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Sample records for mexican american mothers

  1. Nutritional Beliefs and Food Practices of Mexican-American Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Shirley

    In the locale of Hanford, California, this 1968 nutritional study was made to explore and evaluate the nutritional beliefs and food practices of Mexican American mothers among low-income agricultural working families. Some 35 mothers whose children attended the Hanford Child Day-Care Center were interviewed at home to determine family…

  2. Parent Reading Belief Inventory: Reliability and Validity with a Sample of Mexican American Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Barbara L.; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Lawrence, Frank R.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of the current study was to (a) evaluate the internal consistency of the 7 scales of the Parent Reading Belief Inventory (PRBI), (b) assess the factor structure, and (c) examine concurrent validity in a sample of Mexican American mothers from low-income homes. Two hundred and seventy-four mothers of preschool…

  3. Mexican American Mothers of Low and Middle Socioeconomic Status: Communication Behaviors and Interactive Strategies during Shared Book Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Barbara L.; Hines, Rachel; Montiel, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to describe and compare the communication behaviors and interactive reading strategies used by Mexican American mothers of low- and middle-socioeconomic status (SES) background during shared book reading. Method: Twenty Mexican American mother-child dyads from the Southwestern United States were observed…

  4. Mexican-American mothers' socialization strategies: effects of education, acculturation, and health locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, J H; Power, T G; Olvera-Ezzell, N

    1993-04-01

    The present study examined maternal education, acculturation, and health locus of control beliefs in relation to parenting strategies that promote the internalization of healthy eating habits in Mexican-American children. Eighty low-income Mexican-American mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children participated in the study. Mother-child interactions during dinner were observed, and mothers were interviewed about the socialization strategies they used to influence their children's food consumption. Results indicated that mothers with more external health locus of control beliefs were less likely to use socialization techniques associated with internalization. Acculturation was negatively related to the use of internalization techniques, with less traditional mothers using more directive strategies. Education did not predict maternal behavior after controlling for health locus of control beliefs.

  5. A qualitative study of family healthy lifestyle behaviors of Mexican-American and Mexican immigrant fathers and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Barbara J; Navuluri, Neelima; Winkler, Paula; Vale, Shruthi; Finley, Erin

    2014-04-01

    This study qualitatively examines contrasting parental decision-making styles about family food choices and physical activities as well as willingness to change behaviors among Mexican-American and Mexican immigrant mothers and fathers of school-aged children. Twelve sex-specific focus groups were held in English or Spanish in 2012. Qualitative analysis informed by grounded theory examined parenting styles (ie, authoritative, authoritarian, or permissive), barriers to healthy lifestyle, and parents' stage of change about healthy lifestyles. One third of the 33 participating couples were born in Mexico. The majority of mothers and fathers described being permissive and allowing unhealthy food choices, and a minority of mothers reported more authoritarian approaches to promoting a healthier diet for their children. Mothers were more permissive than fathers about family physical activities and less engaged in these activities. Most mothers and fathers described only contemplating a healthier diet and more physical activity, while wanting their children to have a healthier lifestyle. These data suggest that clinicians need to assess and address differential parental roles when promoting a healthy lifestyle for children. Clinicians should also adopt culturally competent approaches to overcome barriers to parental engagement in diverse aspects of a healthy family lifestyle.

  6. Differing first year mortality rates of term births to White, African-American, and Mexican-American US-born and foreign-born mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W; Soskolne, Gayle R; Rankin, Kristin M; Bennett, Amanda C

    2013-12-01

    To determine whether maternal nativity (US-born versus foreign-born) is associated with the first year mortality rates of term births. Stratified and multivariable binomial regression analyses were performed on the 2003-2004 National Center for Health Statistics linked live birth-infant death cohort files. Only term (37-42 weeks) infants with non-Latina White, African-American, and Mexican-American mothers were studied. The infant mortality rate (mortality for non-LBW, term births to US-born (compared to foreign-born) for White, African-American, and Mexican-American mothers equaled 1.5 (1.3-1.7), 1.7 (1.5-2.1) and 1.6 (1.4-1.8), respectively. The IMR of term births to White, African-American, and Mexican-American mothers exceeds that of their counterparts with foreign-born mothers independent of traditional individual level risk factors.

  7. Gender Dynamics in Mexican American Families: Connecting Mothers', Fathers', and Youths' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2012-07-01

    Study goals were to examine the conditions under which congruent and incongruent patterns of parents' division of household labor and gender role attitudes emerged, and the implications of these patterns for youth gender development. Questionnaire and phone diary data were collected from mothers, fathers, and youths from 236 Mexican American families in the southwestern US. Preliminary cluster analysis identified three patterns: Traditional divisions of labor and traditional attitudes, egalitarian divisions of labor and egalitarian attitudes, and an incongruent pattern, with a traditional division of labor but egalitarian attitudes. MANOVAs, and follow-up, mixed- and between-group ANOVAs, revealed that these groups of families differed in parents' time constraints, socioeconomic resources, and cultural orientations. Mothers in the congruent egalitarian group worked more hours and earned higher incomes as compared to mothers in the congruent traditional and incongruent groups, and the emergence of the incongruent group was grounded in within-family, inter-parental differences in work hours and incomes. Parents' patterns of gendered practices and beliefs were linked to their youths' housework participation, time with mothers versus fathers, and gender role attitudes. Youths in the congruent traditional group had more traditional gender role attitudes than those in the congruent egalitarian and incongruent groups, and gender atypical housework participation and time with parents were only observed in the congruent egalitarian group. Findings demonstrate the utility of a within-family design to understand complex gendered phenomena, and highlight the multidimensional nature of gender and the importance of contextualizing the study of ethnic minorities.

  8. Mother--Child and Father--Child Emotional Expressiveness in Mexican-American Families and Toddlers' Peer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Rivera, Mitzie

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation explored the association of mother--child and father--child emotional expressiveness during toddlerhood to children's prosocial and aggressive behaviour with peers. Data were collected from 62 Mexican-American families with toddlers (29 females, 33 males) during a home visit. Children's peer interactions were also…

  9. Relationship Between Eating Behavior and Dietary Intake in Rural Mexican-American Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Trina M; Kuster, James T; Koehler, Ann E

    2017-02-01

    We used Spearman's rho correlations and descriptive statistics (α = 0.05) to explore relationships between maternal eating behaviors (disinhibition, cognitive restraint, and susceptibility to hunger) and frequency of consumption of specific food groups (dairy, fruits, vegetables, meats) in a rural Mexican-American population. Analyses were based on the mothers' responses to the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and Willett's Food Frequency Questionnaire. Cognitive restraint was associated with greater frequency of consumption of vegetables, whereas disinhibition was associated with less frequent consumption of fruit. Susceptibility to hunger may have indirectly influenced the latter by enhancing the level of disinhibition. Mean frequency of consumption of vegetables (1-3 times per month) and fruits (once per week) was less than Healthy People 2020 targets. Additional research is needed to better understand factors contributing to these eating behaviors and patterns. To do so will require developing diet assessment tools that reflect foods typically consumed by this population.

  10. Cultural Vignette: Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Mary Ellen; And Others

    Developed as part of a multicultural research project in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of a 10-member research team about various elements of Mexican-American culture. The areas covered are: (1) historical background on the Mexican heritage of the United States from pre-colonial times to the present…

  11. "Este Libro Es Mi Historia": Mother-Child Interactions during Storybook Reading in a Mexican-American Household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyak, Patrick

    A study explored the storybook reading experiences between Ms. Garza and her children. A broad conception of the zone of proximal development, involving use, adaptation, and transformation of culturally shaped tools in the process of shared activity, provides the framework for examining this particular Mexican-American family's reading behavior.…

  12. The Wealth of Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Hildebrand, Vincent A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of disparities in the relative wealth position of Mexican Americans. Results reveal that--unlike the racial wealth gap--Mexican Americans' wealth disadvantage is in large part not the result of differences in wealth distributions conditional on the underlying determinants of wealth. Rather, Mexican Americans' wealth…

  13. Demythologizing the Mexican American Father

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.; Spodek, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    This review presents recent studies on Mexican American fathers in the United Sates to provide researchers with an understanding of contemporary fatherhood of Mexican American individuals. It describes the myths that create methodological and conceptual problems in conducting research studies to characterize Mexican American fathers. It also…

  14. Alcohol consumption patterns among Mexican American mothers and among children from single- and dual-headed households: findings from HHANES 1982-84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup-Benham, C A; Treviño, F M; Treviño, D B

    1990-01-01

    Data from the southwestern United States sample of the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were employed to compare the patterns of alcohol use among Mexican American mothers and children in female-headed households with use patterns among mothers and children in couple-headed households. Single female heads of household drank more alcoholic beverages on more days than females from dual-headed households. As a whole, the children of single heads of household still living at home did not demonstrate significantly different drinking patterns from their dual-headed household counterparts. While male children of single-headed households drank more days and total drinks than their dual-headed household counterparts, female children of dual-headed households drank more days and total drinks than female children from single-headed households. PMID:9187580

  15. The Mexican American Cultural Values Scale for Adolescents and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Saenz, Delia S.; Bonds, Darya D.; German, Miguelina; Deardorff, Julianna; Roosav, Mark W.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    This research evaluates the properties of a measure of culturally linked values of Mexican Americans in early adolescence and adulthood. The article discusses the items derived from qualitative data provided by focus groups in which Mexican Americans' (adolescents, mothers, and fathers) perceptions of key values were discussed. The focus groups…

  16. On Being a Mexican American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Joe I.

    1994-01-01

    A well-acculturated migrant education program director reminisces about his Mexican upbringing in the United States, noting the persistence of his cultural heritage and the scars left by acts of segregation, prejudice, and racism. It is important for Mexican Americans to recognize that they are a unique group at a crossroads. They are not all…

  17. Mexican-American Women: Diversity in Depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Marleen E.

    Various literary views of the Mexican American woman have been presented over the past 150 years. Anglo treatment of Mexican American women in literature has varied from blatant prejudice or vague mystical eroticism in early portrayals to more realistic views of the Chicano in modern writing. The current identity crisis of Mexican Americans is…

  18. Pedagogics in Mexican American Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, E. Lou

    A pedagogy appropriate to college level courses and comprised of interdisciplinary content, multidisciplinary faculty, and students from diverse academic backgrounds and with varying levels of skills merits development. A taxonomy of some of the difficulties in the construction of such a course in Mexican American studies, for example, focuses on…

  19. Pedagogics in Mexican American Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, E. Lou

    A pedagogy appropriate to college level courses and comprised of interdisciplinary content, multidisciplinary faculty, and students from diverse academic backgrounds and with varying levels of skills merits development. A taxonomy of some of the difficulties in the construction of such a course in Mexican American studies, for example, focuses on…

  20. What's Values Got to Do with It? Thriving among Mexican/Mexican American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Consoli, Melissa L.; Llamas, Jasmín; Consoli, Andrés J.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined traditional Mexican/Mexican American and perceived U.S. mainstream cultural values as predictors of thriving. One hundred twenty-four (37 men, 87 women) self-identified Mexican/Mexican American college students participated in the study. The traditional Mexican/Mexican American cultural values of family support and religion…

  1. Parental Attachment, Self-Esteem, and Antisocial Behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…

  2. Parental Attachment, Self-Esteem, and Antisocial Behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…

  3. The prevalence of hypertension in older Mexicans and Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jennifer J; Eschbach, Karl A; Markides, Kyriakos S

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of hypertension in older Mexicans in the United States and Mexico. Stratified by sex, logistic regression models to predict physician-diagnosed hypertension were conducted by using the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (wave 3) and the Mexican Health and Aging Study (age > or =70 years) datasets. Older Mexican and Mexican American women have a greater prevalence of hypertension than their male counterparts. Mexican women who have migrated to the United States and returned to Mexico have similarly high rates of hypertension as their female counterparts in the United States. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, diabetes, obesity, alcohol use, and smoking, older Mexican women who have migrated to the United States are at increased risk for hypertension. Conversely, immigrant older Mexican American men are at significantly lower odds of hypertension. Sex differences exist in hypertension risk for older Mexicans and Mexican Americans living in the United States and Mexico. Older women who migrate to the United States are at a particular risk for hypertension in Mexico.

  4. The Relation between Maternal and Child Depression in Mexican American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Marissa; McCarty, Carolyn; Cauce, Ana Mari; Robins, Richard W.; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to better understand possible pathways that lead to a relatively high incidence of depressive symptoms among Mexican American youth, an interpersonal stress model of depression was tested using a community sample of 674 Mexican American mothers and their 5th grade children. Structural equation analyses revealed that maternal…

  5. Is it time for bed? Short sleep duration increases risk of obesity in Mexican American children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross-sectional studies show that sleep is related to childhood obesity. We aimed to examine the longitudinal impact of sleep on the risk of obesity in Mexican American children. We evaluated 229 Mexican American 8–10-year-olds and their mothers at base- line and at 12- and 24-month follow-ups. Slee...

  6. Economic Stress, Parenting, and Child Adjustment in Mexican American and European American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott; Duffy, Sharon; Buriel, Raymond; Dennis, Jessica; Powers, Justina; French, Sabine; Widaman, Keith F.

    2004-01-01

    To assess the impact of economic hardship on 111 European American and 167 Mexican American families and their 5th-grade (M age 11.4 years) children, a family stress model was evaluated. Structural equation analyses revealed that economic hardship was linked to indexes of economic pressure that were related to depressive symptoms for mothers and…

  7. "Cuidate Sin Pena": Mexican Mother-Adolescent Sexuality Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncloa, Fe; Wilkinson-Lee, Ada M.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores perceptions of Mexican mother-adolescent communication about sexuality. Participants interviewed included four mother-expecting son pairs and four mother-pregnant daughter pairs. Our interviews revealed important adolescent gender differences. Pena (shame/embarrassment) played a major role vis-a-vis indirect communication about…

  8. Familism, machismo and child rearing practices among Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamez, E G

    1981-09-01

    Mexican Americans form the 2nd largest minority group in the US. Fertility is 50% higher than in any other ethnic group. Income levels are inordinately low. In 1970, 42% of Mexican Americans were indigent, making approxiamtely 4200 annually. The Mexican American poor can be categorized into newly arrived aliens or 2nd or 3rd generation American citizens. In the 1st instance, the couple is young and English is not spoken. 2nd or 3rd generation Mexican Americans speak English. The persistent socioeconomic status of the Mexican American relates directly to the level of education. 52% of all Mexican Americans do not finish high school. Paz and Remos described the Mexican in terms of Adler's inferiority model. Murillo stated that to an individual, the family--whether nuclear or extended--is the center of life. The inherent responsibility is that the individual behave properly lest the family be disgraced. The family provides emotional and material security. Familism was seen as a deterrant to utilization of health care services, although some studies claim opposing views. Familism and occupational stability related positively to seeking medical care when ill. Hayden believed that supreme male dominance, individualism, pride, wife beating, aversion to contraceptives, and other characteristics were attributable to machismo. A predominant pattern in Mexican American culture is that of elders' ordering young men and women to establish obedience and male dominance. The husband represents authority and the wife-mother maintains a role of complete devotion to her husband and children. Role differentiation is taught implicitly and explicitly from infancy. Studies on the psychological differences between the sexes indicated that females were oppressed and had lower self esteem than males. 18-24 year old Mexican Americans are becoming less insistent upon strict separation of sex roles and are beginning to reject the traditional Mexican notion of masculine superiority. The word

  9. Acculturation and Enculturation Trajectories Among Mexican-American Adolescent Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P; Vargas-Chanes, Delfino; Losoya, Sandra H; Cota-Robles, Sonia; Chassin, Laurie; Lee, Joanna M

    2009-12-01

    This study examines changes over time in ethnic affirmation/belonging and ethnic identity achievement, Spanish language use, English language use, Mexican/Mexican-American affiliation/identification and Anglo affiliation/identification in a sample of Mexican-American adolescents participating in a longitudinal study of juvenile offenders. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II were completed by the Mexican-American adolescents 7 times over a 3-year period. The findings from longitudinal growth modeling analyses and growth mixture modeling analyses indicate that there is heterogeneity in the initial scores and changes over time on these variables that are related to markers for the cultural qualities of the home environment (i.e., generational status and mother's most frequent language use). In contrast to expectations, marginalized or assimilated acculturation trajectories/types were not overrepresented in this sample of adolescent offenders. Implications for our understanding of the nature of acculturation and enculturation processes and the way these processes are studied are discussed.

  10. Migration, Culture and Health of Mexican Americans in an Acculturation Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Robert G.; Acosta, Phyllis B.

    In East Los Angeles, 26 Mexican American families with children in Head Start responded to a questionnaire gathering data on birthplace, family income, occupation, individuals in the home, dietary intake and habits of the children, food buying and preparation practices, and pregnancy history of the mothers. In San Ysidro, 101 Mexican American…

  11. Stress Resilience among Border Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern; Dugas, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors distinguishing Mexican American women living near the U.S.-Mexican border who are resilient to the experience of stress from those who are not. The study sample consisted of 418 participants ranging in age from 20 to 61 years. Data were gathered through a self-report survey instrument composed of…

  12. Stress Resilience among Border Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern; Dugas, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors distinguishing Mexican American women living near the U.S.-Mexican border who are resilient to the experience of stress from those who are not. The study sample consisted of 418 participants ranging in age from 20 to 61 years. Data were gathered through a self-report survey instrument composed of…

  13. Mother-reported sleep, accelerometer-estimated sleep and weight status in Mexican American children: sleep duration is associated with increased adiposity and risk for overweight/obese status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Greenspan, Louise C; Butte, Nancy F; Gregorich, Steven E; De Groat, Cynthia L; Deardorff, Julianna; Penilla, Carlos; Pasch, Lauri A; Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2014-06-01

    We know of no studies comparing parent-reported sleep with accelerometer-estimated sleep in their relation to paediatric adiposity. We examined: (i) the reliability of mother-reported sleep compared with accelerometer-estimated sleep; and (ii) the relationship between both sleep measures and child adiposity. The current cross-sectional study included 303 Mexican American mother-child pairs recruited from Kaiser Permanente Northern California. We measured sleep duration using maternal report and accelerometry and child anthropometrics. Concordance between sleep measures was evaluated using the Bland-Altman method. We conducted zero-ordered correlations between mother-reported sleep, accelerometer-estimated sleep and child BMI z-scores (BMIz). Using linear regression, we examined three models to assess child BMIz with mother-reported sleep (model 1), accelerometer-estimated sleep (model 2) and both sleep measures (model 3). Children had an average age of 8.86 years (SD = 0.82). Mothers reported that their child slept 9.81 ± 0.74 h [95% confidence interval (CI): 9.72, 9.89], compared to 9.58 ± 0.71 h (95% CI: 9.50, 9.66) based on accelerometry. Mother-reported sleep and accelerometer-estimated sleep were correlated (r = 0.33, P estimated sleep duration (model 2: β = -0.17; P < 0.01). Accounting for both sleep measures, only accelerometer-measured sleep was related to BMIz (model 3: β = -0.14, P = 0.02). Each sleep measure was related significantly to adiposity, independent of covariates. Accelerometry appeared to be a more reliable measure of children's sleep than maternal report, yet maternal report may be sufficient to examine the sleep-adiposity relationship when resources are limited.

  14. Parenting practices and expectations among Mexican mothers with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Camarar, P; Fox, R A

    1996-12-01

    Parenting practices and developmental expectations were examined in a sample of 221 Mexican mothers with very young children living in Guadalajara, Jalisco. They completed a Spanish version of the Parent Behavior Checklist (PBC), a 100-item rating scale that measures parents' developmental expectations, discipline, and nurturing practices. The psychometric properties of the PBC for Mexican mothers, including test-retest reliabilities, were very similar to those found for mothers of young children in the United States. Younger Mexican mothers used more frequent discipline and less nurturing with their young children than older mothers did. Married mothers nurtured their children more than unmarried mothers; young, unmarried mothers nurtured their children the least. Lower nurturing scores were associated with lower education levels, and higher nurturing scores were associated with higher education levels. Mothers from higher socioeconomic levels held higher developmental expectations for their children, and they used less frequent discipline and more frequent nurturing practices than mothers from lower socioeconomic levels. These findings are consistent with those for mothers of young children in the United States.

  15. A Comparison of PBDE Serum Concentrations in Mexican and Mexican-American Children Living in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenster, Laura; Castorina, Rosemary; Marks, Amy R.; Sjödin, Andreas; Rosas, Lisa Goldman; Holland, Nina; Guerra, Armando Garcia; Lopez-Carillo, Lizbeth; Bradman, Asa

    2011-01-01

    Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), which are used as flame retardants, have been found to be higher in residents of California than of other parts of the United States. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the role of immigration to California on PBDE levels in Latino children. Methods: We compared serum PBDE concentrations in a population of first-generation Mexican-American 7-year-old children (n = 264), who were born and raised in California [Center for Health Analysis of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study], with 5-year-old Mexican children (n = 283), who were raised in the states in Mexico where most CHAMACOS mothers had originated (Proyecto Mariposa). Results: On average, PBDE serum concentrations in the California Mexican-American children were three times higher than their mothers’ levels during pregnancy and seven times higher than concentrations in the children living in Mexico. The PBDE serum concentrations were higher in the Mexican-American children regardless of length of time their mother had resided in California or the duration of the child’s breast-feeding. These data suggest that PBDE serum concentrations in these children resulted primarily from postnatal exposure. Conclusions: Latino children living in California have much higher PBDE serum levels than their Mexican counterparts. Given the growing evidence documenting potential health effects of PBDE exposure, the levels in young children noted in this study potentially present a major public health challenge, especially in California. In addition, as PBDEs are being phased out and replaced by other flame retardants, the health consequences of these chemical replacements should be investigated and weighed against their purported fire safety benefits. PMID:21498147

  16. Anxiety reporting and culturally associated interpretation biases and cognitive schemas: a comparison of Mexican, Mexican American, and European American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, R Enrique; Vernberg, Eric M; Sanchez-Sosa, Juan Jose; Riveros, Angelica; Mitchell, Montserrat; Mashunkashey, Joanna

    2004-06-01

    This study examined whether Mexican (n = 53), Mexican American (n = 50), and European American (n = 51) children differed in their reporting of anxiety symptoms and whether parental influence and specific cognitive schemas associated with Mexican culture were related to differences in anxiety reporting. As expected, Mexican and Mexican American children reported significantly more physiological and worry symptoms than the European American children. Mexican and Mexican American children endorsed collectivism as a cultural value more strongly than European American children, and the Mexican children evidenced greatest use of social strategies reflecting simpatia. In family discussions of ambiguous, potentially anxiety-arousing situations, Mexican and Mexican American parents verbalized a greater percentage of somatic interpretations than the European American parents. Results indicate potential linkages between cultural values, socialization practices, and anxiety reporting.

  17. Disclosure to Parents about Everyday Activities among American Adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, and European Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Jenny P.; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina; Smetana, Judith G.

    2009-01-01

    Disclosure to parents and reasons for not disclosing different activities were examined in 489 Chinese, Mexican, and European American adolescents (M = 16.37 years, SD = 0.77). With generational status controlled, Chinese American adolescents disclosed less to mothers about personal and multifaceted activities than European Americans and less…

  18. Mexican American Parents' Involvement in Adolescents' Peer Relationships: Exploring the Role of Culture and Adolescents' Peer Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Killoren, Sarah E.; Thayer, Shawna M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the nature and correlates of Mexican American mothers' and fathers' involvement in adolescents' peer relationships along 4 dimensions: support, restriction, knowledge, and time spent with adolescents and peers. Mexican American adolescents and their parents in 220 families described their family relationships, cultural…

  19. Challenges and Strategies to Maintaining Emotional Health: Qualitative Perspectives of Mexican Immigrant Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, India J.; Perreira, Krista M.; Beeber, Linda; Maxwell, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Mexican immigrant mothers face many challenges that put them at increased risk for poor mental health. To understand the factors that lead to the development of depressive symptoms among Mexican immigrant mothers, we analyzed data from 20 qualitative, semistructured interviews. Participants included low-income, Mexican-born mothers of young…

  20. Immigrant Enclaves and Inadequate Prenatal Care among Mexican-origin Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Aggie J

    2017-09-01

    This study is an investigation of the relationships between residing in different types of ethnic enclave neighborhoods and inadequate use of prenatal care among Mexican-origin mothers. A unique dataset was created using National Center for Health Statistics 2008 restricted-use detailed natality files, the 2005-2009 American Community Survey, and the Department of Health and Human Services Area Resource file. Hierarchical modeling was used. Mexican-origin mothers' residential contexts are associated with the inadequacy of their prenatal care utilization beyond their individual characteristics. Specifically, residing in Mexican immigrant enclaves is associated with increased odds of having inadequate use of prenatal care. In contrast, residing in other types of ethnic enclaves (Mexican/Hispanic ethnic enclaves) and non-Hispanic white neighborhoods is associated with decreased odds of having inadequate utilization of prenatal care even after the inclusion of contextual-level controls for individual characteristics, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and the availability of healthcare infrastructure resources. Residing in immigrant enclaves is important for understanding the inadequacy of prenatal care utilization for Mexican-origin mothers. These findings have policy implications for designing place-based programs to target certain residential contexts where women are at greater risk of having inadequate use of prenatal care.

  1. Filial Responsibility Expectations among Mexican American Undergraduates: Gender and Biculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Bonnie; Chavez, Mary; Quintana, Fernando; Salinas, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    How Mexican American college students perceive responsibility for parental care is important as Mexican American elders' numbers increase. The authors applied mixed methods to investigate the impact of gender and biculturalism within this group. Two hundred and eighty-six Mexican American undergraduates completed the Hamon Filial Responsibility…

  2. "Ganando Confianza": Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we…

  3. The Mexican American Heritage: With Writing Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Carlos M.

    Written by a Los Angeles history teacher frustrated by the lack of culturally relevant materials, this book covers some of the most interesting events in the history of Mexico and the heritage of Mexican Americans. Chapters are: (1) Indian Mexico (Teotihuacan, the Maya, the Toltecs, and the Aztecs); (2) La Conquista (Cortes and Moctezuma, conquest…

  4. The Mexican American Heritage: With Writing Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Carlos M.

    Written by a Los Angeles history teacher frustrated by the lack of culturally relevant materials, this book covers some of the most interesting events in the history of Mexico and the heritage of Mexican Americans. Chapters are: (1) Indian Mexico (Teotihuacan, the Maya, the Toltecs, and the Aztecs); (2) La Conquista (Cortes and Moctezuma, conquest…

  5. Feminism and Mexican American Adolescent Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Lisa Y.; Carrubba, Maria D.; Good, Glenn E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Feminist Identity Development Scale (FIDS) and the Attitudes Toward Feminism and the Womens Movement Scale (FWM) with 389 Mexican American 11th-grade and 12th-grade women. Results indicated internal consistency coefficients of .61, .62, .76, and .77 for the FIDS Passive Acceptance, Revelation,…

  6. Mexican Americans: Sons of the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Ruth S.

    Concerned with the Mexican Americans, who constitute the largest ethnic group in the southwestern United States, this book traces the history of these people from the early explorations and colonizing efforts of the Spanish in North and South America during the 16th century to the present. Major divisions of this book are the Introduction,…

  7. The Mexican-American and Dramatic Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Hector M.

    In the area of the arts, the Mexican American has discovered a rich cultural heritage which gives him a strong sense of pride and a deep feeling of satisfaction. A new interest in the literature of Mexico and the Southwestern states of Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and California has started the Chicano people reading classic and modern…

  8. Mexican-American: Movements and Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, Carlos

    Biographical studies of 20 influential Chicano leaders trace Mexican American history from 1848 to the present. The book is organized chronologically by four historical periods: (1) The Cortinista Movement, 1848-1876; (2) The Teresita Movement, 1888-1905; (3) The Magonista Movement, 1904-1919; and (4) The Chicano Activists, 1920 ;o the present.…

  9. Treatment Acceptability among Mexican American Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.; Ibanez, Elizabeth S.; Spendlove, Stuart J.; Pemberton, Joy R.

    2007-01-01

    There is a void in the literature with regard to Hispanic parents' views about common interventions for children with behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the treatment acceptability of child management techniques in a Mexican American sample. Parents' acculturation was also examined to determine if it would account for…

  10. The Representation of "Curanderismo" in Selected Mexican American Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    "Curanderismo," a Mexican folk practice, is a prevalent subject in Mexican American literature. Because much of the presence of "curanderismo" in Mexican American literature is only explored in ethnographic studies, the purpose of this study is to examine the artistic representation of "curanderismo" in the novels "Bless Me, Ultima" by Rudolfo…

  11. Acculturation and Enculturation Trajectories among Mexican-American Adolescent Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P.; Vargas-Chanes, Delfino; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cota-Robles, Sonia; Chassin, Laurie; Lee, Joanna M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines changes over time in ethnic affirmation/belonging and ethnic identity achievement, Spanish language use, English language use, Mexican/Mexican-American affiliation/identification and Anglo affiliation/identification in a sample of Mexican-American adolescents participating in a longitudinal study of juvenile offenders. The…

  12. Trajectories of Mexican American and mainstream cultural values among Mexican American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P; Basilio, Camille D; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A; Liu, Yu; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2014-12-01

    Mexican Americans are one of the largest and fastest growing ethnic groups in the United States, yet we have limited knowledge regarding changes (i.e., developmental trajectories) in cultural orientation based upon their exposure to the Mexican American and mainstream cultures. We examined the parallel trajectories of Mexican American and mainstream cultural values in a sample of 749 Mexican American adolescents (49 % female) across assessments during the fifth grade (approximately 11 years of age), the seventh grade (approximately 13 years of age) and the tenth grade (approximately 16 years of age). We expected that these values would change over this developmental period and this longitudinal approach is more appropriate than the often used median split classification to identify distinct types of acculturation. We found four distinct acculturation trajectory groups: two trajectory groups that were increasing slightly with age in the endorsement of mainstream cultural values, one of which was relatively stable in Mexican American cultural values while the other was declining in their endorsement of these values; and two trajectory groups that were declining substantially with age in their endorsement of mainstream cultural values, one of which was also declining in Mexican American cultural values and the other which was stable in these values. These four trajectory groups differed in expected ways on a number of theoretically related cultural variables, but were not highly consistent with the median split classifications. The findings highlight the need to utilize longitudinal data to examine the developmental changes of Mexican American individual's adaptation to the ethnic and mainstream culture in order to understand more fully the processes of acculturation and enculturation.

  13. Smokeless Tobacco Consumption by Mexican-American High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Linda C.; Hamlin, Penelope A.

    A survey of 208 female and 191 male students attending a public high school in southwestern New Mexico assessed the extent of student use of smokeless tobacco products. The sample included 179 Mexican-American and 26 Anglo-American females, as well as 152 Mexican-American and 26 Anglo-American males. The average age of both female and male…

  14. Racial Identity and Racial Treatment of Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Vilma; Telles, Edward

    2012-04-01

    How racial barriers play in the experiences of Mexican Americans has been hotly debated. Some consider Mexican Americans similar to European Americans of a century ago that arrived in the United States with modest backgrounds but were eventually able to participate fully in society. In contrast, others argue that Mexican Americans have been racialized throughout U.S. history and this limits their participation in society. The evidence of persistent educational disadvantages across generations and frequent reports of discrimination and stereotyping support the racialization argument. In this paper, we explore the ways in which race plays a role in the lives of Mexican Americans by examining how education, racial characteristics, social interactions, relate to racial outcomes. We use the Mexican American Study Project, a unique data set based on a 1965 survey of Mexican Americans in Los Angeles and San Antonio combined with surveys of the same respondents and their adult children in 2000, thereby creating a longitudinal and intergenerational data set. First, we found that darker Mexican Americans, therefore appearing more stereotypically Mexican, report more experiences of discrimination. Second, darker men report much more discrimination than lighter men and than women overall. Third, more educated Mexican Americans experience more stereotyping and discrimination than their less-educated counterparts, which is partly due to their greater contact with Whites. Lastly, having greater contact with Whites leads to experiencing more stereotyping and discrimination. Our results are indicative of the ways in which Mexican Americans are racialized in the United States.

  15. Raising Cultural Awareness of Second Grade African American Students Using Mexican American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Sandra Lyniece

    2009-01-01

    An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…

  16. Raising Cultural Awareness of Second Grade African American Students Using Mexican American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Sandra Lyniece

    2009-01-01

    An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…

  17. Discipline behaviors of Chinese American and European American mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulei, Elaine; Zevenbergen, Andrea A; Jacobs, Sue C

    2006-09-01

    In any society, parenting beliefs are a reflection of that society's cultural values and traditions (J. U. Ogbu, 1981). Verbosity, a parenting behavior considered dysfunctional in European American culture, may not be problematic in Chinese culture. The authors recruited 31 Chinese American and 30 European American mothers and used questionnaires to measure parenting behaviors and child behavior problems. The Chinese American mothers also completed a questionnaire assessing their acculturation level. The Chinese American mothers had higher levels of verbosity than did the European American mothers; however, there were no differences between the groups in child behavior problems. The results also revealed higher levels of laxness in the Chinese American mothers compared to the European American mothers. Acculturation level did not predict verbosity or laxness levels. Results suggest that the effectiveness of a parenting style should be defined relative to cultural context.

  18. Cultural Values, U.S. Neighborhood Danger, and Mexican American Parents' Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Roosa, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    To begin accounting for cultural and contextual factors related to child rearing among Mexican American parents we examined whether parents' Mexican American cultural values and perceptions of neighborhood danger influenced patterns of parenting behavior in two-parent Mexican-origin families living in the U.S. To avoid forcing Mexican American parents into a predefined model of parenting styles, we used latent profile analysis to identify unique patterns of responsiveness and demandingness among mothers and fathers. Analyses were conducted using parent self-reports on parenting and replicated with youth reports on mothers' and fathers' parenting. Across reporters most mothers and fathers exhibited a pattern of responsiveness and demandingness consistent with authoritative parenting. A small portion of parents exhibited a pattern of less-involved parenting. None of the patterns were indicative of authoritarianism. There was a modicum of evidence for no nonsense parenting among fathers. Both neighborhood danger and parents' cultural values were associated with the likelihood of employing one style of parenting over another. The value of using person-centered analytical techniques to examine parenting among Mexican Americans is discussed. PMID:23750519

  19. Cultural values, U.S. neighborhood danger, and Mexican American parents' parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M B; Zeiders, Katharine H; Gonzales, Nancy A; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Roosa, Mark W

    2013-06-01

    To begin accounting for cultural and contextual factors related to child rearing among Mexican American parents we examined whether parents' Mexican American cultural values and perceptions of neighborhood danger influenced patterns of parenting behavior in two-parent Mexican-origin families living in the U.S. To avoid forcing Mexican American parents into a predefined model of parenting styles, we used latent profile analysis to identify unique patterns of responsiveness and demandingness among mothers and fathers. Analyses were conducted using parent self-reports on parenting and replicated with youth reports on mothers' and fathers' parenting. Across reporters, most mothers and fathers exhibited a pattern of responsiveness and demandingness consistent with authoritative parenting. A small portion of parents exhibited a pattern of less-involved parenting. None of the patterns were indicative of authoritarianism. There was a modicum of evidence for no nonsense parenting among fathers. Both neighborhood danger and parents' cultural values were associated with the likelihood of employing one style of parenting over another. The value of using person-centered analytical techniques to examine parenting among Mexican Americans is discussed.

  20. Mexican American Fathers' Occupational Conditions: Links to Family Members' Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouter, Ann C.; Davis, Kelly D.; Updegraff, Kimberly; Delgado, Melissa; Fortner, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    To examine the implications of fathers' occupational conditions (i.e., income, work hours, shift work, pressure, workplace racism, and underemployment) for family members' psychological adjustment, home interviews were conducted with fathers, mothers, and two adolescent offspring in each of 218 Mexican American families. Results underscored the…

  1. Preferred child body size and parental underestimation of child weight in Mexican-American families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To determine whether parents who prefer a heavier child would underestimate their child's weight more than those who prefer a leaner child. Methods: Participants were Mexican-American families (312 mothers, 173 fathers, and 312 children ages 8-10) who were interviewed and had height and w...

  2. Thermometer use among Mexican immigrant mothers in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, N; Guendelman, S; English, P

    1997-11-01

    A community-based household survey was utilized to assess the relationship between thermometer use, home treatment and utilization of health care services. Using a cross-sectional design, the study surveyed 688 low income Mexican origin mothers of children between the ages of 8 and 16 months in San Diego County. Mothers were asked how they determine that their child has fever and how often they use a thermometer. Nearly 40% of low income Mexican mothers interviewed in San Diego county never used a thermometer for determining childhood fever. Approximately two-thirds (64.7%) relied either primarily or exclusively on embodied methods such as visual observation or touch to determine fever in their child. A multivariate logistic regression analysis determined that low education and a separated or divorced marital status decreased the odds of thermometer use, whereas regular contact with the health care system doubled the likelihood of thermometer use. Mothers who relied on embodied methods were more likely to use over-the-counter medications than those who relied on thermometers; however, no significant differences were found between groups using other methods of home treatment. Fever determination modalities can be used to screen for lack of access to care and to provide for other health care needs in a culturally appropriate manner. While clinicians' expectations may include parental experience with temperature taking, current pediatric literature questions the need for home-based thermometer use. Possible alternatives to the traditional rectal thermometer might include digital thermometers and color coded thermometer strips.

  3. Beyond Immigrant Status: Book-Sharing in Low-Income Mexican-American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Maria; Pérez-Granados, Deanne R.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Huffman, Lynne C.

    2017-01-01

    Data from a sample (n = 145) of low-income Mexican-American mothers and their toddlers (9-26 months) were used to explore the prevalence of high-frequency book-sharing (?3 days/week) and its association with maternal immigrant status (Mexico-born vs US-born), as well as other demographic and psychosocial factors. Mexico-born mothers were more…

  4. The relationship between Mexican American cultural values and resilience among Mexican American college students: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Consoli, Melissa L; Llamas, Jasmin D

    2013-10-01

    The current study investigated the role of cultural values in the resilience of Mexican American college students. Utilizing mixed methodology, 124 self-identified Mexican American college students were asked to complete an online survey, including a demographic questionnaire, the Resilience Scale, Mexican American Cultural Values Scale, and 2 open-ended questions concerning overcoming adversity and cultural values. As hypothesized, Mexican American traditional cultural values (Familismo, Respeto, Religiosidad, and Traditional Gender Roles) predicted resilience, with Familismo accounting for the majority of the variance. Consensual qualitative research (Hill, Thompson, & Nutt Williams, 1997) was used to identify emergent domains and themes within the open-ended question responses. Traditional Mexican American Value themes included Familismo, Ethnic Identity, Religiosidad, Perseverance, and Respeto. Results highlight the important role that certain Mexican American cultural values play in providing strength for overcoming adversities.

  5. Ganando Confianza: Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-03-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we conducted sustained focus groups through which we could learn more about our participants and thereby improve services. This paper reports on the challenges and lessons learned from these groups. We characterize the key lessons as (a) recruitment and retention is more than agreement to participate; (b) confidentiality is not just a word but an activity; (c) the complicated nature of language; (d) cultural norms shape the group process; (e) appreciating the value of taking time; and (f) gender issues and group interaction. Service providers and researchers who work with Mexican families may benefit from our experiences as they promote and develop programs and projects in the developmental disabilities field.

  6. The Mexican American biculturalism scale: bicultural comfort, facility, and advantages for adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilio, Camille D; Knight, George P; O'Donnell, Megan; Roosa, Mark W; Gonzales, Nancy A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Torres, Marisela

    2014-06-01

    Empirical research on biculturalism is limited, in part because of the lack of quality measures of biculturalism. The currently available measures have limitations due to scoring procedures and sampling of only a narrow range of behaviors and attitudes. We present a measure of biculturalism that captures a broader range of the bicultural experience and uses a scoring system that better represents the wide ranging levels of biculturalism that exist in the diverse population of Mexican American adolescents, mothers, and fathers born in either Mexico or the United States. The Mexican American Biculturalism Scale (27 items) includes 3 subscales: bicultural comfort (9 items), bicultural facility (9 items), and bicultural advantages (9 items). We report on the reliability and construct validity of test scores and present confirmatory factor analyses findings for a diverse sample of 316 Mexican American families from a large southwestern metropolitan city. The Mexican American Biculturalism Scale is available in English and in Spanish. The use of the scale has implications for future research studying how biculturalism is related to psychological outcomes for Mexicans/Mexican Americans.

  7. Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research with Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    This is a description of the creation of a research methods tool, the "Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research With Mexican Americans." For conducting literature reviews of and planning mixed methods studies with Mexican Americans, it contains evaluative criteria calling for transformative mixed methods, perspectives…

  8. Predictors of weight loss in Mexican American adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined predictors of weight change in Mexican American adolescents. Eighty overweight Mexican American children were randomized to receive either the intensive intervention or self help program. Physiological (e.g. standardized BMI (zBMI), percent body fat, and tanner stage), psychologi...

  9. Selecting Library Materials for Mexican-American Middle Schoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    1995-01-01

    This annotated bibliography includes 32 works of fiction, 43 works of nonfiction, and 10 audiovisuals and teacher resources for middle school Mexican American audiences. Discussion includes interest level and reading level for each work, publishing issues, and Mexican American stereotypes. A sidebar article provides brief biographies of 21 Mexican…

  10. Adult Sequela of Adolescent Heavy Drinking among Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, William A.; Alderete, Ethel; Kolody, Bohdan; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio

    2000-01-01

    Data from the Mexican American Prevalence and Services Survey were used to compare mental health and behavioral sequela of heavy drinking in adolescence among Mexican Americans aged 18-59. Adolescent heavy drinkers had higher lifetime mood or drug dependence disorders and higher rates of suicide attempts and behavior problems than abstainers or…

  11. A Study of Communication Preferences of Mexican American Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Howard P.

    The study examined the attitudes Mexican American parents had about the best and worst ways for school personnel to communicate with them about typical school situations. Bilingual interviewers questioned 130 Mexican American parents in the East Los Angeles area to gather data relating to 3 sets of variables which were then correlated and…

  12. Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research with Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    This is a description of the creation of a research methods tool, the "Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research With Mexican Americans." For conducting literature reviews of and planning mixed methods studies with Mexican Americans, it contains evaluative criteria calling for transformative mixed methods, perspectives…

  13. Promoting Reading among Mexican American Children. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Yvonne I.; Velazquez, Jose

    Good books can help children develop pride in their ethnic identity, knowledge about cultural history and positive role models, and improved self-esteem. However, Mexican American students often do not experience literature in this way. This digest briefly reviews Mexican American children's literature, recommends classroom strategies, provides…

  14. A Model of Maternal and Paternal Ethnic Socialization of Mexican-American Adolescents' Self-Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P; Carlo, Gustavo; Streit, Cara; White, Rebecca M B

    2017-08-30

    Data from a sample of 462 Mexican-American adolescents (M = 10.4 years, SD = .55; 48.1% girls), mothers, and fathers were used to test an ethnic socialization model of ethnic identity and self-efficacy that also considered mainstream parenting styles (e.g., authoritative parenting). Findings supported the ethnic socialization model: parents' endorsement of Mexican-American values were associated with ethnic socialization at fifth grade and seventh grade; maternal ethnic socialization at fifth grade and paternal ethnic socialization at seventh grade were associated with adolescents' ethnic identity exploration at 10th grade and, in turn, self-efficacy at 12th grade. The findings support ethnic socialization conceptions of how self-views of ethnicity develop from childhood across adolescence in Mexican-American children. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. "It Hurts a Latina When They Tell Us Anything About Our Children": Implications of Mexican-Origin Mothers' Maternal Identities, Aspirations, and Attitudes About Cultural Transmission for Childhood Obesity Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel E; Cole, Suzanne M; Reyes, Ligia I; McKenney-Shubert, Shannon J; Peterson, Karen E

    2015-10-01

    This qualitative study explored values, attitudes, and beliefs held by Mexican-origin mothers of preschool-aged children to enhance understanding of cultural influences on behaviors associated with childhood obesity risk. During face-to-face interviews, 39 Mexican-origin mothers of preschool-aged children discussed their hopes for their children, their image of the perfect mother, Mexican and American foods, why they taught their children about these foods, and their opinions about television (TV) viewing language. Participants wanted their children to become successful, "good" people, which necessitated doing well in school. Mothers also wanted their children to know them, which required understanding the mothers' Mexican backgrounds. Mothers wanted their children to maintain Mexican values and identities. Some mothers viewed American culture as harmful. Many participants prepared their child for going to Mexico by exposing them to Mexican culture and foods. Some mothers fed their children American foods to prepare them for school. Perceptions of American foods generally reflected stereotypical unhealthy foods. TV helped teach children Spanish and English. Being a good mother was core to participants' identities; thus, hearing about child overweight made some mothers feel like failures. Health promotion programs may be more salient to mothers if they: underscore how a healthy weight can help children in school; teach mothers to prepare healthy American foods that their children will encounter in kindergarten; assist mothers in teaching their children about Mexico; and present information about childhood obesity in ways that reinforce what mothers are doing well, enhance mothers' self-efficacy, and allay feelings of failure.

  16. “It Hurts a Latina When They Tell Us Anything About Our Children”: Implications of Mexican-Origin Mothers' Maternal Identities, Aspirations, and Attitudes About Cultural Transmission for Childhood Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Suzanne M.; Reyes, Ligia I.; McKenney-Shubert, Shannon J.; Peterson, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: This qualitative study explored values, attitudes, and beliefs held by Mexican-origin mothers of preschool-aged children to enhance understanding of cultural influences on behaviors associated with childhood obesity risk. Methods: During face-to-face interviews, 39 Mexican-origin mothers of preschool-aged children discussed their hopes for their children, their image of the perfect mother, Mexican and American foods, why they taught their children about these foods, and their opinions about television (TV) viewing language. Results: Participants wanted their children to become successful, “good” people, which necessitated doing well in school. Mothers also wanted their children to know them, which required understanding the mothers' Mexican backgrounds. Mothers wanted their children to maintain Mexican values and identities. Some mothers viewed American culture as harmful. Many participants prepared their child for going to Mexico by exposing them to Mexican culture and foods. Some mothers fed their children American foods to prepare them for school. Perceptions of American foods generally reflected stereotypical unhealthy foods. TV helped teach children Spanish and English. Being a good mother was core to participants' identities; thus, hearing about child overweight made some mothers feel like failures. Conclusions: Health promotion programs may be more salient to mothers if they: underscore how a healthy weight can help children in school; teach mothers to prepare healthy American foods that their children will encounter in kindergarten; assist mothers in teaching their children about Mexico; and present information about childhood obesity in ways that reinforce what mothers are doing well, enhance mothers' self-efficacy, and allay feelings of failure. PMID:26186285

  17. Acculturation and metabolic syndrome risk factors in young Mexican and Mexican-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Chantal A; Ontiveros, Diana; Zubia, Raul Y; Bader, Julia O

    2011-02-01

    Little is known about effects of acculturation on disease risk in young Mexican and Mexican-American women living in a border community. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between acculturation and features of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Mexican and Mexican-American women (n = 60) living in the largest US-Mexico border community. Acculturation was measured by the short acculturation scale for Hispanics and birthplace. Body composition was measured by Bod Pod and daily physical activity was measured by questionnaire and accelerometer. Increased acculturation was related to individual features of MetS and increased risk of MetS. These relationships were mediated by fat mass rather than inactivity. Fat mass mediates the relationships between acculturation and individual features of MetS in young Mexican and Mexican-American women. These findings suggest that fat mass, rather than inactivity, is an important contributor to disease risk in young Mexican and Mexican-American women living in a large US/Mexico border community.

  18. Bullying of Mexican Immigrant Students by Mexican American Students: An Examination of Intracultural Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Julian J.; Bauman, Sheri; Guillory, Raphael M.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study using qualitative methods to investigate intracultural bullying, specifically, bullying between Mexican American (MA) and Mexican immigrant (MI) high school students. Previous research has reported specific cultural conflicts and discrimination within ethnic groups due to differences in acculturation. The purpose of…

  19. Political Participation and Social Capital among Mexicans and Mexican Americans in Central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracin, Julia; Valeva, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the influence of bridging and bonding social capital in political participation while controlling for sociodemographic and psychological factors among Mexicans and Mexican Americans in Illinois. Bridging social capital significantly predicted two types of participation. Participants who felt their lives were linked to those of…

  20. Day of the Dead: A Mexican-American Celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt-Goldsmith, Diane

    This children's book describes how a Mexican-American family celebrates the traditional Mexican holiday, Day of the Dead (Dia de Muertos). The book centers on 10-year-old twins, Ximena and Azucena, who live in Sacramento, California, with their two brothers, older sister, and parents. The Day of the Dead takes place on the first and second day of…

  1. Culture, Context, and the Internalizing Distress of Mexican American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Antonio J.; Lopez, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    Latino youth appear to be at higher risk for depression relative to youth from other ethnic groups. This study assessed the relationship between nativity and several forms of internalizing distress among Mexican American middle school students as well as sociocultural factors that may help explain this relationship. Immigrant Mexican American…

  2. Day of the Dead: A Mexican-American Celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt-Goldsmith, Diane

    This children's book describes how a Mexican-American family celebrates the traditional Mexican holiday, Day of the Dead (Dia de Muertos). The book centers on 10-year-old twins, Ximena and Azucena, who live in Sacramento, California, with their two brothers, older sister, and parents. The Day of the Dead takes place on the first and second day of…

  3. Food Acculturation Drives Dietary Differences among Mexicans, Mexican Americans, and Non-Hispanic Whites123

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to examine the effects of food acculturation on Mexican Americans’ (MA) diets, taking the Mexican diet as reference. We used nationally representative samples of children (2–11 y) and female adolescents and adults (12–49 y) from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999 and NHANES 1999–2006 to compare the diets of Mexicans (n = 5678), MA born in Mexico (MAMX) (n = 1488), MA born in the United States (MAUS) (n = 3654), and non-Hispanic white Americans (NH-White) (n = 5473). One 24...

  4. Helping Mexican and Mexican-American Students in the Schools of the East Side Union High School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert

    This document provides information about schools in Mexico and suggests ways that U.S. schools can use this information to improve education for Mexican and Mexican American students. Chapter 1 describes the Mexican educational system as a vantage point for understanding the expectations of Mexican parents in the United States. This chapter covers…

  5. Mexican American Fathers’ Occupational Conditions: Links to Family Members’ Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouter, Ann C.; Davis, Kelly D.; Updegraff, Kimberly; Delgado, Melissa; Fortner, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    To examine the implications of fathers’ occupational conditions (i.e., income, work hours, shift work, pressure, workplace racism, and underemployment) for family members’ psychological adjustment, home interviews were conducted with fathers, mothers, and two adolescent offspring in each of 218 Mexican American families. Results underscored the importance of acculturation as a moderator. Fathers’ income was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in highly acculturated families but not in less acculturated families. In contrast, fathers’ reports of workplace racism were positively associated with depressive symptoms in less acculturated families but not in more acculturated family contexts. These findings were consistent across all 4 family members, suggesting that the “long arm” of the jobs held by Mexican American fathers extends to mothers and adolescent offspring. PMID:18414596

  6. Mexican-American Cultural Assumptions and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, E. Lou

    The search for presuppositions of a people's thought is not new. Octavio Paz and Samuel Ramos have both attempted to describe the assumptions underlying the Mexican character. Paz described Mexicans as private, defensive, and stoic, characteristics taken to the extreme in the "pachuco." Ramos, on the other hand, described Mexicans as…

  7. Mexican-American Cultural Assumptions and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, E. Lou

    The search for presuppositions of a people's thought is not new. Octavio Paz and Samuel Ramos have both attempted to describe the assumptions underlying the Mexican character. Paz described Mexicans as private, defensive, and stoic, characteristics taken to the extreme in the "pachuco." Ramos, on the other hand, described Mexicans as…

  8. A Comparison Between Mexican-American and South American Students: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escotet, Miguel A.

    Addressing problem areas Mexican American students identify as important and differences between South American and Mexican American student problems, this research was guided by earlier work on cross-cultural methods and student problems. The study involved 1,189 high school and university students from Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Venezuela,…

  9. Career Maturity and Personality Preferences of Mexican-American and Anglo-American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, David J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Comparison of 167 Anglo-American and 122 Mexican-American ninth graders showed that the former had much greater knowledge of career decision making and greater career awareness and occupational knowledge. Mexican Americans scored higher on Sensing and Thinking and lower on Perceiving scales of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. (SK)

  10. Mexican American Fathers’ Occupational Conditions: Links to Family Members’ Psychological Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Crouter, Ann C.; Davis, Kelly D.; Updegraff, Kimberly; Delgado, Melissa; Fortner, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    To examine the implications of fathers’ occupational conditions (i.e., income, work hours, shift work, pressure, workplace racism, and underemployment) for family members’ psychological adjustment, home interviews were conducted with fathers, mothers, and two adolescent offspring in each of 218 Mexican American families. Results underscored the importance of acculturation as a moderator. Fathers’ income was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in highly acculturated families but not...

  11. FastStats: Health of Mexican American Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button NCHS Home Health of Mexican American Population Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Source: Summary Health Statistics Tables for the U.S. Population: National Health Interview Survey, 2015, Table P-1c [ ...

  12. Curanderas and Brujas--Herbal Healing in Mexican American Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Jack V.; Dezelsky, Thomas L.

    1980-01-01

    Health educators should strive to understand the origins and roles of curanderas (herbalists) and brujas (witches) in Mexican American culture and appreciate both the advantages and the related problems that these people bring to their patients and their communities. (CMJ)

  13. Hopelessness, Family Stress, and Depression among Mexican-heritage Mothers in the Southwest

    OpenAIRE

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Kulis, Stephen; Perez, Hilda Garcia; Parsai, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a study conducted with a sample of 136 Mexican-heritage mothers residing in a large southwestern metropolitan area. From a risk-and-resiliency perspective, hopelessness was approached as a culturally specific response to family stress and other challenges encountered by Mexican immigrants. Although Mexican-heritage women and other Latinas have higher prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders than their male counterparts, they experience disparity in acc...

  14. Family Structure and Family Processes in Mexican American Families

    OpenAIRE

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2011-01-01

    Despite increases in single-parent families among Mexican Americans (MA), few studies have examined the association of family structure and family adjustment. Utilizing a diverse sample of 738 Mexican American families (21.7% single parent), the current study examined differences across family structure on early adolescent outcomes, family functioning, and parent-child relationship variables. Results revealed that early adolescents in single parent families reported greater school misconduct,...

  15. Economic Stress and Cortisol Among Postpartum Low-Income Mexican American Women: Buffering Influence of Family Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Shannon L; Luecken, Linda J; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Crnic, Keith A; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2015-01-01

    Low-income Mexican American women experience significant health disparities during the postpartum period. Contextual stressors, such as economic stress, are theorized to affect health via dysregulated cortisol output. However, cultural protective factors including strong family support may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18-42; 82% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000-$15,000), we examined the interactive influence of economic stress and family support at 6 weeks postpartum on maternal cortisol output (AUCg) during a mildly challenging mother-infant interaction task at 12 weeks postpartum, controlling for 6-week maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms. The interaction significantly predicted cortisol output such that higher economic stress predicted higher cortisol only among women reporting low family support. These results suggest that family support is an important protective resource for postpartum Mexican American women experiencing elevated economic stress.

  16. Hopelessness, Family Stress, and Depression among Mexican-Heritage Mothers in the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Kulis, Stephen; Perez, Hilda Garcia; Bermudez-Parsai, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a study conducted with a sample of 136 Mexican-heritage mothers residing in a large southwestern metropolitan area. From a risk-and-resiliency perspective, hopelessness was approached as a culturally specific response to family stress and other challenges encountered by Mexican immigrants. Although…

  17. Educational Progress and Parenting among Mexican Immigrant Mothers of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Kalil, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the potential for educational investments in Mexican immigrant mothers to enhance their management of their children's pathways through the educational system in the United States, which often disadvantages them. We tested this hypothesis with data on 816 Mexican immigrant women and their children from the Early Childhood…

  18. Hopelessness, Family Stress, and Depression among Mexican-Heritage Mothers in the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Kulis, Stephen; Perez, Hilda Garcia; Bermudez-Parsai, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a study conducted with a sample of 136 Mexican-heritage mothers residing in a large southwestern metropolitan area. From a risk-and-resiliency perspective, hopelessness was approached as a culturally specific response to family stress and other challenges encountered by Mexican immigrants. Although…

  19. My Mother and Me: Why Tiger Mothers Motivate Asian Americans But Not European Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Alyssa S; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2014-06-01

    "Tiger Mother" Amy Chua provoked a culture clash with her claim that controlling parenting in Asian American (AA) contexts produces more successful children than permissive parenting in European American (EA) contexts. At the heart of this controversy is a difference in the normative models of self that guide behavior. Ideas and practices prevalent in AA contexts emphasize that the person is and should be interdependent with one's close others, especially one's mother. In contrast, EA contexts emphasize the person as independent, even from one's mother. We find that AA compared with EA high school students experience more interdependence with their mothers and pressure from them, but that the pressure does not strain their relationship with their mothers. Furthermore, following failure, AAs compared with EAs are more motivated by their mothers, and AAs are particularly motivated by pressure from their mothers when it conveys interdependence.

  20. Negative outcomes of interethnic adoption of Mexican American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, R S; Serpe, R T

    1997-03-01

    This article identifies concerns about four possible negative outcomes of interethnic adoption involving Mexican American children and non-Mexican American parents. A sample of 861 Mexican Americans age 18 or older were asked whether they agreed or disagreed that four outcomes result from interethnic adoption: (1) The child may have an ethnic identity conflict, (2) the child may forget his or her Latino background, (3) the child's participation in Latino cultural events may be limited, and (4) the child may not acquire the skills to cope with racism. Respondents' agreement with the likelihood of these outcomes was associated with a belief in the importance of structural and cultural barriers preventing Latinos from adopting; with higher levels of participation in Mexican American cultural events; and with income, education, and acculturation. However, agreement that the outcomes were likely did not necessarily reflect approval or disapproval of interethnic adoption. Suggestions are made for future research on Mexican American children adopted by non-Mexican American parents.

  1. Familism, family ethnic socialization, and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Diamond Y; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Guimond, Amy B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2014-07-01

    The current longitudinal study examined how familism values and family ethnic socialization impacted Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' (N = 205) educational adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, educational utility), and whether these associations were moderated by adolescent mothers' ethnic centrality. Findings indicated that adolescent mothers' reports of familism values and family ethnic socialization were positively associated with their beliefs about educational utility, but not educational expectations. Ethnic centrality moderated the association between adolescent mothers' familism values and educational utility, such that adolescent mothers' endorsement of familism values during pregnancy were associated with significant increases in educational utility after their transition to parenthood, but only when adolescents reported high levels of ethnic centrality. Moreover, ethnic centrality was positively associated with adolescent mothers' educational expectations. Results highlight the importance of familism, ethnic socialization, and ethnic centrality for promoting Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational outcomes. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding adolescent mothers' educational adjustment in the context of family and culture.

  2. Educational Progress and Parenting Among Mexican Immigrant Mothers of Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Crosnoe, Robert; Kalil, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the potential for educational investments in Mexican immigrant mothers to enhance their management of their children’s pathways through an educational system in the U.S. that often disadvantages them. We tested this hypothesis with data on 816 Mexican immigrant women and their children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K). The results suggest that mothers who pursued their own schooling over a four year period, regardless of degree attainm...

  3. Brief Report: An Examination of the Relationships between Parental Monitoring, Self-Esteem and Delinquency among Mexican American Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Roslyn M.; Beutler, Larry E.; Ross, Sylvia An; Silver, N. Clayton

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined relationships between parental monitoring (mother and father), self-esteem, and delinquency among 95 adjudicated Mexican American male adolescents who were on probationary status with the juvenile justice system. Consistent with previous literature pertaining to familial processes and delinquency among the general…

  4. Understanding and Alleviating Cultural Stressors and Health Disparities in the Perinatal Outcomes of Mexican-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly; Rivera, Kendra Dyanne

    2014-01-01

    Women from minority populations, such as Mexican-American women, face unique social and cultural stressors that are different from men and women in the majority population. These differences have important consequences for the physical and mental health of pregnant mothers and contribute to perinatal health inequalities. As the population in the…

  5. Native American Languages as Heritage Mother Tongues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Teresa L.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines current efforts to revitalise, stabilise, and maintain Indigenous languages in the USA. Most Native American languages are no longer acquired as a first language by children. They are nonetheless languages of identity and heritage, and in this sense can and should be considered mother tongues. The article begins with a…

  6. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  7. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  8. Predictors of Routine Medical Care Use among Mexican Immigrants/Mexican-Americans Varying in Legal Status

    OpenAIRE

    Garcini, Luz M.; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Molina, Marisa; Quintanar, Elena; Johansen, Christopher; Hector, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Immigration has been the focus of intense political debate, with a recurrent theme being the use of public services, including healthcare. Although Latinos are the largest and fastest growing ethnic group in the United States (U.S.), evidence suggests they underutilize healthcare, with Mexican Immigrants and Mexican Americans (MI-MA) living on the U.S.-Mexico border exhibiting the greatest disparities. Objective: This study explored the association of predisposing, enabling and ne...

  9. Consequences of Arizona's Immigration Policy on Social Capital among Mexican Mothers with Unauthorized Immigration Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Padilla, Brian; Valentine, Jessa Lewis

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the consequences of increasingly restrictive immigration policies on social capital among Mexican mothers with unauthorized immigrant status in Arizona. Three focus groups conducted in Arizona explore how mothers' experiences with immigration policies have affected their neighborhood, community, and family ties. Focus group…

  10. Measuring Social Support from Mother-Figures in the Transition from Pregnancy to Parenthood among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Russell B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan B; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2013-05-01

    Social support for adolescent mothers, particularly from mother figures, can buffer risks and promote well-being. To date, no longitudinal research has investigated how the dimensions of social support may change during the transition from pregnancy to parenthood for adolescent mothers. This study examined stability and change in dimensions of social support from the third trimester of pregnancy to two years postpartum among 191 dyads of Mexican-origin adolescent first-time mothers and their mother figures. Perceptions of social support received from a mother figure shifted from a single dimension (i.e., global support) to three distinct factors (instrumental, emotional, and companionship support) during this transition; however, social support provision as reported by mother figures remained stable. Measurement equivalence was established across interview language (English and Spanish) and across two time points postpartum. Bivariate correlations provided support for the convergent and divergent validity of these measures. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  11. Smokeless Tobacco Consumption by Mexican-American University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Linda C.

    A modified version of the Illinois Department of Public Health Tobacco Use Survey was used to assess smokeless tobacco consumption among students attending a state university in New Mexico. Respondents included 65 male and 83 female Mexican-Americans, as well as 59 male and 118 female Anglo-Americans. Ages ranged from 16 to 67; subgroup median…

  12. Brief report: An examination of the relationships between parental monitoring, self-esteem and delinquency among Mexican American male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Roslyn M; Beutler, Larry E; An Ross, Sylvia; Clayton Silver, N

    2006-06-01

    The present study examined relationships between parental monitoring (mother and father), self-esteem, and delinquency among 95 adjudicated Mexican American male adolescents who were on probationary status with the juvenile justice system. Consistent with previous literature pertaining to familial processes and delinquency among the general adolescent population, findings from the current study revealed that parental monitoring was negatively associated with delinquency. In addition, self-esteem was shown to be positively correlated with delinquency. These results highlight the generalizability of previous research related to familial, emotional, and behavioral processes among Mexican American male adolescents.

  13. The Relationship between Native American Ancestry, Body Mass Index and Diabetes Risk among Mexican-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Huff, Chad D; Yamamura, Yuko; Wu, Xifeng; Strom, Sara S

    2015-01-01

    Higher body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes are substantially higher among Mexican-Americans relative to non-Hispanic European Americans. Mexican-Americans are genetically diverse, with a highly variable distribution of Native American, European, and African ancestries. Here, we evaluate the role of Native American ancestry on BMI and diabetes risk in a well-defined Mexican-American population. Participants were randomly selected among individuals residing in the Houston area who are enrolled in the Mexican-American Cohort study. Using a custom Illumina GoldenGate Panel, we genotyped DNA from 4,662 cohort participants for 87 Ancestry-Informative Markers. On average, the participants were of 50.2% Native American ancestry, 42.7% European ancestry and 7.1% African ancestry. Using multivariate linear regression, we found BMI and Native American ancestry were inversely correlated; individuals with 80% Native American ancestry. Furthermore, we demonstrated an interaction between BMI and Native American ancestry in diabetes risk among women; Native American ancestry was a strong risk factor for diabetes only among overweight and obese women (OR = 1.190 for each 10% increase in Native American ancestry). This study offers new insight into the complex relationship between obesity, genetic ancestry, and their respective effects on diabetes risk. Findings from this study may improve the diabetes risk prediction among Mexican-American individuals thereby facilitating targeted prevention strategies.

  14. Volunteer work in the church among older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Hayward, R David

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that influence the amount of volunteer work that older Mexican Americans perform in the place where they worship. The relationship between religion and volunteering is viewed from a social identity perspective. Data from a nationally representative sample of older Mexican Americans suggest that Evangelical/Pentecostal church members spend more time performing volunteer work at church than older Mexican Americans who affiliate with other denominations. Moreover, the findings indicate that the difference in the amount of volunteering between the two groups can largely be explained by differences in the nature of the spiritual support that Evangelical/Pentecostal receive from their fellow church members as well as depth of their commitment to their faith.

  15. Culture, context, and the internalizing distress of Mexican American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Antonio J; López, Steven R

    2009-03-01

    Latino youth appear to be at higher risk for depression relative to youth from other ethnic groups. This study assessed the relationship between nativity and several forms of internalizing distress among Mexican American middle school students as well as sociocultural factors that may help explain this relationship. Immigrant Mexican American youth (n = 78) reported significantly higher social anxiety and loneliness than U.S.-born Mexican American youth (n = 83). Acculturation stress and English proficiency were identified as significant mediators of these nativity differences. Although internalizing problems and depression symptoms did not vary across nativity groups, both were related to lower affiliative obedience. The findings point to cultural socialization values and contextual influences as important variables in the mental health of youth in immigrant families.

  16. Parental feeding practices in Mexican American families: initial test of an expanded measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tschann Jeanne M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although obesity rates are high among Latino children, relatively few studies of parental feeding practices have examined Latino families as a separate group. Culturally-based approaches to measurement development can begin to identify parental feeding practices in specific cultural groups. This study used qualitative and quantitative methods to develop and test the Parental Feeding Practices (PFP Questionnaire for use with Mexican American parents. Items reflected both parent’s use of control over child eating and child-centered feeding practices. Methods In the qualitative phase of the research, 35 Latino parents participated in focus groups. Items for the PFP were developed from focus group discussions, as well as adapted from existing parent feeding practice measures. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 37 adults to evaluate items. In the quantitative phase, mothers and fathers of 174 Mexican American children ages 8–10 completed the PFP and provided demographic information. Anthropometric measures were obtained on family members. Results Confirmatory factor analyses identified four parental feeding practice dimensions: positive involvement in child eating, pressure to eat, use of food to control behavior, and restriction of amount of food. Factorial invariance modeling suggested equivalent factor meaning and item response scaling across mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers differed somewhat in their use of feeding practices. All four feeding practices were related to child body mass index (BMI percentiles, for one or both parents. Mothers reporting more positive involvement had children with lower BMI percentiles. Parents using more pressure to eat had children with lower BMI percentiles, while parents using more restriction had children with higher BMI percentiles. Fathers using food to control behavior had children with lower BMI percentiles. Conclusions Results indicate good initial validity and

  17. Racial and Ethnic Socialization in Later Generations of a Mexican American Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Reyes, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Later-generation Mexican American (third or more) experience diminishing educational gains compared with second-generation Mexican Americans. Positive racial and ethnic socialization (RES) and ethnic identity can facilitate strong academic performance. Using the oral histories of 18 third- and fourth-generation Mexican Americans in the same…

  18. Self-Knowledge and Identity in a Mexican American Counseling Course: A Qualitative Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarripa, Manuel X.; Lane, Ileana; Lerma, Eunice; Holin, Lyle, II

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the lived experiences of Mexican American graduate students who completed a course on Mexican American counseling and mental health. The experiences of Mexican American students taking a mental health course that focuses on their own ethnic group has not been previously discussed in the literature. Given the history of…

  19. Contact with the Dead, Religion, and Death Anxiety among Older Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Bastida, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if contact with the dead is associated with lower death anxiety among older Mexican Americans. The data come from a nationwide survey of older Mexican Americans (N = 1,005). The study model specifies that (a) older Mexican Americans who have experienced contact with the dead are more likely to see the…

  20. Emotional closeness in Mexican-origin adolescents' relationships with mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sue A; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2014-12-01

    Research on the associations between parent-adolescent relationships and friendships among Latinos is limited. Drawing on developmental and ecological perspectives, we examined bidirectional associations between parental warmth and friendship intimacy with same-sex peers from early to late adolescence using a longitudinal cross-lag panel design. Parent-adolescent immigration status and adolescent gender were examined as moderators of these associations. Home interviews were conducted with 246 Mexican American adolescents (51 % female) when they were in early (M = 12.55; SD = .60 years), middle (M = 14.64; SD = .59 years), and late adolescence (M = 17.67; SD = .57 years). Modest declines in paternal warmth were evident from early to late adolescence, but maternal warmth was high and stable across this time period. Girls' intimacy with same-sex friends also was high and stable from early to late adolescence, but boys' intimacy with same-sex friends increased over this time period. In general, findings revealed that adolescents' perceptions of parents' warmth in early adolescence were associated positively with friendship intimacy in middle adolescence, and friendship intimacy in middle adolescence was associated positively with parental warmth in late adolescence. Some associations were moderated by adolescent gender and parent-adolescent immigration status. For example, there was an association from maternal warmth in early adolescence to friendship intimacy in late adolescence only for immigrant youth. These findings suggest that among Mexican American adolescents, their relationships with their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends are intertwined closely and that gender and immigration status shape some of these associations during adolescence.

  1. Person-environment fit: everyday conflict and coparenting conflict in Mexican-origin teen mother families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Toomey, Russell B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined whether a match or mismatch between teen mothers' cultural orientation and the cultural context of the family (i.e., familial ethnic socialization) predicted mother-daughter everyday and coparenting conflict, and in turn, teen mothers' adjustment. Participants were 204 Mexican-origin teen mothers (M age = 16.81 years; SD = 1.00). Consistent with a person-environment fit perspective, findings indicated that a mismatch between teen mothers' cultural orientation (i.e., high mainstream cultural involvement) and the cultural context of the family (i.e., higher levels of familial ethnic socialization) predicted greater mother-daughter everyday conflict and coparenting conflict 1 year later. However, when there was a match (i.e., high levels of familial ethnic socialization for teen mothers with high Mexican orientation), familial ethnic socialization was not associated with mother-daughter conflict. In addition, mother-daughter conflict was positively associated with depressive symptoms and engagement in risky behaviors 1 year later among all teen mothers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Bibliography: The Mexican American in the Migrant Labor Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Susan; Priest, Rhea Pendergrass

    The bibliography presents 275 citations (some with annotations) dealing with Mexican Americans in a migrant labor setting. Dates of the bibliographic entries range from 1928 to 1967. Materials are grouped under 9 subject categories. These include cultural characteristics, education, employment, health, migrant farm labor, minorities (minority…

  3. ACCULTURATION AND WEIGHT STATUS IN MEXICAN AMERICAN CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rates of obesity in the U.S. have shown a significant steady increase over the past two decades, especially among Mexican American adults and children. Adults tend to become heavier with increased length of residence in the U.S.; however, little is known about the influence of acculturation on child...

  4. Determinants of Coping Responses among Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship of perceived stress, self-esteem, acculturation, and gender to the coping response of Mexican American adolescents. Data from self-report surveys indicated that adolescents had relatively high perceived stress levels, low acculturation, and a moderate self-esteem, with no significant gender differences. Self-esteem was…

  5. Machismo sustains health and illness beliefs of Mexican American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobralske, Mary

    2006-08-01

    To inform nurse practitioners (NPs) about Mexican American men's health and illness beliefs and the ways in which these are influenced by their masculine identity and how they view themselves as men in their culture. The data sources used were based on a selected review of the literature about Mexican American men's health and illness beliefs and the concept of machismo. Several studies, including the author's study on Mexican American men's healthcare-seeking beliefs and behaviors and experience in providing primary health care to men across cultures, contributed new data. The meaning of manhood in the Mexican American culture is critical in understanding how men perceive health and illness and what they do when they are ill. Machismo enhances men's awareness of their health because they have to be healthy to be good fathers, husbands, brothers, sons, workers, and community members. Pain and disability are motivating factors in finding ways to regain their health. Men's health beliefs across cultures need further investigation by nurse researchers and NPs. How culture influences healthcare delivery to men should be better understood. If NPs are aware of men's views on masculinity, they are better prepared to understand and assist men in becoming more aware of their health status and to seek health care when appropriate.

  6. Reduced quality of life in very overweight Mexican American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A; Fullerton, Ginny; Foreyt, John P

    2007-04-01

    Quality of life (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, PedsQL) was assessed for 175 Mexican American adolescents with measured height and weight used to determine body mass index (BMI) percentile/weight classification. Main effects for weight classification were detected using One-way ANOVAs (p < .05 for total, physical, and psychosocial), with the heaviest adolescents demonstrating the lowest ratings.

  7. Cultural and Contextual Influences on Parenting in Mexican American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Weaver, Scott R.; Nair, Rajni L.

    2009-01-01

    Family stress theory can explain associations between contextual stressors and parenting. The theory, however, has not been tested among Mexican Americans or expanded to include cultural-contextual risks. This study examined associations between neighborhood, economic, and acculturative stressors and parenting behaviors in a sample of 570…

  8. Implicit Race/Ethnic Prejudice in Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Christelle Fabiola; Gasquoine, Philip Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Implicit race/ethnic prejudice was assessed using Spanish- and English-language versions of an Implicit Association Test that used Hispanic/Anglo first names and pleasant/unpleasant words as stimuli. This test was administered to a consecutive sample of Mexican American adults residing in the Rio Grande Valley region of Texas of whom about…

  9. Mexican American Women Pursuing Counselor Education Doctorates: A Narrative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Tamara J.; Carney, JoLynn V.

    2016-01-01

    The authors used narrative inquiry and Anzaldúa's (1999) bordlerlands theory to understand the cultural experiences of 5 Mexican American women in doctoral programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. Results indicated that participants navigated multiple cultural spheres and that the…

  10. Learning Achievement Packages. Mexican American Studies, English-Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astacio, Ramon; Iruegas, Efrain

    Developed originally for grades 7-12, the three bilingual Mexican American studies curriculum units on the pre-Hispanic cultures of the Olmecs, Mayas, and Aztecs present information for the teacher and for the student, a glossary, worksheets, an answer key, a test, and a bibliography in Spanish and English. The cross section of materials are…

  11. Parental Agency in Educational Decision Making: A Mexican American Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Margy

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: This article explores the experiences of one Mexican American family as they make a key curriculum choice for their 9-year-old son. Relatively little attention has been paid to parents' beliefs, attitudes, and, in particular, experiences as they actively engage in--and sometimes affect--their children's schooling. Parents'…

  12. Neuroticism Predicts Acculturative Stress in Mexican American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Deborah L.; Veraza, Rafael; Kinkler, Lori; Kinney, Nathan A.

    2007-01-01

    Neuroticism is a risk factor for mood and anxiety disorders and a strong predictor of subjective stress in non-Hispanics. This study examined neuroticism as a predictor of subjective acculturative stress in 122 Mexican American college students. Neuroticism was measured using the Revised Neuroticism Extroversion Openness Personality Inventory…

  13. Bibliografia; A Bibliography on the Mexican-American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segreto, Joan, Comp.

    More than 100 items published 1923 and 1970 are cited in this bibliography. These items represent sources for furthering teachers' knowledge about Mexican Americans. Major categories under which publications are grouped include fine arts, distinguished personalities, heritage, history, and modern life. Five additional bibliographies relating to…

  14. Social Capital: Strengthening Mexican-American Families through Parenting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanez, Marcel; Devall, Esther; VanLeeuwen, Dawn M.

    2010-01-01

    Development of social capital was explored from a scientific evaluation of adult and teen parents (N = 102) who voluntarily participated in a parenting program. Most were unmarried, young, low-income, and Mexican-American. A strengths-based, culturally specific method was utilized to recruit and retain participants. After training, parents had…

  15. Neuroticism Predicts Acculturative Stress in Mexican American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Deborah L.; Veraza, Rafael; Kinkler, Lori; Kinney, Nathan A.

    2007-01-01

    Neuroticism is a risk factor for mood and anxiety disorders and a strong predictor of subjective stress in non-Hispanics. This study examined neuroticism as a predictor of subjective acculturative stress in 122 Mexican American college students. Neuroticism was measured using the Revised Neuroticism Extroversion Openness Personality Inventory…

  16. Food Buying Practices of Mexican Americans in East Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    As part of a pilot study of the nutritional status of Mexican American preschool children attending Head Start in East Los Angeles in the spring of 1969, questions were asked concerning their families' buying and food practices. This paper reports on the information obtained from the 21 questionnaires which were returned. Answers to the following…

  17. African American teen mothers' perceptions of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayland, J; Rawlins, R

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the childbearing African American teens' perceptions of parenting based on their own experiences. Focus group discussions were held with 17 teens in their school setting for 50 minutes each week. Group discussions were audiotaped, tapes were transcribed, and then analyzed for common themes. The unmarried teens ranged in age from 15 to 18 years. Findings indicated that the teens depended on grandmothers to provide child care and for information about parenting. The teens identified parenting problems including crying, discipline, and conflicts dealing with grandmothers and the child's father. Teens wanted more information about breastfeeding and minor childhood diseases. The researchers identified that teens lacked information about their children's growth and development and safety issues. Findings have implications for nurses who care for childbearing teens and their children; and those involved in planning and implementing parent education programs for African American teen mothers and their families. Further research is indicated with larger samples of African American teens; and to explore the context of family relationships in which teen mothers and grandmothers share parenting for the teens' children.

  18. Parenting self-efficacy and parenting practices over time in Mexican American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumka, Larry E; Gonzales, Nancy A; Wheeler, Lorey A; Millsap, Roger E

    2010-10-01

    Drawing on social cognitive theory, this study used a longitudinal cross-lagged panel design and a structural equation modeling approach to evaluate parenting self-efficacy's reciprocal and causal associations with parents' positive control practices over time to predict adolescents' conduct problems. Data were obtained from teachers, mothers, and adolescents in 189 Mexican American families living in the southwest United States. After accounting for contemporaneous reciprocal relationships between parenting self-efficacy (PSE) and positive control, results indicated that parenting self-efficacy predicted future positive control practices rather than the reverse. PSE also showed direct effects on decreased adolescent conduct problems. PSE functioned in an antecedent causal role in relation to parents' positive control practices and adolescents' conduct problems in this sample. These results support the cross-cultural applicability of social cognitive theory to parenting in Mexican American families. An implication is that parenting interventions aimed at preventing adolescent conduct problems need to focus on elevating the PSE of Mexican American parents with low levels of PSE. In addition, future research should seek to specify the most effective strategies for enhancing PSE.

  19. Stress, coping, and health: a comparison of Mexican immigrants, Mexican-Americans, and non-Hispanic whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Tillman; Galves, Al; Dickinson, L Miriam; Perez, Maria de Jesus Diaz

    2005-07-01

    Mexican immigrants, Mexican-Americans, and non-Hispanic white Americans all face different stressors. Stress-coping strategies may vary for each group as well. We compared relationships among perceived stress, stress-coping strategies, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in a rural sample of Mexican citizens living in the United States, Mexican-Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. Health-related quality of life and stress-coping styles varied among the three groups. Mexican citizens reported significantly better physical functioning than did non-Hispanic whites or Mexican-Americans. Mexican-Americans reported significantly better mental health functioning than did non-Hispanic whites or Mexican citizens. Mexican citizens were more likely to use positive reframing, denial, and religion, and less likely to use substance abuse and self-distraction, as stress-coping strategies. Stress-coping style may be a potentially modifiable predictor of physical and mental HRQL, and may account for part of the Hispanic health paradox.

  20. Language Measurement Equivalence of the Ethnic Identity Scale With Mexican American Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Knight, George P; Zeiders, Katharine H

    2011-12-01

    The current study considers methodological challenges in developmental research with linguistically diverse samples of young adolescents. By empirically examining the cross-language measurement equivalence of a measure assessing three components of ethnic identity development (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) among Mexican American adolescents, the study both assesses the cross-language measurement equivalence of a common measure of ethnic identity and provides an appropriate conceptual and analytical model for researchers needing to evaluate measurement scales translated into multiple languages. Participants are 678 Mexican-origin early adolescents and their mothers. Measures of exploration and resolution achieve the highest levels of equivalence across language versions. The measure of affirmation achieves high levels of equivalence. Results highlight potential ways to correct for any problems of nonequivalence across language versions of the affirmation measure. Suggestions are made for how researchers working with linguistically diverse samples can use the highlighted techniques to evaluate their own translated measures.

  1. Case-control assessment of diet and lung cancer risk in African Americans and Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillow, P C; Hursting, S D; Duphorne, C M; Jiang, H; Honn, S E; Chang, S; Spitz, M R

    1997-01-01

    In this case-control study we determined whether dietary differences underlie some of the ethnic and sex differences in US lung cancer rates. We examined the relationship between diet and lung cancer development in 137 lung cancer cases (93 African Americans and 44 Mexican Americans) and 187 controls (78 African Americans and 109 Mexican Americans). Cases reported a higher daily mean total fat intake (p fruits (p = 0.02). Ethnic differences in diet were also observed: Mexican Americans consumed less total fat (p fruits (p lung cancer risk (p fruit consumption and lung cancer risk (p = 0.05). In conclusion, our findings support the hypothesis that diet, particularly high fat consumption and low fruit and vegetable consumption, contributes (independent of cigarette smoking) to the excess lung cancer risk in African-American men, who have the highest lung cancer rates in the United States.

  2. African American Single Mothers Raising Sons: Implications for Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…

  3. The Relationships between Mexican American Acculturation, Cultural Values, Gender, and Help-Seeking Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Sanchez, Lucila; Atkinson, Donald R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between Mexican acculturation, cultural values, gender, and help-seeking intentions among Mexican American community college students. Findings suggest that as Mexican Americans lose their culture of origin and increase their generational status, their attitudes toward help seeking become less favorable. This…

  4. Forgotten History: Mexican American School Segregation in Arizona from 1900-1951

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jeanne M.

    2008-01-01

    This article documents the efforts by Mexican Americans to challenge school segregation in Arizona in the first half of the twentieth century. As in Texas and California, although state law never formally mandated the segregation of Mexican American students, school districts in Arizona often established separate "Mexican Schools" for…

  5. An Examination of Language Practices during Mother-Child Play Activities among Mexican Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Natalia; Kibler, Amanda K.; Baird, Ashley Simpson; Parr, Alyssa; Bergey, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    We examined the language practices of five mother-child dyads during a structured play activity, particularly in relation to maternal question use. The study includes second-generation, 4-year-old children of Mexican immigrants who demonstrate either high vocabulary levels in English and Spanish or low levels of vocabulary in both languages.…

  6. "Tanto Necesitamos De Aqui Como Necesitamos De Alla": "Leer Juntas" among Mexican Transnational Mothers and Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Piedra, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents part of the results of a qualitative study about literacy practices of Mexican transnational mothers, who live in and frequently cross the border between two countries (the United States and Mexico). Drawing on sociocultural approaches to literacy and literature on transnationalism, I analyze one practice: "leer…

  7. Mexican Mothers' English Proficiency and Children's School Readiness: Mediation through Home Literacy Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Claire E.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Home literacy involvement (e.g., shared book reading) has been linked to enhanced cognitive development and school readiness during early childhood. Furthermore, precursory reading and math skills are key predictors of high school achievement. This study examined prospective relations between Mexican mothers' English…

  8. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and Mexican nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Allison

    2011-03-01

    In the context of nurse migration, experts view trade agreements as either vehicles for facilitating migration or as contributing to brain-drain phenomena. Using a case study design, this study explored the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on the development of Mexican nursing. Drawing results from a general thematic analysis of 48 interviews with Mexican nurses and 410 primary and secondary sources, findings show that NAFTA changed the relationship between the State and Mexican nursing. The changed relationship improved the infrastructure capable of producing and monitoring nursing human resources in Mexico. It did not lead to the mass migration of Mexican nurses to the United States and Canada. At the same time, the economic instability provoked by the peso crisis of 1995 slowed the implementation of planned advances. Subsequent neoliberal reforms decreased nurses' security as workers by minimizing access to full-time positions with benefits, and decreased wages. This article discusses the linkages of these events and the effects on Mexican nurses and the development of the profession. The findings have implications for nursing human resources policy-making and trade in services.

  9. National Mexican Tourism Policy and North American Second Homeowners In Mexico: Local Tourism Development and Mexican Identity (Chapter 6)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Helene Balslev

    2018-01-01

    participate in reshaping and reconfigure public policy and Mexican culture/identity construction. The purpose of the chapter is to explore the role of the North American second home owners and their impact on the planning and regulation of Mexican state policies, and how they might reconfigure practices and....... Still the Mexican state does not seize the second home owners as a resource and ‘producers’ rather only as consumers of different Mexican objects, food etc. The chapter addresses this research gap and proposes rather than only perceive North American second home owners as part of tourism development...... they need to be recognized as a significant and powerful actor. An actor who has the capacity to contest the Mexican state in the definition of what is considered a tourism place and space as they do not only define the tourism activities but what to be considered Mexican. This way they unintentionally...

  10. Mother-Youth Acculturation Gaps and Health-Risking/Emotional Problems among Latin-American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Margit; Arbona, Consuelo; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Kaplan, Charles D

    2015-07-20

    Second-generation Latin-American adolescents tend to show higher levels of various health-risking behaviors and emotional problems than first-generation Latin-American adolescents. This cross-sectional study of 40 mother-adolescent dyads examined the association of mother-youth acculturation gaps to youth adjustment problems. Intergenerational acculturation gaps were assessed as a bidimensional self-report component and a novel observational measurement component. The Latin-American adolescents were predominantly second-generation of Mexican descent (M age = 13.42 years, SD = 0.55). Most of the mothers were born in Mexico (M age = 39.18 years, SD = 5.17). Data were collected from mothers, adolescents, and coders, using questionnaires, structured interviews, and videotaped mother-youth interaction tasks. Findings revealed generally weak support for the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis. In addition, stronger relative adherence to their heritage culture by the adolescents was significantly (p acculturation processes. Mother-youth acculturation gaps in orientation to the heritage culture were the most salient dimension, changing the focus on the original formulation of the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis.

  11. A Longitudinal Examination of Support, Self-esteem, and Mexican-origin Adolescent Mothers' Parenting Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Guimond, Amy B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan

    2013-06-01

    Guided by a risk and resilience framework, this study used a prospective longitudinal, multiple-reporter design to examine how social support from a mother figure during pregnancy interacted with Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' self-esteem to inform their parenting efficacy when their children were 10 months old. Using reports of perceived social support by adolescent mothers (Mage = 16.24, SD =099) and their mother figures (Mage = 40.84, SD = 7.04) in 205 dyads, and controlling for demographic factors (i.e., adolescent age, adolescent nativity, family income, mothers' educational attainment, adolescent-mother coresidence) and adolescents' social support from a significant other, findings indicated that social support during pregnancy was positively associated with adolescent mothers' future parenting efficacy when adolescent mothers had relatively lower self-esteem. Findings were consistent for adolescents' and mothers' reports, and emphasize the value of social support from a mother figure among adolescent mothers with lower self-esteem. Implications for interventions are presented.

  12. Immigrant Parents' Involvement in American Schools: Perspectives from Korean Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Soomin; Wang, X. Christine

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate Korean immigrant mothers' perspectives on their involvement in American schools. In-depth interviews were conducted with six mothers. The findings indicated that the Korean mothers confronted difficulties while contacting teachers and participating in school activities. These difficulties included…

  13. Stress and depressive symptoms among Mexican American elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriboga, David A; Black, Sandra A; Aranda, Maria; Markides, Kyriakos

    2002-11-01

    Although social stressors have successfully predicted depressive symptomatology in a number of populations, few studies have examined the relevance of stressors for Mexican American elders. Results are reported here from a multistage probability sample of 3,050 Mexican Americans aged 65 and older drawn from a 5-state region. Participants reported low levels of education and income, and most reported difficulty in reading or writing in English. Deaths, illness of close other, and financial problems were the three most frequent life events, and many reported financial strains. Depressive symptoms were then regressed on demographic indicators, cognitive status, linguistic acculturation, social supports, and three types of stressors. Being a woman, lower income, decreased income, chronic financial strain, and several health stressors were associated with greater symptomatology. Results identified a cluster of economic stressors and conditions that may play a critical role in the etiology of depressive symptoms in this minority population.

  14. Friendships and suicidality among Mexican American adolescent girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterrowd, Erin; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Chavez, Ernest L

    2010-08-01

    Friendship factors have been implicated in adolescent suicidality, but this relationship has not been verified across ethnicities. This study examined suicidality and friendship problems (i.e., social isolation, poor friendship quality, friends' school disconnection, and friends' delinquency) among Mexican American adolescents, an understudied, vulnerable group in terms of suicidality. Three hundred thirty-eight community adolescents, two-thirds of whom were educationally at-risk, participated in the study. Suicidal ideation and behavior rates were high, particularly among girls. Friends' school disconnectedness increased girls' odds for suicidal ideation by 13%. This association was even greater for girls in good academic standing. Friendship problems were not associated with suicidality in boys. Ethnic identity was a minor factor in suicidal ideation, and only for girls. These findings confirm, among Mexican American adolescents, the role of gender in the relationship between friendship and suicidality.

  15. Exploring Mexican American adolescent romantic relationship profiles and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosmann, Danyel A V; Roosa, Mark W

    2015-08-01

    Although Mexican Americans are the largest ethnic minority group in the nation, knowledge is limited regarding this population's adolescent romantic relationships. This study explored whether 12th grade Mexican Americans' (N = 218; 54% female) romantic relationship characteristics, cultural values, and gender created unique latent classes and if so, whether they were linked to adjustment. Latent class analyses suggested three profiles including, relatively speaking, higher, satisfactory, and lower quality romantic relationships. Regression analyses indicated these profiles had distinct associations with adjustment. Specifically, adolescents with higher and satisfactory quality romantic relationships reported greater future family expectations, higher self-esteem, and fewer externalizing symptoms than those with lower quality romantic relationships. Similarly, adolescents with higher quality romantic relationships reported greater academic self-efficacy and fewer sexual partners than those with lower quality romantic relationships. Overall, results suggested higher quality romantic relationships were most optimal for adjustment. Future research directions and implications are discussed.

  16. Attitudes of Mexican American and Anglo American Parents towards Public Education in a Rural Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Troy C.; Ferrin, Scott Ellis

    2001-01-01

    A study investigated attitudes and participation of 40 Mexican American and Anglo-American parents in a rural Utah elementary school. Influenced by differing culture, religion, educational attainment, socioeconomic status, and background, the two groups had different attitudes toward and participation in the public school system and thus different…

  17. Family Socialization and Educational Achievement in Two Cultures: Mexican-American and Anglo-American

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James G.; Evans, Francis B.

    1976-01-01

    This study examines variations in family socialization practices among Anglo American and Mexican Americans and the effect of these practices on achievement values, self concept and educational achievement. Data were collected from 102 junior high school students and their families. (Author/BW)

  18. Sexual Health Discussions between African-American Mothers and Mothers of Latino Descent and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ashley; Ellis, Monica U.; Castellanos, Ted; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Sneed, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    We examined approaches used by African-American mothers and mothers of Latino descent for informal sex-related discussions with their children to inform sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV intervention development efforts. We recruited mothers (of children aged 12-15) from youth service agencies and a university in southern California.…

  19. CoDE: Community Diabetes Education for uninsured Mexican Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Culica, Dan; Walton, James W.; Prezio, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    Low-cost diabetes education programs that target Mexican Americans are essential to reduce the observed health disparities in this population. A culturally appropriate intervention was developed as the centerpiece of the Community Diabetes Education (CoDE) program. This article describes the structure, patient acceptance, and costs of this one-to-one educational model delivered in 7 patient contact hours by a community health worker over 12 months in a community clinic serving the uninsured. ...

  20. Early Childbearing among Mexican-American Young Women: Place Matters

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Dawn Michele

    2010-01-01

    Compared to all other racial and ethnic groups in the United States, Mexican-American adolescents have by far the highest rates of early childbearing. Within the public health literature, these disproportionately high rates have generally been explored as a function of acculturation, which is described as a process involving the cultural, social, and psychological changes that take place post-migration. In order to elucidate acculturation's effect, specifically on the reproductive health and ...

  1. Racism and Power: Arizona Politicians' Use of the Discourse of Anti-Americanism against Mexican American Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses a legislation that would effectively terminate Mexican American Studies programs in k-12 was passed in Arizona in 2010. In this article, the author traces how this legislation drew from discourses of anti-Americanism and wickedness initiated by the state's superintendent of public instruction against Mexican American Studies…

  2. Acculturation, gender, and alcohol use among Mexican American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelli, Marcela; Torres Stone, Rosalie A; Iturbide, Maria I; McGinley, Meredith; Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J

    2007-10-01

    Prior research with non-college samples of Mexican Americans has demonstrated that gender moderates the association between acculturation and alcohol use. We replicated this finding in a college student sample and attempted to account for the differential impact of acculturation on Mexican American men and women by examining the mediating effects of social context, family conflict and psychological functioning. Participants were 148 Mexican Americans (67% female; M age 23 years) from three state universities in California and Texas who completed self-report surveys. In multivariate analyses controlling for age, maternal education, living situation, and site, linguistic acculturation was associated with increased alcohol use and misuse among women but not men. Two social context variables (social facilitation and family drinking) mediated the association between acculturation and alcohol use (heavy drinking, past year alcohol use, and a composite drinking variable) among women. The findings highlight the importance of social context for understanding alcohol use by Latina college students and indicate directions for future research and intervention development.

  3. Predictors of healthcare utilization among older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos S; Ray, Laura A; Freeman, Jean L; Ostir, Glenn V; Goodwin, James S

    2006-01-01

    To examine the effects of predisposing, enabling, and need factors on physician and hospital use among older Mexican Americans. A two-year prospective cohort study. Five Southwestern states: Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and California. A population-based sample of 1987 non-institutionalized Mexican American men and women age > or =65 years. Physician and hospital utilization. Predictor variables included predisposing, enabling, and need factors. Ordinary least square and logistic regression analysis were used to model the effects of predictor factors specified in the Andersen model of health service use on physician and hospital use. After two years of follow-up, predisposing and enabling factors accounted for diabetes, heart attack, hypertension, stroke, or cancer; and number of medications were factors associated with higher physician utilization. Subjects with arthritis, diabetes, hip fracture, high depressive symptoms, activities of daily living (ADL) disability, or high number of medications increased the odds of having any hospitalization. Subjects with diabetes, heart attack, hip fracture, ADL disabled, and high number of medications had a greater number of hospital nights than their counterparts. Older age, female sex, insurance coverage, and prevalent medical conditions are determinants of healthcare use among older Mexican Americans.

  4. Coping with discrimination among Mexican American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Gold, Roberto; Yoo, Hyung Chol

    2014-07-01

    There is limited research directly examining the process of how Mexican American college students cope with unique experiences of racial discrimination. The present study used a multiple mediation model to collectively examine the indirect effects of engagement (i.e., problem solving, cognitive restructuring, expression of emotion, and social support) and disengagement (i.e., social withdrawal, self-criticism, problem avoidance, and wishful thinking) coping strategies on the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and subjective well-being of 302 Mexican American college students. Results suggested that perceived racial discrimination was negatively correlated with subjective well-being. Moreover, of the engagement coping strategies examined, only problem solving had a significant mediating effect that was associated with elevations in subjective well-being. Specifically, perceptions of racial discrimination were positively related to problem solving, which, in turn, was positively related to subjective well-being. Of the disengagement coping strategies examined, self-criticism, wishful thinking, and social withdrawal had a significant mediating effect that was negatively associated with subjective well-being. Specifically, perceptions of racial discrimination were positively related to self-criticism, wishful thinking, and social withdrawal, which, in turn, were negatively related to subjective well-being. Ultimately, these findings highlight the indirect and complex ways in which multiple coping strategies are used to effectively, and sometimes not effectively, deal with racism experienced by Mexican Americans college students.

  5. Pain and disability in older Mexican-American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Gayle D; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Raji, Mukaila A; Al Snih, Soham; Ray, Laura; Torres, Elizabeth; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2009-06-01

    To examine an association between pain severity and functional disability in older Mexican Americans. Cross-sectional study (2005/06), a subsample of the Hispanic Established Population for Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly. Community. One thousand thirteen Mexican American aged 74 to 100. Bilingual interviewers administered structured questionnaires and assessed physical measures of mobility and frailty (exhaustion, weight loss, walking speed, grip strength, and self-reported physical activity). Two items from the SF-36 questionnaire assessed pain experiences in the previous 4 weeks. Chi-square one-way analysis of variance and least square and negative binomial regressions were computed for 744 participants with complete data to investigate experience of pain and other dimensions of health and functioning. Close to two-thirds (64.7%) reported pain within 4 weeks of the interview, and 49.7% reported that pain interfered with performance of daily activities. Female sex; low education; frailty; reduced mobility; disability; and high comorbidity, body mass index, and depressive symptomatology were significantly associated with pain severity and interference. Regression coefficients revealed that pain severity was significantly related to disability in activities of daily living (0.22, PHigh pain rates were most prevalent in women and subjects with high comorbidity, high depressive symptomatology, poor mobility, and frailty. Pain also plays a significant role in disability status. In-depth research is needed to understand the pain experiences of older Mexican Americans and their effect on health and well-being.

  6. Perceived social stress, pregnancy-related anxiety, depression and subjective social status among pregnant Mexican and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in subjective social status, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and pregnancy-related anxiety between pregnant Mexican American and Mexican immigrant women. Three hundred pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in South Texas were surveyed for pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and subjective social status. Pregnant Mexican immigrant women had higher levels of pregnancy-related anxiety and lower levels of depression and perceived social stress than pregnant Mexican American women. Change in these variables among Mexican immigrant women was relatively linear as time of residence in the United States increased. Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women had significantly different correlations between subjective social status, self-esteem and perceived social stress. Results indicate that subjective social status is an important psychosocial variable among pregnant Hispanic women. Results contribute to ongoing efforts to provide culturally responsive prenatal psychosocial support services.

  7. Mucho camino: the experiences of two undocumented Mexican mothers participating in their child's early intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, M Irma

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the experiences of two mothers of Mexican origin who are immigrants living under undocumented status in the United States and who participated in their children's early intervention programs. In-depth interviews, archival data, and participant observation conducted with two mothers of children with special needs provided data for this case study design research. A phenomenological analytical approach and qualitative data analysis software were employed to gain understandings particular to each family's experience. These families share similar experiences and interactions with many other families in the United States who live within the context of having a child with a disabling condition. Constraints on family functioning related to the families' status of undocumented immigration included: mothers as active participants in their children's early intervention programs, mothers' understanding of their children, mothers' communication with service providers, and life as an immigrant family of Mexican origin living under undocumented status. The examination of how these mothers negotiated family life while participating in their child's early intervention program provides an appreciation for how these families view the long road--"mucho camino"--involved in achieving their family's well-being.

  8. Mothers' Self-Reported Emotional Expression in Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda; Kolmodin, Karen; Chen, Yinghe

    2008-01-01

    This study compared Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American mothers' self-reported emotional expression within the family. Mothers of 3-year-old European American (n = 40), Chinese American (n = 39) and Mainland Chinese (n = 36) children (n = 20 girls per group) completed the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ),…

  9. Mexican Americans' Bilingual Ability, Counselor Bilingualism Cues, Counselor Ethnicity, and Perceived Counselor Credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Sanchez, Lucila; Atkinson, Donald R.; Fraga, Elizabeth D.

    1999-01-01

    Mexican-American college students (N=186) were exposed to a counselor introduction that identified her as either Mexican American or Canadian American, followed by a recorded bogus counseling session in which the counselor spoke English only or English combined with cues of Spanish-speaking ability. No effect was found on ratings of counselor…

  10. Mexican-American Acculturation, Counselor Ethnicity, Counseling Style, and Perceived Counselor Credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Francisco Q.; Atkinson, Donald R.

    1989-01-01

    Used 3 X 2 X 2 factorial design to study effects of acculturation (low, medium, or high), counselor ethnicity (Anglo-American or Mexican-American) and counseling style (directive or nondirective) on 169 Mexican-American subjects' perceptions of and willingness to see counselor. Subjects gave higher credibility ratings and were more willing to see…

  11. Cultural Affiliation and Self-Esteem as Predictors of Internalizing Symptoms among Mexican American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Elizabeth J.; McCabe, Kristen; Yeh, May; Lau, Anna; Garland, Ann; Hough, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the relations between affiliation with Mexican culture and self-esteem at baseline (Time 1 [T1]), and internalizing symptoms 2 years later (Time 2 [T2]) among a sample of high-risk Mexican American adolescents. Results indicated that T1 affiliation with Mexican culture was not related to T2 internalizing symptoms, controlling for…

  12. Acculturation Status and Substance Use Prevention with Mexican and Mexican-American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F; Kulis, Stephen; Wagstaff, David A; Elek, Elvira; Dran, David

    2005-01-01

    This study examined whether language preference, as an indicator of acculturation, moderated the effects of a culturally grounded substance use prevention intervention for Mexican and Mexican American middle school students (N = 2,146) in Phoenix, Arizona. The main hypothesis was that levels of program effectiveness would vary based on the language preference of the students and the specific culturally grounded version of the intervention they were assigned. Findings show that matching language preference to particular versions of the intervention did not influence substance use related program outcomes, but that overall program effects (intervention versus control) did vary by language preference. English-language dominant participants, the most at risk sub-group, responded more positively to the intervention, while Spanish dominant, who had low substance use rates at baseline, and bilingual participants did not demonstrate significant differences between the intervention and control groups. Implications for school social work prevention interventions and prevention science in general, are discussed.

  13. Growth Trajectories of Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers' Educational Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Diamond Y.; Toomey, Russell B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Lauden B.

    2017-01-01

    Pregnant and parenting adolescents are at significant risk for educational underachievement. Educational expectations play a critical role for understanding subsequent educational attainment; yet, limited empirical attention has been given to changes in educational expectations across the transition to parenthood among adolescent mothers. This…

  14. The Language and Educational Ideologies of Mixteco-Mexican Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Mixtecos, members of an Indigenous group from Mexico, have settled in large numbers in New York. Their children are found in bilingual classrooms (Spanish-English), but little is known about parent-school interactions. This work describes the educational ideologies that 23 Mixteco mothers shared during 5 focus group interviews distributed across 9…

  15. Growth Trajectories of Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers' Educational Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Diamond Y.; Toomey, Russell B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Lauden B.

    2017-01-01

    Pregnant and parenting adolescents are at significant risk for educational underachievement. Educational expectations play a critical role for understanding subsequent educational attainment; yet, limited empirical attention has been given to changes in educational expectations across the transition to parenthood among adolescent mothers. This…

  16. The Language and Educational Ideologies of Mixteco-Mexican Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Mixtecos, members of an Indigenous group from Mexico, have settled in large numbers in New York. Their children are found in bilingual classrooms (Spanish-English), but little is known about parent-school interactions. This work describes the educational ideologies that 23 Mixteco mothers shared during 5 focus group interviews distributed across 9…

  17. Implicit bicultural identity among Mexican American and Asian American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Thierry

    2006-07-01

    Contemporary research on ethnic identity, acculturation, and cultural orientation suggests that, at least under some circumstances, individuals can successfully internalize or identify with more than one culture. Previous research on multicultural identity has relied almost exclusively on self-report measures. Using the Implicit Association Test (IAT), the present research examined to what extent Mexican American and Asian American college students identified with American culture and with their culture of origin. Results indicated that Mexican American and Asian American participants strongly and equally identified with both cultures. The present research provides firm evidence for a bicultural identity through assessments of thoughts that cannot be consciously controlled. Patterns of bicultural identification obtained on implicit measures were not the product of deliberate responses to normative demands or conscious attempts to convey a particular self-image.

  18. Do Peers Contribute to the Achievement Gap between Vietnamese-American and Mexican-American Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Mylien T; Schwartz, David; McCarty, Carolyn A

    2014-02-01

    Documented associations between academic and social functioning have been inconsistent. These discrepancies may reflect the moderating role of sociocultural context. In this study, we examined ethnicity and gender as moderators of this relation. We collected peer nominations, GPA from school records, and self-report questionnaires for 519 Vietnamese-American and Mexican-American middle school students (mean age = 12.7 years). Using general linear modeling, we found that academic and social functioning were more strongly and positively linked for Vietnamese-Americans relative to Mexican-Americans, and for girls relative to boys. We also examined group differences in achievement values, and found that Vietnamese-Americans were more likely to admire and be friends with high-achieving peers. The results suggest that peers provide one context in which ethnic and gender differences in achievement values emerge, and interventions aimed at reducing the achievement gap may benefit from incorporating a focus on peers.

  19. Mother-reported sleep, accelerometer-estimated sleep and weight status in Mexican American children: sleep duration is associated with increased adiposity and risk for overweight/obese status

    Science.gov (United States)

    We know of no studies comparing parent-reported sleep with accelerometer-estimated sleep in their relation to paediatric adiposity. We examined: (i) the reliability of mother-reported sleep compared with accelerometer-estimated sleep; and (ii) the relationship between both sleep measures and child a...

  20. The Relationship between Native American Ancestry, Body Mass Index and Diabetes Risk among Mexican-Americans: e0141260

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hao Hu; Chad D Huff; Yuko Yamamura; Xifeng Wu; Sara S Strom

    2015-01-01

      Higher body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes are substantially higher among Mexican-Americans relative to non-Hispanic European Americans...

  1. Handgrip strength and mortality in older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos S; Ray, Laura; Ostir, Glenn V; Goodwin, James S

    2002-07-01

    To examine the association between handgrip strength and mortality in older Mexican American men and women. A 5-year prospective cohort study. Five southwestern states: Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and California. A population-based sample of 2,488 noninstitutionalized Mexican-American men and women aged 65 and older. Maximal handgrip strength, timed walk, and body mass index were assessed at baseline during 1993/94. Self-reports of functional disability, various medical conditions, and status at follow-up were obtained. Of the baseline sample with complete data, 507 persons were confirmed deceased 5 years later. Average handgrip strength +/- standard deviation was significantly higher in men (28.4 kg +/- 9.5) than in women (18.2g +/- 6.5). Of men who had a handgrip strength less than 22.01 kg and women who had a handgrip strength less than 14 kg, 38.2% and 41.5%, respectively, were dead 5 years later. In men in the lowest handgrip strength quartile, the hazard ratio of death was 2.10 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.31-3.38) compared with those in the highest handgrip strength quartile, after controlling for sociodemographic variables, functional disability, timed walk, medical conditions, body mass index, and smoking status at baseline. In women in the lowest handgrip strength quartile, the hazard ratio of death was 1.76 (95%I = 1.05-2.93) compared with those in the highest handgrip strength quartile. Poorer performance in the timed walk and the presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cancer were also significant predictors of mortality 5 years later. Handgrip strength is a strong predictor of mortality in older Mexican Americans, after controlling for relevant risk factors.

  2. Acculturation, Behavioral Factors, and Family History of Breast Cancer among Mexican and Mexican-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodora, Jesse N; Cooper, Renee; Talavera, Gregory A; Gallo, Linda; Meza Montenegro, María Mercedes; Komenaka, Ian; Natarajan, Loki; Gutiérrez Millán, Luis Enrique; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Bondy, Melissa; Brewster, Abenaa; Thompson, Patricia; Martinez, María Elena

    2015-01-01

    Incidence rates for breast cancer are higher among Mexican-American (MA) women in the United States than women living in Mexico. Studies have shown higher prevalence of breast cancer risk factors in more acculturated than less acculturated Hispanic/Latinas in the United States. We compared the prevalence of behavioral risk factors and family history of breast cancer by level of acculturation and country of residence in women of Mexican descent. Data were collected from 1,201 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients living in Mexico (n = 581) and MAs in the United States (n = 620). MA participants were categorized into three acculturation groups (Spanish dominant, bilingual, and English dominant); women living in Mexico were used as the referent group. The prevalence of behavioral risk factors and family history of breast cancer were assessed according to acculturation level, adjusting for age at diagnosis and education. In the adjusted models, bilingual and English-dominant MAs were significantly more likely to have a body mass index of 30 kg/m(2) or greater, consume more than one alcoholic beverage a week, and report having a family history of breast cancer than women living in Mexico. All three U.S. acculturation groups were significantly more likely to have lower total energy expenditure (≤533 kcal/d) than women in Mexico. English-dominant women were significantly less likely to ever smoke cigarettes than the Mexican group. Our findings add to the limited scientific literature on the relationships among acculturation, health behavior, and family history of breast cancer in Mexican and MA women. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mexican Americans and the American Nation: A Response to Professor Huntington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Edward

    2006-01-01

    This essay is based on a talk I delivered at Texas A&M University on December 10, 2005, in response to an earlier lecture at the university by Professor Samuel P. Huntington. It relies on social science evidence to first address Huntington's contention that Mexicans are overwhelming American borders. It then turns to evidence that Mexican…

  4. Childhood Movement Skills: Predictors of Physical Activity in Anglo American and Mexican American Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Sallis, James F.; Broyles, Sheila L.; Zive, Michelle M.; Nader, Philip R.; Berry, Charles C.; Brennan, Jesse J.

    2002-01-01

    Assessed the relationship between young children's movement skills and their physical activity in early adolescence. Balance, agility, eye-hand coordination, and skinfold thickness were measured in young Mexican and Anglo American. Habitual physical activity was assessed when they were 12 years old. Ethnic differences in movement skills were not…

  5. On Separate Paths: The Mexican American and African American Legal Campaigns against School Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    "Brown v. Board of Education" (1954) was a landmark decision that was the result of decades of efforts by grassroots activists and civil rights organizations to end legalized segregation. A less well-known effort challenged the extralegal segregation of Mexican American students in the Southwest. I combine original research and research…

  6. Personal identities and disordered eating behaviors in Mexican American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Corte, Colleen; Ronis, David L

    2010-08-01

    Eating disorder behaviors are prevalent in Latina populations. This study tested Schwartz's (2006) theoretical view that a broad array of personal identities serves as an internal resource during acculturation and prevents internalization of dysfunctional weight related beliefs. Sixty-six Mexican American women completed measures of personal identities, fat self-definition, eating disorder symptoms and acculturation. Results show that few positive and many negative personal identities predict higher eating disorder scores and effects are mediated through the fat self-definition. Characteristics of personal identities may influence internalization of cultural values related to weight. Interventions focused on overall identity may prevent eating disorders in Latinas.

  7. Opportunity costs associated with caring for older Mexican-Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, H. Shelton; Herrera, Angelica P.; Angel, Jacqueline L.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term care use among older Mexican-Americans is poorly understood, despite the adverse effects on health and economic disadvantage in this vulnerable population. This study examines gender-based risk of long-term care use in 628 women and 391 men, age 70 and over in the 2000-01 and 2004-05 waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Logistic regression models are employed to assess the impact of the opportunity cost implications of family suppor...

  8. For My Children: Mexican American Women, Work, and Welfare. Focus Study Report #2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa; Tosca, Regina

    This is the final report of the National Council of La Raza's (NCLR) Focus Study examining the opinions, attitudes, and needs of Mexican American single women, relating to implementation of national welfare reform legislation. Over a 2-year period NCLR staff held focus groups with Mexican American women in four communities: Phoenix, Arizona; Mora,…

  9. Marital Relationships of Interethnically and Intraethnically Married Mexican American Women: A Developmental Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Maria Resendez; Markman, Howard J.

    Mexican American women have higher fertility rates and higher divorce rates than does the general population of the United States. In light of these data and the documented negative effects of marital distress and divorce on spouses, Mexican American women appear to be at risk for psychological stress. To provide some insight into the marital…

  10. Parent Conflict as a Mediator between Marianismo Beliefs and Depressive Symptoms for Mexican American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Watson, Brandy; Castillo, Linda G.; Ojeda, Lizette; Rodriguez, Kimberly M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine how marianismo is related to the depressive symptoms of Mexican American women with family conflict as a mediator. Participants: During January of 2010, 170 Mexican American women college students in a southern, Hispanic-serving institution were sampled. Methods: A mediation analysis was conducted…

  11. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Mexican Americans: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Kristen; Yeh, May

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of a culturally modified version of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), called Guiando a Ninos Activos (GANA), to the effectiveness of standard PCIT and Treatment as Usual (TAU) for young Mexican American children with behavior problems. Fifty-eight Mexican American families whose 3- to 7-year-old child…

  12. Understanding and Working with the Power Structure in the Mexican-American Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Armando

    The Mexican American population at the present time is approximately 4 million, of which 80% are urban dwellers. For the city schools this situation poses difficult problems which have remained mostly unsolved, as evidenced by the high rate of Mexican American dropouts from high schools. Since the educational system has failed the Mexican…

  13. For My Children: Mexican American Women, Work, and Welfare. Focus Study Report #2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa; Tosca, Regina

    This is the final report of the National Council of La Raza's (NCLR) Focus Study examining the opinions, attitudes, and needs of Mexican American single women, relating to implementation of national welfare reform legislation. Over a 2-year period NCLR staff held focus groups with Mexican American women in four communities: Phoenix, Arizona; Mora,…

  14. Ethnic Identity and Offending Trajectories among Mexican American Juvenile Offenders: Gang Membership and Psychosocial Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…

  15. Sex and Ethnic Differences in Mathematics Achievement of Black and Mexican-American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John L.; Exezidis, Roxane H.

    This investigation focused on sex and ethnic differences in mathematics achievement among and between black and Mexican-American adolescents. One hundred twelve subjects were chosen; the selection included 61 blacks and 51 Mexican-Americans. The sample included 42 males and 70 females. All pupils attended the same school, with most from homes low…

  16. Understanding Support from School Counselors as Predictors of Mexican American Adolescents' College-Going Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier Cavazos; Flamez, Brande; Sparrow, Gregory Scott; Lerma, Eunice

    2016-01-01

    The impact of high school counselors' support on Mexican American adolescents' college-going beliefs was examined. We used a quantitative, predictive design to explore predictors of Mexican American adolescents' college-going beliefs. Perceptions of accessibility and expectations from school counselors positively impacted college-going beliefs…

  17. Teaching Mexican American Experiences through Film: Private Issues and Public Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Avelardo; Halley, Jeffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on the use of feature films as a tool in "Mexican American Experience through Film," a class in which sociological and cinematic representations contribute to understanding the Mexican American experience. Discusses three films related to the representations of Chicanos and how the films are used. (CMK)

  18. Mexican American Birthweight and Child Overweight: Unraveling a Possible Early Life Course Health Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Erin R.; Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    Mexican American children have a weight distribution that categorizes them as relatively healthy at birth but relatively unhealthy by age 3. This early life course transition in health based on weight raises the question of whether Mexican American children "outgrow" the epidemiologic paradox of favorable birth outcomes despite social disadvantage…

  19. Using a Positive Psychology and Family Framework to Understand Mexican American Adolescents' College-Going Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Sparrow, Gregory Scott; Gonzalez, Stacey Lee

    2017-01-01

    Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Mexican American adolescents' academic experiences. We used a quantitative, predictive design to explore how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, subjective happiness, hope, and family importance influenced 131 Mexican American adolescents' college-going beliefs. We used…

  20. The New Life--La Vida Neuva: The Mexican Americans Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrin, Arnold

    Emphasizing present-day Chicanos, this book relates the "new life" of Mexican Americans throughout the United States but with particular reference to the Southwest. A view of Mexican American communities and their peoples' feelings about prejudice, education, and politics is presented. The book contains narrative sketches on individuals involved…

  1. Individualized Educational Plan (IEP) Meetings and Mexican American Parents: Let's Talk About It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Loretta

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the relation between Mexican American parents and the special education system, especially the Individualized Educational Plan (IEP) meetings. Within this narrative account, 10 Mexican American women were interviewed throughout a school year to comprehend how they felt about their experiences during IEP meetings concerning…

  2. Forging Partnerships between Mexican American Parents and the Schools. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavkin, Nancy Feyl; Gonzalez, Dora Lara

    This digest examines barriers to parent participation in the education of Mexican American students, and successful programs and strategies for overcoming those barriers. Research has found family participation in education to be twice as predictive of academic achievement as family socioeconomic status. Mexican American parents care about their…

  3. Mexican-American children have different elevation of metabolic biomarkers that is proportional to obesity status

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a health disparity for obesity among Mexican Americans compared with other racial/ethnic groups. In particular, Mexican American children who are obese are likely to become obese adults. The purpose of this study was to examine traditional and nontraditional risk factors in a subset of Mexi...

  4. Existentialism at Home, Determinism Abroad: A Small-Town Mexican American Kid Goes Global

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Joe Robert

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Joe Robert Gonzalez describes the process of his own growth as a Mexican American from Brownsville, Texas, who attended Villanova University. Coming from a majority-minority town, Gonzalez identifies the importance of safe spaces for Mexican American youth, many of whom doubt their own potential to thrive within university settings.…

  5. The New Life--La Vida Neuva: The Mexican Americans Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrin, Arnold

    Emphasizing present-day Chicanos, this book relates the "new life" of Mexican Americans throughout the United States but with particular reference to the Southwest. A view of Mexican American communities and their peoples' feelings about prejudice, education, and politics is presented. The book contains narrative sketches on individuals involved…

  6. An Approach for Counseling Mexican-American Parents of Mentally Retarded Children. Vol. 1, No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Homero

    The monograph on the counseling of Mexican-American parents of mentally retarded children begins with a discussion of Mexican-American culture, on the premise that a good knowledge of background, culture, customs, and mores is necessary to understand and counsel such parents. Treated are stereotyped images of each other held by Anglos and…

  7. Positive Psychology and Mexican American College Students' Subjective Well-Being and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Lu, Ming-Tsan P.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Savage, Miranda C.; Guardiola, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Mexican American college students' complete mental health. In the current study, we examined how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, mindfulness, and grit influenced 130 Mexican American college students' life satisfaction and depression. Within the first regression…

  8. Meaning Construction in School Reading Tasks: A Study of Mexican-American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Judith A.; And Others

    To investigate how Mexican-American students constructed meaning from English texts when engaged in reading and writing activities, a study examined 12 fifth grade Mexican-American students who lived in a "barrio" with literacy in both Spanish and English. The aim was to tap the envisionments (text interpretations or understandings, and…

  9. Aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism in North American, South American, and Mexican Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedde, H W; Agarwal, D P; Harada, S; Rothhammer, F; Whittaker, J O; Lisker, R

    1986-01-01

    While about 40% of the South American Indian populations (Atacameños, Mapuche, Shuara) were found to be deficient in aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme I (ALDH2 or E2), preliminary investigations showed very low incidence of isozyme deficiency among North American natives (Sioux, Navajo) and Mexican Indians (mestizo). Possible implications of such trait differences on cross-cultural behavioral response to alcohol drinking are discussed. PMID:3953578

  10. Self-Identification and Preferences: A Comparison of White and Mexican-American First and Third Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Andrea; Coughlin, Ronald

    1979-01-01

    Both White and Mexican American students made accurate self-identifications when asked a series of ethnic identification questions. All White subjects indicated preference for White classmates. With one exception, preferences of Mexican American groups for White v Mexican American classmates did not significantly differ from chance. (Author/RLV)

  11. Legally White, Socially "Mexican": The Politics of De Jure and De Facto School Segregation in the American Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Ruben; Hanson, Jarrod S.

    2012-01-01

    The history of Mexican American school segregation is complex, often misunderstood, and currently unresolved. The literature suggests that Mexican Americans experienced de facto segregation because it was local custom and never sanctioned at the state level in the American Southwest. However, the same literature suggests that Mexican Americans…

  12. Effect of acculturation and mutuality on family loyalty among Mexican American caregivers of elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hsueh-Fen S; An, Kyungeh

    2012-06-01

    Informal family care for elders is conventional in Mexican American communities despite increasing intergenerational gaps in filial values. In our study, we explored whether acculturation and dyadic mutuality, as perceived by Mexican American family caregivers, explain the caregivers' expectations of family loyalty toward elderly relatives. A nonexperimental, correlational design with convenience sampling was used in El Paso, Texas, from October 2007 to January 2008. Three bilingual promotoras collected data from 193 Mexican American adult caregivers of community-dwelling elders using three scales designed for Mexican Americans: the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans II-Short Form, the Mutuality Scale, and the Expectations of Family Loyalty of Children Toward Elderly Relatives Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to analyze the data. Acculturation had a marginal effect (r = .21, p loyalty toward elderly relatives. There was no significant correlation between acculturation and mutuality (r = .05). Although Mexican American caregivers with strong Mexican orientation may have high expectations of family loyalty toward elderly relatives, mutuality exhibits more significant effects on expectations. Among Mexican Americans, mutuality between the caregiving dyad, as perceived by caregivers, may be a better predictor of filial values than caregivers' acculturation alone. It may be useful to incorporate the dual paradigm of acculturation and mutuality into immigrant family care for elderly relatives. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  13. Impact of arthritis on disability among older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Snih, S; Markides, K S; Ostir, G V; Goodwin, J S

    2001-01-01

    To estimate the impact of self-reported diagnosis of arthritis at baseline on the two year incidence of limitation in activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living in initially non-disabled Mexican-American elderly. Longitudinal study. SETTING Southwestern United States (Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona and California). A probability sample of 2,167 non-institutionalized Mexican-American men and women, aged 65 or older. Having ever been told by a doctor that a subject had arthritis, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), depressive symptomatology, presence of chronic diseases (diabetes mellitus, heart attack, stroke, cancer), and body mass index (BMI). Among non-disabled persons at baseline, 11.2% of subjects with arthritis reported at least one ADL limitation after two years, compared to 6.9% of subjects without arthritis. Similarly, among non-disabled persons at baseline, 34.7% of subjects with arthritis reported at least one IADL limitation after two years, compared to 27.0% of subjects without arthritis. In logistic regression analysis, depression, diabetes, and arthritis were found to be predictive of the development of ADL disability, controlling for sociodemographic variables. Depression was the only condition that significantly predicted IADL disability. Subjects with arthritis were more likely to develop ADL and IADL disability over a two-year period than those without arthritis.

  14. Prevalence of diabetes in Mexican Americans. Relationship to percent of gene pool derived from native American sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, L I; Stern, M P; Haffner, S M; Gaskill, S P; Hazuda, H P; Relethford, J H; Eifler, C W

    1984-01-01

    We have estimated the prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in Mexican Americans and Anglos in three San Antonio neighborhoods. The age-adjusted NIDDM rates (both sexes pooled) for Mexican Americans were 14.5%, 10%, and 5% for residents of a low-income barrio, a middle-income transitional neighborhood, and a high-income suburb, respectively. In Mexican American women, though not in men, obesity also declined from barrio to suburbs. We have previously shown, however, that, although obesity is an important cause of NIDDM in Mexican Americans, there is a two- to fourfold excess in the rate of NIDDM in this ethnic group over and above that which can be attributed to obesity. We therefore speculated that genetic factors might also contribute to excess NIDDM in this ethnic group. The percent native American admixture of Mexican Americans as estimated from skin color measurements was 46% in the barrio, 27% in the transitional neighborhood, and 18% in the suburbs. The NIDDM rates in Mexican Americans thus paralleled the proportion of native American genes. Furthermore, the San Antonio Mexican American rates were intermediate between the NIDDM rates of "full-blooded" Pima Indians (49.9%), who presumably have close to 100% native American genes, and the San Antonio Anglo population (3.0%) and the predominantly Anglo HANES II population (3.1%), both of which presumably have few if any native American genes. The association of genetic admixture with NIDDM rates suggests that much of the epidemic of NIDDM in Mexican Americans is confined to that part of the population with a substantial native American heritage.

  15. Alcohol Use Disorders in National Samples of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans: The Mexican National Addiction Survey and the U.S. National Alcohol Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Lown, Anne; Ye, Yu; Robertson, Marjorie J.; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Greenfield, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The authors show associations between immigration and alcohol disorders using data from the 1995 and 2000 U.S. National Alcohol Surveys and the 1998 Mexico National Household Survey on Addictions. The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 4.8% for the Mexicans, 4.2% for the Mexico-born immigrants, and 6.6% for the U.S.-born Mexican Americans. They…

  16. Modalities of Infant-Mother Interaction in Japanese, Japanese American Immigrant, and European American Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother…

  17. Relationship between frailty and cognitive decline in older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Al Snih, Soham; Raji, Mukaila A; Markides, Kyriakos S; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2008-10-01

    To examine the association between frailty status and change in cognitive function over time in older Mexican Americans. Data used were from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly. Five southwestern states: Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and California. One thousand three hundred seventy noninstitutionalized Mexican-American men and women aged 65 and older with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 21 or higher at baseline (1995/96). Frailty, defined as three or more of the following components: unintentional weight loss of more than 10 pounds, weakness (lowest 20% in grip strength), self-reported exhaustion, slow walking speed (lowest 20% in 16-foot walk time in seconds), and low physical activity level (lowest 20% on Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly score). Information about sociodemographic factors, MMSE score, medical conditions (stroke, heart attack, diabetes mellitus, arthritis, cancer, and hypertension), depressive symptoms, and visual impairment was obtained. Of the 1,370 subjects, 684 (49.9%) were not frail, 626 (45.7%) were prefrail (1-2 components), and 60 (4.4%) were frail (>/=3 components) in 1995/96. Using general linear mixed models, it was found that frail subjects had greater cognitive decline over 10 years than not frail subjects (estimate=-0.67, standard error=0.13; PMexican Americans with MMSE scores of 21 or higher at baseline is an independent predictor of MMSE score decline over a 10-year period. Future research is needed to establish pathophysiological components that can clarify the relationship between frailty and cognitive decline.

  18. Characteristics of Mexican and Mexican American adolescents in treatment for "cheese" heroin use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robrina; Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Adinoff, Bryon; Carmody, Thomas; Coton, Casey E; Tirado, Carlos F

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and cultural characteristics of Hispanic adolescent heroin users are not well described. The current exploratory study was conducted to describe a sample of in-treatment Hispanic adolescents with opioid dependence, specifically, cheese heroin. Mexican and Mexican American adolescents with heroin dependence (N = 72) in three treatment programs were interviewed and completed self-report measures. Participants reported, on average, first using cheese heroin at age 13.5 years and daily use at age 14.2 years. The majority (74%) reported a previous overdose. Adolescents being raised by caregivers other than both biological parents, who used drugs with relatives, and whose immediate family members have documentation to be in the United States fared worse on several indicators of drug use severity and other risky behaviors. The self-reported brief time period from first use to daily use strongly suggests the need for early prevention efforts. Additional research is needed to add to these preliminary results and inform prevention efforts.

  19. The Retention of Mexican American Students in Higher Education with Special Reference to Bicultural and Bilingual Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Manuel H.; And Others

    The problem of retaining Mexican American students in institutions of higher education is reviewed in these 5 papers: "The Retention of Mexican American Students in Higher Education with Special Reference to Bicultural and Bilingual Problems" by Manuel H. Guerra; "Mexicanismo vs. Retention: Implications of Retaining Mexican American…

  20. Social class, admixture, and skin color variation in Mexican-Americans and Anglo-Americans living in San Antonio, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relethford, J H; Stern, M P; Gaskill, S P; Hazuda, H P

    1983-05-01

    Social class may act in different ways as a barrier to gene flow in urban populations, depending on ethnicity. We test the hypothesis that biological variation is affected by social class subdivision using skin reflectance data collected for 393 Anglo-American and 930 Mexican-American adults in the major urban population of San Antonio, Texas. Two socioeconomic groups were sampled for the Anglo-American population: a middle-income transitional group and a high-income suburban group. In addition, we sampled a third socioeconomic group for Mexican-Americans: a low income barrio. Sex and age effects on skin color are minimal. Social class has no effect on skin color variation for Anglo-Americans, whereas there is a highly significant effect on social class subdivision for Mexican-Americans. Admixture estimates were derived from skin reflectance data and show that the proportion of native American ancestry decreases as social class increases.

  1. Neuroticism, acculturation and the cortisol awakening response in Mexican American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Deborah; Mintz, Jim; Javors, Martin; Marino, Elise

    2012-01-01

    Neuroticism is associated with greater susceptibility to the adverse effects of stress and greater exposure to the stressors associated with acculturation in U.S. born Mexican Americans. Neuroticism and acculturation have been associated with injury to crucial stress response systems and are known risk factors for certain mood and anxiety disorders. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of neuroticism, and acculturation on the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in healthy Mexican-American adults. Salivary cortisol samples were collected at awakening and 30, 45, and 60 min thereafter, on two consecutive weekdays from 59 healthy Mexican American adult males (26) and females (33), ages 18 to 38 years. Participants were assessed for level of neuroticism and acculturation. Data were analyzed using a mixed effects regression model with repeated measures at four time points. Results showed a significant Neuroticism×Acculturation×Time interaction. The CAR was virtually eliminated in highly acculturated Mexican Americans with greater Anglo orientation and high neuroticism compared with less acculturated Mexican Americans with greater Mexican orientation and lower neuroticism. Findings suggest that some Mexican Americans with high levels of neuroticism may be particularly susceptible to certain challenges and stressors associated with acculturation leading over time to the development of allostatic load, desensitization of the Hypothalamic CRF system and attenuation of the CAR.

  2. Concordance of Chronic Conditions in Older Mexican American Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim P. Stimpson, PhD

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction There is substantial evidence that marriage is beneficial to health, but evidence on whether the health status of one spouse is similar, or concordant, with the other spouse is limited. This study assessed whether a chronic condition of one spouse is a risk factor for the same chronic condition in the other spouse. Methods The study used baseline data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly on 553 couples (1106 individuals who are representative of approximately 500,000 older (≥65 years Mexican Americans living in the southwestern United States. Logistic regression was used to predict six chronic conditions among couples: heart condition, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, arthritis, and cancer. Analyses were adjusted for age, education, U.S. nativity, blood pressure, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results The wife’s history of hypertension, diabetes, arthritis, and cancer was associated with higher odds that the husband would have these conditions. A history of hypertension, arthritis, and cancer in the husband was associated with higher odds that the wife would have these conditions. Conclusion These results provide preliminary evidence that chronic conditions in one spouse are associated with an increased risk of developing like conditions in the other spouse among older Mexican American couples. We propose that the reciprocal influence that marital partners have on each other may be caused by shared living arrangements and shared health risks. Health promotion activities should target family systems. In particular, health providers should gather health histories not only from patients and their genetic family members but also from spouses.

  3. Concordance of chronic conditions in older Mexican American couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Jim P; Peek, M Kristen

    2005-07-01

    There is substantial evidence that marriage is beneficial to health, but evidence on whether the health status of one spouse is similar, or concordant, with the other spouse is limited. This study assessed whether a chronic condition of one spouse is a risk factor for the same chronic condition in the other spouse. The study used baseline data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly on 553 couples (1106 individuals) who are representative of approximately 500,000 older (> or =65 years) Mexican Americans living in the southwestern United States. Logistic regression was used to predict six chronic conditions among couples: heart condition, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, arthritis, and cancer. Analyses were adjusted for age, education, U.S. nativity, blood pressure, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The wife's history of hypertension, diabetes, arthritis, and cancer was associated with higher odds that the husband would have these conditions. A history of hypertension, arthritis, and cancer in the husband was associated with higher odds that the wife would have these conditions. These results provide preliminary evidence that chronic conditions in one spouse are associated with an increased risk of developing like conditions in the other spouse among older Mexican American couples. We propose that the reciprocal influence that marital partners have on each other may be caused by shared living arrangements and shared health risks. Health promotion activities should target family systems. In particular, health providers should gather health histories not only from patients and their genetic family members but also from spouses.

  4. United States versus Mexican Perceptions of the Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement.

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    Nicholson, Joel D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Surveys U.S. and Mexican managerial attitudes concerning the impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) process on the United States. Discusses differences in Mexican and U.S. attitudes concerning NAFTA and a number of socioeconomic concerns. (SR)

  5. Impacts of Arizona's SB 1070 on Mexican American Students' Stress, School Attachment, and Grades

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    Orozco, Richard; López, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of immigration legislation on Mexican ethnic students who are citizens of the United States is needed. This study investigates how passage of Arizona's antiimmigration law, SB 1070, in 2010 bears upon the schooling experiences of Mexican American high school students. Applying Meyer's Minority Stress Model as the…

  6. Domestic Dramas: Mexican American Music as an Archive of Immigrant Women's Experiences, 1920s-1950s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Magdalena L.

    2012-01-01

    Mexican women's working and romantic lives were frequent subject matter in early-twentieth-century Mexican American music. Surprisingly, this trend is rendered nearly invisible by the corpus of scholarly work that focuses on the male-centered "heroic corrido," particularly the class and race conflicts represented in that "masculine" genre. This…

  7. Social Cognitive Influences on Mexican Americans' Career Choices across Holland's Themes

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    Flores, Lisa Y.; Robitschek, Chris; Celebi, Elif; Andersen, Christie; Hoang, Uyen

    2010-01-01

    This study examined several propositions of social cognitive career theory ([Lent et al., 1994] and [Lent et al., 2000]) with a sample of 393 Mexican American college students. It was hypothesized that person input (i.e., age) and background contextual variables (i.e., Anglo orientation, Mexican orientation, familism, instrumentality, and…

  8. Domestic Dramas: Mexican American Music as an Archive of Immigrant Women's Experiences, 1920s-1950s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Magdalena L.

    2012-01-01

    Mexican women's working and romantic lives were frequent subject matter in early-twentieth-century Mexican American music. Surprisingly, this trend is rendered nearly invisible by the corpus of scholarly work that focuses on the male-centered "heroic corrido," particularly the class and race conflicts represented in that "masculine" genre. This…

  9. Family therapy with unmarried African American mothers and their adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D; Liddle, H A

    2001-01-01

    Almost two-thirds of African American births are to unmarried mothers, and these single parents are among the most economically vulnerable in the United States. The effects of chronic stressors such as poverty can compromise the ability of these mothers to parent effectively, particularly during the developmental period of adolescence, typically a stressful phase of parenting. This article describes a multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) approach to working with African American adolescents who have drug and/or behavior problems. It is maintained that addressing the intrapersonal functioning of African American single mothers is vital if they are to re-establish the attachment bonds necessary for the maintenance of essential parental influence in the lives of their adolescents. Through systematic attention to the parent as an individual, leading to a balance between self-care and care for others, parental supervision is more easily achieved and relational impasses between parent and adolescent more equitably resolved.

  10. Does obesity explain excess prevalence of diabetes among Mexican Americans? Results of the San Antonio Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, M P; Gaskill, S P; Hazuda, H P; Gardner, L I; Haffner, S M

    1983-04-01

    Obesity and Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus are common in the Mexican American population. It is not clear whether this is merely a specific instance of the more general phenomenon of excess Type 2 diabetes and obesity among poor people, or whether Mexican Americans have a discrete genetic susceptibility to Type 2 diabetes. The latter consideration arises because Mexican Americans are of mixed native American and European ancestry and native Americans may have a genetic predisposition to Type 2 diabetes which Mexican Americans could share. We studied 936 Mexican Americans and 398 Anglo-Americans randomly selected from three socially and culturally distinct neighborhoods in San Antonio, Texas. Three categories of obesity--lean, average, and obese--were defined using the Anglo-American distribution of the sum of the triceps and subscapular skinfold. Mexican Americans were two to four times as likely to fall into the obese category as Anglo-Americans, but within categories, the two ethnic groups were closely matched in terms of sum of skinfolds. The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, however, was significantly greater in Mexican Americans than in Anglo-Americans even when the comparisons were made within the three obesity categories. The summary prevalence ratio, controlling for obesity, was 2.54 for men (p = 0.004) and 1.70 for women (p = 0.036). Thus, lean Mexican Americans are still at greater risk of Type 2 diabetes than equally lean Anglo-Americans. Conversely, although Type 2 diabetes prevalence increases as expected with increasing obesity in both ethnic groups, obese Anglo-Americans are still relatively protected compared with equally obese Mexican Americans. Plasma glucose was significantly higher in Mexican Americans than in Anglo-Americans even after controlling for obesity. These results indicate that, although obesity contributes to Type 2 diabetes in Mexican Americans, it does not by itself explain the entire excess prevalence rate.

  11. Intermarriage and the Intergenerational Transmission of Ethnic Identity and Human Capital for Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Brian; Trejo, Stephen J

    2011-04-01

    We investigate whether selective intermarriage and endogenous ethnic identification interact to hide some of the intergenerational progress achieved by the Mexican-origin population in the United States. In part, we do this by comparing an "objective" indicator of Mexican descent (based on the countries of birth of the respondent and his parents and grandparents) with the standard "subjective" measure of Mexican self-identification (based on the respondent's answer to the Hispanic origin question). For third-generation Mexican-American youth, we show that ethnic attrition is substantial and could produce significant downward bias in standard measures of attainment which rely on ethnic self-identification.

  12. Mothers' trajectories of depressive symptoms across Mexican-origin adolescent daughters' transition to parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan B; Harvey-Mendoza, Elizabeth C

    2013-06-01

    This study draws from a life-course perspective in examining trajectories of mothers' depressive symptoms across their adolescent daughters' adjustment to parenthood in 204 Mexican-origin families using latent class growth analysis. Four distinct trajectories were identified based on mothers' depressive symptoms before the birth and 10 and 24 months postpartum. Two trajectories were characterized by stable levels of depressive symptoms but were differentiated in their levels of symptoms (i.e., High/Stable and Low/Stable). The remaining two trajectories were characterized by changes from pre- to post-birth, with one group exhibiting increases in depressive symptoms (i.e., Low/Post-Birth Increase) and the other group characterized by decreases in depressive symptoms (i.e., Low/Post-Birth Decrease). Consistent with a risk and resilience perspective, mothers with more disadvantaged socioeconomic circumstances and fewer intrapersonal resources (i.e., self-esteem, ethnic identity affirmation) were more likely to be members of the High/Stable group. In addition, daughters of mothers in the High/Stable group were more likely to have lower self-esteem as compared with daughters in the other three groups. Collectively, these findings suggested that the High/Stable group was at risk for adjustment difficulties from the third trimester to two years postpartum. In contrast, membership in the Low/Post-Birth Decrease trajectory group was associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem for mothers and daughters. Findings point to the need to identify mothers who are at risk for depressive symptoms during their adolescent daughters' pregnancy and offer prevention and intervention programs that reduce risks and enhance protective factors.

  13. Exploring the Relationships between Racial/Cultural Identity and Ego Identity among African Americans and Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miville, Marie L.; Koonce, Danel; Darlington, Pat; Whitlock, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Relationships between collective identity and ego identity were examined among 229 African American and Mexican American university students. Participants completed scales measuring racial or cultural identity and ego identity. Regression analyses indicated that ego identity was significantly related to racial identity for African Americans and…

  14. THE MEXICAN CALORIE ALLOCATION AMONG THE WORKING CLASS IN THE AMERICAN WEST, 1870-1920

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    Scott Alan Carson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When measures for material conditions are sparse or unreliable, height and weight measurements are now widely accepted proxies that reflect changing economic conditions. This study uses two biological measurements related to height and weight: the basal metabolic rate (BMR and calorie accounting. BMRs and calories of Mexicans in the American West remained constant, indicating that their diets did not vary with United States economic development, but Mexican BMRs and diets varied with occupations. Farmers and unskilled workers had greater BMRs and received more calories per day than workers in other occupations. During much of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Mexicans born in Mexico received fewer calories in the US than Mexicans born in the West. Mexican nutrition and diets also did not vary by residence within the US, indicating that Mexican diets were similar across western states.

  15. Protective factors for HIV infection among Mexican American men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mark A; Champion, Jane Dimmitt

    2010-01-01

    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic. The purpose of this study was to identify potential themes for inclusion in effective HIV prevention interventions for Mexican American men who have sex with men (MSM). The authors used a phenomenological design to explore the lived experiences of Mexican American MSM who had grown up in Dallas, Texas, regarding protective factors for HIV infection. A total of 20 30- to 60-year-old Mexican American MSM participated in semistructured interviews. During data analysis, the following themes concerning protective behaviors for HIV emerged: (a) accepting one's sexuality; (b) machismo; (c) being in love; (d) respect for family, self, and life; and (e) having HIV-living now. Strategies for potential inclusion in HIV prevention interventions geared toward Mexican American MSM were identified based on these themes. The recommendations encompass modification of behavioral interventions and related social policies.

  16. Expanding the concept of acculturation in Mexican American rehabilitation psychology research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Linda G; Caver, Kelly A

    2009-11-01

    The acculturation process is increasingly being viewed as an important variable that provides a context for understanding Mexican American health disparities. Although rehabilitation psychologists have noted the importance of utilizing acculturation in research and practice, scholars continue to use out-dated conceptualizations and models of acculturation. The authors provide a brief overview of current trends in acculturation theory and research. Limitations of current rehabilitation research and how acculturation theory can help explain Mexican American health outcomes are discussed. Finally, recommendations for rehabilitation research and practice are provided. The authors recommend that rehabilitation scholars develop and test theoretical models that incorporate multiple dimensions of acculturation in order to understand how it influences Mexican American health outcomes. Rehabilitation professionals should incorporate acculturation theory and culturally informed interventions into rehabilitation practice with Mexican Americans.

  17. Degree of Ethnicity and Aspirations for Upward Social Mobility Among Mexican American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvlesky, William P.; Patella, Victoria M.

    1971-01-01

    Theoretical statements by Talcott Parsons and others were used as a basis in deriving the hypothesis that degree of identification with the Mexican American subculture among adolescents is inversely related to desire for upward social mobility. (Author)

  18. Family Role Structure and Food-Related Roles in Mexican-American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetley, Elizabeth A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The cultural, behavioral, and sociopsychological dimensions of role structures were examined in this study of food-related roles of Mexican-American families (N=141 females interviewed) living in South Texas border communities. (DS)

  19. Degree of Ethnicity and Aspirations for Upward Social Mobility Among Mexican American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvlesky, William P.; Patella, Victoria M.

    1971-01-01

    Theoretical statements by Talcott Parsons and others were used as a basis in deriving the hypothesis that degree of identification with the Mexican American subculture among adolescents is inversely related to desire for upward social mobility. (Author)

  20. Patterns of Father Self Evaluations among Mexican and European American Men and Links to Adolescent Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A mixed-method study identified profiles of fathers who mentioned key dimensions of their parenting and linked profile membership to adolescents’ adjustment using data from 337 European American, Mexican American and Mexican immigrant fathers and their early adolescent children. Father narratives about what fathers do well as parents were thematically coded for the presence of five fathering dimensions: emotional quality (how well father and child get along), involvement (amount of time spent...

  1. Understanding Determinants of Cardiovascular Health in a Mexican American Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimer, Karen A; Gulanick, Meg; Penckofer, Sue

    2017-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Hispanic Americans. Social and physical determinants of health unique to this community must be understood before interventions can be designed and implemented. This article describes a CVD risk assessment conducted in a primarily Mexican American community, using Healthy People 2020 as a model. Social (language, culture, awareness of CVD, and socio-economic status) and physical (presence and use of recreation areas, presence of grocery stores, public transportation, and environmental pollution) determinants of health as well as access to health services were assessed. Fifteen community leaders were interviewed using guided interviews. Database searches and direct observations were conducted. Using these methods provided comprehensive assessment of social and physical determinants of health, and access issues that were unique to the community studied. Findings demonstrated greater awareness of diabetes than CVD as a health problem, with little knowledge of CVD risk factors. Lack of access to health services (lack of insurance, lack of a medical home) and presence of cultural and socioeconomic barriers such as language, unemployment, low income, and lack of insurance were identified. The physical determinants such as environment presented fewer barriers, with adequate access to fruits and vegetables, transportation, and parks. Results revealed target areas for intervention.

  2. Acculturative and enculturative stress, depressive symptoms, and maternal warmth: examining within-person relations among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2015-02-01

    Mexican-origin adolescent mothers face numerous social challenges during dual-cultural adaptation that are theorized to contribute to greater depressive symptoms. Alongside challenges, there are familial resources that may offer protection. As such, the current study examined the trajectories of depressive symptoms among 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (M age = 16.80, SD = 1.00) across a 4-year period (third trimester of pregnancy, and 10, 24, and 36 months postpartum). Further, we examined the within-person relations of two unique sources of stress experienced during dual-cultural adaptation, acculturative and enculturative stress, and youths' depressive symptoms; we also tested whether adolescent mothers' perceptions of warmth from their own mothers emerged as protective. Adolescent mothers reported a decline in depressive symptoms after the transition to parenthood. Acculturative and enculturative stress emerged as significant positive within-person predictors of depressive symptoms. Maternal warmth emerged as a protective factor in the relation between enculturative stressors and depressive symptoms; however, for acculturative stressors, the protective effect of maternal warmth only emerged for US-born youth. Findings illustrate the multidimensionality of stress experienced during the cultural adaptation process and a potential mechanism for resilience among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers.

  3. Why are Chinese Mothers More Controlling than American Mothers? “My Child is My Report Card”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Deng, Ciping

    2013-01-01

    Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (mean age = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African Americans) reported on psychologically controlling parenting. Mothers also indicated the extent to which their worth is contingent on children's performance. Psychologically controlling parenting was higher among Chinese than American mothers, particularly European (vs. African) American mothers. Chinese (vs. American) mothers' feelings of worth were more contingent on children's performance, with this contributing to their heightened psychological control relative to American mothers. PMID:23581633

  4. A Qualitative Analysis of Mexican-Immigrant Mothers' Involvement in a High-Performing Low-Income Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Isela

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how low-income first- and second-generation Mexican-immigrant mothers, the largest sub-group of the Latino population, support the academic success of their children who are in a low-income successful elementary school. The specific setting was Roosevelt Elementary located in North Texas. Participants were selected…

  5. Survey Response Styles, Acculturation, and Culture Among a Sample of Mexican American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel E; Resnicow, Ken; Couper, Mick P

    2011-10-01

    A number of studies have investigated use of extreme (ERS) and acquiescent (ARS) response styles across cultural groups. However, due to within-group heterogeneity, it is important to also examine use of response styles, acculturation, and endorsement of cultural variables at the individual level. This study explores relationships between acculturation, six Mexican cultural factors, ERS, and ARS among a sample of 288 Mexican American telephone survey respondents. Three aspects of acculturation were assessed: Spanish use, the importance of preserving Mexican culture, and interaction with Mexican Americans versus Anglos. These variables were hypothesized to positively associate with ERS and ARS. Participants with higher Spanish use did utilize more ERS and ARS; however, value for preserving Mexican culture and interaction with Mexican Americans were not associated with response style use. In analyses of cultural factors, endorsement of familismo and simpatia were related to more frequent ERS and ARS, machismo was associated with lower ERS among men, and la mujer was related to higher ERS among women. Caballerismo was marginally associated with utilization of ERS among men. No association was found between la mujer abnegada and ERS among women. Relationships between male gender roles and ARS were nonsignificant. Relationships between female gender roles and ARS were mixed but trended in the positive direction. Overall, these findings suggest that Mexican American respondents vary in their use of response styles by acculturation and cultural factors. This usage may be specifically influenced by participants' valuing of and engagement with constructs directly associated with social behavior.

  6. Positive Parenting among African American Mothers with a Serious Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyserman, Daphna; Bybee, Deborah; Mowbray, Carol T.; MacFarlane, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Using a sample of African American mothers (N=202) diagnosed with mental illness, the effects of poverty; maternal education; social support; maternal and social stress; current mental health; and psychiatric history were examined for effects on positive parenting. Strongest predictors of parenting attitudes were stress and current mental health.…

  7. Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development: the role of adolescents' gender and nativity and parents' gender role attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; McHale, Susan M; Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Wheeler, Lorey A; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A

    2014-12-01

    Gender development has long term implications for education and career endeavors and family formation behaviors, but we know very little about the role of sociocultural factors in developmental and individual differences. In this study, we investigated one domain of gender development, gender role attitudes, in Mexican-American adolescents (N = 246; 51 % female), using four phases of longitudinal data across 8 years. Data were collected when adolescents averaged 12.51 years (SD = 0.58), 14.64 years (SD = 0.59), 17.72 years (SD = 0.57), and 19.60 years of age (SD = 0.66). Mothers' and fathers' gender role attitudes also were assessed in Phases 1, 3, and 4. Findings revealed that gender attitude development varied as a function of the interaction between adolescents' nativity and gender. Among Mexico-born adolescents, females exhibited significant declines in traditional attitudes from early to late adolescence, but males' attitudes were stable over time. U.S.-born females and males, in contrast, did not differ in their gender attitude trajectories. Examining the links between mothers', fathers', and adolescents' gender role attitudes revealed within-person associations between mothers' and adolescents' gender role attitudes: on occasions when mothers reported more traditional attitudes relative to their own cross-time average, adolescents also reported more traditional attitudes than usual. In addition, fathers' more traditional gender role attitudes were associated with daughters', but not sons', more traditional gender role attitudes at the between-person level. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development from a cultural ecological perspective.

  8. Why Are Chinese Mothers More Controlling than American Mothers? "My Child Is My Report Card"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Deng, Ciping

    2014-01-01

    Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (M[subscript age] = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African…

  9. Why Are Chinese Mothers More Controlling than American Mothers? "My Child Is My Report Card"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Deng, Ciping

    2014-01-01

    Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (M[subscript age] = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African…

  10. Weight change and lower body disability in older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Snih, Soham; Raji, Mukaila A; Markides, Kyriakos S; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Goodwin, James S

    2005-10-01

    To examine the association between 2-year weight change and onset of lower body disability over time in older Mexican Americans. Data were from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (1993-2001). Weight change was examined by comparing baseline weight to weight at 2-year follow-up. Incidence of lower body disability was studied from the end of this period through an additional 5 years. Five southwestern states: Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and California. One thousand seven hundred thirty-seven noninstitutionalized Mexican-American men and women aged 65 and older who reported no limitation in activities of daily living (ADLs) and were able to perform the walk test at 2-year follow-up. In-home interviews assessed sociodemographic factors, self-reported physician diagnoses of medical conditions (arthritis, diabetes mellitus, heart attack, stroke, hip fracture, and cancer), self-reported ADLs, depressive symptoms, and number of hospitalizations. Cognitive function, handgrip muscle strength, and body mass index (BMI) were obtained. The outcomes were any limitation of lower body ADL (walking across a small room, bathing, transferring from a bed to a chair, and using the toilet) and limitation on the walk test over subsequent 5-year follow-up period. General Estimation Equation (GEE) was used to estimate lower body disability over time. Weight change of 5% or more occurred in 42.3% of the participants; 21.7% lost weight, 20.6% gained weight, and 57.7% had stable weight. Using GEE analysis, with stable weight as the reference, weight loss of 5% or more was associated with greater risk of any lower body ADL limitation (odds ratio (OR)=1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.06-1.95) and walking limitation (OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.03-1.76) after controlling for sociodemographic variables and BMI at baseline. Weight gain of 5% or more was associated with greater risk of any lower body ADL limitation (OR=1.39, 95% CI=1.02-1.89), after

  11. Decomposing associations between acculturation and drinking in Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Britain A.; Caetano, Raul

    2011-01-01

    Background Acculturation to life in the United States is a known predictor of Hispanic drinking behavior. We compare the ability of 2 theoretical models of this effect – sociocultural theory and general stress theory – to account for associations between acculturation and drinking in a sample of Mexican Americans. Limitations of previous evaluations of these theoretical models are addressed by using a broader range of hypothesized cognitive mediators and a more direct measure of acculturative stress. In addition, we explore nonlinearities as possible underpinnings of attenuated acculturation effects among males. Methods Respondents (N = 2,595, current drinker N = 1,351) were interviewed as part of 2 recent multistage probability samples in a study of drinking behavior among Mexican Americans in the United States. The ability of norms, drinking motives, alcohol expectancies, and acculturation stress to account for relations between acculturation and drinking outcomes (volume and heavy drinking days) were assessed with a hierarchical linear regression strategy. Nonlinear trends were assessed by modeling quadratic effects of acculturation and acculturation stress on cognitive mediators and drinking outcomes. Results Consistent with previous findings, acculturation effects on drinking outcomes were stronger for females than males. Among females, only drinking motives explained acculturation associations with volume or heavy drinking days. Among males, acculturation was linked to increases in norms, and norms were positive predictors of drinking outcomes. However, adjusted effects of acculturation were non-existent or trending in a negative direction, which counter-acted this indirect normative influence. Acculturation stress did not explain positive associations between acculturation and drinking. Conclusions Stress and alcohol outcome expectancies play little role in the positive linear association between acculturation and drinking outcomes, but drinking motives

  12. Factors Associated With Overweight and Obesity Among Mexican Americans and Central Americans: Results From the 2001 California Health Interview Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice V. Bowie, PhD, MPH

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHispanics are the fastest growing demographic group in the United States; however, “Hispanic” is a broad term that describes people who are from or whose ancestors are from multiple countries of origin. This study examines, separately, the social, cultural, and behavioral factors associated with overweight and obesity among Mexican American adults and among Central American adults. MethodsTo estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Mexican and Central Americans living in California, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey using SUDAAN software to account for the survey’s multistage sampling design.ResultsOf the 8304 Mexican Americans participating in the survey, 36.8% were overweight and 26.2% were obese. Of the 1019 Central Americans, 39.2% were overweight and 22.2% were obese. Among Mexican American men, age and marital status were associated with overweight and obesity; and education, acculturation, health insurance status, health status, and use of vitamins were associated with obesity only. Among Mexican American women, age, education, number of children, health status, and health behavior were associated with overweight and obesity. Among Central American men, age, education, and access to health care were associated with overweight, whereas marital status, acculturation, health care, and binge drinking were associated with obesity. Among Central American women, number of children was associated with overweight and obesity; and age and education were associated with obesity only. ConclusionsOur findings of high rates of overweight and obesity among Mexican and Central Americans in California indicate the need for a wide variety of effective weight-loss interventions targeting these populations, and the differences we found in the factors associated with overweight and obesity may suggest the need for unique intervention strategies for different

  13. Effects of prenatal factors and temperament on infant cortisol regulation in low-income Mexican American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecken, Linda J; MacKinnon, David P; Jewell, Shannon L; Crnic, Keith A; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2015-12-01

    Prenatal psychosocial exposures can significantly affect infant health and development. Infants with higher temperamental negativity are theorized to be more susceptible to environmental exposures. We evaluated the interaction of prenatal maternal exposures and infant temperamental negativity to predict infant cortisol response to mildly challenging mother-infant interaction tasks. Participants included 322 Mexican American mother-infant dyads (mother age 18-42; 82% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000-$15,000). Mothers reported depressive symptoms and social support prenatally and infant temperamental negativity at 6 weeks postpartum. Salivary cortisol was collected from infants before and after mother-infant interaction tasks at 12 weeks. Higher prenatal maternal depressive symptoms and lower social support predicted higher cortisol among infants with higher temperamental negativity. Higher infant temperamental negativity predicted an increase in maternal distress and a decrease in social support from prenatal to 12 weeks postpartum. Interactive influences of maternal social-contextual factors and infant temperament may influence the development of infant neurobiological regulation and promote or strain maternal and infant adaptation over time.

  14. Employed Mexican women as mothers and partners: valued, empowered and overloaded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleis, A I; Douglas, M K; Eribes, C; Shih, F; Messias, D K

    1996-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the daily lived experiences of a group of employed, low-income Mexican women in their maternal and spousal roles. The participants were 41 auxiliary nurses recruited from two large urban hospitals in Mexico. Data were collected through the Women's Roles Interview Protocol (WRIP), which solicited the participants' perceptions of the satisfaction and stresses they experienced in their roles as mothers and spouses, and their descriptions of the coping strategies and the resources they used to deal with stressful life experiences related to these roles. Data analysis consisted of a qualitative thematic analysis of the narrative responses to open-ended questions in the WRIP. Satisfying aspects of the maternal and spousal roles, as identified by the participants, included giving to and receiving from their children and being valued and supported by their partners. Spousal approval of their work was also satisfying. These employed mothers, however, experienced many stressful aspects of functioning in multiple roles, including lack of resources, being absent from their children, self-doubt about their maternal role functioning, role overload and spousal absences. The women coped by juggling priorities and utilizing family resources. From the data analysis, the investigators developed a conceptual framework for understanding these women's experiences with parenting and marriage. The centrality of the family, a sense of value and empowerment as women in maternal and spousal roles, and the reality of role overload are discussed within the Mexican culture context of machismo, its female counterpart hembrismo, and family life. Implications for women's health are framed within a context of family and work.

  15. Depression and mental health among older Mexican American spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, J P; Peek, M K; Markides, K S

    2006-07-01

    Although the association between marriage and well-being is well established, few studies have focused on learning more about the context of marriage and mental health. Recent research studying the mechanisms of marriage and health has focused on contagion of well-being among spouses. This study examined the association of depression with self-esteem, social support, life satisfaction, concern for independence, and cognitive function using baseline data for 553 older, Mexican American couples. Overall, we found evidence to suggest an interdependent relationship between husbands' and wives' emotional states, but the association was not equal for couples. Husbands' depression was significantly associated with the well-being of their wife, but the wife's depression was rarely associated with the husband's well-being. The findings from this study add to the increasing literature on spousal contagion by focusing on an under studied minority group, examining how depression affects well-being, and highlighting unequal effects of marriage on spousal well-being.

  16. Attitudes and beliefs among Mexican Americans about type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Gloria D; Thompson, Beti; Tejeda, Silvia; Godina, Ruby

    2004-11-01

    Hispanics in the United States have a disproportionately high risk for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes) compared with non-Hispanic whites. Little is known of the attitudes and beliefs about diabetes in this group. Using data from six focus groups of 42 Mexican Americans (14 men and 28 women), we characterized perceptions about the causes of and treatments for type 2 diabetes. Many participants believed diabetes is caused by having a family history of the disease, eating a diet high in fat or sugar, and engaging in minimal exercise. Experiencing strong emotions such as fright (susto), intense anger (coraje), or sadness and depression (tristeza) was also thought to precipitate diabetes. Nearly all participants expressed the belief that it is important to follow doctors' recommendations for diet and exercise, oral medication or insulin; many also cited herbal therapies, such as prickly pear cactus (nopal) and aloe vera (savila) as effective treatments. These findings may be useful in designing interventions to reduce the burden of diabetes in Hispanic populations.

  17. Opportunity costs associated with caring for older Mexican-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H Shelton; Herrera, Angelica P; Angel, Jacqueline L

    2013-09-01

    Long-term care use among older Mexican-Americans is poorly understood, despite the adverse effects on health and economic disadvantage in this vulnerable population. This study examines gender-based risk of long-term care use in 628 women and 391 men, age 70 and over in the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Logistic regression models are employed to assess the impact of the opportunity cost implications of family support (kin availability and co-residence) relative to health care needs (quality-adjusted life years (QALY) weighted scores and functional limitations) on women's risk of entry into a nursing home. A small percentage (~5%) of men and women had entered a long-term care facility. Women had lower weights for QALY weights and greater disability than men, but on average were more likely to live with or in closer proximity to an adult child. Higher disability rates (p long-term care use.

  18. Risk factors for falling in older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A; Al Snih, Soham; Loera, José; Ray, Laura A; Markides, Kyriakos

    2004-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of falls and the risk factors associated with falls in Mexican-American men and women aged 72 and older, from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly. A 2-year cohort study. Five Southwestern states: Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and California. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, health status, cognitive function, affective function, functional status, body mass index, and summary performance measures of lower body function, were obtained (1998-1999). Two years later (2000-2001), falls in the previous 12 months were assessed by self-report. Chi-square, univariate statistics, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. Of the 1,391 participants, 31.8% fell one or more times, and 14.2% reported 2 or more falls. In the logistic regression analysis, aged > or = 80 years (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.17-1.98), being female (OR=1.45, 95% CI 1.13-1.86), having diabetes (OR=1.37, 95% CI 1.06-1.77), having arthritis (OR=1.32, 95% CI 1.04-1.68), experiencing impairment of instrumental activities of daily living (OR=1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10), and exhibiting high depressive symptoms (OR=1.59, 95% CI 1.16-2.19), were significant (PMexican Americans was similar to that reported in non-Hispanic Caucasians. Potential modifiable conditions, such as functional deficits, arthritis, diabetes, and depressive symptoms were independent risk factors for falls in this population.

  19. The Multidimensionality of Prosocial Behaviors and Evidence of Measurement Equivalence in Mexican American and European American Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Gustavo; Knight, George P.; McGinley, Meredith; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez

    2010-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the need to examine distinct forms of prosocial behaviors and to conduct research on prosocial behaviors among ethnic minorities. Middle school students (mean age = 12.67 years; 54% girls; European American, n = 290; Mexican American, n = 152) completed a multidimensional measure of prosocial behavior and measures…

  20. Correlates and Consequences of Spanking and Verbal Punishment for Low-Income White, African American, and Mexican American Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Lisa J.; Ispa, Jean M.; Fine, Mark A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Brady-Smith, Christy; Ayoub, Catherine; Bai, Yu

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of spanking and verbal punishment in 2,573 low-income White, African American, and Mexican American toddlers at ages 1, 2, and 3. Both spanking and verbal punishment varied by maternal race/ethnicity. Child fussiness at age 1 predicted spanking and verbal punishment at all 3 ages.…

  1. An Analysis of the Political Orientations of Mexican-American and Anglo-American Children. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Morris G.

    The political learning of 2,584 children enrolled in elementary and junior high schools of southern California is explored in this report. Growth patterns of Mexican-American and Anglo-American children are studied and comparisons are made in their political orientations. Data were obtained by questionnaires administered in grades 4-8 after the…

  2. Losing American Students, Mexican Universities Struggle against a Scary Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Like most Mexicans, Eugenio Yarce has been deeply affected by the violence between drug cartels and the Mexican army, which has filled news coverage with accounts of kidnappings, assassinations, and torture. But for Mr. Yarce, deputy rector for outreach here at the private Autonomous Popular University of the State of Puebla, or Upaep, the…

  3. Coparenting profiles in the context of Mexican-origin teen pregnancy: links to mother-daughter relationship quality and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan; Guimond, Amy

    2015-06-01

    The current study explored the multifaceted nature of the mother-adolescent coparental relationship with data from 167 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers and their own mothers at 10 months post childbirth. Profiles of mother-adolescent coparenting were created with latent profile analysis using adolescents' reports of three dimensions of coparenting (communication, involvement, and conflict). Four profiles were identified: (a) Harmonious Coparents (equal involvement, high communication, low conflict); (b) Harmonious-Adolescent Primary (adolescent is more involved than mother, high communication, low conflict); (c) Conflictual Coparents (equal involvement, high communication, high conflict); and (d) Conflictual-Adolescent Primary (adolescent is more involved than mother, moderate communication, high conflict). Families characterized by high mother-daughter conflict and psychological control prior to childbirth were more likely to belong in the Conflictual Coparents profile. In addition, adolescents' and mothers' depressive symptoms and parenting efficacy after childbirth were linked to profile membership, such that the Harmonious-Adolescent Primary profile reported the most positive adjustment patterns, whereas profiles with high coparental conflict (i.e., Conflictual Coparenting and Conflictual-Adolescent Primary profiles) showed the least positive adjustment patterns. Discussion considers the applied implications of identifying precursors to healthy and problematic mother-daughter coparenting for families of adolescent mothers in the early years of parenting.

  4. Perceptions about high blood pressure among mexican american adults diagnosed with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Sara E; Zarate-Abbott, Perla R; Gillespie, Maria; Deliganis, Jean; Norgan, Gary H

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension affects approximately 73 million Americans. Clients and providers working together to control the disease can help prevent life-threatening illnesses. Patient perceptions about their illness can influence health behaviors, but little is known about the perceptions of Mexican American adults in relation to hypertension. This descriptive study used semistructured interviews to elicit Patient Explanatory Models of hypertension among 15 hypertensive Mexican American adults. Findings revealed that personal models of cause, treatment, and outcomes were often vague. This information can be useful for planning individual education and treatment that provides meaningful care.

  5. Using the PEN-3 Model to Assess Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs about Diabetes Type 2 among Mexican American and Mexican Native Men and Women in North Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, Jim; Oomen-Early, Jody; del Rincon, Lydia M.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this mixed-methods study was two-fold: first, to assess diabetes knowledge, attitudes, disease management and self efficacy among a sample of Mexican American (MA) and Mexican-Native (MN) adults living in North Texas; and second, to determine factors which promote or deter diabetes prevention and management using…

  6. Funds of Knowledge and Community Cultural Wealth: Exploring How Pre-Service Teachers Can Work Effectively with Mexican and Mexican American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saathoff, Stacy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how pre-service teachers can work effectively with Mexican and Mexican American students. Using the foundation of funds of knowledge (González, Moll, & Amanti, 2005) and the critical race theory concept of community cultural wealth (Yosso, 2005), the article weaves together these ideas to discuss how they can be…

  7. Dietary intakes of macronutrients among Mexican Americans and Anglo Americans: the San Antonio heart study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, S M; Knapp, J A; Hazuda, H P; Stern, M P; Young, E A

    1985-12-01

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were obtained on 1254 Mexican Americans (MA) and 916 Anglo Americans (AA), aged 25 to 64, as part of the San Antonio heart study, a population-based survey of cardiovascular risk factors from 1979 to 1982. In order to separate the effects of ethnicity from those of socioeconomic status (SES), we sampled subjects in three distinct neighborhoods: a low income MA neighborhood (barrio), a middle income neighborhood, and an upper income, predominantly Anglo, neighborhood. Intakes of protein, fat, and carbohydrate were similar to those found in other dietary surveys (NHANES, LRC). MA females living in the barrio consumed more cholesterol than either Anglos or MAs living in the other two neighborhoods. In MA males, the rise in the Hegsted Score with increasing SES paralleled the rise in LDL cholesterol with rising SES reported previously by our group. Females consumed a less atherogenic diet than males.

  8. The Intersection of Mental and Physical Health in Older Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Myra G.

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of chronic diseases is highest among the elderly in general; compared to Anglo-Americans, Mexican Americans have lower rates of cancer and cardiovascular disease and higher rates of depression and diabetes. Using baseline data from the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) study, weighted…

  9. Mexican American Women's Adherence to Hemodialysis Treatment: A Social Constructivist Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijerina, Mary S.

    2009-01-01

    Mexican Americans have as much as a six-times greater risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) than non-Hispanic white Americans, and women show a faster rate of decline in diabetic renal functioning. The leading treatment for ESRD is hemodialysis, an intensive, complex treatment regimen associated with high levels of patient nonadherence. Previous…

  10. Mexican American Women's Adherence to Hemodialysis Treatment: A Social Constructivist Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijerina, Mary S.

    2009-01-01

    Mexican Americans have as much as a six-times greater risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) than non-Hispanic white Americans, and women show a faster rate of decline in diabetic renal functioning. The leading treatment for ESRD is hemodialysis, an intensive, complex treatment regimen associated with high levels of patient nonadherence. Previous…

  11. Strength of Ethnic Identification and Intergenerational Mobility Aspirations Among Mexican American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvlesky, William P.; Patella, Victoria M.

    Utilizing Talcott Parsons' data from a 1967 study of 4 South Texas counties, the present study involves 596 Mexican American high school sophomores and is based on Parsons' assertion that Spanish American subculture is characterized by the particularism-ascription value pattern. In keeping with this, the present study hypothesized that degree of…

  12. Sexual desire among Mexican-American older women: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Laganà, Luciana; Maciel, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Although researchers have related sexual desire in older women to quality-of-life variables such as overall physical health, well-being, and life satisfaction, little is known about the socio-cultural mechanisms that shape sexual desire in minority ethnic older women. We investigated this sexual variable among Mexican-American older women in a qualitative fashion. Date were collected from 25 community-dwelling women of Mexican descent (aged 59–89 years) using a semi-structured interview proto...

  13. Acculturation and substance use in a Mexican American college student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Alfonso; Ramirez, Maria; Sharma, Rachita; Popan, Jason; Avalos Latorre, Maria Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Although the association between acculturation and substance use among Latino groups is important, it is often understudied, especially within specific Latino groups living in geographically distinct communities, such as the Mexican American population in South Texas. The researchers of this study aimed to better understand the effect of acculturation on substance use and alcohol dependence in a Mexican American college student population. This survey study investigated the correlation between acculturation and substance use and dependence by using the Vancouver Index of Acculturation (VIA), items related to substance use (nicotine, marijuana, and cocaine) in a Mexican American college student sample (N = 1,494), and the Short Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnaire (SADD; N = 715). The study was conducted in the Texas-Mexico border region. The results suggest that higher levels of acculturation do not predict increased drug use or alcohol dependence in the Mexican American college students. However, acculturation was found to be associated with lower use of cocaine and marijuana. The discussion examines commonalities and differences in drug use and dependence. Specifically, acculturation seems to have an inverse relationship to substance use and may serve as a protective factor to licit and illicit drug use among Mexican American college students.

  14. A Comparative Study of the Learning Style Preferences among Gifted African-American, Mexican-American, and American-Born Chinese Middle Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Norma J.; Yong, Fung Lan

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the Learning Style Inventory scores of 155 gifted African-American, Mexican-American, and American-born Chinese students in grades 6-8 indicated significant group differences in preferences for noise, light, visual modality, studying in the afternoon, and persistence. Gender and grade differences were found for some variables.…

  15. Why Are Chinese Mothers More Controlling than American Mothers? "My Child Is My Report Card"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Deng, Ciping

    2014-01-01

    Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (M[subscript age] = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European…

  16. Home activities of Mexican American children: structuring early socialization and cognitive engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Margaret; Cohen, Shana R; Scott, Lyn; Fuller, Bruce; Anguiano, Rebecca; Figueroa, Ariana Mangual; Livas-Dlott, Alejandra

    2015-04-01

    The question of how home activities advance the early social and cognitive development of Latino children receives growing attention from psychologists and social scientists. Some scholars and practitioners, focused on promoting "school readiness," frame the problem as weak parenting, signaled by insufficient rich language or academic skills. Other theorists, rooted in ecocultural theory, argue that early socialization and cognitive engagement are culturally situated within routine home activities. These activity structures vary and change over time as families acculturate, adapting to local social ecologies. Little is known empirically about the activity structures within Latino homes, including how young children participate. We detail the social architecture and cognitive engagement pertaining to 6 prevalent home activities in which 24 Mexican American 4-year-olds were engaged over 14 months. We then report how children participate in these 6 activities, and their potential relevance to the cognitive skills gap seen at school entry. We found that children's activities reproduced heritage language, symbols, and knowledge less often than suggested in prior literature; children's typical level of cognitive engagement varied greatly among tasks; and the distribution of time spent in activities is associated with the mother's school attainment and home language. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Ultrasonographically Assessed Maximum Carotid Artery Wall Thickness in Mexico City Residents and Mexican Americans Living in San Antonio, Texas: Association With Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei, Ming; Gonzalez, Clicerio; Haffner, Steven M; O'Leary, Daniel H; Stern, Michael P

    1996-01-01

    ... (high triglyceride and low HDL cholesterol levels) compared with Mexican Americans living in San Antonio, Tex, we questioned whether they also had more atherosclerosis than San Antonio Mexican Americans...

  18. Health behavior changes following breast cancer treatment: a qualitative comparison among Chinese American, Korean American, and Mexican American survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung-won; Gonzalez, Patricia; Wang-Letzkus, Ming F; Baik, Okmi; Ashing-Giwa, Kimlin T

    2013-05-01

    This study explored how Chinese American, Korean American, and Mexican American women modify their health behaviors following breast cancer treatment and identified motivators and barriers that influence their changes. An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study was undertaken using six focus groups. Discussions were transcribed and translated for content analysis. Significant differences among the ethnic groups were noted in the following health behavior practices which were most commonly stated as changed behaviors after a breast cancer diagnosis: 1) eating habits, 2) physical activity, 3) alternative medicine, 4) sleeping, 5) social activity, 6) weight control, and 7) alcohol consumption. Family, financial concerns, environment, and religious faith were commonly mentioned as motivators of and/or barriers to changes in health behaviors. Findings provide insight into different perspectives related to changes in health behaviors by ethnicity, which is critical for developing culturally tailored behavioral interventions to improve underserved breast cancer survivors' quality of life and to reduce health disparities.

  19. Machismo and Mexican American men: an empirical understanding using a gay sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Fernando; Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Arciniega, G Miguel; Tracey, Terence J G

    2011-07-01

    Machismo continues to be a defining aspect of Mexican American men that informs a wide array of psychological and behavioral dimensions. Although strides have been made in this area of research, understanding of the role of this construct in the lives of gay men remains incomplete. Our purpose in this study was to gain a deeper understanding of machismo using a sample of Mexican American gay men. This study examined for the first time whether a 2-factor model of machismo previously validated with heterosexual, Mexican American men generalized to a sample of 152 gay men of similar ethnic background. Relations between machismo, sexual risk, and internalized homophobia were also explored. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the 2-factor model with the current sample. Results also indicated machismo as predicting internalized homophobia and as an index of risky sex. Limitations are presented and implications are discussed.

  20. Associations Between Adolescents’ Perceived Discrimination and Prosocial Tendencies: The Mediating Role of Mexican American Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Donnell, Megan; Knight, George P.; Carlo, Gustavo; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Roosa, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Experiences with perceived discrimination (e.g., perceptions of being treated unfairly due to race or ethnicity) are expected to impact negatively youths’ prosocial development. However, resilience often occurs in light of such experiences through cultural factors. The current longitudinal study examined the influence of perceived discrimination on the emergence of Mexican American adolescents’ later prosocial tendencies, and examined the mediating role of Mexican American values (e.g., familism, respect, and religiosity). Participants included 749 adolescents (49 % female) interviewed at 5th, 7th, and 10th grade. Results of the current study suggested that, although perceived discrimination was associated negatively with some types of prosocial tendencies (e.g., compliant, emotional, and dire) and related positively to public prosocial helping, the associations were mediated by youths’ Mexican American values. Directions for future research are presented and practical implications for promoting adolescents’ resilience are discussed. PMID:23152074

  1. Generational Patterns in Mexican Americans' Academic Performance in an Unwelcoming Political Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosmann, Danyel A V; Roosa, Mark W; Knight, George P

    2014-03-01

    Research has shown that immigrant students often do better academically than their U.S.-born peers from the same ethnic group but it is unclear whether this pattern holds for Mexican Americans. We examined the academic performance of four generations of Mexican American students from fifth to 10th grade looking for generation differences and explanations for them. Using data from 749 families, we tested a model with fifth grade variables that differed by generation as potential mediators linking student generation to 10th grade academic performance. Results showed that immigrants were academically behind at fifth grade but caught up by seventh. Only economic hardship mediated the long term relationship between student generation and 10th grade academic performance; maternal educational expectations and child language hassles, English usage, discrimination, and mainstream values helped explained the early academic deficit of immigrant children. The results identified potential targets for interventions to improve Mexican American students' academic performance.

  2. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and related conditions in a south Texas Mexican American sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, E; Cuéllar, I; Villas, P

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of self-reported diabetes mellitus in a Mexican American sample population living in Hidalgo County in south Texas was examined along with risk for related sequelae. Data from a stratified random sample of 849 Mexican American men and women ages 45 and older were examined. A subsample of 193 diabetics was compared to 656 nondiabetics with respect to hospitalization, reasons for hospitalization, and other related medical conditions. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes for both men and women was 25.9%. Hospitalization rates for diabetics over a 1-year period and a 5-year period were significantly higher than nondiabetics. Hypertension, cardiac problems, amputations, kidney or urinary problems, eye problems, and joint and bone problems were significantly more common in the diabetics sample than in the nondiabetic sample. The data indicate that diabetes in Mexican Americans may be undertreated in south Texas.

  3. Exploring Mothers' and Fathers' Relationships with Sons Versus Daughters: Links to Adolescent Adjustment in Mexican Immigrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; Delgado, Melissa Y; Wheeler, Lorey A

    2009-04-01

    Drawing on ecological and gender socialization perspectives, this study examined mothers' and fathers' relationships with young adolescents, exploring differences between mothers and fathers, for sons versus daughters, and as a function of parents' division of paid labor. Mexican immigrant families (N = 162) participated in home interviews and seven nightly phone calls. Findings revealed that mothers reported higher levels of acceptance toward adolescents and greater knowledge of adolescents' daily activities than did fathers, and mothers spent more time with daughters than with sons. Linkages between parent-adolescent relationship qualities and youth adjustment were moderated by adolescent gender and parents' division of paid labor. Findings revealed, for example, stronger associations between parent-adolescent relationship qualities and youth adjustment for girls than for boys.

  4. Dispositional optimism: a psychological resource for Mexican-origin mothers experiencing economic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zoe E; Widaman, Keith F; Robins, Richard W; Jochem, Rachel; Early, Dawnte R; Conger, Rand D

    2012-02-01

    Dispositional optimism is believed to be an important psychological resource that buffers families against the deleterious consequences of economic adversity. Using data from a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin families (N = 674), we tested a family stress model specifying that maternal dispositional optimism and economic pressure affect maternal internalizing symptoms, which, in turn, affects parenting behaviors and children's social adjustment. As predicted, maternal optimism and economic pressure had both independent and interactive effects on maternal internalizing symptoms, and the effects of these variables on changes over time in child social adjustment were mediated by nurturant and involved parenting. The findings replicate and extend previous research on single-parent African American families (Taylor, Larsen-Rife, Conger, Widaman, & Cutrona, 2010), and demonstrate the generalizability of the positive benefits of dispositional optimism in another ethnic group and type of family structure.

  5. Family Context, Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers' Parenting Knowledge, and Children's Subsequent Developmental Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Laudan B.; Guimond, Amy B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Toomey, Russell B.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined parenting knowledge among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 191; M[subscript age] = 16.26 years), family contextual factors associated with adolescents' parenting knowledge, and toddlers' (M[subscript age] = 2.01 years) subsequent developmental outcomes. Data came from home interviews and direct child…

  6. The Role of Ethnicity in Mexican American and Non-Hispanic White Students' Experience of Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Lisa K.; Gilbert, Lucia Albino

    2012-01-01

    This study explored dimensions of a social phenomenon not often investigated among Mexican American college students, namely sexual harassment. Mexican American (n = 261) and non-Hispanic White female students (n = 111) from three southwestern universities responded to scales assessing experiences of sexually harassing behaviors, harassment…

  7. "He Cheated on Me, I Cheated on Him Back'': Mexican American and White Adolescents' Perceptions of Cheating in Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Hickle, Kristine E.

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative approach was used to explore the meaning and perceptions of cheating in adolescent romantic relationships. Mexican American and White adolescents (N = 75; 53.3% girls; 56.1% Mexican American), separated by gender and ethnicity into 12 focus groups (three groups per type), discussed personal and peer experiences of cheating in dating…

  8. Experimental Results that Question the Ramirez-Castaneda Model for Teaching Reading to First Grade Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S. Alan; Rodriquez, Samuel

    1980-01-01

    Results of a study conducted with first-grade Mexican American children indicate that direct reading instruction to precise behavioral objectives is more effective than teaching to Mexican American children's supposed "cultural learning styles" as recommended by Manuel Ramirez and Alfredo Castaneda in 1974. (GT)

  9. Understanding the Role of Identity and the Retention of Mexican American Students in Higher Education: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Juan, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative ethnographic narrative inquiry explored the role of identity and the retention of Mexican American students in higher education. Leadership identity, a dimension of identity, was explored using narratives provided by 13 Mexican American students, attending a university in the northwest United States. Interview data was compiled,…

  10. Experimental Results that Question the Ramirez-Castaneda Model for Teaching Reading to First Grade Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S. Alan; Rodriquez, Samuel

    1980-01-01

    Results of a study conducted with first-grade Mexican American children indicate that direct reading instruction to precise behavioral objectives is more effective than teaching to Mexican American children's supposed "cultural learning styles" as recommended by Manuel Ramirez and Alfredo Castaneda in 1974. (GT)

  11. From the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo to "Hopwood": The Educational Plight and Struggle of Mexican Americans in the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Richard R.; San Miguel, Guadalupe, Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Describes four eras in Mexican-American education: (1) schooling in the Southwest, 1848-1890; (2) expansion of Mexican-American education, 1890-1930; (3) changing nature of public education, 1930-1960; and (4) the contemporary period. Explores such themes as exclusion, segregated and inferior schooling, and nativism. (SK)

  12. Student Perceptions of Teacher Ethnic Bias: A Comparison of Mexican American and Non-Latino White Dropouts and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayman, Jeffrey C.

    2002-01-01

    A study examining student perceptions of teacher ethnic bias surveyed 2,409 Mexican American and non-Latino white adolescent dropouts and students from three communities in the southwestern United States. Although perceptions of teacher ethnic bias were not rampant, such perceptions existed to a greater degree among dropouts, Mexican Americans,…

  13. Before We Were Chicanas/os: The Mexican American Experience in California Higher Education, 1848-1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudico, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Mexican American students have a long and proud history of enrolling in colleges and universities across the state of California for nearly 160 years, since shortly after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. Yet, inexplicably, historians of higher education have virtually ignored the Mexican American experience in California higher education.…

  14. Mexican Americans in Higher Education: Cultural Adaptation and Marginalization as Predictors of College Persistence Intentions and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Lizette; Castillo, Linda G.; Rosales Meza, Rocío; Piña-Watson, Brandy

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how college persistence intentions and life satisfaction influenced by acculturation, enculturation, White marginalization, and Mexican American marginalization among 515 Mexican American college students. The utility of a path analysis model was supported. Enculturation positively predicted persistence and life satisfaction.…

  15. Predictors of self-esteem for Mexican American and European American youths: a reexamination of the influence of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sonia Y; Roosa, Mark W; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2002-03-01

    Decades of research with European American middle-class families have found significant relations between parenting behavior and child self-esteem. Similar research with minority and low-income families is rare. The present study examined the relation between parenting practices and child self-esteem among 70 Mexican American and 161 European American youths. The analyses consisted of regressing child self-esteem on parenting practices (acceptance, rejection, inconsistent discipline, and hostile control), ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and the interactions between ethnicity, SES, and parenting practices. Several main effects and interactions were significant; for each interaction, behavior of low-income or Mexican American parents had less influence on children's self-esteem than did similar behavior by middle-class or European American parents.

  16. Acculturative stress negatively impacts maternal depressive symptoms in Mexican-American women during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L; Aleman, Brenda; Flores, Ana-Mercedes

    2015-05-01

    Mexican-American women exhibit high rates of prenatal maternal depressive symptoms relative to the general population. Though pregnant acculturated Mexican-American women experience cultural stressors such as acculturation, acculturative stress and discrimination that may contribute to elevated depressive symptoms, the contribution of these socio-cultural correlates to depressive symptomology is unknown. Ninety-eight pregnant women of Mexican descent were recruited from a community hospital clinic during their first trimester. Women completed surveys about acculturation, acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, general perceived stress, and maternal depressive symptoms as well as the potential protective factor of Mexican cultural values. Women who experienced greater acculturative and perceived stress, but not perceived discrimination or acculturation, reported significantly elevated depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Also, women who experienced greater acculturative stress identified with a mixture of Mexican and American cultural values. However, only the Mexican cultural value of respect was protective against maternal depressive symptoms while adhering to the Anglo value of independence and self-reliance was a risk factor. A limitation in the study is the cross-sectional and descriptive self-report nature of the work, underscoring the need for additional research. Moreover, physiological measures of stress were not analyzed in the current study. Results point to acculturative stress, above other cultural stressors, as a potential intervention target in culturally competent obstetric care. These findings have implications for maternal mental health treatment during pregnancy, which likely affects maternal-fetal programming and may favorably affect perinatal outcomes in the vulnerable Mexican-American population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Variation in Class II malocclusion: comparison of Mexican mestizos and American whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Tom; Buschang, Peter H; Behrents, Rolf G; Wintergerst, Ana M; Ceen, Richard F; Hernandez, Angeles

    2004-04-01

    This study compared the skeletal and dental characteristics of Class II Division 1 white Americans and Mexicans. It was designed specifically to the evaluate ethnic, age, and sex differences of 101 whites and 107 Mexican mestizos, with approximately equal numbers in each subgroup. Three-way analyses of variance were used to simultaneously evaluate the effects of age, sex, ethnicity, and their interactions. Although Mexicans and whites in the United States had similar maxillomandibular relationships, Mexicans showed greater protrusion of the jaws and teeth. Mexican subjects with Class II malocclusions also showed less divergence of the cranial base (SN-FH angle) and greater vertical tendencies (MPA, Y-axis, and palatal plane angle) than their white counterparts. In comparison with children (mean age 9.0 years), young adults (mean age 20.1 years) had significantly larger craniofacial dimensions, jaws that were positioned more forward, and teeth that were more protruded. Sex differences pertained only to size (men were larger) and maxillary incisor angulation (men were more protrusive). The findings pertaining to the ethnic differences have important clinical implications regarding treatment decisions for Mexican and white patients. In addition, this study provides a foundation for future studies pertaining to Class II malocclusion in Mexicans.

  18. Mexican and Mexican-American children's funds of knowledge as interventions into deficit thinking: opportunities for praxis in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licona, Miguel M.

    2013-12-01

    In this case study, I use an ethnographic-style approach to understand the funds of knowledge of immigrant families living in colonias on both sides of the US/Mexico border. I focus on how these "knowledges" and concomitant experiences impact the ways we perceive and treat immigrant students who have all too often been viewed through deficit lenses that relegate them to the lowest expectations and outcomes in the classroom. I find that Mexican and Mexican-American families hold unusually sophisticated and relevant "knowledges" to mitigate their everyday lives. In this paper, I will refer to citizens of Mexico, whether they reside in Mexico or have crossed to the United States legally or without documentation for purposes of work, as Mexican. People who have crossed the border and are living in the US as legal residents or have gained citizenship are referred to as Mexican-Americans. They live a hybrid identity that is varied and dynamic, an issue that adds to the complexity of the content and contexts of this study. These families know and use these "knowledges" on a daily basis, yet they are not recognized by teachers in the US as a starting point to affirm and support immigrant children. Instead, immigrant children are relegated to the non-gifted and lower track classes where science is taught from an abstract and non-contextual and therefore less engaged basis. The approach I outline here, based on insights from my case study, can greatly improve teachers' abilities to prepare their curricula for diversity in science education and science literacy as well as for broad expectations for student success.

  19. Work Socialization and Adolescents' Work-Related Values in Single-Mother African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Teru; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined African American mothers' work socialization messages in relation to adolescents' work-related values. Moderation effects of mother-adolescent relation quality on the linkage between maternal socialization messages and adolescents' outcomes were also examined. Participants were 245 single African American mothers and their…

  20. Observed Gender Differences in African American Mother-Child Relationships and Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B.; Telesford, James M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Richman, Scott B.

    2012-01-01

    African American mother-child dyads (N = 99) were observed interacting on a collaborative puzzle exercise. Raters blind to the purpose of the study rated the dyads on several mother and child behaviors. Mothers of daughters were rated as more empathetic, encouraging, warm, and accepting and less negative than mothers of sons. Male children were…

  1. Feelings of Gratitude Toward God Among Older Whites, Older African Americans, and Older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2012-03-01

    The first goal of this study is to see if social relationships in the church influence feelings of gratitude toward God. The second goal is to assess the impact of race and ethnicity on this relationship. The data support the following hypotheses: (1) older people who go to church more often tend to receive more spiritual support from fellow church members; (2) older adults who receive more spiritual support at church will derive a deeper understanding of themselves and others; (3) older people who develop greater insight into themselves and others will derive a greater sense of religious meaning in life; and (4) older adults who develop a deeper sense of religious meaning in life will feel more grateful to God. The results also indicate that the study model explains how feelings of gratitude toward God arise among older blacks and whites, but not older Mexican Americans.

  2. Risk factors for cardiovascular mortality in Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. San Antonio Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, B D; Stern, M P; Haffner, S M; Hazuda, H P; Patterson, J K

    1990-03-01

    A lower cardiovascular mortality in Mexican-American men than in non-Hispanic white men has been consistently observed. In contrast, no such ethnic difference has been observed in women. To determine whether this sex-ethnicity interaction in mortality is matched by a corresponding sex-ethnicity interaction in cardiovascular risk factors, the authors compared risk factors between 3,301 Mexican Americans and 1,877 non-Hispanic whites from the San Antonio Heart Study, a population-based study of cardiovascular disease and diabetes conducted in San Antonio, Texas (1979-1988). In both men and women, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) were higher and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was lower in Mexican Americans than in non-Hispanic whites. Although Mexican-American men were more likely than non-Hispanic white men to be smokers, Mexican Americans of both sexes smoked, on average, fewer cigarettes per day than non-Hispanic whites. Cardiovascular risk scores, which were constructed from Framingham Study risk equations to summarize the combined effect of multiple risk factors, were higher in Mexican Americans than in non-Hispanic whites of both sexes. The cardiovascular risk profile was less favorable for both Mexican Americans who grew up in Mexico and Mexican Americans who grew up in San Antonio. Although it is possible that in their younger years Mexican Americans had a more favorable cardiovascular risk profile, these results may also indicate that some protective factor, either genetic or life-style, is present in Mexican-American males but absent in non-Hispanic white males.

  3. Cambio en las escuelas: Mexican-American parent attitudes toward school health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, B; Smith, D; Zhang, J J; Hill, M

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes of Mexican-American (MA) parents of children toward school health education programs in South Texas. The Parent Attitude Scale (PAS) was developed and validated by American Cancer Society (ACS) staff and volunteer health educators. The validated survey was used to question randomly selected parents in the McAllen, Texas, school district regarding their attitudes toward school health education. Of 253 parents contacted, 235 (92.9%) parents were interviewed. Mann-Whitney U-Tests indicated that Mexican-American (MA) parents consider school health education to be more important than non-Mexican-American parents do. MA parents, overall, felt that it was more important that their child has good health habits and more important that their child's teacher provide support to them by teaching good health habits than non-MA parents. MA parents also felt that health was more important relative to other subjects at school than non-MA parents. The data indicate strong support for school health education efforts among MA parents in southern Texas. Such support may grow stronger with appropriate parent-recruitment efforts, including those by the ACS. Mexican-American parents may also represent an untapped resource for social and political support for school health programming.

  4. Mexican American women's adherence to hemodialysis treatment: a social constructivist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijerina, Mary S

    2009-07-01

    Mexican Americans have as much as a six-times greater risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) than non-Hispanic white Americans, and women show a faster rate of decline in diabetic renal functioning. The leading treatment for ESRD is hemodialysis, an intensive, complex treatment regimen associated with high levels of patient nonadherence. Previous studies of patient adherence have adopted a biomedical, practitioner-oriented approach focused on performance of fixed behaviors and ignoring contextual and motivational factors. The author describes a social constructivist approach to understanding how female Mexican American dialysis patients experience their disease, the treatment regimen, and the consequences of that experience. Mexican American women's perceptions and psychosocial factors were examined to understand what these women viewed as important to their realities as dialysis patients. Poverty, longer treatment history, and immigrant status emerged as factors that appeared to influence treatment nonadherence. Perceived identity losses, heightened awareness of mortality and family dysfunction emerged as themes that participants viewed as preeminent in their day-to-day lives. A social constructivist perspective is highly compatible with social work principles of person-in-environment and starting where the client is. This perspective provides a valuable framework for informing social work practice with this special population of Mexican American dialysis patients.

  5. Reliability and Validity of a Brief Measure of Loneliness with Anglo-American and Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbee, Katherine R.; Roberts, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    Eight-item revision of the UCLA Loneliness Scale was administered to 2,614 students, aged 11-14. Loneliness did not differ by age or between Anglo- and Mexican-American students, but was higher for girls than boys in each ethnic group. Principal components factor analysis and correlations with other related measures indicate good reliability and…

  6. The Intersectionality of African American Mothers in Counselor Education: A Phenomenological Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Natoya H.; Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie; Sewell, Cheryl; Crumb, Lonika; Appling, Brandee; Trepal, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Using phenomenological inquiry, this study explored the lived experiences and intersecting identities of 8 African American counselor educators who are mothers. Six themes were identified: race, professional strain, work-life balance, support, internalized success, and mothering pedagogy.

  7. The Intersectionality of African American Mothers in Counselor Education: A Phenomenological Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Natoya H.; Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie; Sewell, Cheryl; Crumb, Lonika; Appling, Brandee; Trepal, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Using phenomenological inquiry, this study explored the lived experiences and intersecting identities of 8 African American counselor educators who are mothers. Six themes were identified: race, professional strain, work-life balance, support, internalized success, and mothering pedagogy.

  8. Parent Discrimination Predicts Mexican-American Adolescent Psychological Adjustment One Year Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Nancy A.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether Mexican-American parent’s experiences with discrimination are related to adolescent psychological adjustment over time. The extent to which associations between parent discrimination and adolescent adjustment vary as a function of parent’s ethnic socialization of their children was also examined. Participants included 344 high school students from Mexican or Mexican-American backgrounds (primarily second generation; ages 14 – 16 at Wave 1) and their primary caregivers who completed surveys in a two-year longitudinal study. Results revealed that parent discrimination predicted internalizing symptoms and self-esteem among adolescents, one year later. Additionally, adolescents were more likely to report low self-esteem in relation to parents’ increased experiences of discrimination when parents conveyed ethnic socialization messages to them. PMID:27224903

  9. Parent Discrimination Predicts Mexican-American Adolescent Psychological Adjustment 1 Year Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Guadalupe; Gonzales, Nancy A; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    This study examined whether Mexican-American parents' experiences with discrimination are related to adolescent psychological adjustment over time. The extent to which associations between parent discrimination and adolescent adjustment vary as a function of parents' ethnic socialization of their children was also examined. Participants included 344 high school students from Mexican or Mexican-American backgrounds (primarily second generation; ages 14-16 at Wave 1) and their primary caregivers who completed surveys in a 2-year longitudinal study. Results revealed that parent discrimination predicted internalizing symptoms and self-esteem among adolescents 1 year later. Additionally, adolescents were more likely to report low self-esteem in relation to parents' increased experiences of discrimination when parents conveyed ethnic socialization messages to them.

  10. Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' stressors and psychosocial functioning: examining ethnic identity affirmation and familism as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A

    2011-02-01

    Mexican-origin adolescent mothers are at increased risk for poor psychosocial functioning as a result of various stressors with which they must contend; however, existing theory suggests that cultural strengths may help mitigate the negative effects of stress. As such, the current study examined the associations between cultural and economic stressors and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' (N = 207; M age = 16.23 years, SD = 1.0) internalizing and externalizing behaviors, as well as the degree to which ethnic identity affirmation and familism values moderated these links. Adolescent mothers who reported higher levels of discrimination, acculturative stress, and economic stress also reported higher depressive symptoms and greater involvement in risky behaviors. Importantly, ethnic identity affirmation minimized the negative associations between cultural stressors and adolescents' involvement in risky behaviors, with the associations being weakest among adolescents with high levels of ethnic identity. Familism appeared to serve a protective function under conditions of low levels of discrimination, but not under conditions of high levels of discrimination. Findings are discussed with special attention to the developmental and cultural contexts in which these adolescent mothers' lives are embedded, and implications for future research and practice are presented.

  11. Neighborhood Contexts, Fathers, and Mexican American Young Adolescents' Internalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The family stress model posits that contextual stressors, such as neighborhood danger, negatively influence youth adjustment, including internalizing symptoms, via disruptions in parenting and family processes. The current study examined a culturally and contextually modified family stress model in a diverse sample of Mexican-origin fathers and…

  12. Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Offspring of African American Mothers with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Rhonda C.; Diamond, Guy S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive research demonstrates the negative impact of maternal depression on their offspring. Unfortunately, few studies have been explored in African American families. This study examined emotional and behavioral functioning among children of African American mothers with depression. African American mothers (n = 63), with a past year diagnosis…

  13. Age of Migration Life Expectancy with Functional Limitations and Morbidity in Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marc A; Valderrama-Hinds, Luis M; Chiu, Chi-Tsun; Mutambudzi, Miriam S; Chen, Nai-Wei; Raji, Mukaila

    2017-07-01

    The U.S. Mexican American population enjoys longer life expectancies relative to other racial/ethnic groups but is disproportionately affected by chronic conditions and functional limitations. Studying the impact of heterogeneity in age, time and other characteristics of migration among older Mexican Americans can inform our understanding of health disparities and healthcare needs in later-life. This research used 20 years of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to assess the proportion of life spent with functional limitations and one or more morbidity (according to age of migration and sex) in the U.S. Mexican-American population. The results indicate that early-life and late-life migrant women spend more years with Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment limitations than U.S.-born women. Conversely, midlife migrant women were not statistically different from U.S.-born women in years spent disabled. In men, midlife migrants had longer life expectancies and had more disability-free years than U.S.-born men. For morbidity, late-life migrant women spent a significantly smaller proportion of their elderly years with morbidity than U.S.-born women, but late-life migrant men spent more years with morbidity than U.S.-born men. These findings illustrate that older Mexican Americans in the United States are heterogeneous in nativity and health outcomes. More years spent disabled or unhealthy may result in greater burden on family members and greater dependence on public resources. These findings have implications for the development of social and health policies to appropriately target the medical conditions and disabilities of older Mexican Americans entering late life. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. Measuring Social Support from Mother Figures in the Transition from Pregnancy to Parenthood among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Russell B.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Jahromi, Laudan B.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    Social support for adolescent mothers, particularly from mother figures, can buffer risks and promote well-being. To date, no longitudinal research has investigated how the dimensions of social support may change during the transition from pregnancy to parenthood for adolescent mothers. This study examined stability and change in dimensions of…

  15. Examining Socio-Cultural and Neighborhood Factors Associated with Trajectories of Mexican-Origin Mothers' Education-Related Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Sakshi; Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y; Witherspoon, Dawn P; Pomerantz, Eva M; Robins, Richard W

    2017-01-03

    Parental involvement in education is an important determinant of youth's academic success. Yet, there is limited knowledge on how Latino parents' education-related involvement changes over time. Using data from a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin families (mother-adolescent dyad; M age of child at Wave 1=10.4, SD = 0.60), we examined trajectories of parental involvement from 5(th) to 11(th) grade and the effects of socio-cultural (e.g., family SES and acculturation) and contextual (e.g., neighborhood) factors on these trajectories. Results showed that mothers reduced two aspects of the educational involvement: home-based involvement and academic aspirations, but increased on a third aspect of involvement, resource seeking. Furthermore, family SES, acculturation, and neighborhood context were differentially associated with mothers' involvement at 5(th) grade and predicted changes in involvement across elementary and high school.

  16. Self-Reported Biliteracy and Self-Esteem: A Study of Mexican American 8th Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gary Gang

    This study examines the relationship between proficient bilingualism or biliteracy (proficiency in reading and writing in both Spanish and English) and the self-esteem of Mexican American students. The concept of proficient bilingualism has not been widely used to examine bilingual education's noncognitive functions, in particular its effect on…

  17. Conflict Resolution in Mexican American Adolescents' Friendships: Links with Culture, Gender and Friendship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Shawna M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Delgado, Melissa Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to describe the conflict resolution practices used in Mexican American adolescents' friendships, to explore the role of cultural orientations and values and gender-typed personality qualities in conflict resolution use, and to assess the connections between conflict resolution and friendship quality. Participants were 246…

  18. Teaching English Vocabulary to Elementary Mexican American Students in South Texas: Some Responsive Modern Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiaka Nzai, Valentin; Reyna, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    Teaching reading and vocabulary to Mexican American children in the United States of America today requires an acknowledgment of historical social injustice that continues to affect many communities in South Texas. This article debriefs some vocabulary teaching strategies--such as mnemonics and game play under the learning centers…

  19. Acculturation, Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Eating-Disorder Symptomatology in Adolescent Mexican American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Greg W.; Kashubeck, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Investigated the relationship among acculturation, body image, self-esteem, and eating disorder symptomatology in 120 Mexican-American adolescent women. Findings indicate that acculturation levels were not related to anorexic or bulimic symptomatology, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction or thinness of ideal and attractive figures. Also, lower…

  20. On My Own: Mexican American Women, Self-Sufficiency, and the Family Support Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa; Tosca, Regina

    The Focus Study, conducted by the National Council of La Raza's Poverty Project, used structured discussions by focus groups to examine Mexican American women's opinions, needs, and attitudes as they relate to the implementation of the 1988 Family Support Act (FSA). FSA's primary objective is to move people off welfare through education, training,…

  1. Coping with Daily Stressors: Modeling Intraethnic Variation in Mexican American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Arianna A.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2008-01-01

    Using daily diary methodology, 67 Mexican American adolescents completed measures assessing daily stressors experienced, specific coping strategies employed with reference to these stressors, and indices of psychological health over 5 consecutive days. With respect to coping usage, adolescents reported they most often used planning and least often…

  2. The Mexican-Americans of the South Bend-Mishawaka Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotia, Elizabeth R.; Calvin, Richmond

    Developed as part of an ethnic heritage studies program, this historical narrative of Mexican Americans in South Bend, Indiana, is intended to increase cultural awareness of minority groups. The document opens with historical background information beginning in 1877 during the presidency of Porfirio Diaz of Mexico. The narrative follows migration…

  3. Self-Reported Depressive Feelings and Cigarette Smoking among Mexican-American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesa, Jacqueline A.; Cowdery, Joan E.; Wang, Min Qi; Fu, Qiang

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationship between depressive feelings and cigarette smoking in Mexican-American adolescents who participated in the 1993 Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey II. Results suggest a relationship between certain feelings of depression and smoking, beyond that experienced by nonsmokers, which may be more evident in females.…

  4. Bridging the Acculturation Gap: Parent-Child Relationship Quality as a Moderator in Mexican American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J.; Parke, Ross D.; Kim, Young; Coltrane, Scott

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the degree to which disparities in parent and child acculturation are linked to both family and child adjustment. With a sample of 1st- and 2nd-generation Mexican American children, acculturation and parent-child relationship quality at 5th grade, and parent-child conflict, child internalizing, and child externalizing at 7th…

  5. The impact of acculturation level on weight status and weight outcomes in Mexican American children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently 39% of Hispanic children and adolescents are overweight and obese. Higher levels of acculturation have been shown to be related to obesity in Mexican American adults. Conflicting findings exists regarding this relationship in children and little is known about the impact of acculturation o...

  6. Machismo and Mexican American Men: An Empirical Understanding Using a Gay Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Fernando; Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Arciniega, G. Miguel; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2011-01-01

    Machismo continues to be a defining aspect of Mexican American men that informs a wide array of psychological and behavioral dimensions. Although strides have been made in this area of research, understanding of the role of this construct in the lives of gay men remains incomplete. Our purpose in this study was to gain a deeper understanding of…

  7. Beyond Affirmation: How the School Context Facilitates Racial/Ethnic Identity among Mexican American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    Identity development is a dynamic process which involves reconciling multiple messages. While ethnic minority adolescents' development is affected profoundly by discrimination, positive racial/ethnic encounters can also transform one's identity. Questionnaire data were gathered from 122 tenth-grade Mexican Americans in a low-performing school that…

  8. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Health Risk Behaviors among Mexican American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing the concept of race-based traumatic stress, this study tested whether posttraumatic stress symptoms explain the process by which perceived discrimination is related to health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. One hundred ten participants were recruited from a large health maintenance organization in Northern California.…

  9. Reliability and Validity of the SF-36 Among Older Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, M. Kristen; Ray, Laura; Patel, Kushang; Stoebner-May, Diane; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) has been validated in many diverse samples. This measure of health-related quality of life, however, has not yet been examined among older Mexican Americans, a rapidly growing subset of the older population. Design and Methods: We address the validity of the SF-36 in a…

  10. Protective Effects of Ethnic Identity on Mexican American College Students' Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbide, Maria I.; Raffaelli, Marcela; Carlo, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated whether different ethnic identity components moderate the associations between acculturative stress and psychological adjustment among Mexican American college students (N = 148; 67% female) who completed self-report surveys. For women, ethnic affirmation/belonging and ethnic identity achievement moderated the…

  11. Differences between Anglo and Mexican-American Females Classified as Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Randolph H.

    One hundred twenty young adult females, half Anglos and half Mexican-Americans, were administered Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales (WAIS), Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT), and Bender Gestalt Tests. Half of each ethnic group were classified by the public schools as learning disabled and half were in regular classes. The WAIS Verbal IQ,…

  12. Mixed Resilience: A Study of Multiethnic Mexican American Stress and Coping in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kelly F.; Wolven, Thera; Aguilera, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Guided by an integrated framework of resilience, this in-depth qualitative study examined the major stressors persons of multiethnic Mexican American heritage encountered in their social environments related to their mixed identity and the resilience enhancing processes they employed to cope with these stressors. Life-story event narratives were…

  13. Mexican American Parents' Perceptions of Childhood Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Barbara J.; Barr, Kathleen L.; Baker, Sharon K.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the norms, values, and perceptions of urban immigrant Mexican American (MA) parents of school children relative to physical activity, healthy eating, and child risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Investigators facilitated five focus groups in an urban elementary school setting and analyzed data using qualitative…

  14. Home-Based Diabetes Symptom Self-Management Education for Mexican Americans with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alexandra A.; Brown, Sharon A.; Horner, Sharon D.; Zuñiga, Julie; Arheart, Kristopher L.

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated an innovative diabetes symptom awareness and self-management educational program for Mexican Americans, a fast growing minority population experiencing a diabetes epidemic. Patients with diabetes need assistance interpreting and managing symptoms, which are often annoying and potentially life-threatening. A repeated…

  15. Bannatyne Patterns of Caucasian and Mexican-American Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutkin, Terry B.

    1979-01-01

    Investigated the measurement properties and practical utility of Bannatyne's recategorized WISC-R scores. Analyses of the scores of Caucasian learning disabled children indicated that, as a group, these students were characterized by the predicted Spatial-Conceptual-Sequential pattern. This was not found to be true for Mexican-American learning…

  16. Psycho-Social Influences on the Accomplishments of Mexican-American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCorquodale, Patricia

    The accomplishments of Mexican American students have been limited by the level of education completed and by concentration in particular occupations. As part of a larger research project concerning this problem, 259 eighth grade students from Tucson were compared on the basis of sex and ethnicity, with a focus on attitudes toward science. No…

  17. On My Own: Mexican American Women, Self-Sufficiency, and the Family Support Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa; Tosca, Regina

    The Focus Study, conducted by the National Council of La Raza's Poverty Project, used structured discussions by focus groups to examine Mexican American women's opinions, needs, and attitudes as they relate to the implementation of the 1988 Family Support Act (FSA). FSA's primary objective is to move people off welfare through education, training,…

  18. Alcohol Services for Mexican Americans: A Review of Utilization Patterns, Treatment Considerations and Prevention Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M. Jean; Cervantes, Richard C.

    1986-01-01

    Synthesizes available literature that addresses: (1) utilization patterns of alcohol-related services by Mexican Americans; (2) existing therapeutic approaches which take into account cultural factors; and (3) existing approaches to alcohol abuse education and prevention for this population. Discusses research needs and the need for…

  19. Effect of the Bienestar Health Program on Physical Fitness in Low-Income Mexican American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Roberto P.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Yin, Zenong; Garcia, Oralia A.; Hernandez, Irene

    2005-01-01

    Once considered an adult onset disease, type 2 diabetes is increasingly being diagnosed in low-income Mexican American children. Studies have suggested that most of those so diagnosed were overweight, reported low levels of physical activity, and were generally unaware of their disease. The Bienestar Health Program was designed to reduce risk…

  20. South Texas Mexican American Use of Traditional Folk and Mainstream Alternative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Leslie N.

    2009-01-01

    A telephone survey was conducted with a large sample of Mexican Americans from border (n = 1,001) and nonborder (n = 1,030) regions in Texas. Patterns of traditional folk and mainstream complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use were analyzed with two binary logistic regressions, using gender, self-rated health, confidence in medical…

  1. Birth Control and Low-Income Mexican-American Women: The Impact of Three Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Silvia; Casas, Jesus Manuel

    1990-01-01

    Assesses relationship between Mexican-American women's birth-control attitudes, knowledge, and usage, and values of motherhood, male dominance, and sexual expression. Multiple regression analysis links contraception attitudes with traditional values, regardless of acculturation. Establishes positive link between birth-control use and traditional…

  2. Teaching English Vocabulary to Elementary Mexican American Students in South Texas: Some Responsive Modern Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiaka Nzai, Valentin; Reyna, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    Teaching reading and vocabulary to Mexican American children in the United States of America today requires an acknowledgment of historical social injustice that continues to affect many communities in South Texas. This article debriefs some vocabulary teaching strategies--such as mnemonics and game play under the learning centers…

  3. Mexican Americans on the Home Front: Community Organizations in Arizona during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Christine

    During World War II Arizona's Mexican-American communities organized their own patriotic activities and worked, in spite of racism, to support the war effort. In Phoenix the Lenadores del Mundo, an active fraternal society, began this effort by sponsoring a festival in January 1942. Such "mutualistas" provided an essential support system…

  4. Mexican American Children's Ethnic Pride and Internalized Racism. JSRI Occasional Paper No. 41. Latino Studies Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Stephen

    Nearly 100 Mexican American children and adolescents in grades 2-12 were interviewed in central Texas to determine their understanding of ethnicity and their attitudes toward their own ethnicity. Their responses were interpreted in relation to a developmental model with five stages or "perspectives" in reasoning about ethnicity. The…

  5. Mexican American Women's Activism at Indiana University in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Ebelia

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a historical analysis of documents and narratives from Mexican American women that reflect the tumultuous 1990s at Indiana University. Their recollections reveal how they became activists, the racist incidents that compelled them into activism, and the racial tensions and backlash towards identity politics felt by students of…

  6. Mixed Resilience: A Study of Multiethnic Mexican American Stress and Coping in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kelly F.; Wolven, Thera; Aguilera, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Guided by an integrated framework of resilience, this in-depth qualitative study examined the major stressors persons of multiethnic Mexican American heritage encountered in their social environments related to their mixed identity and the resilience enhancing processes they employed to cope with these stressors. Life-story event narratives were…

  7. Predictors of the Career Commitment Process in Mexican American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Muniz, Veronica; Constantine, Madonna G.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which perceived parental support, perceived career barriers, and adherence to career myths would predict two specific dimensions of the commitment to career choices process (i.e., vocational exploration and commitment and tendency to foreclose) in a sample of Mexican American college students. Perceived parental…

  8. Fears and Related Anxieties across Three Age Groups of Mexican American and White Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The authors compared levels and types of fears and anxieties in a sample of Mexican American children and adolescents with disabilities to a group of White children and adolescents with similar disabilities. Students (N = 238), parents, and teachers completed the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (T. H. Ollendick, 1983) and the Revised…

  9. Decolonizing the Classroom through Critical Consciousness: Navigating Solidarity "en La Lucha" for Mexican American Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-Gonzalez, Daniel; French, Kristen B.; Gallardo, Stephanie; Glemaker, Ethan; Noel, Saraswati; Marsura, Michelle; Mehary, Elaine; Saldaña-Spiegle, Nadia; Schimpf, Brendan; Thaw, Chelsea

    2014-01-01

    In this article, college students and faculty narrate their co-constructed journey across differences, through intersecting identities and intertwining paths in an effort to stand in solidarity with students, teachers, and community members resisting the removal of the Mexican-American Studies (MAS) program in the Tucson Unified School District in…

  10. Home-Based Diabetes Symptom Self-Management Education for Mexican Americans with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alexandra A.; Brown, Sharon A.; Horner, Sharon D.; Zuñiga, Julie; Arheart, Kristopher L.

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated an innovative diabetes symptom awareness and self-management educational program for Mexican Americans, a fast growing minority population experiencing a diabetes epidemic. Patients with diabetes need assistance interpreting and managing symptoms, which are often annoying and potentially life-threatening. A repeated…

  11. The Core Ideals of the Mexican American Gang Living the Presentation of Defiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Current approaches to designing antigang policies overemphasize the notion that criminality is the defining characteristic of gangs and that solutions require a get-tough approach. As an ex-gang member, I conducted a five-year ethnographic study and a fourteen-year informal study of Mexican American street gangs in two Southwestern states to…

  12. An Adapted Brief Strategic Family Therapy for Gang-Affiliated Mexican American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Parrish, Danielle; Horowitz, Rosalind; Kaplan, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the effectiveness of an adapted Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) intervention for gang-affiliated Mexican American adolescents and their parents. Methods: A total of 200 adolescents and their family caregivers were randomized to either a treatment or a control condition. Outcomes included adolescent substance…

  13. Machismo and Mexican American Men: An Empirical Understanding Using a Gay Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Fernando; Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Arciniega, G. Miguel; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2011-01-01

    Machismo continues to be a defining aspect of Mexican American men that informs a wide array of psychological and behavioral dimensions. Although strides have been made in this area of research, understanding of the role of this construct in the lives of gay men remains incomplete. Our purpose in this study was to gain a deeper understanding of…

  14. Introducing Multicultural Science into the Chemistry Curriculum in the Mexican-American Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. Christopher; Cardenas, Angelica

    2012-01-01

    Traditional beliefs in the Mexican-American border region were compiled by students in an introductory general chemistry course. A subset of these traditional beliefs was used to develop a survey administered in later chemistry courses and as the basis for short research studies conducted by students in these later chemistry courses. The data…

  15. Dissemination of an effective weight management program for Mexican American children in schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rates of child obesity are epidemic in the United States, and Mexican American children are at particular risk. We have found an intensive, multi-component, school-based, weight management intervention to be efficacious at reducing standardized body mass index (zBMI) in overweight children. Our ...

  16. Mexican American Adolescent Couples Communicating about Conflict: An Integrated Developmental and Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Heidi Adams; Williams, Lela Rankin

    2016-01-01

    Using observational methods on a small sample of committed Mexican American couples (N = 10, ages 15-17, M length of relationship = 26.5 months), we describe and categorize developmental and cultural communication patterns concerning the negotiation of conflict issues. Videotaped dyadic interactions were transcribed and qualitatively coded using…

  17. Cambio En Las Escuelas: Mexican-American Parent Attitudes toward School Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Brian; Smith, Dennis; Zhang, James J.; Hill, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed Mexican-American (MA) and non-MA parents regarding their attitudes toward school health education and its place in the curriculum. There was widespread support for quality comprehensive school health education. MA parents considered school health education more important than non-MA parents. They also considered health was more important…

  18. White Innocence and Mexican Americans as Perpetrators in the School-to-Prison Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This essay discusses white innocence as a mechanism that may contribute to perceptions of Mexican Americans as perpetrators. These perceptions are crucial to ways teachers and administrators respond to student actions as the initial steps in the school-to-prison pipeline. Specifically, this work reviews the rhetoric of white innocence in a high…

  19. The influence of parenting on Mexican American children's self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Guadalupe; McClelland, Megan M

    2017-03-01

    Parental practices and beliefs have been recognized as having an important influence on the development of children's self-regulation. Using a mixed methods approach, the present study explored how parental practices and beliefs influence low-income Mexican American children's (N = 44) self-regulation during the fall of preschool. Quantitative results indicated that the family learning environment and parental control were significantly related to stronger self-regulation in Mexican American children from low-income families. Qualitative interviews indicated that "respect" and "being well educated" emerged as key factors guiding parents' expectations of children's behaviors and discipline. Additionally, these results indicated that parents struggled to provide additional educational materials to enrich the home learning environment of their children. This study highlights the importance of understanding the parental practices and beliefs of low-income Mexican American parents and their influence on children's self-regulation to better serve the needs of Mexican American parents and their children. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. El Espiritu Siempre Eterno Del Mexico Americano (The Always Eternal Spirit of the Mexican American).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla, Guadalupe C.; Silman, James B.

    Twenty stories and essays suitable for intermediate and secondary grades illustrate the enduring spirit of Mexican American life, legend, custom, and culture. The Spanish language book describes the ceremonies of baptism, engagement, marriage, and the "quinceanera" (a girl's 15th birthday). Folklore (magic spells, superstitions, "cuentos" or…

  1. Childhood Asthma Prevalence among Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans: Implications for Behavioral Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, A. Magdalena

    1995-01-01

    Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1982-84, were used to examine lifetime prevalence (LTP) of childhood asthma among Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans. LTP was related to Puerto Rican ethnicity, birth outside U.S. mainland, low weight for age, male gender, poverty, urban residence, and single parenthood. Implications…

  2. Frequency and Types of Partner Violence among Mexican American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Ann L.; Sanderson, Maureen; Cantu, Ethel; Huerta, Debbie; Fadden, Mary Kay

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors studied the prevalence of partner violence, by type, among Mexican American college women aged 18 to 35 years (N = 149; response rate = 85%). Results: Twelve percent of women who reported a dating partner in the past year were physically or sexually assaulted, 12.1% were stalked, and 9.1% scored as…

  3. Emigration and Schooling among Second-Generation Mexican-American Children. Working Paper. WR-529

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendall, Michael S.; Torr, Berna M.

    2007-01-01

    Second-generation immigrants are typically analyzed under the assumption that, having been born in the United States, they grew up in the United States. We challenge this assumption by investigating the prevalence and patterns of second-generation Mexican-American children's migration to and return from Mexico during childhood, and consider the…

  4. The Impact of Personalized Risk Feedback on Mexican Americans' Perceived Risk for Heart Disease and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Shelly R.; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Ashida, Sato; de Heer, Hendrik D.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of personalized risk information on risk perceptions over time, particularly among ethnically diverse subpopulations. The present study examines Mexican American's (MAs) risk perceptions for heart disease and diabetes at baseline and following receipt of risk feedback based on family health history. Participants…

  5. Sharing Power? An Experience of Mexican American Parents Serving on a Campus Advisory Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Delores C.

    2000-01-01

    Explores issues concerning representation, training, guidelines, and parent representative roles to determine how Mexican-American parents serving on an elementary school advisory council were involved in school decision-making. Parents' role may be minor, due to factors (like staff assumptions) resulting in unequal knowledge, respect, and…

  6. Social Cognitive Predictors of Mexican American High School Students' Math/Science Career Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriott, Patton O.; Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Zoma, Lorrine; Mackie-Hernandez, Dylan; Lavin, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    This study tested a social cognitive model of math/science career goals in a sample (N = 258) of Mexican American high school students. Familism and proximal family supports for math/science careers were examined as predictors of math/science: performance accomplishments, self-efficacy, interests, and goals. Results showed that the hypothesized…

  7. Mexican American Adolescents' Profiles of Risk and Mental Health: A Person-Centered Longitudinal Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Knight, George P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    Although Mexican American adolescents experience multiple risk factors in their daily lives, most research examines the influences of risk factors on adjustment independently, ignoring the additive and interactive effects of multiple risk factors. Guided by a person-centered perspective and utilizing latent profile analysis, this study identified…

  8. Mexican American Women's Reflections from Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kay Ann; Fernandez-Bergersen, Sandra Luz

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative case study examined 5 Mexican American women's experiences at the intersection of race and gender in public high school. Critical race theory provided the analysis and interpretation. The significant findings of this research included the following: (a) Racism is endemic and pervasive in public education; (b) many educational…

  9. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Health Risk Behaviors among Mexican American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing the concept of race-based traumatic stress, this study tested whether posttraumatic stress symptoms explain the process by which perceived discrimination is related to health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. One hundred ten participants were recruited from a large health maintenance organization in Northern California.…

  10. Coresidence and Resistance: Strategies for Survival among Undocumented Mexicans and Central Americans in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Leo R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines variation in coresidence among undocumented Mexican and Central American immigrants in San Diego (California). Proposes that by creatively forming and reforming coresident groups, undocumented immigrants use social organization strategically and effectively as a resource to assist them in their struggle to live and work in the United…

  11. Fusion or Familialism: A Construct Problem in Studies of Mexican American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Judith C.; Prince, Jonathan D.; Velez, Judith

    2004-01-01

    This study was an investigation of intergenerational relationships related to the individuation process as reported by Mexican (N = 2,388) and European American (N = 2,907) adolescents. The primary aim was to examine the construct within theories of adolescent development that emotional separation in parent-adolescent relationships is an inherent…

  12. Adjusting Limit Setting in Play Therapy with First-Generation Mexican-American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Roxanna; Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Kranz, Peter L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on limit setting in play therapy with first-generation Mexican-American children in two important therapeutic environments that include the traditional indoor playroom and a proposed outdoor play area. The paper is based on a review of the literature and the authors' clinical experiences with this population. They concluded…

  13. Birth Control and Low-Income Mexican-American Women: The Impact of Three Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Silvia; Casas, Jesus Manuel

    1990-01-01

    Assesses relationship between Mexican-American women's birth-control attitudes, knowledge, and usage, and values of motherhood, male dominance, and sexual expression. Multiple regression analysis links contraception attitudes with traditional values, regardless of acculturation. Establishes positive link between birth-control use and traditional…

  14. Cambio En Las Escuelas: Mexican-American Parent Attitudes toward School Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Brian; Smith, Dennis; Zhang, James J.; Hill, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed Mexican-American (MA) and non-MA parents regarding their attitudes toward school health education and its place in the curriculum. There was widespread support for quality comprehensive school health education. MA parents considered school health education more important than non-MA parents. They also considered health was more important…

  15. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment among Mexican American Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a stress process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. The authors also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the…

  16. The Role of Behavioral and Cognitive Cultural Orientation on Mexican American College Students' Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Lizette; Edwards, Lisa M.; Hardin, Erin E.; Piña-Watson, Brandy

    2014-01-01

    We examined the role of behavioral (acculturation and enculturation) and cognitive cultural orientation (independent and interdependent self-construal) on Mexican American college students' life satisfaction. Analyses explained 28% of the variance in life satisfaction, with social class, grade point average, and independent self-construal being…

  17. The Effects of Cuento Therapy on Reading Achievement and Psychological Outcomes of Mexican-American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Jain, Sachin; Flores-Torres, Leila L.; Perez, Roxanna; Carlson, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the effects of cuento therapy (an intervention using Spanish-language tales) on children's self-esteem, affect, and reading test performance. The sample was composed of 58 third-grade Mexican-American students who were randomly assigned to the treatment and control groups. The results showed a mean self-esteem gain…

  18. "Cuentos": The Intersection of Mexican-American Women and Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Rolle, Blanca

    2011-01-01

    Historically, there has been a silence within disability and feminist studies to explore the intersection of gender, disability, and ethnicity. Through this silence, the of voices of Mexican-American women who were identified with learning disabilities and received special education services have been omitted. Through their personal narratives,…

  19. El Espiritu Siempre Eterno Del Mexico Americano (The Always Eternal Spirit of the Mexican American).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla, Guadalupe C.; Silman, James B.

    Twenty stories and essays suitable for intermediate and secondary grades illustrate the enduring spirit of Mexican American life, legend, custom, and culture. The Spanish language book describes the ceremonies of baptism, engagement, marriage, and the "quinceanera" (a girl's 15th birthday). Folklore (magic spells, superstitions, "cuentos" or…

  20. Mexican American Women's Activism at Indiana University in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Ebelia

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a historical analysis of documents and narratives from Mexican American women that reflect the tumultuous 1990s at Indiana University. Their recollections reveal how they became activists, the racist incidents that compelled them into activism, and the racial tensions and backlash towards identity politics felt by students of…

  1. Adherence to a multi-component weight management program for Mexican American adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined weight loss among Mexican American students in a weight management program. A total of 358 participants completed a 12-week intervention that incorporated four program components: nutrition education (NE), physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), and a snacking interventi...

  2. Nativity and Serum Concentrations of Antioxidants in Mexican American Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Eldeirawi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is limited research on the effect of immigration on biological markers of nutrition among children of Mexican origin in the United States. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III (1988–1994, on a national and representative sample of 1559 Mexican American children, 4–16 years of age, and assess the associations of country of birth with serum concentrations of carotenoids, vitamin A, and vitamin E. In multiple regression analyses, Mexico-born Mexican American children had significantly higher serum concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, vitamin A, and vitamin E than their counterparts who were born in the United States after adjustment for age, sex, poverty income ratio, level of education of family reference person, body mass index, total serum cholesterol, serum cotinine, total energy intake, and vitamin/mineral consumption. Our findings confirm evidence for a negative effect of immigration/acculturation on dietary quality in this population. These findings also suggest that immigrant Mexican families should be encouraged to maintain their consumption of fruits and vegetables. Prospective studies are needed to further assess the effects of immigration/acculturation on diet and other health outcomes in children of Mexican origin and immigrants.

  3. The Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect: A Focus on the Mexican American Family. Proceedings of the Annual Conference (2nd, San Antonio, Texas, September 8-10, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Angelina Moreno

    The 26 papers focus on child abuse issues affecting the Mexican American family. The keynote address notes various issues in child abuse and neglect among Mexican Americans. Three papers discuss Mexican American families in transition, adjustment of the family into the Mexican American barrio and vice versa, and the effects of sexual assault on…

  4. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Implementation: The Future of Commercial Trucking Across the Mexican Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ) Implementation: The...North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ) Implementation: The Future of Commercial Trucking Across the Mexican Border 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 NAFTA Implementation: The

  5. Central American and Mexican immigrant characteristics and economic incorporation in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, S P

    1986-01-01

    "Data compiled from the 1980 U.S. Census and other sources are used in this article to demonstrate the distinctiveness of Central American immigration.... Comparisons between Central American and Mexican immigrants in California reveal substantial differences between the two groups in their age structure, sex ratio, and human capital characteristics." The emphasis of the study is on the differences concerning incorporation of these migrant groups into the Californian economy. excerpt

  6. Mexican Parenting Questionnaire (MPQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgunseth, Linda C.; Ispa, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted in four phases and constructed a self-report parenting instrument for use with Mexican immigrant mothers of children aged 6 to 10. The 14-item measure was based on semistructured qualitative interviews with Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 10), was refined by a focus group of Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 5), and was…

  7. Mother-adolescent conflict in African American and European American families: the role of corporal punishment, adolescent aggression, and adolescents' hostile attributions of mothers' intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Lindsey, Eric W; Frabutt, James M; Chambers, Jessica Campbell

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined mothers' use of corporal punishment and adolescents' aggression as predictors of mother-youth conflict during early adolescence. Particular attention was given to the potential mediating role that adolescents' hostile attributions of intent (HAI) regarding mothers' behavior might play in connections between corporal punishment, youth aggression, and mother-adolescent conflict for European American (EA) and African American (AA) youth. Data were collected from 268 12- to 14-year-olds (154 European American; 114 African American; 133 girls; 135 boys) and their mothers over a period of 2 years. Questionnaires completed by both mothers and adolescents were used to assess maternal corporal punishment and adolescent aggression, and interviews concerning hypothetical situations were used to assess adolescent HAI in year one. In both year one and year two mother-adolescent conflict was observed in a laboratory interaction session. Data revealed that adolescent HAI mediated the link between maternal corporal punishment and mother-adolescent conflict for EA, but not AA youth. Adolescents' HAI mediated the link between adolescent aggression and mother-adolescent conflict for both EA and AA families.

  8. Mexican Americans With Type 2 Diabetes: Perspectives on Definitions, Motivators, and Programs of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelda Mier, PhD

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionResearch documents that Mexican Americans bear excess health risk because of physical inactivity and have higher morbidity and mortality rates from chronic diseases than do other ethnic groups. Factors influencing physical activity in this minority population, however, are not well understood. This study examines perceptions of physical activity in a population of Mexican Americans who have type 2 diabetes and live in the Texas-Mexico border region and identifies motivators and barriers to physical activity in this group.MethodsThis study used a qualitative research design and employed six focus groups comprising 39 Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes who live in the Texas–Mexico border region. A team of bilingual Mexican American researchers systematically reviewed and analyzed focus group data by means of qualitative data analysis software. The study was conducted during 2005–2006.ResultsMost participants considered physical activity to be related not only to exercise but also to occupational and home activities. Walking was the preferred type of activity. Motivators to physical activity included family support and the sense of well-being derived from physical activity. Barriers to physical activity included individual and environmental factors, such as lack of time, physical pain, depression, being overweight, unsafe neighborhoods, and lack of facilities. Participants suggested that the ideal intervention would be low in cost, family-based, close to home, and led by bilingual instructors.ConclusionHealth promotion efforts to prevent or reduce the effects of chronic disease among Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes in the Texas–Mexico border region should focus on implementing neighborhood-based, family-oriented walking interventions.

  9. Chinese-American and European-American Mothers and Infants: Cultural Influences in the First Three Months of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchner, Joan F.

    This study explores cultural influences in the first three months of life by comparing the daily experiences of first generation Chinese-American and European-American infants whose parents were born in the United States. The study focused on 10 Chinese-American and 10 European-American families whose mothers were recruited during the third…

  10. Historical, Socio-Cultural, and Conceptual Issues to Consider When Researching Mexican American Children and Families, and other Latino Subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Buriel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order for the field of psychology in the United States to maintain its relevance and validity, it must become more inclusive in its theory and research of Latinos, who are now the largest "minority" group in the nation. In particular, due to immigration and birth rates, Mexican Americans are the largest and fastest growing segment of the Latino population. This paper addresses some of the most significant historical and socio-cultural factors contributing to the psychological nature and wellbeing of Mexican Americans. These factors should be understood and used to guide research and theory in order to make the discipline of psychology relevant for Mexican Americans. The concept of mestizaje is used to explain the biological and cultural mixing constituting the diverse origins of the Mexican people. Immigration to the U.S. is described in terms of selective socio-cultural variables giving rise to a diverse Mexican American culture that is resistant to complete assimilation. Within a U.S. context, the constructs of generational status, acculturation, and biculturalism are used to explain the socio-cultural adaptation of Mexican Americans. The special role of children in immigrant families as language and cultural brokers are also discussed, and used to explain the adjustment of Mexican American families.

  11. Adiponectin and leptin trajectories in Mexican-American children from birth to 9 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Volberg

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To address molecular mechanisms underlying obesity development, we examined patterns of critical metabolism-related hormones, adiponectin and leptin (adipokines, over childhood. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Plasma adiponectin and leptin were measured in 80 Mexican-American children at birth and again at 2, 5, and 9 years from the ongoing prospective cohort followed by the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS. We used a mixture modeling approach to identify patterns in adipokine trajectories from birth to 9 years. RESULTS: Leptin was positively related to child body size within all ages, however adiponectin had inverse and weaker associations with BMI at 2, 5, and 9 years. Correlations between adipokine levels over the 0-2, 2-5, and 5-9-year periods increased for both leptin (r = 0.06, 0.31 and 0.62 and adiponectin (r = 0.25, 0.41 and 0.46. Our mixture modeling approach identified three trajectory clusters for both leptin (1L [slowly-rising], 2L [rapidly-rising], and 3L [stable] and adiponectin (1A [steep-dropping and rebounding], 2A [moderately-dropping], and 3A [stable]. While leptin groups were most separated over the 2-9-year period, adiponectin trajectories displayed greatest heterogeneity from birth to 2 years. Children in the rapidly-rising 2L group had highest BMI and waist circumference at 9 years. Further, children with greater birth weight had increased odds of belonging to this high risk group (OR = 1.21 95% CI 1.03, 1.43, compared to stable group 3L. Children whose mothers consumed more sugar-sweetened beverages during pregnancy were at risk of being in the steep-dropping 1A group (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01, 1.17, compared to stable group 3A. CONCLUSION: Our results highlight developmental differences in leptin and adiponectin over the childhood period. Leptin closely reflects child body size however factors affecting adiponectin and long-term consequences of its changes over infancy need to

  12. Transmission of Cultural Values among Mexican American Parents and their Adolescent and Emerging Adult Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths’ adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents’ and two offspring’s cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers’ values were associated with increases in youths’ values five years later. In contrast, youths’ familism values were associated with increases in fathers’ familism values five years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant-status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support are crucial. PMID:25470657

  13. Demographics of African-American vs. European-Heritage Mothers of Newborns with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.

    2008-01-01

    Although important for public health policy, ethnic/racial disparities have rarely been examined among families of young children with Down syndrome. This study compared 144 African-American mothers with 726 European-heritage mothers of newborns with Down syndrome using official birth records in one American state from 1990 through 2002; outcome…

  14. Decreased Mexican and Central American labor migration to the United States in the context of the crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Luis Hernández Suárez

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the migration of Mexican and Central American workers to the United States, based on the theory of imperialism and underdevelopment, especially as regards the absolute surplus...

  15. Household food insecurity and dietary intake among Mexican-American women participating in federal food assistance programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study explored the association between food insecurity and dietary intake among Mexican-American women after controlling for sociocultural and economic factors including participation in federal food assistance programs. A cross-sectional design was used. Demographics, anthropometrics, accultur...

  16. Perceived Social Support Trajectories and the All-Cause Mortality Risk of Older Mexican American Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Terrence D; Uchino, Bert N; Eckhardt, Jessica L; Angel, Jacqueline L

    2016-04-01

    Although numerous studies of non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks show that social integration and social support tend to favor longevity, it is unclear whether this general pattern extends to the Mexican American population. Building on previous research, we employed seven waves of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to examine the association between perceived social support trajectories and the all-cause mortality risk of older Mexican Americans. Growth mixture estimates revealed three latent classes of support trajectories: high, moderate, and low. Cox regression estimates indicated that older Mexican American men in the low support trajectory tend to exhibit a higher mortality risk than their counterparts in the high support trajectory. Social support trajectories were unrelated to the mortality risk of older Mexican American women. A statistically significant interaction term confirmed that social support was more strongly associated with the mortality risk of men.

  17. Ethnic identity development and ethnic discrimination: examining longitudinal associations with adjustment for Mexican-origin adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Russell B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2013-10-01

    Few studies examine normative developmental processes among teenage mothers. Framed from a risk and resilience perspective, this prospective study examined the potential for ethnic identity status (e.g., diffuse, achieved), a normative developmental task during adolescence, to buffer the detrimental effects of discrimination on later adjustment and self-esteem in a sample of 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers. Ethnic discrimination was associated with increases in depressive symptoms and decreases in self-esteem over time, regardless of ethnic identity status. However, ethnic discrimination was only associated with increases in engagement in risky behavior among diffuse adolescents, suggesting that achieved or foreclosed identities buffered the risk of ethnic discrimination on later risky behavior. Findings suggest that ethnic identity resolution (i.e., the component shared by those in foreclosed and achieved statuses) may be a key cultural factor to include in prevention and intervention efforts aimed to reduce the negative effects of ethnic discrimination on later externalizing problems.

  18. Fear of Falling in Older Mexican Americans: A Longitudinal Study of Incidence and Predictive Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierking, Leah; Markides, Kyriakos; Al Snih, Soham; Kristen Peek, M

    2016-12-01

    To determine predictors of fear of falling in older Mexican Americans over time. Longitudinal study. Community-dwelling residents throughout California, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas. Community-dwelling Mexican Americans aged 72 and older participating in the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly from 2000-01 to 2010-11 (N = 1,682). Fear of falling was measured at baseline and at each subsequent wave. Baseline demographic and clinical variables included social support, fall history, depression symptoms, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, activity of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) limitations, and chronic health conditions. Nine hundred fifty three (56.7%) subjects reported fear of falling at baseline, 262 of whom reported severe fear of falling. The predictors of reporting any fear of falling over time included female sex, frequent familial interaction, depression, chronic health conditions, IADL limitations, higher MMSE score, and three or more falls in the last 12 months. Predictors of severe fear of falling included older age, female sex, married, depressive symptoms, chronic health conditions, IADL limitations, higher MMSE score, and fall history. Protective factors included frequent friend interaction and higher levels of education. Fear of falling is prevalent in older Mexican-American adults. The presence of friends nearby was shown to be protective against, whereas the presence of family nearby was shown to be predictive of fear of falling. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Novel Somatic Copy Number Alteration Identified for Cervical Cancer in the Mexican American Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Torabi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer affects millions of Americans, but the rate for cervical cancer in the Mexican American is approximately twice that for non-Mexican Americans. The etiologies of cervical cancer are still not fully understood. A number of somatic mutations, including several copy number alterations (CNAs, have been identified in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinomas in non-Mexican Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate CNAs in association with cervical cancer in the Mexican American population. We conducted a pilot study of genome-wide CNA analysis using 2.5 million markers in four diagnostic groups: reference (n = 125, low grade dysplasia (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN-I, n = 4, high grade dysplasia (CIN-II and -III, n = 5 and invasive carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, n = 5 followed by data analyses using Partek. We observed a statistically-significant difference of CNA burden between case and reference groups of different sizes (>100 kb, 10–100 kb and 1–10 kb of CNAs that included deletions and amplifications, e.g., a statistically-significant difference of >100 kb deletions was observed between the reference (6.6% and pre-cancer and cancer (91.3% groups. Recurrent aberrations of 98 CNA regions were also identified in cases only. However, none of the CNAs have an impact on cancer progression. A total of 32 CNA regions identified contained tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. Moreover, the pathway analysis revealed endometrial cancer and estrogen signaling pathways associated with this cancer (p < 0.05 using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG. This is the first report of CNAs identified for cervical cancer in the U.S. Latino population using high density markers. We are aware of the small sample size in the study. Thus, additional studies with a larger sample are needed to confirm the current findings.

  20. Multidimensional self-esteem and alcohol use among Mexican American and White non-Latino adolescents: concurrent and prospective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaim, Randall C; Wayman, Jeffrey C

    2004-10-01

    Self-esteem was evaluated among Mexican American and White non-Latino adolescents. Three dimensions of self-esteem-(a) self-confidence, (b) competence, and (c) social acceptance-were assessed for concurrent and longitudinal relationships to alcohol use. Various concurrent relationships were found between dimensions of self-esteem and alcohol use. Only 1 prospective effect was found, among Mexican American female adolescents, indicating that prior poor self-confidence predicts higher levels of alcohol use.

  1. Intimate Partner Violence in Mexican-American Women with Disabilities: A Secondary Data Analysis of Cross-Language Research

    OpenAIRE

    Divin, Chris; Volker, Deborah L.; Harrison, Tracie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative descriptive study, guided by Antonovosky’s Salutogenic model, was to explore the manifestations of strength within the interviews of Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women aging with mobility impairments who also experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV events gleaned from 26 audiotaped interviews from 7 Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women, who ranged in age from 55–75, constituted the sample for this secondary analysis. Five categories were identified...

  2. Mexican American Adolescents’ Gender Role Attitude Development: The Role of Adolescents’ Gender and Nativity and Parents’ Gender Role Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; McHale, Susan M.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A.

    2014-01-01

    Gender development has long term implications for education and career endeavors and family formation behaviors, but we know very little about the role of sociocultural factors in developmental and individual differences. In this study, we investigated one domain of gender development, gender role attitudes, in Mexican American adolescents (N = 246; 51% female), using four phases of longitudinal data across eight years. Data were collected when adolescents averaged 12.51 years (SD = 0.58), 14.64 years (SD = 0.59), 17.72 years (SD = 0.57), and 19.60 years of age (SD = 0.66). Mothers’ and fathers’ gender role attitudes also were assessed in Phases 1, 3, and 4. Findings revealed that gender attitude development varied as a function of the interaction between adolescents’ nativity and gender. Among Mexico-born adolescents, females exhibited significant declines in traditional attitudes from early to late adolescence, but males’ attitudes were stable over time. U.S.-born females and males, in contrast, did not differ in their gender attitude trajectories. Examining the links between mothers’, fathers’, and adolescents’ gender role attitudes revealed within-person associations between mothers’ and adolescents’ gender role attitudes: on occasions when mothers reported more traditional attitudes relative to their own cross-time average, adolescents also reported more traditional attitudes than usual. In addition, fathers’ more traditional gender role attitudes were associated with daughters’, but not sons’, more traditional gender role attitudes at the between-person level. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of Mexican American adolescents’ gender role attitude development from a cultural ecological perspective. PMID:24777649

  3. Acculturative stress, social support, and coping: relations to psychological adjustment among Mexican American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Lisa J; Iturbide, Maria I; Torres Stone, Rosalie A; McGinley, Meredith; Raffaelli, Marcela; Carlo, Gustavo

    2007-10-01

    This study examined the relations between acculturative stress and psychological functioning, as well as the protective role of social support and coping style, in a sample of 148 Mexican American college students (67% female, 33% male; mean age = 23.05 years, SD = 3.33). In bivariate analyses, acculturative stress was associated with higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Moreover, active coping was associated with better adjustment (lower depression), whereas avoidant coping predicted poorer adjustment (higher levels of depression and anxiety). Tests of interaction effects indicated that parental support and active coping buffered the effects of high acculturative stress on anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms. In addition, peer support moderated the relation between acculturative stress and anxiety symptoms. Implications for reducing the effects of acculturative stress among Mexican American college students are discussed.

  4. The relation of hypertension to changes in ADL/IADL limitations of Mexican american older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskie, Grace I L; Sutton, Maryann C; Margrett, Jennifer A

    2010-05-01

    Hypertension, highly prevalent and often undiagnosed among older Mexican Americans, is associated with greater limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) that can lead to greater dependency for older adults. Using data from the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly study, the rate of increase in ADL/IADL limitations for a 7-year period was examined for 3,046 older Mexican Americans classified either as reporting hypertension at baseline, first reporting hypertension at subsequent waves, or never reporting hypertension. Latent growth models indicated increased ADL/IADL limitations over time; individuals with hypertension evidenced greater increases than those without hypertension. Age, comorbidities, and depression were positively related to greater ADL/IADL limitations at baseline for all groups; only age was consistently related to ADL/IADL change over time. Development of hypertension may increase the risk of ADL/IADL decline, but early diagnosis and treatment may attenuate this effect.

  5. Gender Roles, Externalizing Behaviors, and Substance Use Among Mexican-American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    KULIS, STEPHEN; MARSIGLIA, FLAVIO F.; NAGOSHI, JULIE L.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 60 male and 91 female Mexican-American adolescents (age 13–18) were administered measures of positive (i.e., assertive masculinity, affective femininity) and negative (i.e., aggressive masculinity, submissive femininity) gender roles, internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors, peer substance use, and own substance use (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana). Negative gender roles were significantly correlated with internalizing and externalizing problems for both boys and girls, with aggressive masculinity also predicting peer substance use for both genders. Assertive masculinity significantly predicted lower alcohol use in boys, and this effect was not mediated by internalizing problems, externalizing problems, or peer substance use. Negative gender roles significantly predicted higher alcohol use in girls, but this effect was almost completely mediated by internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and peer substance use. Results are discussed in terms of gender role socialization among Mexican Americans. PMID:21031145

  6. The theory of planned behavior: predicting physical activity in Mexican American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J; Oliver, Kimberly; McCaughtry, Nate

    2007-04-01

    Theoretically grounded research on the determinants of Mexican American children's physical activity and related psychosocial variables is scarce. Thus, the purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict Mexican American children's self-reported moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Children (N = 475, ages 9-12) completed questionnaires assessing the TPB constructs and MVPA. Multiple regression analyses provided moderate support for the ability of the TPB variables to predict MVPA as we accounted for between 8-9% of the variance in MVPA. Attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control accounted for 45% of the variance in intention. Descriptive results were encouraging because mean values indicated that most children had positive attitudes, moderately strong intentions, felt in control, and perceived support from significant others (i.e., physical education teachers) for their physical activity engagement.

  7. Global economic restructuring and international migration: some observations based on the Mexican and Central American experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, N; Chinchilla, N S

    1996-01-01

    "The purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between processes of global economic restructuring and international migration through an examination of Mexican and Central American immigration to the U.S. and the experiences of Central American and Mexican immigrants in the U.S. This relationship is analysed as one of mutual causation: on the one hand, global restructuring affects conditions in both sending and receiving countries (it is not only a factor in emigration but also in the economic and political receptivity to immigrants at their point of destination); on the other, international migration in turn has an important impact on countries of origin, receiving countries, and the relationship between them." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  8. 美籍华人母亲的美国梦--评《喜福会》中母亲的幻想破灭%Chinese-American mothers' American dreams -- On mothers' illusion and disillusion in the Joy luck club

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彤; 梁东妮

    2004-01-01

    The Joy Luck Club centers on Chinese-American mothers' American dreams and shows readers how Chinese-Americans, especially the youth, live a life while confronting the contradictions of a weak motherland culture and a strong American culture through depicting four Chinese-American mothers' illusion and disillusion.

  9. Premarital Cohabitation and the Risk of Marital Disruption among White, Black, and Mexican American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Julie A; Sweeney, Megan M.

    2003-01-01

    We use data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth to investigate racial and ethnic differences in risk factors for marital disruption, with a particular emphasis on premarital cohabitation. Our analysis expands upon the array of risk factors considered in prior investigations of racial and ethnic differences in disruption and is among the first to systematically examine marital disruption among recent cohorts of Mexican American women. We find that the nature and strength of the esti...

  10. Mexican American Adolescents’ Family Caregiving: Selection Effects and Longitudinal Associations With Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    East, Patricia L.; Weisner, Thomas S

    2009-01-01

    One hundred ten Mexican American adolescents (12 – 17 years) who provide infant care for their older sisters were studied to determine the effects of family caregiving responsibilities on adolescents’ adjustment. Controlling for prior adjustment and family context factors, providing many hours of caregiving predicted an increase in youths’ school absences and disciplinary problems. Frequent conflict surrounding caregiving was associated with increased stress and depression and lower school gr...

  11. Frailty and health related quality of life in older Mexican Americans

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous research on frailty in older adults has focused on morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to elicit the relationship between being non-frail, pre-frail, or frail and health related quality of life in a representative sample of older Mexican Americans surveyed in 2005–2006. Methods Data were from a representative subsample of the Hispanic Established Populations Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) and included 1008 older adults living in th...

  12. Sleep apnea risk among Mexican American and non-Hispanic white stroke survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Lesli E.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Burgin, William; Brown, Devin L.

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Sleep apnea is a modifiable independent stroke risk factor and is associated with poor stroke outcomes. Mexican Americans have a higher incidence of stroke than non-Hispanic whites. In a biethnic community, we sought to determine the frequency of screening, testing and treatment of sleep apnea among stroke survivors, and to compare self-perceived risk of sleep apnea with actual risk. Methods A survey was mailed to ischemic stroke survivors in the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project. The survey included the validated sleep apnea screening tool, the Berlin questionnaire, and queried the frequency of sleep apnea screening by symptoms, formal sleep testing, and treatment. Self-perceived risk and actual high risk of sleep apnea were compared using McNemar’s test. Results Of the 193 respondents (49% response rate), 54% were Mexican American. Forty-eight percent of respondents had a high risk of sleep apnea based on the Berlin questionnaire, while only 19% thought they were likely to have sleep apnea (p<0.01). There was no difference in proportion of respondents at high risk of sleep apnea between Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites (48% vs. 51%, p=0.73). Less than 20% of respondents had undergone sleep apnea screening, testing or treatment. Conclusions Stroke survivors perceive their risk of sleep apnea to be lower than their actual risk. Despite a significant proportion of both Mexican American and non-Hispanic white stroke survivors at high risk of sleep apnea, few undergo symptom screening, testing or treatment. Both stroke survivors and physicians may benefit from educational interventions. PMID:22156693

  13. Sleep in Mexican American Adolescents: Social Ecological and Well-Being Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    McHale, Susan M.; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kan, Marni; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    A burgeoning body of research documents links between sleep and adjustment in adolescence, but little is known about the role of the social ecology in promoting healthful sleeping habits. This study was aimed at identifying the socio-cultural correlates of adolescents’ sleep, including average nighttime sleep duration, average daytime napping, and night-to-night variability in sleep duration and assessing the links between these dimensions of sleep and adjustment in Mexican American youth. Pa...

  14. Evaluation of the spoken knowledge in low literacy in diabetes scale for use with Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alexandra A; Zuniga, Julie; Reynolds, Raquel; Cairampoma, Laura; Sumlin, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    This article evaluates the Spoken Knowledge in Low Literacy in Diabetes (SKILLD) questionnaire, a measure of essential knowledge for type 2 diabetes self-management, after it was modified for English- and Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans. We collected surveys (SKILLD, demographic, acculturation) and blood for A1C analysis from 72 community-recruited participants to analyze the SKILLD's internal consistency, interrater reliability, item analysis, and construct validity. Clinical experts evaluated content validity. The SKILLD demonstrated low internal consistency but high interrater reliability and content and construct validity. There were significant correlations in expected directions between SKILLD scores and acculturation, education, and A1C and significant differences in SKILLD scores between and within groups after an educational intervention and between high- and low-acculturated participants. The SKILLD generates useful information about Mexican Americans' diabetes knowledge. Lower SKILLD scores suggest less diabetes knowledge, lower health literacy, and participants' difficulties understanding items. Further modifications should improve use with low-acculturated Mexican Americans. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Acculturation, childhood trauma and the cortisol awakening response in Mexican-American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Deborah; Wand, Gary; Javors, Martin; Mintz, James

    2010-09-01

    Exposure to chronic and traumatic stress has been associated with the dysregulation of crucial stress response systems. Acculturation has been associated with unique forms of chronic psychosocial stress. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to early traumatic stress and acculturation on dysregulation of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in Mexican-American adults. Salivary cortisol samples were collected at awakening and 30, 45, and 60 min thereafter, on two consecutive weekdays from 59 healthy Mexican-American adult males (26) and females (33), ages 18-38 years. Participants were assessed for level of acculturation and exposure to early trauma. Data were analyzed using a mixed effects regression model with repeated measures at four time points. Mixed effects regression results indicated a significant Early Trauma x Time interaction (p=.0029) and a significant Acculturation x Time interaction (p=.0015), after controlling for age and sex. Subsequent analyses of the interaction of Trauma x Acculturation x Time showed that more than minimal exposure to either risk factor was associated with attenuation of the awakening cortisol response (p=.0002). Higher levels of acculturation with greater Anglo-orientation were associated with attenuation of the CAR in Mexican-American adults. Both moderate and higher levels of exposure to early trauma were associated with an attenuated CAR. However, greater exposure to both risk factors was only incrementally worse than exposure to either one.

  16. Perceived Discrimination, Peer Influence and Sexual Behaviors in Mexican American Preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Delida; Whittaker, Tiffany A; Hamilton, Emma

    2016-05-01

    Both discrimination and sexual health disparities have significant negative health implications for Latina/o preadolescent youth, including negative mental health outcomes, STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy, and ongoing poverty. Studying these links within this population, therefore, has significant public health relevance, both in terms of promoting sexual health in general as well as serving the specific needs of Latina/o youth. This study explored the relationship between perceived discrimination, peer influence and sexual behaviors among 438 Mexican American preadolescents in the Southwest United States (55.3 % male). Additionally, this study examined whether psychological distress, substance use, and sexual motives mediated and whether gender moderated these relations. A multiple-group path analysis of the analytical model was performed to examine the hypothesized relations between perceived discrimination, peer influence, psychological distress, substance use, sexual motives and sexual behaviors. The findings indicated that perceived discrimination was directly linked to sexual behaviors among participants and indirectly linked via substance use. The findings also indicated that peer influence was indirectly linked to sexual behaviors via substance use among participants and via sexual motives among boys. This study underscores the importance of substance use in the perceived discrimination, peer influence and sexual behavior link in Mexican American preadolescents. Additionally, it highlights the importance of sexual motives in the link between peer influence and sexual behaviors of Mexican American boys.

  17. Ethnic identity and risky health behaviors in school-age Mexican-American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Ashley S; Yin, Zenong; Codina, Edward; Zapata, Jesse T

    2006-06-01

    The study examined the relationship between ethnic identity and risky health behaviors in 1,892 Mexican-American students (M age= 14.6, SD= 1.35; 50.3% male) in South Texas. The Ethnic Identity Scale assessed ethnic identity and questions from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey measured risky health behaviors (mixed use of alcohol and drugs, heavy drinking, driving under the influence, regular marijuana use, regular cigarette smoking, lack of regular exercise, not eating breakfast regularly, and carrying a gun or knife to school). Logistic regression tested the relationships between ethnic identity and report of risky health behaviors controlling for potential confounders (sex, free school lunch status, grade, and self-reported school grade). Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and confidence intervals were calculated. Results indicated that being associated with Mexican-American cultural identity was significantly associated with a decreased mixed use of alcohol and drugs (AOR= .97), heavy drinking (AOR= .98), and regular marijuana use (AOR= .97). A stronger ethnic identity was protective against engaging in risky health behaviors among these Mexican-American adolescents.

  18. Filling Gaps in the Acculturation Gap-Distress Model: Heritage Cultural Maintenance and Adjustment in Mexican-American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Yuen, Cynthia; Gonzales, Nancy; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    The acculturation gap-distress model purports that immigrant children acculturate faster than do their parents, resulting in an acculturation gap that leads to family and youth maladjustment. However, empirical support for the acculturation gap-distress model has been inconclusive. In the current study, 428 Mexican-American adolescents (50.2 % female) and their primary caregivers independently completed questionnaires assessing their levels of American and Mexican cultural orientation, family functioning, and youth adjustment. Contrary to the acculturation gap-distress model, acculturation gaps were not associated with poorer family or youth functioning. Rather, adolescents with higher levels of Mexican cultural orientations showed positive outcomes, regardless of their parents' orientations to either American or Mexican cultures. Findings suggest that youths' heritage cultural maintenance may be most important for their adjustment.

  19. Sleep Moderates and Mediates the Relationship Between Acculturation and Depressive Symptoms in Pregnant Mexican-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L; Garcia, Esmeralda; Coussons-Read, Mary; Laudenslager, Mark L; Ross, Randal G

    2016-02-01

    Greater acculturation is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes in Mexican-American women, but the mechanisms by which acculturation influences perinatal outcomes are unclear. Pregnant acculturated Mexican-American women are more likely to engage in unhealthy prenatal behaviors relative to those less acculturated, including poor sleep. As sleep disruptions are associated with acculturation and negative perinatal outcomes, particularly maternal depression, alterations in sleep may adversely affect pregnant Mexican-American women. Sixty pregnant women of Mexican descent completed surveys about sleep, acculturation, depressive symptoms and potential protective factor of social support. Acculturation, but not social support, significantly predicted increased sleep disruptions as well as overall feeling less refreshed upon waking across pregnancy. Moderation analysis indicated that more acculturated women who took longer to fall asleep reported increased depressive symptoms. Feeling refreshed upon waking also mediated the relationship between increased acculturation and elevated maternal depressive symptoms. Acculturation and altered sleep contribute to greater risk in Mexican-American women for maternal depressive symptoms in the perinatal period. These findings have implications for prevention and treatment of maternal mental health disorders, which may adversely affect perinatal outcomes in the vulnerable Mexican-American population.

  20. Sleep moderates and mediates the relationship between acculturation and depressive symptoms in pregnant Mexican-American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L.; Garcia, Esmeralda; Coussons-Read, Mary; Laudenslager, Mark L.; Ross, Randal G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Greater acculturation is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes in Mexican-American women, but the mechanisms by which acculturation influences perinatal outcomes are unclear. Pregnant acculturated Mexican-American women are more likely to engage in unhealthy prenatal behaviors relative to those less acculturated, including poor sleep. As sleep disruptions are associated with acculturation and negative perinatal outcomes, particularly maternal depression, alterations in sleep may adversely affect pregnant Mexican-American women. Methods Sixty pregnant women of Mexican descent completed surveys about sleep, acculturation, depressive symptoms and potential protective factor of social support. Results Acculturation, but not social support, significantly predicted increased sleep disruptions as well as overall feeling less refreshed upon waking across pregnancy. Moderation analysis indicated that more acculturated women who took longer to fall asleep reported increased depressive symptoms. Feeling refreshed upon waking also mediated the relationship between increased acculturation and elevated maternal depressive symptoms. Conclusions Acculturation and altered sleep contribute to greater risk in Mexican-American women for maternal depressive symptoms in the perinatal period. These findings have implications for prevention and treatment of maternal mental health disorders, which may adversely affect perinatal outcomes in the vulnerable Mexican-American population. PMID:26728897

  1. From Political Protest to a Successful Assimilation : The Development of Mexican American Identities and Stereotypes in America Since the 1960s

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Ole Ronny

    2005-01-01

    This thesis discusses the various level of Mexican American assimilation into American society since the 1960s. some themes that are dealt with are political protest, development of stereotypes, media's increasing role in the way we perceive the Mexican American population in contemporary society.

  2. Mortality differences between elderly Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites in San Antonio, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, D V; Parra, E O; Kriehbiel, R

    1994-06-01

    To identify differences in causes of death between elderly Mexican Americans (MA) and non-Hispanic whites (NHW). Retrospective death certificate review. Elderly Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic Whites age 65 and over who died in Bexar County, Texas during 1989. Data obtained from chart review included age, sex, race/ethnicity, and cause of death. Age-adjusted and cause-specific mortality rates, odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Mexican Americans were at greater risk of dying in nine of the thirty causes of death examined. The mortality rates of MA subjects were higher than those of NHW from death caused by diabetes (OR = 3.19, CI = 2.27-4.49), renal failure (OR = 2.06, CI = 1.44-2.94), congestive heart failure (OR = 1.50, CI = 1.44-2.94), and multiple systemic diseases (OR = 2.59, CI = 1.89-3.57). Among the male subjects, MA had a greater risk than NHW of dying from myocardial infarction (OR = 1.83, CI = 1.15-2.90), coronary disease (OR = 1.37, CI = 1.07-1.75) and septicemia/pyuria (OR = 2.12, CI = 1.09-4.10). Among female subjects, MA had a greater likelihood of dying from cirrhosis (OR = 3.03, CI = 1.00-9.29). For only one of the causes of death was the risk lower among MA than NHW: MA female subjects had a lesser chance of dying from the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) than NHW females (OR = 0.36, CI = 0.18-0.72). Mexican American elders have a greater risk of dying from non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and renal failure than their NHW counterparts. Elderly MA men have a greater risk of dying from cardiovascular disease than their NHW counterparts. Mexican American women may have a greater risk of dying from cirrhosis, but a lower risk of dying from complications of COPD. Finally, death from ill defined causes, such as multiple systemic diseases, may be a major under-acknowledged cause of death among older MA.

  3. Acculturation and Eating Disorders in a Mexican American Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachelin, Fary M.; Phinney, Jean S.; Schug, Robert A.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.

    2006-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate acculturation and eating disorders by examining the role of ethnic identity and by utilizing a bidimensional perspective toward two cultures. We predicted that orientation toward European American culture and lower ethnic identity would be positively associated with eating disorders. Participants were 188 Mexican…

  4. LULAC: Mexican-American Adult Learning, Collectivism, and Social Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Brian W.

    2013-01-01

    The development of the League of United Latino American Citizens (LULAC) is often viewed as a method of cultural assimilation through adult education. However, LULAC can be viewed through a collectivist's lens wherein the members established a shared philosophy, teaching adults to mobilize and expand their cause quickly and effectively. The social…

  5. Coparenting experiences in African American families: an examination of single mothers and their nonmarital coparents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Michelle; Jones, Deborah; Parent, Justin

    2014-03-01

    African American youth from single-mother homes continue to be overrepresented in statistics on risk behavior and delinquency, a trend that many be attributed to father-absence, socioeconomic disadvantage, and compromises in parenting more typical of single than two-parent families. Yet, this risk-focused perspective ignores a long-standing strength of the African American community, the involvement and potential protective impact of extended family members in childrearing. This study describes the experiences of 95 African American single mothers and their nonmarital coparents who participated in a study of African American single-mother families with an 11-16-year-old child. Specifically, the study examines: (a) the extent to which nonmarital coparents are involved in childrearing; (b) the relative levels of risk (i.e., depression, mother-coparent conflict) and protective (i.e., parenting) associated with maternal and coparent involvement; and (c) how similarly and/or differently coparent and mother variables operate with regard to youth externalizing problems. Findings reveal that a range of family members and other adults actively participate in childrearing in African American single-mother families, coparents do not differ from mothers on certain study variables (i.e., depression and mother-coparent conflict) but do for others (parenting), and coparent involvement is associated with youth adjustment in ways that are similar to our more established understanding of maternal involvement. The potential clinical implications of the findings are discussed and future research directions are highlighted.

  6. High prevalence of angina pectoris in Mexican-American men. A population with reduced risk of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, B D; Hazuda, H P; Haffner, S M; Patterson, J K; Stern, M P

    1991-08-01

    Mexican-American men experience lower rates of cardiovascular mortality and have a lower prevalence of nonfatal myocardial infarction than do non-Hispanic white men. To see if this ethnic difference exists for other cardiovascular end points, we compared the prevalence of angina pectoris, as assessed by the Rose Angina Questionnaire, between Mexican Americans (n = 3272) and non-Hispanic whites (n = 1848) examined in the San Antonio Heart Study, a population-based survey of cardiovascular disease and diabetes conducted in San Antonio, Texas, between 1979 and 1988. Contrary to our expectations, angina prevalence was approximately twice as high in Mexican Americans as in non-Hispanic whites, with age-adjusted odds ratios of 2.01 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13 to 3.58; P = .02) in men and 1.84 (95% CI, 1.26 to 2.70; P = .001) in women. After controlling for age, body mass index, diabetes status, cigarette smoking, and educational level by logistic regression analysis, angina prevalence remained statistically associated with Mexican American ethnicity in men, but not women. There was little ethnic difference in the proportion of Mexican-American and non-Hispanic white subjects who reported nonspecific chest pain (chest pain not meeting the Rose criteria), suggesting that the ethnic difference in angina prevalence was not an artifact of reporting bias. This was further supported by the fact that the conventional cardiovascular risk factors were more strongly associated with angina prevalence in Mexican Americans than in non-Hispanic whites. These data suggest that Mexican-American men experience high rates of angina despite low rates of myocardial infarction. Future studies should investigate ethnic factors that may have differential effects on the various manifestations of coronary heart disease.

  7. Infant Feeding Practices: Perceptions of Native American Mothers and Health Paraprofessionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodynski, Mildred A; Calcatera, Mary; Carpenter, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain infant feeding practices and to explore the feasibility of an in-home feeding intervention with Native American Indian (NAI) mothers in six Native American communities in the United States (US). Design: Qualitative focus group study. Setting: Six Native American communities in the Midwest region of the United States.…

  8. Operations in California during the Mexican American War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    Moltke on the Art of War. New York, NY: Ballantine Books, 1993. Hussey, John Adam. “The Origin of the Gillespie Mission.” California Historical...after a six-month expedition originating at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. While on his expedition, tensions between the growing American immigrant...Charles Frémont, Volume 2: The Bear Flag Revolt and the Court- Martial (Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1973), 3-4; Bancroft, Volume XXII

  9. Sharing memories and telling stories: American and Chinese mothers and their 3-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Leichtman, M D; Davies, K I

    2000-05-01

    American and Chinese mothers were asked to talk with their 3-year-old children at home about two shared past events and a story (41 mother-child dyads). Results revealed between-culture variation in the content and style of mother-child conversations when sharing memories and telling stories. American mothers and children showed a high-elaborative, independently oriented conversational style in which they co-constructed their memories and stories by elaborating on each other's responses and focusing on the child's personal predilections and opinions. In contrast, Chinese Mother-child dyads employed a low-elaborative, interdependently oriented conversational style where mothers frequently posed and repeated factual questions and showed great concern with moral rules and behavioural standards with their children. Findings suggest that children's early social-linguistic environments shape autobiographical remembering and contribute to cultural differences in the age and content of earliest childhood memories.

  10. Life-Space Mobility and Cognitive Decline Among Mexican Americans Aged 75 Years and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberschmidt, Seraina; Kumar, Amit; Raji, Mukaila M; Markides, Kyriakos; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Al Snih, Soham

    2017-07-01

    To examine the association between life-space mobility and cognitive decline over a five-year period among older Mexican Americans. Longitudinal study. Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly survey conducted in the southwestern of United States (Texas, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and California). Four hundred thirty-two Mexican Americans aged 75 and older with normal or high cognitive function at baseline. Socio-demographic factors, living arrangement, type of household, social support, financial strain, self-reported medical conditions, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), depressive symptoms, activities of daily living (ADLs), and Short Physical Performance Battery. Life-space assessment (LSA) during the past 4 weeks was assessed during in-home interview. Scores ranged from 0 (daily restriction to the bedroom) to 120 (daily trips outside of their own town without assistance) and categorized as 0 to 20, 21 to 40, 41 to 60, 61 to 80, and 81 to 120. Because of the small sample size in the category of 81 to 120, the two highest categories were combined into a single group. The mean LSA score and MMSE score of participants at baseline was 44.6 (Standard Deviation [SD], 20.7) and 25.7 (SD, 3.2), respectively. Mixed Model analyses showed that participants in the highest life-space category (≥61) experienced slower rates of cognitive decline over time compared to participants in the lowest category (0 to 20) (β = 1.03, Standard Error [SE] = 0.29, P = 0.0004), after adjusting for all covariates. Greater life-space mobility at baseline was predictor of slower rates of cognitive decline over 5 years in older Mexican Americans. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Life-space mobility in Mexican Americans aged 75 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Snih, Soham; Peek, Kristen M; Sawyer, Patricia; Markides, Kyriakos S; Allman, Richard M; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2012-03-01

    To examine the factors associated with life-space mobility in older Mexican Americans. Cross-sectional study involving a population-based survey. Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly survey conducted in the southwestern of United States (Texas, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and California). Seven hundred twenty-eight Mexican-American men and women aged 75 and older. Sociodemographic factors, self-reported physician diagnoses of medical conditions (arthritis, diabetes mellitus, heart attack, stroke, hip fracture, and cancer), depressive symptoms, cognitive function, body mass index (BMI), upper and lower extremity muscle strength, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), activities of daily living (ADLs), and the life-space assessment (LSA) were assessed in in-home interviews. The mean age of participants was 84.2 ± 4.2. Sixty-five percent were female. Mean LSA score was 41.7 ± 20.9. Multiple regression analysis showed that older age, being female, limitation in ADLs, stroke, high depressive symptoms, and a BMI index of 35 kg/m(2) and greater were significantly associated with lower LSA scores. Education and better lower extremity function and muscle strength were factors significantly associated with higher LSA scores. Older Mexican Americans had restricted life-space, with approximately 80% limited to their home or neighborhood. Older age, female sex, stroke, high depressive symptoms, BMI of 35 kg/m(2) or greater, and ADL disability were related to less life-space. Future studies are needed to examine the association between life-space and health outcomes and to characterize the trajectory of life-space over time in this population. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. Intelligence of Mexican American Children: A Field Study Comparing Neo-Piagetian and Traditional Capacity and Achievement Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Avila, Edward A.; Havassy, Barbara

    Approximately 1,225 Mexican American and Anglo American children in grades 1-6 (ages 6-14) from California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas were tested using school achievement and IQ standardized tests and four Piagetian-derived measures (Cartoon Conservation Scales, Water Level Task, Figural Intersection Test, and Serial Task). The field study's…

  13. Mexican Children and American Cartoons: Foreign References in Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelio-Marí, Elia-Margarita

    2015-01-01

    This audience study explores how a group of children from Southeast Mexico, perceive the animated cartoon «Dexter’s Laboratory». The objective is to observe the ways in which a young local audience, still in the process of building its cultural identity, perceives an American television program. A qualitative approach was applied: 44 children between 8 and 11 years old participated in a series of semi-structured interviews and focus groups, which took place in a provincial city in Mexico (Vil...

  14. Perceived discrimination and ethnic affirmation: Anglo culture orientation as a moderator among mexican-origin adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Toomey, Russell B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B; Flores, Lluliana I

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether Anglo culture orientation modified the association between adolescents' perceived ethnic discrimination and ethnic identity affirmation over time in a sample of Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 205, Mage  = 16.24 years). Results indicated that perceived ethnic discrimination was significantly associated with decreases in ethnic identity affirmation over time for adolescents reporting high Anglo culture orientation, but no relation existed for adolescents reporting low Anglo culture orientation. Findings suggest that a person-environment mismatch (i.e., between adolescents' perceptions of their connection to Anglo culture and the messages they receive from others regarding that connection in terms of perceived ethnic discrimination) may be detrimental to adolescents' development of positive feelings about their ethnicity.

  15. Trajectories of Ethnic-Racial Identity and Autonomy Among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B; Zeiders, Katharine H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined trajectories of ethnic-racial identity (ERI) and autonomy development among Mexican-origin adolescent females in the United States (N = 181; M(age) at Wave 1 = 16.80 years, SD = 1.00) as they transitioned through the first 5 years of parenthood. Trajectories of ERI and autonomy also were examined in relation to psychosocial functioning. Unconditional latent growth models indicated significant growth in autonomy, ERI resolution, and ERI affirmation from middle to late adolescence. Conditional latent growth models indicated that autonomy and ERI exploration growth trajectories were positively associated with psychosocial adjustment. Although adolescent mothers are experiencing transitions that are not normative during adolescence, they also engage in normative developmental processes, and their engagement in such processes is linked with better adjustment.

  16. Theoretical Factors Affecting Parental Roles in Children's Mathematical Learning in American and Chinese-Born Mothers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jessica H Hunt; Bi Ying Hu

    2011-01-01

    ...; and (h) parent as monitor/motivator. The authors argue that similarities and differences between American and Chinese-born mothers regarding their parental roles can be explained through the context of parental views of the importance...

  17. Low-Income Central American Immigrant Mothers' Goals and Their Children's Classroom Competencies in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Nicole Marie; Harden, Brenda Jones; Gonzalez, Maritza

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Unlike other Latino groups, there is little information about the early socialization of children from Central American (CA) immigrant families. This study examined CA immigrant mothers' short-term goals and the implications of these goals for children's behavior in preschool. A total of 47 low-income mothers described their…

  18. Buffers of Racial Discrimination: Links with Depression among Rural African American Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Erica C.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines racial discrimination as a predictor of depression in a sample of 414 rural, low-income African American mothers of young children. The potential moderating role of optimism and church-based social support was also examined. Mothers completed questionnaires when their child was 24 months old. Hierarchical regression…

  19. Predictors of Coparenting Relationship Quality in African American Single Mother Families: An Ecological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrett, Emma; Jones, Deborah J.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Nonmarital coparents, or adults who assist mothers with childrearing, play a significant role in the lives of African American single mothers and their children. Yet relatively little research has examined correlates of the quality of the coparenting relationship in these families. Using a broad ecological framework, the current study examined…

  20. A Review of Childrearing in African American Single Mother Families: The Relevance of a Coparenting Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J.; Zalot, Alecia A.; Foster, Sarah E.; Sterrett, Emma; Chester, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    Clinical research on African American single mother families has focused largely on mother-child dyads, with relatively less empirical attention to the roles of other adults or family members who often assist with childrearing. This narrow definition of "family" fails to take into account the extended family networks which often provide support…

  1. Linking Perceived Discrimination to Longitudinal Changes in African American Mothers' Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Murry, Velma McBride; Logan, Patricia; Luo, Zupei

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study was designed to test hypotheses, derived from a stress proliferation framework, regarding the association between perceived racial discrimination and changes in parenting among African American mothers in the rural South. A sample of 139 mothers and their children were interviewed 3 times at 1-year intervals. Mothers…

  2. Progression to Problem Drinking Among Mexican American and White European First-Year College Students: A Multiple Group Analysis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, C. Amanda; Doran, Neal; Roesch, Scott C.; Myers, Mark G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Problem drinking during college is a well-known phenomenon. However, predictors of progression to problematic drinking, particularly among ethnic minorities such as Mexican Americans, have received limited research attention. Method: The current study compared the rates and predictors of problem drinking progression from the first to the second year of college among four groups: Mexican American men, Mexican American women, White European men, and White European women (N = 215). At baseline, participants were all first-year college students who scored as nonproblem drinkers on the Young Adult Alcohol Problems Screening Test (YAAPST). Participants were classified as progressors or stable nondrinkers/nonproblem drinkers based on YAAPST scores 12 months later. Hypothesized predictors of progression included behavioral undercontrol, negative emotionality, alcohol use expectancies, and cultural orientation (Mexican American sample only). Differences were anticipated between gender and ethnic groups in both progression rates and predictors of progression. Results: Twenty-nine percent of the sample progressed to problematic drinking; however, no differences emerged by gender or ethnicity. For the full sample, higher behavioral undercontrol and higher negative emotionality significantly predicted progression. Differences in predictors were not found across gender and ethnic subgroups. Conclusions: The hypothesis that rates of progression to problem drinking would differ among the four gender and ethnic groups was not supported. Thus, although White European men are most often identified as at high risk for alcohol use problems, the present findings indicate that women and Mexican American students also should be targeted for prevention and/or intervention. PMID:22051211

  3. CHRNA5 and CHRNA3 variants and level of neuroticism in young adult Mexican American men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, José R; Gizer, Ian R; Edenberg, Howard J; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-04-01

    A lifetime history of alcohol dependence has been associated with elevations in neuroticism in Mexican American young adults. The identification of genetic markers associated with neuroticism and their influence on the development of alcohol use disorders (AUD) may contribute to our understanding of the relationship between personality traits and the increased risk of AUD in Mexican Americans. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between neuroticism and 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the nicotinic acetylcholine (nAChR) α5-subunit (CHRNA5) and α3-subunit (CHRNA3) genes in young adult Mexican American men and women. Participants were 465 young adult Mexican American men and women who are literate in English and are residing legally in San Diego County. Each participant gave a blood sample and completed a structured diagnostic interview. Neuroticism was assessed using the Maudsley Personality Inventory. The minor alleles of four CHRNA5 polymorphisms (rs588765, rs601079, rs680244 and rs555018) and three CHRNA3 polymorphisms (rs578776, rs6495307 and rs3743078) showed associations with neuroticism. Several of these SNPs also displayed nominal associations with DSM-IV alcohol and nicotine dependence, but tests of mediation suggested that these relations could be partially explained by the presence of co-occurring neuroticism. These findings suggest that genetic variations in nicotinic receptor genes may influence the development of neuroticism, which in turn is involved in the development of AUDs and nicotine dependence in Mexican American young adults.

  4. Pubertal Timing and Mexican-Origin Girls' Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms: The Influence of Harsh Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, Julianna; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A.; White, Rebecca M. B.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wong, Jessie J.; Roosa, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Early-maturing girls are at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. Research concerning pubertal timing and mental health among Mexican Americans or the influence of parenting behaviors on these relations has been scarce. This study addressed these gaps. This was a prospective examination of 362 Mexican-origin girls and their mothers in…

  5. The Roles of Parental Inductions, Moral Emotions, and Moral Cognitions in Prosocial Tendencies among Mexican American and European American Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Gustavo; Knight, George P.; McGinley, Meredith; Hayes, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between parental inductions, sympathy, prosocial moral reasoning, and prosocial behaviors. A total of 207 early adolescents who self-identified as Mexican American (girls, n = 105; mean age = 10.91 years) and 108 who identified as European American (girls, n = 54; mean age = 11.07 years) completed measures of…

  6. Genetic Effects on DNA Methylation and Its Potential Relevance for Obesity in Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carless, Melanie A.; Kulkarni, Hemant; Kos, Mark Z.; Charlesworth, Jac; Peralta, Juan M.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Curran, Joanne E.; Almasy, Laura; Dyer, Thomas D.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Mahaney, Michael C.; Blangero, John

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have identified effects of genetic variation on DNA methylation patterns and associated heritability, with research primarily focused on Caucasian individuals. In this paper, we examine the evidence for genetic effects on DNA methylation in a Mexican American cohort, a population burdened by a high prevalence of obesity. Using an Illumina-based platform and following stringent quality control procedures, we assessed a total of 395 CpG sites in peripheral blood samples obtained from 183 Mexican American individuals for evidence of heritability, proximal genetic regulation and association with age, sex and obesity measures (i.e. waist circumference and body mass index). We identified 16 CpG sites (∼4%) that were significantly heritable after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing and 27 CpG sites (∼6.9%) that showed evidence of genetic effects. Six CpG sites (∼2%) were associated with age, primarily exhibiting positive relationships, including CpG sites in two genes that have been implicated in previous genome-wide methylation studies of age (FZD9 and MYOD1). In addition, we identified significant associations between three CpG sites (∼1%) and sex, including DNA methylation in CASP6, a gene that may respond to estradiol treatment, and in HSD17B12, which encodes a sex steroid hormone. Although we did not identify any significant associations between DNA methylation and the obesity measures, several nominally significant results were observed in genes related to adipogenesis, obesity, energy homeostasis and glucose homeostasis (ARHGAP9, CDKN2A, FRZB, HOXA5, JAK3, MEST, NPY, PEG3 and SMARCB1). In conclusion, we were able to replicate several findings from previous studies in our Mexican American cohort, supporting an important role for genetic effects on DNA methylation. In addition, we found a significant influence of age and sex on DNA methylation, and report on trend-level, novel associations between DNA methylation and measures of obesity

  7. The effect of medical conditions on the functional limitations of Mexican-American elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markides, K S; Stroup-Benham, C A; Goodwin, J S; Perkowski, L C; Lichtenstein, M; Ray, L A

    1996-09-01

    We examined the relationship of self-reported functional status to common medical conditions using a probability sample of 3050 noninstitutionalized Mexican-American men and women aged 65 or older and residing in the Southwestern United States (Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas). All subjects were interviewed in person (n = 2,873) or by proxy (n = 177) in their homes during late 1993 and early 1994. The questionnaire obtained information on self-reported functional status and prevalence of arthritis, cancer, diabetes, stroke, heart attack, and hip fracture. The prevalence of medical conditions ranged from 4.1% for hip fracture to 40.8% for arthritis. Prevalence of impairments in seven activities of daily living ranged from 5.4% for eating to 11.7% for bathing, while 25.1% could not walk up and down stairs, and 28.9% could not walk a half mile without help. In multiple logistic regression analyses, previous diagnoses of stroke and hip fracture were most predictive of functional limitations, though all conditions examined (arthritis, cancer, diabetes, stroke, heart attack, and hip fracture) were independently associated with increased odds of impairment in some activities of daily living. In general, the odds for functional impairment associated with specific medical conditions were higher than those previously published for non-Hispanic white populations. The fact that Mexican-American elderly who live in the community and who have medical conditions, especially stroke and hip fracture, are at high risk for functional impairment probably reflects the low rate of institutionalization in this population and has implications for the provision of community-based long-term care services for Mexican-American elderly.

  8. Factors Contributing to Background Television Exposure in Low-Income Mexican-American Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2016-09-01

    Objective Background television (TV) exposure is harmful to young children, yet few studies have focused on predictors of exposure. This study's objectives were to elucidate demographic, environmental, and behavioral correlates of background TV exposure in low-income Mexican-American preschoolers and to explore caregiver beliefs about the impact of such exposure. Methods A convenience sample of low-income Mexican-American female primary caregivers of preschoolers (3-5 years old, n = 309), recruited in safety-net clinics, were surveyed by phone. Caregivers reported the frequency of their child's exposure to background TV and responded to questions on the home media environment, TV use, and whether they had thought about background TV exposure and its impact on their child. Results Background TV exposure was common; 43 % reported that their child was often, very often, or always exposed to background TV. More hours of TV viewing by the caregiver and greater frequency of TV viewing during meals were associated with an increased frequency of exposure to background TV. Only 49 % of participants had ever thought about the impact of background TV. Believing that background TV is not harmful was associated with higher levels of background TV exposure. Conclusions Findings suggest that background TV exposure is frequent and caregiver awareness of its potential impact is low in low-income Mexican-American families. Beliefs that background TV is not harmful may predict risk of exposure. Potential targets for interventions focused on reducing background TV exposure in this population include increasing caregiver awareness of the potential negative impact of such TV exposure.

  9. Healthy eating patterns associated with acculturation, sex and BMI among Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Belinda; Lee, MinJae; Jennings, Rose; Evans, Alexandra; Vidoni, Michelle

    2017-05-01

    Examine relationships of healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns with BMI, sex, age and acculturation among Mexican Americans. Cross-sectional. Participants completed culturally tailored Healthy and Unhealthy Eating Indices. Multivariable mixed-effect Poisson regression models compared food pattern index scores and dietary intake of specific foods by BMI, sex, age and acculturation defined by language preference and generational status. Participants recruited from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort study, Texas-Mexico border region, between 2008 and 2011. Mexican-American males and females aged 18-97 years (n 1250). Participants were primarily female (55·3 %), overweight or obese (85·7 %), preferred Spanish language (68·0 %) and first-generation status (60·3 %). Among first-generation participants, bilingual participants were less likely to have a healthy eating pattern than preferred Spanish-speaking participants (rate ratio (RR)=0·79, P=0·0218). This association was also found in males (RR=0·81, P=0·0098). Preferred English-speaking females were less likely to consume healthy foods than preferred Spanish-speaking females (RR=0·84, P=0·0293). Among second-generation participants, preferred English-speaking participants were more likely to report a higher unhealthy eating pattern than preferred Spanish-speaking participants (RR=1·23, P=0·0114). Higher unhealthy eating patterns were also found in females who preferred English v. females who preferred Spanish (RR=1·23, P=0·0107) or were bilingual (RR=1·26, P=0·0159). Younger, male participants were more likely to have a higher unhealthy eating pattern. BMI and diabetes status were not significantly associated with healthy or unhealthy eating patterns. Acculturation, age, sex and education are associated with healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns. Nutrition interventions for Mexican Americans should tailor approaches by these characteristics.

  10. Genetic effects on DNA methylation and its potential relevance for obesity in Mexican Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A Carless

    Full Text Available Several studies have identified effects of genetic variation on DNA methylation patterns and associated heritability, with research primarily focused on Caucasian individuals. In this paper, we examine the evidence for genetic effects on DNA methylation in a Mexican American cohort, a population burdened by a high prevalence of obesity. Using an Illumina-based platform and following stringent quality control procedures, we assessed a total of 395 CpG sites in peripheral blood samples obtained from 183 Mexican American individuals for evidence of heritability, proximal genetic regulation and association with age, sex and obesity measures (i.e. waist circumference and body mass index. We identified 16 CpG sites (~4% that were significantly heritable after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing and 27 CpG sites (~6.9% that showed evidence of genetic effects. Six CpG sites (~2% were associated with age, primarily exhibiting positive relationships, including CpG sites in two genes that have been implicated in previous genome-wide methylation studies of age (FZD9 and MYOD1. In addition, we identified significant associations between three CpG sites (~1% and sex, including DNA methylation in CASP6, a gene that may respond to estradiol treatment, and in HSD17B12, which encodes a sex steroid hormone. Although we did not identify any significant associations between DNA methylation and the obesity measures, several nominally significant results were observed in genes related to adipogenesis, obesity, energy homeostasis and glucose homeostasis (ARHGAP9, CDKN2A, FRZB, HOXA5, JAK3, MEST, NPY, PEG3 and SMARCB1. In conclusion, we were able to replicate several findings from previous studies in our Mexican American cohort, supporting an important role for genetic effects on DNA methylation. In addition, we found a significant influence of age and sex on DNA methylation, and report on trend-level, novel associations between DNA methylation and measures of

  11. Mobility limitations and fear of falling in non-English speaking older Mexican-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Eric G; Conatser, Phillip; Karabulut, Murat; Leveille, Suzanne G; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Cote, Sarah; Tucker, Katherine L; Barton, Bruce; Bean, Jonathan F; Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos S

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether older Mexican-Americans who cannot speak and/or understand spoken English have higher rates of mobility limitations or fear of falling than their English-speaking counterparts. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 1169 community-dwelling Mexican-Americans aged 72-96 years from the 2000-2001 wave of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly. Mobility limitations were defined as having a Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9, and fear of falling by participant report of being somewhat, fairly, or very afraid of falling. We determined the rates and odds ratios, for having mobility limitations and fear of falling as a function of English ability in those who were 72-96, English 85.7% had mobility limitations and 61.6% were afraid of falling, compared to 77.6% and 57.5%, respectively, of English speakers. Before adjusting for covariates, participants who did not speak and/or understand spoken English were more likely to have mobility limitations (odds ratio: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.4) but not fear of falling, compared to English speakers. Among those aged ≥80 years, but not those English were more likely to have mobility limitations (odds ratio: 4.8; 95% CI:2.0-11.5) and fear of falling (odds ratio: 2.0; 95% CI:1.3-3.1). Older Mexican-Americans who do not speak or understand spoken English have a higher rate of mobility limitations and fear of falling than their English-speaking counterparts.

  12. Egg Intake and Dietary Quality among Overweight and Obese Mexican-American Postpartum Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Vega-López

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite their low cost and high nutrient density, the contribution of eggs to nutrient intake and dietary quality among Mexican-American postpartum women has not been evaluated. Nutrient intake and dietary quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010, were measured in habitually sedentary overweight/obese (body mass index (BMI = 29.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2 Mexican-American postpartum women (28 ± 6 years and compared between egg consumers (n = 82; any egg intake reported in at least one of three 24-h dietary recalls and non-consumers (n = 57. Egg consumers had greater intake of energy (+808 kJ (193 kcal or 14%; p = 0.033, protein (+9 g or 17%; p = 0.031, total fat (+9 g or 19%; p = 0.039, monounsaturated fat (+4 g or 24%; p = 0.020, and several micronutrients than non-consumers. Regarding HEI-2010 scores, egg consumers had a greater total protein foods score than non-consumers (4.7 ± 0.7 vs. 4.3 ± 1.0; p = 0.004, and trends for greater total fruit (2.4 ± 1.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.7; p = 0.070 and the total composite HEI-2010 score (56.4 ± 12.6 vs. 52.3 ± 14.4; p = 0.082. Findings suggest that egg intake could contribute to greater nutrient intake and improved dietary quality among postpartum Mexican-American women. Because of greater energy intake among egg consumers, recommendations for overweight/obese individuals should include avoiding excessive energy intake and incorporating eggs to a nutrient-dense, fiber-rich dietary pattern.

  13. Role of physical activity in reducing cognitive decline in older Mexican-American adults.

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    Ottenbacher, Allison J; Snih, Soham Al; Bindawas, Saad M; Markides, Kyriakos S; Graham, James E; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Raji, Mukaila; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2014-09-01

    The effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults from minority and disadvantaged populations is not well understood. This study examined the longitudinal association between physical activity and cognition in older Mexican Americans. The study methodology included a prospective cohort with longitudinal analysis of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly. General linear mixed models were used to assess the associations and interactions between physical activity and cognitive function over 14 years. Community-based assessments were performed in participants' homes. Physical activity was recorded for 1,669 older Mexican Americans using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly. Cognition was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and separated into memory and nonmemory components. A statistically significant positive association was observed between levels of physical activity and cognitive function after adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, and comorbid health conditions. There was a statistically significant difference in MMSE scores over time between participants in the third (β = 0.11, standard error (SE) = 0.05) and fourth (β = 0.10, SE = 0.2) quartiles of physical activity and those in the first. The protective effect of physical activity on cognitive decline was evident for the memory component of the MMSE but not the nonmemory component after adjusting for covariates. Greater physical activity at baseline was associated with less cognitive decline over 14 years in older Mexican Americans. The reduction in cognitive decline appeared to be related to the memory components of cognitive function.

  14. Does 8-foot walk time predict cognitive decline in older Mexicans Americans?

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    Alfaro-Acha, Ana; Al Snih, Soham; Raji, Mukaila A; Markides, Kyriakos S; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2007-02-01

    To examine the association between 8-foot time walk and change in cognitive function over time in older Mexican Americans. Data used are from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (1993-2001). Five southwestern states: Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and California. Two thousand seventy noninstitutionalized Mexican-American men and women aged 65 and older who had a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 21 or greater at baseline. Sociodemographic factors (age, sex, education, marital status), MMSE score, 8-foot walk time, body mass index, medical conditions (stroke, heart attack, diabetes mellitus, depression, and hypertension), and near and distant visual impairment. Using general linear mixed models, it was found that subjects with the slowest 8-foot walk time had a significantly greater rate of cognitive decline over 7 years than subjects with the fastest 8-foot walk time. There was a significant 8-foot walk time-by-time interaction with MMSE scores. Subjects in the lowest 8-foot walk time quartile had a greater cognitive decline over 7 years (estimate=-0.32, SE=0.08; PMexican-American adults without cognitive impairment at baseline was an independent predictor of MMSE score decline over a 7-year period. Slow 8-foot walk time may be an early marker for older adults in a predementia state who may benefit from early-intervention programs to prevent or slow cognitive decline.

  15. Housing and neighborhood quality among undocumented Mexican and Central American immigrants.

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    Hall, Matthew; Greenman, Emily

    2013-11-01

    Extensive research has documented the challenges that undocumented immigrants face in navigating U.S. labor markets, but relatively little has explored the impact of legal status on residential outcomes despite their widespread repercussions for social well-being. Using data from the 1996-2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation to impute documentation status among Mexican and Central American immigrants, we examine group differences in residential outcomes, including homeownership, housing crowding, satisfaction with neighborhood and housing quality, problems with neighborhood crime/safety, governmental services, and environmental issues, and deficiencies with housing units. Results from our analysis indicate that undocumented householders are far less likely to be homeowners than documented migrants, and also live in more crowded homes, report greater structural deficiencies with their dwellings, and express greater concern about the quality of public services and environmental conditions in their neighborhoods. In comparison to native whites, undocumented migrants' residential circumstances are lacking, but their residential outcomes tend to be superior to those of native-born blacks. Overall, our results highlight the pervasive impact of legal status on stratifying Mexicans' and Central Americans' prospects for successful incorporation, but also underscore the rigidity of the black/nonblack divide structuring American residential contexts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A weight-loss intervention program designed for Mexican-American women: Cultural adaptations and results

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    Lindberg, Nangel M.; Stevens, Victor J.; Vega-López, Sonia; Kauffman, Tia; Calderón, Mariana Rosales; Cervantes, María Antonieta

    2013-01-01

    Background This study assessed the feasibility of a culturally-appropriate weight-loss intervention targeting obese Spanish-speaking Mexican women. Methods This 12-month weight-loss program was based on behavioral interventions previously used successfully with English-speaking participants. Cultural adaptations included: female interventionists, minimal written materials, emphasis on group activities, focus on Mexican traditions and beliefs, and skill-building approach to food measurement. All sessions were conducted in Spanish. The study had few exclusionary criteria, which allowed participation of women with a wide range of literacy levels. Results Recruitment exceeded expectations, with 47 participants enrolling in the program. Not counting participants who became pregnant during the study, attendance at 6 and 12 months was 62% and 50% respectively. Mean weight loss at 6 and 12 months was 5.3 kg and 7.2 kg, respectively, with a mean reduction in BMI of 4.0 kg/m2 and 5.5 kg/m2 from baseline to 6 and 12 months, respectively. Discussion This pilot study shows that it is feasible to develop and implement culturally-appropriate behavioral lifestyle interventions for obesity treatment in Mexican-American women. PMID:22460538

  17. Characteristic time scales in the American dollar-Mexican peso exchange currency market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose

    2002-06-01

    Daily fluctuations of the American dollar-Mexican peso exchange currency market are studied using multifractal analysis methods. It is found evidence of multiaffinity of daily fluctuations in the sense that the qth-order (roughness) Hurst exponent Hq varies with changes in q. It is also found that there exist several characteristic time scales ranging from week to year. Accordingly, the market exhibits persistence in the sense that instabilities introduced by market events acting around the characteristic time scales (mainly, quarter and year) would propagate through the future market activity. Some implications of our results on the regulation of the dollar-mexpeso market activity are discussed.

  18. "El lado oscuro": "the dark side" of social capital in Mexican American heroin using men.

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    Flores, David V; Torres, Luis R; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Ren, Yi; Haider, Ali; Bordnick, Patrick S

    2013-01-01

    This article describes social capital in a cohort of 227 Mexican American men who are long-term injection heroin users. Social capital scores for current and former users were similar, suggesting equal absolute values of capital, but associated with illicit activities in current users and with cessation efforts in former users. Stable drug-using relationships provided high negative capital, whereas conventional relationships provided positive capital. Thus, social capital functions dichotomously in positive and negative contextualized roles. This study provides an alternative understanding of the dynamic interactions between individuals, environment, and drug abuse and can inform prevention and treatment interventions for an important demographic group.

  19. Husband's level of drinking and egalitarianism in Mexican-American families.

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    Alaniz, M L

    1996-05-01

    This study examines the relationship between husband's level of drinking and his participation in traditionally defined female household duties. A quantity/frequency index of alcohol consumption was used to compare husband's drinking level with participation in child care, household cleaning, buying groceries, and cooking as a measure of egalitarianism in Mexican-American family households. Results show that husbands who abstain from alcohol participate in two of the household duties, cleaning and cooking, at significantly higher levels than either infrequent or frequent drinkers.

  20. Mexican and Central-American Contributions to the Study of the Civil War: Two Historical Traditions

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    Jorge de HOYOS PUENTE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the historiography about the Spanish Civil War from Mexico and Central America. The result is quite different from the point of view of the interest raised by the Spanish conflict. This is can be explained by the different levels of involvement of the Mexican and Central American authorities in the war. However, the importance of the Republican exile in Mexico and its relative insignificance in Central America is also a contributing factor. The present day interest in the civil war is still based on that involvement and not of the evolution of the conflict.

  1. The Acculturation of Parenting Cognitions: A Comparison of South Korean, Korean Immigrant, and European American Mothers.

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    Cote, Linda R; Kwak, Keumjoo; Putnick, Diane L; Chung, Hyun Jin; Bornstein, Marc H

    2015-10-01

    A three-culture comparison - native South Korean, Korean immigrants to the United States, and native European American mothers - of two types of parenting cognitions - attributions and self-perceptions - was undertaken to explore cultural contributions to parenting cognitions and their adaptability among immigrant mothers. Attributions and self-perceptions of parenting were chosen because they influence parenting behavior and children's development and vary cross-culturally. One hundred seventy-nine mothers of 20-month-old children participated: 73 South Korean, 50 Korean immigrant, and 56 European American. Korean mothers differed from European American mothers on four of the five types of attributions studied and on all four self-perceptions of parenting, and these differences were largely consistent with the distinct cultural values of South Korea and the United States. Generally, Korean immigrant mothers' attributions for parenting more closely resembled those of mothers in the United States, whereas their self-perceptions of parenting more closely resembled those of mothers in South Korea. This study provides insight into similarities and differences in cultural models of parenting, and information about the acculturation of parenting cognitions among immigrants from South Korea.

  2. How does violence exposure affect the psychological health and parenting of young African-American mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephanie J; Lewin, Amy; Horn, Ivor B; Valentine, Dawn; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy; Joseph, Jill G

    2010-02-01

    Urban, minority, adolescent mothers are particularly vulnerable to violence exposure, which may increase their children's developmental risk through maternal depression and negative parenting. The current study tests a conceptual model of the effects of community and contextual violence exposure on the mental health and parenting of young, African-American mothers living in Washington, DC. A path analysis revealed significant direct effects of witnessed and experienced violence on mothers' depressive symptoms and general aggression. Experiences of discrimination were also associated with increased depressive symptoms. Moreover, there were significant indirect effects of mothers' violence exposure on disciplinary practices through depression and aggression. These findings highlight the range of violence young African-American mothers are exposed to and how these experiences affect their mental health, particularly depressive symptoms, and thus disciplinary practices.

  3. The Republic of Mexico and the United States of America: The Mexican-American War -- In Retrospect. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Pablo Hill

    The unit is intended as part of a world cultures curriculum taught at the 10th grade level. The lessons include: (1) "Mexico in Brief"; (2) "The Mexican American War 1846-1848"; and (3) "History and Educational Status of Americans of Mexican Descent (Chicanos) in the Southwest." Additional resources and a 32-item bibliography accompany the unit.…

  4. The Impact of Brown on the Brown of South Texas: A Micropolitical Perspective on the Education of Mexican Americans in a South Texas Community

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    Guajardo, Miguel A.; Guajardo, Francisco J.

    2004-01-01

    This article identifies the Edcouch-Elsa High School Walkout of 1968 as a pivotal event in the educational history of Mexican American students in south Texas. It presents elements of the Civil Rights Movement, including the Brown decision, the rise of Mexican American political organizations, and the actions of community youth. The authors use…

  5. The Role of Occupational Attainment, Labor Market Structure, and Earnings Inequality on the Relative Earnings of Mexican Americans: 1986-1992.

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    Pagan, Jose A.; Cardenas, Gilberto

    1997-01-01

    Relative earnings of young Mexican American workers declined during 1986-92, influenced by recession-induced changes in the U.S. earnings structure and new immigration laws. Although Mexican American females experienced significantly greater occupational segregation than males, structural changes in labor demand worked to reduce the gender…

  6. Sex difference in the effects of sociocultural status on diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican Americans. The San Antonio Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, M P; Rosenthal, M; Haffner, S M; Hazuda, H P; Franco, L J

    1984-12-01

    The authors postulated that as Mexican Americans became more affluent and/or acculturated to "mainstream" United States life-style they would progressively lose their "obesity-related" pattern of cardiovascular risk factors which were defined as: obesity, diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. This hypothesis was tested in 1979-1982 in the San Antonio Heart Study, a population-based study on 1,288 Mexican Americans and 929 Anglos living in three San Antonio neighborhoods: a low-income barrio, a middle-income transitional neighborhood, and a high-income suburb. The study population comprised 25-65-year-old men and nonpregnant women. In Mexican American women, all of the "obesity-related" risk factors fell sharply with rising socioeconomic status. In Mexican American men, by contrast, diabetes was the only "obesity-related" risk factor which fell with rising socioeconomic status. Moreover, it fell less steeply, there being an approximately twofold difference in diabetes prevalence between the barrio and the suburbs in men compared to a fourfold difference in women. Also, total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol rose with rising socioeconomic status in Mexican American men, but not in Mexican American women. "Obesity-related" risk factors were generally higher in Mexican Americans of both sexes than in their Anglo neighbors who were of similar socioeconomic status. These results suggest that cultural factors exert a stronger influence on diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican Americans than do purely socioeconomic factors.

  7. ""Una Persona Derechita" (Staying Right in the Mind)": Perceptions of Spanish-Speaking Mexican American Older Adults in South Texas "Colonias"

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    Sharkey, Joseph R.; Sharf, Barbara F.; St. John, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the perceptions of brain health among older Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans who reside in colonia areas of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Design and Methods: In 2007, 33 Mexican American older adults (9 men and 24 women) were recruited by "promotoras" (community health workers) from clusters of…

  8. ""Una Persona Derechita" (Staying Right in the Mind)": Perceptions of Spanish-Speaking Mexican American Older Adults in South Texas "Colonias"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R.; Sharf, Barbara F.; St. John, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the perceptions of brain health among older Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans who reside in colonia areas of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Design and Methods: In 2007, 33 Mexican American older adults (9 men and 24 women) were recruited by "promotoras" (community health workers) from clusters of…

  9. Parent-Child Interactions among Low-Income Mexican American Parents and Preschoolers: Do Clinic-Referred Families Differ from Nonreferred Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Kristen; Yeh, May; Lau, Anna; Argote, Carolina Bertely; Liang, June

    2010-01-01

    This study compared low-income Mexican American parents of young children referred for behavior problems to their nonreferred counterparts on an observational measure of parent-child interactions. Referred Mexican American parents demonstrated more negative behaviors than their nonreferred counterparts in both nondirective and highly directive…

  10. "Francisco Maestas et al. v. George H. Shone et al.": Mexican American Resistance to School Segregation in the Hispano Homeland, 1912-1914

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    Donato, Ruben; Guzmán, Gonzalo; Hanson, Jarrod

    2017-01-01

    The authors in this article argue that the "Francisco Maestas et al. vs. George H. Shone et al." (1914) case is one of the earliest Mexican American challenges to school segregation in the United States. Unidentified for over a century, the lawsuit took place in southern Colorado, a region of the nation where Mexican Americans have deep…

  11. Hypertension in Mexico and among Mexican Americans: prevalence and treatment patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquera, S; Durazo-Arvizu, R A; Luke, A; Cao, G; Cooper, R S

    2008-09-01

    Increased social and economic integration across the US-Mexican borders has led to important new developments in public health. Lower levels of cardiovascular mortality have been observed among Mexican Americans (MAs) although few direct comparisons have been undertaken with Mexico. Using survey data in the respective countries we examined blood pressure (BP) levels, hypertension prevalence and patterns of awareness, treatment and control in Mexico and among MAs. A national representative sample of the adult population from Mexico collected in 2000 (N=49 294), and data on 8688 MA participants in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination survey from the United States were available for analysis. US-born MAs and those born in Mexico were analysed separately in the US data. Lack of direct standardization of methods between surveys necessitated statistical adjustment of BP values. Analyses were based on persons aged 25-64 in each country. Sex- and age-adjusted mean systolic/diastolic BPs were 122/80, 119/71 and 120/73 in Mexicans, immigrant MAs and US-born MAs, respectively. The prevalences of hypertension (BP > or = 140/90 or treatment) were 33, 17 and 22%. Hypertension control rates were 3.7, 32.1 and 37.9%, in the same groups. Awareness and treatment rates were 25 and 13% in Mexico and 54 and 46% among MAs in the United States, respectively. Hypertension appears to be more common in Mexico than among Mexican immigrants to the United States. Despite relatively low access to health insurance in the United States, hypertension control increased over the course of this migration.

  12. Young African-American multigenerational families in poverty: quality of mothering and grandmothering.

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    Chase-Lansdale, P L; Brooks-Gunn, J; Zamsky, E S

    1994-04-01

    Parenting practices (problem-solving and disciplinary styles) in a sample of 99 young, low-income, African-American multigenerational families were examined, using home-based observations of grandmothers and young mothers (mean age at first birth: 18.3; range = 13.3 to 25.5), interacting separately with 3-year-old children. A risk and resilience approach was applied in studying African-American families' behavior in harsh social contexts, and included a consideration of the role of kin, shared child rearing between mothers and grandmothers, coresidence, and adolescent parenthood. Mothers and grandmothers did not differ in the mean level of the quality of their parenting practices. Similarly, few significant correlations in parenting quality across generations were evident, and these primarily involved negative dimensions of parenting between younger childbearers and grandmothers. No main effect of mothers' age at first birth on mothers' parenting was found. In contrast, there was a main effect of grandmother coresidence on both mothers' and grandmothers' parenting, which was negative. Moreover, the interaction between coresidence and mothers' age at first birth indicated that multigenerational families most likely to provide positive parenting were those where older mothers did not reside with the grandmother. Yet, in families with very young mothers, coresiding grandmothers showed higher quality of parenting than did non-coresiding grandmothers.

  13. Mexican American adolescents' academic achievement and aspirations: the role of perceived parental educational involvement, acculturation, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Francisco D; You, Sukkyung; Chhuon, Vichet; Hudley, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    As the number of Mexican American school-aged children continues to increase, researchers, practitioners, and policymakers are in critical need of information to better understand and serve them. This study used structural equation modeling to examine the relationship among perceived parental educational involvement (PPEI), acculturation, gender, and self-esteem on the academic achievement and aspirations of Mexican American high school students (N = 298). Results revealed direct effects of perceived parental educational involvement, students' level of acculturation, and students' self-esteem on students' achievement and aspirations. Acculturation and self-esteem also revealed indirect effects on aspirations and achievement through parental educational expectations. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Intimate partner violence in Mexican-American women with disabilities: a secondary data analysis of cross-language research.

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    Divin, Chris; Volker, Deborah L; Harrison, Tracie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative descriptive study, guided by Antonovsky's salutogenic model, was to explore the manifestations of strength within the interviews of Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women aging with mobility impairments who also experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV events gleaned from 26 audiotaped interviews from 7 Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women, who ranged in age from 55 to 75 years, constituted the sample for this secondary analysis. Five categories were identified: abuse from early on that shaped sense of coherence; violencia tan cruel--threatened sense of coherence; "salutogenic" choices within the context of IPV; a quest for peace; and strength amid struggle.

  15. The effects of nursing case management on the utilization of prenatal care by Mexican-Americans in rural Oregon.

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    Thompson, M; Curry, M A; Burton, D

    1998-04-01

    This quasi-experimental, retrospective study used birth certificate and medical record data to evaluate the effectiveness of the Rural Oregon Minority Prenatal Program (ROMPP) in improving patterns of prenatal care utilization by rural-dwelling, low-income, Mexican-American women at risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. The ROMPP intervention provided nursing case management services and peer outreach to pregnant Mexican-American women in a rural Oregon community. The intervention group had more prenatal visits in months 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 than the comparison group (P cultural competency and sharpen their clinical focus on advocacy, marketing, facilitation of relationships between community groups, and community organizing.

  16. Chinese and European American Mothers' Beliefs about the Role of Parenting in Children's School Success.

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    Chao, Ruth K.

    1996-01-01

    Compared 48 immigrant Chinese and 50 European American mothers of preschool-age children on their perspectives on the role of parenting in their children's school success. Findings reveal Chinese immigrants have a high regard for education and a belief in a strong parental role, while European Americans regard social skills and self-esteem of…

  17. Perceptions of Mate Selection for Marriage among African American, College-Educated, Single Mothers

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    Holland, Rochelle

    2009-01-01

    This ethnographic study researched the perceptions of mate selection for marriage and the decisions of college-educated, African American mothers who bore children while single. Twenty-five senior-level African American students who attended a college in New York City participated in the study. There has been a significant change in the family…

  18. Blood alcohol levels for American Indian mothers and newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvigne, Valborg L; Randall, Brad; Simanton, Edward G; Brenneman, George; Welty, Thomas K

    2012-10-01

    Very little is known about the alcohol elimination rates of newborns who have had chronic alcohol exposure in utero. In these case reports, blood alcohol levels were taken immediately before delivery, at delivery, and postdelivery for 2 mothers who drank alcohol during their pregnancies and 3 single-birth newborns. Newborn A1 of Mother A had no physical characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The initial blood alcohol level for this newborn was 38.4 mg/dL 129 minutes after birth, with a subsequent blood alcohol level of 5.5 mg/dL 304 minutes after delivery, resulting in an alcohol elimination rate of 11.3 mg/dL per hour. The blood alcohol level for Mother A was 87.4 mg/dL 66 minutes before delivery. Newborn A2 of mother A had FAS. Sixty minutes after delivery, the blood alcohol level for this newborn was 39.5 mg/dL, and the alcohol level of the mother was 42.1 mg/dL. Newborn B1 of mother B had FAS. At 67 minutes after birth, newborn B1 had a blood alcohol level of 246.5 mg/dL, which dropped to 178.7 mg/dL 302 minutes after birth, resulting in an alcohol elimination rate of 17.3 mg/dL per hour. This alcohol elimination rate is within the metabolism range (15-49 mg/dL per hour) of adults with alcoholism. The maternal blood alcohol level was 265.9 mg/dL 27 minutes before delivery. Blood alcohol levels drawn on both the mother and newborn at delivery and 2 or 3 hourly follow-up levels can provide evidence that fetal alcohol dehydrogenase activity is induced by chronic maternal alcohol use.

  19. School Engagement Mediates Long Term Prevention Effects for Mexican American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Nancy A.; Wong, Jessie J.; Toomey, Russell B.; Millsap, Roger; Dumka, Larry E.; Mauricio, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    This five year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial evaluated the efficacy of a family-focused intervention delivered in middle school to increase school engagement following transition to high school (2 years posttest), and also evaluated mediated effects through school engagement on multiple problem outcomes in late adolescence (5 years posttest). The study sample included 516 Mexican American adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program (Bridges/ Puentes). Path models representing the direct and indirect effects of the program on four outcome variables were evaluated using school engagement measured in the 9th grade as a mediator. The program significantly increased school engagement, with school engagement mediating intervention effects on internalizing symptoms, adolescent substance use, and school dropout in late adolescence when most adolescents were in the 12th grade. Effects on substance use were stronger for youth at higher risk based on pretest report of substance use initiation. There were no direct or indirect intervention effects on externalizing symptoms. Findings support that school engagement is an important prevention target for Mexican American adolescents. PMID:24398825

  20. Health related quality of life in older Mexican Americans with diabetes: A cross-sectional study

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    Al Snih Soham

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The older Hispanic population of the U.S. is growing at a tremendous rate. While ethnic-related risk and complications of diabetes are widely-acknowledged for older Hispanics, less is known about how health related quality of life is affected in this population. Methods Cross-sectional study assessing differences in health related quality of life between older Mexican Americans with and without diabetes. Participants (n = 619 from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly were interviewed in their homes. The primary measure was the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-36. Results The sample was 59.6% female with a mean age of 78.3 (SD = 5.2 years. 31.2% (n = 193 of the participants were identified with diabetes. Individuals with diabetes had significantly (F = 19.35, p Conclusion Diabetes was associated with lower health related quality of life in older Mexican Americans. The physical components of health related quality of life uniformly differentiated those with diabetes from those without, whereas mental component scores were equivocal.

  1. Frailty and health related quality of life in older Mexican Americans

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    Markides Kyriakos S

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research on frailty in older adults has focused on morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to elicit the relationship between being non-frail, pre-frail, or frail and health related quality of life in a representative sample of older Mexican Americans surveyed in 2005–2006. Methods Data were from a representative subsample of the Hispanic Established Populations Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE and included 1008 older adults living in the community (mean (sd age = 82.3(4.3. Multiple regression analyses examined the relationship between frailty status and the eight SF-36 health related quality of life subscales and two summary scales. Models also adjusted for the participants' sociodemographic and health status. Results We found that, after adjusting for sociodemographic and health related covariables, being pre-frail or frail was significantly associated (p Conclusion When compared to persons who are not frail, older Mexican American individuals identified as frail and pre-frail exhibit significantly lower health related quality of life scores. Future research should assess potential mediating factors in an effort to improve quality of life for frail elders in this population.

  2. Improving quality of Food Frequency Questionnaire response in low-income Mexican American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Dominic, Oralia; Treviño, Roberto P; Echon, Roger M; Mobley, Connie; Block, Torin; Bizzari, Ansam; Michalek, Joel

    2012-11-01

    The authors evaluated the validity and reliability of the Block Kids Food Frequency Questionnaire (BKFFQ) and the Block Kid Screener (BKScreener) in Mexican American children living along the Texas-Mexico border who participated in the National Institutes of Health-funded Proyecto Bienestar Laredo. The Bienestar/NEEMA health program is a school-based diabetes and obesity control program, and the Proyecto Bienestar Laredo is the translation of the Bienestar/NEEMA health program to 38 elementary schools in Laredo, Texas. Par ticipants included 2,376 eight-year-old boys (48%) and girls (52%) from two school districts in Laredo. Two Food Frequency Questionnaire (BKFFQ and BKScreener) dietary intakes were collected, and an expert panel of nutritionist assigned a classification response quality of "Good," "Questionable," and "Poor," based on playfulness (systematic or nonrandom) patterns and completion rates. In addition, both instruments were assessed for reliability (test-retest) in 138 students from a San Antonio School District. Children's height, weight, percentage body fat, reported family history of diabetes, and Texas Assessments of Knowledge and Skills in reading and mathematics scores were collected. This study showed that for Mexican American children living along the Texas-Mexico border, within the time constraints of the classroom, BKScreener yielded better data than the BKFFQ.

  3. Falls among elderly persons in Latin America and the Caribbean and among elderly Mexican-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A; Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos S

    2005-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for falls among community-dwelling elders in Latin America and the Caribbean and among elderly Mexican-Americans in the southwestern United States. Data for the study came from a project called Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean (Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento en América Latina y el Caribe) (the "SABE project") (surveys from seven cities, with a total of 9,765 subjects) and from the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (H-EPESE) (1,483 subjects). The overall prevalence of falls across the seven SABE cities and the H-EPESE ranged from 21.6% in Bridgetown, Barbados, to 34.0% in Santiago, Chile. In multiple logistic regression analyses, female gender, increased age, high depressive symptoms, and having any functional limitations were significant independent risk factors for falls in most of the cities studied as well as among the elderly Mexican-Americans. In several of the cities, significant risk factors also included diabetes, urinary incontinence, and arthritis. The prevalence of falls had a large variation among the countries studied. Some of the risk factors that we identified could be modified so as to help prevent falls in older people in these populations. The factors deserving attention include depressive symptoms, functional limitations, diabetes, and urinary incontinence.

  4. Belief Reasoning and Emotion Understanding in Balanced Bilingual and Language-Dominant Mexican American Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Amy A; Gasquoine, Philip G

    2016-01-01

    Belief reasoning and emotion understanding were measured among 102 Mexican American bilingual children ranging from 4 to 7 years old. All children were tested in English and Spanish after ensuring minimum comprehension in each language. Belief reasoning was assessed using 2 false and 1 true belief tasks. Emotion understanding was measured using subtests from the Test for Emotion Comprehension. The influence of family background variables of yearly income, parental education level, and number of siblings on combined Spanish and English vocabulary, belief reasoning, and emotion understanding was assessed by regression analyses. Age and emotion understanding predicted belief reasoning. Vocabulary and belief reasoning predicted emotion understanding. When the sample was divided into language-dominant and balanced bilingual groups on the basis of language proficiency difference scores, there were no significant differences on belief reasoning or emotion understanding. Language groups were demographically similar with regard to child age, parental educational level, and family income. Results suggest Mexican American language-dominant and balanced bilinguals develop belief reasoning and emotion understanding similarly.

  5. Food frequency intakes and sociodemographic factors of elderly Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, A M; Young, E A; Martin, H W; Hazuda, H P

    1990-12-01

    A food frequency survey of 254 low-income, elderly (aged 60 to 96), free-living Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites was conducted as part of a larger study of the adjustment and health of older persons residing in a San Antonio barrio. Weekly intakes of selected foods were determined using the food frequency questionnaire from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used t-tests to determine significance of difference in frequency of food consumption by ethnicity. The variance in consumption of selected foods was estimated with multiple regression analysis for the independent variables marital status, age, sex, education level, income, birthplace, and ethnicity. Ethnicity was the major variable influencing food intake. There were significant differences (p less than or equal to .05) between ethnic groups: Mexican Americans consumed eggs, poultry, legumes, organ meats, avocados/olives, flour tortillas, and sugar more frequently than non-Hispanic whites; they also used saturated fats in cooking more frequently than non-Hispanic whites; and they consumed skim milk, ice cream/ice milk, beef, all fruits or juices, all vegetables, breads, and oil/margarine less frequently than non-Hispanic whites. The results suggest that ethnicity plays a major role in predicting dietary patterns.

  6. Home-based diabetes symptom self-management education for Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alexandra A; Brown, Sharon A; Horner, Sharon D; Zuñiga, Julie; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2015-06-01

    This pilot study evaluated an innovative diabetes symptom awareness and self-management educational program for Mexican Americans, a fast growing minority population experiencing a diabetes epidemic. Patients with diabetes need assistance interpreting and managing symptoms, which are often annoying and potentially life-threatening. A repeated measures randomized controlled trial was conducted with 72 Mexican Americans aged 25-75 years with type 2 diabetes. Experimental condition participants received eight weekly, in-home, one-on-one educational and behavior modification sessions with a registered nurse focusing on symptom awareness, glucose self-testing and appropriate treatments, followed by eight biweekly support telephone sessions. Wait-listed control condition participants served as comparisons at three time points. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to evaluate the effects of the intervention between- and within groups on psychosocial, behavioral and clinical outcomes. Participants were predominantly female, middle-aged, moderately acculturated and in poor glycemic control. Experimental group participants (n = 39) significantly improved glycemic control, blood pressure, symptoms, knowledge, self-efficacy, empowerment and quality of life. Post intervention focus groups reported satisfaction with the symptom focus. Addressing symptoms led to clinical and psychosocial improvements. Symptoms seem to be an important motivator and a useful prompt to engage patients in diabetes self-management behaviors to relieve symptoms and prevent complications.

  7. Patterns of Father Self Evaluations among Mexican and European American Men and Links to Adolescent Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Cookston, Jeffrey T; Fabricius, William V; Saenz, Delia

    2012-01-01

    A mixed-method study identified profiles of fathers who mentioned key dimensions of their parenting and linked profile membership to adolescents' adjustment using data from 337 European American, Mexican American and Mexican immigrant fathers and their early adolescent children. Father narratives about what fathers do well as parents were thematically coded for the presence of five fathering dimensions: emotional quality (how well father and child get along), involvement (amount of time spent together), provisioning (the amount of resources provided), discipline (the amount and success in parental control), and role modeling (teaching life lessons through example). Next, latent class analysis was used to identify three patterns of the likelihood of mentioning certain fathering dimensions: an emotionally-involved group mentioned emotional quality and involvement; an affective-control group mentioned emotional quality, involvement, discipline and role modeling; and an affective-model group mentioned emotional quality and role modeling. Profiles were significantly associated with subsequent adolescents' reports of adjustment such that adolescents of affective-control fathers reported significantly more externalizing behaviors than adolescents of emotionally-involved fathers.

  8. Effects of acculturation and socioeconomic status on obesity and diabetes in Mexican Americans. The San Antonio Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazuda, H P; Haffner, S M; Stern, M P; Eifler, C W

    1988-12-01

    The authors hypothesized that increased socioeconomic status and acculturation of Mexican Americans to mainstream US society would be accompanied by a progressive lessening of obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. This hypothesis was tested in 1979-1982 in the San Antonio Heart Study, a population-based study of 1,288 Mexican Americans and 929 non-Hispanic whites, aged 25-64 years, randomly selected from three San Antonio neighborhoods: a low-income barrio, a middle-income transitional neighborhood, and a high-income suburb. Socioeconomic status was assessed by the Duncan Socioeconomic Index, a global measure of socioeconomic status based on occupational prestige. Acculturation was assessed by three scales which measure functional integration with mainstream society, value placed on preserving Mexican cultural origin, and attitude toward traditional family structure and sex-role organization. In Mexican-American men, increased acculturation was accompanied by a statistically significant, linear decline in both obesity and diabetes, while socioeconomic status had no significant effect on either outcome. In Mexican-American women, on the other hand, increased acculturation and increased socioeconomic status were accompanied by statistically significant, linear declines in both outcomes. However, the effects of acculturation on obesity and diabetes prevalence in women were stronger than the effects of socioeconomic status. In women, obesity also appeared to be a more important mediator of the relation between socioeconomic status and diabetes than of the relation between acculturation and diabetes. The results of this study suggest that culturally mediated factors exert a more pervasive influence on obesity and diabetes in Mexican Americans than do socioeconomically mediated factors. The influence of socioeconomic status in women, however, cannot be ignored, particularly with regard to obesity.

  9. Morphometric analysis of Mexican and South American populations of the Anastrepha fraterculus complex (Diptera: Tephritidae) and recognition of a distinct Mexican morphotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortiz, V; Gómez-Anaya, J A; Sánchez, A; McPheron, B A; Aluja, M

    2004-12-01

    Discriminant function and cluster analyses were performed on 19 morphometric variables of the aculeus, wing and mesonotum to determine whether populations of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) from different parts of Mexico could be distinguished from populations from South America. Samples were collected from seven localities across Mexico, two from Brazil, and one each from Colombia and Argentina. Results showed there were statistically significant differences between Mexican and South American populations with respect to the aculeus (tip length, length of serrated section, mean number of teeth) and wing (width of S-band and connection between S- and V-bands). The degree of morphological variation observed among Mexican populations was extremely low, and as a consequence, the Mexican populations were identified as a single morphotype by discriminant analysis. The 'Andean morphotype'consisting of the Colombian population, and the 'Brazilian morphotype'consisting of the two Brazilian populations plus the single Argentinian population were also distinguished. It was concluded that the macro-geographical morphotypes from Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil plus Argentina correspond to three distinct taxonomic entities. Comparisons of results with those obtained from behavioural, karyotypic, isozyme and DNA studies suggest that sufficient evidence now exists to name a new Mexican species from within the A. fraterculus complex. This will be done in a separate publication. A provisional key to the morphotypes of A. fraterculus studied is provided.

  10. African American mothers' self-described discipline strategies with young children in 1992 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCuyer, Elizabeth A; Christensen, Julie J; Kreher, Donna; Kearney, Margaret H; Kitzman, Harriet J

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative descriptive study, 30 young, unmarried, low-income African American mothers in Memphis, TN, were interviewed in 2011-2012 about their discipline strategies with their 12- to 19-month-old children. Using content analyses, their strategies were described and compared with those from a similar sample in 1992. Findings suggest both continuity and change during that 20-year period. More mothers in 2011-2012 described the use of distraction and time out, suggesting a wider variety of strategies than were used in 1992. These findings may help clinicians to better understand disciplinary methods in young low-income African American mothers such as these in Memphis. Approaching mothers in a respectful and culturally sensitive manner will help them focus on effective, developmentally appropriate strategies consistent with their own parenting goals.

  11. Life stress, maternal optimism, and adolescent competence in single mother, African American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zoe E; Larsen-Rife, Dannelle; Conger, Rand D; Widaman, Keith F; Cutrona, Carolyn E

    2010-08-01

    Although research demonstrates many negative family outcomes associated with single-parent households, little is known about processes that lead to positive outcomes for these families. Using 3 waves of longitudinal data, we examined how maternal dispositional optimism and life stressors are associated with parenting and child outcomes in 394 single mother African American families. Confirming prior research, we found that mothers' childhood adversities, current economic pressure, and internalizing problems were associated with lower levels of maternal warmth and child management and with lower child school competence. Extending previous studies, we found that maternal optimism was a positive resource, predicting lower levels of maternal internalizing symptoms and higher levels of effective child management and moderating the impact of economic stress on maternal internalizing problems. These findings highlight the need for further investigation of processes and resources that promote positive outcomes for African American mother-headed families and single mother families in general.

  12. Life Stress, Maternal Optimism, and Adolescent Competence in Single Mother, African American Families

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Although research demonstrates many negative family outcomes associated with single-parent households, little is known about processes that lead to positive outcomes for these families. Using 3 waves of longitudinal data, we examined how maternal dispositional optimism and life stressors are associated with parenting and child outcomes in 394 single mother African American families. Confirming prior research, we found that mothers' childhood adversities, current economic pressure, and interna...

  13. Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women with Binge Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation…

  14. Cultural and Cognitive Predictors of Academic Motivation among Mexican American Adolescents: Caution against Discounting the Impact of Cultural Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Watson, Brandy; López, Belem; Ojeda, Lizette; Rodriguez, Kimberly M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of cognitive (i.e., grit, hope, and academic skepticism) and cultural variables (i.e., generational status, familismo, ethnic identity, and bicultural stress) on academic motivation among 181 Mexican American adolescents. Results indicated that hope, grit, and familismo positively predicted academic motivation.…

  15. School-based sports participation and its effects on weight maintenance in Mexican American adolescents: A two-year analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Participation in sports has been shown to decrease standardized body mass index (zBMI), especially in school settings. Few studies have examined the impact of sports participation in a Mexican American sample. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of sports participation on wei...

  16. The Value of Education and "Educación": Nurturing Mexican American Children's Educational Aspirations to the Doctorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Guided by the framework of community cultural wealth, this study uncovered how 7 low-income, 1st-generation Mexican American PhDs interpreted their parents' and families' educational aspirations, messages imbued with aspects of normative parental/familial involvement as well as cultural forms of support. This study demonstrates the power of…

  17. Mexican American Female Adolescent Self-Esteem: The Effect of Body Image, Exercise Behavior, and Body Fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Semper, Tom; Jorgensen, Layne

    1997-01-01

    A study of 254 Mexican American eighth-grade girls in south Texas found that girls' self-esteem was positively related to body image and exercise involvement and negatively related to body fatness. This population displayed somewhat distorted body image, which was the strongest predictor of self-esteem. Contains 43 references. (SV)

  18. The Influence of Acculturation and Enculturation on Mexican American High School Students' Decision to Apply to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Linda G.; Lopez-Arenas, Araceli; Saldivar, Isaac M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the influence of acculturation, enculturation, parental education level, financial concerns, and gender on 106 Mexican American high school students' decisions to apply to college. Results indicated that acculturation and female gender were significant predictors. Implications for interventions with Latino high school students…

  19. Depression in the barrio: An analysis of the risk and protective nature of cultural values among Mexican American substance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Yolanda R; Torres, Luis R; Stotts, Angela L; Ren, Yi; Sampson, Mcclain; Klawans, Michelle R; Bordnick, Patrick S

    2017-06-07

    Understanding the effect of cultural values on depression and how social networks influence these relationships may be important in the treatment of substance-using, Mexican American populations. Latino cultural values, familismo, personalismo, fatalismo, and machismo, may be associated with depression among Latinos. The current study identified the association of traditional Latino values on depressive symptomatology among a sample of Mexican American heroin injectors. A cross-sectional research design and field-intensive outreach methodology were utilized to recruit 227 Mexican American men. Participants were categorized into depressed and nondepressed groups. Relations among cultural values and depression were examined using logistic regression. Findings indicate that drug-using men with higher familismo and fatalismo scores are protected against depressive symptomatology. Relations between familismo and depression seem to be moderated by having a drug use network. In addition, findings reveal that age is inversely related to depressive symptomatology. Young Mexican American heroin users who do not ascribe to traditional Latino values may be highly associated with depression and therefore more vulnerable to riskier drug use behaviors. Moreover, drug-using social networks may affect the protective nature of certain cultural values. Further research is needed to identify whether culturally tailored treatments can cultivate these values while simultaneously undermining the effect of substance-using social networks in order to reduce depression symptoms among this group of high-risk substance users.

  20. Development of the mammography beliefs and attitudes questionnaire for low-health-literacy Mexican-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-McKee, Gloria

    2010-11-24

    Low-income, low-health-literacy Mexican-American women exhibit poor mammography screening participation and are being diagnosed at later stages of breast cancer than are non-Hispanic white women. No instrument has been available to measure the impact of cultural and psycho-social factors on the intent to seek mammography screening participation in this population. In this article the author describes the development process of the English Mammography Beliefs and Attitudes Questionnaire (MBAQ) and the Spanish Mammography Beliefs and Attitudes Questionnaire (SMBAQ). The Theory of Planned Behavior is the theoretical framework underlying these instruments designed to measure intent to seek mammography screening in low-health-literacy Mexican-American women. The process of developing the MBAQ utilized input from low-health-literacy Mexican-American women and an expert committee. The MBAQ was translated into Spanish and assessed for content validity and reading level. In the discussion, the author explains why the MBAQ and SMBAQ are appropriate tools for use with low-health-literacy Mexican-American women to measure their intentions to seek mammography screening. Limitations of the study and implications for practice and research are presented.