AIDS between 1985 and 1991. Prisons at Matamoros and Saltillo held similar numbers but had no experience of infected inmates. A survey of 2 prisons in the state of Tamaulipas indicates that around 12% of the population may use IV drugs, and 9% indicate sharing needles. It is possible for prisoners to die of diseases like pneumonia, associated with AIDS, without the connection to AIDS being diagnosed. Each state, and possibly each prison in Mexico, has its own particular AIDS policies. Santa Marta was the single facility in Mexico City used to house AIDS-infected prisoners, who were segregated. Finally, the prison at Saltillo required all women entering the facility to have a medical examination, including a test for HIV. High-level prison personnel have demonstrated ignorance and fear of AIDS and intolerance of infected prisoners. Mexico must reassess the need to provide adequate medical care to offenders who are sick and dying behind bars.

  10. Mexican agencies reach teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Lemus, R; Beamish, J

    1992-08-01

    The Gente Joven project of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) trains young volunteers in 19 cities to spread messages about sexually transmitted diseases and population growth to their peers. They also distribute condoms and spermicides. It also uses films and materials to spread its messages. The project would like to influence young men's behavior, but the Latin image of machismo poses a big challenge. It would like to become more responsible toward pregnancy prevention. About 50% of adolescents have sexual intercourse, but few use contraceptives resulting in a high adolescent pregnancy rate. Many of these pregnant teenagers choose not to marry. Adolescent pregnancy leads to girls leaving school, few marketable skills, and rearing children alone. Besides women who began childbearing as a teenager have 1.5 times more children than other women. Male involvement in pregnancy prevention should improve these statistics. As late as 1973, the Health Code banned promotion and sales of contraceptives, but by 1992 about 50% of women of reproductive age use contraceptives. The Center for the Orientation of Adolescents has organized 8 Young Men's Clubs in Mexico City to involve male teenagers more in family planning and to develop self-confidence. It uses a holistic approach to their development through discussions with their peers. A MEXFAM study shows that young men are not close with their fathers who tend to exude a machismo attitude, thus the young men do not have a role model for responsible sexual behavior. MEXFAM's work is cut out for them, however, since the same study indicates that 50% of the young men believe it is fine to have 1 girlfriend and 33% think women should earn more than men. A teenager volunteer reports, however, that more boys have been coming to him for contraception and information than girls in 1992 while in other years girls outnumbered the boys.

  11. "As Long as You Work Hard, You Can Achieve Your Goals" : Hungarian Immigrants on the American Dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Kolozsvari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Immigrants to the United States frequently perceive America as the land of endless opportunities and prosperity, and this perception is very frequently a propelling force in the decision for immigration. Through 20 in-depth interviews with middle-class Hungarians who live in the United States I will discuss how immigration to the United States has influenced the perceptions of these Hungarians of opportunities in the United States. I will also highlight how reasons for immigration and perceptions of the American Dream vary by gender.

  12. More Similar than Different? Exploring Cultural Models of Depression among Latino Immigrants in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinorah (Dina Martinez Tyson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Surgeon General's report, “Culture, Race, and Ethnicity: A Supplement to Mental Health,” points to the need for subgroup specific mental health research that explores the cultural variation and heterogeneity of the Latino population. Guided by cognitive anthropological theories of culture, we utilized ethnographic interviewing techniques to explore cultural models of depression among foreign-born Mexican (n=30, Cuban (n=30, Columbian (n=30, and island-born Puerto Ricans (n=30, who represent the largest Latino groups in Florida. Results indicate that Colombian, Cuban, Mexican, and Puerto Rican immigrants showed strong intragroup consensus in their models of depression causality, symptoms, and treatment. We found more agreement than disagreement among all four groups regarding core descriptions of depression, which was largely unexpected but can potentially be explained by their common immigrant experiences. Findings expand our understanding about Latino subgroup similarities and differences in their conceptualization of depression and can be used to inform the adaptation of culturally relevant interventions in order to better serve Latino immigrant communities.

  13. Health inequality between immigrants and natives in Spain: the loss of the healthy immigrant effect in times of economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsens, Mercè; Malmusi, Davide; Villarroel, Nazmy; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Hernando, Cristina; Borrell, Carme

    2015-12-01

    The immigrant population living in Spain grew exponentially in the early 2000s but has been particularly affected by the economic crisis. This study aims to analyse health inequalities between immigrants born in middle- or low-income countries and natives in Spain, in 2006 and 2012, taking into account gender, year of arrival and socioeconomic exposures. Study of trends using two cross-sections, the 2006 and 2012 editions of the Spanish National Health Survey, including residents in Spain aged 15-64 years (20 810 natives and 2950 immigrants in 2006, 14 291 natives and 2448 immigrants in 2012). Fair/poor self-rated health, poor mental health (GHQ-12 > 2), chronic activity limitation and use of psychotropic drugs were compared between natives and immigrants who arrived in Spain before 2006, adjusting robust Poisson regression models for age and socioeconomic variables to obtain prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Inequalities in poor self-rated health between immigrants and natives tend to increase among women (age-adjusted PR2006 = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.24-1.56, PR2012 = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.33-1.82). Among men, there is a new onset of inequalities in poor mental health (PR2006 = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.86-1.40, PR2012 = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.06-1.69) and an equalization of the previously lower use of psychotropic drugs (PR2006 = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.11-0.43, PR2012 = 1.20; 95% CI: 0.73-2.01). Between 2006 and 2012, immigrants who arrived in Spain before 2006 appeared to worsen their health status when compared with natives. The loss of the healthy immigrant effect in the context of a worse impact of the economic crisis on immigrants appears as potential explanation. Employment, social protection and re-universalization of healthcare would prevent further deterioration of immigrants' health status. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  14. Religious and secular volunteering: A comparison between immigrants and non-immigrants in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carabain, C.L.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Using new survey data from the Netherlands, we find that non-immigrants are more likely to volunteer for secular organisations than guest worker immigrants and postcolonial citizen immigrants. In contrast, non-immigrants are less likely to engage in religious volunteering than both immigrant groups.

  15. 78 FR 32989 - Visas: Documentation of Immigrants under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Immigrants under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Final... aliens who seek immigrant visas and does not affect any small entities, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 601(6). C... with the following change: PART 42--VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND...

  16. ‘It’s not enough to migrate. You have to deserve to be an immigrant!’: Narratives as weapons of struggling for the true/best immigrant group identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra KADERLI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the case of Bulgarian-Turkish immigrants who live in Turkey, the aim of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the meaning and the functions of the narratives in the special contextual conditions of the migration experience. This contextual and functional approach shows us that narratives in the present life of Turkish immigrants who migrated Turkey from Bulgaria, have a quite vital function as a form of expression and an experiencing realm of sub-immigrant group identities which do not have any forms of expression or concrete borders observable from the outside and which emerge only in narrative domain in parallel to contextual conditions. In this study, it has been examined how the immigrants construct and represent their sub-immigrant group identities in parallel to the situational context in the narrative events they come together, considering the contextual conditions of the immigration process which uncovers the meaning and the functions of narratives today.

  17. Do post-migration perceptions of social mobility matter for Latino immigrant health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, Carmela; Chen, Chih-Nan; Alegría, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Latino immigrants exhibit health declines with increasing duration in the United States, which some attribute to a loss in social status after migration or downward social mobility. Yet, research into the distribution of perceived social mobility and patterned associations to Latino health is sparse, despite extensive research to show that economic and social advancement is a key driver of voluntary migration. We investigated Latino immigrant sub-ethnic group variation in the distribution of perceived social mobility, defined as the difference between respondents’ perceived social status of origin had they remained in their country of origin and their current social status in the U.S. We also examined the association between perceived social mobility and past-year major depressive episode (MDE) and self-rated fair/poor physical health, and whether Latino sub-ethnicity moderated these associations. We computed weighted logistic regression analyses using subsample (N = 1561 the Latino immigrant) of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Puerto Rican migrants were more likely to perceive downward social mobility relative to Mexican and Cuban immigrants who were more likely to perceive upward social mobility. Perceived downward social mobility was associated with increased odds of fair/poor physical health and MDE. Latino sub-ethnicity was a statistically significant moderator, such that perceived downward social mobility was associated with higher odds of MDE only among Puerto Rican and Other Latino immigrants. In contrast, perceived upward social mobility was not associated with self-rated fair/poor physical health. Our findings suggest that perceived downward social mobility might be an independent correlate of health among Latino immigrants, and might help explain Latino sub-ethnic group differences in mental health status. Future studies on Latino immigrant health should use prospective designs to examine the physiological and psychological costs

  18. Minority and Immigrant Youth Exposure to Community Violence: The Differential Effects of Family Management and Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Maria João Lobo; Ahlin, Eileen M

    2018-02-01

    Experiences with neighborhood violence can produce negative consequences in youth, including stress, anxiety, and deviant behavior. Studies report that immigrant and minority youth are more likely to be exposed to violence but less likely to perpetrate it. Similarly, research shows parenting practices are differentially adopted by Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics. Although family management strategies can often act as a barrier to the detrimental effects of exposure to community violence (ETV-C), there is a paucity of investigation on how Hispanic subgroups (e.g., Puerto Rican, Mexican) and immigrant families employ such practices in protecting their children against victimization and violence in the community. Applying an ecological framework, we use data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine the role of parenting and peer relationships on youth ETV-C, across race/ethnicity and immigrant generational status. Our sample is drawn from Cohorts 9, 12, and 15, and is over 40% Hispanic-Latino. We investigate the differences in within and outside the home family management strategies in terms of both race/ethnicity and immigrant generational status. Our work also seeks to determine the effects of race/ethnicity and immigrant status on youth ETV-C, while examining the influence of family management and peer relations. Results indicate that the adoption of family management practices is not homogeneous across Hispanic subgroups or immigrant generational status, and parenting practices seem to mediate the relationship between these characteristics and exposure to violence. Variations in parenting practices underscore the need to disentangle the cultural plurality of racial/ethnic grouping and how immigrant generational status influences parenting choices that protect children from exposure to violence in the community.

  19. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act, the...

  20. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part the...

  1. The Changing Face of Immigration Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on laws that influence U.S. immigration, such as the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (1996), the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996), the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (1996), and the Legal Immigration and Family Equity Act (2000). Includes discussion…

  2. The U.S. immigration crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, G P; Lutton, W

    1985-01-01

    A review of the factors affecting immigration to the United States is presented. The authors develop the argument that present levels of immigration, particularly illegal immigration, are detrimental to U.S. interests, and that current global population trends will make this situation progressively worse. Stricter controls on immigration are considered.

  3. Using photovoice to explore nigerian immigrants' eating and physical activity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Melanie T; Fapohunda, Abimbola; Zoucha, Rick

    2015-01-01

    African immigrants are one of the fastest growing immigrant groups to the United States; there is a crucial need to learn about African immigrants' beliefs and lifestyle behaviors that may impact health. The purposes of this study were to (a) explore the perceptions and practices of Nigerian immigrants regarding healthy eating and physical activity in the United States; (b) assess the influence of cultural beliefs of Nigerian immigrants on eating and physical activity; (c) describe the role that healthcare providers can play in helping to promote healthy eating and physical activity; and (d) evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of using Photovoice to collect data on the perceptions and practices of Nigerian immigrants regarding healthy eating and physical activity. Qualitative visual ethnography using Photovoice. Thirteen Nigerian immigrants were recruited. Data were collected using photography and focus group discussions at a church. Photovoice methodology and Leininger's four phases of qualitative analysis were used to analyze photographs, field notes, and focus group transcripts. Four overarching themes emerged from the data: moderation is healthy, Nigerian ways of living are healthy, acquiring American ways is unhealthy, and cultural context is important to promote healthy behaviors. Photovoice was a feasible, effective methodology for collecting data on the perceptions and practices of Nigerian immigrants. Nigerian participants believed that adherence to traditional dietary and activity practices are healthy. Nurses and other healthcare providers must make concerted efforts to communicate with and educate Nigerian immigrants about healthful eating and activity behaviors within their cultural context. The number of African immigrants to the United States has increased dramatically. Photovoice is a creative method to learn about the health beliefs and behaviors of the Nigerian immigrant population. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  4. Induced abortion and contraception use: among immigrant and Canadian-born women in Calgary, Alta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prey, Beatrice du; Talavlikar, Rachel; Mangat, Rupinder; Freiheit, Elizabeth A; Drummond, Neil

    2014-09-01

    To determine what proportion of women seeking induced abortion in the Calgary census metropolitan area were immigrants. For 2 months, eligible women were asked to complete a questionnaire. Women who refused were asked to provide their country of birth (COB) to assess for selection bias. Two abortion clinics in Calgary, Alta. Women presenting at or less than 15 weeks' gestational age for induced abortion for maternal indications. The primary outcome was the proportion of women seeking induced abortion services who were immigrants. Secondary outcomes compared socioeconomic characteristics and contraception use between immigrant and Canadian-born women. A total of 752 women either completed a questionnaire (78.6%) or provided their COB (21.4%). Overall, 28.9% of women living in the Calgary census metropolitan area who completed the questionnaire were immigrants, less than the 31.2% background proportion of immigrant women of childbearing age. However, 46.0% of women who provided only COB were immigrants. When these data were combined, 34.2% of women presenting for induced abortion identified as immigrant, a proportion not significantly different from the background proportion (P = .127). Immigrant women presenting for induced abortion tended to be older, more educated, married with children, and have increased parity. They were similar to Canadian-born women in number of previous abortions, income status, and employment status. This study suggests that immigrant women in Calgary are not presenting for induced abortion in disproportionately higher numbers, which differs from existing European literature. This is likely owing to differing socioeconomic characteristics among the immigrant women in our study from what have been previously described in the literature (typically lower socioeconomic status). Much still needs to be explored with regard to factors influencing the use of abortion services by immigrant women. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of

  5. Crime and immigration: evidence from large immigrant waves

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Bell; Stephen Machin; Francesco Fasani

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between immigration and crime in a setting where large migration flows offer an opportunity to carefully appraise whether the populist view that immigrants cause crime is borne out by rigorous evidence. We consider possible crime effects from two large waves of immigration that recently occurred in the UK. The first of these was the late 1990s/early 2000s wave of asylum seekers, and the second the large inflow of workers from EU accession countries that to...

  6. La Artesania Mexicana (Mexican Handicrafts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Bettina

    This booklet contains instructions in English and Spanish for making eleven typical Mexican craft articles. The instructions are accompanied by pen-and-ink drawings. The objects are (1) "La Rosa" (The Rose); (2) "El Crisantemo" (The Chrysanthemum); (3) "La Amapola" (The Poppy); (4) "Ojos de Dios" (God's Eyes); (5) "Ojitos con dos caras" (Two-Sided…

  7. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology.

  8. The Mexican Axolotl in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests and describes laboratory activities in which the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum Shaw) is used, including experiments in embryology and early development, growth and regeneration, neoteny and metamorphosis, genetics and coloration, anatomy and physiology, and behavior. Discusses care and maintenance of animals. (CS)

  9. Proverbs in Mexican American Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shirley L.

    1982-01-01

    Examines proverb use among 304 Mexican Americans (aged 16-85) of Los Angeles (California), assembling information on how or where particular proverbs were learned, with whom or what kind of individual their use is associated, the occasions on which they are used, and general attitudes toward the use of proverbs. (LC)

  10. Coping with a New Health Culture: Acculturation and Online Health Information Seeking Among Chinese Immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weirui; Yu, Nan

    2015-10-01

    As a culturally diverse country, the U.S. hosts over 39 million immigrants who may experience various cultural and linguistic obstacles to receiving quality health care. Considering online sources an important alternative for immigrants to access health information, this study investigates how Chinese immigrants in the U.S. seek health information online. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Chinese immigrants who currently live in the U.S. to understand how acculturation strategies they use to adapt to the host society influence their Internet-based health information seeking behaviors. Our findings revealed that the language and web sources immigrants choose to use can be predicted by the acculturation strategies they utilize to cope with the new culture. This study serves as a timely and imperative call for further consideration of the role that acculturation plays in determining how immigrants seek health information and utilize the healthcare services of their host society.

  11. Mediating and moderating processes in the relationship between multicultural ideology and attitudes towards immigrants in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Pasquale; Inguglia, Cristiano; Lo Coco, Alida; Albiero, Paolo; Berry, John W

    2017-12-01

    Few studies examine intercultural relations in emerging adulthood. Framed from the perspective of the Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies (MIRIPS) project, the current paper examined the mediating role of tolerance and perceived consequences of immigration in the relationship between multicultural ideology and attitudes towards immigrants. Additionally, the moderating role of context was analysed. A two-group structural equation modelling was performed on data collected from 305 Italian emerging adults living both in northern and in southern Italy with different socio-political climates towards immigrants. In both groups, tolerance and perceived consequences of immigration mediated the relationship between multicultural ideology and attitudes towards immigrants. Also, this indirect relationship was significantly higher for the northern than southern Italians. These findings provide provisional evidence of mediating and moderating processes in the relationship between multicultural ideology and attitudes towards immigrants and suggest important implications for practitioners interested in promoting intercultural relations among emerging adults. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  12. The making of an immigrant niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, R

    1994-01-01

    "This article speaks to the conceptual and methodological issues in research on the making of an immigrant niche through a case study of immigrant professionals in New York City government." The author argues that "the growth of this immigrant niche resulted from changes in the relative supply of native workers and in the structure of employment, which opened the bureaucracy to immigrants and reduced native/immigrant competition. These shifts opened hiring portals; given the advantages of network hiring for workers and managers, and an immigrant propensity for government employment, network recruitment led to a rapid buildup in immigrant ranks." excerpt

  13. [Emigration in hard conditions: the Immigrant Syndrome with chronic and multiple stress (Ulysses' Syndrome)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achotegui, Joseba

    2005-01-01

    During the latest years, immigrant populations have been living in very hard conditions. To million people, migration is becoming a process with a high level of stress surpassing the human being capacity of adaptation. This people are prone to suffer the Immigrant Syndrome with chronic and multiple stress and the so called Ulysses Syndrome, what is becoming a serious health problem in the countries that receive the immigrants. This situation is the by-product of the unjust globalization and of the worsening of the living and health conditions of those undergoing such a displacement. In this article, the author postulates a relationship between the high level of stress suffered by the immigrants and their presentation of psychopathological symptoms.

  14. Urinary trans-trans muconic acid (exposure biomarker to benzene) and hippuric acid (exposure biomarker to toluene) concentrations in Mexican women living in high-risk scenarios of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruneda-Alvarez, Lucía G; Ruíz-Vera, Tania; Ochoa-Martínez, Angeles C; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2017-11-02

    This study aimed to determine t,t-muconic acid (t,t-MA; exposure biomarker for benzene) and hippuric acid (HA; exposure biomarker for toluene) concentrations in the urine of women living in Mexico. In a cross-sectional study, apparently healthy women (n = 104) were voluntarily recruited from localities with a high risk of air pollution; t,t-MA and HA in urine were quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. Mean urinary levels of t,t-MA ranged from 680 to 1,310 μg/g creatinine. Mean values of HA ranged from 0.38 to 0.87 g/g creatinine. In conclusion, compared to data recently reported in literature, we found high urinary levels of t,t-MA and HA in assessed women participating in this study. We therefore deem the implementation of a strategy aimed at the reduction of exposure as a necessary measure for the evaluated communities.

  15. Is the New Immigration Really So Bad?

    OpenAIRE

    Card, David Edward

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent evidence on U.S. immigration, focusing on two key questions: (1) Does immigration reduce the labor market opportunities of less-skilled natives? (2) Have immigrants who arrived after the 1965 Immigration Reform Act successfully assimilated? Looking across major cities, differential immigrant inflows are strongly correlated with the relative supply of high school dropouts. Nevertheless, data from the 2000 Census shows that relative wages of native dropouts are unc...

  16. Difference in Needs for Physical Activity Among Healthy Women, Women with Physical Limitations and Korean Immigrant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung-Ae Choe, RN, PhD

    2007-06-01

    Conclusion: Three groups of women had different needs for physical activity, and their needs for physical activity were influenced by multiple factors reflecting their daily lives in immigration transition and health/illness transition.

  17. Examining Difference in Immigration Stress, Acculturation Stress and Mental Health Outcomes in Six Hispanic/Latino Nativity and Regional Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Richard C; Gattamorta, Karina A; Berger-Cardoso, Jodi

    2018-02-27

    Little is known about the specific behavioral health impact of acculturation stressors that affect Hispanic/Latino immigrant sub-groups. These immigration-related stressors and traumatic events may have differential impact on depression depending on country/region of origin. Using a measure of immigration and acculturation stress, the current study sought to determine differences in the impact of stress on six sub-groups of Hispanic immigrants. Data on stress and depression were examined using a large, representative adult immigrant sample (N = 641). Controlling for age, gender and years in the US, factorial analysis of covariance revealed significant differences on total Hispanic Stress Inventory 2 (HSI2) stress appraisal scores based on country/region of origin. Pair wise comparisons between country/region of origin groups revealed that Mexicans had higher levels of stress compared to Cuban or Dominican immigrants. Several patterns of differential stress were also found within sub-domains of the HSI2. Using regression models, HSI2 stress appraisals and their interaction with country of origin proved to not be significant predictors of depression (PHQ9), while gender and age were significant. Differences in HSI2 stress that are based on nativity may be moderated by cultural resilience that ultimately serves a protective role to prevent the onset of depression.

  18. ESL-speaking immigrant women's disillusions: voices of health care in Canada: an ethnodrama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmon, Laura E

    2007-04-01

    This article describes a research project that investigated whether language barriers play a part in immigrant women's health decreasing when they move to Canada. The findings are then represented in the form of an ethnodrama entitled "ESL-Speaking Immigrant Women's Disillusions: Voices of Health Care in Canada." I suggest that the play is catalytic because it encourages target audiences to empathize with the silenced voices of ESL-speaking immigrant women who live in Canada. I then conclude with a reflection about the potential that the genre of ethnodrama has for social change through its reflexive and critical nature.

  19. A systematic review of factors influencing human papillomavirus vaccination among immigrant parents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyounghae; LeClaire, Anna-Rae

    2017-11-21

    To critically appraise factors influencing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among immigrant parents in the United States, a comprehensive search of electronic databases and reference lists was conducted. The findings from 22 articles were ordered based on a socioecological model. About 30% of children initiated and 14% completed a three-dose series. Correlates of HPV vaccine initiation rates included lack of information, concerns about vaccine safety and promiscuity, providers' recommendations, school mandates, financial issues, immigration laws, and living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Upstream initiatives embracing cultural descriptors could facilitate HPV vaccination, reducing HPV-related disparities in cancer among immigrants in the US.

  20. Only English by the third generation? Loss and preservation of the mother tongue among the grandchildren of contemporary immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Richard; Logan, John; Lutz, Amy; Stults, Brian

    2002-08-01

    We investigate whether a three-generation model of linguistic assimilation, known from previous waves of immigration, can be applied to the descendants of contemporary immigrant groups. Using the 5% Integrated Public Use Microdata Sample 1990 file, we examine the home languages of second- and third-generation children and compare the degree of their language shift against that among the descendants of European immigrants, as evidenced in the 1940 and 1970 censuses. Overall, the rates of speaking only English for a number of contemporary groups suggest that Anglicization is occurring at roughly the same pace for Asians as it did for Europeans, but is slower among the descendants of Spanish speakers. Multivariate models for three critical groups--Chinese, Cubans, and Mexicans--indicate that the home languages of third-generation children are most affected by factors, such as intermarriage, that determine the languages spoken by adults and by the communal context.

  1. Immigrant Workers and Farm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob R.; Seidelin, Claus Aastrup

    2013-01-01

    for Danish farms in 1980–2008 to analyze the micro-level relationship between these two developments. Farms employing immigrants tend to be both larger than and no less productive than other farms. Furthermore, an increased use of immigrants is associated with an improvement in job creation and revenue......In many developed countries, the agricultural sector has experienced a significant inflow of immigrants. At the same time, agriculture is still in a process of structural transformation, resulting in fewer but larger and presumably more efficient farms. We exploit matched employer-employee data...

  2. Hypertension in Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquera, Simón; Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Hernández-Barrera, Lucía; Villalpando, Salvador; Rodríguez-Gilabert, César; Durazo-Arvizú, Ramón; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A

    2010-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of hypertension among Mexican adults, and to compare to that observed among Mexican-Americans living in the US. The primary data source came from adults (>20 years) sampled (n=33366) in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006). Hypertension was defined when systolic blood pressure was >or=140 and/or diastolic was >or= 90 or patients previously diagnosed. A total of 43.2% of participants were classified as having hypertension. We found a positive statistically significant association (p<0.05) between hypertension and BMI, abdominal obesity, previous diagnosis of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Subjects with hypertension had a significantly higher odd of having a history of diabetes or hypercholesterolemia. Hypertension had a higher prevalence in Mexico than among Mexican-Americans living in the US. Hypertension is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in Mexico. In the last six years in Mexico, a substantial increase (25%) has been observed in contrast to the reduction seen among Mexican-Americans (-15%).

  3. Gender Differences in the Effect of Residential Segregation on Workplace Segregation among Newly Arrived Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Tammaru, Tiit; Strömgren, Magnus; van Ham, Maarten; Danzer, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary cities are becoming more and more diverse in population as a result of immigration. Research also shows that within cities residential neighborhoods are becoming ethnically more diverse, but that residential segregation has remained persistently high. High levels of segregation are often seen as negative, preventing integration of immigrants in their host society and having a negative impact on people's lives. Segregation research often focuses on residential neighborhoods, but i...

  4. Immigrants' language skills: the immigrant experience in a longitudinal survey

    OpenAIRE

    Barry CHISWICK; Yew LEE; Paul W. MILLER

    2003-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the determinants of English language proficiency among immigrants. It presents a model based on economic incentives, exposure, and efficiency in language acquisition, which it tests using the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Australia. Probit and bivariate probit analyses are employed. The hypotheses are supported by the data. The bivariate probit analysis across waves indicates a "regression to the mean" in the unobserved components of English language profic...

  5. Mexican American Adolescents' Profiles of Risk and Mental Health: A Person-Centered Longitudinal Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Knight, George P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    Although Mexican American adolescents experience multiple risk factors in their daily lives, most research examines the influences of risk factors on adjustment independently, ignoring the additive and interactive effects of multiple risk factors. Guided by a person-centered perspective and utilizing latent profile analysis, this study identified…

  6. Machismo and Mexican American Men: An Empirical Understanding Using a Gay Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Fernando; Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Arciniega, G. Miguel; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2011-01-01

    Machismo continues to be a defining aspect of Mexican American men that informs a wide array of psychological and behavioral dimensions. Although strides have been made in this area of research, understanding of the role of this construct in the lives of gay men remains incomplete. Our purpose in this study was to gain a deeper understanding of…

  7. Testing a Model of Resistance to Peer Pressure among Mexican-Origin Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the factors associated with resistance to peer pressure toward antisocial behaviors among a sample of Mexican-origin adolescents (n=564) living in a large Southwestern city in the U.S. A model examining the influence of generational status, emotional autonomy from parents, and self-esteem on resistance to peer pressure was…

  8. Novel gender-specific visceral adiposity index for Mexican pediatric population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Garcés

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: VAI formula construction seemed to be different in children compared to adults. In the present study we propose a new gender-specific visceral adipose index for pediatric Mexican population living in urban areas that could be further used to predict abnormal cardiometabolic outcomes.

  9. "Tanto Necesitamos De Aqui Como Necesitamos De Alla": "Leer Juntas" among Mexican Transnational Mothers and Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Piedra, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents part of the results of a qualitative study about literacy practices of Mexican transnational mothers, who live in and frequently cross the border between two countries (the United States and Mexico). Drawing on sociocultural approaches to literacy and literature on transnationalism, I analyze one practice: "leer…

  10. Sibling Relationship Quality and Mexican-Origin Adolescents' and Young Adults' Familism Values and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoren, Sarah E.; De Jesús, Sue A. Rodríguez; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Wheeler, Lorey A.

    2017-01-01

    We examined profiles of sibling relationship qualities in 246 Mexican-origin families living in the United States using latent profile analyses. Three profiles were identified: "Positive," "Negative," and "Affect-Intense." Links between profiles and youths' familism values and adjustment were assessed using…

  11. Attitudes toward unauthorized immigrants, authorized immigrants, and refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kate E; Marx, David M

    2013-07-01

    Rates of human migration are steadily rising and have resulted in significant sociopolitical debates over how to best respond to increasing cultural diversity and changing migration patterns. Research on prejudicial attitudes toward immigrants has focused on the attitudes and beliefs that individuals in the receiving country hold about immigrants. The current study enhances this literature by examining how young adults view authorized and unauthorized immigrants and refugees. Using a between-groups design of 191 undergraduates, we found that participants consistently reported more prejudicial attitudes, greater perceived realistic threats, and greater intergroup anxiety when responding to questions about unauthorized compared with authorized immigrants. Additionally, there were differences in attitudes depending on participants' generational status, with older-generation participants reporting greater perceived realistic and symbolic threat, prejudice, and anxiety than newer-generation students. In some instances, these effects were moderated by participant race/ethnicity and whether they were evaluating authorized or unauthorized immigrants. Lastly, perceived realistic threat, symbolic threat, and intergroup anxiety were significant predictors of prejudicial attitudes. Overall, participants reported positive attitudes toward refugees and resettlement programs in the United States. These findings have implications for future research and interventions focused on immigration and prejudice toward migrant groups. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Mathematics Achievement by Immigrant Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary G. Huang

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I examined academic achievement of immigrant children in the United States, Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand. Analyzing data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS, I gauged the performance gaps relating to the generation of immigration and the home language background. I found immigrant children's math and science achievement to be lower than the others only in England, the U.S., and Canada. Non-English language background was found in each country to relate to poor math and science learning and this disadvantage was stronger among native-born children—presumably children of indigenous groups—than among immigrant children. I also examined the school variation in math performance gaps, using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM to each country's data. The patterns in which language- and generation-related math achievement gaps varied between schools are different in the five countries.

  13. Immigrant Women and Partner Violence

    OpenAIRE

    KUUSELA, HANNA

    2011-01-01

    Violence against women is a global problem, which can be recognized in every society and culture. Both in Canada and Finland the research about violence against immigrant women has begun quite recently and therefore, there is still a lot we do not know about this phenomenon and thus a demand for research. Immigrant women face unique circumstances and are in a vulnerable position of being abused. They are not a homogeneous group, on the contrary, they have individual life experiences but they ...

  14. Immigrant Entrepreneurs, Diasporas and Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Bratti, Massimiliano; De Benedictis, Luca; Santoni, Gianluca

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we highlight a new complementary channel to the business and social network effect à la Rauch (2001) through which immigrants generate increased export flows from the regions in which they settle to their countries of origin: they can become entrepreneurs. Using very small-scale (NUTS-3) administrative data on immigrants’ location in Italy, the local presence of immigrant entrepreneurs (i.e. firms owned by foreign-born entrepreneurs) in the manufacturing sector, and on trade ...

  15. Immigration, Wages, and Compositional Amenities

    OpenAIRE

    David Card; Christian Dustmann; Ian Preston

    2009-01-01

    Economists are often puzzled by the stronger public opposition to immigration than trade, since the two policies have symmetric effects on wages. Unlike trade, however, immigration changes the composition of the local population, imposing potential externalities on natives. While previous studies have focused on fiscal spillovers, a broader class of externalities arise because people value the "compositional amenities" associated with the characteristics of their neighbors and co-workers. In ...

  16. Chinese Immigrant Wealth: Heterogeneity in Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius Vallejo, Jody; Aronson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Chinese immigrants are a diverse and growing group whose members provide a unique opportunity to examine within-immigrant group differences in adaptation. In this paper, we move beyond thinking of national-origin groups as homogenous and study variation among Chinese immigrants in wealth ownership, a critical indicator of adaptation that attracts relatively little attention in the immigration literature. We develop an analytical approach that considers national origin, tenure in the U.S., and age to examine heterogeneity in economic adaptation among the immigrant generation. Our results show that variations among Chinese immigrants explain within-group differences in net worth, asset ownership, and debt. These differences also account for important variation between Chinese immigrants, natives, and other immigrant groups and provide important, new insight into the processes that lead to immigrant adaptation and long-term class stability. PMID:27977737

  17. Chinese Immigrant Wealth: Heterogeneity in Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keister, Lisa A; Agius Vallejo, Jody; Aronson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Chinese immigrants are a diverse and growing group whose members provide a unique opportunity to examine within-immigrant group differences in adaptation. In this paper, we move beyond thinking of national-origin groups as homogenous and study variation among Chinese immigrants in wealth ownership, a critical indicator of adaptation that attracts relatively little attention in the immigration literature. We develop an analytical approach that considers national origin, tenure in the U.S., and age to examine heterogeneity in economic adaptation among the immigrant generation. Our results show that variations among Chinese immigrants explain within-group differences in net worth, asset ownership, and debt. These differences also account for important variation between Chinese immigrants, natives, and other immigrant groups and provide important, new insight into the processes that lead to immigrant adaptation and long-term class stability.

  18. Chinese Immigrant Wealth: Heterogeneity in Adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Keister

    Full Text Available Chinese immigrants are a diverse and growing group whose members provide a unique opportunity to examine within-immigrant group differences in adaptation. In this paper, we move beyond thinking of national-origin groups as homogenous and study variation among Chinese immigrants in wealth ownership, a critical indicator of adaptation that attracts relatively little attention in the immigration literature. We develop an analytical approach that considers national origin, tenure in the U.S., and age to examine heterogeneity in economic adaptation among the immigrant generation. Our results show that variations among Chinese immigrants explain within-group differences in net worth, asset ownership, and debt. These differences also account for important variation between Chinese immigrants, natives, and other immigrant groups and provide important, new insight into the processes that lead to immigrant adaptation and long-term class stability.

  19. Crisis, Xenophobia and Repatriation. The Spanish Immigrants in the City of Mexico, 1910-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia GIL LÁZARO

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the influence of economic crisis in migrant groups. It starts with a reflection about the current situation, putting forward a comparative view with a study case in the past, that is, the circumstances around the Spanish immigrants in Mexico City at the time of Mexican Revolution until the crisis of the Great Depression (1910-1936. Three aspects are explored: first of all, the close relationship between the spreading of the economic crisis and the increase of restrains in migratory public policies in host countries. Secondly, the concomitant growth of xenophobic attitudes in native populations and, finally, the return to the homeland as one of the essential strategies developed by immigrants to confront the crisis drawing upon the social and associative networks of migration movements.

  20. Breastfeeding practices of ethnic Indian immigrant women in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Natasha; Bandyopadhyay, Mridula

    2013-12-18

    The health benefits of breastfeeding are well documented in public health and medical literature worldwide. Despite this, global rates of breastfeeding steadily decline during the first couple of months postpartum. Although immigrant women have higher initiation rates and a longer duration of breastfeeding overall, breastfeeding practices are compromised because of a myriad of socioeconomic and cultural factors, including the acculturation process. The objective of this study was to show how acculturation and cultural identity influenced breastfeeding practices among Indian immigrants in Melbourne, Australia. Twelve case studies were employed to gather narratives of women's lived experiences. Ethnographic field research methods were used to collect data, including participant observation, semi-structured interviews, case studies, and life histories. This provided in-depth information from women on various aspects of the immigrant experience of motherhood, including infant care and feeding. Participants were opportunistically recruited from Indian obstetricians and gynaecologists. Women identifying as ethnic Indian and in their third trimester of pregnancy were recruited. Interviews were conducted in women's homes in metropolitan Melbourne over a 12 month period between 2004 and 2005. Data were coded and analysed thematically. All women identified as ethnic Indian and initiated breastfeeding in accordance with their cultural identity. Social support and cultural connectivity impacted positively on duration of breastfeeding. However, acculturation (adopting Australian cultural values and gender norms, including returning to paid employment) negatively influenced breastfeeding duration. In addition, the high reliance of recent immigrants on the advice of healthcare professionals who gave inconsistent advice negatively affected exclusive breastfeeding. For ethnic Indian immigrant women breastfeeding practice is closely linked to acculturation and identity construction

  1. New tariffs confuse Mexican market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeyman, M.

    1992-01-01

    Indelpro - the Grupo Alfa/Himont joint venture 150,000-m.t./year polypropylene (PP) plant in Altamira, Mexico - has been working to find its place in the Mexican market since coming onstream in March. At the same time, that market has been complicated by the imposition of import and export tariffs by the U.S. Department of Commerce early this fall. Commerce's accession to a 10% ad valorem tax on US PP exports to Mexico surprised some industry observers. The tariff is scheduled to be phased out within 10 years and is partly countermanded by a 5% tariff over a five-year period on Mexican PP exports to the US. But some market analysts say the arrangement is baffling

  2. Testicular cancer risk in first- and second-generation immigrants to Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrup, Charlotte; Westergaard, Tine; Schnack, Tine; Oudin, Anna; Ritz, Christian; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads

    2008-01-02

    Immigrant studies offer insights into the relative importance of environment and genes in disease etiology. There is considerable variation in testicular cancer incidence worldwide. We investigated testicular cancer risk in first- and second-generation immigrants to Denmark, a high-incidence country, to evaluate the relative influence of genes and environment and the potential timing of action of environmental factor(s). A cohort of 2.1 million men who were born since 1930 and lived in Denmark between 1968 and 2003 was established based on information in the Danish Civil Registration System, which included their immigration histories. Cancer histories were obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry. Testicular cancer risk was estimated as rate ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on log-linear Poisson regression. Overall, 4216 testicular cancer cases occurred during 43 million person-years of follow-up in 2.1 million men. These included 166 cases among 344,444 direct immigrants to Denmark and 13 cases among 56,189 men born in Denmark to immigrant parents. These first- and second-generation immigrants had RRs of testicular cancer of 0.37 (95% CI = 0.31 to 0.43) and 0.88 (95% CI = 0.51 to 1.53), respectively, compared with men born in Denmark of parents born in Denmark. The rate in first-generation immigrants was not modified by age at immigration or duration of stay and reflected that in the country of origin. The testicular cancer risk in first-generation immigrants was lower than that in native-born Danes and reflected that in the countries of origin, whereas the risk in second-generation immigrants was similar to that in natives of Denmark. Together these findings argue for a substantial influence of environmental factors limited to the period early in life, most probably to the period in utero.

  3. NAFTA and the Mexican Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-04

    its loans. Then President Miguel de la Madrid took steps to open and liberalize the Mexican economy and initiated procedures to replace import...capita income in countries. 24 Lessons from NAFTA, 2005. 25 Economia , “NAFTA and Convergence in North America: High Expectations, Big Events, Little Time...Easterly, Norbert Fiess, and Daniel Lederman, Economia , “NAFTA and Convergence in North America: High Expectations, Big Events, Little Time,” Fall 2003. The

  4. Acculturation and Post-Migration Stress in Middle-Aged Chinese Immigrant Women in Philadelphia: Variation between the Fujianese and the non-Fujianese women

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung; Tseng, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    The experience of acculturation in Chinese immigrant women from the rural coastal province of Fujian has not been well studied despite of their growing numbers in American cities. This exploratory study is an attempt to examine the experience of acculturation and post-migration stress in Fujianese immigrant women as compared to those from other parts of China. The study is based on a convenience sample 240 Fujianese and 162 non-Fujianese Chinese immigrant women living in Philadelphia.

  5. On duty all the time: Health and quality of life among immigrant parents caring for a child with complex health needs

    OpenAIRE

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Albertini Früh, Elena; Brekke, Idunn; Gardsjord, Ragnhild; Halvorsrud, Liv; Lidén, Hilde

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives: To provide knowledge about how immigrant parents of children with complex health needs manage their family lives and how this affects their own health and quality of life. Background: Caregivers of children with complex health needs have additional risk for general health problems and mental health problems and immigrant parents may be more vulnerable to mental distress and failing health and quality of life. Results: Immigrant parents of children with complex health need...

  6. [The psychopathology of immigrants and refugees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekşi, Aysel

    2002-01-01

    The twentieth century witnessed major waves of emigration, exile and taking refuge abroad. In this paper, a review of the psychiatric literature published between 1990 and 2000 in English and Turkish is presented. Although refugees are considered to differ from economic migrants in a number of respects, they both experience culture and language change and may experience family disruption, social isolation, and hostility from the population of the host country. Accordingly, all refugees and immigrants go through stages of resettlement and need to integrate their past cultural experiences into their new life and culture. The process of integration depends on the subjects' age, mental integrity, and on the conditions he/she lives in. Research indicates that children acculturate more quickly and learn language faster than elders; but they may suffer from role reversal when they are expected to be linguistic and cultural translators for their parents. Young adults at the stage of identity formation can be cut off and feel alienated. Elderly persons have a higher risk of culture shock as they leave behind more memories and connections. These trigger different types of anxieties. The literature shows high levels of acculturative distress, and psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression, and refugees are considered to be at risk for suicidal behavior. The complex social and psychological needs of refugee and immigrant families place demands on special services for children, adolescents and adults.

  7. Cesarean section among immigrants in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangen, S; Stoltenberg, C; Skrondal, A; Magnus, P; Stray-Pedersen, B

    2000-07-01

    We studied prevalences and risk factors for cesarean section among different groups of immigrants from countries outside Western Europe and North America in comparison to ethnic Norwegians. The study is population based using data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 553,491 live births during the period 1986-1995 were studied, including 17,891 births to immigrant mothers. The prevalences of cesarean section ranged from 10.1% among women from Vietnam to 25.8% in the group of Filipino origin. The use of abdominal delivery was also high in the groups from Sri Lanka/India (21.3%), Somalia/Eritrea/Ethiopia (20.5%) and Chile/Brazil (24.3%), while the frequency among women from Turkey/Morocco (12.6%) and Pakistan (13.2%) was approximately the same as among ethnic Norwegians (12.4%). Feto-pelvic disproportion, fetal distress and prolonged labor were the most important diagnoses associated with the high prevalences, but the significance of these diagnoses differed among the groups. Other unknown factors come into play, particularly among women from Somalia/Eritrea/Ethiopia and Chile/Brazil. There was substantial variation in the use of cesarean section among ethnic groups in Norway. The diagnoses feto-pelvic disproportion, fetal distress and prolonged labor may be confounded by a number of factors including maternal request for cesarean section and difficulties in handling the delivery. Further research is needed to explain the observed differences.

  8. Different paths: gender, immigration and political participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-correa, M

    1998-01-01

    "Building on arguments made by Grasmuck and Pessar (1991), Hardy-Fanta (1993), and Hondagneu-Sotelo (1994), among others, this article makes the case for a gendered understanding of immigrant political socialization. Looking at recent Latin American immigrants to New York City, the article argues that immigrant Latino men are more likely to favor continuity in patterns of socialization and organization, and immigrant Latinas are more likely to favor change. This finding helps bridge theoretical and empirical literatures in immigration studies, applying the logic of gender-differentiated decisionmaking to the area of immigrant political socialization and behavior." excerpt

  9. Immigration Ethnic Diversity and Political Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe

    2017-01-01

    I study the impact of immigration and increasing ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on immigration and election outcomes in Danish municipalities 1981-2001. A rich set of control variables isolates ethnic diversity effects from those of other immigrant...... characteristics and a novel IV strategy based on historical housing stock data addresses issues of endogenous location choices of immigrants. Increases in local ethnic diversity lead to right-ward shifts in election outcomes by shifting electoral support away from traditional "big government" left-wing parties...... and towards anti-immigrant nationalist parties in particular. These effects appear in both local and national elections....

  10. Labour Market Interactions Between Legal and Illegal Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Gil S

    2000-01-01

    This paper looks at the situation of legal immigrants who employ illegal immigrants to provide them with various services. This enables the legal immigrants to allocate more time to other work, thereby increasing their earnings. Illegal immigrants employed by legal immigrants may specialize in certain professions and may themselves employ other illegal immigrants. An economy is evolving whose sole purpose is the provision of services by illegal immigrants for legal immigrants.

  11. Labor Market Interactions Between Legal and Illegal Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Gil S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper looks at the situation of legal immigrants who employ illegal immigrants to provide them with various services. This enables the legal immigrants to allocate more time to other work, thereby increasing their earnings. Illegal immigrants employed by legal immigrants may specialize in certain professions and may themselves employ other illegal immigrants. An economy is evolving whose sole purpose is the provision of services by illegal immigrants for legal immigrants.

  12. New faces in new spaces in new places: Residential attainment among newly legalized immigrants in established, new, and minor destinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Reanne; Akresh, Ilana Redstone

    2016-05-01

    Immigrants at the beginning of the twenty-first century are located in a more diverse set of metropolitan areas than at any point in U.S. Whether immigrants' residential prospects are helped or hindered in new versus established immigrant-receiving areas has been the subject of debate. Using multilevel models and data from the New Immigrant Survey (NIS), a nationally representative sample of newly legalized immigrants to the U.S., we move beyond aggregate-level analyses of residential segregation to specify the influence of destination type on individual-level immigrant residential outcomes. The findings indicate that immigrants in new and minor destinations are significantly more likely to live in tracts with relatively more non-Hispanic whites and relatively fewer immigrants and poor residents. These residential advantages persist net of individual-level controls but are largely accounted for by place-to-place differences in metropolitan composition and structure. Our exclusive focus on newly legalized immigrants means that our findings do not necessarily contradict the possibility of worse residential prospects in new areas of settlement, but rather qualifies it as not extending to the newly authorized population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Asian Immigration: The View from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Examines contemporary Asian immigration to the United States from a U.S. perspective. Analyzes immigration policies and data on recent immigration from Asia. Discusses impacts concerning the United States and the immigrants themselves and speculates on future immigration. The composition of Asian immigration might change, and the number might…

  14. Patterns of pharmaceutical use for immigrants to Spain and Norway: a comparative study of prescription databases in two European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno-Feliu, Luis Andres; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Prados-Torres, Alexandra; Revilla-López, Concha; Diaz, Esperanza

    2016-02-24

    Although equity in health care is theoretically a cornerstone in Western societies, several studies show that services do not always provide equitable care for immigrants. Differences in pharmaceutical consumption between immigrants and natives are explained by variances in predisposing factors, enabling factors and needs across populations, and can be used as a proxy of disparities in health care use. By comparing the relative differences in pharmacological use between natives and immigrants from the same four countries of origin living in Spain and Norway respectively, this article presents a new approach to the study of inequity in health care. All purchased drug prescriptions classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) system in Aragon (Spain) and Norway for a total of 5 million natives and nearly 100,000 immigrants for one calendar year were included in this cross-sectional study. Age and gender adjusted relative purchase rates for immigrants from Poland, China, Colombia and Morocco compared to native populations in each of the host countries were calculated. Direct standardisation was performed based on the 2009 population structure of the OECD countries. Overall, a significantly lower proportion of immigrants in Aragon (Spain) and Norway purchased pharmacological drugs compared to natives. Patterns of use across the different immigrant groups were consistent in both host countries, despite potential disparities between the Spanish and Norwegian health care systems. Immigrants from Morocco showed the highest drug use rates in relation to natives, especially for antidepressants, "pain killers" and drugs for peptic ulcer. Immigrants from China and Poland showed the lowest use rates, while Colombians where more similar to host countries. The similarities found between the two European countries in relation to immigrants' pharmaceutical use disregarding their host country emphasises the need to consider specific immigrant-related features

  15. Screen time in Mexican children: findings from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ian; Medina, Catalina; Pedroza, Andrea; Barquera, Simón

    2013-01-01

    To provide descriptive information on the screen time levels of Mexican children. 5 660 children aged 10-18 years from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012) were studied. Screen time (watching television, movies, playing video games and using a computer) was self-reported. On average, children engaged in 3 hours/day of screen time, irrespective of gender and age. Screen time was higher in obese children, children from the northern and Federal District regions of the country, children living in urban areas, and children in the highest socioeconomic status and education categories. Approximately 33% of 10-14 year olds and 36% of 15-18 year olds met the screen time guideline of ≤ 2 hours/day. 10-18 year old Mexican children accumulate an average of 3 hours/day of screen time. Two thirds of Mexican children exceed the recommended maximal level of time for this activity.

  16. Use of acute care hospital services by immigrant seniors in Ontario: A linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Edward; Sanmartin, Claudia; Tu, Jack; Manuel, Doug

    2014-10-01

    Seniors constitute the largest group of hospital users. The increasing share of immigrants in Canada's senior population can affect the demand for hospital care. This study used the linked 2006 Census-Hospital Discharge Abstract Database to examine hospitalization during the 2004-to-2006 period, by immigrant status, of Ontario seniors living in the community. Hospitalization was assessed with logistic regressions; cumulative length of stay, with zero-truncated negative binomial regressions. All-cause hospitalization and hospitalizations specific to circulatory and digestive diseases were examined. Immigrant seniors had significantly low age-/sex-adjusted odds of hospitalization, compared with Canadian-born seniors (OR = 0.81). The odds varied from 0.4 among East Asians to 0.89 among Europeans, and rose with length of time since arrival from 0.54 for recent (1994 to 2003) to 0.86 for long-term (before 1984) immigrants. Adjustment for demographic and socio-economic characteristics did not change the overall patterns. Immigrants' cumulated length of hospital stay tended to be shorter than or similar to that of Canadian-born seniors. Immigrant seniors, especially recent arrivals, had lower odds of hospitalization and similar time in hospital, compared with Canadian-born seniors. These patterns likely reflect differences in health status. Variations by world region and disease reflect the diverse health care needs of immigrant seniors.

  17. Mammographic breast density in recent and longer-standing ethiopian immigrants to israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklair-Levy, Miri; Segev, Anat; Sella, Tamar; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Zippel, Douglas

    2018-04-23

    High breast density is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer development. Little is known concerning ethnic variations in breast density and its relevant contributing factors. We aimed to study breast density among Ethiopian immigrants to Israel in comparison with Israeli-born women and to determine any effect on breast density of the length of residency in the immigrant population. Mammographic breast density using the BI-RADS system was estimated and compared between 77 women of Ethiopian origin who live in Israel and 177 Israeli-born controls. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the odds ratios (OR) for high density (BI-RADS score ≥ 3) vs low density (BI-RADS score density compared with Israeli-born women. Adjustments for various cofounders did not affect the results. Time since immigration to Israel seemed to modify the relationship, with a stronger association for women who immigrated within 2 years prior to mammography (OR:0.07, 95% CI: 0.03-0.17) as opposed to women with a longer residency stay in Israel (OR:0.23, 95% CI:0.10-0.50). Adjustments of various confounders did not alter these findings. Breast density in Ethiopian immigrants to Israel is significantly lower than that of Israeli-born controls. Our study suggests a positive association between time since immigration and breast density. Future studies are required to define the possible effects of dietary change on mammographic density following immigration. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Being a Creative and an Immigrant in Montreal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Work on creative careers has focused on the main national populations, while little research has addressed the situation of artists and creators of immigrant origin or different ethnic groups to determine whether they have the same access to work and employment rights. To respond for a call for research on different ethnic groups in the cultural sector, or the ethnic consequences of the individualization of careers, we therefore undertook research on the creative careers of immigrants in Montreal. We were interested in how they emerged as an artist, how they developed their careers, the access and rights they have in terms of support to their career, as McRobbie seems to indicate that ethnicity adds its “own weight to the life chances of those who are attempting to make a living in these fields. We found that these immigrant artists consider their main difficulties to be the lack of social networks, access to various forms of support to compensate for financial risks and difficulties in finding a job. We conclude with a few suggestions: measures to facilitate networking for immigrants, more training and information on government programs, mentoring support, as well as the support from community organizations, associations, and programs.

  19. Immigration Justice and the Grounds for Mandatory Vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Heidi

    2015-06-01

    For over a century, a foreign national seeking permission to immigrate to the U.S. could have her application for immigration denied on the ground that she suffers from a serious contagious disease. For just under two decades, a foreign national seeking permission to immigrate could also have her application denied on the ground that she has not been vaccinated against each of a list of vaccination-preventable diseases. Two recently developed moral justifications for the use of such "vaccination-related exclusion criteria" have focused on (a) the right and need of a society to prevent the spread of disease to others and (b) the public good of developing and protecting herd immunity. Herein I accept these two general justifications-especially as they are developed by Mark Navin-and explore their limits. In particular, with a focus on the recently developed vaccine against several strains of HPV, as well the short-lived requirement by the CDC that it, too, be required of prospective immigrants, I argue that neither of the two main justifications for the use of vaccination-related exclusion criteria support their use for diseases such as HPV (or even HIV), the transmission of which, unlike airborne diseases such as measles, pertussis and polio, is subject to a considerable degree of individual control.

  20. 78 FR 31398 - Visas: Documentation of Immigrants Under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Immigrants Under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Final... method of recording an alien's entitlement to an immigrant visa classification. Due to the availability of automated systems at all immigrant visa-issuing posts, this entitlement is now recorded...