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Sample records for mexican bread making

  1. Gamma radiation effects on commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agúndez-Arvizu, Z.; Fernández-Ramírez, M. V.; Arce-Corrales, M. E.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Meléndrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2006-04-01

    Gamma irradiation is considered to be an alternative method for food preservation to prevent food spoilage, insect infestation and capable of reducing the microbial load. In the present investigation, commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour was irradiated at 1.0 kGy using a 60C Gammabeam 651 PT irradiator facility. No changes were detected in moisture, protein and ashes in gamma irradiated samples as compared to those of non-irradiated samples. Slight radiation effects were observed in the alveogram values and farinograph properties; the falling number decreased 11%, the absorption as well as the mixing tolerance were practically unchanged by irradiation. An increase of 15% in the stability value and a 29% in the dough development time were observed. Also the deformation energy decreased 7% with no change at all in the tenacity/extensibility factor. Total aerobic, yeast and mold counts were reduced 96%, 25% and 75%; respectively by the irradiation process. The obtained results confirm that gamma irradiation is effective in reducing the microbial load in bread making wheat flour without a significant change in the physicochemical and baking properties.

  2. Gamma radiation effects on commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agundez-Arvizu, Z. [Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Fernandez-Ramirez, M.V. [Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Arce-Corrales, M.E. [Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Cruz-Zaragoza, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares-UNAM, A.P. 70-543, Mexico 04510 DF (Mexico); Melendrez, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora 83190 (Mexico); Chernov, V. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora 83190 (Mexico); Barboza-Flores, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora 83190 (Mexico)]. E-mail: mbarboza@cajeme.cifus.uson.mx

    2006-04-15

    Gamma irradiation is considered to be an alternative method for food preservation to prevent food spoilage, insect infestation and capable of reducing the microbial load. In the present investigation, commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour was irradiated at 1.0 kGy using a {sup 6}C Gammabeam 651 PT irradiator facility. No changes were detected in moisture, protein and ashes in gamma irradiated samples as compared to those of non-irradiated samples. Slight radiation effects were observed in the alveogram values and farinograph properties; the falling number decreased 11%, the absorption as well as the mixing tolerance were practically unchanged by irradiation. An increase of 15% in the stability value and a 29% in the dough development time were observed. Also the deformation energy decreased 7% with no change at all in the tenacity/extensibility factor. Total aerobic, yeast and mold counts were reduced 96%, 25% and 75%; respectively by the irradiation process. The obtained results confirm that gamma irradiation is effective in reducing the microbial load in bread making wheat flour without a significant change in the physicochemical and baking properties.

  3. Gamma radiation effects on commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agundez-Arvizu, Z.; Fernandez-Ramirez, M.V.; Arce-Corrales, M.E.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Melendrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2006-01-01

    Gamma irradiation is considered to be an alternative method for food preservation to prevent food spoilage, insect infestation and capable of reducing the microbial load. In the present investigation, commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour was irradiated at 1.0 kGy using a 6 C Gammabeam 651 PT irradiator facility. No changes were detected in moisture, protein and ashes in gamma irradiated samples as compared to those of non-irradiated samples. Slight radiation effects were observed in the alveogram values and farinograph properties; the falling number decreased 11%, the absorption as well as the mixing tolerance were practically unchanged by irradiation. An increase of 15% in the stability value and a 29% in the dough development time were observed. Also the deformation energy decreased 7% with no change at all in the tenacity/extensibility factor. Total aerobic, yeast and mold counts were reduced 96%, 25% and 75%; respectively by the irradiation process. The obtained results confirm that gamma irradiation is effective in reducing the microbial load in bread making wheat flour without a significant change in the physicochemical and baking properties

  4. [Performance of rice varieties in making bread without gluten].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, R L; González, R J; Sánchez, H D; Osella, C A; de la Torre, M A

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this work was the evaluation of the technological behavior of seven rice genotypes, using a baking test for bread without gluten, and taking account the influence of particle size and physicochemical properties of the rice on the technological aptitude to produce the bread. Total and insoluble amylose content and hydration were used to make its relationship with bread quality. The genotypes Rico and H-144-7 have contributed to give the best results at baking test while waxy rices gave the lower quality bread. Also we emphasize that a certain relationships can be assumed between hydration and insoluble amylose content with the organoleptic evaluation of breads.

  5. Effect of Bread Making Process on Aflatoxin Level Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Jafar Milani; Seyed Saman Seyed Nazari; Elmira Bamyar; Gisou Maleki

    2014-01-01

    Wheat flour is a commodity with a high risk of aflatoxins (AFs) contamination. During the bread making there are many processes that can affect the AFs stability. The effect of bread making process using different yeast types on AFs levels was investigated. For this purpose, standards of AFs including B and Gwere added to flour and then bread loaves were prepared. Three types of commercially available yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast were used for dough...

  6. Effect of Bread Making Process on Aflatoxin Level Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Milani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat flour is a commodity with a high risk of aflatoxins (AFs contamination. During the bread making there are many processes that can affect the AFs stability. The effect of bread making process using different yeast types on AFs levels was investigated. For this purpose, standards of AFs including B and Gwere added to flour and then bread loaves were prepared. Three types of commercially available yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast were used for dough preparation. AFs levels in flour, dough, and bread were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detector. The results showed that maximum reduction in aflatoxin levels observed during first proof while the least decline was seen for the baking stage. The order of AFs reduction in bread making process was AFB1>AFB2>AFG1. Furthermore, the results indicated that the most effective yeast for AFs reduction was instant dry yeast.

  7. Agronomic Performance and Bread Making Quality of Advanced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty bread wheat lines selected on the basis of their average grain protein content and yield were evaluated for six agronomic and eight baking quality traits associated with bread-making quality. All the lines were grown in randomly complete block design at two locations in Eastern Oromia, Ethiopia; namely, Haramaya ...

  8. Bread Making Potential of Composite Flour of Wheat-Acha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bread-making potentials of composite flours containing 90% wheat and 10% acha enriched with 0-15% cowpea flour were investigated. Proximate composition and functional properties of the blends were studied using AOAC standard methods. Bread loaves were prepared from the blends using the straight dough method ...

  9. Bread-Making Quality of Standard Winter Wheat Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Ćurić, Duška; Novotni, Dubravka; Bauman, Ingrid; Krička, Tajana; Jukić, Željko; Voća, Neven; Kiš, Darko

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define an impact of the cultivar, year and cultivation area of the standard Croatian winter wheat on the bread-making quality. The bread-making quality of cultivars ‘Divana’, ‘Žitarka’ and ‘Sana’ from the crop years 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006, and from Zagreb and Osijek location was analyzed. Wheat from the cultivar tests cultivated under the same agro technological conditions was used for this testing. The tested winter wheat bread-making quality primari...

  10. Effects of Bread Making and Wheat Germ Addition on the Natural Deoxynivalenol Content in Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Isabel; Blesa, Jesús; Herrera, Marta; Ariño, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a type-B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by several field fungi such as Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and known to have various toxic effects. This study investigated the effect of the bread making process on the stability of DON in common bread and wheat germ-enriched bread using naturally contaminated ingredients at the level of 560 µg/kg. The concentration of DON and its evolution during bread making were determined by immunoaffinity column cleanup followed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). During the bread making process, DON was reduced by 2.1% after fermentation and dropped by 7.1% after baking, reaching a maximum reduction of 19.8% in the crust as compared with a decrease of 5.6% in the crumb. The addition of 15% wheat germ to the dough did not affect DON stability during bread making, showing an apparent increase of 3.5% after fermentation and a reduction by 10.2% after baking. PMID:24451845

  11. Sourdough microbial community dynamics: An analysis during French organic bread-making processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Emilie; Urien, Charlotte; Legrand, Judith; Dousset, Xavier; Onno, Bernard; Sicard, Delphine

    2016-02-01

    Natural sourdoughs are commonly used in bread-making processes, especially for organic bread. Despite its role in bread flavor and dough rise, the stability of the sourdough microbial community during and between bread-making processes is debated. We investigated the dynamics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast communities in traditional organic sourdoughs of five French bakeries during the bread-making process and several months apart using classical and molecular microbiology techniques. Sourdoughs were sampled at four steps of the bread-making process with repetition. The analysis of microbial density over 68 sourdough/dough samples revealed that both LAB and yeast counts changed along the bread-making process and between bread-making runs. The species composition was less variable. A total of six LAB and nine yeast species was identified from 520 and 1675 isolates, respectively. The dominant LAB species was Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, found for all bakeries and each bread-making run. The dominant yeast species changed only once between bread-making processes but differed between bakeries. They mostly belonged to the Kazachstania clade. Overall, this study highlights the change of population density within the bread-making process and between bread-making runs and the relative stability of the sourdough species community during bread-making process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of the bread-making process on zearalenone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Sara; Milani, Jafar; Nazari, Seyed Saman Seyed Jafar

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the bread-making process including fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum) and baking at 200°C on zearalenone (ZEA) levels were investigated. Standard solutions of ZEA were added to flour and then loaves of bread were prepared. Sourdough and three types of yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast were used for the fermentation of dough. ZEA levels in flour, dough and bread were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection after extraction and clean-up on an immunoaffinity column. The highest reduction in levels of ZEA was found in the first fermentation (first proof), while the lowest reduction was observed in the baking stage. In addition, the results showed that compressed yeast had the maximum reduction potential on ZEA levels even at the baking stage.

  13. BREAD-MAKING QUALITY OF SLOVAK AND SERBIAN WHEAT VARIETIES

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    Tatiana Bojňanská

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic prerequisite for the production of bakery products of a good quality is the knowledge of the quality parameters of raw materials introduced in the production process and the ability to use their potential. The bread making properties of 17 pure European wheat cultivars were analysed. Baking experiments were carried out according to the methodology of the research workplace; 1000 g of flour was processed with the addition of salt, sugar and yeast. Fermentation for 35 minutes at 30 ° C was followed by the baking with steaming (at 240 ° C and then 220 ° C. During an experimental baking test the selected parameters: loaf volume (cm3, specific loaf volume (cm3.100g-1 loaf, volume efficiency (cm3.100g-1 flour, cambering (loaf height/width ratio, bread yield (%, bread yield baking loss (% in bread were evaluated. Loaf volume has been considered as the most important criterion for the bread-making quality. In the analysed samples (11 varieties of Slovak origin and 6 varieties of Serbian origin, the value of this parameter ranged from 3575 cm3 to 5575 cm3 with higher values occurred in Slovak varieties (average 4 640.91 cm3 compared to the Serbian varieties (average 4 363.33 cm3. Based on the complex evaluation of wheat varieties of the Slovak and Serbian origin assessing the selected quality parameters of the baking experiment it can be concluded that in terms of baking quality the three Slovak varieties IS Ezopus, Bonavita and Jarissa were the best. Therefore, they are recommended for cultivation and their subsequent use in the baking industry, in particular for the production of bread According to a baking quality the evaluated varieties can be sorted from best to worst in the following order: IS Ezopus (SK > Bonavita (SK > Jarissa (SK > IS Questor > Etida (SRB > Venistar (SK > Renesansa (SRB > IS Conditor (SK > IS Corvinus (SK > Zvezdana (SRB > Simonida (SRB > Viglanka (SK > IS Agape (SK > NS 40S (SRB > Panonnija (SRB > IS Escoria (SK

  14. Evolution of bread-making quality of Spanish bread-wheat genotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, M.; Aparicio, N.; Ruiz-Paris, E.; Oliete, B.; Caballero, P. A.

    2009-07-01

    In this study, 36 Spanish wheat genotypes (five modern commercial cultivars, four cultivars introduced after the green revolution and 27 land races from northwestern Spain) were evaluated. Grain (yield, specific weight, protein content and falling number) and flour (yield, protein content, Zeleny index, wet gluten and gluten index) properties were analyzed. Dough behaviour during mixing (DoughLAB) and handling (alveograph) was also considered. An evolution in grain and flour properties was observed over time. In modern cultivars, grain yield was improved owing to higher grain production. In land races, higher grain yields were related to larger grain size. Unlike in land races, an inverse correlation between grain yield and protein content was found in modern cultivars. In addition, because of their high protein quality, modern cultivars surpassed land races in bread-making properties. Land races showed considerable variability in protein quality and scored lower curve configuration ratio values than other cultivars with similar strength. Cultivars introduced after the green revolution reached the highest levels of bread-making quality, a feature attributable to their high protein quality. (Author) 24 refs.

  15. Impact of bread making on fructan chain integrity and effect of fructan enriched breads on breath hydrogen, satiety, energy intake, PYY and ghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C; Lynn, A; Neveux, C; Hall, A C; Morris, G A

    2015-08-01

    Recently, there has been considerable interest in the satiety inducing properties of inulin type fructans (ITF) as a tool for weight management. As a staple food, breads provide an excellent vehicle for ITF supplementation however the integrity of the ITF chains and properties upon bread making need to be assessed. Breads enriched with 12% fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and 12% inulin were baked and the degree of polymerisation of fructans extracted from the breads were compared to those of pure compounds. An acute feeding study with a single blind cross-over design was conducted with 11 participants to investigate the effect of ITF enriched breads on breath hydrogen, self-reported satiety levels, active ghrelin, total PYY and energy intake. Size exclusion chromatography indicated that little or no depolymerisation of inulin occurred during bread making, however, there was evidence of modest FOS depolymerisation. Additionally, ITF enriched breads resulted in increased concentrations of exhaled hydrogen although statistical significance was reached only for the inulin enriched bread (p = 0.001). There were no significant differences between bread types in reported satiety (p = 0.129), plasma active ghrelin (p = 0.684), plasma PYY (p = 0.793) and energy intake (p = 0.240). These preliminary results indicate that inulin enriched bread may be a suitable staple food to increase ITF intake. Longer intervention trials are required to assess the impact of inulin enriched breads on energy intake and body weight.

  16. Assessment of iron bioavailability from different bread making processes using an in vitro intestinal cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ramiro, I; Brearley, C A; Bruggraber, S F A; Perfecto, A; Shewry, P; Fairweather-Tait, S

    2017-08-01

    Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), is the main iron chelator in cereals and bread. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three commercial baking processes (sourdough, conventional yeast and Chorleywood Bread Making Process (CBP)) on the IP6 content of wholemeal bread, its impact on iron uptake in Caco-2 cells and the predicted bioavailability of iron from these breads with added iron, simulating a mixed-meal. The sourdough process fully degraded IP6 whilst the CBP and conventional processes reduced it by 75% compared with wholemeal flour. The iron released in solution after a simulated digestion was 8-fold higher in sourdough bread than with others but no difference in cellular iron uptake was observed. Additionally, when iron was added to the different breads digestions only sourdough bread elicited a significant ferritin response in Caco-2 cells (4.8-fold compared to the other breads) suggesting that sourdough bread could contribute towards improved iron nutrition. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel bread making process using salt-stressed Baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Lien-Te; Charles, Albert Linton; Ho, Chi-Tang; Huang, Tzou-Chi

    2009-01-01

    By adjusting the mixing order of ingredients in traditional formula, an innovative bread making process was developed. The effect of salt-stressed Baker's yeast on bread dough of different sugar levels was investigated. Baker's yeast was stressed in 7% salt solution then mixed into dough, which was then evaluated for fermentation time, dough fermentation producing gas, dough expansion, bread specific volumes, and sensory and physical properties. The results of this study indicated that salt-stressed Baker's yeast shortened fermentation time in 16% and 24% sugar dough. Forty minutes of salt stress produced significant amount of gas and increased bread specific volumes. The bread was softer and significantly improved sensory properties for aroma, taste, and overall acceptability were obtained.

  18. Industrial Potential of Two Varieties of Cocoyam in Bread Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnabuk O. Eddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the chemical (proximate composition, mineral composition, toxicant composition and vitamin composition, nutritional and industrial potentials of two varieties of cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium (XS and Colocasia esculenta (CE were carried out using recommended methods of analysis. Baking trials were conducted with the two varieties of cocoyam at different levels of substitution (20%, 30% and 50%. The produced bread samples were analyzed for their physical parameters and proximate composition. Sensory evaluation test was also carried out on the produced bread. The result of the analysis showed that the preferred bread in terms of loaf weight, volume and specific volume was given by sample I (control sample containing 100% wheat flour with a specific volume of 3.54 cm3/g. This was closely followed by sample A with specific volume of 3.25 cm3/g containing 20% substitution level of CE. Sample H containing 50% substitution level of XS with specific volume of 2.58 cm3/g gave the poorest performance. The sensory evaluation result further revealed that apart from the 100% wheat flour based sample I, sample D with 20% substitution level of XS was rated good and maintained better performance amongst the cocoyam varieties while samples G and C with 100% and 50% substitution level of CE respectively were rated the poorest. The proximate composition of the bread samples was also carried out. CE, XS and wheat bread samples (100% recorded 15.0633±1.4531, 12.1133±1.5975 and 11.2867±0.7978 respectively for the moisture content. XS bread recorded the highest carbohydrate content of 45.0133±3.0274. In terms of ash, CE bread recorded the highest value of 31.4367±1.6159 while wheat bread recorded the highest value for protein i.e. 20.6033± 0.8113. XS performed better in terms of crude fat and energy value of 12.2967± 0.8914 and 371.5367 respectively. The use of cocoyam - wheat flour mixture in producing composite bread is therefore

  19. Studies regarding the influence of brown flaxseed flour addition in wheat flour of a very good quality for bread making on bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Gabriela CODINA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to incorporate brown flaxseed into bread in order to improve it quality. For this purpose, different levels of whole ground brown flaxseed (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% were used to substitute wheat flour 650 type of a very good quality for bread making. The bread samples obtained were analyzed from the physical, colour, crumb cell, textural and sensory characteristics point of view. Samples containing 10% of brown flaxseed were with the highest values for loaf volume, porosity and elasticity. The control sample had lowerest redness and greenness value. The maximum hardness was found for bread with 20% brown flaxseed addition. With the increase level of brown flaxseed addition large cells can be noticed in crumb structure of bread. Samples containing 20% of flaxseed were rated poorest in tase, texture, overall acceptability, appearance. Our results indicated that brown flaxseed addition could be added to a typical bread formulation up to levels of 10% with a good overall acceptability offering promising healthy and nutritious alternative to consumers. Between bread flour characteristics at different brown flaxseed flour substitution levels principal component analysis shown significant correlations (p < 0.05 between bread physical characteristics (loaf volume, porosity, elasticity and bread  overall acceptability.

  20. Bread making technology influences postprandial glucose response: a review of the clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamataki, Nikoleta S; Yanni, Amalia E; Karathanos, Vaios T

    2017-04-01

    Lowering postprandial glucose and insulin responses may have significant beneficial implications for prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders. Bread is a staple food consumed worldwide in a daily basis, and the use of different baking technologies may modify the glucose and insulin response. The aim of this review was to critically record the human studies examining the application of different bread making processes on postprandial glucose and insulin response to bread. Literature is rich of results which show that the use of sourdough fermentation instead of leavening with Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to modulate glucose response to bread, whereas evidence regarding its efficacy on lowering postprandial insulin response is less clear. The presence of organic acids is possibly involved, but the exact mechanism of action is still to be confirmed. The reviewed data also revealed that the alteration of other processing conditions (method of cooking, proofing period, partial baking freezing technology) can effectively decrease postprandial glucose response to bread, by influencing physical structure and retrogradation of starch. The development of healthier bread products that benefit postprandial metabolic responses is crucial and suggested baking conditions can be used by the bread industry for the promotion of public health.

  1. Prediction of bread-making quality using size exclusion high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in the distribution of protein molecular weight in wheat (Triticum aestivum), influences breadmaking quality of wheat cultivars, resulting in either poor or good bread. The objective of this study was to predict breadmaking quality of wheat cultivars using size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography.

  2. Physicochemical, rheological, thermal, and bread making properties of flour obtained from irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, Carolina Sobral

    2006-01-01

    Most of the methods that are nowadays used for food preservation derive from old times. Besides these methods, new non-thermal methods have been developed in order to improve food quality during its processing. Irradiation technology has a great contribution potential to improve preservation, storage and distribution of foods. Several studies from international literature have reported the efficiency of irradiation process on microbiological control of grains and their products. Due to the low technological quality of national wheat, Brazil depends on its import. Wheat is the main ingredient of bread which is one of the most important products of Brazilian people's diet. The objective of this work was to study the effect of ionizing radiation on wheat on physicochemical, rheological, and thermal properties of flour produced from this wheat, and consequently, its performance on bread making. All experiments were conducted on laboratory scale. Wheat was submitted to irradiation on different doses (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 kGy) and flour produced underwent physicochemical, rheological, thermal and microbiological analyses. Flour bread making performance was measured through quality of bread. None of the physicochemical, rheological or thermal parameters was influenced by irradiation, with the exception of Falling Number, which decreased significantly with the increase of irradiation dose, indicating the effect of irradiation on wheat starch, and consequently on dough's gelatinization. Bread quality parameters did also not show significant differences, and sensory analysis showed that bread produced from irradiated and non irradiated wheat did not present perceivable flavor. (author)

  3. Functionality of ovalbumin during Chinese steamed bread-making processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Shangyuan; Zhang, Huang; Xu, Lei; Chen, Yisheng; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Yang, Na; Wu, Fengfeng; Li, Dandan

    2018-07-01

    Hen egg is commonly used in some cereal-based food, including cakes and bread. Ovalbumin, one of the major components of egg white protein, can affect the performance of the food product. The interaction between ovalbumin and gluten protein and its effect on property of dough and quality of Chinese steamed bread was investigated in this study. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns indicated that ovalbumin was surprisingly not incorporated in glutenins by covalent bond, whereas size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography showed that glutenin macropolymer content in glutenins increased slightly. Furthermore, dynamic rheology experiments indicated ovalbumin led to a decrease inG' andG″ of dough. Based on molecular dynamic simulation and SDS-PAGE results, it was inferred that ovalbumin was not hydrolyzed by endopeptidases during dough fermentation and crosslinked to gluten proteins during steaming. Finally, ovalbumin improved maximum dough height (Hm) during dough development and specific volume of Chinese steamed bread. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Substrate-Limited Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Strains Allow Control of Fermentation during Bread Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Nore; Laurent, Jitka; Verspreet, Joran; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2017-04-26

    Identification and use of yeast strains that are unable to consume one or more otherwise fermentable substrate types could allow a more controlled fermentation process with more flexibility regarding fermentation times. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with different capacities to consume substrates present in wheat were selected to investigate the impact of substrate limitation on dough fermentation and final bread volume. Results show that fermentation of dough with maltose-negative strains relies on the presence of fructan and sucrose as fermentable substrates and can be used for regular bread making. Levels of fructan and sucrose, endogenously present or added, hence determine the extent of fermentation and timing at the proofing stage. Whole meal is inherently more suitable for substrate-limited fermentation than white flour due to the presence of higher native levels of these substrates. Bread making protocols with long fermentation times are accommodated by addition of substrates such as sucrose.

  5. Parental Agency in Educational Decision Making: A Mexican American Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Margy

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: This article explores the experiences of one Mexican American family as they make a key curriculum choice for their 9-year-old son. Relatively little attention has been paid to parents' beliefs, attitudes, and, in particular, experiences as they actively engage in--and sometimes affect--their children's schooling. Parents'…

  6. Rheology of Potato flour Mixes and Wheat to Make Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Fernando Sacón-Vera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluate the rheological properties of flour mixes Ipomoea batata and Triticum vulgare for the preparation of bread dough, was the goal of this research for it a completely randomized design, as treatments sweet potato flour was used varieties are used: Toquecita, Guayaco Purple, Purple Ecuador, Brazil and Ina Purple in a 30/70 ratio (sweet potato flour / wheat flour respectively. The rheological variables: water absorption, development time, weakening of the dough stability, water absorption index (C1, mixing rate (C2, gluten strength index (C3, gel viscosity (C4, resistance index amylase (C5 and starch retro gradation index (C6 were evaluated with Mixolab equipment. The results showed that the variety Purple Brazil showed better characteristics of flours recommended premixes for the baking process in response to these indices

  7. [Use of flour of pejibaye fruit (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.) in bread making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, M

    1987-03-01

    Trial were conducted in Costa Rica in 1984 and 1985, to determine the possibility of substituting pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.) meal for wheat flour in bread. Utilization in three distinct mixtures was examined: 90:10, 85:15 and 80:20 percentage of wheat flour to percentage of pejibaye meal, respectively. The breads were made, and dough analyses were conducted at "Molinos de Costa Rica, S.A.", the country's principal flour mill. Chemical analyses were carried out at the University of Costa Rica. Results indicate a marked inverse relationship between both initial dough development time and dough strength maintenance, and the content of pejibaye meal present in the flour mixture. Consequent problems with sufficient dough expansion preclude utilization of this fruit meal for bread-making in proportions significantly greater than 10% of the total composite flour. The above-mentioned findings reflect the high nutritional value of the pejibaye fruit. Although the protein content is inversely correlated with the amount of pejibaye meal in the mixture, vitamin A and fat contents are positively correlated. This fact demonstrates that the utilization of pejibaye meal in bread-making may well be in some ways considered as a form of nutritional enrichment. As a final conclusion drawn from the results of analyses of the trials and sensory observations, the 90% wheat flour with 10% pejibaye meal mixture apparently was the optimum substitution level of the breads examined. The potential macroeconomic ramifications on the Costa Rican economy of producing and utilizing pejibaye meal in bread-making, are highly favorable.

  8. Dynamic viscoelasticity of protease-treated rice batters for gluten-free rice bread making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yuji; Inoue, Nanami; Sugimoto, Reina; Matsumoto, Kenji; Koda, Tomonori; Nishioka, Akihiro

    2018-03-01

    Papain (cysteine protease), subtilisin (Protin SD-AY10, serine protease), and bacillolysin (Protin SD-NY10, metallo protease) increased the specific volume of gluten-free rice breads by 19-63% compared to untreated bread. In contrast, Newlase F (aspartyl protease) did not expand the volume of the rice bread. In a rheological analysis, the viscoelastic properties of the gluten-free rice batters also depended on the protease categories. Principal component analysis (PCA) analysis suggested that the storage and loss moduli (G' and G″, respectively) at 35 °C, and the maximum values of G' and G″, were important factors in the volume expansion. Judging from the PCA of the viscoelastic parameters of the rice batters, papain and Protin SD-AY10 improved the viscoelasticity for gluten-free rice bread making, and Protin SD-NY effectively expanded the gluten-free rice bread. The rheological properties differed between Protin SD-NY and the other protease treatments.

  9. Fundamental and empirical rheological behaviour of wheat flour doughs and comparison with bread making performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A. M.; vanVliet, T; Vereijken, JM

    The rheological characteristics of wheat flour doughs from the cultivars Obelisk and Katepwa and of biscuit flour doughs, and also of biscuit flour doughs containing glutens isolated from cv. Obelisk and cv. Katepwa flour, were compared and discussed in relation to bread making performance. Four

  10. Influence of cassava genotype and composite flours’ substitution level on rheological behaviour during bread-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Henao Osorio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Given increasing dependence on imported wheat, studies have been carried out in Colombia regarding the use of composite wheat-cassava flour in bread-making. A project was carried out from 1986-1991 in which different cassava genotypes, harvest ages, substitution levels and bread acceptability were evaluated. However, these studies did not have any effect on the baking sector because a constant supply of high quality, high volume and reasonably-priced cassava flour was lacking. Based on these studies, this work was aimed at determining the influence of three industrial cassava market genotypes (CMC-40, HMC-1, MCOL-1505, using four wheat-cassava flour composite substitution levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% regarding the rheological and fermentative characteristics of dough in bread-making. Farinogram, alveogram, amylogram and falling number index analysis were analysed. Specific volume and acceptability of three types of bread (common, mold and hamburger were evaluated. It was determined that composite flours had higher fiber and reduced sugar content than the wheat flour pattern, thereby increasing wa-ter absorption and available sugar content during fermentation. Dough development time for the composite flours was half the a-verage required for wheat flour and the tolerance index was higher; its stability became reduced due to increased substitution le-vels and its firmness increased due to a rise in water absorption. Falling number values came within an acceptable range (250-400 s. The specific volume of all bread having 5% and 10% substitution was higher than that for the pattern. The best general acceptability was assigned to common and mold type bread from all varieties and substitution levels.

  11. Bread making properties of wheat flour supplemented with thermally processed hypoallergenic lupine flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillamon, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Pedrosa, M. M.; Varela, A.; Cabellos, B.

    2010-07-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in using lupine for human nutrition due to its nutritional properties and health benefits. Moreover, lupine is used as an ingredient in bread making because of its functional and technological properties. However, a higher number of allergic reactions to this legume have recently been reported as a consequence of a more widespread consumption of lupine-based foods. In a previous study, several thermal treatments were applied to lupine seeds and flours resulting in reduced allergenicity. In order to study how this thermal processing (autoclaving and boiling) affects the bread making properties, raw and thermally processed lupine flours were used to replace 10% of wheat flour. The effect of supplementing wheat flour with lupine flour on physical dough properties, bread structure and sensory characteristics were analysed. The results indicated that thermally-treated lupine flours, had similar bread making and sensorial properties as untreated lupine flour. These thermal treatments could increase the potential use of lupine flour as a food ingredient while reducing the risk to provoke allergic reactions. (Author) 36 refs.

  12. High molecular weight glutenin subunits of wheat : qualitative and quantitative variation in relation to bread-making quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolster, P.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the poor bread-making quality of the wheat grown in The Netherlands, only a small part of production is used for baking of bread. Therefore quality improvement is a major aim of plant breeding. Unfortunately, breeding for breadmaking quality is hampered by its complexity. The suitability

  13. Calidad panadera de nuevos genotipos de trigo pan Bread-making quality of new genotypes of bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Dubois

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la calidad panadera de los dos mejores genotipos de trigo pan obtenidos por selección recurrente por rendimiento (C1-00-83 y C3-00-42 y seis cultivares comerciales, cultivados en la región semiárida central argentina. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completamente aleatorizado con cuatro repeticiones. Se determinó peso hectolítrico, peso de mil semillas, contenido proteico, rendimiento en harina, gluten húmedo, parámetros alveográficos y panificación experimental. Las variables de calidad del genotipo C3-00-42 corresponden a un trigo de gran fuerza, muy tenaz, alta absorción de agua y buen volumen de pan, por consiguiente puede usarse como corrector de harinas débiles o para elaboraciones que requieran trigos fuertes. El genotipo C1-00-83 presentó los mejores valores de proteína, gluten y volumen del pan de todos los analizados, conjuntamente con un alto rendimiento en harina y gluten muy fuerte y bastante equilibrado. Los dos nuevos genotipos presentan excelentes características panaderas y ofrecen calidades industriales diferenciales.The bread- making quality of the two best genotypes of bread wheat obtained by recurrent selection by yield (C1-00-83 and C3-00-42 vs. six commercial cultivars from the Argentine central semiarid region were evaluated. A completely randomized block design with 4 repetitions was utilized. The parameters measured were: test weight, thousand kernel weight, grain proteins, yield flour, gluten test, alveograph parameters and baking test. The quality parameters of the C3-00-42 genotype corresponded to very tenacious strong gluten, with high water absorption and which produces good loaf volume. Therefore, it can be used to compensate weaker flours or to manufacture products that require strong wheat. The C1-00-83 genotype presented high yield in flour, very strong and almost balanced gluten and the best values in protein content, gluten and loaf volume of all those Trianalyzed. The two new

  14. Crystallinity changes in wheat starch during the bread-making process: Starch crystallinity in the bread crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martín, C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, N.H. van; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, T. van

    2007-01-01

    The crystallinity of starch in crispy bread crust was quantified using several different techniques. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) demonstrated the presence of granular starch in the crust and remnants of granules when moving towards the crumb. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

  15. Crystallinity changes in wheat starch during the bread-making process: starch crystallinity in the bread crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martin, C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, van N.H.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.

    2007-01-01

    The crystallinity of starch in crispy bread crust was quantified using several different techniques. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) demonstrated the presence of granular starch in the crust and remnants of granules when moving towards the crumb. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

  16. Functional role of ascorbic acid in bread-making | Dadzie-Mensah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bread characteristics. Various levels of ascorbic acid and bromate were used in the bread production to compare critical functional properties of bread. The results showed that the specific volume of the loaves increased from 2.80 cm3/g ...

  17. Study of the role of bran water binding and the steric hindrance by bran in straight dough bread making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemdane, S; Langenaeken, N A; Jacobs, P J; Verspreet, J; Delcour, J A; Courtin, C M

    2018-07-01

    This study investigates the effect of the physical presence and water binding of wheat bran during bread making, and the possible mechanisms behind this effect. Regular bran, pericarp-enriched bran and synthetic bran-like particles with different water binding capacities and particle sizes were used. Incorporation of regular and pericarp-enriched bran in dough (15% dm) led to a lower oven rise than the control dough. Bread volumes decreased with 11% and 30%, respectively. Dough with synthetic bran, having a low water binding capacity, displayed a near to normal leavening and oven rise and resulted in a bread volume decrease of only 5% compared to the control. Particle size reduction of regular bran and synthetic bran to an average size of 200 µm did not affect final bread quality. Results indicate that water binding by bran affects bread quality the most, whereas steric hindrance by physical presence of bran particles is less determinative. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Native and enzymatically modified wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) endogenous lipids in bread making: a focus on gas cell stabilization mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerits, Lien R; Pareyt, Bram; Masure, Hanne G; Delcour, Jan A

    2015-04-01

    Lipopan F and Lecitase Ultra lipases were used in straight dough bread making to study how wheat lipids affect bread loaf volume (LV) and crumb structure setting. Lipase effects on LV were dose and dough piece weight dependent. The bread quality improving mechanisms exerted by endogenous lipids were studied in terms of gluten network strengthening, which indirectly stabilizes gas cells, and in terms of direct interfacial gas cell stabilization. Unlike diacetyl tartaric esters of mono- and diacylglycerols (DATEM, used as control), lipase use did not impact dough extensibility. The effect on dough extensibility was therefore related to its lipid composition at the start of mixing. Both lipases and DATEM strongly increase the levels of polar lipids in dough liquor and their availability for and potential accumulation at gas cell interfaces. Lipases form lysolipids that emulsify other lipids. We speculate that DATEM competes with (endogenous) polar lipids for interacting with gluten proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transformation of Bread Industry Structure by Consumer Tastes and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    丸山, 泰広; 豊, 智行; 福田, 晋; 甲斐, 諭

    2003-01-01

    Bread industry is classfied two types of business. One type is Bread manufacturer which makes bread and sells them to retailer and supermarket. Another type is Bread self-making bakery which makes bread by themselves and directly sells them to consumer. Bread consumer tastes are freshness and diversification. Bread manufacturar copes with diversification by naking many items. Bread self-making bakery copes with freshness by directly providing consumer. But by a innovation a new group is organ...

  20. Microbiological and technological characterization of sourdoughs destined for bread-making with barley flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannini, Emanuele; Garofalo, Cristiana; Aquilanti, Lucia; Santarelli, Sara; Silvestri, Gloria; Clementi, Francesca

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the present study was the microbiological and technological characterization of laboratory- made sourdoughs for use in barley-flour-based bread-making. A defined multi-strain starter culture consisting of selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts from wheat sourdoughs was inoculated into three flour-water mixtures, composed of: (i) 100% wheat flour (ii) 50% wheat flour and 50% hull-less barley flour (composite flour); (iii) 100% hull-less barley flour. After two months of continuous propagation, the chemical characteristics of the three sourdoughs were investigated by measuring: pH, total titratable acidity and concentrations of various microbial metabolites by HPLC (i.e. lactic, acetic, phenyllactic and butyric acids and diacetyl). The microbial traits were studied through viable counts, isolation and typing of LAB and yeasts and PCR-DGGE analyses. Only Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum were detectable in the sourdoughs together with other lactobacilli species which were different depending on the type of flour blend used. The molecular typing of the isolates highlighted that only a few strains among those initially inoculated prevailed. The volume increases of the three types of sourdough were also investigated and a correlation was seen between an increase in the barley flour content and a reduction in the dough volume.

  1. Improvement of bread making quality by supplementation with a recombinant xylanase produced by Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz Brito Cunha, Carolina Cândida; Gama, Aline Rodrigues; Cintra, Lorena Cardoso; Bataus, Luiz Artur Mendes; Ulhoa, Cirano José

    2018-01-01

    Xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8) are hydrolytic enzymes, which randomly cleave the β-1,4-linked xylose residues from xylan. The synthetic gene xynBS27 from Streptomyces sp. S27 was successfully cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The full-length gene consists of 729 bp and encodes 243 amino acids including 51 residues of a putative signal peptide. This enzyme was purified in two steps and was shown to have a molecular weight of 20 kDa. The purified r-XynBS27 was active against beechwood xylan and oat spelt xylan as expected for GH 11 family. The optimum pH and temperature values for the enzyme were 6.0 and 75 °C, respectively. The Km and Vmax were 12.38 mg/mL and 13.68 μmol min/mg, respectively. The r-XynBS27 showed high xylose tolerance and was inhibited by some metal ions and by SDS. r-XynBS27 was employed as an additive in the bread making process. A decrease in firmness, stiffness and consistency, and improvements in specific volume and reducing sugar content were recorded.

  2. Study on the effects of wheat bran incorporation on water mobility and biopolymer behavior during bread making and storage using time-domain 1H NMR relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemdane, S; Jacobs, P J; Bosmans, G M; Verspreet, J; Delcour, J A; Courtin, C M

    2017-12-01

    Water binding is suggested to be key in the deleterious effect of wheat bran on bread quality. This study investigates water mobility and biopolymer behavior during bran-rich bread making and storage, using 1 H NMR. Coarse, ground, and pericarp-enriched bran were incorporated in bread dough, and their impact on freshly baked and stored bread properties was assessed. Compared to wheat flour control dough, bran incorporation resulted in a progressive immobilization of water during dough resting, which could be linked to changes in evolution of dough height during fermentation and oven rise. This, together with modified starch gelatinization behavior upon baking, can be related with the inferior quality of bran-rich breads. The impact was most pronounced with pericarp-enriched bran. Textural quality during storage was less affected for coarse or ground bran-rich bread compared to wheat flour bread, which could be principally attributed to retardation of amylopectin retrogradation in the presence of bran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of the energy and exergy efficiencies of farm to fork grain cultivation and bread making processes in Turkey and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degerli, Bahar; Nazir, Serap; Sorgüven, Esra; Hitzmann, Bernd; Özilgen, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Energy and exergy efficiencies of the wheat and rye bread and hamburger bun making processes are assessed based on data from Turkey and Germany. Amount of the land required to produce the same amount of wheat in Turkey is 3.34 times of that required in Germany; this ratio is 2.30 for the rye grain. These results show that the efficiency of the conversion of the solar energy into the grain mass is low in Turkey. CDP (Cumulative degree of perfection) for the wheat and the rye grain production is 3.73 and 4.96 in Turkey, and 11.26 and 10.46 in Germany. Specific energy utilization for rye bread production is almost the same in Turkey and Germany; but it is 12% higher in Turkey for wheat bread and hamburger bun making. Hamburger bun production requires the maximum energy utilization due to the higher weight loss in baking. The rye bread production process requires the minimum energy utilization due to the lower energy input in the agriculture and higher efficiency in the flour production. The maximum exergy destructions occur during the milling and the baking steps. - Highlights: • Agriculture determines the energy and exergy efficiency of bread making. • Conversion efficiency of the solar energy into grain mass is lower in Turkey. • The smallest energy and exergy is needed for the rye bread making. • The largest energy and exergy is needed for the hamburger bun making. • Energy efficiency per mass of bread production is 12% higher in Germany.

  4. The physics of bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2017-10-01

    Nathan Myhrvold - the polymath physicist whose passions range from cosmology to cooking - is this month publishing a massive, five-volume book about the science of bread and bread-making. Robert P Crease catches up with this intellectual livewire at his Cooking Lab headquarters in Seattle

  5. Relationship power, decision making, and sexual relations: an exploratory study with couples of Mexican origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, S Marie; Beckman, Linda J; Browner, Carole H; Sherman, Christy A

    2002-11-01

    This study explored how couples of Mexican origin define power in intimate relationships, what makes men and women feel powerful in relationships, and the role of each partner in decision making about sexual and reproductive matters. Interviews were conducted with each partner of 39 sexually active couples and data were analyzed using content analysis. Results indicate that power is perceived as control over one s partner and the ability to make decisions. Women say they feel more powerful in relationships when they make unilateral decisions and have economic independence. Men feel powerful when they have control over their partner and bring home money. Respondents agreed that women make decisions about household matters and children, while men make decisions related to money. Findings indicate that whereas couples share decision making about sexual activities and contraceptive use, men are seen as initiators of sexual activity and women are more likely to suggest condom use.

  6. Fractal Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbenshade, Donald H., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Develops the idea of fractals through a laboratory activity that calculates the fractal dimension of ordinary white bread. Extends use of the fractal dimension to compare other complex structures as other breads and sponges. (MDH)

  7. Father- and Mother-Adolescent Decision-Making in Mexican-Origin Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brena, Norma; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the prevalence and correlates of decisional autonomy within specific cultural contexts is necessary to fully understand how family processes are embedded within culture. The goals of this study were to describe mothers’ and fathers’ decision-making with adolescents (M = 12.51 years, SD = 0.58; 51% female), including parent-unilateral, joint, and youth-unilateral decision-making, and to examine the socio-cultural and family characteristics associated with these different types of decision-making in 246 Mexican-origin families. Mothers reported more joint and youth-unilateral decision-making and less parent-unilateral decision-making than did fathers. Fathers reported more youth-unilateral decision-making with sons than with daughters. Further, for mothers, more traditional gender role attitudes and higher levels of mother-adolescent conflict were associated with more parent-unilateral and less joint decision-making. In contrast, for fathers, lower levels of respect values were associated with more youth-unilateral decision-making with sons, and higher levels of parent-adolescent warmth was associated with more youth-unilateral decision-making with daughters. The importance of understanding the different correlates of mothers’ and fathers’ decision-making with sons versus daughters is discussed. PMID:21484288

  8. Dough properties and bread-making quality-related characteristics of Yumechikara near-isogenic wheat lines carrying different Glu-B3 alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Miwako; Maruyama-Funatsuki, Wakako; Ikeda, Tatsuya M; Nishio, Zenta; Nagasawa, Koichi; Tabiki, Tadashi

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the relationships of three allelic variations in Glu-B3 (ab, g, and h) with dough properties and bread-making quality-related characteristics using near-isogenic lines (NILs) of 'Yumechikara' that commonly carry Glu-A1a, Glu-B1b, Glu-D1d, Glu-A3f, Glu-B3ab and Glu-D3a. Measurement of peak time (PT) in a 2-g mixograph indicated that Glu-B3g was the most effective for a strong dough property, followed by Glu-B3ab, with Glu-B3h being the least effective. The results of measurement of mixing time during bread-making were similar to those for PTs, i.e., the lines carrying Glu-B3g showed the longest mixing time, followed by those of Glu-B3ab, and those of Glu-B3h showed the shortest mixing time. Since two parameters of bread-making quality, loaf volume (LV) and specific loaf volume (SLV), were affected by flour protein contents in all groups of the Glu-B3 genotype, we compared the effects of the three Glu-B3 alleles on those parameters using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to remove the effect of protein content. The results indicated that the Glu-B3h group showed the largest SLV, followed by the Glu-B3ab group, and the Glu-B3g group showed the smallest SLV. These results suggest that the introduction of Glu-B3h into 'Yumechikara' makes it possible to breed varieties with good bread-making quality-related characteristics.

  9. Bread's oven and baking bread

    OpenAIRE

    Kastelic, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This thesis researches the connection between baker's oven and baking bread. Furthermore, it presents the history and development of the above issue in the Slovenian territory, its significance and preservation over time. The thesis deals with the building of bread’s over, its function and usability. Moreover, it focuses on baking bread in bread’s oven, presenting the entire baking process from ingredients to the baked loaf of bread and various tools and techniques, which can be used during t...

  10. The myth of macho dominance in decision making within Mexican and Chicano families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, R E; Ruiz, R A

    1979-10-01

    The myth concerning Hispanic family life which prevails in the social science literature can best be summarized by abbreviated quotations attributed to Alvirez and Bean. The Mexican or Chicano husband is a macho autocrat who rules as "absolute head of the family with full authority over the wife and children" where "all major decisions are his responsibility." Domination by husbands in marriage is logically consistent with their wives' submissivesness accompanied by passive acceptance of the future, strong religious beliefs, and a tendency to reside in the temporal present. The myth is also deeply imbedded in the social pathology model: differences between Hispanics and Anglos are assumed to reflect negatively on Hispanics. The myth, it should be noted, is seldom subjected to the scrutiny of empirical inquiry. The review of 4 studies on both Mexican and Chicano samples fails to support the notion of male dominance in marital desision making. Refutation of the hypothesis of masculine dominance in marital decision making calls other components of the myth into question. Research among Hispanics on alledged female submissiveness, fatalism, eligiosity, and temporal perspective are called for. More sophisicated designs involving experimental manipulations are needed. Experimental studies on the process of decision making, actual behaviors involved in economic or budgetary negotiations, and parental interaction around childrearing would also be of interest. While the data reviewed may suggest that Hispanic males may behave differently from nonHispanic males in their family and marital lives, the behavior is not in the inappropriate fashion suggested by the myth with its strong connotations of social deviance. Additional research is recommended among Hispanics on sex role behavior among both men and women, with special emphasis on how it influences family life and marriage.

  11. Making Me Feel Comfortable: Developing Trust in the Nurse for Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon M

    2015-11-01

    Trust (confianza) is an important component of patient-centered care and culturally competent care and a major element in the Hispanic culture. The aim of this study was to conceptualize the process of the development of interpersonal trust by hospitalized patients in their nurses. Using the grounded theory method, English-speaking Mexican American patients (N = 22) were interviewed. The core category was Making Me Feel Comfortable. The cyclical process included a beginning stage (Having Needs, Relying on the Nurse), middle stage (Coming Across to Me, Taking Care of Me, Connecting), and end point (Feeling Confianza) with two outcomes (Confiding in the Nurse, Taking Away the Negative). Anytime there was a negative element during the middle stage, this element halted any further development of trust with the nurse. Unique findings were related to Hispanic cultural values of familism and personalismo. The findings have implications which impact patient safety and quality care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Physical, sensory and chemical properties of bread prepared from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical, sensory and chemical properties of bread prepared from wheat and ... Different levels (0, 1, 2 and 3% w/w) of cissus gum powder was added to ... flours for bread making where 100% wheat bread without cissus gum served as control. ... serve as a gluten substitute in preparing acceptable wheat bread substituted ...

  13. Gluten-free dough-making of specialty breads: Significance of blended starches, flours and additives on dough behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, Concha; Conte, Paola; Fadda, Costantino; Piga, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The capability of different gluten-free (GF) basic formulations made of flour (rice, amaranth and chickpea) and starch (corn and cassava) blends, to make machinable and viscoelastic GF-doughs in absence/presence of single hydrocolloids (guar gum, locust bean and psyllium fibre), proteins (milk and egg white) and surfactants (neutral, anionic and vegetable oil) have been investigated. Macroscopic (high deformation) and macromolecular (small deformation) mechanical, viscometric (gelatinization, pasting, gelling) and thermal (gelatinization, melting, retrogradation) approaches were performed on the different matrices in order to (a) identify similarities and differences in GF-doughs in terms of a small number of rheological and thermal analytical parameters according to the formulations and (b) to assess single and interactive effects of basic ingredients and additives on GF-dough performance to achieve GF-flat breads. Larger values for the static and dynamic mechanical characteristics and higher viscometric profiles during both cooking and cooling corresponded to doughs formulated with guar gum and Psyllium fibre added to rice flour/starch and rice flour/corn starch/chickpea flour, while surfactant- and protein-formulated GF-doughs added to rice flour/starch/amaranth flour based GF-doughs exhibited intermediate and lower values for the mechanical parameters and poorer viscometric profiles. In addition, additive-free formulations exhibited higher values for the temperature of both gelatinization and retrogradation and lower enthalpies for the thermal transitions. Single addition of 10% of either chickpea flour or amaranth flour to rice flour/starch blends provided a large GF-dough hardening effect in presence of corn starch and an intermediate effect in presence of cassava starch (chickpea), and an intermediate reinforcement of GF-dough regardless the source of starch (amaranth). At macromolecular level, both chickpea and amaranth flours, singly added, determined

  14. CRUMB TEXTURE OF SPELT BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Korczyk-Szabó

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bread quality is considerably dependent on the texture characteristic of bread crumb. Crumb texture is an important quality indicator, as consumer prefer different bread taste. Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluation of mechanical characteristics where a material is subjected to a controlled force from which a deformation curve of its response is generated. It is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. This is why the texture analysis is one of the most helpful analytical methods of the product development. In the framework of our research during the years 2008 – 2009 were analyzed selected indicators for bread texture quality of five Triticum spelta L. varieties – Altgold, Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Ostro, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, following the AACC (74-09 standard method and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%. Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Franckenkorn and Altgold were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.81++, -0.78++. The spelt grain can be a good source for making bread flour, but is closely dependent on choice of spelt variety. The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

  15. Eat, play, view, sleep: Exploring Mexican American mothers' perceptions of decision making for four behaviors associated with childhood obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel E; Cole, Suzanne M; Blake, Christine E; McKenney-Shubert, Shannon J; Peterson, Karen E

    2016-06-01

    This mixed methods study sought to understand who makes decisions about whether preschool-aged Mexican American children engage in eating, outdoor play, sleep, and screen time behaviors. Forty Mexican American mothers of children ages 3-4 participated in two interviews, during which both closed- and open-ended questions elicited perceptions of who made decisions for the four behaviors, as well as who was present, mealtime rules, and food choice values. Interviews were transcribed, coded for emergent themes, and compared across participants. Participants generally perceived themselves to be primary decision makers for all four behaviors; however, food decisions often seemed to be made collaboratively with the child. Fathers were most likely to participate in evening television decisions. Other family members were rarely mentioned. Selecting foods that children liked was a strong food choice value, while cost was rarely mentioned. Participants appeared to have low perceived control over their child's behaviors relative to their perceived roles in decision making. Mothers may be the primary audience for obesity prevention messages for preschool-aged, Mexican American children; however, health promotion programs may need to increase mothers' awareness of their control over children's behaviors. Understanding how children's behaviors are regulated is an important aspect of obesity prevention for low-income, Mexican American children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of hop extract as antifungal ingredient for bread making and selection of autochthonous resistant starters for sourdough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nionelli, Luana; Pontonio, Erica; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2018-02-02

    Aiming at meeting the consumers' demand in terms of bio-preservation, the potential of the combination of the lactic acid bacteria fermentation and the addition of hop extract as natural preservative in breadmaking, was exploited. The antifungal properties of a hop (Humulus lupulus) extract were investigated, showing a significant inhibition of the hyphal growth of Aspergillus parasiticus, Penicillium carneum, Penicillium polonicum, Penicillium paneum, Penicillium chermesinum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium roqueforti. Lactic acid bacteria belonging to species of Enterococcus feacium, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus curvatus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Pediococcus acidilactici were isolated from hop and subjected to selection based on kinetics of growth and acidification. The sourdough (hS) enriched with hop extract (hE), started with three selected strains, had phenols concentration and antioxidant activity higher than those obtained in the same condition but without the hE. Hop-sourdough used in breadmaking delayed the fungal growth (14 days), giving a bread characterized by free aminoacids concentration, antioxidant and phytase activities higher than bread started only with baker's yeast, with or without the addition of hE. Specific volume and cell-total area of the bread containing hE improved, and its sensory profile was characterized by typical sourdough attributes, and a moderate bitter/herbaceous perception.

  17. Elaboração de pães com adição de soro de manteiga / Bread-making with the addition of buttermilk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Lemke Gonzales

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumoNa indústria de laticínios existem vários subprodutos dos quais temos o soro de manteiga que é totalmente descartado. O pão é um alimento que resulta do cozimento de uma massa feita com farinha de cereais panificáveis, principalmente trigo, água e sal, podendo haver a adição de outros componentes. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a elaboração de um produto de panificação com a adição de soro de manteiga em sua formulação. O creme utilizado para a fabricação do soro foi adquirido em um mercado da cidade de Guarapuava/PR, sendo realizado um batimento até a separação do soro e da manteiga. Os pães com 50% e 100% de soro de manteiga apresentaram 100 mg de cálcio, sendo este valor superior ao padrão. A formulação com 50% de soro de manteiga apresentou 27,16% de umidade, 9,40% de proteína, 44,3 mg de carboidratos e 1,52% de cinza. Os pães obtidos com soro de manteiga tiveram uma coloração amarelada, a casca e miolo ficaram macios, o volume ficou semelhante ao padrão e os alvéolos ficaram maiores quando comparados ao pão sem o soro de manteiga. A avaliação sensorial foi realizada por meio do teste de escala hedônica. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que as amostras não apresentaram diferença significativa ao nível de 1%. O sabor foi considerado agradável pelos provadores, principalmente no caso do pão contendo 50% de soro de manteiga.AbstractDairy industries yield several by-products, such as the buttermilk that is totally wasted. We have studied bread-making with the addition of butter serum in its formulation. Bread is obtained by baking a dough that is made of a mix with cereal flour, especially wheat flour, water and salt, but other ingredients may be added. The cream that was used for the production of the serum was obtained at a market in Guarapuava city (Parana state. The breads with 50.0% and 100.0% of butter serum presented 100.0 mg of calcium, a value that is greater than the

  18. Density separation as a strategy to reduce the enzyme load of preharvest sprouted wheat and enhance its bread making quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaerts, Heleen; De Bondt, Yamina; Courtin, Christophe M

    2018-02-15

    As preharvest sprouting of wheat impairs its use in food applications, postharvest solutions for this problem are required. Due to the high kernel to kernel variability in enzyme activity in a batch of sprouted wheat, the potential of eliminating severely sprouted kernels based on density differences in NaCl solutions was evaluated. Compared to higher density kernels, lower density kernels displayed higher α-amylase, endoxylanase, and peptidase activities as well as signs of (incipient) protein, β-glucan and arabinoxylan breakdown. By discarding lower density kernels of mildly and severely sprouted wheat batches (11% and 16%, respectively), density separation increased flour FN of the batch from 280 to 345s and from 135 to 170s and increased RVA viscosity. This in turn improved dough handling, bread crumb texture and crust color. These data indicate that density separation is a powerful technique to increase the quality of a batch of sprouted wheat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Migration Decision-Making among Mexican Youth: Individual, Family, and Community Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Christine M.; Torres-Pereda, Pilar; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio A.

    2013-01-01

    We explored migration decisions using in-depth, semistructured interviews with male and female youth ages 14 to 24 (n = 47) from two Mexican communities, one with high and one with low U.S. migration density. Half were return migrants and half were nonmigrants with relatives in the United States. Migrant and nonmigrant youth expressed different…

  20. Physicochemical, rheological, thermal, and bread making properties of flour obtained from irradiated wheat;Propriedades fisico-quimicas, reologicas, entalpicas e de panificacao da farinha obtida de trigo irradiado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Carolina Sobral

    2006-07-01

    Most of the methods that are nowadays used for food preservation derive from old times. Besides these methods, new non-thermal methods have been developed in order to improve food quality during its processing. Irradiation technology has a great contribution potential to improve preservation, storage and distribution of foods. Several studies from international literature have reported the efficiency of irradiation process on microbiological control of grains and their products. Due to the low technological quality of national wheat, Brazil depends on its import. Wheat is the main ingredient of bread which is one of the most important products of Brazilian people's diet. The objective of this work was to study the effect of ionizing radiation on wheat on physicochemical, rheological, and thermal properties of flour produced from this wheat, and consequently, its performance on bread making. All experiments were conducted on laboratory scale. Wheat was submitted to irradiation on different doses (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 kGy) and flour produced underwent physicochemical, rheological, thermal and microbiological analyses. Flour bread making performance was measured through quality of bread. None of the physicochemical, rheological or thermal parameters was influenced by irradiation, with the exception of Falling Number, which decreased significantly with the increase of irradiation dose, indicating the effect of irradiation on wheat starch, and consequently on dough's gelatinization. Bread quality parameters did also not show significant differences, and sensory analysis showed that bread produced from irradiated and non irradiated wheat did not present perceivable flavor. (author)

  1. Selling bread

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, John, 1837-1921, photographer

    2003-01-01

    85 x 107 mm. Woodburytype. A portrait of an old woman seated on a chair, with a basket on her lap. The portrait is in Thomson's 'Through Cyprus with the camera, in the autumn of 1878' (vol.1, London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington, 1879). The photograph is annotated: 'In the features of this old dame, who earns her living by selling bread in Larnaca, there still linger traces of youthful comeliness. Her thin locks are silvered with age, and the years, as they dragged heavily...

  2. A family 30 glucurono-xylanase from Bacillus subtilis LC9: Expression, characterization and its application in Chinese bread making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yalan; Gao, Zhen; Xu, Jiaxing; Chang, Siyuan; Wu, Bin; He, Bingfang

    2018-05-22

    A GH30-8 endoxylanase was identified from an environmental Bacillus subtilis isolate following growth selection on aspen wood glucuronoxylan. The putative endoxylanase was cloned for protein expression and characterization in the Gram-positive protease deficient protein expression host B. subtilis WB800. The extracellular activity obtained was 55 U/mL, which was 14.5-fold higher than that obtained with the native species. The apparent molecular mass of BsXyn30 was estimated as 43 kDa by SDS-PAGE. BsXyn30 showed an optimal activity at pH 7.0 and 60 °C. Recombinant BsXyn30 displayed maximum activity against aspen wood xylan, followed by beechwood xylan but showed no catalytic activity on arabinose-substituted xylans. Analysis of hydrolyzed products of beechwood xylan by thin-layer chromatography and mass spectroscopy revealed the presence of xylooligosaccharides with a single methyl-glucuronic acid residue. BsXyn30 exhibited very low activity for hydrolysis xylotetraose and xylopentaose, but had no detectable activity against xylobiose and xylotriose. Using BsXyn30 as an additive in breadmaking, a decrease in water-holding capacity, an increase in dough expansion as well as improvements in volume and specific volume of the bread were recorded. Thus, the present study provided the basis for the application of GH30 xylanase in breadmaking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Multigrain bread processing with extruded flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Crosa Balestra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect in bread quality of a new bread making process and two replacement levels (20%, 36% of refined wheat flour by extrusion precooked prepared based on combination of oats, soybeans and wheat bran was studied. Composite flour was characterized according to its functional properties (water absorption index, grain size and nutritional properties (protein, total fiber, soluble fiber, ash, fat. The volume, whiteness index, rheological measurements (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and chewiness of the bread were monitored. No significant changes were recorded in hardness, elasticity and chewiness of bread according to the level of substitution of composite flour; bread with 36% substitution was 7% less cohesive, with 27% less volume bread with 20% substitution. The process conditions caused greatest impact on the quality of bread. The new process resulted in a 37% increase in volume, 6% elasticity, 15% of cohesiveness and 44% decrease in hardness and 34% in chewiness, compared to the traditional process. This trend continued in the four days following the date of processing. The substitution level of composite flour did not cause significant changes in hardness, elasticity and chewiness of bread, but changes were observed in cohesiveness and volume. Bread with 36% substitution was 7% less cohesive, with 27% less volume than the 20% substitution.

  4. Transformation of deoxynivalenol and its acetylated derivatives in Chinese steamed bread making, as affected by pH, yeast, and steaming time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Wang, Bujun

    2016-07-01

    We hereby report the transformation of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives (3-ADON and 15-ADON) by spiking targeted mycotoxins to Fusarium mycotoxin-free flour in the process of making Chinese steamed bread (CSB). The impacts of pH, yeast level, and steaming time on the transformation of 3-ADON to DON were investigated. DON, 3-ADON, and 15-ADON were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Spiked DON was stable throughout the CSB making process. Spiked 3-ADON and 15-ADON were partially deacetylated and transformed to DON during kneading (54.1-60.0% and 59.3-77.5%, respectively), fermentation (64.0-76.9% and 78.2-91.6%, respectively), and steaming (47.2-52.7% and 52.4-61.9%, respectively). The ADONs level increased after steaming compared with their level in the previous step. The pH level and steaming duration significantly (Pyeast did not remarkably (P<0.05) alter the transformation between ADONs and DON. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermo-reversible inhibition makes aqualysin 1 from Thermus aquaticus a potent tool for studying the contribution of the wheat gluten network to the crumb texture of fresh bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbauwhede, Annelien E; Lambrecht, Marlies A; Fierens, Ellen; Hermans, Senne; Shegay, Oksana; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2018-10-30

    The thermo-active serine peptidase aqualysin 1 (Aq1) of Thermus aquaticus was applied in bread making to study the relative contribution of thermoset gluten to bread crumb texture. Aq1 is active between 30 °C and 90 °C with an optimum activity temperature of around 65 °C. It is inhibited by wheat endogenous serine peptidase inhibitors during dough mixing and fermentation and starts hydrolyzing gluten proteins during baking above 80 °C when the enzyme is no longer inhibited and most of the starch is gelatinized and contributes to structure formation. Aq1 activity reduced the molecular weight of gluten proteins and significantly increased their extractability in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing medium. While it had no impact on the specific bread volume and only limited impact on hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, resilience and chewiness, it impacted bread crumb coherence. We conclude that starch has a greater impact on crumb texture than thermoset gluten. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  7. Quality of Bread Supplemented with Antrodia
salmonea-Fermented Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Rao-Chi; Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal

    2016-01-01

    Summary Fermented grains of buckwheat, oat, embryo rice and wheat, which were prepared by solid-state fermentation with Antrodia salmonea, and the mycelium was used to substitute 7% of wheat flour to make bread. No difference in proximate composition, texture profile and contents of non-volatile taste components was observed among bread samples. White bread and bread supplemented with mycelium and fermented grains looked different. Bread supplemented with fermented grains had similar thermal properties, which differed from those of white bread and bread supplemented with mycelium. Bread supplemented with fermented grains contained substantial mass fractions (on dry mass basis) of adenosine (0.92–1.96 µg/g), ergosterol (24.53–30.12 µg/g), ergothioneine (2.16–3.18 µg/g) and γ-aminobutyric acid (2.20–2.45 µg/g). In addition, bread supplemented with mycelium contained lovastatin (0.43 µg/g). White bread and bread supplemented with fermented grains had similar sensory results. Overall, fermented grains could be incorporated into bread to provide beneficial effects. PMID:27904408

  8. Quality of Bread Supplemented with Antrodia salmonea-Fermented Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao-Chi Chien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented grains of buckwheat, oat, embryo rice and wheat, which were prepared by solid-state fermentation with Antrodia salmonea, and the mycelium was used to substitute 7 % of wheat flour to make bread. No difference in proximate composition, texture profile and contents of non-volatile taste components was observed among bread samples. White bread and bread supplemented with mycelium and fermented grains looked different. Bread supplemented with fermented grains had similar thermal properties, which differed from those of white bread and bread supplemented with mycelium. Bread supplemented with fermented grains contained substantial mass fractions (on dry mass basis of adenosine (0.92–1.96 μg/g, ergosterol (24.53–30.12 μg/g, ergothioneine (2.16–3.18 μg/g and γ-aminobutyric acid (2.20–2.45 μg/g. In addition, bread supplemented with mycelium contained lovastatin (0.43 μg/g. White bread and bread supplemented with fermented grains had similar sensory results. Overall, fermented grains could be incorporated into bread to provide beneficial effects.

  9. TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF SPELT WHEAT BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The bread quality is considerably dependent on the texture characteristic of bread crumb. Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluation of mechanical characteristics where a material is subjected to a controlled force from which a deformation curve of its response is generated. It is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what are inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. This is why the texture analysis is one of the most helpful analytical methods of the product development. In the framework of our research during the years 2008 – 2009 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system at the locality of Dolna Malanta near Nitra. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%.Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was measured in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Franckenkorn were the most firm and stiff. Relative elasticity confirmed that the lowest firmness and stiffness was found in Rubiota bread. The spelt grain can be a good source for making bread flour, but is closely dependent on choice of spelt variety.

  10. The influence of Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci on dough rheology and bread-making properties in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) doubled haploid lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Monika; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Salmanowicz, Bolesław P; Adamski, Tadeusz; Krajewski, Paweł; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Surma, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The major determinants of wheat quality are Glu-1 and Glu-3 glutenin loci and environmental factors. Additive effects of alleles at the Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci, as well as their interactions, were evaluated for dough rheology and baking properties in four groups of wheat doubled haploid lines differing in high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin composition. Flour quality, Reomixer (Reologica Instruments, Lund, Sweden), dough extension, Farinograph (Brabender GmbH, Duisburg, Germany) and baking parameters were determined. Groups of lines with the alleles Glu-A3b and Glu-B3d were characterized by higher values of dough and baking parameters compared to those with the Glu-A3e and Glu-B3a alleles. Effects of interactions between allelic variants at the Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci on Reomixer parameters, dough extension tests and baking parameters were significant, although additive effects of individual alleles were not always significant. The allelic variants at Glu-B3 had a much greater effect on dough rheological parameters than the variants at Glu-A3 or Glu-D3 loci. The effect of allelic variations at the Glu-D3 loci on rheological parameters and bread-making quality was non-significant, whereas their interactions with a majority of alleles at the other Glu-1 × Glu-3 loci were significant. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Concomitant production of cellulase and xylanase by thermophilic mould Sporotrichum thermophile in solid state fermentation and their applicability in bread making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Anju; Singh, Bijender

    2017-06-01

    Sporotrichum thermophile BJAMDU5 secreted high titres of xylanolytic and cellulolytic enzymes in solid state fermentation using mixture of wheat straw and cotton oil cake (ratio 1:1) at 45 °C, pH 5.0 after 72 h inoculated with 2.9 × 10 7  CFU/mL conidiospores. Supplementation of solid medium with lactose and ammonium sulphate further enhanced the production of hydrolytic enzymes. Among different surfactants studied, Tween 80 enhanced the production of all enzymes [3455 U/g DMR (dry mouldy residue), 879.26 U/g DMR, 976.28 U/g DMR and 35.10 U/g DMR for xylanase, CMCase (Carboxymethylcellulase), FPase (Filter paper activity) and β-glucosidase, respectively] as compared to other surfactants. Recycling of solid substrate reduced the production of all these enzymes after second cycle. End products analysis by TLC showed the ability of hydrolytic enzymes of S. thermophile to liberate monomeric (xylose and glucose) as well as oligomeric (xylobiose, cellobiose and higher ones) sugars. Supplementation of enzyme resulted in improved nutritional properties of the bread. Formation of oligomeric sugars by xylanase enzyme of S. thermophile BJAMDU5 make it a good candidate in food industry.

  12. Migration Decision-Making among Mexican Youth: Individual, Family, and Community Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Christine M; Torres-Pereda, Pilar; Minnis, Alexandra M; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio A

    2013-05-07

    We explored migration decisions using in-depth, semi-structured interviews with male and female youth ages 14 to 24 (n=47) from two Mexican communities, one with high and one with low U.S. migration density. Half were return migrants and half were non-migrants with relatives in the U.S. Migrant and non-migrant youth expressed different preferences, especially in terms of education and their ability to wait for financial gain. Reasons for migration were mostly similar across the two communities; however, the perceived risk of the migration journey was higher in the low density migration community while perceived opportunities in Mexico were higher in the high density migration community. Reasons for return were related to youths' initial social and economic motivations for migration. A greater understanding of factors influencing migration decisions may provide insight into the vulnerability of immigrant youth along the journey, their adaptation process in the U.S., and their reintegration in Mexico.

  13. Microbiological characterization of traditional dough fermentation starter (Jiaozi) for steamed bread making by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijian; Li, Haifeng; Bian, Ke

    2016-10-03

    In this study, the microbial composition of two types of Jiaozi (a dough fermentation starter in making steamed bread) was investigated using both culture-dependent and culture-independent (PCR-DGGE) methods. The numbers of the cultivable bacteria on MRS at 30°C and yeast on YPD at 28°C in the maize flour Jiaozi (MFJ) were 9.21±0.16 Log CFU/g and 9.18±0.05 Log CFU/g, respectively, which were higher than that in the rice flour Jiaozi (RFJ) (Pyeasts were isolated and identified on the basis of the sequences of their 16S rRNA gene and ITS region. The culture-dependent method showed that Acetobacter tropicalis and Enterococcus durans were the predominant bacteria strains in MFJ, and accounted for 45.7% and 25.7% of the bacteria, and Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus represented 12.8% and 8.6%. In the RFJ sample, the most prominent isolate was P. pentosaceus (38.6%), followed by L. plantarum (24.3%), A. tropicalis (22.8%), and E. durans (5.7%). P. pentosaceus and L. plantarum were also detected in both starters by PCR-DGGE, while some bacteria species such as A. tropicalis and E. durans, recovered as pure cultures, were not detected by direct PCR-DGGE. On the other hand, Lactobacillus brevis, Weissella sp. and Lactobacillus alimentarius detected by PCR-DGGE were not recovered in any of the media and conditions used. In the MFJ sample, the isolated main yeast species were identified as Wickerhamomyces anomalus (67.2%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (27.9%) and Torulaspora delbrueckii (4.9%). In addition to S. cerevisiae (42.9%), W. anomalus (27.0%) and T. delbrueckii (7.9%), Saccharomycopsis fibuligera was also identified as the predominant isolate in RFJ samples and accounted for 22.2%. PCR-DGGE also indicated the presence of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae in both MFJ and RFJ starters and S. fibuligera was also detected in RFJ, but T. delbrueckii was not detected in both samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of novel starter cultures for sourdough bread production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessas, S; Alexopoulos, A; Mantzourani, I; Koutinas, A; Voidarou, C; Stavropoulou, E; Bezirtzoglou, E

    2011-12-01

    Sourdough application has been extensively increased in the last years due to the consumers demand for food consumption without the addition of chemical preservatives. Several starter cultures have been applied in sourdough bread making targeting the increase of bread self-life and the improvement of sensorial character. More specific, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus sakei as single and mixed cultures were used for sourdough bread making. Various sourdough breads were produced with the addition of sourdough perviously prepared with 10% w/w L. acidophilus, 10% w/w L. sakei and 5% w/w L. acidophilus and 5% w/w L. sakei at the same time. Various chemical parameters were determined such as lactic acid, total titratable acidity and pH. The results revealed that the produced sourdough bread made with sourdough containing the mixed culture was preserved for more days (12 days) than all the other breads produced in the frame of this study, since it contained lactic acid in higher concentrations. The respective total titratable acidity varied between 10.5 and 11 ml NaOH N/10. The same sourdough bread had a firmer texture, better aroma, flavor and overall quality compared to other sourdough breads examined in this study, as shown by sensory evaluation tests and results obtained through SPME GC-MS analysis, which revealed significant differences among the different bread types. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Laying the foundations for dough-based oat bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Londoño, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    The motivation to perform this study was to generate the fundamentals to use oats for bread-making applications. This will offer consumers a healthier alternative product to wheat bread in their daily diet, because oat foods, especially through their high amount of soluble fibre (notably

  16. Potassium bromate content of some baked breads sold in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Potassium bromate is an additive used by some bakers to make the bread rise rapidly, create a good texture in the finished product and to give bulkiness to the dough. Objective: The main objective of this work was to assess the potassium bromate residues of some baked breads sold in some selected local ...

  17. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo, Maria; Svanberg, Ulf; Oliveira, Jorge; Ahrn?, Lilia

    2013-01-01

    Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented) on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w) was evaluated in combination with...

  18. Variabilidade genética em trigos brasileiros a partir de caracteres componentes da qualidade industrial e produção de grãos Genetic variability for bread making quality and grain yield among Brazilian wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas André Mallmann Schmidt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O melhoramento genético para a qualidade industrial do trigo pode representar uma oportunidade de agregar valor de mercado aos produtos agrícolas, sendo o trigo um dos cereais com maior associação entre a qualidade intrínseca e a remuneração ao agricultor. O objetivo do trabalho foi o de determinar a variabilidade genética a partir de caracteres indicativos da qualidade industrial e o rendimento de grãos, e estimar o grau de associação entre estes caracteres em 22 genótipos de trigo. O experimento foi desenvolvido em área experimental pertencente à Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capão do Leão (RS. Os resultados indicaram a provável existência de variabilidade genética para os caracteres em estudo, a qual pode auxiliar pesquisadores na escolha de genitores. Cruzamentos artificiais envolvendo os genótipos BRS 208, Rubi e Safira podem ser os mais promissores no intuito de incrementar o ganho genético, tanto para a qualidade industrial quanto para a produtividade de grãos. O rendimento de grãos manifestou correlação negativa com o conteúdo de proteína da farinha revelando que a superioridade genotípica para o rendimento de grãos pode afetar negativamente a proporção protéica. Entretanto, o conteúdo de proteína não evidenciou associação significativa com a força de glúten (indicador da qualidade industrial, revelando que a concentração de proteína da farinha não foi eficiente para predizer a qualidade industrial. Este resultado sugere a possibilidade de obtenção de genótipos superiores para o rendimento de grãos sem comprometer a qualidade industrial.The breeding for wheat bread making quality represents a great opportunity to incorporate commercial value to agricultural products. Wheat has one of the best relationship between end product quality and farmer earnings. Genetic variability among 22 different genotypes based on bread making quality traits and grain yield and the degree of their association

  19. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w was evaluated in combination with high-methylated pectin (HM-pectin added at levels of 1 to 3% (w/w according to a full factorial design. Addition of pectin to cassava flour made it possible to bake bread with acceptable bread quality even at concentration as high as 40%. In addition to cassava concentration, the type of cassava flour had the biggest effect on bread quality. With high level of cassava, bread with roasted cassava had a higher volume compared with sun-dried and fermented. The pectin level had a significant effect on improving the volume in high level roasted cassava bread. Crumb firmness similar to wheat bread could be obtained with sun-dried and roasted cassava flours. Roasted cassava bread was the only bread with crust colour similar to wheat bread.

  20. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo, Maria; Svanberg, Ulf; Oliveira, Jorge; Ahrné, Lilia

    2013-01-01

    Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented) on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w) was evaluated in combination with high-methylated pectin (HM-pectin) added at levels of 1 to 3% (w/w) according to a full factorial design. Addition of pectin to cassava flour made it possible to bake bread with acceptable bread quality even at concentration as high as 40%. In addition to cassava concentration, the type of cassava flour had the biggest effect on bread quality. With high level of cassava, bread with roasted cassava had a higher volume compared with sun-dried and fermented. The pectin level had a significant effect on improving the volume in high level roasted cassava bread. Crumb firmness similar to wheat bread could be obtained with sun-dried and roasted cassava flours. Roasted cassava bread was the only bread with crust colour similar to wheat bread.

  1. The Mexican oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos-Giacoman, E.

    1991-01-01

    In the environment of growing domestic demand and enhanced international competitiveness, Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX)-the Mexican national oil company-faces the challenge of not only responding adequately to the rapid changes taking place in the Mexican economy, but making a significant contribution towards solid and stable growth. This paper reports that the relevant concern is how PEMEX is going to live up to these expectations. The Mexican oil industry, especially including the petrochemical sector, has great potential in terms of an ample domestic market as well as external foreign-currency-generating markets

  2. The information presented on labels for bread produced in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murniece, Irisa; Straumite, Evita

    2014-11-01

    Bakery products, particularly bread, make up a significant share of the food guide pyramid. To help consumers make more informed choices from the bread available in the market, it is essential to provide correct and appropriate information on food labels. The aim of this research was to analyse the information shown on labels for different types of bread produced in Latvia. Different types of bread were chosen from 28 bakeries located in regions throughout Latvia. For statistical analysis, the data were processed using the S-PLUS 6.1 Professional Edition. From the analysis of labels on bread in Latvian, we conclude there is an absence of information about energy; only 4.8% of labels presented energy calculated according to the Nutritional Labelling Regulation 90/496/ECC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. THE EFFECT OF SOME TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS ON THE RYE SOURDOUGH BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Banu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The modern biotechnology of bread production uses sourdough as a natural leavening agent. In rye bread making the sourdough is essential. The aim of this paper was to examine the influence of starter culture types, flour extraction rate, dough yield and temperature of fermentation on the quality of the sourdough rye bread. The sourdough was prepared using a mixed culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis. The rye breads prepared with 20% sourdough and bread with no sourdough were investigated. The addition of sourdough increases the loaf specific volume relative to control sample. The best results were obtained in case of sourdough made from dark rye flour, 300 dough yield, after 24 h fermentation at 30 °C. The porosity of the bread was estimated by analyzing the scanned images of the vertically halved bread. Digital image analysis revealed that the cell-to-total area ratio was lower for the sourdough prepared with whole rye bread.

  4. Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the nutritional characteristics of wheat bread with the bread produced of wheat flour supplemented with quinoa and buckwheat seeds. Bread making properties of these blends were analyzed in order to investigate their ability to make moulded bread. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Will. and buckwheat seeds were grown in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The addition of pseudocereal seeds (at levels of 30% and 40% and a selected technological process, which included hydrothermal preparation of supplements, resulted with a valuable effect on nutritive value of breads. In comparison with the wheat bread that was used as control sample, the protein increase of 2% and the increase of crude fiber content at around 0.5% in 30% supplemented breads were registered. Furthermore, the incorporation of both seeds mixture at the level of 40%, increased the content of protein for 2.5% and fiber content for 0.4%. In regard to the starch, fat, and ash contents there were no major differences. The investigated breads were nutritionally superior to the wheat bread. Chemical composition of the selected seeds was also investigated. The results showed that the blends containing either 30% or 40% of selected seeds expressed high potential for the production of molded breads, as new baking products with enhanced nutritional composition. The applied technological procedure was modified in such way that for all blended combination of supplements it changed rheological properties of dough. Furthermore, it resulted in a good volume of breads with excellent sensory properties of aroma-odor and taste.

  5. Proximate composition, bread

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... indicate that carbohydrate, crude fiber, and ash contents of the .... percentage (% EE) was determined using Soxhlet system HT-extraction technique ..... composite bread and effect of label information on acceptance and ...

  6. Consumers’ preferences for bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Gamborg, Christian; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2017-01-01

    Consumers are apprehensive about transgenic technologies, so cisgenics, which limit gene transfers to sexually compatible organisms, have been suggested to address consumer concerns. We study consumer preferences for rye bread alternatives based on transgenic or cisgenic rye, grown conventionally...

  7. Wheat bread aroma compounds in crumb and crust: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Joana; Bernal, José; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Bread is one of the most widely consumed foods in the world. Among the different properties that define its quality, the aroma of bread is considered essential to its approval by consumers. Knowing what the compounds found in bread are, as well as the most important ones in crumb and crust, and understanding their biological sources and how they affect the final aroma of bread, could make it possible to modify the steps of bread manufacturing in order to enhance those with a positive impact and reduce those with a negative impact. The aim of this review is to provide a guideline correlating a great deal of the information now available regarding wheat bread aroma. For this purpose, a total of 326 volatile compounds reported in the literature have been included. The sensorial correlation of these compounds with the final aroma of wheat bread has also been explained, as well as the biological sources that generate them. Finally, it is shown how modifying the production stages of wheat bread could also affect the odour quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of additive from sugar beet on white bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Nada K.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The additive of acceptable sensory, physical and chemical and microbiological characteristics was made from cossettes. Great water binding capacity related to microcrystals of cellulose qualifies this additive as a desired one in bread making process. Bread was baked in the laboratory and patent flour was used. The additive with particles smaller than 95 (m was supplemented in the quantities of 2, 5 and 10%. The data related to the influence of the quantity of additive on white bread quality point that parallel to increasing the amount of the additive in the dough, yield of dough and bread were also increased. Negative effects are detected as volume depression and inferior bread crumb quality and altered crumb color. The decrease in bread quality is small if 2% of additive was applied, but significant with 5 and 10%. The bread freshness was highly graded 48 hours after baking due to the ability of the additive to retain water. On the whole, bread of superior quality supplemented by 5 and 10% of the additive from sugar beet fiber can be easily made by fortifying flour with gluten and by adding appropriate dough conditioner.

  9. Viabilidade do processamento de pães com farinha de pinhão e iogurte / Viability of bread-making with Paraná-pine-nut flour and yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcléia Darcléia

    2009-04-01

    application in food industries can improve the nutritional value of several foods. Yogurt is a milk byproduct of the fermentation of select lactic bacteria. It presents high sensory quality, with prophylactic properties and benefic effects for the intestinal flora. This research studied bread-making with Paraná-pine-nut flour and yogurt. The formulations with 5 and 15%, 5 and 25%, 10 and 15%, 10% and 25% of Parana-pine-nut flour and yogurt, respectively, indicated a significant difference in preference at a level of 5% among the subjects who tasted the products. The acceptance of breads with 10% Paraná-pine-nut flour and 15 or 25 % yogurt was better than that of other formulations.

  10. Fiches pratiques: Nouvelles histoires de modes; Pour se faire une tartine; Le Texte litteraire: "Decouverte" de Guy de Maupassant; Un Regiment dans un nuage (Practical Ideas: New Approaches to Grammatical Mood; How to Make Oneself Bread and Jam; The Literary Text: "Discovered" by Guy de Maupassant; A Regiment in a Cloud).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraceni, Luisa; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Four activities are offered for French second-language classroom use: an exercise to aid comprehension of indicative and subjunctive mood; a lesson in making bread and jam, designed for young children; a study of narration within a novel, using a Guy de Maupassant story; and an exercise in discourse analysis. (MSE)

  11. Technological characteristics of bread containing integral irradiated flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Christian A.H.M.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2011-01-01

    Wheat is normally used to make bread, pasta, and noodles, because among the cereal flours, only wheat flour has the ability to form cohesive dough upon hydration. For that reason, only partial substitution of wheat flour can be recommended. In this work, pan breads were prepared with 30% content of irradiated whole wheat, whole rye and coarse cornmeal and the influence of blending on bread making capabilities investigated through some technological characteristics. All-brand wheat, rye and cornmeal flours were irradiated with 0, 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a 60 Co and the deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with those blends were then determined. Breads prepared with irradiated whole wheat flour showed an increase in the deformation force with the increase of radiation dose. The bread height presented also an increase for the doses of 1 and 3 kGy. Breads prepared with refined wheat flour blended with irradiated whole rye flour showed an increased deformation force for radiation doses of 1 and 3 kGy and an increase in weight for samples irradiated with 1 kGy. Coarse cornmeal blended flour showed a great increase of the deformation force upon irradiation, and an increase in weight for samples irradiated with 3 kGy. The results indicate that the addition of irradiated integral flour, whole wheat, whole rye flour and cornmeal to wheat flour may confer changes in physical properties beside an increment in nutritional value. (author)

  12. Rice varieties in relation to rice bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hye Min; Cho, Jun Hyeon; Kang, Hang Won; Koh, Bong Kyung

    2012-05-01

    It is difficult to predict rice bread quality only from the amylose content (AC) or dough characteristics of new lines produced by rice breeding programmes. This study investigated the AC relative to bread baking quality of rice varieties developed in Korea, and identified specific characteristics that contribute to rice bread quality. Manmibyeo, Jinsumi, Seolgaeng and Hanareumbyeo were classified as low AC, YR24088 Acp9, Suweon517, Chenmaai and Goamibyeo as intermediate AC and Milyang261 as high AC. Suweon517, Milyang261 and Manmibyeo had a high water absorption index (WAI), while Goamibyeo, YR24088 Acp9, Jinsumi, Seolgaeng, Hanareumbyeo and Chenmaai had a low WAI. The gelatinisation enthalpy of flour varied from 9.2 J g(-1) in Milyang261 to 14.8 J g(-1) in YR24088 Acp9. After 7 days of storage the rate of flour retrogradation and crumb firmness were weakly correlated, with the exception of Jinsumi. Bread volumes of Jinsumi, Chenmaai, YR24088 Acp9 and Goamibyeo were comparable to that of wheat flour, but the rest were unsuited to bread making because of their low volume and hard crumb texture. Based on volume, texture and crumb firmness ratio, Chenmaai and Goamibyeo were the most appropriate varieties for making bread. An intermediate AC and low WAI were the primary indicators of rice bread flour quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Effects of Carbohydrate Consumption Case Study: carbohydrates in Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacsu N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms; they are an important source of energy. The body uses carbohydrates to make glucose which is the fuel that gives it energy and helps keep everything going. However, excess carbohydrate consumption has negative health effects. Bread is a basic product in our nutrition and it also is a product with a high content of carbohydrates. So, it is important to find out more information on bread and on the recommended bread type best for consumption.

  14. Consumer perception of bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellynck, Xavier; Kühne, Bianka; Van Bockstaele, Filip; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen

    2009-08-01

    Bread contains a wide range of important nutritional components which provide a positive effect on human health. However, the consumption of bread is declining during the last decades. This is due to factors such as changing eating patterns and an increasing choice of substitutes like breakfast cereals and fast foods. The aim of this study is to investigate consumer's quality perception of bread towards sensory, health and nutrition attributes. Four consumer segments are identified based on these attributes. The different consumer segments comprise consumers being positive to all three quality aspects of bread ("enthusiastic") as wells as consumers perceiving bread strongly as "tasteless", "non-nutritious" or "unhealthy". Moreover, factors are identified which influence the consumers' quality perception of bread. The results of our study may help health professionals and policy makers to systematically inform consumers about the positive effects of bread based on its components. Furthermore, firms can use the results to build up tailor-made marketing strategies.

  15. Bread Baking Contest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Amy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a classroom project in which elementary students bake homemade bread to learn about the settlement period in Canadian history and the early history of the students' community. Maintains that students learn to compare the lifestyle of the past with the present. (CFR)

  16. Molecular Features of Wheat Endosperm Arabinoxylan Inclusion in Functional Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weili; Hu, Hui; Wang, Qi; Brennan, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    Arabinoxylan (AX) is a major dietary fibre component found in a variety of cereals. Numerous health benefits of arabinoxylans have been reported to be associated with their solubility and molecular features. The current study reports the development of a functional bread using a combination of AX-enriched material (AEM) and optimal commercial endoxylanase. The total AX content of bread was increased to 8.2 g per 100 g available carbohydrates. The extractability of AX in breads with and without endoxylanase was determined. The results demonstrate that water-extractable AX (WE-AX) increased progressively through the bread making process. The application of endoxylanase also increased WE-AX content. The presence of 360 ppm of endoxylanase had positive effects on the bread characteristics in terms of bread volume and firmness by converting the water unextractable (WU)-AX to WE-AX. In addition, the molecular weight (Mw) distribution of the WE-AX of bread with and without endoxylanase was characterized by size-exclusion chromatography. The results show that as the portion of WE-AX increased, the amount of high Mw WE-AX (higher than 100 kDa) decreased, whereas the amount of low Mw WE-AX (lower than 100 kDa) increased from 33.2% to 44.2% through the baking process. The low Mw WE-AX further increased to 75.5% with the application of the optimal endoxylanase (360 ppm). PMID:28239111

  17. Molecular Features of Wheat Endosperm Arabinoxylan Inclusion in Functional Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabinoxylan (AX is a major dietary fibre component found in a variety of cereals. Numerous health benefits of arabinoxylans have been reported to be associated with their solubility and molecular features. The current study reports the development of a functional bread using a combination of AX-enriched material (AEM and optimal commercial endoxylanase. The total AX content of bread was increased to 8.2 g per 100 g available carbohydrates. The extractability of AX in breads with and without endoxylanase was determined. The results demonstrate that water-extractable AX (WE-AX increased progressively through the bread making process. The application of endoxylanase also increased WE-AX content. The presence of 360 ppm of endoxylanase had positive effects on the bread characteristics in terms of bread volume and firmness by converting the water unextractable (WU-AX to WE-AX. In addition, the molecular weight (Mw distribution of the WE-AX of bread with and without endoxylanase was characterized by size-exclusion chromatography. The results show that as the portion of WE-AX increased, the amount of high Mw WE-AX (higher than 100 kDa decreased, whereas the amount of low Mw WE-AX (lower than 100 kDa increased from 33.2% to 44.2% through the baking process. The low Mw WE-AX further increased to 75.5% with the application of the optimal endoxylanase (360 ppm.

  18. Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part 1: Breads Containing Oil as an Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Ranawana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing emphasis on reformulating processed foods to make them healthier. This study for the first time comprehensively investigated the effects of fortifying bread (containing oil as an ingredient with freeze-dried vegetables on its nutritional and physico-chemical attributes. Breads fortified with carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were assessed for nutrition, antioxidant potential, storage life, shelf stability, textural changes and macronutrient oxidation. Furthermore, using an in vitro model the study for the first time examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during human gastro-intestinal digestion. As expected, adding vegetables improved the nutritional and antioxidant properties of bread. Beetroot and broccoli significantly improved bread storage life. None of the vegetables significantly affected bread textural changes during storage compared to the control. Lipid oxidation in fresh bread was significantly reduced by all four types of vegetables whilst protein oxidation was lowered by beetroot, carrot and broccoli. The vegetables demonstrated varying effects on macronutrient oxidation during gastro-intestinal digestion. Beetroot consistently showed positive effects suggesting its addition to bread could be particularly beneficial.

  19. Mexican Folkart for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Graciela; And Others

    Directions, suggested materials, and illustrations are given for making paper mache pinatas and masks, cascarones, Ojos de Dios, maracas, dresser scarf embroidery, burlap murals, yarn designs, paper plate trays, paper cut designs, the poppy, sarape aprons, and paper Mexican dolls. Filled with candy and broken, the pinata is used on most Mexican…

  20. ANCIENT BREAD STAMPS FROM JORDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Kakish, Randa

    2014-01-01

    Marking bread was an old practice performed in different parts of the old world. It was done for religious, magical, economic and identification purposes. Bread stamps differ from other groups of stamps. Accordingly, the aim of this article is to identify such stamps, displayed or stored, in a number of Jordanian Archaeological Museums. A col-lection of twelve ancient bread stamps were identified and studied. Two of the stamps were of unknown provenance while the others came from al-Shuneh, D...

  1. Beneficial bread without preservatives

    OpenAIRE

    Denkova, Zapryana; Denkova, Rositsa

    2014-01-01

    Besides their inherent nutritional value functional foods contain substances that have beneficial impact on the functioning of organs and systems in the human body and reduce the risk of disease. Bread and bakery goods are basic foods in the diet of contemporary people. Preservatives are added to the composition of foods in order to ensure their microbiological safety, but these substances affect directly the balance of microflora in the tract. A great problem is mold and bacterial spoilage (...

  2. Relationship between bread and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Majem, Luis; Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada

    2015-04-01

    Some studies have indicated that promoting the Mediterranean diet pattern as a model of healthy eating may help to prevent weight gain and the development of overweight/obesity. Bread consumption, which has been part of the traditional Mediterranean diet, has continued to decline in Spain and in the rest of the world, because the opinion of the general public is that bread fattens. The present study was conducted to assess whether or not eating patterns that include bread are associated with obesity and excess abdominal adiposity, both in the population at large or in subjects undergoing obesity management. The results of the present review indicate that reducing white bread, but not whole-grain bread, consumption within a Mediterranean-style food pattern setting is associated with lower gains in weight and abdominal fat. It appears that the different composition between whole-grain bread and white bread varies in its effect on body weight and abdominal fat. However, the term 'whole-grain bread' needs to be defined for use in epidemiological studies. Finally, additional studies employing traditional ways of bread production should analyse this effect on body-weight and metabolic regulation.

  3. Mexican Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuzger, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    It was the complex and far-reaching transformation of the Mexican Revolution rather than the First World War that left its mark on Mexican history in the second decade of the 20th century. Nevertheless, although the country maintained its neutrality in the international conflict, it was a hidden theatre of war. Between 1914 and 1918, state actors in Germany, Great Britain and the United States defined their policies towards Mexico and its nationalist revolution with a view not only to improve...

  4. The influence of bread improvers and different technological parameters on bread quality

    OpenAIRE

    Duobienė, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Goal of the research: to analyse quality parameters of different types of bread, produced with or without improvers, also to evaluate intensity of microbiological spoilage of bread during storage. Results and findings: Different bread technologies have influence on bread quality parameters and in all cases bread improvers have positive influence on bread quality: „Lietuviškas ragaišis“ (Lithuanian whole wheat bread) using improvers the higher specific volume (21.27%) and porosity (9.02%...

  5. Nutritional, amylolytic enzymes inhibition and antioxidant properties of bread incorporated with Stevia rebaudiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge C; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda B; Matus-Basto, Angel J; Segura-Campos, Maira R

    2015-01-01

    Wheat bread with sucrose content replaced with different levels of stevia extract was compared with traditional wheat bread. The ability to reduce glucose intake was highlighted by performing enzymatic assays using α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was measured by determining the scavenging effect on α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical. In comparison with the control, the bread with stevia extract was softer and had lower microbial growth during the shelf-life study. The sensory test showed that the substitution of 50% stevia extract was more acceptable when comparing with all the quality characteristics. Regarding the nutritional contribution, the content of dietary fiber and digestible carbohydrates in the bread with stevia extract was higher and lower respectively, so caloric intake was significantly reduced. The results showed that the biological properties of Stevia rebaudiana extract were retained after the bread making process and that the proposed bread could be suitable as functional food in human nutrition.

  6. Proteínas del gluten y reología de trigos harineros mexicanos influeciados por factores ambientales y genotípicos Gluten proteins and rheology of Mexican bread wheats as affected by environmental and genotypic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela De la O Olán

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer el efecto de factores ambientales y genotípicos sobre los parámetros de calidad industrial y sobre la cantidad y relación de proteínas monoméricas y poliméricas del gluten en 24 líneas recombinantes de trigos harineros de temporal. El cultivo se desarrolló en cinco condiciones ambientales generadas por manejo agronómico, ciclo otoño-invierno 2006/2007, en Roque, Guanajuato, México. Se evaluaron el tiempo de amasado (TMA, fuerza (ALVW, extensibilidad (ALVPL de la masa, fracción rica en gliadina (50PS y en glutenina (50PI, y su relación (50PS/50PI. Las mejores combinaciones de gluteninas de alto y bajo peso molecular para TMA y ALVW fueron los genotipos con 1, 17+18, 5+10/Glu-A3c, Glu-B3g, Glu-D3b; 1, 17+18, 5+10/Glu-A3c, Glu-B3h, Glu-D3b, y 2*, 17+18, 5+10/Glu-A3c, Glu-B3g, Glu-D3b; para ALVPL, 2*, 17+18, 2+12/Glu-A3e, Glu-B3h, Glu-D3b; para 50PS, 2*, 17+18, 2+12/Glu-A3e, Glu-B3h, Glu-D3b; y 1, 17+18, 5+10/Glu-A3e, Glu-B3h, Glu-D3b. La relación 50PS/50PI fue mayor en genotipos con 2*, 17+18, 2+12/Glu-A3e, Glu-B3g, Glu-D3b. El TMA es mayor cuando aumenta la temperatura y la mejor ALVPL se obtiene en el ambiente bajo condiciones normales. La fracción 50PS y la relación 50PS/50PI son mayores cuando se realiza la fertilización con azufre, y se obtiene incremento de 50PI con riego limitado y aumento de temperaturas durante el llenado de grano.The objective of this study was to determine the effect of environmental and genotypic factors on industrial quality and on the monomeric and polymeric protein contents and ratio of 24 rainfed bread wheat recombinant lines. The cultivation was done in five environmental conditions generated by agronomic management in the autumn-winter 2006/2007 cycle, at Roque, Guanajuato, Mexico. The mixing time (TMA, strength (ALVW and extensibility (ALVPL of the dough, gliadin (50PS and glutenin (50PI rich fractions, and their ratio (50PS/50PI, were evaluated. The best

  7. Radioprotective effect of bread products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadzhijski, L.; Alyakov, M.; Tsvetkova, E.; Kavrakirova, S.; Chamova, S.; Vasileva, R.

    1993-01-01

    A new technology for preparation of bread for special purposes is developed. The technology includes the use of pectin as an additive with decontaminating properties. Pectin shows well pronounced radioprotective effect on the haemopoiesis when persons are subjected to external irradiation. However, bread with pectin have no decontaminating effect against radiostrontium and radiocesium. (author)

  8. ASSESSMENT OF FLOW AND TECHNOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF FRENCH BREAD PREMIXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. VALDUGA

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    In this work formulations of French bread premixes were investigated. The premixes were based on blends of Argentinean and Brazilian wheat. The bread produced with the mixtures was compared to the bread obtained with standard flour, which did not contain any additives. The flour was characterized by physico-chemical and biochemical analysis (humidity, ashes, water absorption, color, gluten index, flour strength and a-amylase activity. The bread rolls were prepared using a standard formulation (without additives and two different formulations, using ascorbic acid, a-amylase, esterlac, soybean flour and diacetyl tartaric acid emulsifier. The physico-chemical analysis results indicate that the standard flour is better than the formulations. Nevertheless bread-making tests showed that the premixes formulations have better performance concerning the specific volume and the sensory characteristics. Statistical analysis confirmed that there is a significant difference in the specific volume and the sensory characteristics between the formulations, proving that the use of additives can enhance the quality of the French bread.

  9. Texturized pinto bean protein fortification in straight dough bread formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Courtney W; Hunt-Schmidt, Emily; Simsek, Senay; Hall, Clifford; Biswas, Atanu

    2014-09-01

    Pinto beans were milled and then air-classified to obtain a raw high protein fraction (RHPF) followed by extrusion to texturize the protein fraction. The texturized high protein fraction (THPF) was then milled to obtain flour, and combined with wheat flour at 5, 10, and 15% levels to make bread. The air-classification process produced flour with high concentration of lipids and phytic acid in the protein-rich fraction. However, extrusion significantly reduced hexane extractable lipid and phytic acid. However, the reduction observed may simply indicate a reduction in recovery due to bind with other components. Total protein and lysine contents in composite flours increased significantly as THPF levels increased in composite flour. Bread made with 5% THPF had 48% more lysine than the 100 % wheat flour (control). The THPF helped to maintain dough strength by reducing mixing tolerance index (MTI), maintaining dough stability and increasing departure time on Farinograph. Bread loaf volume was significantly reduced above 5% THPF addition. THPF increased water absorption causing an increase in bread weights by up to 6%. Overall, loaf quality deteriorated at 10 and 15% THPF levels while bread with 5% THPF was not significantly different from the control. These results support the addition of 5% THPF as a means to enhance lysine content of white pan bread.

  10. BREAD CRUMBS TEXTURE OF SPELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Korczyk – Szabó

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Texture analysis is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of bread crumb is important not only for quality assurance in the bakeries, but also for assessing the effects of changes in dough ingredients and processing condition and also for describing the changes in bread crumb during storage. Crumb cellular structure is an important quality criterion used in commercial baking and research laboratories to judge bread quality alongside taste, crumb colour and crumb physical texture. In the framework of our research during the years 2010 – 2011 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Altgold, Rubiota and Ostro grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, following the AACC (74-09 standard and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%. Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Altgold and Ostro were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.65++, -0.66++. The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

  11. Substitution of wheat flour with “acha” ( Digitaria exilis ) for bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of wheat flour (WF) substitution with 'Acha' flour (AF) on the quality attributes in bread making was investigated using the following composite blends ratios 85:15, 80:20, 75:25, 70:30, 100:0 (AF) with 100% wheat flour as control. Proximate analysis on both composite flours and their bread products, as well as sensory ...

  12. Bread and Butter

    OpenAIRE

    Billington, Freya

    2014-01-01

    Bread and Butter is an experimental musical that gives voice to the unspoken dreams and desires we have to keep the lid on in the workplace...\\ud Collaboration with Jennifer Bell and The Beautiful Machine\\ud \\ud Screenings:\\ud Aesthetica Film Festival, York, UK \\ud Cambridge FIlm Festival, UK (BAFTA accredited)\\ud Kraljevski Filmski Festival, Serbia\\ud UP:SCREEN UoG Gallery Installation\\ud NY Short FilmFridays - Bahche\\ud SEIFF Film Festival, Seoul KOREA\\ud Syracuse International Film Festiva...

  13. Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory evaluation of cocoyam-wheat composite breads at different levels of cocoyam flour substitution for human consumption.A whole wheat bread (WWB) and cocoyam-composite breads (CCB1,CCB 2 and CCB 3) were prepared ...

  14. The effect of baking temperature and buckwheat flour addition on the selected properties of wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Selimović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wholegrain buckwheat flour was used to substitute 15 %, 30 % and 40 % of wheat flour to make buckwheat enriched wheat bread. Proximate composition, sensory evaluation, total phenols content and antioxidant activity of buckwheat enriched wheat breads were analysed and compared with wheat bread. Wholegrain buckwheat flour contained higher total phenols than wheat flour. The incorporation of buckwheat flour from 15 % to 40 % in bread samples increased the total phenols content from 0.25 (mg GA/g d.m. sample to 0.65 (mg GA/g d.m. sample, and antioxidant activity from 208.45 (µmol Fe2+/L extract to 354.45 (µmol Fe2+/L extract. Total phenols content decreased during the baking process, while the antioxidant activity increased. Bread samples with 15 %, 30 % and 40 % of wholegrain buckwheat flour showed lower lightness (L and whiteness index (WI values of crust and crumb colour compared to the wheat bread. Addition of buckwheat flour increased redness (a and yellowness (b colour values for crumb. Sensory results indicating that three breads with buckwheat flour were moderately acceptable. No differences were found in overall sensory attributes between buckwheat flour enriched bread samples with 15 % and wheat bread (control sample.

  15. The Effect of Emulsifier and Hydrocolloid on Baking Expansion and Texture of Bread from Modified Cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudjihastuti Isti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has a very abundant cassava that can be used instead of wheat. Bread made from cassava is safe for celiac sufferers, in which cannot tolerate a protein called gluten found in wheat flour. However, bread from cassava has the disadvantage that it cannot inflate perfectly. Our research goal is to study the effect of emulsifier and hydrocolloid concentration as modifying agents on baking expansion and bread texture (hardness. The test level hedonic preference for bread products results from modified tapioca is also necessary to know the level of customer satisfaction. This study were conducted by three main stages, modification of cassava, baking process, and analyses. Modification of cassava starch was applied using combination of lactic acid solution and ultra violet (UV irradiation. Emulsifier (DATEM and hydrocolloid (xanthan gum were used in baking process. The addition of emulsifier and hydrocolloid can improve baking expansion. The addition of 7% emulsifiers on modified cassava can increase the volume of bread, taste, and texture so it can give greater satisfaction to consumers. Hydrocolloid can replace the function of gluten so the bread can inflate perfectly. The optimal composition of modified cassava in bread making is 25% of modified cassava and 75% of wheat flour. The low value of texture (hardness on bread made from modified cassava indicated a better performance in comparison with native cassava. Baking expansion and texture of the bread is influenced by the modification process. Furthermore, the comprehensive and optimum studies of modification need to be investigated.

  16. [Why is bread consumption decreasing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, M F; Chabert, C; Serville, Y

    1977-01-01

    In France bread plays a very special and ambivalent role among our foodstuffs because of the considerable drop in its consumption, its alleged harmful effects on our health and the respect in which it is traditionally held. More than half the 1 089 adults interviewed in this study say they have decreased their consumption of bread in the last 10 years. The reasons given vary according to age, body weight and urbanization level. The main reasons given for this restriction are the desire to prevent or reduce obesity, the decrease in physical activity, the general reduction in food consumption and the possibility of diversifying foods even further. Moreover, the decreasing appeal of bread in relation to other foods, as well as a modification in the structure of meals, in which bread becomes less useful to accompany other food, accentuate this loss of attraction. However, the respect for bread as part of the staple diet remains very acute as 95 p. 100 of those interviewed express a reluctance to throw bread away, more for cultural than economic reasons. Mechanization and urbanization having brought about a decrease in energy needs, the most common alimentary adaptation is general caloric restriction by which glucids, and especially bread, are curtailed.

  17. Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Anja Niehues

    and the volatile compounds from the bread crumb were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling and analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A wide range of volatile compounds was identified in bread crumb, mainly originating from the activity of yeast and from oxidation of flour lipids. The dominating...... headspace extraction (Paper II, III and V). The compounds were evaluated according to their odour activity value (OAV). The most aroma active compounds (OAV > 6) identified in bread crumb were; (E)-2-nonanal (green, tallow), 3-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methyl-1-butanol (balsamic, alcoholic), nonanal (citrus...

  18. Rheological parameters of dough with inulin addition and its effect on bread quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojnanska, T.; Tokar, M.; Vollmannova, A.

    2015-04-01

    The rheological properties of enriched flour prepared with an addition of inulin were studied. The addition of inulin caused changes of the rheological parameters of the recorder curve. 10% and more addition significantly extended development time and on the farinogram were two peaks of consistency, what is a non-standard shape. With increasing addition of inulin resistance to deformation grows and dough is difficult to process, over 15% addition make dough short and unsuitable for making bread. Bread volume, the most important parameter, significantly decreased with inulin addition. Our results suggest a level of 5% inulin to produce a functional bread of high sensory acceptance and a level of 10% inulin produce a bread of satisfactory sensory acceptance. Bread with a level over 10% of inulin was unsatisfactory.

  19. Salt in bread - succesful?) Reduction of content in danish bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuthsen, Pia; Saxholt, Erling; Trolle, Ellen

    High intakes of sodium are associated with high blood pressure, elevated risk of cardiovascular diseases and early death. In the Nordic countries reduction of average sodium intake to about 2-2.7 g/d, or 5-7 g salt/d, is recommended. Main sources of salt in the diet are processed foods e.g. bread...... of view a gradual reduction would do in order to adapt to lower salt preference. To demonstrate a possible reduction, current salt levels must be assessed, and in the present study salt content of bread, covering Danish consumption in 2014, was investigated. When monitoring a possible trend samples...... studied must represent the current consumption. Thus getting an overview of market shares is important, and quite a challenge as selection of bread is changing continuously. A strategic sampling plan was made representing all relevant types of bread, based on information from manufacturers...

  20. The odour of white bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, E.J.

    1973-01-01

    Volatile constituents of white bread were investigated. Different methods were used for isolating and concentrating components to avoid artefacts as far as possible. Especially good was enlarged vapour analysis. Ninety-four components were identified, including hydrocarbons, alcohols,

  1. Development of semi-synthetic bread substrates for examination of bread spoilage organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enk, Michael; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1998-01-01

    Shelf life studies of bread are highly irreproducible due to the very heterogenous structure of bread and the difficulties in obtaining sterile bread. We hypothesize that novel semi-synthetic bread substrates with chemical and microbial properties similar to those of bread can be developed....... The bread based substrates can prove valuable in predicting shelf life of bread and in the routine hygienic control of bread factories.Our objective was to develop substrates with properties, which both chemically and microbiologically resembles those of dark and white bread respectively.Nineteen dark (DB......) and 19 white (WB) bread based substrates were made based on a factorial design. Lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, ethanol and glucose were added in amounts found in different brand of bread by chemical analysis. Water activity was adjusted by polyethylene glycol. The substrates were evaluated...

  2. The effect of a default-based nudge on the choice of whole wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Seijdell, Karen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2018-02-01

    Consumer choices are often influenced by the default option presented. This study examines the effect of whole wheat bread as a default option in a sandwich choice situation. Whole wheat bread consists of 100% whole grain and is healthier than other bread types that are commonly consumed, such as brown or white bread. A pilot survey (N = 291) examined the strength of combinations of toppings and bread type as carrier to select stimuli for the main study. In the main experimental study consisting of a two (bread type) by two (topping type) between-subjects design, participants (N = 226) were given a free sandwich at a university stand with either a relatively unhealthy deep-fried snack (croquette) or a healthy topping. About half of the participants were offered a whole wheat bun unless they asked for white bun, and the other half were offered a white bun unless they asked for a whole wheat bun. Regardless of the topping, the results show that when the whole wheat bun was the default option, 108 out of 115 participants (94%) decided to stick with this default option. When the default of bread offered was white, 89 out of 111 participants (80%) similarly chose to stick with this default. Across conditions, participants felt equally free to make a choice. The attractiveness of and willingness to pay for the sandwich were not affected by default type of bread. This study demonstrated a strong default effect of bread type. This clearly shows the benefit of steering consumers towards a healthier bread choice, by offering healthier default bread at various locations such as restaurants, schools and work place canteens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Baking properties of irradiated wheat flour and their effects on the quality of hard crust bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Cuquerella, J.; Granado, R.; Silvestre, J.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on rheological characteristics and baking properties of hard wheat flour were studied in the range 0,5 kGy-2,0 kGy. Different quality parameters and the staling kinetics of hard bread produced with control and irradiated flours were also evaluated. Samples were stored before and after treatment at room temperature (16 0 C-30 0 C, 60%-98% R.H.). It is possible to make hard crust bread, the main bread consumed by the Cuban people, from irradiated flour (up to 2,0 kGy) two weeks after treatment. No changes due to irradiation of the flour in quality of bread were found. The Brabender maximum viscosity and the falling number of flour decreased in irradiated samples, but these results did not affect the quality of bread produced

  4. Bread in the folk culture of the Serbs in its pan-Slavic context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenković Ljubinko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Slavs do not consider bread to be a common foodstuff, but a sacred object, a symbol of wealth and happiness. Almost all significant rituals (holidays, rites from the life cycle of a person, occasional magical activities use bread. In some of them, such as marriages or the Serbian holiday krsna slava, it is the main ritual object, which has great symbolic value. This paper addresses the use of bread in the ritual behavior of the Serbs and related peoples, where bread has the characteristics of a symbol and therefore gains a communicative function (it is used to convey or to receive information. It is also points out that the symbolic function of bread changes depending on the grain used to make it, whether it is leavened or unleavened, and the shape of it. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177022: Serbian Folk Culture Between East and West

  5. Texturized pinto bean protein fortification in straight dough bread formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto beans were milled and then air-classified to obtain a raw high protein fraction (RHPF) followed by extrusion to texturize the protein fraction. The texturized high protein fraction (THPF) was then milled to obtain flour, and combined with wheat flour at 5%, 10%, and 15% levels to make bread. A...

  6. Bread in a Bag. Teacher's Packet. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This unit is designed to familiarize students in grades 3-6 with wheat production; teach them the nutritional value of wheat products and their role in a well-balanced diet; and give then an easy, hands-on experience in bread making with a nominal amount of cleanup for teachers. The kit suggests that in the first week, teachers discuss wheat…

  7. Supplementation of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose into yeast leavened all-whole grain barley bread potentiates cholesterol-lowering effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsook; Turowski, Maciej; Anderson, W H Kerr; Young, Scott A; Kim, Yookyung; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-07-27

    We investigated in Syrian Golden hamsters the biological impact and its underlying mechanism of single whole grain breads supplemented with 2-3% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a semisynthetic viscous soluble dietary fiber (SDF) as a substitute for gluten. Hamsters were fed high-fat diets supplemented with 48-65% (w/w) differently ground, freeze-dried single grain breads including whole grain wheat, barley, barley supplemented with HPMC, debranned oat, and oat supplemented with HPMC which were compared to a diet containing microcrystalline cellulose (control). All single grain breads significantly lowered plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to the control. Enrichment with HPMC further lowered plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations. Despite the reduced molecular weight of naturally occurring soluble (1--->3),(1--->4)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan) caused by the bread-making process, whole grain barley breads downregulated hepatic expression of CYP7A1 and HMG-CoAR genes that are responsible for bile acid and cholesterol synthesis, suggesting a possible role of bioactive compounds such as short-chain fatty acids and phenolic compounds from barley bread. Barley bread enriched with HPMC downregulated expression of ABCG5 gene. Taken together, it appears that distinctive modulation of synthesis and excretion of hepatic cholesterol and bile acid contributes to the cholesterol-lowering properties of whole grain barley breads and breads enriched with HPMC. These data suggests that alternative whole grain breads supplemented with HPMC may provide consumers with a staple food that can assist in cholesterol management.

  8. Characterization of Norwegian women eating wholegrain bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Toril; Braaten, Tonje; Olsen, Anja; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri

    2015-10-01

    To investigate dietary and non-dietary characteristics of wholegrain bread eaters in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study. Cross-sectional study using an FFQ. Women were divided into two groups according to wholegrain bread consumption. Adult women (n 69 471). Median daily consumption of standardized slices of wholegrain bread was 2·5 in the low intake group and 4·5 in the high intake group. The OR for high wholegrain bread consumption was 0·28, 2·19 and 4·63 for the first, third and fourth quartile of energy intake, respectively, compared with the second quartile. Living outside Oslo or in East Norway and having a high level of physical activity were associated with high wholegrain bread consumption. BMI and smoking were inversely associated with wholegrain bread consumption. Intake of many food items was positively associated with wholegrain bread consumption (P trend food items was inversely associated with wholegrain bread consumption (P trend <0·001). The mean intakes of thiamin and Fe were higher in those with high wholegrain bread consumption, even after taking energy intake into account. Energy intake was strongly positively associated with wholegrain bread consumption. Geographical differences in wholegrain bread consumption were observed. Our study suggests that women with high wholegrain bread consumption do not generally have a healthier diet than those who eat less wholegrain bread, but that they tend to be healthier in regard to other lifestyle factors.

  9. Effect of Addition of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L. on the Quality of Protein Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed-Ahmad Bouchra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L. is an aromatic plant belonging to Apiaceae family widely cultivated elsewhere for its strongly flavoured leaves and seeds. Fennel seeds are of particular interest as a rich source of both vegetable and essential oils with high amounts of valuable components. However, residual cakes after oil extraction were typically considered as byproducts, in the present framework, the potential added value of these cakes was studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of addition of fennel cake and seeds to protein bread quality. In the current research, a single-screw extruder, which is a solvent-free technique, was used for fennel seed oil extraction. For the protein bread making, fennel seed and cake flour in concentrations from 1 to 6% were used. Moisture, colour L*a*b*, hardness, total phenolic concentration, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and nutritional value of protein bread were determined. The addition of fennel cake and seeds had significant (p < 0.05 effect on bread crumb colour and hardness attribute, whereby the bread became darker and harder in texture than the control. Moreover, higher antioxidant activity and total phenolic concentration were observed for both protein breads enriched with fennel cake and seed flour. The overall results showed that addition of fennel cake and seed had beneficial effects on phenolic concentration, antioxidant activity and quality of protein bread. This result suggests also that added value of fennel seeds oil by-products could be increased by their utilisation in bread production.

  10. Effect of green coffee extract on rheological, physico-sensory and antioxidant properties of bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkundur Vasudevaiah, A; Chaturvedi, A; Kulathooran, R; Dasappa, I

    2017-06-01

    Green coffee extract, GCE ( Coffee canephora ) was used at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% levels for making bioactive rich bread. The processed GCE from the green coffee beans had 21.42% gallic acid equivalents (GAE) total polyphenols (TPP), 37.28% chlorogenic acid (CGA) and 92.73% radical scavenging activity (RSA), at 100 ppm concentration of GCE and caffeine content (1.75%). Rheological, physico-sensory and antioxidant properties of GCE incorporated breads were analysed and compared with control bread. The results revealed not much significant change in the rheological characteristics of dough up to 1.5% level; an increase in bread volume; greenness of bread crumb and mostly unchanged textural characteristics of the bread with increased addition of GCE from 0 to 2.0%. Sensory evaluation showed that maximum level of incorporation of GCE without adverse effect on the overall quality of bread (especially taste) was at 1.5% level. The contents of TPP, RSA and CGA increased by 12, 6 and 42 times when compared to control bread and had the highest amount of 4-5 caffeoylquinic acid.

  11. Fructan content of commonly consumed wheat, rye and gluten-free breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Kevin; Abrahmsohn, Olivia; David, Gondi J P; Staudacher, Heidi; Irving, Peter; Lomer, Miranda C E; Ellis, Peter R

    2011-08-01

    Fructans are non-digestible carbohydrates with various nutritional properties including effects on microbial metabolism, mineral absorption and satiety. They are present in a range of plant foods, with wheat being an important source. The aim of the present study was to measure the fructan content of a range of wheat, rye and gluten-free breads consumed in the United Kingdom. Fructans were measured in a range of breads using selective enzymic hydrolysis and spectrophotometry based on the AOAC 999.03 method. The breads generally contained low quantities of fructan (0.61-1.94 g/100 g), with rye bread being the richest source (1.94 g/100 g). Surprisingly, gluten-free bread contained similar quantities of fructan (1.00 g/100 g) as other breads. There was wide variation in fructan content between individual brands of granary (0.76-1.09 g/100 g) and gluten-free breads (0.36-1.79 g/100 g). Although they contain only low quantities of fructan, the widespread consumption of bread may make a significant contribution to fructan intakes.

  12. Optimization of Bread Preparation from Wheat Flour and Malted Rice Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subajiny VELUPPILLAI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of partially replacing wheat flour with malted rice flour in bread making was evaluated in several formulations, aiming to find a formulation for the production of malted rice-wheat bread with better nutritional quality and consumer acceptance. The whole grains of a local rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica var. Mottaikaruppan were steeped in distilled water (12 h, 30°C and germinated for 3 days to obtain high content of soluble materials and amylase activity in bread making. The quality of bread was evaluated by considering the physical and sensorial parameters. When the wheat flour was substituted with malted rice flour, 35% substitution level and the malted rice flour from 3 days of germination was the best according to the physical and sensory qualities of bread. The quality of bread was improved by the addition of 20 g of margarine, 20 g of baking powder and 20 g of yeast in 1 kg of flour. Among different ratios of yeast and baking powder, 2:1 was the best. Bread improver containing amylases and oxidizing agents at the concentration of 40 g/kg was selected as the best concentration. When comparing the final formulation made in the bakery with wheat bread, malted rice-wheat bread contains more soluble dietary fiber (0.62%, insoluble dietary fiber (3.95%, total dietary fiber (4.57% and free amino acid content (0.64 g/kg than those in wheat bread (0.5%, 2.73%, 3.23% and 0.36 g/kg, respectively.

  13. The Effects of Ethnicity, SES, and Crime Status on Juror Decision Making: A Cross-Cultural Examination of European American and Mexican American Mock Jurors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Cynthia Willis; Espinoza, Russ K. E.; Culhane, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, a defendant's ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and crime status were varied for effects on verdict decisions, sentencing recommendations, culpability assignments, and trait assessments. In Study 1, European Americans (N = 221) provided a low SES Mexican American defendant with more guilt verdicts, a lengthier sentence, and…

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF TECHNOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT GENES AND THEIR PRODUCTS IN THE COLLECTION OF BREAD WHEAT GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Chňapek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is the second most cultivated crop on the world and is very important plant for feed not only mankind but also animals. Because of this is necessary to develop new varieties with better properties. Bread making quality of wheat grain is one of the most important paramaters for quality evaluation. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE of wheat storage proteins and allelic specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR are analysis suitable for identification, differentiation and characterization of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. There were analysed 16 genotypes of new varieties of bread wheat in our work by SDS-PAGE and obtained results were verified by AS-PCR. Analysed genotypes of bread wheat genotypes were homogenous and single line with very good bread making quality. Our results confirmed hypothesis, that cultivated bread wheat genotypes are uniformed with high production and quality but there is a risk of sensitivity to environmental conditions. SDS-PAGE analyses of wheat grain proteins are fast and not very expensive technique, which provide us information of bread making quality of grains. However, there is possibility of environmental influence on protein synthesis and because of this is necessary to couple these analysis with analysis of DNA.

  15. Consumer perception of bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Nagyová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate consumers’ perception of bread quality in Slovakia. Bread belongs to essential foodstuffs and we all have it served on our table every day.Cereal products keep their importance in people’s nutrition mainly because of their preventive effects on health. They saturate about 40 % of the daily energy need of an average European, who in ave­ra­ge acquires from cereals about 30 % of proteins, vitamin B1, niatin and phosphorus, around 1/6 of fats (out of it 19 % of linol acid, almost 60 % of saccharides, Ľ iron and about 13 % of vitamin B2 and calcium. If we add some cereal fiber which is an effective prevention factor of cardiovascular di­sea­ses, metabolic and oncological diseases of colon and anus, we will get a complex picture about positive effects of cereals in our nutrition. If we were to mark any foodstuff which has been accompanying the mankind in the course of history, it could be bread. Its consummation is spread in the whole world. Only the ones who once suffered from its lack have recognized its value.It results from our research that consumers in Slovakia prefer consuming the wheat-ray bread (38.5 %. The respondents – consumers prefer at choosing buying bread in terms of the external, subjective factors, the overall shape when choosing bread (45 % and dark color of crust (25 %. They showed minimum interest in white color crust and packaging size. In terms of the internal, objective factors, the most important factor for respondents, for women as well as for men was freshness of foodstuffs followed by fiber (with a big difference (12.82 %.Almost 60 % of bread consumers claimed that they did not have any possibility to obtain the required information regarding bread in supermarkets and hypermarkets because it is not possible to find professional staff providing them with the required information. A different situation is in the classical, small, self-service, and

  16. Willingness to use functional breads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassallo, Marco; Saba, Anna; Arvola, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The present study focused on the role of the Health Belief Model (HBM) in predicting willingness to use functional breads, across four European countries: UK (N = 552), Italy (N = 504), Germany (N = 525) and Finland (N = 513). The behavioural evaluation components of the HBM (the perceived benefits...... which was significant only in Finland. Young consumers seemed more interested in the functional bread with a health claim promoting health rather than in reducing risk of disease, whereas the opposite was true for older people. However, functional staple foods, such as bread in this European study......, are still perceived as common foods rather than as a means of avoiding diseases. Consumers seek these foods for their healthiness (the perceived benefits) as they expect them to be healthier than regular foods and for the pleasantness (the perceived barriers) as they do not expect any change in the sensory...

  17. La Artesania Mexicana (Mexican Handicrafts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Bettina

    This booklet contains instructions in English and Spanish for making eleven typical Mexican craft articles. The instructions are accompanied by pen-and-ink drawings. The objects are (1) "La Rosa" (The Rose); (2) "El Crisantemo" (The Chrysanthemum); (3) "La Amapola" (The Poppy); (4) "Ojos de Dios" (God's Eyes); (5) "Ojitos con dos caras" (Two-Sided…

  18. Traditional flat breads spread from the Fertile Crescent: Production process and history of baking systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pasqualone

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The “flat” breads include a multitude of bread types different from each other but are always relatively thin, ranging from a few millimeters to a few centimeters in thickness. These breads, whose origin is very ancient, fit well into the context of a subsistence economy: i they can be obtained from cereals other than wheat, such as pseudocereals or legumes, allowing the use of sustainable local productions from marginal lands; ii they do not necessarily require an oven to be baked; iii they can serve as a dish and as a spoon/fork; iv they can be dehydrated by a second baking process, preventing the growth of molds and extending the shelf life; v they are transported with little encumbrance. These strong points make flat breads very popular, traditionally in Near East and Central Asia and also in some Mediterranean areas, in the Arabian Peninsula, and in the Indian subcontinent. By a multidisciplinary approach, this review gives an insight into the variety of traditional flat breads from the Fertile Crescent and related regions, classifying them on the basis of their production process. Moreover, the baking systems adopted to prepare flat breads are reviewed, such as vertical ovens (tannur and tabun and griddles (saj, whose structure, origin, history, and values are described in detail. This overview shows that these breads have survived until today because of their versatility. In fact, flat breads can be produced both in the same way as they were made thousands of years ago and in modern fully automatic industrial lines, allowing tradition to meet innovation. Keywords: Flat bread, Pancake-like bread, saj, tannur, Vertical oven

  19. Maximizing the concentrations of wheat grain fructans in bread by exploring strategies to prevent their yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae )-mediated degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspreet, Joran; Hemdane, Sami; Dornez, Emmie; Cuyvers, Sven; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2013-02-13

    The degradation of endogenous wheat grain fructans, oligosaccharides with possible health-promoting potential, during wheat whole meal bread making was investigated, and several strategies to prevent their degradation were evaluated. Up to 78.4 ± 5.2% of the fructans initially present in wheat whole meal were degraded during bread making by the action of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) invertase. The addition of sucrose to dough delayed fructan degradation but had no effect on final fructan concentrations. However, yeast growth conditions and yeast genotype did have a clear impact. A 3-fold reduction of fructan degradation could be achieved when the commercial bread yeast strain was replaced by yeast strains with lower sucrose degradation activity. Finally, fructan degradation during bread making could be prevented completely by the use of a yeast strain lacking invertase. These results show that the nutritional profile of bread can be enhanced through appropriate yeast technology.

  20. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lilei; Beta, Trust

    2015-08-26

    Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g) significantly (p 0.05) decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9%) compared to the dough after mixing, but increased significantly (p bread crust demonstrated increased free (103% to 109%) but decreased bound (2% to 3%) phenolic content, whereas bread crumb exhibited a reversal of these results. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) significantly (p bread crust (0.8 to 4.4 mg cyn-3-glu equiv./100 g). p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were detected in free-phenolic extracts, while protocatechuic, caffeic syringic, and sinapic were additional acids in bound-phenolic extracts. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the detectable anthocyanin in purple wheat. Bread-making significantly (p bread.

  1. Consumer Perception of Bread Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Gellynck, Xavier; Kuhne, Bianka; Van Bockstaele, F.; Van de Walle, D.; Dewettinck, K.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate consumers’ perception of bread quality in Slovakia. Bread belongs to essential foodstuffs and we all have it served on our table every day.Cereal products keep their importance in people’s nutrition mainly because of their preventive effects on health. They saturate about 40 % of the daily energy need of an average European, who in ave­ra­ge acquires from cereals about 30 % of proteins, vitamin B1, niatin and phosphorus, around 1/6 of fats (out of it 19 % ...

  2. Mexican immigration to the US and alcohol and drug use opportunities: does it make a difference in alcohol and/or drug use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Rafful, Claudia; Benjet, Corina; Tancredi, Daniel J; Saito, Naomi; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Breslau, Joshua

    2012-09-01

    Mexican immigrants in the US do not have increased risk for alcohol use or alcohol use disorders when compared to Mexicans living in Mexico, but they are at higher risk for drug use and drug use disorders. It has been suggested that both availability and social norms are associated with these findings. We aimed to study whether the opportunity for alcohol and drug use, an indirect measure of substance availability, determines differences in first substance use among people of Mexican origin in both the US and Mexico, accounting for gender and age of immigration. Data come from nationally representative surveys in the United States (2001-2003) and Mexico (2001-2002) (combined n=3432). We used discrete time proportional hazards event history models to account for time-varying and time-invariant characteristics. The reference group was Mexicans living in Mexico without migration experience. Female immigrants were at lower risk of having opportunities to use alcohol if they immigrated after the age of 13, but at higher risk if they immigrated prior to this age. Male immigrants showed no differences in opportunity to use alcohol or alcohol use after having the opportunity. Immigration was associated with having drugs opportunities for both sexes, with larger risk among females. Migration was also associated with greater risk of using drugs after having the opportunity, but only significantly for males. The impacts of immigration on substance use opportunities are more important for drugs than alcohol. Public health messages and educational efforts should heed this distinction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quality evaluation of the sourdough rye breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIANA BANU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sourdough fermentation is a biotechnological process that has been reported to improve dough properties, to increase bread flavor and taste, to enhance nutritional value and to extend shelf life of sourdough bread. The quality of rye breads prepared with 20 and 40% sourdough, fermented with different mixed starter cultures was investigated in this study. The bread quality was evaluated in terms of specific volume, humidity, total titratable acidity, crumb characteristics and sensory profiles. Digital image analysis revealed that rye bread with 40% sourdough had a considerably denser crumb structure. Rye bread with 20% sourdough maintained superior texture characteristics over the storage period, while increasing the sourdough content to 40% had a negative effect on the texture. The sensory profiles of the bread highly depended on the type of starter cultures used for fermentation.

  4. Healthy bread initiative: methods, findings, and theories--Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei, Mohammad; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Khaje, Mohammad-Reza; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sajjadi, Firoozeh; Alikhasi, Hasan; Maghroun, Maryam; Iraji, Farhad; Ehteshami, Shahram

    2013-03-01

    The scientific evidences show that the content, baking methods, and types of bread can make health impacts. Bread, as a major part of Iranian diet, demonstrates a significant potential to be targeted as health promotion subject. Healthy Food for Healthy Communities (HFHC) was a project of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), consisting of a wide variety of strategies, like Healthy Bread (HB) Initiative. The HB Initiative was designed to improve the behaviour of both producers and consumers, mainly aiming at making high-fibre, low-salt bread, eliminating the use of baking soda, providing enough rest time for dough before baking (at least one hour), and enough baking time (at least one minute in oven). A workshop was held for volunteer bakers, and a baker-to-baker training protocol under direct supervision was designed for future volunteers. Cereal Organization was persuaded to provide less refined flour that contained more bran. Health messages in support of new breads were disseminated by media and at bakeries by health professionals. Evaluation of the HB Initiative was done using before-after assessments and population surveys. While HB was baked in 1 (0.01%) bakery at baseline, 402 (41%) bakeries in the intervention area joined the HB Initiative in 2009. Soda was completely eliminated and fibre significantly increased from 4 +/- 0.4 g% before study to 12 +/- 0.6 g% after the intervention (p bread decreased from 13 +/- 1.8 g% to 2 +/- 0.5 g% and was expressed as the most important advantage of this initiative by consumers. People who lived in Isfahan city consumed whole bread 6 times more than those who lived in reference area Arak (p breads as a healthy choice that were compatible with local dishes and made a model to solve the longstanding problems of bread. It used various health promotion approaches but was best consistent with Beattie's model.

  5. Relationship between bread consumption, body weight, and abdominal fat distribution: evidence from epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2012-04-01

    A long-standing belief held by the general public is that bread fattens. This encourages many people to restrict, or even eliminate, bread from their diet. The present review was conducted to assess whether or not eating patterns that include bread are associated with overall obesity or excess abdominal adiposity, whether in the general population or in subjects undergoing obesity management. The literature search included articles published over the past 30 years that focused on dietary patterns that included bread (refined or whole-grain) and their association with ponderal status and abdominal fat distribution. A total of 38 epidemiological studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria (22 cross-sectional, 11 prospective cohort, and five intervention). The results indicate that dietary patterns that include whole-grain bread do not positively influence weight gain and may be beneficial to ponderal status. With respect to dietary patterns that include refined bread, the majority of cross-sectional studies indicate beneficial effects, while most of the well-designed cohort studies demonstrate a possible relationship with excess abdominal fat. Because differences in the study designs make it difficult to form definitive conclusions, more studies are needed that focus specifically on bread consumption, within different dietary patterns, and its influence on ponderal status. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  6. Can bread processing conditions alter glycaemic response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Evelyn; Soong, Yean Yean; Zhou, Weibiao; Henry, Jeyakumar

    2015-04-15

    Bread is a staple food that is traditionally made from wheat flour. This study aimed to compare the starch digestibility of western baked bread and oriental steamed bread. Four types of bread were prepared: western baked bread (WBB) and oriental steamed bread (OSB), modified baked bread (MBB) made with the OSB recipe and WBB processing, and modified steamed bread (MSB) made with the WBB recipe and OSB processing. MBB showed the highest starch digestibility in vitro, followed by WBB, OSB and MSB. A similar trend was observed for glycaemic response in vivo. MBB, WBB, OSB and MSB had a glycaemic index of 75±4, 71±5, 68±5 and 65±4, respectively. Processing differences had a more pronounced effect on starch digestibility in bread, and steamed bread was healthier in terms of glycaemic response. The manipulation of processing conditions could be an innovative route to alter the glycaemic response of carbohydrate-rich foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors of Purchase of Bread – Prospect to Regain the Market Share?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Skořepa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to assess the consumers’ buying behaviour and decision-making process when purchasing bread and to propose the ways of how to improve the position of bread in the market. 1601 properly filled questionnaires were used for the analysis. Results are presented under the form of frequencies of answers and statistical tests. The analysis included evaluation of statistical hypotheses about the independence (significance level α = 0.01 using the chi-square goodness of fit test and Pearson coefficient of contingency. The significance level was then compared with the value p-value, for p-value > α, the null hypothesis was not rejected. The most important factors of choosing bread are freshness, appearance habit and price. The importance of the price grows with the increasing age of respondents and decreases with the increasing income of questioned consumers. The importance of the brand, as well as the reference or recommendation from the family and friends slightly strengthens with the increasing income of the consumers. Most of the respondents make no difference between both (yeast and rye leaven technologies of baking bread when making their buying decision. We cannot say, however, the preference to the rye leaven bread grows with the increasing age of respondents to the detriment of the yeast bread or vice versa.

  8. Mexican Parenting Questionnaire (MPQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgunseth, Linda C.; Ispa, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted in four phases and constructed a self-report parenting instrument for use with Mexican immigrant mothers of children aged 6 to 10. The 14-item measure was based on semistructured qualitative interviews with Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 10), was refined by a focus group of Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 5), and was…

  9. Bread and bullets

    OpenAIRE

    Akerlof, George A.; Snower, Dennis J.

    2016-01-01

    Standard economics omits the role of narratives (the stories that people tell themselves and others) when they make all kinds of decisions. Narratives play a role in understanding the environment; focusing attention; predicting events; motivating action; assigning social roles and identities; defining power relations; and establishing and conveying social norms. This paper describes the role narratives play in decision making, as it also juxtaposes this description against the backdrop of the...

  10. Investigations of Bread Production with Postponed Staling Applying Instrumental Measurements of Bread Crumb Color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir S. Popov

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Crumb color quality characteristics of bread of different compositions (whole grain, rye, barley and diet bread at 24 hours intervals during three days after bread preparation were investigated by means of a MOM-color 100 tristimulus photo colorimeter, in CIE, CIELab, ANLAB and Hunter systems. The highest value of average reflectance y (% was found for barley bread (immediately after preparation, so that can be said that this sample was “conditionally” the lightest. The lowest values of y (% were found for diet bread, so that it can be considered as the “conditionally” the darkest product. Colors of all investigated bread samples were lighter after three days of keeping compared to day 0. Changes of average reflectance of bread samples packed in polyethylene packaging with keeping time can be described by linear equation (correlation coefficient 0.99. The dominant wavelength of barley and diet bread confirm the presence of yellow pigment. Color qualities of the mentioned kinds of bread depend on processes during bread staling and raw material composition of bread (flour. Color quality measurements can be used as easy auxiliary method for screening in the development of slower staling bread.

  11. Multifractal characterisation and classification of bread crumb digital images

    OpenAIRE

    Baravalle, Rodrigo Guillermo; Delrieux, Claudio Augusto; Gómez, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Adequate models of the bread crumb structure can be critical for understanding flow and transport processes in bread manufacturing, creating synthetic bread crumb images for photo-realistic rendering, evaluating similarities, and establishing quality features of different bread crumb types. In this article, multifractal analysis, employing the multifractal spectrum (MFS), has been applied to study the structure of the bread crumb in four varieties of bread (baguette, sliced, bran, and sandwic...

  12. Characterization of Norwegian women eating wholegrain bread

    OpenAIRE

    Bakken, Toril; Braaten, Tonje; Olsen, Anja; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri

    2015-01-01

    Source: doi: 10.1017/S1368980015000245 To investigate dietary and non-dietary characteristics of wholegrain bread eaters in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study.Cross-sectional study using an FFQ.Women were divided into two groups according to wholegrain bread consumption.Adult women (n 69 471).Median daily consumption of standardized slices of wholegrain bread was 2·5 in the low intake group and 4·5 in the high intake group. The OR for high wholegrain bread consumption was 0·28, 2·19 and ...

  13. The Production of Synbiotic Bread by Microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedain-Ardabili, Mojan; Sharifan, Anousheh; Tarzi, Babak Ghiassi

    2016-03-01

    Bread is a global staple food. Despite attempts to develop functional breads containing viable microorganisms, this has not been done yet because of the high temperature during baking. The aim of this study is to obtain synbiotic bread, hence hamburger bun and white pan bread were selected. Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and L. casei 431 were encapsulated with calcium alginate and Hi-maize resistant starch via emulsion technique and coated with chitosan. The morphology and size of microcapsules were measured by scanning electron microscopy and particle size analyser. Inulin was added at 5% wheat flour mass basis for prebiotic effect. The encapsulated probiotics were inoculated into the bread dough and bread loaves were baked. The survival of encapsulated probiotics was determined after baking; also sensory evaluation was performed. Both types of bread met the standard criteria for probiotic products. The probiotic survival was higher in hamburger bun. L. casei 431 was more resistant to high temperature than L. acidophilus LA-5. A significant increase in probiotic survival was observed when the protective coating of chitosan was used in addition to calcium alginate and Hi-maize resistant starch. Storage for 4 days did not have any effect on the viability of encapsulated bacteria. The addition of encapsulated bacteria did not have any effect on flavour and texture; however, 5% inulin improved the texture of bread significantly. Results show that microencapsulation used in the production of synbiotic bread can enhance the viability and thermal resistance of the probiotic bacteria.

  14. The Production of Synbiotic Bread by Microencapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anousheh Sharifan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bread is a global staple food. Despite attempts to develop functional breads containing viable microorganisms, this has not been done yet because of the high temperature during baking. The aim of this study is to obtain synbiotic bread, hence hamburger bun and white pan bread were selected. Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and L. casei 431 were encapsulated with calcium alginate and Hi-maize resistant starch via emulsion technique and coated with chitosan. The morphology and size of microcapsules were measured by scanning electron microscopy and particle size analyser. Inulin was added at 5 % wheat flour mass basis for prebiotic effect. The encapsulated probiotics were inoculated into the bread dough and bread loaves were baked. The survival of encapsulated probiotics was determined after baking; also sensory evaluation was performed. Both types of bread met the standard criteria for probiotic products. The probiotic survival was higher in hamburger bun. L. casei 431 was more resistant to high temperature than L. acidophilus LA-5. A significant increase in probiotic survival was observed when the protective coating of chitosan was used in addition to calcium alginate and Hi-maize resistant starch. Storage for 4 days did not have any effect on the viability of encapsulated bacteria. The addition of encapsulated bacteria did not have any effect on flavour and texture; however, 5 % inulin improved the texture of bread significantly. Results show that microencapsulation used in the production of synbiotic bread can enhance the viability and thermal resistance of the probiotic bacteria.

  15. Free Sorting and Association Task: A Variant of the Free Sorting Method Applied to Study the Impact of Dried Sourdough as an Ingredienton the Related Bread Odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétel, Cécile; Courcoux, Philippe; Génovesi, Noémie; Rouillé, Jocelyn; Onno, Bernard; Prost, Carole

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a new variant of the free sorting method developed to analyze the relationship between dried sourdough (DSD) and corresponding DSD-bread (bread) odors. The comparison of DSD and bread sensory characteristics is complicated due to their specific features (for example, acidity for DSD and a characteristic "baked bread" aroma for breads). To analyze them at the same time, this study introduces a new variant of the free sorting method, which adds an association task between DSD and bread after those of free sorting and verbalization. This separation makes it possible to change the product between tasks. It was applied to study the impact of 6 European commercial DSDs on their related DSD-bread. According to our results, this methodology enabled an association between different kinds of products and thus underlined the relationship between them. Moreover, as this methodology contains a verbalization task, it provides product descriptions. Compared with the standard free sorting method, free sorting with an association task gives the distance (i) between DSDs, (ii) between breads, and (iii) between DSDs and breads. The separation of product assessment through sorting and association avoids the separation of products according to their category (DSD or bread). © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Bread and Butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiConsiglio, John

    2010-01-01

    Annual giving is the number one indicator that someone will make a major or planned gift. Annual funds are the meat and potatoes of fundraising. But if the annual fund has recently taken a backseat to major and megagifts, the recession made a bad situation even worse. Today, most annual fund performance indicators have plummeted. Virtually all…

  17. Formulation of yeast-leavened bread with reduced salt content by using a Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Francesca; Conte, Amalia; Di Biase, Mariaelena; Lattanzio, Veronica M T; Lonigro, S Lisa; Padalino, Lucia; Pontonio, Erica; Lavermicocca, Paola

    2017-04-15

    A Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation product (Bio21B), obtained after strain growth (14h) in a wheat flour-based medium, was applied in the bread-making process as taste enhancer, in order to obtain a yeast-leavened bread with reduced salt content (20% and 50%) with respect to a reference bread (REF) not containing the fermentation product. Sensory analysis indicated that the Bio21B bread with salt reduced by 50% had a pleasant taste similar to the salt-containing bread (REF). l-Glutamate and total free amino acid content did not differ between REF and Bio21B breads, while the acids lactic, acetic, phenyllactic, 4-OH-phenyllactic and indole-3-lactic were present only in Bio21B breads. Moreover, the presence of several umami (uridine monophosphate, inosine monophosphate, adenosine, and guanosine) and kokumi (γ-l-glutamyl-l-valine) taste-related molecules was ascertained both in REF and in Bio21B breads. Therefore, a possible role of the acidic molecules in compensating the negative perception of salt reduction can be hypothesized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A loaf of bread: Price and value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J

    1998-03-01

    In the Western world, the basic staple of nutrition is bread. It evolved, from Neolithic times in Mesopotamia and the Levant, from flour made from natural hybrids of emmer and einkorn. Its form has changed from that of a dark, coarse and heavy loaf, baked in the ashes, to the enriched artistic breads of the late twentieth century. Its variety of forms conferred status on those who ate its refined and whitened form. The wheel of fashion and nutrition has turned full circle to the quality-controlled, vitamin and mineral-enriched wholemeal loaf of the new millennium to come. Bread has changed from a staple not simply of nutrition itself, but to that of a 'functional food' whose fibre confers protection against preventible disease. The bread of the new century thus will be both a food and a medicine. So fundamental to Western life is bread, that its price has long been the last item to remain controlled, when all else is left to the dictates of a free market economy. Bread is the fundamental unit of exchange and forms the last link in a chain of commodities which starts from items of luxury to those of survival itself. The price of bread can thus be used as a currency datum. As such, the price of a loaf of bread, and the minutes of labour needed to produce it, can be used to measure the economy, and to give a measured perspective of its influence on a community's history. Costs, throughout history, can be expressed in 'bread units'. As such, the latter forms an absolute index of the worth of other items, particularly a person's labour. As such, bread and its value forms a partly independent measure of inflationary and other social influences. Bread remains a fundamental part not only of nutrition, but of life itself.

  19. Effect of water volume based on water absorption and mixing time on physical properties of tapioca starch – wheat composite bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prameswari, I. K.; Manuhara, G. J.; Amanto, B. S.; Atmaka, W.

    2018-05-01

    Tapioca starch application in bread processing change water absorption level by the dough, while sufficient mixing time makes the optimal water absorption. This research aims to determine the effect of variations in water volume and mixing time on physical properties of tapioca starch – wheat composite bread and the best method for the composite bread processing. This research used Complete Randomized Factorial Design (CRFD) with two factors: variations of water volume (111,8 ml, 117,4 ml, 123 ml) and mixing time (16 minutes, 17 minutes 36 seconds, 19 minutes 12 seconds). The result showed that water volume significantly affected on dough volume, bread volume and specific volume, baking expansion, and crust thickness. Mixing time significantly affected on dough volume and specific volume, bread volume and specific volume, baking expansion, bread height, and crust thickness. While the combination of water volume and mixing time significantly affected for all physical properties parameters except crust thickness.

  20. Screening of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Iranian sourdoughs for Antifungal Activity: Enterococcus faecium showed the Most Potent Antifungal Activity in Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Taghi-Zadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The use of antifungal lactic acid bacteria as starter for bread making could be a good alternative to improve the stability of bread shelf life.Material and Methods: In this study, a total of 57 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from spontaneously fermented wheat sourdoughs collected in Chahar-Mahalo Bakhryari province of Iran. The isolates were screened for in vitro antifungal activity (towards Aspergilus niger or Penicillium roqueforti; and the selected isolates (six isolates were applied in flat bread making. The freshly baked breads were nebulized with a suspension of either molds, containing 104 spores ml-1, and the fungal growth on breads was monitored over a 7-day storage period.Results and Conclusion: Bread produced with either isolates AN3 and MB1 (both were identified as Enterococcus faecium restrained the growth of Aspergillus niger for up to 5 days. Even though none of the isolates were strong enough to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roquforti on bread, the surface area of breads contaminated by this fungus was significantly lower than the control samples. To our knowledge, it was the first report indicating the anti-mold activity of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from sourdough. These isolates seem to be promising for further analysis and their application in bread industry for prolonging the shelf life.Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  1. 186 183 Potassium Bromate Content of Bread

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... milk or juice) fats, sugar, salt, eggs, leavening ... soluble in water and almost insoluble in alcohol. It has a vapour ... quality of bread as the main vitamins available in bread are ... metropolis are still being exposed to this toxic ...

  2. A survey of Mexican retail chain stores for fresh U.S. pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Leidenz, N; Howard, S T; Ruíz Flores, A; Ngapo, T M; Belk, K E

    2016-09-01

    An overview of fresh US pork in the Mexican market was achieved by surveying fresh US pork packages (n=342) for sale in five Mexican cities. Data on cut, primal/sub-primal from which the cut was sourced, subcutaneous and seam fat thicknesses, marbling scores, and presence of bone were collated. The most prevalent identifiable retail cuts were milanesa (thin slice of pork, breaded or non-breaded) and trozos (diced pork) derived primarily from the leg and accounting for 68% of the total US pork on sale. Over 90% of the retail cuts were trimmed to 3.2mm or less of external fat and the average marbling score was 2.26. Differences in distribution and fat measures were observed with chain, location and socio-economic status of clientele indicating potential for a targeted marketing approach in Mexico. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of a bread slicing machine from locally sourced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the development of a bread slicing machine which is a mechanical device that is used for slicing bread instead of the crude cumbersome and unhygienic method of manual slicing of bread. In an attempt to facilitate the final processing of bread which is a common daily food requirement of most Nigerians ...

  4. Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canedo, Luis

    2008-01-01

    In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years

  5. Microbiological, Nutritional, and Sensory Quality of Bread Produced from Wheat and Potato Flour Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeme Joshua Josiah Ijah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrated uncooked potato (Irish and sweet flour was blended by weight with commercial wheat flour at 0 to 10% levels of substitution to make bread. Comparative study of the microbial and nutritional qualities of the bread was undertaken. The total aerobic bacterial counts ranged from 3.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.09 × 106 cfu/g while the fungal counts ranged from 8.0 × 101 cfu/g to 1.20 × 103 cfu/g of the sample. Coliforms were not detected in the bread. Bacteria isolated were species of Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus while fungi isolates were species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Mucor. The mean sensory scores (color, aroma, taste, texture, and general acceptability were evaluated. The color of the bread baked from WF/IPF2 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5% blend was preferred to WF (wheat flour, 100% while WF/SPF1 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 100% and WF/IPF1 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 90 : 10% aroma were preferred to WF. However, the bread baked from WF, WF/IPF2 (wheat flour/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%, and WF/SPF2 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 95 : 5% was more acceptable than other blends. The use of hydrated potato flour in bread making is advantageous due to increased nutritional value, higher bread yield, and reduced rate of staling.

  6. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilei Yu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g significantly (p < 0.05 increased during mixing, fermenting, and baking (65% to 68%. Bound phenolics slightly (p > 0.05 decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9% compared to the dough after mixing, but increased significantly (p < 0.05 during 65 min fermenting and baking (16% to 27%. Their antioxidant activities followed a similar trend as observed for total phenolic content. The bread crust demonstrated increased free (103% to 109% but decreased bound (2% to 3% phenolic content, whereas bread crumb exhibited a reversal of these results. Total anthocyanin content (TAC significantly (p < 0.05 decreased by 21% after mixing; however, it gradually increased to 90% of the original levels after fermenting. Baking significantly (p < 0.05 decreased TAC by 55%, resulting in the lowest value for bread crust (0.8 to 4.4 mg cyn-3-glu equiv./100 g. p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were detected in free-phenolic extracts, while protocatechuic, caffeic syringic, and sinapic were additional acids in bound-phenolic extracts. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the detectable anthocyanin in purple wheat. Bread-making significantly (p < 0.05 increased the phenolic content and antioxidant activities; however, it compromised the anthocyanin content of purple wheat bread.

  7. [Preservation of bread and pastry products in a controlled atmosphere].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchon, P

    1978-01-01

    Industrial soft pastries and the various breads are cereals products containing a humidity which is favorable to the development of mouldiness. Different or various methods of conservation has been attempted. One interesting approach to the problem is packaging in controlled atmosphere. It requires adequate machinery and suitable conditioning materials. Jardry-Buquet and Hayssen's machines are rapidly described as well as some of the packing film used for making air-tight bags. Bad results were observed with nitrogen, argon and a mixture of nitrogen-carbon dioxide. The satisfactory results obtained with the nitrous oxide for cakes (especially fruit-cakes) and for the bread with a mixture of ethylene oxide-carbon dioxide are: a good conservation for a period of 4 to 6 months in both cases. Organoleptic qualities of the products are not significantly diminished after eight weeks of preservation. The gases contained on the bags are analysed at different periods and the progressive disappearance of the nitrous oxide as well as the athylene dioxide was measured. The compounds derivated from these gases were researched on different extracts. No derivatives of the nitrous oxide were observed. From the ethylene oxide, the derivatives found in the bread are diethylene glycol and 2-chloroethanol; their concentrations are respectively 100 and 300 ppm in the case of 85 : 15 mixture, but decrease to a mere trace and 45 ppm in the case of 98 : 2 mixture. The measure of humidity, of peroxides and of the staleness of crumb are favourable for a good conservation.

  8. Induced variability for protein content in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, N.C.; Jain, H.K.; Austin, A.

    1978-01-01

    The negative correlation observed between seed weight and percentage of protein in the seeds of bread wheat is a function of the fact that increase in seed size is commonly associated with a disproportionately large deposition of starch relative to the protein. The present study, as well as our earlier analysis, shows that exceptional genotypes of bread wheat do exist in which increase in seed weight is associated with a relatively larger synthesis of protein. In the course of the present investigation on radiation-induced variability, genotypes showing more efficient synthesis of storage proteins in their seeds have been identified in the M 2 and M 3 generations. The induced variability, thus, makes it possible to break the negative correlation between seed weight and percentage of protein in the seed. Based on these findings, it has been suggested that in a protein improvement programme on bread wheat it should be useful to select in the segregating generation plants showing increase in seed size, some of which can be expected to be relatively more efficient in protein synthesis and give higher protein yields. (author)

  9. Extrinsic labelling of zinc and calcium in bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredlund, Kerstin; Rossander-Hulthen, Lena; Isaksson, Mats; Almgren, Annette; Sandberg, A.-S.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of different means of extrinsic administration of 65 Zn and 47 Ca in white wheat flour bread on the measured absorption. Eight healthy subjects were served 80 g of labelled bread as a standardized breakfast after an overnight fast on three occasions. Extrinsic labelling of the meals with 65 Zn and 47 Ca was done in three ways: (a) by adding the isotopes to the bread 16 h before it was served, (b) by adding the isotopes shortly before serving or (c) by adding the isotopes to the water used in dough making. Zinc and calcium chloride corresponding to 3.2 mg (49 μmol) zinc and 275 mg (6.9 mmol) calcium in one portion were added to the dough. Whole-body retention was measured by whole-body counting. The fractional absorption of zinc was (a) 0.243±0.122, (b) 0.217±0.101 and (c) 0.178±0.063 (mean±SD), and the fractional absorption of calcium (expressed as calcium retention on day 7) was (a) 0.351±0.108, (b) 0.357±0.131 and (c) 0.334±0.117 (mean±SD). No significant difference (p>0.05) was seen between the different ways for either zinc nor calcium

  10. Explanatory Emotion Talk in Mexican Immigrant and Mexican American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Christi A.

    2002-01-01

    Mother-child conversations during story-telling play were analyzed for patterns of emotion talk. Subjects were 48 Mexican immigrant and Mexican American mothers and their children aged 3-4. Contrary to previous findings, Mexican immigrant mothers used more explanations of emotions than labels. Mexican American mothers used both, equally. Results…

  11. Biofortification with Iron and Zinc Improves Nutritional and Nutraceutical Properties of Common Wheat Flour and Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccolini, Valentina; Pellegrino, Elisa; Coccina, Antonio; Fiaschi, Anna Ida; Cerretani, Daniela; Sgherri, Cristina; Quartacci, Mike Frank; Ercoli, Laura

    2017-07-12

    The effect of field foliar Fe and Zn biofortification on concentration and potential bioavailability of Fe and Zn and health-promoting compounds was studied in wholemeal flour of two common wheat varieties (old vs modern). Moreover, the effect of milling and bread making was studied. Biofortification increased the concentration of Zn (+78%) and its bioavailability (+48%) in the flour of the old variety, whereas it was ineffective in increasing Fe concentration in both varieties. However, the old variety showed higher concentration (+41%) and bioavailability (+26%) of Fe than the modern one. As regard milling, wholemeal flour had higher Fe, Zn concentration and health-promoting compounds compared to white flour. Bread making slightly change Fe and Zn concentration but greatly increased their bioavailability (77 and 70%, respectively). All these results are of great support for developing a production chain of enriched functional bread having a protective role against chronic cardio-vascular diseases.

  12. Effect of Aspergillus niger xylanase on dough characteristics and bread quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Ahmed, Anwaar; Riaz, Muhammad; Sabir, Syed Mubashar; Farooq, Umar; Rehman, Fazal Ur

    2014-10-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of various treatments of xylanase produced by Aspergillus niger applied in bread making processes like during tempering of wheat kernels and dough mixing on the dough quality characteristics i.e. dryness, stiffness, elasticity, extensibility, coherency and bread quality parameters i.e. volume, specific volume, density, moisture retention and sensory attributes. Different doses (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1,000 IU) of purified enzyme were applied to 1 kg of wheat grains during tempering and 1 kg of flour (straight grade flour) during mixing of dough in parallel. The samples of wheat kernels were agitated at different intervals for uniformity in tempering. After milling and dough making of both types of flour (having enzyme treatment during tempering and flour mixing) showed improved dough characteristics but the improvement was more prominent in the samples receiving enzyme treatment during tempering. Moreover, xylanase decreased dryness and stiffness of the dough whereas, resulted in increased elasticity, extensibility and coherency and increase in volume & decrease in bread density. Xylanase treatments also resulted in higher moisture retention and improvement of sensory attributes of bread. From the results, it is concluded that dough characteristics and bread quality improved significantly in response to enzyme treatments during tempering as compared to application during mixing.

  13. The Mexican American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Helen

    The purpose of this paper, prepared for the U. S. Commission on Civil Rights, is to indicate the types and ranges of problems facing the Mexican American community and to suggest ways in which these problems are peculiar to Mexican Americans. Specific examples are cited to illustrate major problems and personal experiences. Topics covered in the…

  14. Mexican Perspectives on Mexican-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    while serving in the United States military, working in the Bracero program and in American factories. By working with Americans, Mexicans learned that...Mexican government blames the problem on the United States. During the history of the Bracero Program (1942 -1964) 4.6 million Mexicans traveled to...and became familiar to Mexican migrants.ŕ The termination of the Bracero Program did not discourage Mexican agricultural workers from entering the

  15. Soluble and cell wall-bound phenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers in rye flour and five bread model systems: insight into mechanisms of improved availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynkowska, Wioletta M; Cyran, Malgorzata R; Ceglińska, Alicja

    2015-03-30

    The bread-making process influences bread components, including phenolics that significantly contribute to its antioxidant properties. Five bread model systems made from different rye cultivars were investigated to compare their impact on concentration of ethanol-soluble (free and ester-bound) and insoluble phenolics. Breads produced by a straight dough method without acid addition (A) and three-stage sourdough method with 12 h native starter preparation (C) exhibited the highest, genotype-dependent concentrations of free phenolic acids. Dough acidification by direct acid addition (method B) or by gradual production during prolonged starter fermentation (24 and 48 h, for methods D and E) considerably decreased their level. However, breads B were enriched in soluble ester-bound fraction. Both direct methods, despite substantial differences in dough pH, caused a similar increase in the amount of insoluble ester-bound fraction. The contents of phenolic fractions in rye bread were positively related to activity level of feruloyl esterase and negatively to those of arabinoxylan-hydrolysing enzymes in wholemeal flour. The solubility of rye bread phenolics may be enhanced by application of a suitable bread-making procedure with respect to rye cultivar, as the mechanisms of this process are also governed by a response of an individual genotype with specific biochemical profile. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Two resistant starches applied in bread

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šárka, E.; Kubová, M.; Wiege, I.; Horák, Pavel; Smrčková, P.; Dvořáček, V.; Chena, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2017), s. 67-72 ISSN 1212-1800 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : bread * additives * Mixolab Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 0.787, year: 2016

  17. Decrease of bacterial spoilage of bread by low-dose irradiation of its flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Andrassy, E.

    1981-01-01

    A variant of Bacillus subtilis causing the ''rope'' defect of bread was isolated from spoiled bread and the heat resistance of its spores was investigated in a liquid medium similar in its composition to the soluble part of the bread dough. The spores almost completely survived a 64-min heat treatment at 25 0 C and only slightly more than one log-cycle destruction was observed after 30 min at 99.5 0 C. The radiation destruction of freeze-dried spores proved to be exponential in the 0 - 8.0 kGy dose range studied, and it showed a D 10 value of 1.9 kGy. Gamma irradiation considerably decreased the heat resistance of the surviving spores against moist heat. The dormancy of spores was also significantly decreased, by 1.0 kGy or higher doses. Baking trials were performed with untreated and irradiated (0.75 and 1.5 kGy) flour samples within two weeks and after two months of post-irradiation storage of wheat flour. The shelf-life of bread prepared from irradiated flour was longer by 50% than that of the control at 30 0 C. Development of surviving ''ropy'' spores into colonies inside the bread proved to be easily detectable by triphenyl-tetrazolium-chloride on the basis of their dehydrogenase activity. The favourable microbiological effect of radiation treatment of wheat flour did not diminish during its two-month post-irradiation storage. Organoleptic quality of the flour and that of the bread were not affected by the 0.75 kGy dose. Off-flavour formation was induced by the 1.5 kGy dose, which diminished, however, in the bread-making procedure. (author)

  18. Make

    CERN Document Server

    Frauenfelder, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The first magazine devoted entirely to do-it-yourself technology projects presents its 29th quarterly edition for people who like to tweak, disassemble, recreate, and invent cool new uses for technology. MAKE Volume 29 takes bio-hacking to a new level. Get introduced to DIY tracking devices before they hit the consumer electronics marketplace. Learn how to build an EKG machine to study your heartbeat, and put together a DIY bio lab to study athletic motion using consumer grade hardware.

  19. Healthy Bread Initiative: Methods, Findings, and Theories—Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei, Mohammad; Khaje, Mohammad-Reza; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sajjadi, Firoozeh; Alikhasi, Hasan; Maghroun, Maryam; Iraji, Farhad; Ehteshami, Shahram

    2013-01-01

    The scientific evidences show that the content, baking methods, and types of bread can make health impacts. Bread, as a major part of Iranian diet, demonstrates a significant potential to be targeted as health promotion subject. Healthy Food for Healthy Communities (HFHC) was a project of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), consisting of a wide variety of strategies, like Healthy Bread (HB) Initiative. The HB Initiative was designed to improve the behaviour of both producers and consumers, mainly aiming at making high-fibre, low-salt bread, eliminating the use of baking soda, providing enough rest time for dough before baking (at least one hour), and enough baking time (at least one minute in oven). A workshop was held for volunteer bakers, and a baker-to-baker training protocol under direct supervision was designed for future volunteers. Cereal Organization was persuaded to provide less refined flour that contained more bran. Health messages in support of new breads were disseminated by media and at bakeries by health professionals. Evaluation of the HB Initiative was done using before-after assessments and population surveys. While HB was baked in 1 (0.01%) bakery at baseline, 402 (41%) bakeries in the intervention area joined the HB Initiative in 2009. Soda was completely eliminated and fibre significantly increased from 4±0.4 g% before study to 12±0.6 g% after the intervention (p<0.001). The preparation and baking times remarkably increased. Wastage of bread decreased from 13±1.8 g% to 2±0.5 g% and was expressed as the most important advantage of this initiative by consumers. People who lived in Isfahan city consumed whole bread 6 times more than those who lived in reference area Arak (p<0.001). The HB Initiative managed to add new breads as a healthy choice that were compatible with local dishes and made a model to solve the long-standing problems of bread. It used various health promotion approaches but was best consistent with Beattie's model. PMID

  20. Development and analysis of composite flour bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Lakshmi; Majumdar, Swarnali Dutta; Ravi, Usha

    2015-07-01

    The study elucidates the effect of utilizing cereal-pulse-fruit seed composite flour in the development and quality analysis of leavened bread. The composite flour was prepared using refined wheat flour (WF), high protein soy flour (SF), sprouted mung bean flour (MF) and mango kernel flour (MKF). Three variations were formulated such as V-I (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 85:5:5:5), V-II (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 70:10:10:10), and V-III (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 60:14:13:13). Pertinent functional, physico-chemical and organoleptic attributes were studied in composite flour variations and their bread preparations. Physical characteristics of the bread variations revealed a percentage decrease in loaf height (14 %) and volume (25 %) and 20 % increase in loaf weight with increased substitution of composite flour. The sensory evaluation of experimental breads on a nine-point hedonic scale revealed that V-I score was 5 % higher than the standard bread. Hence, the present study highlighted the nutrient enrichment of bread on incorporation of a potential waste material mango kernel, soy and sprouted legume. Relevant statistical tests were done to analyze the significance of means for all tested parameters.

  1. Decision Profiles of Mexican-Descent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Georgianne

    An exploratory study of decision-making in families of Mexican heritage was carried out in Phoenix, Arizona. A Normative model of decision rationality and measurement (Family Problem Instrument-FPI) was adapted from previous research. Tape-recorded data were provided by 27 families. Husbands and wives responded separately to family decision…

  2. Bread Wheat Quality: Some Physical, Chemical and Rheological Characteristics of Syrian and English Bread Wheat Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abboud Al-Saleh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between breadmaking quality, kernel properties (physical and chemical, and dough rheology were investigated using flours from six genotypes of Syrian wheat lines, comprising both commercially grown cultivars and advanced breeding lines. Genotypes were grown in 2008/2009 season in irrigated plots in the Eastern part of Syria. Grain samples were evaluated for vitreousness, test weight, 1000-kernel weight and then milled and tested for protein content, ash, and water content. Dough rheology of the samples was studied by the determination of the mixing time, stability, weakness, resistance and the extensibility of the dough. Loaf baking quality was evaluated by the measurement of the specific weight, resilience and firmness in addition to the sensory analysis. A comparative study between the six Syrian wheat genotypes and two English flour samples was conducted. Significant differences were observed among Syrian genotypes in vitreousness (69.3%–95.0%, 1000-kernel weight (35.2–46.9 g and the test weight (82.2–88.0 kg/hL. All samples exhibited high falling numbers (346 to 417 s for the Syrian samples and 285 and 305 s for the English flours. A significant positive correlation was exhibited between the protein content of the flour and its absorption of water (r = 0.84 **, as well as with the vitreousness of the kernel (r = 0.54 *. Protein content was also correlated with dough stability (r = 0.86 **, extensibility (r = 0.8 **, and negatively correlated with dough weakness (r = −0.69 **. Bread firmness and dough weakness were positively correlated (r = 0.66 **. Sensory analysis indicated Doumah-2 was the best appreciated whilst Doumah 40765 and 46055 were the least appreciated which may suggest their suitability for biscuit preparation rather than bread making.

  3. Bread Wheat Quality: Some Physical, Chemical and Rheological Characteristics of Syrian and English Bread Wheat Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Abboud; Brennan, Charles S

    2012-11-22

    The relationships between breadmaking quality, kernel properties (physical and chemical), and dough rheology were investigated using flours from six genotypes of Syrian wheat lines, comprising both commercially grown cultivars and advanced breeding lines. Genotypes were grown in 2008/2009 season in irrigated plots in the Eastern part of Syria. Grain samples were evaluated for vitreousness, test weight, 1000-kernel weight and then milled and tested for protein content, ash, and water content. Dough rheology of the samples was studied by the determination of the mixing time, stability, weakness, resistance and the extensibility of the dough. Loaf baking quality was evaluated by the measurement of the specific weight, resilience and firmness in addition to the sensory analysis. A comparative study between the six Syrian wheat genotypes and two English flour samples was conducted. Significant differences were observed among Syrian genotypes in vitreousness (69.3%-95.0%), 1000-kernel weight (35.2-46.9 g) and the test weight (82.2-88.0 kg/hL). All samples exhibited high falling numbers (346 to 417 s for the Syrian samples and 285 and 305 s for the English flours). A significant positive correlation was exhibited between the protein content of the flour and its absorption of water (r = 0.84 **), as well as with the vitreousness of the kernel (r = 0.54 *). Protein content was also correlated with dough stability (r = 0.86 **), extensibility (r = 0.8 **), and negatively correlated with dough weakness (r = -0.69 **). Bread firmness and dough weakness were positively correlated (r = 0.66 **). Sensory analysis indicated Doumah-2 was the best appreciated whilst Doumah 40765 and 46055 were the least appreciated which may suggest their suitability for biscuit preparation rather than bread making.

  4. Non-Conventional Yeast Strains Increase the Aroma Complexity of Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Steensels, Jan; Courtin, Christophe M.; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is routinely used yeast in food fermentations because it combines several key traits, including fermentation efficiency and production of desirable flavors. However, the dominance of S. cerevisiae in industrial fermentations limits the diversity in the aroma profiles of the end products. Hence, there is a growing interest in non-conventional yeast strains that can help generate the diversity and complexity desired in today’s diversified and consumer-driven markets. Here, we selected a set of non-conventional yeast strains to examine their potential for bread fermentation. Here, we tested ten non-conventional yeasts for bread fermentation, including two Saccharomyces species that are not currently used in bread making and 8 non-Saccharomyces strains. The results show that Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces bayanus combine satisfactory dough fermentation with an interesting flavor profile. Sensory analysis and HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis confirmed that these strains produce aroma profiles that are very different from that produced by a commercial bakery strain. Moreover, bread produced with these yeasts was preferred by a majority of a trained sensory panel. These results demonstrate the potential of T. delbrueckii and S. bayanus as alternative yeasts for bread dough leavening, and provide a general experimental framework for the evaluation of more yeasts and bacteria. PMID:27776154

  5. Non-Conventional Yeast Strains Increase the Aroma Complexity of Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Herrera-Malaver, Beatriz; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Steensels, Jan; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is routinely used yeast in food fermentations because it combines several key traits, including fermentation efficiency and production of desirable flavors. However, the dominance of S. cerevisiae in industrial fermentations limits the diversity in the aroma profiles of the end products. Hence, there is a growing interest in non-conventional yeast strains that can help generate the diversity and complexity desired in today's diversified and consumer-driven markets. Here, we selected a set of non-conventional yeast strains to examine their potential for bread fermentation. Here, we tested ten non-conventional yeasts for bread fermentation, including two Saccharomyces species that are not currently used in bread making and 8 non-Saccharomyces strains. The results show that Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces bayanus combine satisfactory dough fermentation with an interesting flavor profile. Sensory analysis and HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis confirmed that these strains produce aroma profiles that are very different from that produced by a commercial bakery strain. Moreover, bread produced with these yeasts was preferred by a majority of a trained sensory panel. These results demonstrate the potential of T. delbrueckii and S. bayanus as alternative yeasts for bread dough leavening, and provide a general experimental framework for the evaluation of more yeasts and bacteria.

  6. Non-Conventional Yeast Strains Increase the Aroma Complexity of Bread.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Aslankoohi

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is routinely used yeast in food fermentations because it combines several key traits, including fermentation efficiency and production of desirable flavors. However, the dominance of S. cerevisiae in industrial fermentations limits the diversity in the aroma profiles of the end products. Hence, there is a growing interest in non-conventional yeast strains that can help generate the diversity and complexity desired in today's diversified and consumer-driven markets. Here, we selected a set of non-conventional yeast strains to examine their potential for bread fermentation. Here, we tested ten non-conventional yeasts for bread fermentation, including two Saccharomyces species that are not currently used in bread making and 8 non-Saccharomyces strains. The results show that Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces bayanus combine satisfactory dough fermentation with an interesting flavor profile. Sensory analysis and HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis confirmed that these strains produce aroma profiles that are very different from that produced by a commercial bakery strain. Moreover, bread produced with these yeasts was preferred by a majority of a trained sensory panel. These results demonstrate the potential of T. delbrueckii and S. bayanus as alternative yeasts for bread dough leavening, and provide a general experimental framework for the evaluation of more yeasts and bacteria.

  7. [Inactivating Effect of Heat-Denatured Lysozyme on Murine Norovirus in Bread Fillings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Michiko; Yasuda, Yuka; Takahashi, Hajime; Takeuchi, Akira; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the viability of murine norovirus strain 1 (MNV-1), a surrogate for human norovirus, in bread fillings used for making stuffed buns and pastries. The inactivating effect of heat-denatured lysozyme, which was recently reported to have an antiviral effect, on MNV-1 contaminating the bread fillings was also examined. MNV-1 was inoculated into two types of fillings (chocolate cream, marmalade jam) at 4.5 log PFU/g, and the bread fillings were stored at 4℃ for 5 days. MNV-1 remained viable in the bread fillings during storage. However, addition of 1% heat-denatured lysozyme to the fillings resulted in a decrease of MNV-1 infectivity immediately after inoculation, in both fillings. On the fifth day of storage, MNV-1 infectivity was decreased by 1.2 log PFU/g in chocolate cream and by 0.9 log PFU/g in marmalade jam. Although the mechanism underlying the anti-norovirus effect of heat-denatured lysozyme has not been clarified, our results suggest that heat-denatured lysozyme can be used as an inactivating agent against norovirus in bread fillings.

  8. L-CYSTEINE INFLUENCE ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BREAD FROM HIGH EXTRACTION FLOURS WITH NORMAL GLUTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Stoica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing agents like L-cysteine are used in bread baking of strong flours, with short gluten to reduce mixing andfermentation time. The aim of this study is to determine if L-cysteine may be an improving agent for the quality of breadobtained from high extraction flours with normal gluten.The tested high extraction flour was analyzed by determination of several quality indicators such as wet gluten content,gluten deformation index, moisture, ash, Falling Number index and alveogram parameters of dough. The resultsindicate that flour has a normal gluten network, is “good” for bread making and has a normal α-amylase activity.After its addition to dough, L-cysteine improves the physical properties of bread made with high extraction flour. Theobserved increase for bread volume was maximum 10%, for porosity maximum 5,75% and for elasticity maximum2,58%, comparing with reference bread.The proposed solution can be assimilated into pan bread making technology.

  9. The effect of water volume and mixing time on physical properties of bread made from modified cassava starch-wheat composite flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirejeki, S.; Manuhara, G. J.; Amanto, B. S.; Atmaka, W.; Laksono, P. W.

    2018-03-01

    Modification of cassava starch with soaking in the whey (by product on cheese production) resulted in changes of the flour characteristics. Adjustments of processing condition are important to be studied in the making of bread from modified cassava starch and wheat composite flour (30:70). This research aims to determine the effect of water volume and mixing time on the physical properties of the bread. The experimental design of this research was Completely Randomized Factorial Design (CRFD) with two factors which were water volume and mixing time. The variation of water volume significantly affected on bread height, dough volume, dough specific volume, and crust thickness. The variation of mixing time had a significant effect on the increase of dough volume and dough specific volume. The combination of water volume and mixing time had a significant effect on dough height, bread volume, bread specific volume, baking expansion, and weight loss.

  10. Quality characteristics of bread produced from wheat, rice and maize flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sweta; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Baljit; Minhas, K S

    2012-12-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) flour and maize (Zea mays) meal substitution in wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour, from 0 to 100% each, for the production of bread was investigated. The proximate analysis, pasting properties, bread making qualities of raw materials and sensory evaluation of the bread samples were determined. The pasting temperature increased with increased percentage of rice flour and maize meal. But the other pasting characters decreased with the higher proportion of rice flour. The baking absorption was observed to increase with higher level of maize meal but it decreased when level of rice flour was increased. Loaf weight (g) decreased with progressive increase in the proportion of maize meal but increased when rice flour incorporation was increased. Loaf volume, loaf height and specific volume decreased for progressively higher level of maize meal and rice flour. The sensory evaluation revealed that 25% replacement of wheat flour was found to be more acceptable than control sample.

  11. Addition of chia seed mucilage for reduction of fat content in bread and cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sibele Santos; Salas-Mellado, Myriam de Las Mercedes

    2017-07-15

    In this study, breads and chocolate cakes were prepared with different levels of chia mucilage dried at 50°C or lyophilized as fat, resulting in healthier products. Results indicated that breads and chocolate cakes made with chia mucilage can replace up to 50% of fat without affecting the technological and physical characteristics. The replacement of 75% of fat, for both types of mucilage, had a significant reduction in fat content of 56.6% in breads and 51.6% in cakes, producing a slight decrease in the technological characteristics of the products. Sensorial parameters showed good acceptability, with greater purchase intent for both products when added with chia mucilage dried at 50°C. Therefore, chia mucilage proved to be a new alternative for replacing fat in food products, preserving the quality attributes and making them healthier foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship of molecular weight distribution profile of unreduced gluten protein extracts with quality characteristics of bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Nisha; Dangi, Priya; Khatkar, B S

    2016-11-01

    A statistical correlation was established among the molecular weight distribution patterns of unreduced gluten proteins and physicochemical, rheological and bread-making quality characteristics of wheat varieties. Size exclusion chromatography fractionated the gluten proteins apparently into five peaks. Peak I signified glutenins (30-130kDa), peak II as gliadins (20-55kDa), peak III as very low molecular weight monomeric gliadins (10-28kDa), peak IV and V, collectively, as albumins and globulins (bread loaf volume (r=0.848(∗∗)); however, peak II had negative (r=-0.818(∗∗)) impact. Bread firmness increased with increment in peak II (r=0.625(∗∗)), and decreased with accretion in peak I (r=-0.623(∗∗)). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Managing of the baking bread process based on mathematical model of change crust color dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bitjukov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article a support system of making decision about control of baking process of bread on the basis of estimating the quality ( the colors of the product surface and the mathematical model of the dynamics of change in this indicator is offered.

  14. Evidence of intralocus recombination at the Glu-3 loci in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The low-molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) are a class of wheat seed storage proteins that play a critical role in the determination of wheat flour bread-making quality. These proteins are encoded by multigene families located at the orthologous Glu-3 loci (Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3), on t...

  15. Preparation of gluten-free bread using a meso-structured whey protein particle system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsdijk, van L.E.; Goot, van der A.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a novel method for making gluten-free bread using mesoscopically structured whey protein. The use of the meso-structured protein is based on the hypothesis that the gluten structure present in a developed wheat dough features a particle structure on a mesoscopic length scale

  16. Physico-Chemical Analysis and Sensory Evaluation of Bread

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shuaibu et al.

    Physico-Chemical Analysis and Sensory Evaluation of Bread Produced Using ... analysis of the bread samples revealed that the moisture content ..... 72. Jarup, L. ,2003. Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Br Med. Bull; 68, pp.167-82.

  17. Staling of wheat bread stored in modified atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Hansen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Modified atmosphere packing (MAP) of bread is known to extend the microbial shelf-life. However, the effect of MAP on staling of bread is more questionable, and conflicting results are reported in the literature. To investigate the effect of BT AP, wheat bread was packed in modified atmosphere...... containing 100% CO2 and in a mixture gas of 50% CO2 and 50% N-2, respectively. The control bread was packed in atmospheric air. No significant effects of MAP were found during storage of bread for 7 days at 20 degreesC compared to control bread. when changes in bread firmness and starch retrogradation...... measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used as parameters for the staling rates. Ira addition, no significant differences were obtained in firmness between bread stored in 100% CO,, and in the mixture gas of CO2 and N-2 after 7 and 14 days, respectively. The present study thus...

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF ALPHA AMYLASE ON THE QUALITY OF BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA CHEREJI

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the quality of bread obtained from the control sample flour (M and the quality of bread obtained from flour with addition of 3 different percentages of alpha amylase (P1-280000 U.SKB/ 100kg flour; P2-560000 U.SKB/ 100kg flour;P3-840000 U.SKB/ 100kg flour. Fungal alpha amylase was used in these concentrations in order to establish which one is the most suitable to be added in flour in order to obtain superior quality characteristics for bread: superior volume of bread, finer texture of the bread, prolonging the freshness of the bread, improving the color and flavor of the bread, improving the slicing proprieties of the bread.

  19. Impact of Added Colored Wheat Bran on Bread Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka Machálková; Marie Janečková; Luděk Hřivna; Yvona Dostálová; Joany Hernandez; Eva Mrkvicová; Tomáš Vyhnánek; Václav Trojan

    2017-01-01

    The impact of colored wheat bran addition on bread quality was tested on wheat varieties with purple pericarp (Konini, Rosso and Karkulka) and on a variety containing blue aleurone (Skorpion). The effect of 10 %, 15 % and 20 % bran addition on sensory evaluation, bread color and texture was compared to the characteristics of bread prepared from wheat variety Mulan. The addition of 10 % bran significantly increased the sensory evaluation scores of bread. Crumb characteristics were improved mai...

  20. 21 CFR 136.130 - Milk bread, rolls, and buns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk bread, rolls, and buns. 136.130 Section 136.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....130 Milk bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods milk bread, milk rolls, and milk buns conforms...

  1. Everyone Eats Bread: A Multicultural Unit for First Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanus, Betty J.; Kerst, Catherine H.

    This multicultural teaching unit was developed and tested with the first grade classes of Glenhaven Elementary School, Wheaton, Maryland. The lessons focus on bread as a common food in the world but explores the many types of bread and its symbolism. The unit is divided into four parts. Part 1, "Introduction to Bread," contains lessons…

  2. Milling overrides cultivar, leavening agent and baking mode on chemical and rheological traits and sensory perception of durum wheat breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; Saia, Sergio; Beleggia, Romina; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Giovanniello, Valentina; De Vita, Pasquale

    2017-10-19

    Smell and aroma are important determinants of consumer acceptance, so gaining deeper insight into bread smell and aroma perception is a research goal. Sixteen combinations of four variables were investigated, to evaluate the contributions of bread chemical and rheological properties and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) towards sensory acceptability of breads: genotypes (landrace vs. modern); types of flour (wholemeal vs. semolina); leavening agents (brewing yeast vs. sourdough starter); and baking modes (gas-fired vs. wood-fired). Milling had the greatest impact over the other treatments for the rheological and chemical properties, including for VOCs, with great impact on the sensory traits of the flours and breads. The processing phases had great impact on smell and aroma, as defined through formation of alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, and other compounds (e.g., ethylbenzene, 2-pentylfuran, methoxyphenyl oxime). Leavening agent had great impact on sensory perception, although breads from the sourdough starter were perceived as with lower taste and colour than the brewing yeast. Baking mode had no relevant role on sensory perception. These data strongly undermine the belief of a 'better product' that is frequently attributed to old genotypes versus modern cultivars, and indicate that the milling and the bread-making processes determine the quality of the end product.

  3. Fundamental Study on the Impact of Gluten-Free Starches on the Quality of Gluten-Free Model Breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W. Horstmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Starch is widely used as an ingredient and significantly contributes to texture, appearance, and overall acceptability of cereal based foods, playing an important role due to its ability to form a matrix, entrapping air bubbles. A detailed characterisation of five gluten-free starches (corn, wheat, rice, tapioca, potato was performed in this study. In addition, the influence of these starches, with different compositional and morphological properties, was evaluated on a simple gluten-free model bread system. The morphological characterisation, evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, revealed some similarities among the starches, which could be linked to the baking performance of the breads. Moreover, the lipid content, though representing one of the minor components in starch, was found to have an influence on pasting, bread making, and staling. Quality differences in cereal root and tuber starch based breads were observed. However, under the baking conditions used, gluten-free rendered wheat starch performed best, followed by potato starch, in terms of loaf volume and cell structure. Tapioca starch and rice starch based breads were not further analysed, due to an inferior baking performance. This is the first study to evaluate gluten-free starch on a simple model bread system.

  4. Gluten characteristics imparting bread quality in wheats differing for high molecular weight glutenin subunits at Glu D1 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Devinder; Gupta, Raj Kumar

    2015-07-01

    High yielding genotypes differing for high molecular weight glutenin subunits at Glu D1 locus in national wheat programme of India were examined for bread loaf volume, gluten and protein contents, gluten strength, gluten index and protein-gluten ratio. Number of superior bread quality genotypes in four agro-climatically diverse zones of Indian plains was comparable in both categories of wheat i.e., 5 + 10 and 2 + 12. There wasn't any difference in average bread loaf volume and grain protein content either. 5 + 10 wheats showed better gluten strength and their gluten quality was also superior in the zones where protein content was high. 2 + 10 wheats exerted more gluten due to better protein-gluten ratio. Good bread making in 5 + 10 was derived by better gluten strength and also gluten quality in certain regions but bread quality in 2 + 12 wheats was channelized through higher gluten content as they were more efficient in extracting gluten from per unit protein. Difference in route to bread quality was apparent as gluten content and gluten strength were the key gluten attributes in 5 + 10 whereas protein content and gluten index were prominent in 2 + 12 types. Unlike 2 + 12, there was a ceiling in gluten harvest of 5 + 10 wheats as higher protein failed to deliver more gluten after some limit.

  5. Studies on Production of Arabic Bread From Irradiated and Stored Potato Flour as Partial Substitute of Wheat Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kuraieef, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate Arabic bread produced from potato flour and wheat flour. Potato flour was prepared from Diamont cultivar of potato tubers after irradiation with 50 and 150 Gy. The ratios of potato flour were 5, 10 and 15% and the flour was stored for six months and taken for analysis every three months. Amino acids, protein, carbohydrate, baking and staling tests were applied to study the effect of adding potato flour extracts from tubers of non-irradiated and irradiated potato to wheat flour in Arabic bread making. Amino acids in potato and wheat were studied. The flour of wheat was found to be poor in lysine while potato flour contained about twice of these amino acids. Protein content was decreased with increasing the ratios of potato flour. The addition of potato flour to the Arabic bread increased the percentage of essential amino acids. Moreover, the addition of potato flour during storage periods had an improving effect on the quality of Arabic bread. Water retention capacity (the staling rate) was increased progressively with increasing the percentage as potato flour in the bread which was effective in keeping bread fresh and organoleptic properties

  6. Effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. by-product on the quality and total phenol content of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroua Boubaker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Legume flours, due to their phenol and fibre content, are ideal ingredients for improving the nutritional value of bakery products. In this study, artichoke stem powder (ASP was used to substitute 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% of wheat flour for making breads. Proximate composition of wheat flour and ASP were determined. Bread qualities and total phenols content were analyzed and compared with those of wheat bread. Results show that ASP contained 10.37% moisture, 10.28% ash, 11.53% protein, 0.86% fat, 51.29% fibre and 1350 mg EAG/100g d.m. ASP addition considerably modified the bread quality: altered appearance and texture, darker crumb and more intense odour were observed. From the sensory evaluation, tastes of bread with higher content of ASP (7.5 and 10% were the most acceptable for assessors. Total phenol contents of breads significantly increased with the addition of ASP. Therefore ASP may be considered as valuable ingredients for industrial manufacture of functional foods.

  7. Glycaemic indices of three Sri Lankan wheat bread varieties and a bread-lentil meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiaratchi, U P K; Ekanayake, S; Welihinda, J

    2009-01-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) concept ranks individual foods and mixed meals according to the blood glucose response. Low-GI foods with a slow and prolonged glycaemic response are beneficial for diabetic people, and several advantages have been suggested also for non-diabetic individuals. The recent investigations imply an increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Sri Lanka. Thus, the present study was designed primarily to determine the glycaemic indices of some bread varieties in Sri Lanka as bread has become a staple diet among most of the urban people. A second objective was to observe the effects of macronutrients and physicochemical properties of starch on GI. Glycaemic responses were estimated according to FAO/WHO guidelines and both glucose and white bread were used as standards. Non-diabetic individuals aged 22-30 years (n=10) participated in the study. The test meals included white sliced bread, wholemeal bread, ordinary white bread and a mixed meal of wholemeal bread with lentil curry. The GI values (+/-standard error of the mean) of the meals were 77+/-6, 77+/-6, 80+/-4, 61+/-6, respectively (with glucose as the standard). The GI values of the bread varieties or the meal did not differ significantly (P >0.05). However, the meal can be categorized as a medium-GI food while the other bread varieties belong to the high-GI food group. A significant negative correlation was obtained with protein (P=0.042) and fat (P=0.039) contents of the food items and GI. Although the GI values of the foods are not significantly different, the inclusion of lentils caused the GI to decrease from a high-GI category to a medium-GI category. According to the present study, a ratio of 1.36 can be used to interconvert the GI values obtained with the two standards.

  8. Bread consumption patterns in a Swedish national dietary survey focusing particularly on whole-grain and rye bread

    OpenAIRE

    Sandvik, Pernilla; Kihlberg, Iwona; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Marklinder, Ingela; Nydahl, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bread types with high contents of whole grains and rye are associated with beneficial health effects. Consumer characteristics of different bread consumption patterns are however not well known.Objective: To compare bread consumption patterns among Swedish adults in relation to selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors. For selected consumer groups, the further aim is to investigate the intake of whole grains and the context of bread consumption, that i...

  9. POSSIBILITIES OF UTILIZATION OF LEFTOVER BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZVONKO B. NJEŽIĆ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Food production is a top priority issue, as the lack of food for the continuously growing population is becoming an increasing problem in the world and in Serbia as well. Increase of food production for humans and animals can be achieved by use of new technologies in biotechnology, i.e. in bioindustry. Nowadays, there are many different ways for thermal processing of cereals: toasting, extrusion, hydrothermal processing, micronization, microwave treat-ment, while in Serbia, the most frequently used processes are extrusion and hydrothermal processing. The baking industry is highly developed in Serbia. Bread consumption per capita in Serbia is far above average consumption in the EU. According to the survey conducted, there is a significant amount of leftover bread in Serbia. Leftover bread represents an environmental problem, but also a potentially valuable raw material for human food and animal feed.

  10. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli; Koehorst, Martijn; Holst, Jens J; Deacon, Carolyn F; Rehfeld, Jens F; Poutanen, Kaisa; Vonk, Roel J; Oudhuis, Lizette; Priebe, Marion G

    2015-10-01

    Postprandial high glucose and insulin responses after starchy food consumption, associated with an increased risk of developing several metabolic diseases, could possibly be improved by altering food structure. We investigated the influence of a compact food structure; different wheat products with a similar composition were created using different processing conditions. The postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response to bread with a compact structure (flat bread, FB) was compared to bread with a porous structure (control bread, CB) in a randomized, crossover study with ten healthy male volunteers. Pasta (PA), with a very compact structure, was used as the control. The rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE), endogenous glucose production, and glucose clearance rate (GCR) was calculated using stable isotopes. Furthermore, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, several intestinal hormones and bile acids were analyzed. The structure of FB was considerably more compact compared to CB, as confirmed by microscopy, XRT analysis (porosity) and density measurements. Consumption of FB resulted in lower peak glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (ns) responses and a slower initial RaE compared to CB. These variables were similar to the PA response, except for RaE which remained slower over a longer period after PA consumption. Interestingly, the GCR after FB was higher than expected based on the insulin response, indicating increased insulin sensitivity or insulin-independent glucose disposal. These results demonstrate that the structure of wheat bread can influence the postprandial metabolic response, with a more compact structure being more beneficial for health. Bread-making technology should be further explored to create healthier products.

  11. Applications of Active Packaging in Breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Göncü

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes on consumer preferences lead to innovations and improvements in new packaging technologies. With these new developments passive packaging technologies aiming to protect food nowadays have left their place to active and intelligent packaging technologies that have other various functions beside protection of food. Active packaging is defined as an innovative packaging type and its usage increases the shelf life of food significantly. Applications of active packaging have begun to be used for packaging of breads. In this study active packaging applications in breads have been reviewed.

  12. Bread consumption patterns in a Swedish national dietary survey focusing particularly on whole-grain and rye bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Pernilla; Kihlberg, Iwona; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Marklinder, Ingela; Nydahl, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    Background Bread types with high contents of whole grains and rye are associated with beneficial health effects. Consumer characteristics of different bread consumption patterns are however not well known. Objective To compare bread consumption patterns among Swedish adults in relation to selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors. For selected consumer groups, the further aim is to investigate the intake of whole grains and the context of bread consumption, that is, where and when it is consumed. Design Secondary analysis was performed on bread consumption data from a national dietary survey (n=1,435). Respondents were segmented into consumer groups according to the type and amount of bread consumed. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to study how selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors were associated with the consumer groups. Selected consumption groups were compared in terms of whole-grain intake and consumption context. Consumption in different age groups was analysed more in detail. Results One-third of the respondents consumed mainly white bread. Socio-demographic, geographic, and healthy-lifestyle-related factors were associated with the bread type consumed. White bread consumption was associated with younger age groups, less education, children in the family, eating less fruit and vegetables, and more candy and snacks; the opposite was seen for mainly whole-grain bread consumers. Older age groups more often reported eating dry crisp bread, whole-grain bread, and whole-grain rye bread with sourdough whereas younger respondents reported eating bread outside the home, something that also mainly white bread eaters did. Low consumers of bread also consumed less whole grain in total. Conclusions Traditional bread consumption structures were observed, as was a transition among young consumers who more often consumed fast food bread and bread outside the home, as well as less rye and whole

  13. Bread consumption patterns in a Swedish national dietary survey focusing particularly on whole-grain and rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Pernilla; Kihlberg, Iwona; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Marklinder, Ingela; Nydahl, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    Bread types with high contents of whole grains and rye are associated with beneficial health effects. Consumer characteristics of different bread consumption patterns are however not well known. To compare bread consumption patterns among Swedish adults in relation to selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors. For selected consumer groups, the further aim is to investigate the intake of whole grains and the context of bread consumption, that is, where and when it is consumed. Secondary analysis was performed on bread consumption data from a national dietary survey (n=1,435). Respondents were segmented into consumer groups according to the type and amount of bread consumed. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to study how selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors were associated with the consumer groups. Selected consumption groups were compared in terms of whole-grain intake and consumption context. Consumption in different age groups was analysed more in detail. One-third of the respondents consumed mainly white bread. Socio-demographic, geographic, and healthy-lifestyle-related factors were associated with the bread type consumed. White bread consumption was associated with younger age groups, less education, children in the family, eating less fruit and vegetables, and more candy and snacks; the opposite was seen for mainly whole-grain bread consumers. Older age groups more often reported eating dry crisp bread, whole-grain bread, and whole-grain rye bread with sourdough whereas younger respondents reported eating bread outside the home, something that also mainly white bread eaters did. Low consumers of bread also consumed less whole grain in total. Traditional bread consumption structures were observed, as was a transition among young consumers who more often consumed fast food bread and bread outside the home, as well as less rye and whole-grain bread. Target groups for communication strategies

  14. Bread consumption patterns in a Swedish national dietary survey focusing particularly on whole-grain and rye bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Sandvik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bread types with high contents of whole grains and rye are associated with beneficial health effects. Consumer characteristics of different bread consumption patterns are however not well known. Objective: To compare bread consumption patterns among Swedish adults in relation to selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors. For selected consumer groups, the further aim is to investigate the intake of whole grains and the context of bread consumption, that is, where and when it is consumed. Design: Secondary analysis was performed on bread consumption data from a national dietary survey (n=1,435. Respondents were segmented into consumer groups according to the type and amount of bread consumed. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to study how selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors were associated with the consumer groups. Selected consumption groups were compared in terms of whole-grain intake and consumption context. Consumption in different age groups was analysed more in detail. Results: One-third of the respondents consumed mainly white bread. Socio-demographic, geographic, and healthy-lifestyle-related factors were associated with the bread type consumed. White bread consumption was associated with younger age groups, less education, children in the family, eating less fruit and vegetables, and more candy and snacks; the opposite was seen for mainly whole-grain bread consumers. Older age groups more often reported eating dry crisp bread, whole-grain bread, and whole-grain rye bread with sourdough whereas younger respondents reported eating bread outside the home, something that also mainly white bread eaters did. Low consumers of bread also consumed less whole grain in total. Conclusions: Traditional bread consumption structures were observed, as was a transition among young consumers who more often consumed fast food bread and bread outside the home, as well as

  15. Studies on the effect of brown rice and maize flour on the quality of bread

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M.Z; Shams, M.

    2011-01-01

    Breads were prepared with various combinations of maize, brown rice and wheat flours in the basic formulation of bread. The baking properties and chemical composition of bread were evaluated and analysed, respectively. The bread volume decreased, where as bread weight and moisture content increased with the increasing level of maize and brown rice flour. The crumb and crust colour of breads were improved with addition of 8% maize and 8% brown rice flour in bread formulation. The protein conte...

  16. Control of mixing step in the bread production with weak wheat flour and sourdough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Parenti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several old Italian grain varieties have been reinstated, and the market seems to reward the breads made with these flours. Among such varieties, cultivar Verna appears to be interesting because the regular consumption of bread obtained by this variety and sourdough provides beneficial effects on human health such as the improving of the lipid, inflammatory, and hemorheological profiles. However, flours derived from Verna shows low technological performances. For example, the W value of these flours, obtained with alveoghraphic tests and considered as the commercial standard for the flour “strength” evaluation, is largely inferior than the W values of the commercial flour blends currently used in the bread making process. Moreover, the W values broadly change among the batches of Verna flours, whereas, usually, commercial blends are provided to bakeries with standard technological properties. Hence, these properties of Verna flour could lead to developed or overworked doughs and therefore to breads of worse quality. In addition, the previous mentioned large variability of flours from Verna can affect also the sourdough microbiota. For these reasons the composition and activity of the sourdough microorganisms should be controlled while the mixing process should be able to adapt to the different flour properties. Some works, in literature, report that monitoring the electrical consumption could provide useful information about the dough rheology, and this could be used to monitor the mixing step. In the present work the effect of different mixing times are evaluated on breads made with Verna flour type 2 leavened with sourdough. Tests were carried out at industrial scale in two different days. During the tests the electric consumption was monitored to highlight some features suitable for the mixing phase control. The breads were evaluated in terms of loaf volume measurement, crumb image analysis and losses of moisture content during

  17. Activation of waste brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Stevan D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The waste brewer's yeast S. cerevisiae (activated and non-activated was compared with the commercial baker's yeast regarding the volume of developed gas in dough, volume and freshness stability of produced bread. The activation of waste brewer's yeast resulted in the increased volume of developed gas in dough by 100% compared to non-activated brewer's yeast, and the obtained bread is of more stable freshness compared to bread produced with baker's yeast. The activation of BY affects positively the quality of produced bread regarding bread volume. The volume of developed gas in dough prepared with the use of non-activated BY was not sufficient, therefore, it should not be used as fermentation agent, but only as an additive in bread production process for bread freshness preservation. Intense mixing of dough results in more compressible crumb 48 hrs after baking compared to high-speed mixing.

  18. Toma de decisiones en las Pymes Mexicanas: El valor de la estratégico de un simulador presupuestario de tipo Industrial (Decision making on mexican SME’S: The strategic value of an industrial type budget simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Espinosa Mosqueda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available En la Grecia clásica, la excelencia del ciudadano consistía en el cultivo de tres virtudes específicas: forta- leza, templanza y la dicaiosine o justicia. Estas virtudes formaban un ciudadano relevante, útil y espléndido. Platón añadió una cuarta virtud, la prudencia, el hábito cualidad del hegemone, el conductor, el guía y también el comandante del ejército, el líder. A estos se instruía para saber juzgar sobre un problema o un caso concreto, así como para dirigir estratégicamente. Extrapolado al mundo empresarial actual, se convierte en la destreza o capacidad para la toma de decisiones. En concordancia, aquí se presenta un instrumento de apoyo en la toma de decisiones, diseñado para los directivos de las PYMES industriales mexicanas, el cual está fundado en el modelo Costo-Volumen-Utilidad (CVU. El“Simulador Presupuestario para PYMES del Sector Industrial”, aplicado en veintitrés giros indus- triales de la zona Laja-Bajío, en el Estado de Guanajua- to, demostró ampliamente su confiabilidad al permitir al directivo, emprendedor o desarrollador de empresas visualizar de una forma documentada su actuar en los negocios. El simulador puede ser adaptado y adoptado para otros ramos y latitudes, con lo cual el empresario PYME tendrá una ventaja competitiva.   Abstract In classic Greece, a citizen’s excellence was measured by his fostering of three specific virtues: fortitude, temperance and dicaiosine or justice. These virtues formed a relevant, utile and splendid citizen. Plato added a fourth virtue, prudence, a quality attributed to the hegemone, the driver, the guide, the military commander, the leader. They were taught to judge quickly on a concrete problem or case, as well as to strategically lead. Extrapolating this concept to the current world, it becomes the ability or capacity to make decisions.Accordingly, a support instrument for decision making is presented here, designed for managers of Mexican industrial

  19. Application of model bread baking in the examination of arabinoxylan-protein complexes in rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buksa, Krzysztof

    2016-09-05

    The changes in molecular mass of arabinoxylan (AX) and protein caused by bread baking process were examined using a model rye bread. Instead of the normal flour, the dough contained starch, water-extractable AX and protein which were isolated from rye wholemeal. From the crumb of selected model breads, starch was removed releasing AX-protein complexes, which were further examined by size exclusion chromatography. On the basis of the research, it was concluded that optimum model mix can be composed of 3-6% AX and 3-6% rye protein isolate at 94-88% of rye starch meaning with the most similar properties to low extraction rye flour. Application of model rye bread allowed to examine the interactions between AX and proteins. Bread baked with a share of AX, rye protein and starch, from which the complexes of the highest molar mass were isolated, was characterized by the strongest structure of the bread crumb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Maillard reaction products in bread: A novel semi-quantitative method for evaluating melanoidins in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, Cynthia; Jacolot, Philippe; Niquet-Léridon, Céline; Gadonna-Widehem, Pascale; Tessier, Frédéric J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the methods currently in use and to develop a new protocol for the evaluation of melanoidins in bread. Markers of the early and advanced stages of the Maillard reaction were also followed in the crumb and the crust of bread throughout baking, and in a crust model system. The crumb of the bread contained N(ε)-fructoselysine and N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine but at levels 7 and 5 times lower than the crust, respectively. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural was detected only in the crust and its model system. The available methods for the semi-quantification of melanoidins were found to be unsuitable for their analysis in bread. Our new method based on size exclusion chromatography and fluorescence measures soluble fluorescent melanoidins in bread. These melanoidin macromolecules (1.7-5.6 kDa) were detected intact in both crust and model system. They appear to contribute to the dietary fibre in bread. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nudging children towards whole wheat bread: a field experiment on the influence of fun bread roll shape on breakfast consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Vrijhof, Milou; Polet, Ilse A; Vingerhoeds, Monique H; de Wijk, René A

    2014-09-02

    Many children do not eat enough whole grains, which may have negative health consequences. Intervention research is increasingly focusing on nudging as a way to influence food choices by affecting unconscious behavioural processes. The aim of this field study was to examine whether the shape of bread rolls is able to shift children's bread choices from white to whole wheat during breakfast to increase whole grain intake. In a between-subjects experiment conducted at twelve primary schools in the Netherlands, with school as the unit of condition assignment, children were exposed to an assortment of white and whole wheat bread rolls, both varying in shape (regular versus fun). Children were free to choose the type and number of bread rolls and toppings to eat during breakfast. Consumption of bread rolls was measured at class level via the number of bread rolls before and after breakfast. In addition, children (N = 1113) responded to a survey including questions about the breakfast. Results of the field experiment showed that about 76% of bread consumption consisted of white bread rolls. Consumption of white bread rolls did not differ according to shape (all P-values > 0.18). However, presenting fun-shaped whole wheat bread rolls almost doubled consumption of whole wheat bread (P = 0.001), particularly when the simultaneously presented white bread rolls had a regular shape (interaction P = 0.02). Survey results suggest that slight increases in perceived pleasure and taste are associated with these effects. Overall, presenting whole wheat bread in fun shapes may be helpful in increasing consumption of whole wheat bread in children. Future research could examine how improving the visual appeal of healthy foods may lead to sustained behaviour changes.

  2. What's Values Got to Do with It? Thriving among Mexican/Mexican American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Consoli, Melissa L.; Llamas, Jasmín; Consoli, Andrés J.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined traditional Mexican/Mexican American and perceived U.S. mainstream cultural values as predictors of thriving. One hundred twenty-four (37 men, 87 women) self-identified Mexican/Mexican American college students participated in the study. The traditional Mexican/Mexican American cultural values of family support and religion…

  3. Evaluation of sourdoughs for the production of bread using spontaneous fermentation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krischina Singer Aplevicz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study developed three sourdoughs using sugarcane, apple and grape as substrate. The fermentative activity and physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the sourdoughs and breads were evaluated. Among the breads that were prepared using different sourdoughs, that which was made from grape sourdough presented high pH (4.30 and less acidity (2.99 mL 0.1N 100 g-1. The grape sourdough was selected for research because it presented the highest fermentation volume and because it was the most preferred in the sensory analysis. The aerobic lactic acid bacteria count at 30°C was 7.52 log CFU g-1 and yeast count was 7.62 log CFU g-1. After one year of cultivation, the aerobic lactic acid bacteria increased by 1.34 logarithmic cycles at a temperature of30°C and the yeasts were reduced by 0.61 logarithmic cycles. The results of this study indicate that the use of different substrates in the preparation of sourdoughs provides breads with different sensory characteristics. Although it is an old process, the application of the spontaneous fermentation technique in bread making is still much used in view of the demand for products with the specific characteristics of this type of fermentation.

  4. Impact of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolites produced during fermentation on bread quality parameters: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Mareile; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke

    2018-05-03

    Although bread making with the use of Baker's yeast has a long tradition in human history, little attention has been paid to the connection between yeast addition and the final bread quality. Nowadays, bakers mainly use different flour additives such as enzymes (amylases, hemicellulases, and proteases) to change and improve dough properties and/or bread quality. Another strategy is the use of modified industrial Baker's yeast. To date, there is no yeast strain used in the baking industry, which is genetically modified, despite some studies demonstrating that the application of recombinant DNA technology is a possibility for improved strains suitable for baking. However, due to the fact that the majority of consumers in Europe highly reject the use of genetically modified microorganisms in the production of food, other strategies to improve bread quality must be investigated. Such a strategy would be a reconsideration of the selection of yeast strains used for the baking process. Next to the common criteria, the requirement for adequate gas production, more attention should be paid on how yeast impacts flavor, shelf life, color, and the nutritional value of baked products, in a similar way to which yeast strains are selected in the wine and brewing industries.

  5. Viscoelastic properties of tablets from Osborne fractions, pentosans, flour and bread evaluated by creep tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante-Aburto, Anayansi; de Dios Figueroa-Cárdenas, Juan; Véles-Medina, José Juan; Ponce-García, Néstor; Hernández-Estrada, Zorba Josué; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; Simsek, Senay

    2017-07-01

    Little attention has been given to the influence of non-gluten components on the viscoelastic properties of wheat flour dough, bread making process and their products. The aim of this study was to evaluate by creep tests the viscoelastic properties of tablets manufactured from Osborne solubility fractions (globulins, gliadins, glutenins, albumins and residue), pentosans, flour and bread. Hard and soft wheat cultivars were used to prepare the reconstituted tablets. Sintered tablets (except flour and bread) showed similar values to those obtained from the sum of the regression coefficients of the fractions. Gliadins and albumins accounted for about 54% of the total elasticity. Gliadins contributed with almost half of the total viscosity (45.7%), and showed the highest value for the viscosity coefficient of the viscous element. When the effect of dilution was evaluated, the residue showed the highest instantaneous elastic modulus (788.2 MPa). Retardation times of the first element (λ1 3.5 s) were about 10 times lower than the second element (λ2 39.3 s). The analysis of compliance of data corrected by protein content in flour showed that the residue fraction presented the highest values. An important contribution of non-gluten components (starch, albumins and globulins) on the viscoelastic performance of sintered tablets from Osborne fractions, flour and bread was found.

  6. Lactobacillus brevis-based bioingredient inhibits Aspergillus niger growth on pan bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariaelena Di Biase

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bread shelf life is generally compromised by fungi mainly belonging to Aspergillus and Penicillium genera, which colonise the surface of the product within few days from the production. The aim of this study was to select a Lactobacillus brevis-based bioingredient (LbBio able to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus niger ITEM5132 on pan bread in order to prolong its shelf life. Four LbBio formulations, obtained by growing a selected L. brevis strain in a flour-based medium containing different carbon sources or acid precursors (fructose, LbBio1; fructose and maltose, LbBio2; α-chetoglutaric acid, LbBio3; short-chain fructooligosaccharides, LbBio4, were evaluated for their content of organic acids (lactic, acetic, propionic, phenyllactic, 4-hydroxy-phenyllactic, valeric, isovaleric acids. The LbBio formulations were applied in yeast-leavened bread during bread-making trials and the resulting products were inoculated after baking with A. niger spore’s suspension and the fungal growth was monitored during storage (25°C for 6 days. The formulation showing the highest inhibitory activity was separated by ultra-filtration method, and whole and fractions obtained were evaluated for their in vitro activity. The fraction showing the highest activity was further separated by gel-filtration and the resulting products were investigated for their protein content and in vitro inhibition. The results from the bread-making trials performed using different formulations of LbBio showed a delay in fungal growth (1 day respect to the bread not containing the bioingredient (control or including calcium propionate (0.3% w/w. The formulation LbBio2, prepared with fructose and maltose 1% (w/vol, contained the highest amount of total organic acids, including phenyllactic and hydroxyl-phenyllactic acids, and reduced the visual spoilage of bread. This formulation was separated by ultra-filtration and fractions containing metabolites with molecular weight higher than 30 k

  7. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF WARANKASHI ENRICHED BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Dudu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine the microbiological and nutritional quality, organoleptic, rheological and textural effect as well as the effect on the shelf life of wheat bread enriched with West African cottage cheese (warankashi at different substitution levels (1 %, 3 % and 5 %. The protein and fat content of wheat bread significantly increased but carbohydrate levels decreased significantly as enrichment with Warankashi increased. The amino acid profile of the wheat bread increased with increasing enrichment. The incorporation of Warankashi into wheat flour affected the rheological and textural properties of wheat flour; the rate of water absorption of the wheat flour decreased as Warankashi incorporation levels increased. Also, the dough stability time of the enriched flours was lesser than that of the wheat flour. The 3 % enrichment level had the highest dough consistency (520 BU. The extensibility of 1 % and 3 % wara bread dough were the same while that of wheat flour bread and 5 % Warankashi were the same. The 3 % wara bread dough had the highest resistance to extension. Shelf life of the bread remained unaffected by Warankashi incorporation but the rate of bacteria and fungi (yeast and mould growth decreased significantly (P < 0.05 as enrichment levels increased. There was no significant difference between the organoleptic properties of wheat bread to that of the enriched breads but the 3 % Warankshi enriched bread had the highest consumer acceptability.

  8. Quality of wholemeal wheat bread enriched with green coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Gawlik-Dziki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific studies have revealed that bioactive components of coffee play a preventive role against various degenerative diseases. Green coffee, in particular, is characterized by its unique composition and properties. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of green coffee (Coffea arabica beans (GCB addition on the quality and antioxidant properties (AA of the wholemeal bread. For bread preparation, flour form GCB, and wholemeal wheat flour, type 2000 were used. Wholemeal wheat flour was replaced with GCB flour at 1 to 5% levels. Loaf volume, texture, color and sensory properties of bread were determined. Furthermore, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were evaluated. The results showed that bread supplementation with GCB had little influence on the bread volume. The highest volume of bread was obtained with 3 and 4% of GCB flour. The texture properties of bread crumb (hardness, elasticity, cohesiveness and chewiness were slightly changed as a result of the GCB addition. The lightness of bread crumb decreased with the GCB addition (average from 46.3 to 42.6. Besides, the addition of GCB significantly enriched wheat bread with hydrophilic phenolic compounds. The phenolic compounds were highly bioaccessible in vitro. Moreover, the GCB addition enhanced antiradical activity of bread.

  9. Development of soy-based bread with acceptable sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovski, B; Seetharaman, K; Duizer, L M

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of soy protein has been associated with benefits related to numerous areas of health. Due to the widespread consumption of bread, one means of contributing to the health of individuals is through the incorporation of soy protein into bread. To this end, soy flour (SF) or soy protein isolates (SPIs) in 20% and 12% substitution levels, respectively, were added to flour during bread manufacture. The developed breads were tested using a consumer panel for acceptability, using a refined white bread as a control. These data were compared to attribute intensity data collected by the trained panel to identify specific flavor and texture characteristics affecting liking. The sensory profile of the 20% SF bread was acceptable and comparable to the control bread, despite a significantly stronger beany flavor. No significant differences in sensory properties of the SF and control breads were detected by the trained panel for many sensory attributes. The SPI bread, however, had a sensory profile that was significantly more firm, dense, sour, beany, bitter, and astringent with a strong aftertaste in comparison to the wheat control bread. Consumer liking scores for the SPI bread was significantly lower than the liking of the control and the SF added bread. Many soy-enriched foods, while contributing positively to health, are considered unacceptable by consumers. This is due to negative sensory properties, such as beany, painty, and astringent notes, often perceived by consumers. This study provides information on the level of SF that can be included in bread in an amount that does not detract from consumer acceptability. This level also allows for a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) health claim to be made. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Consumer detection and acceptability of reduced-sodium bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Croix, Kimberly W; Fiala, Steven C; Colonna, Ann E; Durham, Catherine A; Morrissey, Michael T; Drum, Danna K; Kohn, Melvin A

    2015-06-01

    Bread is the largest contributor of Na to the American diet and excess Na consumption contributes to premature death and disability. We sought to determine the Na level at which consumers could detect a difference between reduced-Na bread and bread with typical Na content, and to determine if consumer sensory acceptability and purchase intent differed between reduced-Na bread and bread with typical Na content. Difference testing measured ability to detect differences in control bread and reduced-Na bread using two-alternative forced choice testing. Acceptability was measured using a nine-point hedonic scale and purchase intent was measured using a five-point purchase intent scale. Difference and acceptability testing were conducted in Portland, OR, USA in January 2013. Eighty-two consumers participated in difference testing and 109 consumers participated in acceptability testing. Consumers did not detect a difference in saltiness between the control bread and the 10 % reduced-Na bread, but did detect a difference between the control bread and bread reduced in Na content by 20 % and 30 %. Na reductions had no effect on consumer acceptability of sensory characteristics, including overall liking, appearance, aroma, flavour, sweetness, salt level and texture, or purchase intent. Reducing Na levels by up to 30 % in the sandwich bread tested did not affect consumer liking or purchase intent of the product. These results support national recommendations for small, incremental Na reductions in the food supply over time and assure bread manufacturers that sensory characteristics and consumer purchase intent of their products will be preserved after Na reductions occur.

  11. Mexican Identification. Project Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Rita

    This document presents an outline and teacher's guide for a community college-level teaching module in Mexican identification, designed for students in introductory courses in the social sciences. Although intended specifically for cultural anthropology, urban anthropology, comparative social organization and sex roles in cross-cultural…

  12. Effect of potato (Solanum tuberosum addition on dough properties, sensory qualities and resistant starch content of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lidia IANCU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the effects of adding different varieties of boiled potatoes-pasta (PP, Impala (I and Orchestra (O, to wheat flour in bread making. These potato varieties were used to replace wholemeal 1250 type flour (F1 and hard wheat semolina flour (F2 in different concentrations: 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%. The rheological properties of dough with added potato were assessed by means of the flour-graphic technique. The study also determined the amount of resistant starch (RS, non-resistant starch (n-RS, total starch (TS and moisture content of the potato bread. The results showed that the water absorption (WA in the potato dough containing salt and yeast decreased by 28.8% (F2-I-PP, and by 41.2% (F1-I-PP respectively. The same happened with the dough development time, dough stability and quality number. We found out that the degree of dough softening was increased, as was the moisture content of the bread, which went from 47.7% (O-PP-F2 to 50.3% (I-PP-F1. The level of the ten analyzed sensory properties led to the conclusion that, by adding up to 20% PP, we enhance the bread quality. The RS content increased by 5.1 g/100 g d.m. for F1 bread for the 30% (O-PP-F2 potato content batch. In F2 bread, the RS content increased by up to 5.11g/100 g d.m. for the 30% (O-PP-F2 potato content batch. Given the method of analysis, RS may be a mixture of RS2 (natural granule starch and RS3 (retrograde or non crystalline retrograde. Therefore, potato bread is very healthy and recommended for its nutritional benefits.

  13. The role of familism in weight loss treatment for Mexican American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Elizabeth A; Campos-Melady, Marita; Smith, Jane Ellen; Serier, Kelsey N; Belon, Katherine E; Simmons, Jeremiah D; Kelton, Katherine

    2017-10-01

    Mexican American women are disproportionately affected by overweight/obesity and the health complications accompanying them, but weight loss treatments are less successful in this ethnic group. High levels of familism, a value reflecting obligation to family that supersedes attention to oneself, interfere with weight loss for Mexican American women. This mixed methods study investigated overweight Mexican American women's beliefs about how familism, and Mexican American culture, might hinder weight loss success, and how treatments might be culturally adapted. Results suggest a need to support women in their commitment to family while also helping them make changes. Recommendations for culturally adapted treatments are made.

  14. Effect of Lactobacillus casei- casei and Lactobacillus reuteri on acrylamide formation in flat bread and Bread roll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastmalchi, Farnaz; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Faraji, Mohammad; Labbafi, Mohsen

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) contains lactobacillus (L.) casei- casei and L. reuteri on acrylamide formation and physicochemical properties of the Iranian flat bread named, Sangak, and Bread roll. Sangak and Bread roll were made with whole and white wheat flour, respectively. Whole-wheat flour had upper content of protein, sugar, ash, fiber, damaged starch and the activity of amylase than the white wheat flour. After 24 h of fermentation, the pH values of the sourdoughs made from whole-wheat flour (3.00, 2.90) were lower, in compared to sourdoughs prepared from white wheat flour (3.60, 3.58). In addition, in Sangak bread, glucose, and fructose were completely utilized after fermentation, but in bread roll, the reduced sugar levels increased after fermentation and baking that represent microorganisms cannot be activated and utilized sugars. Acrylamide formation was impacted by pH of sourdough and total reducing sugar (r = 0.915, r = 0.885 respectively). Bread roll and Sangak bread were fermented by L. casei- casei contained lowest acrylamide content, in two bread types (219.1, 104.3 μg/kg respectively). As an important result, the acrylamide content of Sangak bread in all cases was lower than in the Bread roll.

  15. Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part II: Breads Not Containing Oil as an Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Ranawana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes the second part of a study investigating the effect of adding vegetables on the nutritional, physico-chemical, and oxidative properties of wheat bread, and specifically focuses on bread that does not contain oil as an added ingredient. Wheat flour breads fortified with freeze-dried carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were developed and assessed for their nutritional composition, antioxidant potential, oxidative stability, and storage properties. Using a simulated in vitro model, the study also examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables improved the nutritional and functional attributes of the oil-free breads. However, they demonstrated a lower antioxidant potential compared to their oil-containing counterparts. Similarly, the textural and storage properties of the oil-free vegetable breads were poorer compared to the oil-containing breads. As expected, in the absence of oil the oil-free breads were associated with lower lipid oxidation both in their fresh form and during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables reduced protein oxidation in the fresh oil-free breads but had no effect during gastro-intestinal digestion. The impact of vegetables on macronutrient oxidation in the oil-free breads during digestion appears to be vegetable-specific with broccoli exacerbating it and the others having no effect. Of the evaluated vegetables, beetroot showed the most promising nutritional and physico-chemical benefits when incorporated into bread that does not contain added oil.

  16. Kinetics of the crust thickness development of bread during baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani Pour-Damanab, Alireza; Jafary, A; Rafiee, Sh

    2014-11-01

    The development of crust thickness of bread during baking is an important aspect of bread quality and shelf-life. Computer vision system was used for measuring the crust thickness via colorimetric properties of bread surface during baking process. Crust thickness had a negative and positive relationship with Lightness (L (*) ) and total color change (E (*) ) of bread surface, respectively. A linear negative trend was found between crust thickness and moisture ratio of bread samples. A simple mathematical model was proposed to predict the development of crust thickness of bread during baking, where the crust thickness was depended on moisture ratio that was described by the Page moisture losing model. The independent variables of the model were baking conditions, i.e. oven temperature and air velocity, and baking time. Consequently, the proposed model had well prediction ability, as the mean absolute estimation error of the model was 7.93 %.

  17. Utilization of Prickly Pear Peels to Improve Quality of Pan Bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.M.; Sallam, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    This investigation aimed to study utilization of prickly pear peels to improve quality of pan bread. Prickly pear peels powder added to wheat flour 72 % at levels 1.0 and 2.0% to make pan beard. In this study, evaluation of nutrients and chemical constitutes and functional properties of prickly pear peels as well as the rheological properties of dough contained prickly pear peels at levels 1% and 2% has been conducted. Then evaluated organoleptic characteristics of pan bread made of it also determined staling rate. Results showed that prickly pear peels had higher content of 32.67 % fiber, 14.25 % pectin and 87.82 % ascorbic acid, and higher contents of antioxidant components. It consists of 441.11 mg/100 g, total phenols, 35.2 flavonoids mg/100 g and DPPH radical-scavenging 62.14%, also water holding capacity was 1.8 ml H 2 O / g , oil holding capacity 2.35 (ml oil/g) and foam stability 7.15%. The major phenolic compounds Oleuro 1264.407, pyrogallo 1149.68, Benzoic 982.37, 3-oH Tyrosol 588.53, Ellagic 413.26, Chorogenic 271.10, Protocatechuic acid 176.02, P-oH- Benzoic 112.78, Epicatechin105.99, Gallic acid 61.26 ppm. The results revealed that addition of prickly pear peels to wheat flour increased the nutrition values of pan bread made of it due to high contents of fiber, ascorbic acid and natural antioxidants, and also decreased staling which improves the quality of pan bread, as well as increases shelf-life of pan bread.

  18. Activation of waste brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bread production

    OpenAIRE

    Popov Stevan D.; Dodić Siniša N.; Mastilović Jasna S.; Dodić Jelena M.; Popov-Raljić Jovanka V.

    2005-01-01

    The waste brewer's yeast S. cerevisiae (activated and non-activated) was compared with the commercial baker's yeast regarding the volume of developed gas in dough, volume and freshness stability of produced bread. The activation of waste brewer's yeast resulted in the increased volume of developed gas in dough by 100% compared to non-activated brewer's yeast, and the obtained bread is of more stable freshness compared to bread produced with baker's yeast. The activation of BY affects positive...

  19. Characterization of textural, rheological, thermal, microstructural, and water mobility in wheat flour dough and bread affected by trehalose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Li, Youqian; Ding, Shiyong; Yang, Jun

    2017-10-15

    The study aims to elucidate the effects of trehalose on the mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties of wheat flour dough and water distribution in bread. Texture profile analysis, DSC, farinograph, extensograph, and frequency sweep were applied in dough. The results from SEM revealed that the gluten film became less notable with the presence of trehalose. The kinetics of staling process, low-field 1 H NMR, and water-binding capacity were employed to characterize physicochemical properties of bread. Trehalose decreased the staling rate constant k, indicating an inhibitory effect on firming process in bread. Trehalose had the ability to retain water by hindering the interaction among water molecules, gluten and starch, thus relatively increasing the immobility of the part of water represented by T 22 in low-field 1 H NMR tests. Trehalose restricted water mobilization during storage, resulting in a better water-holding capacity. Our findings reveal that trehalose could be an improver in dough and bread-making performance, as well as an antistaling agent in bread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimates of Total Dietary Folic Acid Intake in the Australian Population Following Mandatory Folic Acid Fortification of Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Dugbaza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory folic acid fortification of wheat flour for making bread was implemented in Australia in September 2009, to improve the dietary folate status of women of child-bearing age, and help reduce the incidence of neural tube defects in the population. This paper presents estimates of folic acid intake in the target population and other subgroups of the Australian population following implementation of the mandatory folic acid fortification standard. In June/July 2010 one hundred samples from seven bread categories were purchased from around the country and individually analysed for the amount of folic acid they contained. A modification to the triple enzyme microbiological method was used to measure folic acid in the individual bread samples. The folic acid analytical values together with national food consumption data were used to generate estimates of the population’s folic acid intake from fortified foods. Food Standards Australia New Zealand’s (FSANZ custom-built dietary modelling program (DIAMOND was used for the estimates. The mean amount of folic acid found in white bread was 200 μg/100 g which demonstrated that folic-acid-fortified wheat flour was used to bake the bread. The intake estimates indicated an increase in mean folic acid intake of 159 μg per day for the target group. Other sub-groups of the population also showed increases in estimated mean daily intake of folic acid.

  1. Formation of acrylamide in cheese bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Sobrinho, Luis Gualberto De Andrade; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    Low addition of grated Mozzarella cheese (13.4 g/100 g dough) resulted after baking for 20 min at 200 degrees C in a moderate increase of acrylamide from 4 ppb in buns without cheese to 7 ppb in the cheese buns as analyzed by a LCMS/MS technique. The effect was strongly dependent on the amount...... of cheese added, and addition of 23.7 g cheese resulted in 958 ppb acrylamide. For an o/w rapeseed oil emulsion as a food model heated under conditions similar to those persisting inside bread during baking, it was further shown that acrylamide formation also occurred in absence of reducing sugars....... In contrast, acrylamide was not observed in Pao de queijo a traditional Brazilian bread product made from fermented cassava flour, fresh eggs and a mixture of Brazilian Gouda type cheese and Mozzarella cheese pointing towards a role of eggs in protection against acrylamide formation....

  2. prediction of bread-making quality using size exclusion high

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Variation in the distribution of protein molecular weight in wheat (Triticum aestivum), influences ... with high G/G ratios in SDS-insoluble protein fraction were Sceptre x Nata and Kariega x Sceptre. ...... Molecular characterisation and dynamic.

  3. Plantain, banana and wheat flour composites in bread making ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 4 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Influence of calcium acetate on rye bread volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina FUCKERER

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The positive accepted savoury taste of rye bread is dependent on acetate concentration in the dough of such breads. In order to study how calcium acetate influences rye bread properties, the pH of rye doughs fortified with calcium acetate and the resulting volume of the breads were measured. Furthermore, CO2 formation of yeast with added calcium acetate and yeast with different pH levels (4, 7, 9 were measured. Thereby, it was determined that the addition of calcium acetate increased the pH of dough from 4.42 to 5.29 and significantly reduced the volume of the breads from 1235.19 mL to 885.52 mL. It could be proven that bread volume was affected by a 30.9% lower CO2 amount production of yeast, although bread volume was not affected by changing pH levels. Due to reduced bread volume, high concentrations of calcium acetate additions are not recommended for improving rye bread taste.

  5. Enhancement of the folate content in Egyptian pita bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefni, Mohammed; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2012-01-01

    Egypt has a high incidence of neural tube defects related to folate deficiency. One major food source for folate is pita (baladi) bread, which is consumed daily. Bioprocessing (e.g. germination) has been reported to increase the folate content in cereals. The aim was to produce pita bread with increased folate content using germinated wheat flour (GWF). Prior to milling the effects of germination and drying conditions on folate content in wheat grains were studied. Pita bread was baked from wheat flour substituted with different levels of GWF. The folate content in dough and bread and rheological properties of dough were determined. Germination of wheat grains resulted in, depending on temperature, 3- to 4-fold higher folate content with a maximum of 61 µg/100 g DM (dry matter). The folate content in both flour and bread increased 1.5 to 4-fold depending on the level of flour replacement with GWF. Pita bread baked with 50% sieved GWF was acceptable with respect to colour and layer separation, and had a folate content of 50 µg/100 g DM compared with 30 µg/100 g DM in conventional pita bread (0% GWF). Using 50% GWF, pita bread with increased folate content, acceptable for the Egyptian consumer, was produced. Consumption of this bread would increase the average daily folate intake by 75 µg.

  6. Enhancement of the folate content in Egyptian pita bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia M. Witthöft

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Egypt has a high incidence of neural tube defects related to folate deficiency. One major food source for folate is pita (baladi bread, which is consumed daily. Bioprocessing (e.g. germination has been reported to increase the folate content in cereals. The aim was to produce pita bread with increased folate content using germinated wheat flour (GWF.Methods: Prior to milling the effects of germination and drying conditions on folate content in wheat grains were studied. Pita bread was baked from wheat flour substituted with different levels of GWF. The folate content in dough and bread and rheological properties of dough were determined.Results: Germination of wheat grains resulted in, depending on temperature, 3- to 4-fold higher folate content with a maximum of 61 µg/100 g DM (dry matter. The folate content in both flour and bread increased 1.5 to 4-fold depending on the level of flour replacement with GWF. Pita bread baked with 50% sieved GWF was acceptable with respect to colour and layer separation, and had a folate content of 50 µg/100 g DM compared with 30 µg/100 g DM in conventional pita bread (0% GWF.Conclusion: Using 50% GWF, pita bread with increased folate content, acceptable for the Egyptian consumer, was produced. Consumption of this bread would increase the average daily folate intake by 75 µg.

  7. Viability and heat resistance of murine norovirus on bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Michiko; Takahashi, Hajime; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2016-01-04

    Contaminated bread was the cause of a large-scale outbreak of norovirus disease in Japan in 2014. Contamination of seafood and uncooked food products by norovirus has been reported several times in the past; however the outbreak resulting from the contamination of bread products was unusual. A few reports on the presence of norovirus on bread products are available; however there have been no studies on the viability and heat resistance of norovirus on breads, which were investigated in this study. ce:italic>/ce:italic> strain 1 (MNV-1), a surrogate for human norovirus, was inoculated directly on 3 types of bread, but the infectivity of MNV-1 on bread samples was almost unchanged after 5days at 20°C. MNV-1 was inoculated on white bread that was subsequently heated in a toaster for a maximum of 2min. The results showed that MNV-1 remained viable if the heating period was insufficient to inactivate. In addition, bread dough contaminated with MNV-1 was baked in the oven. Our results indicated that MNV-1 may remain viable on breads if the heating duration or temperature is insufficient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bread Water Content Measurement Based on Hyperspectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhi; Møller, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Water content is one of the most important properties of the bread for tasting assesment or store monitoring. Traditional bread water content measurement methods mostly are processed manually, which is destructive and time consuming. This paper proposes an automated water content measurement...... for bread quality based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging against the conventional manual loss-in-weight method. For this purpose, the hyperspectral components unmixing technology is used for measuring the water content quantitatively. And the definition on bread water content index is presented...

  9. Some investigation on trace elements content of Iranian breads using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.; Fatemi, K.; Moazezi, A.; Mahmoodzadeh, A.; Koushkestani, R.

    1988-01-01

    Since bread is consumed as a principal dietary staple by the majority of Iranian communities, actual natural portion of required protein and energy are provided via bread. Therefore, with respect to this matter, a considerable amount of needed minerals must also be met through this way. Literature survey indicates some elemental deficiencies as the result of consumption of bread in Iran. On the other hand, essentiality of these elements to human which are mostly in the range of trace amounts, makes this investigation very much important and interesting from both sides, nutritionally and instrumentally. To meet the above requirements, applications of very sensitive analytical tools are unavoidable. Hence, atomic absorption spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis both RNAA and INAA are employed. Results are controversial and constructive

  10. The Science of Pizza: The Molecular Origins of Cheese, Bread, and Digestion Using Interactive Activities for the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowat, Amy C.; Rosenberg, Daniel; Hollar, Kathryn A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a presentation on the science of pizza, which is designed for the general public including children ages 6 and older. The presentation focuses on the science of making and digesting cheese and bread. We highlight 4 major scientific themes: (1) how macromolecules such as carbohydrates and proteins are composed of atoms and small…

  11. Problems Faced by Mexican Asylum Seekers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Anna Cabot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Violence in Mexico rose sharply in response to President Felipe Calderón’s military campaign against drug cartels which began in late 2006. As a consequence, the number of Mexicans who have sought asylum in the United States has grown significantly. In 2013, Mexicans made up the second largest group of defensive asylum seekers (those in removal proceedings in the United States, behind only China (EOIR 2014b. Yet between 2008 and 2013, the grant rate for Mexican asylum seekers in immigration court fell from 23 percent to nine percent (EOIR 2013, 2014b. This paper examines—from the perspective of an attorney who represented Mexican asylum seekers on the US-Mexico border in El Paso, Texas—the reasons for low asylum approval rates for Mexicans despite high levels of violence in and flight from Mexico from 2008 to 2013. It details the obstacles faced by Mexican asylum seekers along the US-Mexico border, including placement in removal proceedings, detention, evidentiary issues, narrow legal standards, and (effectively judicial notice of country conditions in Mexico. The paper recommends that asylum seekers at the border be placed in affirmative proceedings (before immigration officials, making them eligible for bond. It also proposes increased oversight of immigration judges.

  12. The impact of baking time and bread storage temperature on bread crumb properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Geertrui M; Lagrain, Bert; Fierens, Ellen; Delcour, Jan A

    2013-12-15

    Two baking times (9 and 24 min) and storage temperatures (4 and 25 °C) were used to explore the impact of heat exposure during bread baking and subsequent storage on amylopectin retrogradation, water mobility, and bread crumb firming. Shorter baking resulted in less retrogradation, a less extended starch network and smaller changes in crumb firmness and elasticity. A lower storage temperature resulted in faster retrogradation, a more rigid starch network with more water inclusion and larger changes in crumb firmness and elasticity. Crumb to crust moisture migration was lower for breads baked shorter and stored at lower temperature, resulting in better plasticized biopolymer networks in crumb. Network stiffening, therefore, contributed less to crumb firmness. A negative relation was found between proton mobilities of water and biopolymers in the crumb gel network and crumb firmness. The slope of this linear function was indicative for the strength of the starch network. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in the texture and viscoelastic properties of bread containing rice porridge during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Ling; Sugiyama, Junichi; Shibata, Mario; Kokawa, Mito; Fujita, Kaori; Tsuta, Mizuki; Nabetani, Hiroshi; Araki, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of rice porridge on the texture and viscoelastic properties of bread during storage. Three types of bread, wheat flour bread, 15% rice flour bread, and 15% rice porridge bread, were prepared. After baking and storing the bread for 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h at room temperature, we measured the texture and viscoelastic properties of the bread crumbs by texture profile analysis (TPA) and creep test. The 15% rice porridge bread showed a significantly higher specific volume and maintained softer crumbs than the other two types (pbread crumbs during storage.

  14. Energy-urban transition: The Mexican case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez, Armando

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I present a study regarding the institutional conditions of Mexican cities based on a post-petroleum urban model that considers transport, architecture, urban planning and land use, renewable energy sources, energy saving and efficiency, and urban metabolism issues. The model was constructed with recommendations of authors and organizations that have analysed the energy dimension of cities under an energy-availability, environmental or petroleum-independent view. To make the study I sent a questionnaire to some local governments of all the country. The information indicates that Mexican cities do not have institutional conditions to manage the urban-energy transition that signify the end of cheap oil and the peak of world oil production.

  15. Fecal excretion of Maillard reaction products and the gut microbiota composition of rats fed with bread crust or bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, C; Anton, P M; Niquet-Léridon, C; Spatz, M; Tessier, F J; Gadonna-Widehem, P

    2017-08-01

    A comparison between the impacts of advanced (N ε -carboxymethyllysine - CML) and terminal (melanoidins) Maillard reaction products from bread on gut microbiota was carried out in this study. Gut microbiota composition as well as fecal excretion of CML from both bread crust and bread crumb, and of melanoidins from bread crust were assessed on a rodent model. Rats were fed with pellets supplemented or not with 13% of bread crust, bread crumb, a fiber-free bread crust model (glucose, starch and gluten heated together) or a fiber-free-melanoidin-free bread model (glucose-starch and gluten heated separately) for four weeks. These model systems were developed to limit the presence of wheat-native dietary fibers such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. CML and melanoidins in pellets and feces were evaluated by LC/MS-MS and HPLC/fluorescence respectively, and gut microbiota composition was determined by cultivation and molecular approaches. Diets supplemented with crumb or the fiber-free-melanoidin-free model contained respectively 17% and 64% less melanoidins than their respective controls. A higher excretion of melanoidins was observed for rats fed with crust or bread crust model compared to their controls, confirming that melanoidins are in contact with gut microbiota. No impact of diets was observed on Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and lactic flora. A decrease of enterobacteria was only observed for rats fed with the diet supplemented with the fiber-free bread crust model. Moreover, a significant increase of bifidobacteria numbers in the presence of crust, crumb and both bread models was observed, showing that this bifidogenic effect of bread is not due to the presence of melanoidins or wheat-native dietary fibers.

  16. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  17. Shelf life characteristics of bread produced from ozonated wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadi, Mohammed; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Peng, Wei; Sulieman, Abdellatif A; Mahdi, Amer Ali; Mohammed, Khalid; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2017-11-13

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of ozone treatment on the quality of bread and its shelf life. Flour was treated with ozone gas a rate of 5 L/min for 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 min. Baking studies showed that bread made from flour treated with ozone for 15 min exhibited improved quality properties (in terms of specific volume, bread color, and crumb cell numbers). Exposure to ozone for shorter times did not cause obvious changes in the major volatile compounds of bread. A shelf life tests showed that ozone gas treatment influenced the extent of starch crystallinity. The relative starch crystallinity of bread made from flour treated with ozone for 15 min was lower than the control value, as were the hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness. Microscopic examination of crumb structure revealed remarkable differences between control and treated breads. Although ozone is a naturally occurring substance found in the atmosphere, ozone can also be produced synthetically. Recently, ozone has come to be regarded as a new treatment for flour. Especially in countries where the chlorination is forbidden, ozone treatment may be of a great interest if it were associated with significant and reliable changes in flour. Ozone treatment of wheat flour tends to improve bread shelf life and quality in terms of physiochemical, baking properties, X-ray diffraction data, volatile compound levels, crumb structure, and textural characteristics. Given such findings, desirable shelf life and bread qualities may be achieved when ozone is used as a flour oxidant prior to bread baking. Analyses of the effects of ozone gas on treatment of flour on bread shelf life and quality would aid the production of high quality and extend the shelf life of bread. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A research on bread consumption of families living in the central district of Tokat province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep EKMEKCİ BAL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bread consumption statuses of families living in the central district of Tokat province were identified. Data were obtained from 272 consumers in November 2012. According to the findings, the amount of per capita bread consumption is 291.95 g which is lower than the national average consumption. The most frequently consumed bread type of families was loaf bread with 70.59%. Consumers were mainly purchased bread from supermarkets (80.51% and oven (25.37%. More than half of consumers think that the quality of bread sold in the market is insufficient. Several families cannot consume a significant portion of bread purchased during the day; they re-used some of the staled bread and wasted the rest of staled bread. Measures should be taken to prevent the waste of bread. The quality of the bread produced should be increased and a necessary care for hygiene should be taken during production and sales stages.

  19. Application of extrusion technology to prepare bread crumb, a comparison with oven method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasha, I.; Asim, M.

    2015-01-01

    The current research project was designed to conclude the upshot of extrusion cooking temperature on the properties and acceptability of bread crumb. Bread crumbs were obtained by drying the bread, maintaining moisture up to 3-8% and then broken down using hammer mill or crusher which breaks the bread into bread crumbs. Significantly highest moisture contents 7.26% was observed in oven baked bread crumb as compared to 6.25% in bread crumb prepared by extrusion cooking method. The highest bulk density (28.13 g/100 L) was observed in extruded bread crumb whereas, the oven baked bread crumbs showed lower bulk density (7.03 g/100 L). The fat uptake of extruded and oven baked bread crumbs were found 0.516 mg/g and 0.493 mg/g, respectively. The extruded bread crumb showed higher water binding capacity as 34.76 g H/sub 2/O/kg as compared to oven baked bread crumb which showed 27.92 g H/sub 2/O/kg. Sensory evaluation of extruded and oven baked bread crumbs depicted that bread crumbs prepared from extrusion cooking methods got significantly higher scores for taste, flavour and over all acceptability as compared to those prepared by oven baked method. As far as crispiness is concerned oven baked bread crumbs got comparatively higher scores. Moreover, it was concluded that the treatment T2 of extruded bread crumbs got more sensory scores than oven baked bread crumbs. (author)

  20. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in bread in Nigeria | Efuntoye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in Nigeria on samples of brown bread for growth of moulds and natural occurrence of aflatoxins. Mycological analysis showed the presence of six genera of filamentous fungi, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Mucor, Penicillium, Alternaria and Geotrichum. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis of bread ...

  1. Physico-chemical analysis and sensory evaluation of bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study carried out the physico-chemical analysis and sensory evaluation of bread produced using different indigenous yeast isolates in order to offer an insight into the overall quality of the bread. Four (4) different yeast species were isolated from sweet orange, pineapple and palm wine. The yeasts were characterized ...

  2. Nutritive value of selected variety breads and pastas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranhotra, G S; Gelroth, J A; Novak, F A; Bock, M A; Winterringer, G L; Matthews, R H

    1984-03-01

    Nine types of commercially produced variety breads, plain bagels, corn tortillas, and three types of pasta products were obtained from each of four cities, New York, San Francisco, Atlanta, and Kansas City. Proximate components and 12 minerals and vitamins were determined in these and in cooked pasta products. Available carbohydrate and energy values were calculated. On the average, French, Italian, and pita breads were lower in moisture than other breads. Protein in bread products averaged between 7.6% and 10.4% and in cooked pastas and tortillas between 4.4% and 5.3%. Bagels averaged 10.2% protein. Insoluble dietary fiber in whole wheat bread averaged 5.6%; for most products, dietary fiber values were five- to eightfold higher than crude fiber values. Pasta products and tortillas were virtually free of sodium. Sodium in bread products averaged between 379 and 689 mg/100 gm. Although all pasta products and most bread products were enriched, calcium was often not included. Iron averaged from 2.16 to 3.29 mg/100 gm in bread products and 3.10 to 4.24 mg/100 gm in dry pasta products. Products made with unrefined or less-refined flours and/or containing germ and bran tended to be high in phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, and manganese, and, to a lesser extent, in copper. A good portion of potassium, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin in pasta products was lost during cooking.

  3. Thermal inactivation kinetics of β-galactosidase during bread baking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Chen, Xiao Dong; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, β-galactosidase was utilized as a model enzyme to investigate the mechanism of enzyme inactivation during bread baking. Thermal inactivation of β-galactosidase was investigated in a wheat flour/water system at varying temperature-moisture content combinations, and in bread during

  4. Fracture behaviour of bread crust: Effect of ingredient modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martín, C.; Beukelaer, H. de; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, T. van

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the formulation on the crispness of bread crust was studied. Crispness is a relevant sensory attribute that depends on several factors particularly the plasticizer content (water), the mechanical properties of the solid matrix and the morphological architecture of the bread. Enzymes

  5. Detarium microcarpium Bread Meal: It's Physiological Effects on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental breads rolls provided 5g of s-NSP as calculated from the nutrient analysis plus s-NSP from the brown flour. The subjects visited the metabolic kitchen twice a week after an overnight fast. All the subjects ate the two types of meals detarium and control bread meal in random order. The subjects were ...

  6. Determination of propionate in bread using capillary zone electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackermans, M.T.; Ackermans-Loonen, J.C.J.M; Beckers, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    A method for the determination of propionate in bread is described. The propionate was extracted from the bread with a repeated extraction procedure and measured using capillary zone electrophoresis in the indirect UV mode applying a background electrolyte of 0.005 M Tris adjusted at pH 4.6 by

  7. Exergetic comparison of food waste valorization in industrial bread production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisopoulos, F.K.; Moejes, S.N.; Rossier Miranda, F.J.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the thermodynamic performance of three industrial bread production chains: one that generates food waste, one that avoids food waste generation, and one that reworks food waste to produce new bread. The chemical exergy flows were found to be much larger than the physical exergy

  8. A kaizen approach to food safety quality management in the value chain from wheat to bread

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a Management Science approach to quality management in food production. Aspects of food quality, product conformance and reliability/food safety are examined, starting with wheat and ending with its value chain transformation into bread. Protein qualities that influence glycemic index levels in bread are used to compare the value chains of France and the US. With Kaizen models the book shows how changes in these characteristics are the result of management decisions made by the wheat growers in response to government policy and industry strategy. Lastly, it provides step-by-step instructions on how to apply kaizen methodology and Deming's work on quality improvement to make the HACCPs (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) in food safety systems more robust.

  9. Predominant yeasts in Chinese traditional sourdough and their influence on aroma formation in Chinese steamed bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongjie; Li, Yang; Sadiq, Faizan A; Yang, Huanyi; Gu, Jingsi; Yuan, Lei; Lee, Yuan Kun; He, Guoqing

    2018-03-01

    A total of 105 yeast isolates was obtained from 15 sourdough samples collected from different regions in China and subjected to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Six species were identified including Pichia membranifaciens, which has not previously been reported in Chinese sourdoughs. Different species of yeast were used in single-culture fermentation to make Chinese steamed bread (CSB). The volatiles of the CSB were captured by solid-phase microextraction method, separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 41 volatile compounds were found in all the steamed breads. All CSBs showed a similar volatile profile; however, significant differences in the quantity of some volatile compounds were seen among the CSB fermented by different yeast species. A partial least squares discriminant analysis showed that the CSBs could be separated by their characteristic volatile profiles. The study suggested that the aromatic properties of CSB are determined by the yeast used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Synergistic effect of Aspergillus tubingensis CTM 507 glucose oxidase in presence of ascorbic acid and alpha amylase on dough properties, baking quality and shelf life of bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriaa, Mouna; Ouhibi, Rabeb; Graba, Héla; Besbes, Souhail; Jardak, Mohamed; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-02-01

    The impact of Aspergillus tubingensis glucose oxidase (GOD) in combination with α-amylase and ascorbic acid on dough properties, qualities and shelf life of bread was investigated. Regression models of alveograph and texture parameters of dough and bread were adjusted. Indeed, the mixture of GOD (44 %) and ascorbic acid (56 %) on flour containing basal improver showed its potential as a corrective action to get better functional and rheological properties of dough and bread texture. Furthermore, wheat flour containing basal additives and enriched with GOD (63.8 %), ascorbic acid (32 %) and α- amylase (4.2 %) led to high technological bread making parameters, to decrease the crumb firmness and chewiness and to improve elasticity, adhesion, cohesion and specific volume of bread. In addition to that, the optimized formulation addition significantly reduced water activity and therefore decreased bread susceptibility to microbial spoilage. These findings demonstrated that GOD could partially substitute not only ascorbic acid but also α-amylase. The generated models allowed to predict the behavior of wheat flour containing additives in the range of values tested and to define the additives formula that led to desired rheological and baking qualities of dough. This fact provides new perspectives to compensate flour quality deficiencies at the moment of selecting raw materials and technological parameters reducing the production costs and facilitating gluten free products development. Graphical abstractᅟ.

  11. Determine the Quality of Bread Samples Used in Qazvin, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Qajarbeygi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In most societies, rich and important source of food considered bread. Some bakeries using sodium bicarbonate as baking soda and extra salt in bread production that his chemical compounds has adverse effects on the public health. That's why in this study we decided to evaluation of In most societies, rich and important source of food considered bread. Some bakeries using sodium bicarbonate as baking soda and extra salt in bread production that his chemical compounds has adverse effects on the public health. That's why in this study we decided to evaluation of produced bread in Qazvin province in terms of sodium bicarbonate and salt. Assessment of pH and salt take place according to Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (IRIS. Our Results demonstrated the mean±SD of pH for sangak, lavash, taftun, barbari and baguette 5.95±0.37, 5.76±0.54, 5.80±0.71, 6.10±0.68 and 7.86±1.26 respectively, and the mean±SD of salt 1.10±0.47, 1.41±0.57, 1.45±0.36, 1.40±0.32 and 1.55±1.09 respectively and the results demonstrated the value of pH and salt in the samples 65.77% (98 out of 149 and 12.75% (130 out of 149 respectively, out of standard range. Baking Soda in sangak breads and salt in baguette breads, more common of other breads. Although the Ministry of Health has banned officially the use of baking soda in breads production process, but demonstrated in this study baking soda and extra salt used in the process of breads production. Thus require more supervision and training on the non-use of sodium bicarbonate for bakers its necessary.

  12. Familism, machismo and child rearing practices among Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamez, E G

    1981-09-01

    Mexican Americans form the 2nd largest minority group in the US. Fertility is 50% higher than in any other ethnic group. Income levels are inordinately low. In 1970, 42% of Mexican Americans were indigent, making approxiamtely 4200 annually. The Mexican American poor can be categorized into newly arrived aliens or 2nd or 3rd generation American citizens. In the 1st instance, the couple is young and English is not spoken. 2nd or 3rd generation Mexican Americans speak English. The persistent socioeconomic status of the Mexican American relates directly to the level of education. 52% of all Mexican Americans do not finish high school. Paz and Remos described the Mexican in terms of Adler's inferiority model. Murillo stated that to an individual, the family--whether nuclear or extended--is the center of life. The inherent responsibility is that the individual behave properly lest the family be disgraced. The family provides emotional and material security. Familism was seen as a deterrant to utilization of health care services, although some studies claim opposing views. Familism and occupational stability related positively to seeking medical care when ill. Hayden believed that supreme male dominance, individualism, pride, wife beating, aversion to contraceptives, and other characteristics were attributable to machismo. A predominant pattern in Mexican American culture is that of elders' ordering young men and women to establish obedience and male dominance. The husband represents authority and the wife-mother maintains a role of complete devotion to her husband and children. Role differentiation is taught implicitly and explicitly from infancy. Studies on the psychological differences between the sexes indicated that females were oppressed and had lower self esteem than males. 18-24 year old Mexican Americans are becoming less insistent upon strict separation of sex roles and are beginning to reject the traditional Mexican notion of masculine superiority. The word

  13. Baking the first bread in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This Getaway Special program is a joint venture between Spar, Monarch flour and Telesat, with Telesat being responsible for the design, manufacture and implementation of the equipment. The purpose of the experiment is to investigate the behavior of bread yeast in the absence of gravity and in the presence of normal atmospheric pressure. The proposed design mixes flour, water and yeast on-orbit, allows the mixture to prove and then bakes it. This paper outlines the development history of the experiment, the various test programs and some of the problems encountered, with their solutions.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL PURPOSE WHIPPED BREAD WHOLE GRAIN WHEAT, RYE AND WHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of whipped bakery products enriched with dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins retinol, tocopherol, group, polyunsaturated fatty acids through the use of rye and wheat bran and flour of wholegrain wheat. The main raw material for enrichment whipped bakery products used wheat bran and rye. Choice of rye and wheat bran as supplementation prepared whipped bread is explained not only from the point of view of the rationality of the use of this secondary raw materials, but also its rich vitamin and mineral composition. Wheat bran contain the necessary man of b vitamins, including B1, B2, B6, PP and others. Found provitamin a (carotene and vitamin E (tocopherol. Bran is rich in mineral substances. Among them potassium, magnesium, chromium, zinc, copper, selenium and other trace elements. Thanks to this composition bran are essential dietary product. They are rich in insoluble fiber and can be useful to reduce the risk of developing colon cancer. Rye bran contain dietary fiber, tocopherol E, thiamin B1, Riboflavin B2, Pantothenic acid B5, B4 (choline, nicotinic acid B3, etc. In the bran rich set of microelements and macroelements such as iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, iodine, selenium, chromium, etc. the Introduction in the diet, bran rye contribute to the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, diabetes and anemia. They restore blood pressure, reduce blood sugar levels and improve the cardiovascular system. Flour from wholegrain wheat is the main supplier of bread protein and starch, while preserving the maximum of the original nutritional value of the grain, enriched whipped bread macro - and micronutrients. The analysis of the chemical composition of flour from wholegrain wheat, rye and wheat bran leads to the conclusion that the choice of these types of materials suitable for making the recipe whipped bakery products, because their use can increase the content in bread is not only the

  15. Appropriate Patterns of Bread Preparation and Consumption According To Teachings of the Quran, Ahadith, and Persian Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Atieh Sadat Danesh; Hossein Moradi; Fatemeh Nojavan

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Historically, bread has been the most important source of human nutrition.  The pattern of bread consumption is not desirable in Iran and approximately 16% of bread produced in this country is wasted.  The most important cause of this waste rate is low quality of the produced bread and inadequate public attention paid to Islam recommendation on bread sanctity. The modification of bread consumption and the culture of bread consumption are one of the necessi...

  16. Effect of mechanically damaged starch from wheat flour on the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sen; Li, Li; Wang, Xiao-Xi; Zheng, Xue-Ling; Bian, Ke; Bao, Qing-Dan

    2016-07-01

    The influence of damaged starch (DS) on the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread were investigated. Characterization of the farinographical properties showed that DS levels affected water absorption, development, weakness, falling number and gluten index. Flour viscosity profiles indicated that pasting temperatures increased, but peak viscosity, low viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback increased and then decreased with increasing amounts of DS. Compared to leavened dough, unleavened dough had significantly higher peak times, of T21 and T22, and was also affected by DS concentration. Steamed bread had a higher specific volume, relatively lower hardness, exhibited more whiteness, and a higher degree of gumminess and chewiness with higher DS levels. We compared two methods of making steamed bread and assessed the quality of the product. We found that an appropriate DS content improved the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread. This study provides the basis for future development and improvements to methods for making frozen dough products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Acids from a Commercial Aleurone-Enriched Bread Compared to a Whole Grain Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Asta, Margherita; Bresciani, Letizia; Calani, Luca; Cossu, Marta; Martini, Daniela; Melegari, Camilla; Del Rio, Daniele; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Brighenti, Furio; Scazzina, Francesca

    2016-01-13

    Wheat aleurone, due to its potentially higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phenolic acids, could represent a useful ingredient in the production of commonly consumed cereal-based food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids both from an aleurone-enriched bread and from a whole grain bread. The two bread samples were firstly characterized for the phenolic acid content. An in vitro digestion was then performed in order to evaluate the release of phenolic acids. The results obtained suggest that the bioaccessibility of the phenolic acids in the aleurone-enriched bread is higher than in the whole grain bread. These in vitro results suggest the potential use of aleurone in the production of foods, and this may represent an attractive possibility to vehicle nutritionally interesting components to consumers.

  18. The Use of Xylanases from Different Microbial Origin in Bread Baking and Their Effects on Bread Qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Widyan, Omar; Khataibeh, Moayad H.; Abu-Alruz, Khaled

    Effects of xylanases on bread quality were examined. Enzymes used were endo-xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) from different sources of microorganisms. Baked loaves were assessed for Loaves volume, colour and staling rate. Xylanases produced from rumen microorganisms M6 had clearly positive effects on loaf volume of bread as well as anti-firming potential. M3 (produced from Trichoderma longibrachiatum) improved crumb softness. The use of xylanase for breadmaking lowered firmness of bread crumb effectively compared with control loaf. It can be summarized that xylanases had significant positive effects on bread characteristics. In particular, they had advantage in retarding the staling rate of bread. It is recommended that the optimum dosage of enzymes, method of application in industrial scale especially with xylanase should be studied further in order to gain the great advantages of enzyme addition in breadmaking.

  19. In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Acids from a Commercial Aleurone-Enriched Bread Compared to a Whole Grain Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Dall’Asta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat aleurone, due to its potentially higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phenolic acids, could represent a useful ingredient in the production of commonly consumed cereal-based food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids both from an aleurone-enriched bread and from a whole grain bread. The two bread samples were firstly characterized for the phenolic acid content. An in vitro digestion was then performed in order to evaluate the release of phenolic acids. The results obtained suggest that the bioaccessibility of the phenolic acids in the aleurone-enriched bread is higher than in the whole grain bread. These in vitro results suggest the potential use of aleurone in the production of foods, and this may represent an attractive possibility to vehicle nutritionally interesting components to consumers.

  20. Exploratory Talk, Argumentation and Reasoning in Mexican Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Drummond, Sylvia; Zapata, Margarita Peon

    2004-01-01

    The study analyses the effects of training primary school children in the use of a linguistic tool called "Exploratory Talk" (ET) on their capacity for argumentation. ET allows for reasoned confrontation and negotiation of points of view, making the reasoning visible in the talk. Eighty-eight Mexican children from the 5th and 6th grades…

  1. Co-ingestion of essence of chicken to moderate glycaemic response of bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijuan; Wei Jie Tan, Kevin; Jeyakumar Henry, Christiani

    2015-01-01

    Essence of chicken (EOC) beverage is a chicken meat extract, widely consumed in Asian countries for health benefits. EOC is a rich source of peptides and amino acids. White bread has become a popular staple food in all regions of Southeast Asia. A randomized controlled, crossover, non-blind trial was performed to investigate the role of EOC on glycaemic response (GR) of white bread. Ten healthy young subjects returned on five separate days for three glucose and two bread sessions. Subjects consumed bread or bread with EOC. The 120 min incremental area under the curve was significantly lower after consuming two bottles of EOC with bread than white bread alone. The glycaemic index (GI) of white bread was 83 and white bread with EOC 57. The co-ingestion of EOC may be a practical and simple way to reduce the GR of bread and other starch-based staples.

  2. Mexican renewable electricity law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C. [Institute of Engineering of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, Edificio 12 Bernardo Quintana, Piso 3, Cubiculo 319, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegacion Coyoacan, CP 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  3. Mexican renewable electricity law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  4. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and Mexican nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Allison

    2011-03-01

    In the context of nurse migration, experts view trade agreements as either vehicles for facilitating migration or as contributing to brain-drain phenomena. Using a case study design, this study explored the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on the development of Mexican nursing. Drawing results from a general thematic analysis of 48 interviews with Mexican nurses and 410 primary and secondary sources, findings show that NAFTA changed the relationship between the State and Mexican nursing. The changed relationship improved the infrastructure capable of producing and monitoring nursing human resources in Mexico. It did not lead to the mass migration of Mexican nurses to the United States and Canada. At the same time, the economic instability provoked by the peso crisis of 1995 slowed the implementation of planned advances. Subsequent neoliberal reforms decreased nurses' security as workers by minimizing access to full-time positions with benefits, and decreased wages. This article discusses the linkages of these events and the effects on Mexican nurses and the development of the profession. The findings have implications for nursing human resources policy-making and trade in services.

  5. Unlocking the diversity of genebanks: whole-genome marker analysis of Swiss bread wheat and spelt

    KAUST Repository

    Mü ller, Thomas; Schierscher-Viret, Beate; Fossati, Dario; Brabant, Cé cile; Schori, Arnold; Keller, Beat; Krattinger, Simon G.

    2017-01-01

    Genebanks play a pivotal role in preserving the genetic diversity present among old landraces and wild progenitors of modern crops and they represent sources of agriculturally important genes that were lost during domestication and in modern breeding. However, undesirable genes that negatively affect crop performance are often co-introduced when landraces and wild crop progenitors are crossed with elite cultivars, which often limit the use of genebank material in modern breeding programs. A detailed genetic characterization is an important prerequisite to solve this problem and to make genebank material more accessible to breeding. Here, we genotyped 502 bread wheat and 293 spelt accessions held in the Swiss National Genebank using a 15K wheat SNP array. The material included both spring and winter wheats and consisted of old landraces and modern cultivars. Genome- and sub-genome-wide analyses revealed that spelt and bread wheat form two distinct gene pools. In addition, we identified bread wheat landraces that were genetically distinct from modern cultivars. Such accessions were possibly missed in the early Swiss wheat breeding program and are promising targets for the identification of novel genes. The genetic information obtained in this study is appropriate to perform genome-wide association studies, which will facilitate the identification and transfer of agriculturally important genes from the genebank into modern cultivars through marker-assisted selection.

  6. Unlocking the diversity of genebanks: whole-genome marker analysis of Swiss bread wheat and spelt

    KAUST Repository

    Müller, Thomas

    2017-11-04

    Genebanks play a pivotal role in preserving the genetic diversity present among old landraces and wild progenitors of modern crops and they represent sources of agriculturally important genes that were lost during domestication and in modern breeding. However, undesirable genes that negatively affect crop performance are often co-introduced when landraces and wild crop progenitors are crossed with elite cultivars, which often limit the use of genebank material in modern breeding programs. A detailed genetic characterization is an important prerequisite to solve this problem and to make genebank material more accessible to breeding. Here, we genotyped 502 bread wheat and 293 spelt accessions held in the Swiss National Genebank using a 15K wheat SNP array. The material included both spring and winter wheats and consisted of old landraces and modern cultivars. Genome- and sub-genome-wide analyses revealed that spelt and bread wheat form two distinct gene pools. In addition, we identified bread wheat landraces that were genetically distinct from modern cultivars. Such accessions were possibly missed in the early Swiss wheat breeding program and are promising targets for the identification of novel genes. The genetic information obtained in this study is appropriate to perform genome-wide association studies, which will facilitate the identification and transfer of agriculturally important genes from the genebank into modern cultivars through marker-assisted selection.

  7. ATTEMPT TO APPLY STABILIZED WHEAT GERM FOR BREAD SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Gambuś

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increased interest in rational nutrition causes, that from many years is observed a growing consumption of bread, and novel food supplemented with health promoting components. For the bread production in Poland mainly wheat and rye cake flours are used, depleted of a many valuable nutrients such as protein, dietary fibre, minerals and vitamins. Because of their unique chemical composition wheat germs are a particularly valuable resource, both for direct consumption and to enhance the nutritional value of food products. The aim of the study was to prepare wheat bread with a 10% addition of commercial stabilized wheat germs. Based on the obtained results, it was found that wheat germs, due to their unique chemical composition, were a particularly valuable resource to supplement the nutritional value of bread. However, germs had detrimental effect on mechanical properties of dough, and on bread quality. Texture of bread crumb and its chemical composition were analysed. It was shown, that germs subjected to fermentation process could be used in wheat bread production as dietary fibre and mineral compound supplement.

  8. Identifying Strategic Groups: An Assessment in Mexican Franchises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesario Armando Flores Villanueva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation of strategic groups in the franchising sector has been previously documented in the context of different countries. Our proposal is the franchise industry in Mexico should be formed by groups of differentiated franchisors. The identification and analysis of the different strategic groups formed in the franchise system of the Mexican market is the objective of this research. Our evaluation was performed using the factor analysis technique in a sample of 167 franchises of national origin. Seven strategic dimensions supported by the theory of scarce resources and agency theory make up the existence of differentiated groups of franchisors in the Mexican market. Our research confirmed the identification of five strategic groups called: rapid growth, converters, experienced and international franchisors, high entry fees and expensive conservatives, which use differentiated strategies to compete in the Mexican market.

  9. Training in the Mexican company: a study of job training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Lilia Sapién Aguilar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The processes of training and instruction in a medium-sized Mexican company are not being understood as an investment that contributes to business success.The aim of this study was to analyze these processes. The methodological approach was exploratory and descriptive with a non-experimental or ex post facto design. The Mexican Business Information System was consulted and 17 medium-sized companies in the industrial sector were randomly chosen. The results indicated that in the median Mexican company decisive actions must be taken in order to achieve that training and instruction are no longer seen as an unnecessary expense. They need to be understood as the best investment one can make in human resources. Therefore, training and instruction must become a part of the work culture of any organization.

  10. Willingness to use functional breads. Applying the Health Belief Model across four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Marco; Saba, Anna; Arvola, Anne; Dean, Moira; Messina, Federico; Winkelmann, Markus; Claupein, Erika; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Shepherd, Richard

    2009-04-01

    The present study focused on the role of the Health Belief Model (HBM) in predicting willingness to use functional breads, across four European countries: UK (N=552), Italy (N=504), Germany (N=525) and Finland (N=513). The behavioural evaluation components of the HBM (the perceived benefits and barriers conceptualized respectively as perceived healthiness and pleasantness) and the health motivation component were good predictors of willingness to use functional breads whereas threat perception components (perceived susceptibility and perceived anticipated severity) failed as predictors. This result was common in all four countries and across products. The role of 'cue to action' was marginal. On the whole the HBM fit was similar across the countries and products in terms of significant predictors (the perceived benefits, barriers and health motivation) with the exception of self-efficacy which was significant only in Finland. Young consumers seemed more interested in the functional bread with a health claim promoting health rather than in reducing risk of disease, whereas the opposite was true for older people. However, functional staple foods, such as bread in this European study, are still perceived as common foods rather than as a means of avoiding diseases. Consumers seek these foods for their healthiness (the perceived benefits) as they expect them to be healthier than regular foods and for the pleasantness (the perceived barriers) as they do not expect any change in the sensory characteristics due to the addition of the functional ingredients. The importance of health motivation in willingness to use products with health claims implies that there is an opening for developing better models for explaining health-promoting food choices that take into account both food and health-related factors without making a reference to disease-related outcome.

  11. Bee bread - perspective source of bioactive compounds for future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bee bread is product with long history used mainly in folk medicine. Nowadays, bee bread is growing in commercial interest due to its high nutritional properties. The objective of this study was to determine biological activity of ethanolic extract of bee bread obtained from selected region of Ukraine - Poltava oblast, Kirovohrad oblast, Vinnica oblast, Kyiv oblast, Dnepropetrovsk oblast. The antioxidant activity was measured with the radical scavenging assays using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical as well as phosphomolybdenum assay. Total polyphenol content was determined with Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and total flavonoid content by aluminium-chloride method. Secondary was also evaluated antimicrobial activity in bee bread samples with disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations. Antioxidant activity expressed as mg TEAC per g of dry weight (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity was the highest in bee bread from Poltava oblast in DPPH and also phosphomolybdenum method. Samples of bee bread contained high levels of total polyphenols (12.36 - 18.24 mg GAE - gallic acid equivalent per g of dry weight and flavonoids (13.56 - 18.24 μg QE - quercetin equivalent per g of dry weight with the best values of bee bread from Poltava oblast. An elevated level of antioxidant potential in the bee bread determines its biological properties, which conditioned of the biological active substances. The best antibacterial activity of bee bred with disc diffusion method was found against Bacillus thuringiensis CCM 19. The antibacterial activity inhibited by the bee bread extract in the present study indicate that best minimal inhibition concentration was against bacteria Escherichia coli CCM 3988 and Salmonella enterica subs. enterica CCM 3807.

  12. Bread and other edible agents of mental disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eBressan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps because gastroenterology, immunology, toxicology, and the nutrition and agricultural sciences are outside of their competence and responsibility, psychologists and psychiatrists typically fail to appreciate the impact that food can have on their patients’ condition. Here we attempt to help correct this situation by reviewing, in non-technical, plain English, how cereal grains—the world’s most abundant food source—can affect human behavior and mental health. We present the implications for the psychological sciences of the findings that, in all of us, bread (1 makes the gut more permeable and can thus encourage the migration of food particles to sites where they are not expected, prompting the immune system to attack both these particles and brain-relevant substances that resemble them; and (2 releases opioid-like compounds, capable of causing mental derangement if they make it to the brain. A grain-free diet, although difficult to maintain (especially for those that need it the most, could improve the mental health of many and be a complete cure for others.

  13. Modified starches or stabilizers in preparation of cheese bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Dias dos Anjos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheese bread is a Brazilian product which originated in Minas Gerais and which is highly consumed. In industrial production, there is increasing use of additives which enrich and enhance the physical of this product, adding value in the eyes of the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to study the effect of addition of modified starch and stabilizers on the physical-chemical of cheese bread. For this reason, measures taken so moisture, pH and acidity, volume, density, coefficient of expansion, and compression resistance (texturometer Results show that the stabilizers used improve these characteristics in the cheese bread, showing better physicochemical characteristics.

  14. The development and evaluation of a bread baking intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Line

    2012-01-01

    Master i samfunnsernæring Bread is part of the Norwegian food culture, and a large part of our daily diet. However, the intake of fibre and hole grains is to low, and the Norwegian government encourages an increase in the intake of wholemeal bread and cereals. In addition, only half of the Norwegian population reaches the recommendation of being physical active for at least 30 minutes a day. This thesis describes the development and evaluation of a bread baking intervention. The i...

  15. The processing technology of bread crumbs sterilization by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiating; Li Zhengkui; Zhao Yongfu; Zhang Weidong; Jin Jie; Wu Lei; Wang Xinghai

    2003-01-01

    The processing technology of bread crumbs sterilization by irradiation was studied. The results demonstrated that dose heterogeneity had osculatory connection with pile height and turning, sterilization effect had positive correlation with the irradiation dose and negative correlation with colour. Compared with the CK, the content of crud protein, fat, carbohydrate, microelement and amino acid in irradiated bread crumbs had no obvious change. It is recommended that the range of best sterilization dose be 6-10 kGy and the shelf time of bread crumbs be extended to one year

  16. Buckwheat-enriched wheat bread: National market placement possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakač Marijana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality parameters and the possibility of successful placement of buckwheat-enriched wheat bread on the national market are presented in this paper. Analysis of the market position of buckwheat-enriched wheat bread includes demands, offer and competition. Elements that affect the overall retail price of buckwheat-enriched wheat bread are given in details, along with SWOT analysis and marketing plan including target market, market supply and product marketing mix. According to all performed analyses it could be concluded that this product should be positioned on the national market, especially for people with special needs and requirements.

  17. Quality of grain and flour of foreign bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. under the conditions of south Dobrudzha region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chamurliyski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute One of the main directions of the breeding programs in common winter wheat, besides increasing productivity, is developing of cultivars with excellent baking properties. An important prerequisite for this is the involvement of new gene plasma of variable origin, which is adequate to the growing conditions and the desired breeding direction. The aim of investigation is study of some main properties related to the grain quality and the baking properties of bread wheat accessions of foreign origin under the conditions of the South Dobrudzha region. Twenty-five foreign bread wheat cultivars of various origins were investigated for a three year period. Cultivars Aglika, Enola, Pryaspa and Yantur were used as standards. Some indices related to the quality of grain and flour were analyzed at the Bread Making Laboratory of (DAI. The expression of the following parameters was followed: test weigh, % of protein, sedimentation, wet gluten yield, softening degree, pharinographic value, bread volume, and the quality index (QI was calculated. The cultivars, which demonstrated high grain quality, were the Romanian Faur, Moldovan Dobropolka, American Wahoo and the Ukrainian Zmina. Averaged for the three years, highest variation was found for the index pharinographic value. On the whole, the materials with origin from Romania, Ukraine and USA were characterized with high values of the quality indices. Cultivars Faur and Zmina can be successfully included in the breeding program of DAI for development of strong wheat varieties

  18. Health benefits of ancient grains. Comparison among bread made with ancient, heritage and modern grain flours in human cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Veronica; Taccari, Annalisa; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Danesi, Francesca; Bordoni, Alessandra

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays the higher nutritional value of whole grains compared to refined grains is recognized. In the last decade, there has been a renewed interest in the ancient wheat varieties for producing high-value food products with enhanced health benefits. This study compared two ancient grains, two heritage grains, and four modern grains grown in the same agronomic conditions considering not only their chemical characteristics, but also their biological effects. Whole grain flours were obtained and used to make bread. Bread was in vitro digested, the digesta were supplemented to HepG2 cells, and the biological effects of supplementation were evaluated. In addition, cells previously supplemented with the different digested bread types were then exposed to inflammatory agents to evidence possible protective effects of the pre-treatments. Despite the impossibility to discriminate bread made with different grains based on their chemical composition, results herein reported evidence that their supplementation to cultured cells exerts different effects, confirming the potential health benefits of ancient grains. This research represents an advancement for the evaluation of the apparent positive effects of ancient grains and the formulation of cereal-based products with added nutritional value. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A salt reduction of 50% in bread does not decrease bread consumption or increase sodium intake by the choice of sandwich fillings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Temme, E.H.M.; Koeman, F.T.; Noort, M.W.J.; Kremer, S.; Janssen, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Bread is a major contributor to sodium intake in many countries. Reducing the salt (NaCl) content in bread might be an effective way to reduce overall sodium intake. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of gradually lowering the salt content in brown bread, with and without

  20. A micromechanics model for bread dough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, M. A. P.; Tarleton, E.; Charalambides, M. N.; Williams, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of dough and gluten was studied in an effort to investigate whether bread dough can be treated as a two phase (starch and gluten) composite material. The dough and gluten show rate dependent behaviour under tension, compression and shear tests, and non-linear unloading-reloading curves under cyclic compression tests. There is evidence from cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that damage in the form of debonding between starch and gluten occurs when the sample is stretched. A composite finite element model was developed using starch as filler and gluten as matrix. The interaction between the starch and gluten was modelled as cohesive contact. The finite element analysis predictions agree with trends seen in experimental test data on dough and gluten, further evidence that debonding of starch and gluten is a possible damage mechanism in dough.

  1. A micromechanics model for bread dough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M. A. P; Tarleton, E.; Charalambides, M. N.; Williams, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of dough and gluten was studied in an effort to investigate whether bread dough can be treated as a two phase (starch and gluten) composite material. The dough and gluten show rate dependent behaviour under tension, compression and shear tests, and non-linear unloading-reloading curves under cyclic compression tests. There is evidence from cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that damage in the form of debonding between starch and gluten occurs when the sample is stretched. A composite finite element model was developed using starch as filler and gluten as matrix. The interaction between the starch and gluten was modelled as cohesive contact. The finite element analysis predictions agree with trends seen in experimental test data on dough and gluten, further evidence that debonding of starch and gluten is a possible damage mechanism in dough

  2. A micromechanics model for bread dough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, M. A. P; Tarleton, E.; Charalambides, M. N.; Williams, J. G. [Imperial College London, Mechanical Engineering Department, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-22

    The mechanical behaviour of dough and gluten was studied in an effort to investigate whether bread dough can be treated as a two phase (starch and gluten) composite material. The dough and gluten show rate dependent behaviour under tension, compression and shear tests, and non-linear unloading-reloading curves under cyclic compression tests. There is evidence from cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that damage in the form of debonding between starch and gluten occurs when the sample is stretched. A composite finite element model was developed using starch as filler and gluten as matrix. The interaction between the starch and gluten was modelled as cohesive contact. The finite element analysis predictions agree with trends seen in experimental test data on dough and gluten, further evidence that debonding of starch and gluten is a possible damage mechanism in dough.

  3. EPR study of free radicals in bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanov, Nicola D.; Mladenova, Ralitsa

    2004-05-01

    The features of the recorded EPR spectra of paramagnetic species formed in bread and rusk are reported. The appearance of free radicals in them is only connected with their thermal treatment since the starting materials (flour and grains) exhibit very weak EPR signal. The obtained EPR spectra are complex and indicate that: (i) the relative number of paramagnetic species depends on the temperature and treating time of the raw product; (ii) the g-values are strongly temperature dependent with a tendency to coincide at t≥220 °C. Because of the relatively low (150-220 °C) temperature of thermal treatment, the studied free radicals can be assumed to appear in the course of the browning (Maillard) reaction and not to the carbonization of the material.

  4. Spectrophotometeric Determination of Bromate in Bread by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    dough, improves the quality of the bread, and increases ... to improve the gluten content (de Man, 1990; Alias and Linden, 1999). ... prepared in the range, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 ppm ..... Chemical formula, Synonyms, Prescription and Uses.

  5. Reduction of acrylamide content in bread crust by starch coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Xiaojie; Man, Yong; Liu, Yawei

    2018-01-01

    A technique of starch coating to reduce acrylamide content in bread crust was proposed. Bread was prepared in accordance with a conventional procedure and corn or potato starch coating was brushed on the surface of the fermented dough prior to baking. Corn starch coating caused a decrease in acrylamide of 66.7% and 77.1% for the outer and inner crust, respectively. The decrease caused by the potato starch coating was 68.4% and 77.4%, respectively. Starch coating reduced asparagine content significantly (43.4-82.9%; P coating, which effectively shortened the time span (4-8 min) over which acrylamide could form and accumulate. The present study demonstrates that starch coating could be a simple, effective and practical application for reducing acrylamide levels in bread crust without changing the texture and crust color of bread. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Evaluation of 14 winter bread wheat genotypes in normal irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of 14 winter bread wheat genotypes in normal irrigation and stress conditions after anthesis stage. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Using biplot graphic method, comparison of indices amounts and mean rating of indices for ...

  7. Screening of recombinant inbred lines for salinity tolerance in bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... 2Department of Molecular Physiology, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran ... indexes for screening bread wheat genotypes for salinity tolerance. ... published on screening methods in salinity tolerance in.

  8. Water sorption and transport in dry crispy bread crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders, M.B.J.; Nieuwenhuijzen, van N.H.; Tromp, R.H.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.

    2010-01-01

    Water sorption and dynamical properties of bread crust have been studied using gravimetric sorption experiments. Water uptake and loss were followed while relative humidity (RH) was stepwise in- or decreased (isotherm experiment) or varied between two adjusted values (oscillatory experiment).

  9. COATING OF FOOD PRODUCTS : BATTER AND BREADING TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen KAYMAK ERTEN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The coating process of food products with various mixtures prior to frying is a common application in kitchens whereas it still requires much investigation in technological area. In this study, batter and breading technology used in coating of foods is reviewed. The coating process was defined, and the function of predusting, battering and breading, the general composition of batter and breading mixtures and the functions of the ingradients were explained. In the coating application, the most important problem known as adhesion and the effects of it on the efficiency and cost were investigated. Batter and breading processing equipments used in the industry and the process lines were reviewed, and the problems, new designs and the latest patents relating them were discussed. New coating systems known as tumbling and fluidization were investigated and compared with other systems.

  10. Optimization of Bread Enriched with Garcinia mangostana Pericarp Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, U. K.; Salleh, R. Mohd; Maqsood-ul-Hague, S. N. S.; Hashib, S. Abd; Karim, S. F. Abd

    2018-05-01

    The aim of present work is to optimize the formulation of bread enhanced with Garcinia mangostana pericarp powder with the combination of baking process conditions. The independent variables used were baking time (15 - 30 minutes), baking temperature (180 - 220°C) and pericarp powder concentration (0.5 - 2.0%). The physical and chemical properties of bread sample such as antioxidant activity, phenolic content, moisture analysis and colour parameters were studied. Bread dough without fortification of pericarp powder was used as control. Data obtained were analyzed by multiple regressions and the significant model such as linear and quadratic with variables interactions were used. As a conclusion, the optimum baking conditions were found at 213°C baking temperature with 23 minutes baking time and addition of 0.87% for Garcinia mangostana pericarp powder to the bread formulation.

  11. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olise, Felix S.; Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P.; Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO3) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO3 levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about -16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples.

  12. Soybean hulls as an iron source for bread enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.D.; Berry, M.F.; Weaver, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Soybean hulls, a concentrated source of iron, may have potential as a source of iron fortification in baked products. Retention of 59 Fe in rats from white bread containing intrinsically labeled soybean hulls did not differ significantly (p<0.05) from extrinsically labeled white bread fortified with bakery grade ferrous sulfate (70.4 and 63.1%, respectively). Physical and sensory evaluations of bread containing up to 5% soybean hulls did not differ from white bread in loaf volume, cross-sectional area, tenderness or overall acceptance. These results suggest that soybean hulls are a good source of available iron and may be added to bakery products without deleterious effects in baking performance and sensory acceptability

  13. Ingested bread clip as an unexpected diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Sharon M; Russell, Michael J; Lau, Yee C; Dunn, Joel W; Roberts, Ross

    2018-03-23

    We describe a case where a bread clip has in fact became lodged adjacent to a portion of small bowel affected by a deposit of previously undiagnosed metastatic serous carcinoma of likely ovarian origin.

  14. 10443 HIDDEN SALT IN BREADS OF BLANTYRE (MALAWI) AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AggreyGamma

    brands of breads were sampled from the five major retail shops. Twelve ... States on potential societal savings from reduced sodium consumption in the U.S. adult ..... current experience of worldwide salt reduction programmes. Journal of ...

  15. Identification of micro satellite markers on chromosomes of bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of micro satellite markers on chromosomes of bread wheat showing an association with karnal bunt resistance. M Kumar, OP Luthra, NR Yadav, L Chaudhary, N Saini, R Kumar, I Sharma, V Chawla ...

  16. Cheese bread enriched with biofortified cowpea flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barbosa Monteiro Cavalcante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development and enrichment of food are of great importance not only for the industry but also to improve the population's nutrition, where you can create new products or optimize existing ones. The consumption of fortified products in the diet is an option for the control of deficiency diseases. This study aimed to develop enriched cheese bread with whole biofortified cowpea flour and evaluate their acceptance and chemical composition. Two formulations, F1 and F2, were prepared containing 5.6 and 8% of cowpea flour as a substitute for starch, respectively. To check acceptance, three sensory tests were used (Hedonic Scale, Purchase Intent, and Paired Comparison, F1 being sensory viable according to assessors, being chemically analyzed. Minerals were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source. The moisture was determined by drying at 105 °C, ash by calcination in muffle at 550 °C, proteins by the macro-Kjeldahl method, and lipids by hot extraction in a Soxhlet extractor. Carbohydrates were obtained by difference and the calories were calculated. The addition of cowpea increased the amounts of copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, as well as protein and carbohydrate values. On the other hand, there was a reduction of the moisture concerning lipids and the total caloric value compared to the standard formulation. It was concluded , therefore, that the cowpea, a regional raw material in market expansion is presented as an option for the enrichment of baked foods that do not contain gluten, such as cheese bread.

  17. Twin study of heritability of eating bread in Danish and Finnish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Silventoinen, Karri; Keskitalo, Kaisu

    2010-01-01

    Bread is an elementary part of the western diet, and especially rye bread is regarded as an important source of fibre. We investigated the heritability of eating bread in terms of choice of white and rye bread and use-frequency of bread in female and male twins in Denmark and Finland. The study...... cohorts included 575 Danish (age range 18-67 years) and 2009 Finnish (age range 22-27 years) adult twin pairs. Self-reported frequency of eating bread was obtained by food frequency questionnaires. Univariate models based on linear structural equations for twin data were used to estimate the relative...... magnitude of the additive genetic, shared environmental and individual environmental effects on bread eating frequency and choice of bread. The analysis of bread intake frequency demonstrated moderate heritability ranging from 37-40% in the Finnish cohort and 23-26% in the Danish cohort. The genetic...

  18. Twin study of heritability of eating bread in Danish and Finnish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Silventoinen, Karri; Keskitalo, Kaisu

    2010-01-01

    magnitude of the additive genetic, shared environmental and individual environmental effects on bread eating frequency and choice of bread. The analysis of bread intake frequency demonstrated moderate heritability ranging from 37-40% in the Finnish cohort and 23-26% in the Danish cohort. The genetic...... predisposition. Environmental factors shared by the co-twins (e.g., childhood environment) seem to have no significant effects on bread consumption and preference in adulthood.......Bread is an elementary part of the western diet, and especially rye bread is regarded as an important source of fibre. We investigated the heritability of eating bread in terms of choice of white and rye bread and use-frequency of bread in female and male twins in Denmark and Finland. The study...

  19. High insoluble fibre content increases in vitro starch digestibility in partially baked breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, Felicidad; Rivero, Pablo; Caballero, Pedro A; Quilez, Joan

    2012-12-01

    Wheat breads prepared from frozen partially baked breads were characterized by their content of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and slowly digestible starch (SDS) by the in vitro starch digestibility method developed by Englyst. Breads with different contents and types of fibre and breads prepared with different fermentation processes were studied. Bread with inulin and with a double fermentation had the lowest RDS content of 58.8 ± 1.7 and 60.0 ± 1.9 (% dry matter), respectively. Wheat bran bread, seeded bread, triple fermentation white bread and baguette-type bread showed values of RDS between 63.1 ± 1.7 and 65.7 ± 1.7 with no significant differences between them (p breads than in breads with added fibre. The highest values of the starch digestive rate index (SDRI) were obtained by the three types of breads with added fibre, which ranged from 91.8 ± 3.5 to 95.8 ± 3.5 versus 80.2 ± 3.5 to 87.5 ± 3.5 for white wheat breads. A significant (p bread crumbs corroborated this statement.

  20. Glycemic, insulinemic, and appetite responses of patients with type 2 diabetes to commonly consumed breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Cathy; Ryan, Miriam; Gibney, Michael J; Corrigan, Michelle; O'Shea, Donal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the breads most commonly consumed by adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and then examine the postprandial glycemic, insulinemic, and appetite responses that these breads elicit. One hundred people with T2DM were surveyed to identify the varieties of bread they most frequently consumed. According to a randomized crossover design, 11 fasting participants with T2DM consumed 50 g of available carbohydrate from 4 breads. Glucose and insulin concentrations and appetite ratings were determined over 270 minutes. Three commonly consumed varieties (white, whole wheat buttermilk, whole grain) identified in the survey-plus a lower-glycemic-index "control" bread (pumpernickel rye)-were tested in the second phase. Despite perceived differences between "brown" and "white" breads, the white, whole wheat buttermilk, and wholegrain breads promoted similar glycemic and insulinemic responses. Pumpernickel bread resulted in a significantly lower peak glucose (P breads and a lower peak insulin (P bread. Similar appetite responses were found with all 4 breads. Adults with T2DM are choosing a variety of breads with perceived differential effects on glycemic, insulinemic, and appetite responses. Appreciable benefits, however, are not conferred by the commonly consumed breads. If breads known to promote favorable metabolic responses are unavailable, the primary emphasis in education should be placed on portion control. Conveying this information to patients is crucial if nutrition education is to achieve its aim of empowering individuals to manage their diabetes through their food choices.

  1. Twin study of heritability of eating bread in Danish and Finnish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselbalch, Ann L; Silventoinen, Karri; Keskitalo, Kaisu; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Rissanen, Aila; Heitmann, Berit L; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2010-04-01

    Bread is an elementary part of the western diet, and especially rye bread is regarded as an important source of fibre. We investigated the heritability of eating bread in terms of choice of white and rye bread and use-frequency of bread in female and male twins in Denmark and Finland. The study cohorts included 575 Danish (age range 18-67 years) and 2009 Finnish (age range 22-27 years) adult twin pairs. Self-reported frequency of eating bread was obtained by food frequency questionnaires. Univariate models based on linear structural equations for twin data were used to estimate the relative magnitude of the additive genetic, shared environmental and individual environmental effects on bread eating frequency and choice of bread. The analysis of bread intake frequency demonstrated moderate heritability ranging from 37-40% in the Finnish cohort and 23-26% in the Danish cohort. The genetic influence on intake of white bread was moderate (24-31%), while the genetic influence on intake of rye bread was higher in men (41-45%) than in women (24-33%). Environmental influences shared by the twins were not significant. Consumption of bread as well as choice of bread is influenced by genetic predisposition. Environmental factors shared by the co-twins (e.g., childhood environment) seem to have no significant effects on bread consumption and preference in adulthood.

  2. Experimental study on bread yeast cultured in sweet sorghum juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jufang; Dong Xicun; Li Wenjian; Xiao Guoqing; Ma Liang; Gao Feng

    2008-01-01

    As a substitute for food supplies, sweet sorghum juice with high grade has demonstrated out- standing advantage in fermentation. To obtain the optimized fermentation conditions, the growth, the bio- mass of bread yeast cultured in sweet sorghum juice and total residual sugar were investigated in the paper. The fermentation was performed and optimized in a 10-100 1 bio-reactor. The results show that the application of sweet sorghum juice in bread yeast production is very potential. (authors)

  3. Characteristics of starch breads enriched with red potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gumul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch breads may often be low in nutritional value, in comparison to traditional products, as they contain less dietary fibre, protein and micro and macro elements. As an effect a risk of mineral deficiencies and digestive problems caused by lack of dietary fibre could be expected in persons adhering to gluten free diet. To eliminate such problems, a continuous research on gluten-free bread nutritional enrichment, has been done in recent years. Raw material used to enrich gluten free products should include: inulin, lupine, radish, soy, lucerne sprouts, oilseeds, different type of dried fruits. Among the most commonly used raw materials, there are flours from gluten free cereals and pseudocereals such as buckwheat, amaranth and maize are very popular. It seem that valuable alternative could be considered a red, purple or pink potatoes as starch breads additives. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect addition of freeze-dried color potatoes on crude fiber, polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids and nutritional value of gluten free breads. It could be concluded, that freeze-dried color (red, purple, pink potatoes enriched the gluten free breads (starch breads with health promoting bioactive components, like polyphenols, and highly valuable protein. The most promising additive was Magenta Love red potato variety lyophilisates, because gluten free breads enriched with this component were characterized by high protein content and the highest content of free and bound polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins. The presence of all these components increased the nutritional and pro-health value of gluten free product as starch bread.

  4. QUALITY OF GLUTEN-FREE BUCKWHEAT-RICE BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dvořáková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In case of celiac disease the products containing gluten must be excluded from the nutrition. The offer of gluten-free products (especially pastry is low and in addition the gluten-free breads are typical of dry crust and crumb and higher firmness in comparison with wheat bread. This work deals with gluten-free mixtures prepared from buckwheat and rice flour and the effect of rising amount of these flours on bread quality, crumb hardness, elasticity, chewiness and gumminess. With rising portion of buckwheat flour in the mixture the bread volume, dough and bread yield increased. The biggest improvement was found for mean bread volume (30% between the samples FO 1090 (166.7 cm3 and FO 9010 (216.7 cm3. The texture analysis showed positive effect of rice flour on hardness, chewiness and gumminess. Hardness decreased from 114.5 N (F 100 to 91.3 N (FO 1090. Very similar results showed chewiness and gumminess. Chewiness of F 100 (314.0 was reduced by 32.5% to 212.2 at the sample FO 1090. Gumminess was improved almost linearly through the samples, the biggest difference (44.3% was found between the check sample F 100 (88.3 and FO 1090 (49.7.

  5. Exergetic comparison of food waste valorization in industrial bread production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Moejes, Sanne N.; Rossier-Miranda, Francisco J.; Goot, Atze Jan van der; Boom, Remko M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the thermodynamic performance of three industrial bread production chains: one that generates food waste, one that avoids food waste generation, and one that reworks food waste to produce new bread. The chemical exergy flows were found to be much larger than the physical exergy consumed in all the industrial bread chains studied. The par-baked brown bun production chain had the best thermodynamic performance because of the highest rational exergetic efficiency (71.2%), the lowest specific exergy losses (5.4 MJ/kg brown bun), and the almost lowest cumulative exergy losses (4768 MJ/1000 kg of dough processed). However, recycling of bread waste is also exergetically efficient when the total fermented surplus is utilizable. Clearly, preventing material losses (i.e. utilizing raw materials maximally) improves the exergetic efficiency of industrial bread chains. In addition, most of the physical (non-material related) exergy losses occurred at the baking, cooling and freezing steps. Consequently, any additional improvement in industrial bread production should focus on the design of thermodynamically efficient baking and cooling processes, and on the use of technologies throughout the chain that consume the lowest possible physical exergy. - Highlights: • Preventing material losses is the best way to enhance the exergetic efficiency. • Most of the physical exergy losses occur at the baking, cooling and freezing steps. • Par-baking “saves” chemical exergy but consumes an equal amount of physical exergy

  6. Speciation of chromium in bread and breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathebula, Mpho Wendy; Mandiwana, Khakhathi; Panichev, Nikolas

    2017-02-15

    Bread and breakfast cereals are a major constituents of the human diet, yet their Cr(VI) content is not known. Chromium(VI) was determined in these products by high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer (HR-CS AAS) after leaching Cr(VI) with 0.10molL(-1) Na2CO3. The results showed that 33-73% of total Cr (58.17±5.12μgkg(-1)-156.1±6.66μgkg(-1)) in bread exist as Cr(VI) and the highest total Cr content was found in brown bread. It was shown that Cr(III) is oxidized to Cr(VI) during toasting of bread. Chromium(VI) content in breakfast cereals ranged between 20.4±4μgkg(-1) and 470.4±68μgkg(-1). Therefore, it can be concluded that bread and breakfast cereals contains Cr(VI) which does not exceed maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) of 0.003mgkg(-1)bw(-1)day(-1) through daily consumption of half a bowl (65g) of breakfast cereal and four slices of toasted (122g) or untoasted bread (160g). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimization of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Waste Bread before Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Hudečková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Finding of optimal hydrolysis conditions is important for increasing the yield of saccharides. The higher yield of saccharides is usable for increase of the following fermentation effectivity. In this study optimal conditions (pH and temperature for amylolytic enzymes were searched. As raw material was used waste bread. Two analytical methods for analysis were used. Efficiency and process of hydrolysis was analysed spectrophotometrically by Somogyi-Nelson method. Final yields of glucose were analysed by HPLC. As raw material was used waste bread from local cafe. Waste bread was pretreated by grinding into small particles. Hydrolysis was performed in 100 mL of 15 % (w/v waste bread particles in the form of water suspension. Waste bread was hydrolysed by two commercial enzymes. For the liquefaction was used α‑amylase (BAN 240 L. The saccharification was performed by glucoamylase (AMG 300 L. Optimal conditions for α‑amylase (pH 6; 80 °C were found. The yield of total sugars was 67.08 g∙L-1 (calculated to maltose. As optimal conditions for glucoamylase (pH 4.2; 60 °C were found. Amount of glucose was 70.28 g∙L1. The time of waste bread liquefaction was 180 minutes. The time of saccharification was 90 minutes. The results were presented at the conference CECE Junior 2014.

  8. Continuous biohydrogen production from waste bread by anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Huang, Jingang; Zhao, Hongting; Li, Yongfeng

    2016-07-01

    In this study, continuous biohydrogen production from waste bread by anaerobic sludge was performed. The waste bread was first hydrolyzed by the crude enzymes which were generated by Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae via solid-state fermentation. It was observed that 49.78g/L glucose and 284.12mg/L free amino nitrogen could be produced with waste bread mass ratio of 15% (w/v). The waste bread hydrolysate was then used for biohydrogen production by anaerobic sludge in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The optimal hydrogen production rate of 7.4L/(Ld) was achieved at chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 6000mg/L. According to the results obtained from this study, 1g waste bread could generate 0.332g glucose which could be further utilized to produce 109.5mL hydrogen. This is the first study which reports continuous biohydrogen production from waste bread by anaerobic sludge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A salt reduction of 50% in bread does not decrease bread consumption or increase sodium intake by the choice of sandwich fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Temme, Elisabeth H M; Koeman, Fari T; Noort, Martijn W J; Kremer, Stefanie; Janssen, Anke M

    2011-12-01

    Bread is a major contributor to sodium intake in many countries. Reducing the salt (NaCl) content in bread might be an effective way to reduce overall sodium intake. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of gradually lowering the salt content in brown bread, with and without flavor compensation (KCl and yeast extract), on bread consumption and sodium intake compensation by choice of sandwich fillings. A total of 116 participants (age: 21 ± 3 y; BMI: 22 ± 2 kg/m²) consumed a buffet-style breakfast on weekdays for 4 wk. Participants received either regular bread (control group: n = 39), bread whose salt content was gradually lowered each week by 0, 31, 52, and 67% (reduced group: n = 38), or bread whose salt content was also gradually lowered each week but which was also flavor compensated (compensated group: n = 39). A reduction of up to 52% of salt in bread did not lead to lower consumption of bread compared to the control (P = 0.57), whereas less bread was consumed when salt was reduced by 67% (P = 0.006). When bread was flavor compensated, however, a reduction of 67% did not lead to lower consumption (P = 0.69). Salt reduction in bread (with and without flavor compensation) did not induce sodium intake compensation (P = 0.31). In conclusion, a salt reduction of up to 52% in bread or even up to 67% in flavor-compensated bread neither affected bread consumption nor choice of sandwich fillings.

  10. Presiones y decisiones en política exterior: dos momentos de México ante el conflicto árabe-israelí | Pressures and decision-making in foreign policy: two moments of Mexican policies towards the Arab Israeli conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo MAGAÑA DUPLANCHER

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Caracterizar a la política de México hacia el conflicto árabe- israelí como ambigua, ambivalente, indefinida o distante es un error. En dos momentos especialmente álgidos del conflicto, es evidente que la acción independiente y concertada de grupos de presión y actores transnacionales con claras simpatías por uno u otro de los bandos en pugna presionaron al gobierno mexicano e intentaron influir en su política al respecto. En este artículo se discute y se pone en perspectiva histórica, tomando como estudio de caso el de México y su política hacia el Medio Oriente, la influencia de los actores no estatales internos y externos en la formulación de la política exterior. To portray Mexican policy towards the Arab Israeli conflict as ambiguous, ambivalent, undefined or distant is definitely a mistake. In two moments particularly significant of the conflict, it is rather self-evident that the independent or concerted action of pressure groups and transnational actors with clear sympathies for one or the other of the two competing groups, exerted pressure over the Mexican Government and tried to influence its policies on the matter. In this article, we discuss in a historical perspective, taking Mexico and its policies towards the Middle East as a case study, the influence of domestic and international non-state actors in the foreign policy formulation and decision-making process.

  11. Upgrading of shamy wheat bread quality through supplement with flour of certain gamma irradiated legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassef, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Soybean flour,chick peas flour and lupines were irradiated at 0,5 and 10 kGy and individually used to replace 5,10 or 15% of wheat flour in shamy bread. The effect of supplementation of wheat flour with these legume flours on the major, chemical composition and nutritional quality of bread was studied. Results indicated that protein, ash and fiber contents of supplemented shamy bread were higher than the control. On the other hand, the amino acids of the shamy wheat bread supplemented irradiated legumes flour, improved the quality (water retention capacity, stailing rate and bread freshness) of bread

  12. Composition and functional analysis of low-molecular-weight glutenin alleles with Aroona near-isogenic lines of bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaofei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS strongly influence the bread-making quality of bread wheat. These proteins are encoded by a multi-gene family located at the Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3 loci on the short arms of homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, and show high allelic variation. To characterize the genetic and protein compositions of LMW-GS alleles, we investigated 16 Aroona near-isogenic lines (NILs using SDS-PAGE, 2D-PAGE and the LMW-GS gene marker system. Moreover, the composition of glutenin macro-polymers, dough properties and pan bread quality parameters were determined for functional analysis of LMW-GS alleles in the NILs. Results Using the LMW-GS gene marker system, 14–20 LMW-GS genes were identified in individual NILs. At the Glu-A3 locus, two m-type and 2–4 i-type genes were identified and their allelic variants showed high polymorphisms in length and nucleotide sequences. The Glu-A3d allele possessed three active genes, the highest number among Glu-A3 alleles. At the Glu-B3 locus, 2–3 m-type and 1–3 s-type genes were identified from individual NILs. Based on the different compositions of s-type genes, Glu-B3 alleles were divided into two groups, one containing Glu-B3a, B3b, B3f and B3g, and the other comprising Glu-B3c, B3d, B3h and B3i. Eight conserved genes were identified among Glu-D3 alleles, except for Glu-D3f. The protein products of the unique active genes in each NIL were detected using protein electrophoresis. Among Glu-3 alleles, the Glu-A3e genotype without i-type LMW-GS performed worst in almost all quality properties. Glu-B3b, B3g and B3i showed better quality parameters than the other Glu-B3 alleles, whereas the Glu-B3c allele containing s-type genes with low expression levels had an inferior effect on bread-making quality. Due to the conserved genes at Glu-D3 locus, Glu-D3 alleles showed no significant differences in effects on all quality parameters. Conclusions This work

  13. Effects of innovative and conventional sanitizing treatments on the reduction of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera defects on industrial durum wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Virgilio; Pitino, Iole; Pecorino, Biagio; Todaro, Aldo; Spina, Alfio; Lauro, Maria Rosaria; Tomaselli, Filippo; Restuccia, Cristina

    2016-10-17

    Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Hyphopichia burtonii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera are spoilage yeasts causing chalk mold defects on sliced bread packaged under modified atmosphere. The first objective of this study, carried out in a bread-making company for two consecutive years, was to genetically identify yeasts isolated from spoiled sliced bread in Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) and to determine the dominant species among identified strains. The second objective was to evaluate the effects of hydrogen peroxide and silver solution 12% (HPS) treatment in the leavening cells and cooling chambers, in comparison with the conventional Ortho-Phenylphenol (OPP) fumigating treatment, on the incidence of chalk defects of the commercialized products. One-hundred percent of the isolated yeasts were identified as S. fibuligera, while H. burtonii and W. anomalus were not detected. Concerning mean water activity (aw) and moisture content values, packaged bread samples were, respectively, included in the range 0.922-0.940 and 33.40-35.39%. S. fibuligera was able to grow in a wide range of temperature (11.5 to 28.5°C) and relative humidity (70.00 to 80.17%) in the processing environments, and product aw<0.94. Compared to OPP, the combined treatment with hydrogen peroxide and silver solution, in association with MAP, reduced to a negligible level yeast contamination of industrial sliced bread. The identification of the spoilage organisms and a comprehensive understanding of the combined effects of aw, pO2/pCO2 inside the packages, environmental conditions and sanitizing treatment on the growth behaviour is essential for future development of adequate preventive process strategies against chalk mold defects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Na+ transporter, TaHKT1;5-D, limits shoot Na+ accumulation in bread wheat

    KAUST Repository

    Byrt, Caitlin Siobhan

    2014-10-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has a major salt tolerance locus, Kna1, responsible for the maintenance of a high cytosolic K+/Na+ ratio in the leaves of salt stressed plants. The Kna1 locus encompasses a large DNA fragment, the distal 14% of chromosome 4DL. Limited recombination has been observed at this locus making it difficult to map genetically and identify the causal gene. Here, we decipher the function of TaHKT1;5-D, a candidate gene underlying the Kna1 locus. Transport studies using the heterologous expression systems Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is a Na+-selective transporter. Transient expression in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplasts and in situ polymerase chain reaction indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is localised on the plasma membrane in the wheat root stele. RNA interference-induced silencing decreased the expression of TaHKT1;5-D in transgenic bread wheat lines which led to an increase in the Na+ concentration in the leaves. This indicates that TaHKT1;5-D retrieves Na+ from the xylem vessels in the root and has an important role in restricting the transport of Na+ from the root to the leaves in bread wheat. Thus, TaHKT1;5-D confers the essential salinity tolerance mechanism in bread wheat associated with the Kna1 locus via shoot Na+ exclusion and is critical in maintaining a high K+/Na+ ratio in the leaves. These findings show there is potential to increase the salinity tolerance of bread wheat by manipulation of HKT1;5 genes.

  15. The Na+ transporter, TaHKT1;5-D, limits shoot Na+ accumulation in bread wheat

    KAUST Repository

    Byrt, Caitlin Siobhan; Xu, Bo; Krishnan, Mahima; Lightfoot, Damien; Athman, Asmini; Jacobs, Andrew Keith; Watson-Haigh, Nathan S.; Plett, Darren; Munns, Rana; Tester, Mark A.; Gilliham, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has a major salt tolerance locus, Kna1, responsible for the maintenance of a high cytosolic K+/Na+ ratio in the leaves of salt stressed plants. The Kna1 locus encompasses a large DNA fragment, the distal 14% of chromosome 4DL. Limited recombination has been observed at this locus making it difficult to map genetically and identify the causal gene. Here, we decipher the function of TaHKT1;5-D, a candidate gene underlying the Kna1 locus. Transport studies using the heterologous expression systems Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is a Na+-selective transporter. Transient expression in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplasts and in situ polymerase chain reaction indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is localised on the plasma membrane in the wheat root stele. RNA interference-induced silencing decreased the expression of TaHKT1;5-D in transgenic bread wheat lines which led to an increase in the Na+ concentration in the leaves. This indicates that TaHKT1;5-D retrieves Na+ from the xylem vessels in the root and has an important role in restricting the transport of Na+ from the root to the leaves in bread wheat. Thus, TaHKT1;5-D confers the essential salinity tolerance mechanism in bread wheat associated with the Kna1 locus via shoot Na+ exclusion and is critical in maintaining a high K+/Na+ ratio in the leaves. These findings show there is potential to increase the salinity tolerance of bread wheat by manipulation of HKT1;5 genes.

  16. Nudging children towards whole wheat bread: a field experiment on the influence of fun bread roll shape on breakfast consumption

    OpenAIRE

    van Kleef, Ellen; Vrijhof, Milou; Polet, Ilse A; Vingerhoeds, Monique H; de Wijk, René A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many children do not eat enough whole grains, which may have negative health consequences. Intervention research is increasingly focusing on nudging as a way to influence food choices by affecting unconscious behavioural processes. The aim of this field study was to examine whether the shape of bread rolls is able to shift children’s bread choices from white to whole wheat during breakfast to increase whole grain intake. Methods: In a between-subjects experiment conducted at twelv...

  17. Strategies to Extend Bread and GF Bread Shelf-Life: From Sourdough to Antimicrobial Active Packaging and Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Melini; Francesca Melini

    2018-01-01

    Bread is a staple food worldwide. It commonly undergoes physico-chemical and microbiological changes which impair its quality and shelf-life. Staling determines organoleptic impairment, whereas microbiological spoilage causes visible mould growth and invisible production of mycotoxins. To tackle this economic and safety issue, the bakery industry has been working to identify treatments which allow bread safety and extended shelf-life. Physical methods and chemical preservatives have long been...

  18. Structural differences between rye and wheat breads but not total fiber content may explain the lower postprandial insulin response to rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juntunen, Katri S; Laaksonen, David E; Autio, Karin

    2003-01-01

    and glucose responses. DESIGN: Nineteen healthy postmenopausal women aged 61 +/- 1 y, with a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 26.0 +/- 0.6, and with normal glucose tolerance participated in the study. The test products were refined wheat bread (control), endosperm rye bread, traditional rye bread, and high......BACKGROUND: Rye bread has a beneficial effect on the postprandial insulin response in healthy subjects. The role of rye fiber in insulin and glucose metabolism is not known. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the content of rye fiber in rye breads on postprandial insulin...

  19. Suppressed Acrylamide Formation during Baking in Yeast-Leavened Bread Based on added Asparaginase, Baking Time and Temperature Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashaer Matouri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available  Background and Objective: Acrylamide as a toxic substance for human beings is produced by Maillard reaction at high temperatures. In this research, this reaction can be inhibited based on using aspariganse enzyme, controlling the cooking time and temperature during baking in yeast-leavened bread.Material and Methods: In this study, a response surface methodology 5-level-3-factor central composite design was applied to study the effects of asparaginase (300-900 U Kg-1 of flour, baking temperature (230-280°C and baking time (13-16 min on acrylamide formation in yeast-leavened wheat bread.Results and Conclusion: Added asparaginase showed a reducing effect on acrylamide formation (p≤0.0001. Baking temperature significantly increased the acrylamide content in bread (p≤0.0001. A strong correlation was found between the baking temperature and acrylamide formation. Baking time and its interaction with asparaginase had a low but significant reducing effect on acrylamide content in bread (p≤0.0001. Three parameters of the cooking temperature and time as well as enzyme concentration have been optimized using response surface methodology, their values obtained 245.71°C, 14.55 min and 752.15 U Kg-1, respectively. Enzymatic process could be suggested as a safe and convenient method for preventing acrylamide formation in bread making.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. 

  20. Optimization of Pan Bread Prepared with Ramie Powder and Preservation of Optimized Pan Bread Treated by Gamma Irradiation during Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.J.; Joo, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop an optimal composite recipe for pan bread with ramie powder that has high sensory approval with all age groups and to estimate the DPPH radical scavenging activity and the pan bread shelf life after gamma irradiation. The sensory evaluation results showed significant differences in flavor (p less than 0.05), appearance (p less than 0.01), color (p less than 0.01), moistness (p less than 0.01), and overall quality (p less than 0.05) based on the amount of ramie powder added. As a result, the optimum formulations by numerical and graphical methods were calculated to be as follows: ramie powder 2.76 g (0.92%) and water 184.7 mL. Optimized pan bread with ramie powder and white pan bread were irradiated with gamma-rays at doses of 0, 10, 15, and 20 kGy. The total bacterial growth increased with the longer storage time and the least amount of ramie powder added. Consequently, these results suggest that the addition of ramie powder to pan bread provides added value to the bread in terms of increased shelf life

  1. Mold spoilage of bread and its biopreservation: A review of current strategies for bread shelf life extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axel, Claudia; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2017-11-02

    Microbial spoilage of bread and the consequent waste problem causes large economic losses for both the bakery industry and the consumer. Furthermore the presence of mycotoxins due to fungal contamination in cereals and cereal products remains a significant issue. The use of conventional chemical preservatives has several drawbacks, necessitating the development of clean-label alternatives. In this review, we describe current research aiming to extend the shelf life of bread through the use of more consumer friendly and ecologically sustainable preservation techniques as alternatives to chemical additives. Studies on the in situ-production/-expression of antifungal compounds are presented, with special attention given to recent developments over the past decade. Sourdough fermented with antifungal strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is an area of increasing focus and serves as a high-potential biological ingredient to produce gluten-containing and gluten-free breads with improved nutritional value, quality and safety due to shelf-life extension, and is in-line with consumer's demands for more products containing less additives. Other alternative biopreservation techniques include the utilization of antifungal peptides, ethanol and plant extracts. These can be added to bread formulations or incorporated in antimicrobial films for active packaging (AP) of bread. This review outlines recent progress that has been made in the area of bread biopreservation and future perspectives in this important area.

  2. Special Section: On Masculinities, Latin America, and the Global Age: NarCoMedia: Mexican Masculinities

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca E. Biron

    2015-01-01

    Given the political force of how different social sectors conceive of narco-masculinity, what can we make of 21st century Mexican representations that neither fear nor admire narcos? Three post-2007 theatrical release feature films, Rudo y Cursi (2008), El infierno (2010), and Salvando al soldado Pérez (2011), invite viewers to laugh at the link between masculinity and criminality. Their refusal to take narco-masculinity seriously complicates debates regarding Mexican masculini...

  3. El Arte Culinario Mexicano (Mexican Culinary Art).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Michelle

    This unit in Mexican cooking can be used in Junior High School home economics classes to introduce students to Mexican culture or as a mini-course in Spanish at almost any level. It is divided into two parts. Part One provides historical background and information on basic foods, the Mexican market, shopping tips, regional cooking and customs.…

  4. Development of a new marker system for identifying the complex members of the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit gene family in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Liu, Dongcheng; Yang, Wenlong; Liu, Kunfan; Sun, Jiazhu; Guo, Xiaoli; Li, Yiwen; Wang, Daowen; Ling, Hongqing; Zhang, Aimin

    2011-05-01

    Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) play an important role in determining the bread-making quality of bread wheat. However, LMW-GSs display high polymorphic protein complexes encoded by multiple genes, and elucidating the complex LMW-GS gene family in bread wheat remains challenging. In the present study, using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with conserved primers and high-resolution capillary electrophoresis, we developed a new molecular marker system for identifying LMW-GS gene family members. Based on sequence alignment of 13 LMW-GS genes previously identified in the Chinese bread wheat variety Xiaoyan 54 and other genes available in GenBank, PCR primers were developed and assigned to conserved sequences spanning the length polymorphism regions of LMW-GS genes. After PCR amplification, 17 DNA fragments in Xiaoyan 54 were detected using capillary electrophoresis. In total, 13 fragments were identical to previously identified LMW-GS genes, and the other 4 were derived from unique LMW-GS genes by sequencing. This marker system was also used to identify LMW-GS genes in Chinese Spring and its group 1 nulli-tetrasomic lines. Among the 17 detected DNA fragments, 4 were located on chromosome 1A, 5 on 1B, and 8 on 1D. The results suggest that this marker system is useful for large-scale identification of LMW-GS genes in bread wheat varieties, and for the selection of desirable LMW-GS genes to improve the bread-making quality in wheat molecular breeding programmes.

  5. Fibre fortification of wheat bread: impact on mineral composition and bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Zita E; Pinto, Edgar; Almeida, Agostinho A; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2017-05-24

    In this work, wheat bread was fortified with fibre enriched extracts recovered from agroindustry by-products, namely, elderberry skin, pulp and seeds (EE); orange peel (OE); pomegranate peel and interior membranes (PE); and spent yeast (YE). The impact of this fortification on the total and bioaccessible mineral composition of wheat breads, estimated mineral daily intake, and the relationship between bioaccessibility and dietary fibre was evaluated. Fortification with OE, EE, and PE improved the content of essential minerals in bread when compared to control bread. The exception was bread fortified with YE, which presented a mineral content similar to control bread, but its mineral bioaccessibility was significantly higher than in all the other bread formulations. The opposite was observed for PE bread, which presented a significant reduction of bioaccessible minerals. We concluded that the origin of the fibre rich extract must be carefully selected, to avoid potential negative impact on mineral bioaccessibility.

  6. The use of potato fibre to improve bread physico-chemical properties during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curti, Elena; Carini, Eleonora; Diantom, Agoura; Vittadini, Elena

    2016-03-15

    Bread staling reduction is a very important issue for the food industry. A fibre with high water holding capacity, extracted from potato peel, was studied for its ability to reduce bread staling even if employed at low level (0.4 g fibre/100 g flour). Physico-chemical properties (water activity, moisture content, frozen water content, amylopectin retrogradation) and (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance molecular mobility were characterised in potato fibre added bread over 7 days of storage. Potato fibre addition in bread slightly affected water activity and moisture content, while increased frozen water content and resulted in a softer bread crumb, more importantly when the optimal amount of water was used in the formulation. Potato fibre also reduced (1)H NMR molecular mobility changes in bread crumb during storage. Potato fibre addition in bread contributed to reduce bread staling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of health and environmental information on hedonic evaluation of organic and conventional bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, L E; Muralidharan, V; Boxall, P C; Cash, S B; Wismer, W V

    2008-05-01

    Grain from paired samples of the hard red spring wheat cultivar "Park" grown on both conventionally and organically managed land was milled and baked into 60% whole wheat bread. Consumers (n= 384) rated their liking of the bread samples on a 9-point hedonic scale before (blind) and after (labeled) receiving information about organic production. Consumers liked organic bread more (P bread under blind and labeled conditions. Environmental information about organic production did not impact consumer preference changes for organic bread, but health information coupled with sensory evaluation increased liking of organic bread. Ordinary least squares (OLS) and binary response (probit) regression models identified that postsecondary education, income level, frequency of bread consumption, and proenvironmental attitudes played a significant role in preference changes for organic bread. The techniques used in this study demonstrate that a combination of sensory and econometric techniques strengthens the evaluation of consumer food choice.

  8. Characteristics and oxidative stability of bread fortified with encapsulated shrimp oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirima Takeungwongtrakul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics and oxidative stability of bread fortified with micro-encapsulated shrimp oil (MSO were determined. The addition of MSO could improve the loaf volume of bread. Chewiness,gumminess and resilience of resulting bread were decreased. Bread crust and crumb showed higher redness and yellowness when MSO was incorporated (P<0.05. Microstructure study revealed that MSO remained intact with bread crumbs. The addition of MSO up to 3% had no adverse effect on bread quality and sensory acceptability. Oxidation took place in bread fortified with 5%MSO to a higher extent, compared with those with 1 or 3% MSO. Therefore, the bread could be fortified with MSO up to 3%.

  9. ABSORBABLE IRON IN BREAD: PROCEDURES OF ITS AUGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M SABZEVARY

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As many as 35 percent of the world population suffer from some degree of iron deficiency anemia. According to recent reports published by WHO and ICN (International Congress of Nutrition 20-40 percent of women are suffering from iron deficiency. Iron deficiency anemia is caused by lack of intake of the necessary doses of Fe+2 called Heme. The recommended intake dose is 10-17 mg Fe + 2/day. In Iran, bread is the main source of daily iron intake. However, the iron content of bread is Fe+3 which is not absorbable. The objectives of this study is to determine the levels of absorbable iron (Fe + 2 in two common types of Iranian bread and identify the means of raising these to an adequate levels.
    Methods: Random sampling method together with the normal distribution curve was employed in testing 120 samples of flour and bread. Quantification was carried out on each sample in duplicate using spectrophotometer at 510 mu, micrometer wave length. The effect of three organic acids (lactic ascorbic and acetic acid converting of Fe+3 to Fe + 2 was investigated. Two groups of bread was tested. One group was baked in tratitional oven (Noon-e-Tanoori and the second group through the common Iranian hot rotating iron plate baking machine (Noon-e-Machini.
    Results: Our results showed that the amount of absorbable Fe+2 in breads baked in rotatory oven (Noon-e-Tanoori is 0.8 ± 0.32 mg and the amount of unabsorbable Fe+3 in dried bread is 2.34 ± 0.25 mg/100 gm while the amount of absorbable Fe + 2 baked in traditional ovens is only 0.3±0.11 mg versus of unabsorbable Fe  + 3 1.9±0.13 mg/100 gm of dried bread. Meanwhile it was found that lactic and ascorbic acids can convert Fe+3 to Fe+2. Therefore, addition of one of these two acids to bread can catalyze conversion of unabsorbable Fe+3 to absorbable Fe + 2.
    Discussion: On the average an Iranian consumes 370 gm of

  10. AIDS in Mexican prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, J M; Roberts, J B

    1995-01-01

    The human rights organization Americas Watch, which toured Mexican prisons, reported in 1991 that all prisoners with HIV infection in the Mexico City area were housed in a single AIDS ward in Santa Marta Prison. In 1991, the 16-bed facility had 15 patients; in 1993, this number had increased by 5. In Mexico City, with 3 prisons holding over 2000 male adults each, there were only 20 known infected prisoners in the AIDS ward at Santa Marta. In 1991, authorities at Matamoros, in the state of Tamaulipas, insisted that none of their inmates had ever been diagnosed as infected with HIV. The prison physician at Reynosa indicated that only 2 inmates since 1985 had ever been diagnosed as infected. In 1992, the prison in Saltillo, in the state of Coahuila, reported that here had yet to be a single positive test for HIV. The prison at Reynosa held 1500 people and only 2 inmates were diagnosed as having AIDS between 1985 and 1991. Prisons at Matamoros and Saltillo held similar numbers but had no experience of infected inmates. A survey of 2 prisons in the state of Tamaulipas indicates that around 12% of the population may use IV drugs, and 9% indicate sharing needles. It is possible for prisoners to die of diseases like pneumonia, associated with AIDS, without the connection to AIDS being diagnosed. Each state, and possibly each prison in Mexico, has its own particular AIDS policies. Santa Marta was the single facility in Mexico City used to house AIDS-infected prisoners, who were segregated. Finally, the prison at Saltillo required all women entering the facility to have a medical examination, including a test for HIV. High-level prison personnel have demonstrated ignorance and fear of AIDS and intolerance of infected prisoners. Mexico must reassess the need to provide adequate medical care to offenders who are sick and dying behind bars.

  11. Mexican agencies reach teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Lemus, R; Beamish, J

    1992-08-01

    The Gente Joven project of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) trains young volunteers in 19 cities to spread messages about sexually transmitted diseases and population growth to their peers. They also distribute condoms and spermicides. It also uses films and materials to spread its messages. The project would like to influence young men's behavior, but the Latin image of machismo poses a big challenge. It would like to become more responsible toward pregnancy prevention. About 50% of adolescents have sexual intercourse, but few use contraceptives resulting in a high adolescent pregnancy rate. Many of these pregnant teenagers choose not to marry. Adolescent pregnancy leads to girls leaving school, few marketable skills, and rearing children alone. Besides women who began childbearing as a teenager have 1.5 times more children than other women. Male involvement in pregnancy prevention should improve these statistics. As late as 1973, the Health Code banned promotion and sales of contraceptives, but by 1992 about 50% of women of reproductive age use contraceptives. The Center for the Orientation of Adolescents has organized 8 Young Men's Clubs in Mexico City to involve male teenagers more in family planning and to develop self-confidence. It uses a holistic approach to their development through discussions with their peers. A MEXFAM study shows that young men are not close with their fathers who tend to exude a machismo attitude, thus the young men do not have a role model for responsible sexual behavior. MEXFAM's work is cut out for them, however, since the same study indicates that 50% of the young men believe it is fine to have 1 girlfriend and 33% think women should earn more than men. A teenager volunteer reports, however, that more boys have been coming to him for contraception and information than girls in 1992 while in other years girls outnumbered the boys.

  12. Sensory profile and evaluation of the degree of acceptability of bread produced with inulin and oligofructose

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Kelli de Souza-Borges; Ana Carolina Conti-Silva

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Homemade bread was produced with 4.4 and 4.45 g of total fructans per 50 g serving to meet Brazilian standards for prebiotic claims. The bread samples were characterized for their sensory profiles using descriptive analysis and for their sensory acceptability using hedonic and just-about-right scales for sweetness intensity. The sensory profiles of the breads were similar and sweetness was the term that discriminated the bread samples obtained, since the intensity decreased from the ...

  13. Effect of Buttermilk on the Physicochemical, Rheological, and Sensory Qualities of Pan and Pita Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jahani, Amani H.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of buttermilk on the physicochemical and sensory attributes of pan and pita breads. Different amounts of buttermilk (30, 60, and 100% of added water) were mixed with other ingredients of pan and pita bread formulations. The doughs and bread were analyzed for rheological, physicochemical, and sensory qualities. The results demonstrated that incorporation of different concentrations of buttermilk in bread formulations progressively enhanced wa...

  14. Reaction of Rust on Some Bread Wheat Varieties in Çukurova Region

    OpenAIRE

    AY, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted with 126 varieties of wheat between 2009-2010 years in Adana. There has not been artificially inoculated yellow, leaf and stem rusts. Races of rust in natural were evaluated in both years. Between 2009-2010 this study was conducted in Adana, with 126 varieties of bread wheat. In both years, only the natural environment leaf rust races inoculated for assessments reactions of bread wheat. According to results, 49 bread wheat varieties were found resistant, 6 bread wheat...

  15. HEALTH BENEFITS OF KVASS MANUFACTURED FROM RYE WHOLEMEAL BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Gambuś

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kvass based on traditional technology completely disappeared from polish market. It was replaced by drinks, prepared from malt concentrates, wrongly named kvass. The aim of this study was therefore to obtain traditional bread kvass (by fermentation, using the mash prepared from commercial wholemeal rye bread, produced by 5-phase dough fermentation method, and to determine the quality of this kvass in terms of consumer acceptance, chemical composition and antioxidant activity. It has been demonstrated that based on the traditional wholemeal rye bread, it is possible to produce good quality bread kvass, with similar organoleptic qualities to the commercial kvasses, which contain several added flavours and preservatives. Natural bread kvass can be consumed by consumers of all ages, since it contains only trace amounts of alcohol, and it has almost double the dietary fibre content and three times lower content of reducing sugars as compared to the commercial kvasses. Laboratory made kvasses by natural fermentation also showed an increase in antioxidant activity by 60%, when compared to commercial kvasses.

  16. Salt in bread in Europe: potential benefits of reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilez, Joan; Salas-Salvado, Jordi

    2012-11-01

    Bread is widely considered to be the foodstuff that provides the most dietary salt to the diet. As such, it is one of the key public health targets for a salt reduction policy. In this respect, it has been shown that a reduction in the salt content of bread is possible, and an alternative approach involves partial replacement with other, mainly potassium-based salts, which also counteract the effects of sodium. This replacement should be undertaken on the basis of criteria that maintain the product's sensory profile, and it tends to be more successful in breads with more naturally flavorful taste. The present review was conducted to examine salt intake in Europe and the health problems associated with its excessive consumption; particular focus is placed on the salt content of bread and the effects of its possible reduction and/or correction. The beneficial effects of such changes are highlighted by way of a theoretical calculation in baguette-type wheat bread. European legislation in the field of nutrition and health claims allows the positive aspects of such salt reduction and replacement methods to be stated. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  17. Higher bioavailability of iron from whole wheat bread compared with iron-fortified white breads in caco-2 cell model: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikooyeh, Bahareh; Neyestani, Tirang R

    2017-06-01

    Bread, as the staple food of Iranians, with average per capita consumption of 300 g d -1 , could potentially be a good vehicle for many fortificants, including iron. In this study, iron bioavailability from flat breads (three fortified and one whole wheat unfortified) was investigated using in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal digestion and absorption in a caco-2 cell model. Despite having a lower ferritin/protein ratio in comparison with fortified breads, whole wheat bread showed higher iron bioavailability than the other three types of bread. Assuming iron bioavailability from the ferrous sulfate supplement used as standard was about 10%, the estimated bioavailability of iron from the test breads was calculated as 5.0-8.0%. Whole wheat bread (∼8%), as compared with the fortified breads (∼5-6.5%), had higher iron bioavailability. Iron from unfortified whole wheat bread is more bioavailable than from three types of iron-fortified breads. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Consumer acceptance of salt-reduced 'soy sauce' bread over repeated in home consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Shimojo, R.; Holthuysen, N.T.E.; Koester, E.P.; Mojet, J.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of liking for salt reduced/re-formulated bread was tested in a home use test for three weeks. Salt was partially replaced by naturally brewed soy sauce. 56 Consumers were provided with regular bread (variant A) and another 59 were provided with salt-reduced soy sauce bread (variant B).

  19. Miniature bread baking as a timesaving research approach and mathematical modeling of browning kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lu; Putranto, Aditya; Zhou, Weibiao; Boom, Remko M.; Schutyser, Maarten A.I.; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2016-01-01

    Miniature bread baking is presented as an economical and timesaving laboratory approach to study the baking process in the present work. Results indicate that the miniature bread baking is essentially analogical to the baking process of regular-sized bread: quality-related properties of miniature

  20. 48 CFR 852.270-2 - Bread and bakery products-quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bread and bakery products... Bread and bakery products—quantities. As prescribed in 870.111-3, insert the following clause: Bread and Bakery Products—Quantities (JAN 2008) The bidder agrees to furnish up to 25 percent more or 25 percent...

  1. The effect of a default-based nudge on the choice of whole wheat bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van Ellen; Seijdell, Karen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.; Wijk, de René A.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2018-01-01

    Consumer choices are often influenced by the default option presented. This study examines the effect of whole wheat bread as a default option in a sandwich choice situation. Whole wheat bread consists of 100% whole grain and is healthier than other bread types that are commonly consumed, such as

  2. Potential effect of fortified pan bread with Aloe vera juice on alloxan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study was designed to investigate (1) the potential use of Aloe vera juice (AVJ) for fortification of pan bread with evaluates the sensory characteristics and the nutritive value. (2) The possible beneficial role of 5% and 10% AVJ-fortified bread against diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Bread fortified with ...

  3. Optimization of gluten-free formulations for French-style breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezaize, S; Chevallier, S; Le Bail, A; de Lamballerie, M

    2009-04-01

    The formulation of gluten-free bread, which will be suitable for patients with coeliac disease, was optimized to provide bread similar to French bread. The effects of the presence of hydrocolloids and the substitution of the flour basis by flour or proteins from different sources were studied. The added ingredients were (1) hydrocolloids (carboxymethylcellulose [CMC], guar gum, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose [HPMC], and xanthan gum), and (2) substitutes (buckwheat flour, whole egg powder, and whey proteins). The bread quality parameters measured were specific volume, dry matter of bread, crust color, crumb hardness, and gas cell size distribution. Specific volume was increased by guar gum and HPMC. Breads with guar gum had color characteristics similar to French bread. Hardness decreased with the addition of hydrocolloids, especially HPMC and guar. Breads with guar gum had the most heterogeneous cell size distribution, and guar gum was therefore selected for further formulations. Bread prepared with buckwheat flour had improved quality: an increased specific volume, a softer texture, color characteristics, and gas-cell size distribution similar to French bread. Bread with 1.9% guar gum (w/w, total flour basis) and 5% buckwheat flour (of all flours and substitutes) mimicked French bread quality attributes.

  4. Effect of a new starch-free bread on metabolic control in NIDDM patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Mehlsen, J; Hamberg, O

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect on blood glucose levels in non-insulin-dependent diabetics (NIDDM) of reduction of the carbohydrate content through the use of a new, almost starch-free type of bread (SF-bread). We only substituted the bread in the breakfast meal....

  5. Addition of enzymes to improve sensory quality of composite wheat–cassava bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serventi, Luca; Jensen, Sidsel; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Composite wheat–cassava (WC) bread was recently proposed as a sustainable alternative to wheat bread. Nonetheless, using >20 % cassava flour on flour basis in bread baking has consistently been proven to impair the sensory quality. Selected enzymes: fungal alpha-amylase Fungamyl® 2500 SG (Fungamy...

  6. Growth of Salmonella enterica and Staphylococcus aureus in no-knead bread dough during prolonged yeast fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Steven; Kim, Chyer; Jordan, Larry; Long, Wilbert; Inserra, Paula; Sayre, Brian

    2011-02-01

    A convenient bread making method involving prolonged fermentation of no-knead (nonkneaded) dough has become popular in recent years. In the present study, the microbial safety of no-knead dough made with a 375:325:5:1 weight ratio of flour, water, salt, and bread yeast was investigated. Three brands of dehydrated yeast were used for this study. The growth of inoculated Salmonella enterica and Staphylococcus aureus in no-knead dough during fermentation was significant (Pyeast brand. The multiplication rates of S. enterica in the initial 12 h and S. aureus over the entire 24 h of fermentation were positively correlated with fermentation temperatures of 21 to 38°C (Pbread may compromise consumer kitchen sanitation and food safety. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection

  7. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology.

  8. The Mexican Axolotl in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests and describes laboratory activities in which the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum Shaw) is used, including experiments in embryology and early development, growth and regeneration, neoteny and metamorphosis, genetics and coloration, anatomy and physiology, and behavior. Discusses care and maintenance of animals. (CS)

  9. Proverbs in Mexican American Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shirley L.

    1982-01-01

    Examines proverb use among 304 Mexican Americans (aged 16-85) of Los Angeles (California), assembling information on how or where particular proverbs were learned, with whom or what kind of individual their use is associated, the occasions on which they are used, and general attitudes toward the use of proverbs. (LC)

  10. Efficacy of a participatory intervention to remove the soda bread, From traditional bread processing in a city at 1387

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fazadkia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsBread is considered one of the most important nutritional sources in all societies. To prepare the ground for enrichment of floor and bread, the Iranian Ministry ofHealth and Medical Education was required in 2001 to enforce elimination of baking soda from the process of preparing traditional breads. Various legal and statutory means have been used in the past years to enforce the elimination, including inspections, taking legal proceedings against infringing bakers, etc. The results, however, have been far from satisfactory in large cities.MethodsThe aim of the present Quasi -experimental study was to design and develop a participative model for elimination of baking soda from processing of traditional breads and to determine knowledge, attitude, and practice in study and control groups, performed in Andisheh New City in 2008.Results All interviewed persons were female by mean age 38 ±11 years.89( 72% had education hStatistical analysis showed that the knowledge, attitude, and practice of bakers in  intervention group differed significantly after the intervention was made (p-value< 0.001.ConclusionFocusing solely on legal and statutory measures seems insufficient in fully eliminating baking soda from processing breads and inter-sectoral cooperation merits further  attention. Besides, the currently applied educational programs should be revised to meet real learning needs with further emphasis on participative aspects of public health programs.

  11. Strategies to Extend Bread and GF Bread Shelf-Life: From Sourdough to Antimicrobial Active Packaging and Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Melini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bread is a staple food worldwide. It commonly undergoes physico-chemical and microbiological changes which impair its quality and shelf-life. Staling determines organoleptic impairment, whereas microbiological spoilage causes visible mould growth and invisible production of mycotoxins. To tackle this economic and safety issue, the bakery industry has been working to identify treatments which allow bread safety and extended shelf-life. Physical methods and chemical preservatives have long been used. However, new frontiers have been recently explored. Sourdough turned out an ancient but novel technology to preserve standard and gluten-free bread. Promising results have also been obtained by application of alternative bio-preservation techniques, including antifungal peptides and plant extracts. Active packaging, with absorbing and/or releasing compounds effective against bread staling and/or with antimicrobials preventing growth of undesirable microorganisms, showed up an emerging area of food technology which can confer many preservation benefits. Nanotechnologies are also opening up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry and the consumers. This work thus aims to provide an overview of opportunities and challenges that traditional and innovative anti-staling and anti-spoilage methods can offer to extend bread shelf-life and to provide a basis for driving further research on nanotechnology applications into the bakery industry.

  12. Respiratory symptoms and sensitization in bread and cake bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T A; Smith, P W

    1998-07-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exposure to wheat flour, soya flour and fungal amylase and the development of work-related symptoms and sensitization in bread and cake bakery employees who have regular exposure to these substances. The study populations consisted of 394 bread bakery workers and 77 cake bakery workers whose normal jobs involved the sieving, weighing and mixing of ingredients. The groups were interviewed with the aim of identifying the prevalence, nature and pattern of any work-related respiratory symptoms. They were also skin-prick tested against the common bakery sensitizing agents, i.e., wheat flour, soya flour, rice flour and fungal amylase. The results of personal sampling for sieving, weighing and mixing operations at the bakeries from which the study groups were taken were collated in order to determine typical exposures to total inhalable dust from the ingredients, expressed as 8 hour time-weighted average exposures. Data from the health surveillance and collated dust measurements were compared with the aim of establishing an exposure-response relationship for sensitization. The prevalence of work-related symptoms in bread bakery and cake bakery ingredient handlers was 20.4% and 10.4% respectively. However, in a large proportion of those reporting symptoms in connection with work, the symptoms were intermittent and of short duration. It is considered that the aetiology of such symptoms is likely to be due to a non-specific irritant effect of high total dust levels, rather than allergy. None of the cake bakers and only 3.1% of the bread bakers had symptoms which were thought to be due to allergy to baking ingredients. Using skin-prick testing as a marker of sensitization, the prevalence of positive tests to wheat flour was 6% for the bread bakers and 3% for the cake bakers. Comparable prevalences for soya flour were 7% and 1% respectively. However, the prevalence of positive skin-prick tests to fungal amylase

  13. Influence of bread volume on glycaemic response and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Pat; Lightowler, Helen J

    2006-11-01

    The role of carbohydrates in health and disease has received a high profile in recent years, in particular the glycaemic index (GI) as a physiological classification of carbohydrate foods. A common carbohydrate source in the UK is white bread, which is considered to have a high GI value and low satiety value. In the present study, the possibility of favourably altering the GI of white bread by manipulating bread structure (loaf form) was investigated. In a randomised repeated-measures design, ten subjects were tested for glycaemic and satiety responses to four loaves of varying volume, but of consistent macronutrient content. Peak plasma glucose levels and GI values were shown to be significantly reduced by lowering loaf volume (P=0.007, Pbread, which is generally considered to be high-GI and low-SI, can favourably alter metabolic and appetite responses. Relatively small differences in the GI of regularly consumed starch foods have been shown to have beneficial effects on health.

  14. Thermodynamics of bread baking: A two-state model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Ulrich

    2014-03-01

    Bread baking can be viewed as a complex physico-chemical process. It is governed by transport of heat and is accompanied by changes such as gelation of starch, the expansion of air cells within dough, and others. We focus on the thermodynamics of baking and investigate the heat flow through dough and find that the evaporation of excess water in dough is the rate-limiting step. We consider a simplified one-dimensional model of bread, treating the excess water content as a two-state variable that is zero for baked bread and a fixed constant for unbaked dough. We arrive at a system of coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which are solved using a standard Runge-Kutta integration method. The calculated baking times are consistent with common baking experience.

  15. Radionuclides in noodles and bread consumed in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Mao, S.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Most of the natural occurring radionuclides in both noodles and bread are found to have specific activities below the detectable limit of the high purity germanium (n-type) spectrometer system of the EG and G Ortec Company. For dried bread, 40 K, 137 Cs and 60 Co are found to be 44.45∼84.52, -3 ∼0.074 Bq/kg respectively. The weighted committed dose equivalents due to the ingestion of 137 Cs from noodles and bread for a male and female adults have been estimated to be 0.5 and 0.6 μSv, respectively, being less than the values recommended by ICRP

  16. Bioethanol production from waste bread samples made from mixtures of wheat and buckwheat flours

    OpenAIRE

    Ačanski, Marijana; Pastor, Kristian; Razmovski, Radojka; Vučurović, Vesna; Psodorov, Đorđe

    2014-01-01

    In this paper yields of bioethanol from seven samples of bread were compared. Samples of bread were produced and prepared in a laboratory by mixing wheat and buckwheat flour in amounts of 0, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100%. At first, the analysis of all seven samples of bread was done (dry matter, starch content and pH value of bread sample suspensions). Then the waste bread suspensions were hydrolyzed by applying commercial hydrolytic enzymes, Termamyl® SC and SAN Extra® L. The fermentation proc...

  17. Bread fortified with anthocyanin-rich extract from black rice as nutraceutical sources: Its quality attributes and in vitro digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Weibiao

    2016-04-01

    Anthocyanin-rich black rice extract powder (ABREP) as a nutraceutical source was fortified into bread. The quality and digestibility behaviors of bread with ABREP were evaluated through instrumental and in vitro digestion studies. The quality of bread with 2% of ABREP was not significantly (p>0.05) different from the control bread; however, increasing the ABREP level to 4% caused less elasticity and higher density of bread. A mathematical model was further developed to systemically describe the trajectory of bread digestion. The digestion rates of bread with ABREP were found to be reduced by 12.8%, 14.1%, and 20.5% for bread with 1%, 2%, and 4% of ABREP, respectively. Results of the study suggest that the fortification of anthocyanins into bread could be an alternative way to produce functional bread with a lower digestion rate and extra health benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural changes of starch during baking and staling of rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihhalevski, Anna; Heinmaa, Ivo; Traksmaa, Rainer; Pehk, Tõnis; Mere, Arvo; Paalme, Toomas

    2012-08-29

    Rye sourdough breads go stale more slowly than wheat breads. To understand the peculiarities of bread staling, rye sourdough bread, wheat bread, and a number of starches were studied using wide-angle X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C CP MAS NMR, (1)H NMR, (31)P NMR), polarized light microscopy, rheological methods, microcalorimetry, and measurement of water activity. The degree of crystallinity of starch in breads decreased with hydration and baking to 3% and increased during 11 days of storage to 21% in rye sourdough bread and to 26% in wheat bread. (13)C NMR spectra show that the chemical structures of rye and wheat amylopectin and amylose contents are very similar; differences were found in the starch phospholipid fraction characterized by (31)P NMR. The (13)C CP MAS NMR spectra demonstrate that starch in rye sourdough breads crystallize in different forms than in wheat bread. It is proposed that different proportions of water incorporation into the crystalline structure of starch during staling and changes in starch fine structure cause the different rates of staling of rye and wheat bread.

  19. Recycling of waste bread as culture media for efficient biological treatment of wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Pil-Jin; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Chang-Soo; Qureshi, T.I.

    2012-01-01

    Possibilities of recycling of waste bread as culture media for efficient biological treatment of wastewater were investigated. In order to get the highest growth of microorganism for increased contaminants' removal efficiency of the system, different compositions of waste bread and skim milk with and without adding Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) were tested. Mixed waste bread compositions with added PAC showed relatively higher number of microorganisms than the compositions without added PAC. A composition of 40% mixed waste bread and 60% skim milk produced highest number of microorganisms with subsequent increased contaminants' removal efficiency of the system. 'Contrast' alone showed lower contaminants' removal efficiency than mixed bread compositions. Use of waste bread in the composition of skim milk reduced cost of using foreign source of nutrients in biological treatment of wastewater and also facilitated waste bread management through recycling. (author)

  20. Iodine content in bread and salt in Denmark after iodization and the influence on iodine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, Lars; Christensen, Tue

    2007-01-01

    Objective To measure the iodine content in bread and household salt in Denmark after mandatory iodine fortification was introduced and to estimate the increase in iodine intake due to the fortification. Design The iodine content in rye breads, wheat breads and salt samples was assessed. The incre......, and the current fortification level of salt ( 13 ppm) seems reasonable.......% of the rye breads and 90% of the wheat breads were iodized. The median iodine intake from bread increased by 25 ( 13-43) mu g/day and the total median iodine intake increased by 63 (36-104) mu g/day. Conclusions The fortification of bread and salt has resulted in a desirable increase in iodine intake...

  1. Pilot Study: Comparison of Sourdough Wheat Bread and Yeast-Fermented Wheat Bread in Individuals with Wheat Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijo Laatikainen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many patients suspect wheat as being a major trigger of their irritable bowel syndrome (IBS symptoms. Our aim was to evaluate whether sourdough wheat bread baked without baking improvers and using a long dough fermentation time (>12 h, would result in lower quantities of alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs and Fermentable, Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides and Polyols (FODMAPs, and would be better tolerated than yeast-fermented wheat bread for subjects with IBS who have a poor subjective tolerance to wheat. The study was conducted as a randomised double-blind controlled 7-day study (n = 26. Tetrameric ATI structures were unravelled in both breads vs. baking flour, but the overall reduction in ATIs to their monomeric form was higher in the sourdough bread group. Sourdough bread was also lower in FODMAPs. However, no significant differences in gastrointestinal symptoms and markers of low-grade inflammation were found between the study breads. There were significantly more feelings of tiredness, joint symptoms, and decreased alertness when the participants ate the sourdough bread (p ≤ 0.03, but these results should be interpreted with caution. Our novel finding was that sourdough baking reduces the quantities of both ATIs and FODMAPs found in wheat. Nonetheless, the sourdough bread was not tolerated better than the yeast-fermented bread.

  2. Postprandial differences in the plasma metabolome of healthy Finnish subjects after intake of a sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread versus white wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykkänen Hannu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanism behind the lowered postprandial insulin demand observed after rye bread intake compared to wheat bread is unknown. The aim of this study was to use the metabolomics approach to identify potential metabolites related to amino acid metabolism involved in this mechanism. Methods A sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread (RB and a standard white wheat bread (WB as a reference were served in random order to 16 healthy subjects. Test bread portions contained 50 g available carbohydrate. In vitro hydrolysis of starch and protein were performed for both test breads. Blood samples for measuring glucose and insulin concentrations were drawn over 4 h and gastric emptying rate (GER was measured. Changes in the plasma metabolome were investigated by applying a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics platform (GC×GC-TOF-MS. Results Plasma insulin response to RB was lower than to WB at 30 min (P = 0.004, 45 min (P = 0.002 and 60 min (P in vitro protein digestibility. There were no differences in GER between breads. From 255 metabolites identified by the metabolomics platform, 26 showed significant postprandial relative changes after 30 minutes of bread intake (p and q values Conclusions A single meal of a low fibre sourdough rye bread producing low postprandial insulin response brings in several changes in plasma amino acids and their metabolites and some of these might have properties beneficial for health.

  3. Comparison of the effects of different heat treatment processes on rheological properties of cake and bread wheat flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucsella, Blanka; Takács, Ágnes; Vizer, Viktoria; Schwendener, Urs; Tömösközi, Sándor

    2016-01-01

    Dry and hydrothermal heat treatments are efficient for modifying the technological-functional and shelf-life properties of wheat milling products. Dry heat treatment process is commonly used to enhance the volume of cakes. Hydrothermal heat treatment makes wheat flours suitable as thickener agents. In this study, cake and bread wheat flours that differed in baking properties were exposed to dry (100 °C, 12 min) and hydrothermal (95 °C, 5 min, 5-20 l/h water) heat treatments. Rheological differences caused by the treatments were investigated in a diluted slurry and in a dough matrix. Dry heat treatment resulted in enhanced dough stability. This effect was significantly higher in the cake flour than the bread flour. Altered viscosity properties of the bread flour in the slurry matrix were also observed. The characteristics of hydrothermally treated samples showed matrix dependency: their viscosity increases in the slurry and decreases in the dough matrix. These results can support us to produce flour products with specific techno-functional properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of optimum values for maximizing the profit in bread production: Daily bakery Sdn Bhd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muda, Nora; Sim, Raymond

    2015-02-01

    An integer programming problem is a mathematical optimization or feasibility program in which some or all of the variables are restricted to be integers. In many settings the term refers to integer linear programming (ILP), in which the objective function and the constraints (other than the integer constraints) are linear. An ILP has many applications in industrial production, including job-shop modelling. A possible objective is to maximize the total production, without exceeding the available resources. In some cases, this can be expressed in terms of a linear program, but variables must be constrained to be integer. It concerned with the optimization of a linear function while satisfying a set of linear equality and inequality constraints and restrictions. It has been used to solve optimization problem in many industries area such as banking, nutrition, agriculture, and bakery and so on. The main purpose of this study is to formulate the best combination of all ingredients in producing different type of bread in Daily Bakery in order to gain maximum profit. This study also focuses on the sensitivity analysis due to changing of the profit and the cost of each ingredient. The optimum result obtained from QM software is RM 65,377.29 per day. This study will be benefited for Daily Bakery and also other similar industries. By formulating a combination of all ingredients make up, they can easily know their total profit in producing bread everyday.

  5. Effect of sweet yeast bread formula on evaluating rapid mix test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dvořáková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to detect how different sweet yeast bread formulas influence results of rapid mix test and by the help of sensory analysis to discover consumer preferences and possible benefit and use in bakery industry. Applied raw materials (ground wheat flour T 530, yeast, sugar, salt, oil, egg, improver Hit along with basic formula were taken from the Varmužova bakery in Boršice by Buchlovice. The basic formula served as a standard (I, other six formulas were then determined (II–VII. In each formula, the rate of yeast, sugar or oil was altered in the range of ± 10% compared with the standard. Flour bread-making quality – Hagberg Falling number [s], Sedimentation index [ml], wet gluten [%], ash [%], moisture [%], binding capacity [%], granulation [%], alveographic energy [10−4J] and alveographic rate P/L – was measured. Rapid mix test and parameters like pastry weight, volume, shape, dough yield, pastry yield, baking loss, penetration and sensory analysis were determined. To establish yeast fermentation activity, Engelke fermentation test was applied. The most evident differences among the samples appeared in the volume and shape. The results of sensory analysis showed that the samples with higher rate of altered raw materials were evaluated as the best.

  6. PARAMETER ESTIMATION IN BREAD BAKING MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyanto Hadiyanto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bread product quality is highly dependent to the baking process. A model for the development of product quality, which was obtained by using quantitative and qualitative relationships, was calibrated by experiments at a fixed baking temperature of 200°C alone and in combination with 100 W microwave powers. The model parameters were estimated in a stepwise procedure i.e. first, heat and mass transfer related parameters, then the parameters related to product transformations and finally product quality parameters. There was a fair agreement between the calibrated model results and the experimental data. The results showed that the applied simple qualitative relationships for quality performed above expectation. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the microwave input is most meaningful for the internal product properties and not for the surface properties as crispness and color. The model with adjusted parameters was applied in a quality driven food process design procedure to derive a dynamic operation pattern, which was subsequently tested experimentally to calibrate the model. Despite the limited calibration with fixed operation settings, the model predicted well on the behavior under dynamic convective operation and on combined convective and microwave operation. It was expected that the suitability between model and baking system could be improved further by performing calibration experiments at higher temperature and various microwave power levels.  Abstrak  PERKIRAAN PARAMETER DALAM MODEL UNTUK PROSES BAKING ROTI. Kualitas produk roti sangat tergantung pada proses baking yang digunakan. Suatu model yang telah dikembangkan dengan metode kualitatif dan kuantitaif telah dikalibrasi dengan percobaan pada temperatur 200oC dan dengan kombinasi dengan mikrowave pada 100 Watt. Parameter-parameter model diestimasi dengan prosedur bertahap yaitu pertama, parameter pada model perpindahan masa dan panas, parameter pada model transformasi, dan

  7. Breaking bread with female 'criminals': towards generation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breaking bread with incarcerated women incarcerated in prisons is a decolonising methodological framework which aims to bring the voices of an otherwise silenced population into the mainstream criminological discourse. In throwing their voices, women were able to single out what was and still is significant in their lives ...

  8. Purification and Characterization of α-Amylase from Waste Bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.Irshad

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... The objective of this study was to purify and characterize the α-amylase for industrial perspective. The production of α-amylase through solid-state fermentation by Ganoderma tsuage was investigated by using waste bread as substrates. Production parameters were optimized as 2 mL of inoculum size,.

  9. Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Bread Enriched with Broccoli Sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Sęczyk, Łukasz; Złotek, Urszula; Różyło, Renata; Kaszuba, Kinga; Ryszawy, Damian; Czyż, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    This study is focused on antioxidant and anticancer capacity of bread enriched with broccoli sprouts (BS) in the light of their potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Generally, bread supplementation elevated antioxidant potential of product (both nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant capacities); however, the increase was not correlated with the percent of BS. A replacement up to 2% of BS gives satisfactory overall consumers acceptability and desirable elevation of antioxidant potential. High activity was especially found for extracts obtained after simulated digestion, which allows assuming their protective effect for upper gastrointestinal tract; thus, the anticancer activity against human stomach cancer cells (AGS) was evaluated. A prominent cytostatic response paralleled by the inhibition of AGS motility in the presence of potentially mastication-extractable phytochemicals indicates that phenolic compounds of BS retain their biological activity in bread. Importantly, the efficient phenolics concentration was about 12 μM for buffer extract, 13 μM for extracts after digestion in vitro, and 7 μM for extract after absorption in vitro. Our data confirm chemopreventive potential of bread enriched with BS and indicate that BS comprise valuable food supplement for stomach cancer chemoprevention. PMID:25050366

  10. The Physiological Effect of Detarium Bread Meal on the Postprandial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study elicited the effect of Detarium bread meal on the post prandial plasma glucose and insulin levels of non insulin dependent diabetic mellitus (NIDDM) subjects. Subject and Method: This is a clinical study that involved twelve African and Afro-Caribbean men with NIDDM. These men were screened and ...

  11. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sprouted soybean flour on wheat bread was studied. Sprouting significantly increased the vitamin C content of soybean flour from 2.0 mg kg-1 to 3.25 mg kg-1. The sprouted soybean flour resulted in increased loaf volume, a firmer, spongy and more elastic loaf. However, increasing the sprouted soybean flour ...

  12. Development and Evaluation of Charcoal-Powered Bread Baking Oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimasunya E

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal-powered bread baking oven was developed and evaluated with functional efficiencies of 91.2% and 92.1% for baking dough of mass 0.5kg and 1.5 kg to bread at BP of 27.7minutes, 35.9 minutes with the baking temperature (BT of 153.8 oC and 165.9 oC respectively. Baking temperature-heating interval of the oven as computed at 100 oC at 20 minutes at charcoal emitted heat of 861000 KJ. The oven has the capacity of generating 455.9 oC at 270 minutes time interval. The oven has bread baking capacities of 56, 36, 28, 22 and 18 pieces of bread per batch operation using dough mass of 0.5kg, 0.75kg, 1.00kg, 1.250kg and 1.500kg respectively. It is sensitive to the baking time and temperature in relation to dough mass with resolution value of 0.22. Charcoal-powered oven, is cheap and efficient and can be used both in the rural and urban settlement for domestic consumption and smallscale business.

  13. Numerical and experimental characterization of a batch bread baking oven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploteau, J.P.; Nicolas, V.; Glouannec, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the thermal characterization of an electrical static oven used for bread baking. The heating is provided by natural convection, infrared radiation and conduction with a cement slab. The paper describes a methodology to apprehend the heat flux which is applied to the products during baking. The oven was experimentally investigated and a finite element numerical model is established. The monitoring of temperatures at various points in the installation and of electrical power is carried out. Then, to characterize thermal exchanges around the bread during curing, thermal responses of a cylindrical sample is also measured. The numerical model made it possible to calculate the heat flux exchanges with the product, while separating the contributions of convection and radiation. The comparison of simulated responses with experimental data shows the relevance of the model. - Highlights: ► This study concerns the thermal characterization of an electric static oven used for bread baking. ► An original, experimental and numerical approach of thermal problem is proposed. ► Contributions by radiation and convection are separated. ► The goal is to provide boundary conditions for numerical models of bread baking. ► Results are encouraging to optimize energy consumption in industrial oven.

  14. A new look at old bread: ancient Egyptian baking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delwen Samuel

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite abundant archaeological, pictorial and textual evidence of ancient Egyptian life and death, we have little detailed information about the staple diet of most of the population. Now experimental work by a postdoctoral Wellcome Research Fellow in Bioarchaeology at the Institute is revealing how the ancient Egyptians made their daily bread.

  15. Cracks in bread crust cause longer crispness retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirte, A.; Hamer, R.J.; Hoffmann, L.; Primo Martin, C.

    2013-01-01

    Crispness is among the most important factors that the consumer uses to assess the quality of crispy bread. However, this quality attribute is rapidly lost after baking. It is known that crispness retention can be increased more than eight times by enhancing the water vapor permeability of the

  16. Mineral content in French type bread with sodium replacement using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineral content in French type bread with sodium replacement using fluorescence spectrometry X-rays by energy dispersive. Thaisa A. Souza Gusmão, Rennan P. De Gusmão, Severina De Sousa, Mário Eduardo R. Moreira Cavalcanti Mata, Maria Elita M Duarte, Rossana Maria F. De Figuereido, Ricardo T Moreira ...

  17. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olise, Felix S., E-mail: felix_olise@rushpost.com [Department of Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 220005 (Nigeria); Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P. [CFA: Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A. [IST/CTN: Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear (CTN), EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); CFA: Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The PIXE technique has been used to determine K and Br in a major Nigerian food item. • Samples were analysed using two proton beam energies, namely 1.25 MeV and 2.15 MeV. • Mismatched Ca results reflect its nature and accuracy/precision of the procedure. • Explanations for the presence of the contaminant in the samples are presented. • Other sources originating from erroneous burning of dangerous products suspected. -- Abstract: The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO{sub 3}) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO{sub 3} levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about −16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples.

  18. QUALITY EVALUATION OF WHEAT-PUMPKIN-GOLDEN FLAXSEED COMPOSITE BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Gabriela CODINĂ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to optimize the level of wheat, pumpkin seed (PSF and golden flaxseed flour (GFs that can be used in order to obtain high quality bread. The independent variables levels used were between 90 and 95 % for wheat flour and between 2.5% and 7.5% for pumpkin seed and golden flaxseed flour. The quality parameters analyzed were the following: loaf volume, porosity, elasticity and bread crumb structure. The mixture experiment design was used for optimization. Special quadratic mixture models were obtained for all the dependent variables. The optimum mixture levels were of 92.43% for wheat flour, 5.06% for pumkin seed flour and 2.51% for golden seed flour. The values of these flours in terms of loaf volume of bread, porosity and elasticity were of 422 cm3/100g, 76.15%, and 92.82%, respectively. The textural properties (hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, viscosity, elasticity, gumminess, chewiness were analyzed for the control sample and the optimum bread sample obtained with PSF and GFs addition. For the last one mentioned hardness, elasticity, gumminess and chewiness increase with 25.03%, 7.31%, 23.41%, 25.77% while the cohesiveness value decreases with 1.47%.

  19. Molecular markers for drought tolerance in bread wheat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... Molecular markers for drought tolerance in bread wheat. Tharwat El Ameen. Department of Genetics, South Valley University, Qena, 83523, Egypt. Accepted 3 May, 2013. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers associated with drought tolerance was used in this study to characterize drought ...

  20. Response of bread wheat ( Tritcum aestivum L. ) to nitrogen after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop rotation is a common practice in the study area, but there is no enough information on the specific rate of nitrogen to be applied after legumes for wheat production. Hence, on farm field experiments were conducted to determine the amount of nitrogen fertilizer rates needed for bread wheat after chick pea, grass pea, ...

  1. Identification of bitter compounds in whole wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Deshou; Peterson, Devin G

    2013-11-15

    Bitterness in whole wheat bread can negatively influence product acceptability and consumption. The overall goal of this project was to identify the main bitter compounds in a commercial whole wheat bread product. Sensory-guided fractionation of the crust (most bitter portion of the bread sample) utilising liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, ultra-filtration and 2-D offline RPLC revealed multiple bitter compounds existed. The compounds with the highest bitterness intensities were selected and structurally elucidated based on accurate mass-TOF, MS/MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Eight bitter compounds were identified: Acortatarins A, Acortatarins C, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural(HMF), 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4(H)-pyran-4-one (DDMP), N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl)-l-tryptophan (ARP), Tryptophol (TRO), 2-(2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl-1H-pyrrole-1-yl)butanoic acid (PBA) and Tryptophan (TRP). Based on the structures of these compounds, two main mechanisms of bitterness generation in wheat bread were supported, fermentation and Maillard pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of Romanian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, fourteen bread wheat varieties, twelve of which were introduced into Turkey from Romania, were evaluated for grain yield and seven agronomic properties in Biga, Çanakkale in northwest part of Turkey in 2005 - 2006 and 2006 - 2007 growing seasons. The objectives of the research, carried out in a completely ...

  3. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... additives as defined in section 201(s) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; or if they are food... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  4. Yr10 gene polymorphism in bread wheat varieties | Temel | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yellow rust resistance locus Yr10 located on chromosome 1B in Moro and originated from the Turkish line PI178383 was investigated in terms of polymorphism in seven winter type bread wheat cvs. (Triticum aestivum ssp. Aestivum) Altay2000, zgi2001, Sönmez2001 (yellow rust resistant), Aytýn98, ES14, Harmankaya99 ...

  5. Response of bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) to application of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both biological and partial budget analysis reveals that the use of N at rate of 64 kg N ha-1 as UREAStabil and 64 kg N ha-1 as conventional urea could give optimum bread wheat yield in Hawzien and in Emba Alaje, respectively, and in areas where the rainfall distribution and soil type is similar with study districts where ...

  6. Genetic diversity among old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 88; Issue 3. Genetic diversity among old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars and botanical varieties evaluated by ITS rDNA PCR-RFLP markers. A. Carvalho H. Guedes-Pinto J. Lima-Brito. Research Note Volume 88 Issue 3 December 2009 pp 363-367 ...

  7. Quality assessment of flour and bread from sweet potato wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to assess the quality of the flour and bread produced from sweet potato wheat composite flour blends. Matured and freshly harvested sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) was obtained from a local market in Akure, Nigeria. The tubers were thoroughly washed, peeled, washed again, drained, chipped, oven dried, ...

  8. Supplementary data: Genetic diversity among old Portuguese bread ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table 1. Passport data of the old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars (2n = 6x = 42;. AABBDD). Cultivar passport code Botanical variety. Cultivar name. 1 milturum. Alentejano. 23 milturum. Eborense. 33 milturum. Galego Rapado. 51 milturum. Mocho de Espiga Ruiva. 4 lutescens. Almadense. 34 lutescens. Gentil Rosso. 48.

  9. The effects of commercial fibres on frozen bread dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA FILIPOVIĆ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The daily intake of dietary fibres in highly industrialized countries is at a low level and, therefore, adversely affecting human health. The objective of this research was to analyze the influence of different commercial fibres (originating from sugar beet pulp fibrex, and Jerusalem artichoke inulin HPX and GR in yeast dough at a level of 5 %, on the rheological properties of dough and the quality of bread during frozen storage. Frozen dough characteristics were determined using a Brabender maturograph and test baking was followed according the AACC procedure. The dough was frozen at –18 °C and stored over a period of 60 days. The results concerning the dough (proving time and stability and bread quality (volume and crumb quality were statistically analyzed by multivariance Manova and discriminative analysis, which indicated that there was a significant difference between dough without fibres and dough with different fibres (fibrex, inulin HPX and GR. The discrimination coefficient points that the greatest influence of fibres on the final proof and proving stability is after 30 days (6.250 and after 0 days (6.158, respectively, but the greatest influence of fibres on bread volume and bread crumb quality (15.488 and 3.638, respectively can be expected on non frozen dough, due to above mention their adverse the effect on gluten network.

  10. Inclusion of sweet sorghum flour in bread formulations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Inclusion of sweet sorghum flour in bread formulations. Veronica Freitas Pires Araujo1, Wellingthon da Silva Guimaraes Junnyor1, Marco Antonio. Pereira da Silva1* ..... Revista Brasileira de Saúde e. Produção Animal.

  11. Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Bread Enriched with Broccoli Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Gawlik-Dziki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on antioxidant and anticancer capacity of bread enriched with broccoli sprouts (BS in the light of their potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Generally, bread supplementation elevated antioxidant potential of product (both nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant capacities; however, the increase was not correlated with the percent of BS. A replacement up to 2% of BS gives satisfactory overall consumers acceptability and desirable elevation of antioxidant potential. High activity was especially found for extracts obtained after simulated digestion, which allows assuming their protective effect for upper gastrointestinal tract; thus, the anticancer activity against human stomach cancer cells (AGS was evaluated. A prominent cytostatic response paralleled by the inhibition of AGS motility in the presence of potentially mastication-extractable phytochemicals indicates that phenolic compounds of BS retain their biological activity in bread. Importantly, the efficient phenolics concentration was about 12 μM for buffer extract, 13 μM for extracts after digestion in vitro, and 7 μM for extract after absorption in vitro. Our data confirm chemopreventive potential of bread enriched with BS and indicate that BS comprise valuable food supplement for stomach cancer chemoprevention.

  12. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olise, Felix S.; Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P.; Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The PIXE technique has been used to determine K and Br in a major Nigerian food item. • Samples were analysed using two proton beam energies, namely 1.25 MeV and 2.15 MeV. • Mismatched Ca results reflect its nature and accuracy/precision of the procedure. • Explanations for the presence of the contaminant in the samples are presented. • Other sources originating from erroneous burning of dangerous products suspected. -- Abstract: The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO 3 ) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO 3 levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about −16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples

  13. Estimation of trace metal contents in locally-baked breads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.; Rehman, S.

    2013-01-01

    In order to establish base line levels, estimation of some essential trace metals (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) has been conducted in four brands of fifteen locally baked breads of Rawalpindi /Islamabad area employing Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The samples were digested in a mixture of nitric acid and perchloric acid and the analysis was done with air-acetylene flame. The reliability of the procedure employed was verify by analyzing Standard Reference Material, i.e., wheat flour (NBS-SRM-1567) for its Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn contents which were in good agreement with the certified values. The results revealed that brown breads contained higher amount of Fe 177.3 micro g g/sup -1/and Zn 19.27 micro g g/sup -1/while levels of Cu 21.90 micro g g/-sup 1/was found higher in the samples of plain bread. The determined metal concentrations in the bread samples were compared with the reported values for other countries. The effect of kneading/baking/slicing processes on the concentration levels of these metals was also studied. The daily intake of these metals through this source was calculated and compared with the recommended dietary allowance. (author)

  14. Bioaccessibility and bioavailability of phenolic compounds in bread: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelino, Donato; Cossu, Marta; Marti, Alessandra; Zanoletti, Miriam; Chiavaroli, Laura; Brighenti, Furio; Del Rio, Daniele; Martini, Daniela

    2017-07-19

    Cereal-based products, like breads, are a vehicle for bioactive compounds, including polyphenols. The health effects of polyphenols like phenolic acids (PAs) are dependent on their bioaccessibility and bioavailability. The present review summarizes the current understanding of potential strategies to improve phenolic bioaccessibility and bioavailability and the main findings of in vitro and in vivo studies investigating these strategies applied to breads, including the use of raw ingredients with greater phenolic content and different pre-processing technologies, such as fermentation and enzymatic treatment of ingredients. There is considerable variability between in vitro studies, mainly resulting from the use of different methodologies, highlighting the need for standardization. Of the few in vivo bioavailability studies identified, acute, single-dose studies demonstrate that modifications to selected raw materials and bioprocessing of bran could increase the bioavailability, but not necessarily the net content, of bread phenolics. The two medium-term identified dietary interventions also demonstrated greater phenolic content, resulting from the modification of the raw materials used. Overall, the findings suggest that several strategies can be used to develop new bread products with greater phenolic bioaccessibility and bioavailability. However, due to the large variability and the few studies available, further investigations are required to determine better the usefulness of these innovative processes.

  15. Transfer of stripe rust resistance from Aegilops variabilis to bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of area, the bread wheat producing regions of China comprise the largest area in the world that is constantly threatened by stripe rust epidemics. Consequently, it is important to exploit new adultplant resistance genes in breeding. This study reports the transfer of stripe rust resistance from Aegilops variabilis to ...

  16. Freezing effect on bread appearance evaluated by digital imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Inna Y.

    1999-01-01

    In marketing channels, bread is sometimes delivered in a frozen sate for distribution. Changes occur in physical dimensions, crumb grain and appearance of slices. Ten loaves, twelve bread slices per loaf were scanned for digital image analysis and then frozen in a commercial refrigerator. The bread slices were stored for four weeks scanned again, permitted to thaw and scanned a third time. Image features were extracted, to determine shape, size and image texture of the slices. Different thresholds of grey levels were set to detect changes that occurred in crumb, images were binarized at these settings. The number of pixels falling into these gray level settings were determined for each slice. Image texture features of subimages of each slice were calculated to quantify slice crumb grain. The image features of the slice size showed shrinking of bread slices, as a results of freezing and storage, although shape of slices did not change markedly. Visible crumb texture changes occurred and these changes were depicted by changes in image texture features. Image texture features showed that slice crumb changed differently at the center of a slice compared to a peripheral area close to the crust. Image texture and slice features were sufficient for discrimination of slices before and after freezing and after thawing.

  17. New tariffs confuse Mexican market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeyman, M.

    1992-01-01

    Indelpro - the Grupo Alfa/Himont joint venture 150,000-m.t./year polypropylene (PP) plant in Altamira, Mexico - has been working to find its place in the Mexican market since coming onstream in March. At the same time, that market has been complicated by the imposition of import and export tariffs by the U.S. Department of Commerce early this fall. Commerce's accession to a 10% ad valorem tax on US PP exports to Mexico surprised some industry observers. The tariff is scheduled to be phased out within 10 years and is partly countermanded by a 5% tariff over a five-year period on Mexican PP exports to the US. But some market analysts say the arrangement is baffling

  18. INFLUENCE OF NATURAL ADDITIVES ON PROTEIN COMPLEX OF BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Urminská

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on researching the influence of natural additives on certain technological characteristics of mixtures used for bread production, more particularly the influence of N substances in used raw material on selected qualitative parameters of bread. The blends for bread production to be analysed were prepared by mixing wheat flour with an addition of oat, buckwheat, lentil and chickpea wholegrain flour in different portions (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The experiment showed that the addition of natural additives worsened the protein complex of the blends used in bread production (worsening also qualitative parameters known as product volume. The loaves prepared with an addition of buckwheat, oat, lentil and chickpea were evaluated to be of a lesser quality from a technological viewpoint when compared with pure wheat loaves. The lower content of gluten forming proteins and the generally changed protein composition of blends due to additives caused a lower percentage of wet gluten content, its lower extensibility and swelling capacity. The sedimentation value (Zeleny index decreased proportionally with the increase of addition until the level was unsatisfactory for raw material intended for bakery purposes. The N content in experimental loaves was higher than in the reference loaves and it increased according to the selected additive and its portion in the blend (more with the addition of lentil and chickpea, less in case of buckwheat and oat which is considered as positive from a nutritional point of view. But from the technological point of view the additives did not show any positive influence and caused a lower loaf bread volume. The most significant decrease of the loaf bread volume was found with the addition of 50 % of buckwheat (- 45.6 %. Better results were obtained with a lower portion of the additive: loaf with an addition of 30 % of chickpea (volume decreased by 12.8 % > loaf with an addition of 30 % of lentil (volume

  19. NAFTA and the Mexican Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-04

    its loans. Then President Miguel de la Madrid took steps to open and liberalize the Mexican economy and initiated procedures to replace import...capita income in countries. 24 Lessons from NAFTA, 2005. 25 Economia , “NAFTA and Convergence in North America: High Expectations, Big Events, Little Time...Easterly, Norbert Fiess, and Daniel Lederman, Economia , “NAFTA and Convergence in North America: High Expectations, Big Events, Little Time,” Fall 2003. The

  20. Marketing mix strategies of bread producers in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Ejup Fejza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing is a fundamental or core function of the business which more than any other business function deals with customers and their satisfaction. Creation and implementation of a successful marketing strategy in business is very crucial, especially when we deal with a business such is bread manufacturing. Thus, the purpose of the research was to analyze the development of marketing as an organizational function of bread manufacturers companies in Kosovo, to analyze their marketing strategies and to provide clear recommendations for companies that do not use marketing strategies. During the research I have find that bread producers do not even have established a marketing department and/or do not have employed a marketing or sales person. Only few companies, three out of fifteen, intend to establish marketing department in the future, which is a sign that bread producers still do not see marketing as core function in their activities. They do think more on production than on sales and marketing. None of the companies have promotional activities regularly and only two of them exhibits regularly on the trade fairs in Kosovo and only one company exhibited abroad. There should be continuous insistence of manufacturing companies to advance marketing department, creating a special unit of market research and behavior with consumer. The data for research were collected through questionnaire in fifteen bread manufacturing companies. Methods used for research have been descriptive, comparative, analysis, and synthesis. The research instrument was a questionnaire, the technique has been direct communication and research was conducted between months June up to September 2009.

  1. A study on fibre addition to gluten free bread: its effects on bread quality and in vitro digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarini, L S; Bustos, M C; Vignola, M B; Paesani, C; Salinas, C N; Pérez, G T

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of fibre addition on gluten-free (GF) dough properties and bread technological quality, and on protein and starch in vitro digestibility. Soluble (Inulin, In) and insoluble fibres (oat fibre, OF, and type IV resistant starch, RSIV) were used at 5 and 10% substitution levels. Dough firmness increased when insoluble fibres were added, and decreased when In was used. Incorporation of insoluble fibres resulted into bread with a low specific volume (SBV) since firmer dough were more difficult to expand during proofing and baking. Staling rate was reduced after fibre addition, with the exception being OF 10%, as its lower SBV may have favoured molecule re-association. In general, protein and starch digestibility increased when fibres were added at 5%, and then decreased after further increasing the level. Fibres may have disrupted bread crumb structure, thus increasing digestibility, although the higher addition may have led to a physical and/or chemical impediment to digestion. Inulin has well-known physiological effects, while RS presented the most important effect on in vitro starch digestibility (GI). These results showed the possibility of adding different fibres to GF bread to decrease the GI and increase protein digestibility, while obtaining an overall high quality end-product.

  2. Impact of α-amylase during breadmaking on in vitro kinetics of starch hydrolysis and glycaemic index of enriched bread with bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Penella, Juan Mario; Laparra, José Moisés; Haros, Monika

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays, the use of enzymes has become a common practice in the bakery industry, as they can improve dough quality and texture of final product. However, the use of α-amylases could have a negative effect in the glycaemic load of product, due to the released sugars from the starch hydrolysis that are not used by yeasts during the fermentation process. This study evaluated the effect of the addition of α-amylase in bakery products with bran on in vitro kinetics of starch hydrolysis. The use of flour with a high degree of extraction or high bran amount could decrease the GI even with the inclusion of α-amylase in the formulation. It should be taken into account the amount of bran and α-amylase when formulating breads in order to obtain products with lower GI than white bread. However, the fact that kinetics of starch hydrolysis remained unaltered indicates that the use of α-amylase in bread-making processes could provide technological advantages improving quality of breads without markedly changes in their glycaemic index.

  3. Effects of chemical composition and baking on in vitro digestibility of proteins in breads made from selected gluten-containing and gluten-free flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tong; Taylor, Cheryl; Nebl, Thomas; Ng, Ken; Bennett, Louise E

    2017-10-15

    Breads prepared from cereal grains are a dietary staple, providing a significant proportion of daily energy, but not necessarily of dietary protein. However, good digestibility of proteins in bread is important to avoid potential immunogenic effects of undigested peptides, including for those gluten-intolerant. Four gluten-containing (white wheat, wholemeal wheat, spelt and rye) and four gluten-free (chick pea, lupin, buckwheat, amaranth) flours were used to make yeast-leavened breads standardized for protein. In vitro gastro-intestinal digestion of pre-mixes, doughs and breads baked for 20 and 35min was conducted followed by correlation analysis between fitted parameters of digestion profiles, chemical composition (protein, non-fibre carbohydrates, fibre, ash and total polyphenolics) and amino acid profiles. The results indicated that digestibility generally increased during proofing and decreased during baking. Relatively higher protein digestibility was correlated with ratio of non-fibre carbohydrate to protein and lower digestibility with increasing contents of fibre and total polyphenolics in pre-mixes. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Effect of consumption of bread with amaranth (Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell.) on glycemic response and biochemical parameters in Sprague dawley rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Quintero, Keyla Carolina; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Molina, Edgar Alí; Colina-Barriga, Máximo Segundo; Sánchez-Urdaneta, Adriana Beatriz

    2014-11-01

    The incorporation of functional ingredients like amaranth (Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell.) in bread making is a strategy to increase fiber intake, which is associated with beneficial health effects, improving glycemic response and lipid profile. Thirty male Sprague dawley rats were randomized into three groups: diet of bread with 0% amaranth (PA0, control), diet of bread with 10% amaranth (PA10) and bread diet with 20% amaranth (PA20) for determining the feed intake, weight gain, triglyceride, total cholesterol, VLDL-C, LDL-C, HDL-C, protein and postprandial glycemic response. Data were analyzed using a completely randomized with 10 replications analysis, using the comparison test of Tukey for biochemical parameters. Postprandial glycemic response was analyzed by the method of repeated measures over time. The daily intake and weight gain was not affected (P>0.05) in the groups with PA10 and PA20. The concentration of glucose, triglycerides and protein showed statistically significant differences (P>0.05) by the difference in content of amaranth diets. The values of total cholesterol, LDL-C, and atherogenic risk factor index were statistically significant (P. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Avaliação de óleos essenciais de condimentos sobre o desenvolvimento micelial de fungos associados a produtos de panificação Evaluation of condiments essential oils on micelial growth of fungi associated to bread-making products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sára Maria Chalfoun de Souza

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito "in vitro" de óleos essenciais dos condimentos alho (Allium sativum L., canela (Cinnamomum burnannil Meissn, cravo-da-índia (Caryophillus aromaticus L. e tomilho (Thymus vulgaris L., que foram adicionados aos meios de cultura (BDA E CYA20S. Os óleos foram extraídos pela técnica de arraste a vapor e testados nas concentrações de 500; 1000; 1500 e 2000 mg/mL, exceto o cravo, que foi testado nas concentrações de 200; 400; 600 e 800 mg/mL. Como culturas-teste, foram utilizados os fungos Rhizopus sp.; Penicillium spp.; Eurotium repens e Aspergillus niger, isolados de pães envelhecidos. O óleo essencial da canela inibiu completamente o desenvolvimento dos fungos testados. Os óleos de tomilho e alho tiveram o mesmo efeito nas concentrações mais altas. O cravo inibiu o desenvolvimento dos fungos Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp. e Eurotium repens com a concentração de 600 mg/mL e do fungo Penicillium spp. com a de 800 mg/mL.The objective of this work was to evaluate the "in vitro" effect of essential oils of garlic (Allium sativum L., cinnamon (Cinnmomum burnannil Meissn, clove (Caryophillus aromaticus L. and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. condiments that were added to culture media (PDA and CYA 20S. The essential oils were extracted by utilizing the vapor "dragging" technique and tested in the concentrations of 500; 1000; 1500 and 2000 mg/mL, exept clove, which was tested in concentrations of 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/mL. The fungi Rhizopus sp., Penicillium spp., Eurotium repens and Aspergillus niger, isolated of breads discarded for consumption. The cinnamon essential oil inhibited completely the tested fungi development. The thyme and garlic oils presented a pronounced effect at the higher concentrations. The essencial oil of clove inhibited the growth of Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp. and Eurotium repens at concetrations above 600 mg/mL and of Penicillium above 800 mg/mL.

  6. Influence of Barley Sourdough and Vacuum Cooling on Shelf Life Quality of Partially Baked Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Summary Driven by the bakery industry urge to satisfy consumer demand for fresh, diverse and high quality bakery products, we investigated the influence of barley sourdough and vacuum cooling on shelf life quality of partially baked bread stored in modified atmosphere packaging at ambient conditions. Barley sourdough was fermented with Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 20016, F275). Partially baked bread with sourdough was microbiologically acceptable during 30 days of storage, while bread without sourdough had detectable mould on the 30th day. Stored bread samples were rebaked after 1, 8, 15, 22 and 30 days to determine moisture content, physical and sensorial properties. Moisture loss (5%) was detected on the 15th day, after which it remained stable until the end of investigated storage period. Nevertheless, textural quality of stored bread continuously declined due to crumb firming. Bread flavour did not change during mould-free storage time. The principal component analysis identified major differences in the flavour of sour and control bread, also in crumb firmness and moisture content of samples. This study indicates the positive role of barley sourdough fermented with L. reuteri in improving crumb texture for at least 15 days, and ensuring mould- and bacteria-free partially baked bread for 30 days. Vacuum cooling combined with sourdough improved bread shape, porosity, and reduced sour taste, crust colouring and crumbliness. Hence, it can successfully extend shelf life quality of partially baked bread in modified atmosphere packaging. PMID:29540981

  7. Modification of appetite by bread consumption: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Anton, Carolina; Artacho, Reyes; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria D; Gil, Angel; Mesa, Maria D

    2017-09-22

    The inclusion of different ingredients or the use of different baking technologies may modify the satiety response to bread, and aid in the control of food intake. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic search of randomized clinical trials on the effect of bread consumption on appetite ratings in humans. The search equation was ("Bread"[MeSH]) AND ("Satiation"[MeSH] OR "Satiety response"[MeSH]), and the filter "clinical trials." As a result of this procedure, 37 publications were selected. The satiety response was considered as the primary outcome. The studies were classified as follows: breads differing in their flour composition, breads differing in ingredients other than flours, breads with added organic acids, or breads made using different baking technologies. In addition, we have revised the data related to the influence of bread on glycemic index, insulinemic index and postprandial gastrointestinal hormones responses. The inclusion of appropriate ingredients such as fiber, proteins, legumes, seaweeds and acids into breads and the use of specific technologies may result in the development of healthier breads that increase satiety and satiation, which may aid in the control of weight gain and benefit postprandial glycemia. However, more well-designed randomized control trials are required to reach final conclusions.

  8. Monotonous consumption of fibre-enriched bread at breakfast increases satiety and influences subsequent food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touyarou, Peio; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Gagnaire, Aude; Issanchou, Sylvie; Brondel, Laurent

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to observe the influence of the monotonous consumption of two types of fibre-enriched bread at breakfast on hedonic liking for the bread, subsequent hunger and energy intake. Two groups of unrestrained normal weight participants were given either white sandwich bread (WS) or multigrain sandwich bread (MG) at breakfast (the sensory properties of the WS were more similar to the usual bread eaten by the participants than those of the MG). In each group, two 15-day cross-over conditions were set up. During the experimental condition the usual breakfast of each participant was replaced by an isocaloric portion of plain bread (WS or MG). During the control condition, participants consumed only 10 g of the corresponding bread and completed their breakfast with other foods they wanted. The results showed that bread appreciation did not change over exposure even in the experimental condition. Hunger was lower in the experimental condition than in the control condition. The consumption of WS decreased energy intake while the consumption of MG did not in the experimental condition compared to the corresponding control one. In conclusion, a monotonous breakfast composed solely of a fibre-enriched bread may decrease subsequent hunger and, when similar to a familiar bread, food intake. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Impact of new ingredients obtained from brewer's spent yeast on bread characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Z E; Pinho, O; Ferreira, I M P L V O

    2018-05-01

    The impact of bread fortification with β-glucans and with proteins/proteolytic enzymes from brewers' spent yeast on physical characteristics was evaluated. β-Glucans extraction from spent yeast cell wall was optimized and the extract was incorporated on bread to obtain 2.02 g β-glucans/100 g flour, in order to comply with the European Food Safety Authority guidelines. Protein/proteolytic enzymes extract from spent yeast was added to bread at 60 U proteolytic activity/100 g flour. Both β-glucans rich and proteins/proteolytic enzymes extracts favoured browning of bread crust. However, breads with proteins/proteolytic enzymes addition presented lower specific volume, whereas the incorporation of β-glucans in bread lead to uniform pores that was also noticeble in terms of higher specific volume. Overall, the improvement of nutritional/health promoting properties is highlighted with β-glucan rich extract, not only due to bread β-glucan content but also for total dietary fibre content (39% increase). The improvement was less noticeable for proteins/proteolytic enzymes extract. Only a 6% increase in bread protein content was noted with the addition of this extract and higher protein content would most likely accentuate the negative impact on bread specific volume that in turn could impair consumer acceptance. Therefore, only β-glucan rich extract is a promising bread ingredient.

  10. Effects on bread and oil quality after functionalization with microencapsulated chia oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Agustín; Martínez, Marcela L; León, Alberto E; Ribotta, Pablo D

    2018-03-23

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids-rich oils suffer oxidation reactions that alter their chemical and organoleptic quality. Microencapsulation can be a powerful tool for protection against ambient conditions. In the present study, the addition of microencapsulated chia oil as an ingredient in bread preparations and its effect on the technological and chemical quality of breads was investigated. Microencapsulation of chia oil was carried out by freeze-drying with soy proteins as wall material and oil release was determined under in vitro gastric and intestinal conditions. Encapsulated oil-containing bread showed no differences in specific volume, average cell area, firmness and chewiness with respect to control bread. Unencapsulated oil-containing bread showed a marked increase in hydroperoxide values respect to control, whereas encapsulated oil-containing bread values were not affected by baking and bread storage. The fatty acid profiles showed a decrease of 13% and 16%, respectively, in α-linolenic acid in the encapsulated and unencapsulated oils with respect to bulk chia oil. Sensory analysis showed no significant differences between bread samples. The addition of encapsulated chia oil did not alter the technological quality of breads and prevented the formation of hydroperoxide radicals. A ration of encapsulated oil-containing bread contributes 60% of the recommended dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Physical and antioxidant properties of gluten-free bread enriched with carob fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różyło, Renata; Dziki, Dariusz; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Biernacka, Beata; Wójcik, Monika; Ziemichód, Alicja

    2017-07-01

    There are no reports of addition of carob fibre to gluten-free bread, as only carob germ flour was used. The research task was to determine what level of carob fibre can be used and how it influences the physical and sensorial properties of gluten-free bread. Especially, the knowledge of the antioxidant properties of such bread is very valuable. The gluten-free bread from rice, corn, and buckwheat flour (35:35:30%) was prepared after mixing (5 min), proofing (40 min, 30°C), and baking (45-50 min, 230°C) of dough. Carob fibre was added in the amounts of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% of the total flour content. The results showed that increased content of carob fibre induced significant and favourable changes in the volume, colour, and texture (hardness and springiness) of the bread crumb. Carob fibre enriched the breads with lipophilic compounds able to chelate metal ions. The activity of hydrophilic compounds was significantly higher in the case of control bread and bread with the lowest percentage of the additive. In conclusion, the highest increase in antioxidant activity was found for breads with 1 and 2% of carob fibre. The most acceptable gluten-free bread can be obtained by adding up to 2% of carob.

  12. Effects of aqueous extract of Cinnamomum verum on growth of bread spoilage fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monir Doudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Food waste has been identified as a considerable problem and bread is the most wasted food. This study aimed to evaluate In-vitro anti-fungal activity of cinnamon extract on bread spoilage fungi and to determine its anti-fungal effect in the bread slices. At first, the MIC and MFC values of the extract were determined against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium notatum and Rhizopus oryzae. Then, Aspergillus sp was selected to assess antifungal activities of different doses of cinnamon extract in bread slices. Cinnamon extract at a dose of 64 mg/ml completely inhibited all standard and bread isolated fungi. This concentration of extract also inhibited Aspergillus growth on bread slices and delayed colony formation but adversely affected the sensory characteristics of bread. Cinnamon extract at 32 mg/ml not only delayed fungal growth, but also improved bread shelf life and delayed its staling. Moreover, 32mg/ml of extract did not adversely affect bread aroma, flavor and texture. However, sodium acetate inhibited the growth of Aspergillus sp but is not recommended for fungal control because it is considered as chemical. Therefore 32 mg/ml of extract is recommended for increasing the shelf-life of flat bread.

  13. Characteristics of bread prepared from wheat flours blended with various kinds of newly developed rice flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, S; Suzuki, K; Ohtsubo, K

    2009-04-01

    Characteristics of the bread prepared from wheat flour blended with the flour of various kinds of newly developed rice cultivars were investigated. Qualities of the bread made from wheat flour blended with rice flour have been reported to be inferior to those from 100% wheat flour bread. To improve its qualities, we searched for the new-characteristic rice flours among the various kinds of newly developed rice cultivars to blend with the wheat flour for the bread preparation. The most suitable new characteristic rices are combination of purple waxy rice, high-amylose rice, and sugary rice. Specific volume of the bread from the combination of wheat and these 3 kinds of rice flours showed higher specific volume (3.93) compared with the traditional wheat/rice bread (3.58). We adopted the novel method, continuous progressive compression test, to measure the physical properties of the dough and the bread in addition to the sensory evaluation. As a result of the selection of the most suitable rice cultivars and blending ratio with the wheat flour, we could develop the novel wheat/rice bread, of which loaf volume, physical properties, and tastes are acceptable and resistant to firming on even 4 d after the bread preparation. To increase the ratio of rice to wheat, we tried to add a part of rice as cooked rice grains. The specific volume and qualities of the bread were maintained well although the rice content of total flour increased from 30% to 40%.

  14. Recent advances in possible effects of bread types and enrichment on appetite during Ramadan fasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Movahed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bread is the staple food of most Muslims and can be considered to be a component with a remarkable effect on satiety and appetite during Ramadan fasting. This study aimed to present the recent advances in investigating the effect of different types of bread and enrichments on satiety and appetite. Methods: In this paper, articles focusing on the effect of various bread types (including enriched bread on satiety and appetite, particularly during fasting were reviewed. Articles were found in databases such as ISI, PubMed and Google Scholar. Results: Different bread types with lower glycemic index are recommended for Ramadan fasting, especially for the Sahur meal, due to better satiety and sglycemic control. In addition, fermentable dietary fibers, such as arabinoxylans, β-glucan, fructans, and resistant starch, can influence appetite through fermentation in the colon by saccharolytic bacteria and gastrointestinal tract releasing hormones changes. Consumption of wholemeal bread results in the moderation of satiety and starvation. Barely, oat and rye breads demonstrate the better improvement of satiety compared to white wheat bread due to their higher fiber content, probiotic ingredients and steadier glycemia. On the other hand, use of protein-rich breads can result in delayed gastric emptying, steadier insulin levels and higher satiety. Beta-glucan enrichment shows similar significant results in terms of reducing hunger and increasing satiety by influencing the appetite and satiety and regulating hormones such as insulin, ghrelin and PYY. Fiber enrichment and probiotics (Fructo-oligosaccharides/Inulin could also be considered in this regard. Conclusion: During Ramadan fasting, barley bread, oat bread and wholegrain wheat bread could be suggested as the preferred bread types to be incorporated into the main meals to improve satiety and decrease hunger feeling.

  15. Nut-enriched bread is an effective and acceptable vehicle to improve regular nut consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Asika; Chisholm, Alexandra; Gray, Andrew; Tey, Siew Ling; Williamson-Poutama, Destynee; Cameron, Sonya L; Brown, Rachel C

    2016-10-01

    Consuming 30 g of nuts/day is recommended to reduce chronic disease. However, nut consumption appears far from ideal among several populations. A potential strategy to increase consumption is to add nuts to a staple, for example, bread. Whether the health benefits and acceptability of nuts persist in this form is currently unknown. Thus, we examined the effects of consuming three nut-enriched breads on postprandial glycaemia, satiety, gastrointestinal tolerance, dietary intakes, and acceptance. In this controlled, crossover study, 32 participants were randomly allocated to receive one of four breads for 8 days each. Three breads contained either 30 g of finely sliced hazelnuts, 30 g semi-defatted hazelnut flour, or 15 g of each (amounts per 120 g bread) and were compared with a control nut-free bread. Blood glucose response was measured over 120 min, along with ratings of gastrointestinal discomfort. Appetite ratings and diet diaries were completed during each treatment period. Area under the blood glucose curve was significantly lower for the nut breads compared to the control bread (all P breads (all P ≥ 0.130). There were no significant differences in satiety (all P ≥ 0.135) or gastrointestinal symptoms (all P ≥ 0.102) between the breads. Acceptance was highest for the finely sliced hazelnut bread. Furthermore, consuming hazelnut-enriched bread improved diet quality, increasing monounsaturated fat, vitamin E, and dietary fibre intakes. Bread appears to be an effective and acceptable vehicle for increasing nut consumption, resulting in improved postprandial glycaemia and diet profiles. Long-term studies are now required.

  16. Quality characterization of wheat, maize and sorghum steamed breads from Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhabutlane, Pulane; du Rand, Gerrie E; de Kock, Henriëtte L

    2014-08-01

    In Lesotho, traditional bread covers different types of dumplings prepared with cereal flour, water, salt and sourdough. This study characterized eight steamed breads prepared from wheat, maize and sorghum. Breads were prepared from both commercial and self-milled flours according to the procedures followed in rural and urban areas of Lesotho. Descriptive sensory evaluation was conducted to profile sensory properties of the breads. Flour particle sizes, sourdough properties and bread colour, volume and texture were also characterized. The type of cereal and milling properties of the flour used had substantial effects on the physical and sensory properties of the bread. Steamed wheat breads had greater volume, softer crumb and more bland flavour compared with sorghum and maize breads. Both sorghum and maize steamed breads prepared according to traditional Basotho procedures were characterized by low loaf volume, denser crumb, more complex and strong flavours and aroma, notably sour, musty, malty, dairy sour and fermented aroma. The texture of the non-wheat bread types was heavy, chewy, dry, fibrous and more brittle and needed a higher compression force to deform. This study provided insight on the sensory properties of steamed bread as prepared in Lesotho. Further research is needed to optimize sensory properties of the non-wheat steamed breads by controlling the flour particle size, compositing non-wheat flours with different levels of wheat flour, addition of protein sources and gums, altering the amount of water, improving the pre-gelatinization process and optimizing the steaming method of cooking bread. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Wheat Bread with Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) Pulp
as a Functional Food Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różyło, Renata; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Dziki, Dariusz; Jakubczyk, Anna; Karaś, Monika; Różyło, Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    In this study, a new application of pumpkin pulp in bread production is shown. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the addition of fresh pumpkin pulp directly into wheat flour on physical, sensorial and biological properties of bread. The bioaccessibility of active compounds was also studied. An increase in the addition of pumpkin pulp from 5 to 20% (converted to dry matter) caused a decrease of bread volume and increase of crumb hardness and cohesiveness. The sensory characteristics of the bread showed that a partial replacement of wheat flour with up to 10% of pumpkin pulp gave satisfactory results. The taste, aroma and overall acceptability of control bread and bread containing 5 or 10% of pulp had the highest degree of liking. The addition of higher levels of pumpkin pulp caused an unpleasant aroma and taste. Pumpkin pulp is a good material to complement the bread with potentially bioaccessible phenolics (including flavonoids) and, especially, with peptides. The highest antioxidant activity was observed, in most cases, of the samples with added 10 and 15% of pumpkin pulp. The addition of the pulp significantly enriched the bread with potentially bioaccessible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. The highest activity was determined in the bread with 15 and 20% pumpkin pulp. ACE inhibitors from the tested bread were highly bioaccessible in vitro . Pumpkin pulp seems to be a valuable source of active compounds to complement the wheat bread. Adding the pulp directly to the wheat flour gives satisfactory baking results and reduces the cost of production. Additionally, pumpkin pulp is sometimes treated as waste material after the acquisition of seeds, thus using it as bread supplement also has environmental and economic benefits. Key words : pumpkin, bread, texture, antioxidants, bioaccessibility in vitro, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition.

  18. Multi-element analysis of wheat flour and white bread by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godinez A, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    One of the best source of feeding even for the human being as for animals are the Cereals. Although they are mainly energetic aliment, due to its composition in starch, they are a very important source of proteins and amino acids. They contribute mineral elements to the diet. Even those elements constitute a very small part of the total diet, they take a very important place in many human metabolic processes. To make a multielemental analysis of an aliment is very important that we are based on a very sensible analytic technique so we are able to find them, just as the Neutronic Activation. This Nuclear technique allows you to make a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the elements that are in a sample, but it does n't show the way in which the elements are presented. It is based in turning those elements into radioactive ones through its exposition to an uniform and constant fluid of neutrons, so then its radioactivity can be determined. The present work has as a main purpose to make a multielemental analysis of the wheat flour and white bread through the Neutronic Activation Technique, using the comparator method and establishing previously the most appropriate work conditions as much irradiation as digestion and measuring of the radioactivity of the sample. In this way, it was able to know that the wheat flour has potassium, chlorine, magnesium, sodium, iron, zinc, manganese, rubidium and selenium elements in a concentration of 2000, 700, 500, 25, 18, 13, 5.5, 0.9 and 0.01 - 0.3 mg/g respectively. In an other hand it was found that the white bread has the same elements than the wheat flour but its concentration was: 1700, 9000, 400, 7000, 52, 13, 6, 1 and 0.05 - 0.3 mg/g respectively. (Author)

  19. Optimum level of salt in French-type bread. Influence of income status, salt level in daily bread consumption, and test location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, M; Flores, A; Hough, G; Apro, N; Ferreyra, V; Orbea, M M

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of the present study were to measure the ideal salt concentration in French-type bread among Argentine consumers in a home-usage-test (HUT) considering income status and salt content of daily bread consumption as covariables, and to compare the ideal salt concentrations measured in a HUT and a central-location test (CLT). For the HUT, 420 consumers each received a sample of bread with a single salt concentration, and for the CLT, 100 consumers each received 7 samples with different salt concentrations. For each sample, consumers responded if they found the bread "not-salty-enough,"okay," or "too-salty." Neither income level nor salt content of daily bread influenced probability of rejection. The optimum sodium concentrations (milligrams per 100 g of bread dry basis) +/- 95% confidence limits for the HUT and CLT were 980 +/- 74 and 1157 +/- 87, respectively. These values are substantially higher than 628, the mean sodium content of the bread sampled from the bakery shops where consumers bought their daily bread.

  20. Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappi, J; Mykkänen, H; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundRye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism...... and plasma level of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs).  MethodsTwenty-one (12 women) of 23 recruited subjects completed an intervention with a four-week run-in and two four-week test periods in cross-over design. White wheat bread (WW; 3% fibre) was consumed during the run-in, and WGR and BRB + WW (10% fibre.......05) and propionate (p = 0.009) at 30 min increased during both rye bread periods.ConclusionsBeneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than...

  1. Business opportunities in the Mexican dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Armenta Gutierrez, B.M.; Poelarends, J.J.; Valk, van der O.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the Mexican and Dutch business opportunities in the dairy industry in Mexico. The report discusses first the external environment of the Mexican dairy sector: the economic developments, the country's overall competitiveness, and the economic and agricultural policies. Next, it

  2. Stress Resilience among Border Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern; Dugas, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors distinguishing Mexican American women living near the U.S.-Mexican border who are resilient to the experience of stress from those who are not. The study sample consisted of 418 participants ranging in age from 20 to 61 years. Data were gathered through a self-report survey instrument composed of…

  3. Mexican Women, Migration and Sex Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Reynaldo; Dexter, Bryan

    1985-01-01

    Compares Mexican women involved in migration to understand how their sex roles and status have been affected. Uses data from two separate studies: ethnography on migrants' wives left at home in a Mexican village and a survey of unauthorized immigrants in the Los Angeles area. (SA)

  4. A Turnover Model for the Mexican Maquiladoras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertz, Carl P.; Stevens, Michael J.; Campion, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    From interviews with 47 Mexican maquiladora workers, a model of voluntary turnover was created and compared with models from the United States, Canada, England, and Australia. Despite similarities, the cultural and economic environment affected the precise content of antecedents in the Mexican model. (Contains 63 references.) (SK)

  5. Historical, Socio-Cultural, and Conceptual Issues to Consider When Researching Mexican American Children and Families, and other Latino Subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Buriel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order for the field of psychology in the United States to maintain its relevance and validity, it must become more inclusive in its theory and research of Latinos, who are now the largest "minority" group in the nation. In particular, due to immigration and birth rates, Mexican Americans are the largest and fastest growing segment of the Latino population. This paper addresses some of the most significant historical and socio-cultural factors contributing to the psychological nature and wellbeing of Mexican Americans. These factors should be understood and used to guide research and theory in order to make the discipline of psychology relevant for Mexican Americans. The concept of mestizaje is used to explain the biological and cultural mixing constituting the diverse origins of the Mexican people. Immigration to the U.S. is described in terms of selective socio-cultural variables giving rise to a diverse Mexican American culture that is resistant to complete assimilation. Within a U.S. context, the constructs of generational status, acculturation, and biculturalism are used to explain the socio-cultural adaptation of Mexican Americans. The special role of children in immigrant families as language and cultural brokers are also discussed, and used to explain the adjustment of Mexican American families.

  6. Mitigation of the processing contaminant acrylamide in bread by reducing asparagine in the bread dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaiti, Tatiana; Granby, Kit

    2016-09-01

    Over the past few years there has been an increasing awareness regarding acrylamide (AAM) content of various foods. Although there are several relevant articles on AAM mitigation in industrially prepared products, the literature regarding homemade preparations is rather scarce. The objective of this study is to mitigate the AAM formation in baked buns made with 1:1 sifted wheat/wholegrain flour through the depletion of asparagine (ASN) in the bread dough. Using a full-factorial design, the effect of four factors (yeast amount, fermentation time, fermentation temperature and yeast types) was tested. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for AAM and its main precursor, ASN, determination. The resulting ASN depletion in the dough (68-89%) is significantly affected by fermentation time and yeast type, while AAM mitigation levels in the baked buns are significantly influenced by yeast amount, fermentation time and yeast type. The mean concentrations for each combination range between 5 and 15 µg kg(-)(1).

  7. Breakfast Dietary Patterns among Mexican Children Are Related to Total-Day Diet Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Hopkins, Sinead; Eldridge, Alison L; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-03-01

    Background: Mexico has experienced shifts in food availability and consumption patterns over the past few decades from traditional diets to those containing more high-energy density foods, resulting in the development of unhealthful dietary patterns among children and adults. However, to our knowledge it is not known whether breakfast consumption patterns contribute to the overall daily diet of Mexican children. Objective: We examined total-day diet among breakfast consumers compared with breakfast skippers, identified and investigated breakfast dietary patterns in relation to energy and nutrient intakes at breakfast and across the day, and examined these patterns in relation to sociodemographic characteristics. Methods: With the use of nationally representative dietary data (one 24-h recall) from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey, 3760 children aged 4-13 y were categorized into mutually exclusive breakfast patterns with the use of cluster analysis. The association between breakfast patterns and breakfast skippers with dietary intake at breakfast and for the total day was investigated with the use of multivariate linear regression. Results: Most children (83%) consumed breakfast. Six breakfast dietary patterns were identified (milk and sweetened breads, tortillas and beans, sweetened beverages, sandwiches and quesadillas, eggs, and cereal and milk) and reflected both traditional and more Westernized dietary patterns. Sugar-sweetened beverages were consumed across all patterns. Compared with all breakfast dietary patterns, breakfast skippers had the lowest intake of several nutrients of public health concern. Nutrients to limit that were high at breakfast tended to be high for the total day and vice versa for nutrients to encourage. Conclusions: There was not a single pattern that complied perfectly with the Mexican School Breakfast Guidelines, but changes such as increasing dietary fiber by encouraging more whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and

  8. Characteristics of remixed fermentation dough and its influence on the quality of steamed bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijian; Deng, Cui; Li, Haifeng; Liu, Changhong; Bian, Ke

    2015-07-15

    In this study, the effects of the amount of remixed flour on the properties of remixed fermentation dough and the quality of Chinese steamed breads were investigated. The hardness, chewiness and whiteness of steamed bread increased when the amount of remixed flour was higher than 10 g/100 g, whereas the specific volume of steamed bread significantly decreased. SEM analysis demonstrated that the gas cells of the steamed bread remained as a discrete spherical or oval-like entity only at 10 g/100 g level of remixed flour. Time-domain NMR showed that water migrated from T22 population to T21 population with increasing the amount of remixed flour. The XRD results indicated that starch in the steamed bread with remixed flour was gelatinized. A significant decrease of both the rate and extent of starch hydrolysis of the steamed bread was observed when flour was remixed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Starch and protein analysis of wheat bread enriched with phenolics-rich sprouted wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2017-08-01

    Wheat flour in the bread formula was replaced with sprouted wheat flour (SF) characterized by enhanced nutraceutical properties, at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% levels. The addition of SF slightly increased the total protein content; however, it decreased their digestibility. Some qualitative and quantitative changes in the electrophoretic pattern of proteins were also observed; especially, in the bands corresponding with 27kDa and 15-17kDa proteins. These results were also confirmed by SE-HPLC technique, where a significant increase in the content of proteins and peptides (molecular masses breads with 20% of SF. Bread enriched with sprouted wheat flour had more resistant starch, but less total starch, compared to control bread. The highest in vitro starch digestibility was determined for the control bread. The studied bread with lowered nutritional value but increased nutritional quality can be used for special groups of consumers (obese, diabetic). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. THE OCCURRENCE OF MICROMYCETES IN THE BREAD SAMPLES AND THEIR POTENTIAL ABILITY PRODUCE MYCOTOXINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Císarová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determinate microscopic fungi that can cause occurrence of mould in bread. We used breads from experimental baking with different addition of walnuts (0 - 15% as model samples. Bread samples were stored in the fridge, in plastic bags and in the bread box. After three days of storage 25% of samples were moldy. The middle parts of breads (4 pieces, that were not moldy, were stored on DRBC and cultured at 25±1oC for three days. All the colonies of micromycets were inserted on identification agar. Molding of bread samples was caused by species of genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium and Rhizopus. 28 strains of potentially toxigenic species of genera Aspergillus and Penicillium were tested by TLC method for the ability to produce chosen mycotoxins in conditions in vitro. We discovered the production of cyclopiazonic acid, penitrem A and roquefortin C using mentioned method.

  11. Combined effects of added beta glucan and black tea in breads on starch functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Abbe Maleyki M; Edwards, Christine A; Combet, Emilie; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Garcia, Ada L

    2015-03-01

    Bread and tea are usually consumed separately, but there may be different food-matrix interactions and changes in starch characteristics when they are combined in bread. This study developed breads (white bread, WF; black tea, BT; beta glucan, βG; beta glucan plus black tea, βGBT) and determined their starch functionalities. Breads were developed using a standard baking recipe and determined their starch characteristics. There was no significant difference in starch hydrolysis between BT and WF but βGBT reduced early (10 min) starch hydrolysis compared with βG. The starch granules in βG and βGBT were elliptical and closely packed together. These results suggest that the addition of beta glucan and black tea to bread preserved the elliptical starch granules and lowered short-term starch hydrolysis.

  12. Bread, beer and wine: yeast domestication in the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Delphine; Legras, Jean-Luc

    2011-03-01

    Yeasts of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto species complex are able to convert sugar into ethanol and CO(2) via fermentation. They have been used for thousands years by mankind for fermenting food and beverages. In the Neolithic times, fermentations were probably initiated by naturally occurring yeasts, and it is unknown when humans started to consciously add selected yeast to make beer, wine or bread. Interestingly, such human activities gave rise to the creation of new species in the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex by interspecies hybridization or polyploidization. Within the S. cerevisiae species, they have led to the differentiation of genetically distinct groups according to the food process origin. Although the evolutionary history of wine yeast populations has been well described, the histories of other domesticated yeasts need further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Overview on the General Approaches to Improve Gluten-Free Pasta and Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, Lucia; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The use of gluten-free products is increasing since a growing number of people are suffering from celiac disease and thereby need gluten-free diet. Gluten is responsible for the visco-elastic characteristics of wheat-based products; therefore, its lack makes the gluten-free products not similar to wheat-based product, with scarce textural properties. This reason constitutes the major industrial limitation. Thus, obtaining good-quality gluten-free products represents a technological challenge. This review reports the main strategies adopted to produce high quality gluten-free pasta and bread. They are mainly obtained by the utilization of specific ingredients (hydrocolloids, proteins or enzymes) to be incorporated into the standard formulation or the adoption of proper technological variables that can enhance above all the functional properties, the texture and the taste. PMID:28231182

  14. Chewing bread: impact on alpha-amylase secretion and oral digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Marianne; Septier, Chantal; Brignot, Hélène; Salles, Christian; Panouillé, Maud; Feron, Gilles; Tournier, Carole

    2017-02-22

    During chewing, saliva helps in preparing the food bolus by agglomerating the formed particles, and it initiates enzymatic food breakdown. However, limited information is actually available on the adaptation of saliva composition during the oral processing of complex foods, especially for foods that are sensitive to salivary enzymes. We addressed this question in the context of starch-based products and salivary alpha-amylase. The objectives were two-fold: (1) to determine if salivary alpha-amylase secretion can be modulated by the bread type and (2) to evaluate the contribution of the oral phase in bread enzymatic breakdown. Mouthfuls of three different wheat breads (industrial, artisan and whole-meal breads) were chewed by twelve subjects. Saliva samples were collected at rest and at different times corresponding to 33, 66 and 100% of the individual's chewing sequence. Alpha-amylase activity and total protein content were determined for all saliva samples that were collected. Additionally, the salivary maltose concentration was measured as a marker of bread enzymatic digestion. Boluses were collected at the swallowing time to evaluate the saliva uptake. Chewing industrial bread induced higher saliva uptake than the other breads despite a similar chewing duration. The evolution of salivary amylase activity tended to depend on the type of bread and was highly influenced by a large degree of inter- and intra-subject variability. The protein and maltose concentration steadily increased during chewing as a result of bread breakdown. The salivary protein concentration was mainly affected by the release of the water-soluble proteins of the bread. The salivary maltose concentration was found to be significantly lower for the whole-meal bread. When considering the weight of the mouthful, enzymatic breakdown was found to be most efficient for the breads ranking from industrial > artisan > whole-meal.

  15. Wheat Bread with Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) Pulp as a Functional Food Product

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Różyło; Dariusz Dziki; Anna Jakubczyk; Monika Karaś; Urszula Gawlik-Dziki; Krzysztof Różyło

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a new application of pumpkin pulp in bread production is shown. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the addition of fresh pumpkin pulp directly into wheat flour on physical, sensorial and biological properties of bread. The bioaccessibility of active compounds was also studied. An increase in the addition of pumpkin pulp from 5 to 20 % (converted to dry matter) caused a decrease of bread volume and increase of crumb hardness and cohesiveness. The sensory chara...

  16. Reducing salt in bread: a quasi-experimental feasibility study in a bakery in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Garcia, Lorena; Sosa-Zevallos, Vanessa; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    To explore salt content in bread and to evaluate the feasibility of reducing salt contained in 'pan francés' bread. The study had two phases. Phase 1, an exploratory phase, involved the estimation of salt contained in bread as well as a triangle taste test to establish the amount of salt to be reduced in 'pan francés' bread without detection by consumers. In Phase 2, a quasi-experimental, pre-post intervention study assessed the effects of the introduction of low-salt bread on bakery sales. A municipal bakery in Miraflores, Lima, Peru. Sixty-five clients of the bakery in Phase 1 of the study; sales to usual costumers in Phase 2. On average, there was 1·25 g of salt per 100 g of bread. Sixty-five consumers were enrolled in the triangle taste test: fifty-four (83·1 %) females, mean age 58·9 (sd 13·7) years. Based on taste, bread samples prepared with salt reductions of 10 % (P=0·82) and 20 % (P=0·37) were not discernible from regular bread. The introduction of bread with 20 % of salt reduction, which contained 1 g of salt per 100 g of bread, did not change sales of 'pan francés' (P=0·70) or other types of bread (P=0·36). Results were consistent when using different statistical techniques. The introduction of bread with a 20 % reduction in salt is feasible without affecting taste or bakery sales. Results suggest that these interventions are easily implementable, with the potential to contribute to larger sodium reduction strategies impacting the population's cardiovascular health.

  17. Changes in quality parameters of bread supplemented with OSA starch during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Hadnađev-Dapčević, Tamara R.; Dokić, Ljubica P.; Hadnađev, Miroslav S.; Pojić, Milica M.; Rakita, Slađana M.; Torbica, Aleksandra M.

    2013-01-01

    Different methods are available for the monitoring of visual and structural changes during bread staling such as differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, enzymatic tests, sensory evaluations and/or crumb texture analysis. However, since they are often rather expensive and time consuming, the aim of this study was to investigate the possibility to monitor the progress of bread stalling by following the changes in bread crumb colour characteristics. In order to achieve this, the re...

  18. Assessment of salt concentration in bread commonly consumed in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jawaldeh, Ayoub; Al-Khamaiseh, Manal

    2018-04-05

    Hypertension is the most important cardiovascular risk factor in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region. Excessive salt and sodium intake is directly related to hypertension, and its reduction is a priority of WHO. Bread is the leading staple food in the Region; therefore, reducing the amount of salt added to bread could be an effective measure for reducing salt intake. The study sought to determine the levels of sodium and salt in locally produced staple bread from 8 countries in the Region. Bread samples were collected randomly from bakeries located in the capital cities of the selected countries. The samples were analysed for sodium content using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The mean salt content of breads varied from 4.28 g/kg in Jordan to 12.41 g/kg in Tunisia. The mean salt and sodium content in bread for all countries was 7.63 (SD 3.12) and 3.0 (SD 1.23) g/kg, respectively. The contribution of bread to daily salt intake varied considerably between countries, ranging from 1.3 g (12.5%) in Jordan to 3.7 g (33.5%) in Tunisia. Interventions to reduce population salt intake should target reduction of salt in bread in all countries. The amount of salt added to bread should be standardized and relevant legislation developed to guide bakers. Setting an upper limit for salt content in flat bread (pita or Arabic bread) at 0.5% is strongly recommended. However, salt levels at ≤ 1% would be appropriate for other kind of breads. Copyright © World Health Organization (WHO) 2018. Some rights reserved. This work is available under the CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/igo).

  19. Consumers’Willingness to Pay for Safety Attributes of Bread in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Anyam, Osemeke E.; Fashogbon, Ayodele E.; Oni, Omobowale A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined consumer’s willingness to pay for food safety attributes in bread in Lagos metropolis. It empirically analyzed the factors driving willingness to pay for improved bread and the effect of attributes on willingness to pay and mean willingness to pay for improved bread. The data for the study using a well-structured questionnaire containing Choice Experiment (CE) questions for eliciting willingness to pay was collected from 150 respondents using a two-stage random sampling te...

  20. Wheat Bread with Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L. Pulp as a Functional Food Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Różyło

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new application of pumpkin pulp in bread production is shown. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the addition of fresh pumpkin pulp directly into wheat flour on physical, sensorial and biological properties of bread. The bioaccessibility of active compounds was also studied. An increase in the addition of pumpkin pulp from 5 to 20 % (converted to dry matter caused a decrease of bread volume and increase of crumb hardness and cohesiveness. The sensory characteristics of the bread showed that a partial replacement of wheat fl our with up to 10 % of pumpkin pulp gave satisfactory results. The taste, aroma and overall acceptability of control bread and bread containing 5 or 10 % of pulp had the highest degree of liking. The addition of higher levels of pumpkin pulp caused an unpleasant aroma and taste. Pumpkin pulp is a good material to complement the bread with potentially bioaccessible phenolics (including flavonoids and, especially, with peptides. The highest antioxidant activity was observed, in most cases, of the samples with added 10 and 15 % of pumpkin pulp. The addition of the pulp significantly enriched the bread with potentially bioaccessible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors. The highest activity was determined in the bread with 15 and 20 % pumpkin pulp. ACE inhibitors from the tested bread were highly bioaccessible in vitro. Pumpkin pulp seems to be a valuable source of active compounds to complement the wheat bread. Adding the pulp directly to the wheat flour gives satisfactory baking results and reduces the cost of production. Additionally, pumpkin pulp is sometimes treated as waste material after the acquisition of seeds, thus using it as bread supplement also has environmental and economic benefi ts.

  1. Effects of aqueous extract of Cinnamomum verum on growth of bread spoilage fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Monir Doudi; Mahbubeh Setorki; Zahra Rezayatmand

    2016-01-01

    Food waste has been identified as a considerable problem and bread is the most wasted food. This study aimed to evaluate In-vitro anti-fungal activity of cinnamon extract on bread spoilage fungi and to determine its anti-fungal effect in the bread slices. At first, the MIC and MFC values of the extract were determined against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium notatum and Rhizopus oryzae. Then, Aspergillus sp was sele...

  2. Effect of Rice bran on the Quality of Rice Flour Breads (Gluten-free)

    OpenAIRE

    仲上, 晴世; 矢部, えん; Haruyo, Nakagami; En, Yabe

    2016-01-01

    Over recent years progress has been made in the development of substitute foods for allergy patients. One such is rice flour bread. However, typically rice flour bread uses polysaccharide thickener in substitution for the gluten in wheat. Most polysaccharide thickeners are of dietary fiber origin, and the nutritive value is poor. Therefore, in this study, I made rice flour bread adding rice bran in place of polysaccharide thickener. Various nutrients are included in rice bran, including vitam...

  3. Characterization of Mexican zeolite minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez C, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    50% of the Mexican territory is formed by volcanic sequences of the Pliocene type, which appear extensively in the northwest states (Sonora, Sinaloa, Chihuahua, Durango) and west of Mexico (Jalisco and Nayarit), in central Mexico (Zacatecas, Guanajuato, San Luis Potosi, Queretaro, Hidalgo) and south of Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca); therefore, it is to be expected that in our country big locations of natural zeolites exist in its majority of the clinoptilolite type. The present study was focused toward the characterization of two Mexican natural zeolite rocks presumably of the clinoptilolite and filipsite types, one of them comes from the state of Chihuahua and the other of a trader company of non metallic minerals, due that these materials are not characterized, its are not known their properties completely and therefore, the uses that can be given to these materials. In this investigation work it was carried out the characterization of two Mexican zeolite rocks, one coming from the Arroyo zone, municipality of La Haciendita, in the state of Chihuahua; and the other one was bought to a trader company of non metallic minerals. The two zeolites so much in their natural form as conditioned with sodium; they were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum and elementary microanalysis (EDS), surface area analysis (BET), thermal gravimetric analysis. To differentiate the heulandite crystalline phase of the other clinoptilolite rock, its were carried out thermal treatments. The quantification of Al, Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe was carried out in solution, by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy and the quantity of Si was determined by gravimetry. The zeolite rocks presented for the major part the crystalline heulandite and clinoptilolite phases for the most part, and it was found that the zeolite coming from the state of Chihuahua possesses a bigger content of heulandite and the denominated filipsite it is really a zeolite

  4. Rising dough and baking bread at the Australian synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, S. C.; McCann, T.; Day, L.; Favaro, J.; Tuhumury, H.; Thompson, D.; Maksimenko, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat protein quality and the amount of common salt added in dough formulation can have a significant effect on the microstructure and loaf volume of bread. High-speed synchrotron micro-CT provides an ideal tool for observing the three dimensional structure of bread dough in situ during proving (rising) and baking. In this work, the synchrotron micro-CT technique was used to observe the structure and time evolution of doughs made from high and low protein flour and three different salt additives. These experiments showed that, as expected, high protein flour produces a higher volume loaf compared to low protein flour regardless of salt additives. Furthermore the results show that KCl in particular has a very negative effect on dough properties resulting in much reduced porosity. The hundreds of datasets produced and analysed during this experiment also provided a valuable test case for handling large quantities of data using tools on the Australian Synchrotron's MASSIVE cluster.

  5. Development of newly enriched bread with quinoa flour and whey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, D. M.; Naranjo, M.; Pérez, L. V.; Valencia, A. F.; Acurio, L. P.; Gallegos, L. M.; Alvarez, F. C.; Amancha, P. I.; Valencia, M. P.; Rodriguez, C. A.; Arancibia, M. Y.

    2017-07-01

    Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru are countries with the highest amount of quinoa production in the world due to the proximity to the Andes. Further, Ecuador has a high production of dairy products, particularly fresh cheese of which production gives a high volume of whey, without further use, with the consequent loss of their nutritional value. The present study was performed to develop a new fortified bread through the incorporation of quinoa flour and whey at three different concentrations. The use of quinoa and whey improved the texture, shelf life and sensory characteristics of bread, compared to those prepared with wheat flour. This study shows the potential of quinoa flour and whey as ingredients in the development of baked products.

  6. Genome interplay in the grain transcriptome of hexaploid bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Matthias; Kugler, Karl G; Sandve, Simen R; Zhan, Bujie; Rudi, Heidi; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Mayer, Klaus F X; Olsen, Odd-Arne

    2014-07-18

    Allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) provides approximately 20% of calories consumed by humans. Lack of genome sequence for the three homeologous and highly similar bread wheat genomes (A, B, and D) has impeded expression analysis of the grain transcriptome. We used previously unknown genome information to analyze the cell type-specific expression of homeologous genes in the developing wheat grain and identified distinct co-expression clusters reflecting the spatiotemporal progression during endosperm development. We observed no global but cell type- and stage-dependent genome dominance, organization of the wheat genome into transcriptionally active chromosomal regions, and asymmetric expression in gene families related to baking quality. Our findings give insight into the transcriptional dynamics and genome interplay among individual grain cell types in a polyploid cereal genome. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Organic Bread Wheat Production and Market in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, C.; Abecassis, J.; Carcea, M.

    2012-01-01

    yield under organic production. The choice of cultivar, green manure, fertilization and intercropping legumes – grain or forage – are efficient ways to obtain high grain quality and quantity. The economic viability of wheat production in Europe is also affected by subsidies from European Union agri......This chapter is a first attempt to analyse bottlenecks and challenges of European organic bread wheat sector involving technical, political and market issues. From 2000, the organic grain market has largely increased in Western Europe. To balance higher consumer demand there is a need to increase...... organic production by a new transition and technical improvement. Bread wheat is grown in a variety of crop rotations and farming systems where four basic organic crop production systems have been defined. Weeds and nitrogen deficiency are considered to be the most serious threat inducing lowest grain...

  8. Vulnerability of Bread-Baskets to Weather Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, J. S.; Ray, D. K.; West, P. C.; Foley, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Many analyses of food security consider broad trends in food supply (crop production, crop use) and demand (changing diets, population growth.) However, if past shocks to the food system due to weather events (i.e. droughts) were to repeat themselves today, the resulting famines could be far more serious due to increased concentration of grain production in vulnerable bread-baskets, and decreased resilience of global and regional food systems (i.e. lower stocks, dependence on fewer crops). The present research project takes advantage of high-resolution historical weather datasets to assess probabilities of historically observed droughts repeating themselves in one or more of today's bread-basket regions. Using recently developed relationships between weather and crop yield, we consider the likelihood of region-wide crop failures under current conditions, and also under various climate scenarios.

  9. Soft plastic bread packaging: lead content and reuse by families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, C; Demak, M; Marcus, S; Goldstein, B D

    1991-06-01

    The presence of lead in labels painted on soft plastic bread packaging was evaluated. Lead was detected on the outside of 17 of 18 soft plastic bread bags that were analyzed, with an average of 26 +/- 6 mg per bag with lead. Of 106 families questioned, 16 percent of respondents reported turning the bags inside out before reusing for food storage, thus putting food in contact with the lead paint. We estimate that a weak acid, such as vinegar, could readily leach 100 micrograms of lead from a painted plastic bag within 10 minutes. Further, lead and other metals painted on food packaging of any type becomes part of the municipal waste stream subject to incineration and to land-filling. The use of lead in packaging presents an unnecessary risk to public health.

  10. Balance sheet method assessment for nitrogen fertilization in bread wheat: I. yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Corbellini

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union the production of high quality wheat is mainly located in the Mediterranean regions where the climatic conditions positively affect protein concentration in the grain. High quality wheat calls for proper management of nitrogen fertilization, thus there is a need to verify whether the limitations imposed by local governments on maximum rate of nitrogen fertilization admitted may affect bread making quality. Trials were conducted in fourteen environments (E to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilizations on eight cultivars (C, belonging to four quality grades (Q. Nitrogen (N was applied to crops according to three rates/modalities: N1 corresponding to the maximum rate admitted calculated according to a balance sheet method and distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N2 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1, also distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N3 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1 but distributed at the stage of flag leaf appearance. The effects of environment, nitrogen and cultivar were significant for grain yield, test weight, 1000 kernel weight, heading time, plant height and for quality traits (protein content and alveograph indices. The existence of variability among cultivars and quality grades in the response to rate and timing of nitrogen fertilization was demonstrated by the significance of NxC and NxQ interactions. Dry matter and nitrogen contents of plant at anthesis and at harvest were significantly affected by the main sources of variation. High quality cultivars yielded more grain of better quality with higher N rates (N2 and N3 as compared to the maximum rate of nitrogen admitted by the local government (N1. These results demonstrated that the adopted balance sheet method for the calculation of N requirements of wheat crop adversely affects the full potential expression of the cultivars belonging to superior bread making quality grades.

  11. Balance sheet method assessment for nitrogen fertilization in bread wheat: I. yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Monotti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union the production of high quality wheat is mainly located in the Mediterranean regions where the climatic conditions positively affect protein concentration in the grain. High quality wheat calls for proper management of nitrogen fertilization, thus there is a need to verify whether the limitations imposed by local governments on maximum rate of nitrogen fertilization admitted may affect bread making quality. Trials were conducted in fourteen environments (E to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilizations on eight cultivars (C, belonging to four quality grades (Q. Nitrogen (N was applied to crops according to three rates/modalities: N1 corresponding to the maximum rate admitted calculated according to a balance sheet method and distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N2 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1, also distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N3 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1 but distributed at the stage of flag leaf appearance. The effects of environment, nitrogen and cultivar were significant for grain yield, test weight, 1000 kernel weight, heading time, plant height and for quality traits (protein content and alveograph indices. The existence of variability among cultivars and quality grades in the response to rate and timing of nitrogen fertilization was demonstrated by the significance of NxC and NxQ interactions. Dry matter and nitrogen contents of plant at anthesis and at harvest were significantly affected by the main sources of variation. High quality cultivars yielded more grain of better quality with higher N rates (N2 and N3 as compared to the maximum rate of nitrogen admitted by the local government (N1. These results demonstrated that the adopted balance sheet method for the calculation of N requirements of wheat crop adversely affects the full potential expression of the cultivars belonging to superior bread making quality grades.

  12. Wheat Prices, Bread Consumption and Health in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Leat, Philip M.K.; Toma, Luiza; Lamprinopoulou-Kranis, Chrysa; Kupiec-Teahan, Beata; Cacciolatti, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The relative recent rise in food prices has increased concern about the choice of a healthy food basket, especially in the context of the formulation of a National Food Policy for Scotland. This concern has revived interest in food price and expenditure demand systems as they provide information about consumers’ food decisions. The paper focuses on the consumption of brown and white bread, as they are the most typical forms of cereals use in the UK. Moreover, nutritionists recommend the consu...

  13. Bread as Food and Medicament in Oribasius’ Writings

    OpenAIRE

    Kokoszko, Maciej; Jagusiak, Krzysztof; Dybała, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Treatises left by Oribasius (first and foremost his Collectiones medicae and Eclogae medicamentorum) preserve a vast body of information on the varieties of bread eaten in late antiquity, characterise them from the point of view of dietetics, list medical conditions in which a given variety is especially beneficial, and name medical preparations which include the product. The present study elaborates on Oribasius’ dietetic knowledge and his input into the development of dietetic discourse (na...

  14. [Phenotypic effects of puroindoline gene alleles of bread wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotar, S V; Kurakina, K O; Khokhlov, O M; Chebotar, H O; Syvolap, Iu M

    2012-01-01

    85 winter bread wheat varieties and lines that have been developed mostly in Ukraine were analyzed with NIR for parameters of hardness and protein content. The hardness data were compared with the data of puroindoline gene alleles analysis done earlier and the published data. Significant variation of parameters of hardness was revealed when there was low polymorphism of puroindoline genes indicating the presence of additional genes that influence the hardness parameters.

  15. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-04-01

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff.

  16. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-01-01

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff

  17. Optimization of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Waste Bread before Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Hudečková, Helena; Šupinová, Petra; Ing. Mgr. Libor Babák, Ph.D., MBA

    2017-01-01

    Finding of optimal hydrolysis conditions is important for increasing the yield of saccharides. The higher yield of saccharides is usable for increase of the following fermentation effectivity. In this study optimal conditions (pH and temperature) for amylolytic enzymes were searched. As raw material was used waste bread. Two analytical methods for analysis were used. Efficiency and process of hydrolysis was analysed spectrophotometrically by Somogyi-Nelson method. Final yields of glucose were...

  18. The impact of freezing and toasting on the glycaemic response of white bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, P; Lightowler, H J

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the impact of freezing and toasting on the glycaemic response of white bread. Ten healthy subjects (three male, seven female), aged 22-59 years, recruited from Oxford Brookes University and the local community. A homemade white bread and a commercial white bread were administered following four different storage and preparation conditions: (1) fresh; (2) frozen and defrosted; (3) toasted; (4) toasted following freezing and defrosting. They were administered randomized repeated measures design. Incremental blood glucose, peak glucose response, 2 h incremental area under the glucose response curve (IAUC). The different storage and preparation conditions resulted in lower blood glucose IAUC values compared to both types of fresh white bread. In particular, compared to the fresh homemade bread (IAUC 259 mmol min/l), IAUC was significantly lower when the bread was frozen and defrosted (179 mmol min/l, Pbread (253 mmol min/l), IAUC was significantly lower when the bread was toasted (183 mmol min/l, Pbreads. This is the first study known to the authors to show reductions in glycaemic response as a result of changes in storage conditions and the preparation of white bread before consumption. In addition, the study highlights a need to define and maintain storage conditions of white bread if used as a reference food in the determination of the glycaemic index of foods.

  19. Bioavailability and metabolism of phenolic compounds from wholegrain wheat and aleurone-rich wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Letizia; Scazzina, Francesca; Leonardi, Roberto; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Newell, Michael; Dall'Asta, Margherita; Melegari, Camilla; Ray, Sumantra; Brighenti, Furio; Del Rio, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    This work aimed at investigating absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability of phenolic compounds after consumption of wholegrain bread or bread enriched with an aleurone fraction. Two commercially available breads were consumed by 15 participants on three occasions and matched for either the amount of ferulic acid in the bread or the amount of bread consumed. Urine was collected for 48 h from all the volunteers for phenolic metabolite quantification. Blood samples were collected for 24 h following bread consumption in five participants. A total of 12 and 4 phenolic metabolites were quantified in urine and plasma samples, respectively. Metabolites were sulfate and glucuronic acid conjugates of phenolic acids, and high concentrations of ferulic acid-4'-O-sulfate, dihydroferulic acid-4'-O-sulfate, and dihydroferulic acid-O-glucuronide were observed. The bioavailability of ferulic acid was significantly higher from the aleurone-enriched bread when all ferulic acid metabolites were accounted for. The study shows that low amounts of aleurone-enriched bread resulted in equivalent plasma levels of ferulic acid as wholegrain bread. This could suggest that, if the absorbed phenolic metabolites after wholegrain product intake exert health benefits, equal levels could be reached through the consumption of lower doses of refined products enriched in aleurone fraction. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Effects of alkylresorcinols on volume and structure of yeast-leavened bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Annica Am; Landberg, Rikard; Söderman, Thomas; Hedkvist, Sofie; Katina, Kati; Juvonen, Riikka; Holopainen, Ulla; Lehtinen, Pekka; Aman, Per

    2011-01-30

    Alkylresorcinols (AR) are amphiphilic phenolic compounds found in high amounts in wheat, durum wheat and rye, with different homologue composition for each cereal. The effect of different amounts of added AR from these cereals on bread volume, height, porosity and microstructure was studied. Breads with added rye bran (with high levels of AR) or acetone-extracted rye bran (with low levels of AR) were also baked, as well as breads with finely milled forms of each of these brans. Breads with high amounts of added AR, irrespective of AR homologue composition, had a lower volume, a more compact structure and an adverse microstructure compared with breads with no or low levels of added AR. AR were also shown to inhibit the activity of baker's yeast. There was no difference in bread volume and porosity between bread baked with rye bran and acetone-extracted rye bran or with brans of different particle size. Irrespective of homologue composition, AR had a negative effect on wheat bread properties when added in high amounts as purified extracts from wheat, durum wheat and rye. Natural levels of AR in rye bran, however, did not affect the volume and porosity of yeast-leavened wheat breads. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Physicochemical characterization and sensory analysis of yeast-leavened and sourdough soy breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yezbick, Gabrielle; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer; Schwartz, Steven J; Vodovotz, Yael

    2013-10-01

    Sourdough fermentation has been shown to have numerous beneficial effects on bread quality, and nutritionally enhance soy-supplemented bread by altering isoflavone chemical forms. Given this, the objective of this study was to compare the loaf quality and shelf life of sourdough and yeast-leavened soy breads by various physical, thermal, and sensorial methods, and to assess the effects of fermentation by various microorganisms on isoflavone profile in dough and breads using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Sourdough fermentation yielded a less extensible dough compared to yeast-leavened soy dough (P bread crumb (P yeast-leavened soy bread (Y-B). Sensory analysis revealed a significantly higher overall liking of Y-B compared to sourdough soy bread (SD-B) (P bread consumption frequency may be determinants of Y-B or SD-B preference. SD-B and Y-B exhibited similar shelf-life properties. Despite significantly different enthalpies associated with the melting of amylose-lipid complexes, thermal analysis of the 2 soy breads stored for 10 d (ambient conditions) demonstrated no significant difference in water distribution and starch retrogradation (P < 0.05). Lastly, SD-B was determined to have 32% of total isoflavones occurring in the aglycone form compared to 17% in Y-B. These findings warrant further investigation of sourdough fermentation as a processing technique for quality and nutritional enhancement of soy-based baked goods. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Protein Bread Fortification with Cumin and Caraway Seeds and By-Product Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed Ahmad, Bouchra; Talou, Thierry; Straumite, Evita; Sabovics, Martins; Kruma, Zanda; Saad, Zeinab; Hijazi, Akram; Merah, Othmane

    2018-02-25

    Malnutrition continues to be a key health problem in developing regions. The valorization of food waste appears as an ideal way to prevent malnutrition and improve people's access to food. Cumin ( Cuminum cyminum L.) and caraway ( Carum carvi L.) oilseeds are commonly used for cuisine and medicinal purposes. However, remaining cakes after oil extraction are usually underutilized. In order to assess the usefulness of these by-products in food applications, this study investigated the effect of their addition to protein bread formulations. Different levels (2, 4 and 6%) of whole seeds and cakes flour were used in the study. Fortified protein bread samples were compared to control protein bread and evaluated for their sensory, color, moisture, hardness properties, nutritional values as well as their biological activity. Results indicated that bread fortification shows a significant effect on bread properties depending on fortification level. A higher acceptability was observed specially for bread fortified with by-products flour. Increased tendencies of color darkness, moisture content, bread hardness, nutritional values as well as total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity compared to control bread were observed as the percentage of fortification increased in both cases. The overall results showed that the addition of cumin and caraway seeds and by-product flour can improve the antioxidant potential and overall quality of protein bread.

  3. Aroma of wheat porridge and bread-crumb is influenced by the wheat variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, Gerrard; Hansen, Åse Solvej; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2015-01-01

    evaluation, from these eight were selected for bread evaluation. Porridge and bread results were compared. Variations were found in both evaluations. Five odour- and nine flavour descriptors were found to be common to both wheat porridge and bread. The results for two descriptors: "cocoa" and "oat porridge......" were correlated between the wheat porridge and bread samples. Analysis of whole-meal and low-extraction samples revealed that the descriptors "malt", "oat-porridge", "øllebrød", "cocoa" and "grain" mostly characterized wheat bran, while descriptors for "maize", "bean-shoots", "chamomile", "umami...

  4. Effect of Hydrocolloids and Emulsifiers on Baking Quality of Composite Cassava-Maize-Wheat Breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is widely available worldwide but bread quality is impaired when cassava is used in the bread formulation. To overcome this problem, different improvers were tested in the preparation of composite cassava-maize-wheat (CMW breads. Emulsifiers, diacetyl tartic acid ester of monoglycerides (DATEM, sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL, and lecithin (LC; and hydrocolloids, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC and high-methylated pectin (HM pectin were added during dough preparation of the composite flours (cassava-maize-wheat, 40 : 10 : 50. Each emulsifier was tested in combination with the hydrocolloids at levels of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% while hydrocolloids were used at a level of 3%. Bread quality attributes such as specific loaf volume, crust colour, crumb moisture, and firmness were measured. The specific volume of the fresh breads significantly improved with the addition of hydrocolloids (7.5 and 13% and in combination with emulsifiers (from 7.9 to 27% compared with bread produced without improvers. A significant improvement of brownness index and firmness of the composite flours breads was achieved with the addition of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers. The results show that emulsifiers and hydrocolloids can significantly improve the baking quality of CMW breads and thereby enhance the potential for using locally produced flours in bread baking.

  5. Modelling the effects of orange pomace using response surface design for gluten-free bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, N; Rößle, C; Arendt, E; Gallagher, E

    2015-01-01

    The development of gluten-free bread creates many challenges; producing bread that will match the properties of its wheat counterpart can be difficult. Fruit by-products are know from literature to contain a high level of dietary fibre which could improve the bread properties and fibre contents of gluten-free bread. Therefore, a mathematical design was created; three variables were identified from preliminary tests (water (85-100% flour weight, OP 0-8% flour weight and proofing time 35-100 min) as being crucial in the development of acceptable bread. Results illustrated longer proofing times (p<0.05) and lower orange pomace levels (OP) (p<0.001) produced a bread with a greater specific volume. OP had the most significant (p<0.0001) effect on hardness at 2h and 24h post-baking. The optimised formulation was calculated to contain 5.5% OP, 94.6% water and a proofing time of 49 min. Total fibre content of the control bread (2.1%) was successfully increased t o 3.9% in the OP containing bread. Substituting gluten-free flours with orange pomace flour can help improve the total dietary intake of a coeliac while not negating on the quality properties of the bread. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermo-mechanical and micro-structural properties of xylanase containing whole wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ghoshal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Xylanase is a hemicellulase that can hydrolyses the complex polysaccharides. Hemicelluloses are main components of cell walls of cereal grains. Moreover, hemicelluloses are considered as potential sources of mono- and oligosaccharides. In this study, influence of xylanase on the physicochemical properties and sensory qualities of the whole wheat bread during storage was investigated. Studies of whole wheat bread on microstructure, texture, thermotics, Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD were conducted at ambient temperature of 25 and 4 °C respectively. During storage at different temperatures, bread containing xylanase exhibited less firmness but larger volume with whiter crumb color and longer shelf life as compared to control bread. Results of firmness, enthalpy, Fourier Transformation Infra Red (FTIR and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD studies suggested a lower staling rate of bread containing xylanase as compared to control one. Bread containing xylanase showed a smoother surface and more uniform pore size than the control. Significant differences in microstructure of control and bread containing xylanase were observed which might be attributed due to the change in water starch gluten interaction. These differences were also found to be interrelated to the textural properties of bread. Better sensory features were achieved in bread containing xylanase.

  7. Effects of gluten and transglutaminase on microstructure, sensory characteristics and instrumental texture of oat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SALMENKALLIO-MARTTILA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of added gluten and transglutaminase on microstructure, instrumental texture and sensory characteristics of bread baked with 51% wholemeal oat flour were compared in order to determine how changes in the state of macromolecules – protein and starch – correlate with changes in sensory and instrumental structure. Light microscopy, instrumental texture profile analysis, and descriptive sensory analysis were used to analyse the test breads. Addition of gluten and transglutaminase affected the structure of the protein network and distribution of water between the protein and starch phases. The differences in microstructure were quantified by determining the areas of starch and protein in the micrographs by image analysis. Breads baked with added gluten and water were softer and less gummy than the oat and wheat reference breads in the texture profile analysis. Addition of transglutaminase made the breads harder and gummier than the breads baked without the added enzyme. In the descriptive sensory analysis breads baked with added gluten or added gluten and water were evaluated as more soft and springy than the reference oat bread. Sensory characteristics of bread texture correlated well with the texture and microstructure measured instrumentally.;

  8. Chemopreventive effects of in vitro digested and fermented bread in human colon cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlörmann, Wiebke; Hiller, Beate; Jahns, Franziska; Zöger, Romy; Hennemeier, Isabell; Wilhelm, Anne; Lindhauer, Meinolf G; Glei, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Bread as a staple food product represents an important source for dietary fibre consumption. Effects of wheat bread, wholemeal wheat bread and wholemeal rye bread on mechanisms which could have impact on chemoprevention were analysed in colon cells after in vitro fermentation. Effects of fermented bread samples on gene expression, glutathione S-transferase activity and glutathione content, differentiation, growth and apoptosis were investigated using the human colon adenoma cell line LT97. Additionally, apoptosis was studied in normal and tumour colon tissue by determination of caspase activities. The expression of 76 genes (biotransformation, differentiation, apoptosis) was significantly upregulated (1.5-fold) in LT97 cells. The fermented bread samples were able to significantly increase glutathione S-transferase activity (1.8-fold) and glutathione content (1.4-fold) of the cells. Alkaline phosphatase activity as a marker of differentiation was also significantly enhanced (1.7-fold). The fermented bread samples significantly inhibited LT97 cell growth and increased the level of apoptotic cells (1.8-fold). Only marginal effects on apoptosis in tumour compared to normal tissue were observed. This is the first study which presents chemopreventive effects of different breads after in vitro fermentation. In spite of differences in composition, the results were comparable between the bread types. Nevertheless, they indicate a potential involvement of this staple food product regarding the prevention of colon cancer.

  9. Protein Bread Fortification with Cumin and Caraway Seeds and By-Product Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed Ahmad, Bouchra; Talou, Thierry; Straumite, Evita; Sabovics, Martins; Kruma, Zanda; Saad, Zeinab; Hijazi, Akram

    2018-01-01

    Malnutrition continues to be a key health problem in developing regions. The valorization of food waste appears as an ideal way to prevent malnutrition and improve people’s access to food. Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) and caraway (Carum carvi L.) oilseeds are commonly used for cuisine and medicinal purposes. However, remaining cakes after oil extraction are usually underutilized. In order to assess the usefulness of these by-products in food applications, this study investigated the effect of their addition to protein bread formulations. Different levels (2, 4 and 6%) of whole seeds and cakes flour were used in the study. Fortified protein bread samples were compared to control protein bread and evaluated for their sensory, color, moisture, hardness properties, nutritional values as well as their biological activity. Results indicated that bread fortification shows a significant effect on bread properties depending on fortification level. A higher acceptability was observed specially for bread fortified with by-products flour. Increased tendencies of color darkness, moisture content, bread hardness, nutritional values as well as total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity compared to control bread were observed as the percentage of fortification increased in both cases. The overall results showed that the addition of cumin and caraway seeds and by-product flour can improve the antioxidant potential and overall quality of protein bread. PMID:29495324

  10. Introduction of a Nonfermented Bread-like Food as a Learning Material in Home Economics Education

    OpenAIRE

    冨永, 美穂子; 小林, 京子; 森, 敏昭; 佐藤, 一精

    1999-01-01

    An attempt was made to prepare a nonfermented bread-like food usable as home economics teaching and learning material. The new receipe could be a model for showing the leavening process of bread by use of sodium bicarbonate and yogurt as an acidifying agent. In this study, the nonfermented bread was used in the class by forty second grade high school students on the theme of "Infant foods — focusing on snacks— " The students favorably evaluated the bread-like food as being easy to prepare...

  11. Effects of Incorporation of Jackfruit Rind Powder on Chemical and Functional Properties of Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felli, Reza; Yang, Tajul Aris; Abdullah, Wan Nadiah Wan; Zzaman, Wahidu

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, there is a rising interest towards consuming health beneficial food products. Bread-as one of the most popular food products-could be improved to 'healthy bread' by addition of ingredients high in protein, dietary fiber and low in calorie. Incorporating Jackfruit rind powder (JRP) as a by-product rich in dietary fiber in bread, could not only provide health beneficial bread products, but also lead to develop an environmental friendly technology by solving the problem of waste disposal of residues. In this study, addition of jackfruit rind powder (JRP) as a high dietary fiber and functional ingredient in bread was examined. The results showed that incorporation of JRP in bread improved functional properties of flour such as Oil Holding Capacity (OHC), Water Holding Capacity (WHC) and pasting properties. Addition of 5%, 10% and 15% of JRP in wheat flour caused significantly (p bread products. Results from proximate composition indicated that all breads substituted with JRP, contained significantly (p bread products.

  12. Protein Bread Fortification with Cumin and Caraway Seeds and By-Product Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchra Sayed Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition continues to be a key health problem in developing regions. The valorization of food waste appears as an ideal way to prevent malnutrition and improve people’s access to food. Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. and caraway (Carum carvi L. oilseeds are commonly used for cuisine and medicinal purposes. However, remaining cakes after oil extraction are usually underutilized. In order to assess the usefulness of these by-products in food applications, this study investigated the effect of their addition to protein bread formulations. Different levels (2, 4 and 6% of whole seeds and cakes flour were used in the study. Fortified protein bread samples were compared to control protein bread and evaluated for their sensory, color, moisture, hardness properties, nutritional values as well as their biological activity. Results indicated that bread fortification shows a significant effect on bread properties depending on fortification level. A higher acceptability was observed specially for bread fortified with by-products flour. Increased tendencies of color darkness, moisture content, bread hardness, nutritional values as well as total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity compared to control bread were observed as the percentage of fortification increased in both cases. The overall results showed that the addition of cumin and caraway seeds and by-product flour can improve the antioxidant potential and overall quality of protein bread.

  13. Tilapia-waste flour as a natural nutritional replacer for bread: A consumer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Maria Lúcia G; Mársico, Eliane T; Soares Junior, Manoel S; Deliza, Rosires; de Oliveira, Denize C R; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2018-01-01

    Six bread formulations with different levels of tilapia-waste flour (BTF0%, BTF2.5%, BTF5%, BTF10%, BTF15%, and BTF20%) were analyzed for nutritional composition and sensory characterization. Tilapia-waste flour (TF) increased (P bread at levels below 12.17% (P bread because of a disagreeable flavor, aroma, and texture; however, airy appearance, sticky in the teeth and cream color did not influence the overall liking. TF at 5% enhanced the nutritional value while maintaining acceptable sensory scores for bread, constituting a potential strategy to satisfy consumer and industry requirements.

  14. Dynamics of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Transcriptome during Bread Dough Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Zhu, Bo; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Voordeckers, Karin; De Maeyer, Dries; Marchal, Kathleen; Dornez, Emmie

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of yeast cells during industrial processes such as the production of beer, wine, and bioethanol has been extensively studied. In contrast, our knowledge about yeast physiology during solid-state processes, such as bread dough, cheese, or cocoa fermentation, remains limited. We investigated changes in the transcriptomes of three genetically distinct Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during bread dough fermentation. Our results show that regardless of the genetic background, all three strains exhibit similar changes in expression patterns. At the onset of fermentation, expression of glucose-regulated genes changes dramatically, and the osmotic stress response is activated. The middle fermentation phase is characterized by the induction of genes involved in amino acid metabolism. Finally, at the latest time point, cells suffer from nutrient depletion and activate pathways associated with starvation and stress responses. Further analysis shows that genes regulated by the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, the major pathway involved in the response to osmotic stress and glycerol homeostasis, are among the most differentially expressed genes at the onset of fermentation. More importantly, deletion of HOG1 and other genes of this pathway significantly reduces the fermentation capacity. Together, our results demonstrate that cells embedded in a solid matrix such as bread dough suffer severe osmotic stress and that a proper induction of the HOG pathway is critical for optimal fermentation. PMID:24056467

  15. Bread, beer and wine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae diversity reflects human history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Merdinoglu, Didier; Cornuet, Jean-Marie; Karst, Francis

    2007-05-01

    Fermented beverages and foods have played a significant role in most societies worldwide for millennia. To better understand how the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the main fermenting agent, evolved along this historical and expansion process, we analysed the genetic diversity among 651 strains from 56 different geographical origins, worldwide. Their genotyping at 12 microsatellite loci revealed 575 distinct genotypes organized in subgroups of yeast types, i.e. bread, beer, wine, sake. Some of these groups presented unexpected relatedness: Bread strains displayed a combination of alleles intermediate between beer and wine strains, and strains used for rice wine and sake were most closely related to beer and bread strains. However, up to 28% of genetic diversity between these technological groups was associated with geographical differences which suggests local domestications. Focusing on wine yeasts, a group of Lebanese strains were basal in an F(ST) tree, suggesting a Mesopotamia-based origin of most wine strains. In Europe, migration of wine strains occurred through the Danube Valley, and around the Mediterranean Sea. An approximate Bayesian computation approach suggested a postglacial divergence (most probable period 10,000-12,000 bp). As our results suggest intimate association between man and wine yeast across centuries, we hypothesize that yeast followed man and vine migrations as a commensal member of grapevine flora.

  16. Dynamics of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptome during bread dough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Zhu, Bo; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Voordeckers, Karin; De Maeyer, Dries; Marchal, Kathleen; Dornez, Emmie; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2013-12-01

    The behavior of yeast cells during industrial processes such as the production of beer, wine, and bioethanol has been extensively studied. In contrast, our knowledge about yeast physiology during solid-state processes, such as bread dough, cheese, or cocoa fermentation, remains limited. We investigated changes in the transcriptomes of three genetically distinct Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during bread dough fermentation. Our results show that regardless of the genetic background, all three strains exhibit similar changes in expression patterns. At the onset of fermentation, expression of glucose-regulated genes changes dramatically, and the osmotic stress response is activated. The middle fermentation phase is characterized by the induction of genes involved in amino acid metabolism. Finally, at the latest time point, cells suffer from nutrient depletion and activate pathways associated with starvation and stress responses. Further analysis shows that genes regulated by the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, the major pathway involved in the response to osmotic stress and glycerol homeostasis, are among the most differentially expressed genes at the onset of fermentation. More importantly, deletion of HOG1 and other genes of this pathway significantly reduces the fermentation capacity. Together, our results demonstrate that cells embedded in a solid matrix such as bread dough suffer severe osmotic stress and that a proper induction of the HOG pathway is critical for optimal fermentation.

  17. Thermal inactivation kinetics of β-galactosidase during bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Chen, Xiao Dong; Boom, Remko M; Schutyser, Maarten A I

    2017-06-15

    In this study, β-galactosidase was utilized as a model enzyme to investigate the mechanism of enzyme inactivation during bread baking. Thermal inactivation of β-galactosidase was investigated in a wheat flour/water system at varying temperature-moisture content combinations, and in bread during baking at 175 or 205°C. In the wheat flour/water system, the thermostability of β-galactosidase increased with decreased moisture content, and a kinetic model was accurately fitted to the corresponding inactivation data (R 2 =0.99). Interestingly, the residual enzyme activity in the bread crust (about 30%) was hundredfold higher than that in the crumb (about 0.3%) after baking, despite the higher temperature in the crust throughout baking. This result suggested that the reduced moisture content in the crust increased the thermostability of the enzyme. Subsequently, the kinetic model reasonably predicted the enzyme inactivation in the crumb using the same parameters derived from the wheat flour/water system. However, the model predicted a lower residual enzyme activity in the crust compared with the experimental result, which indicated that the structure of the crust may influence the enzyme inactivation mechanism during baking. The results reported can provide a quantitative understanding of the thermal inactivation kinetics of enzyme during baking, which is essential to better retain enzymatic activity in bakery products supplemented with heat-sensitive enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Using Dehydrated Vegetables in Some Brown Bread Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Expanding the range of bakery products in terms of producing supplemented or dietetic products has been an increasingly important trend in contemporary baking. Bakery products as basic and popular food, could be used in the prevention of nutritive deficiencies of many important nutrients, by supplementing the products with biologically valuable ingredients. Such ingredients are dehydrated vegetables in the form of powder. For establishing the bread quality, a special importance shows it’s chemical composition, because the substances that enter in it’s constitution serve to obtaining the energy necessary to the human body. Beside the chemical composition, the bread quality and alimentary use, respectively, depends a large measure on a series of signs: flavor and taste, external appearance, crumb porosity and texture, breads’ volume. This paper belongs to a more complex study, which aims are obtaining some bread assortments with high nutritional value, and improving their sensorial and rheological features, by adding dehydrated vegetables at different levels 4% potato flakes, 2% dehydrated onion, 0.5% dehydrated garlic and 2% dehydrated leek.

  19. Thermal degradation of deoxynivalenol during maize bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numanoglu, E; Gökmen, V; Uygun, U; Koksel, H

    2012-01-01

    The thermal degradation of deoxynivalenol (DON) was determined at isothermal baking conditions within the temperature range of 100-250°C, using a crust-like model, which was prepared with naturally contaminated maize flour. No degradation was observed at 100°C. For the temperatures of 150, 200 and 250°C, thermal degradation rate constants (k) were calculated and temperature dependence of DON degradation was observed by using Arrhenius equation. The degradation of DON obeyed Arrhenius law with a regression coefficient of 0.95. A classical bread baking operation was also performed at 250°C for 70 min and the rate of DON degradation in the bread was estimated by using the kinetic data derived from the model study. The crust and crumb temperatures recorded during bread baking were used to calculate the thermal degradation rate constants (k) and partial DON degradations at certain time intervals. Using these data, total degradation at the end of the entire baking process was predicted for both crust and crumb. This DON degradation was consistent with the experimental degradation data, confirming the accuracy of kinetic constants determined by means of the crust-like model.

  20. Fatty Acid and Proximate Composition of Bee Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer Kaplan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Palynological spectrum, proximate and fatty acid (FA composition of eight bee bread samples of different botanical origins were examined and significant variations were observed. The samples were all identified as monofloral, namely Castanea sativa (94.4 %, Trifolium spp. (85.6 %, Gossypium hirsutum (66.2 %, Citrus spp. (61.4 % and Helianthus annuus (45.4 %. Each had moisture content between 11.4 and 15.9 %, ash between 1.9 and 2.54 %, fat between 5.9 and 11.5 %, and protein between 14.8 and 24.3 %. A total of 37 FAs were determined with most abundant being (9Z,12Z,15Z-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic, (9Z,12Z-octadeca-9,12-dienoic, hexadecanoic, (Z-octadec-9-enoic, (Z-icos-11-enoic and octadecanoic acids. Among all, cotton bee bread contained the highest level of ω-3 FAs, i.e. 41.3 %. Unsaturated to saturated FA ratio ranged between 1.38 and 2.39, indicating that the bee bread can be a good source of unsaturated FAs.