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Sample records for mexican american migrant

  1. The Migrant Experience in the Works of Mexican American Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 40 titles that provide an authentic look into the migrant experience, a segment of society that still exists in the United States today. Notes that these works of literature contain recurring themes regarding education, family, poverty, labor, immigration, and citizenship--all topics that are especially relevant in post-September 11…

  2. "American" Abjection: "Chicanos," Gangs, and Mexican/Migrant Transnationality in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Genova, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Crime and street violence often evoke racialized discourses about urban space. In this ethnographic research in Chicago, however, the disdain that many Mexican migrants articulated about street gangs principally concerned issues "internal" to the Mexican/Chicano community, notably a profound ambivalence about U.S.-born Mexicans and a…

  3. Craniofacial Secular Change in Recent Mexican Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradley, Katherine; Stull, Kyra E; Hefner, Joseph T

    2016-01-01

    Research by economists suggests that recent Mexican migrants are better educated and have higher socioeconomic status (SES) than previous migrants. Because factors associated with higher SES and improved education can lead to positive secular changes in overall body form, secular changes in the craniofacial complex were analyzed within a recent migrant group from Mexico. The Mexican group represents individuals in the act of migration, not yet influenced by the American environment, and thus can serve as a starting point for future studies of secular change in this population group. The excavation of a historic Hispanic cemetery in Tucson, Arizona, also allows for a comparison between historic Hispanics and recent migrants to explore craniofacial trends over a broad time period, as both groups originate from Mexico. The present research addresses two main questions: (1) Are cranial secular changes evident in recent Mexican migrants? (2) Are historic Hispanics and recent Mexican migrants similar? By studying secular changes within a migrant population group, secular trends may be detected, which will be important for understanding the biological variation of the migrants themselves and will serve as a preliminary investigation of secular change within Mexican migrants. The comparison of a sample of recent Mexican migrants with a historic Hispanic sample, predominantly of Mexican origin, allows us to explore morphological similarities and differences between early and recent Mexicans within the United States. Vault and face size and a total of 82 craniofacial interlandmark distances were used to explore secular changes within the recent Mexican migrants (females, n = 38; males, n = 178) and to explore the morphological similarities between historic Hispanics (females, n = 54; males, n = 58) and recent migrants. Sexes were separated, and multivariate adaptive regression splines and basis splines (quadratic with one knot) were used to assess the direction and magnitude

  4. Employers mexican migrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández Guzmán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this paper is to, through a general literature review of official statistical data, a preliminary analysis of mexican migrant entrepreneurship in the United States, that is to say in recent years has been growing in importance.

  5. Los Dos Mundos: Rural Mexican Americans, Another America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard

    This book explores race relations between Mexican Americans and Anglo Americans in "Middlewest," a fictitious name for an actual rural Idaho community with the highest proportion of Mexican Americans in the state. Many Mexican Americans in this predominantly agricultural area are current or former migrant workers. The first chapter…

  6. The Mexican American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Helen

    The purpose of this paper, prepared for the U. S. Commission on Civil Rights, is to indicate the types and ranges of problems facing the Mexican American community and to suggest ways in which these problems are peculiar to Mexican Americans. Specific examples are cited to illustrate major problems and personal experiences. Topics covered in the…

  7. Fair Start Program: Outreach to Mexican and Mexican American Farmworker Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters-Smith, Carol; Larner, Mary

    This presentation describes a home visiting health education program serving Mexican and Mexican-American migrant farmworkers in Florida. The purposes of the program were to educate farmworker families about pregnancy, childbirth, nutrition, and child development, and to encourage the use of preventive health care services. Home visitors were…

  8. Violence committed against migrants in transit: experiences on the Northern Mexican border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, César; Idrovo, Alvaro J; Sánchez-Domínguez, Mario S; Vinhas, Stéphane; González-Vázquez, Tonatiuh

    2012-06-01

    Thousands of Mexican and Central American migrants converge at the Mexico-United States border. Undocumented migrants in transit to the United States are vulnerable due to their lack of access to health care and legal assistance. This study attempts to provide evidence on the violent-related consequences that migration has on migrants. A mixed-method study was conducted between April 2006-May 2007 in shelters in Baja California, Mexicali and Tijuana, Mexico. 22 in depth interviews were performed and fifteen hundred and twelve migrants responded a questionnaire. Results from both in-depth interviews and the analysis of the quantitative data shows the different types of violence experiences by migrants which include threats, verbal abuse, and arbitrary detention based on ethnicity, as well as assaults, beatings and sexual violence. It is crucial to stress the importance and the need to evidence the condition in which migrants' transit to the US and to effectively respond to the violence they experience.

  9. Meeting Multicultural Needs in School Libraries: An Examination of Mexican Migrant Families and Factors that Influence Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plocharczyk, Leah

    2005-01-01

    The children of Mexican migrants face a number of hardships and difficulties that greatly hamper their ability to succeed in American schools. This paper examines some of the major difficulties and suggests multicultural programs that school librarians can implement in order to help migrant children achieve academic success.

  10. Explanatory Emotion Talk in Mexican Immigrant and Mexican American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Christi A.

    2002-01-01

    Mother-child conversations during story-telling play were analyzed for patterns of emotion talk. Subjects were 48 Mexican immigrant and Mexican American mothers and their children aged 3-4. Contrary to previous findings, Mexican immigrant mothers used more explanations of emotions than labels. Mexican American mothers used both, equally. Results…

  11. Uninsured Migrants: Health Insurance Coverage and Access to Care Among Mexican Return Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassink, Joshua

    2018-01-01

    Despite an expansive body of research on health and access to medical care among Mexican immigrants in the United States, research on return migrants focuses primarily on their labor market mobility and contributions to local development. Motivated by recent scholarship that documents poor mental and physical health among Mexican return migrants, this study investigates return migrants' health insurance coverage and access to medical care. I use descriptive and multivariate techniques to analyze data from the 2009 and 2014 rounds of Mexico's National Survey of Demographic Dynamics (ENADID, combined n=632,678). Analyses reveal a large and persistent gap between recent return migrants and non-migrants, despite rising overall health coverage in Mexico. Multivariate analyses suggest that unemployment among recent arrivals contributes to their lack of insurance. Relative to non-migrants, recently returned migrants rely disproportionately on private clinics, pharmacies, self-medication, or have no regular source of care. Mediation analysis suggests that returnees' high rate of uninsurance contributes to their inadequate access to care. This study reveals limited access to medical care among the growing population of Mexican return migrants, highlighting the need for targeted policies to facilitate successful reintegration and ensure access to vital resources such as health care.

  12. Migrant Mexican Traditions = Tradiciones Migrantes Mexicanas. An Exhibit of Folk Art by Mexican Migrant Farmworkers (Geneseo, New York, September 22-October 4, 1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Juana; Gomez, Jose Luis

    This exhibit guide (in Spanish, with translation in English printed on adjoining columns on each page), describes an exhibition of folk art by Mexican migrant farmworkers presented by thre Folk Arts Program of the BOCES Geneseo Migrant Center. The exhibit is divided into four major themes that farmworkers presented by the BOCES Geneseo Migrant…

  13. Deported Mexican migrants: health status and access to care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Ramírez-Valdés, Carlos Jacobo; Cerecero-Garcia, Diego; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the health status and access to care of forced-return Mexican migrants deported through the Mexico-United States border and to compare it with the situation of voluntary-return migrants. METHODS Secondary data analysis from the Survey on Migration in Mexico’s Northern Border from 2012. This is a continuous survey, designed to describe migration flows between Mexico and the United States, with a mobile-population sampling design. We analyzed indicators of health and access to care among deported migrants, and compare them with voluntary-return migrants. Our analysis sample included 2,680 voluntary-return migrants, and 6,862 deportees. We employ an ordinal multiple logistic regression model, to compare the adjusted odds of having worst self-reported health between the studied groups. RESULTS As compared to voluntary-return migrants, deportees were less likely to have medical insurance in the United States (OR = 0.05; 95%CI 0.04;0.06). In the regression model a poorer self-perceived health was found to be associated with having been deported (OR = 1.71, 95%CI 1.52;1.92), as well as age (OR = 1.03, 95%CI 1.02;1.03) and years of education (OR = 0.94 95%CI 0.93;0.95). CONCLUSIONS According to our results, deportees had less access to care while in the United States, as compared with voluntary-return migrants. Our results also showed an independent and statistically significant association between deportation and having poorer self-perceived health. To promote the health and access to care of deported Mexican migrants coming back from the United States, new health and social policies are required. PMID:25119943

  14. Proverbs in Mexican American Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shirley L.

    1982-01-01

    Examines proverb use among 304 Mexican Americans (aged 16-85) of Los Angeles (California), assembling information on how or where particular proverbs were learned, with whom or what kind of individual their use is associated, the occasions on which they are used, and general attitudes toward the use of proverbs. (LC)

  15. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect in the Mexican American Community (1st, Laredo, Texas, May 26-29, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Guadalupe, Ed.,; Torres, Angelina Moreno

    The conference focused attention on the severe problems of abuse and neglect among Mexican American children, particularly among migrant children. The welcome address discussed the plight and hardship endured by the Mexican American migrant worker and family. The keynote address emphasized the fact that minority families, who are usually poor, and…

  16. What's Values Got to Do with It? Thriving among Mexican/Mexican American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Consoli, Melissa L.; Llamas, Jasmín; Consoli, Andrés J.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined traditional Mexican/Mexican American and perceived U.S. mainstream cultural values as predictors of thriving. One hundred twenty-four (37 men, 87 women) self-identified Mexican/Mexican American college students participated in the study. The traditional Mexican/Mexican American cultural values of family support and religion…

  17. The Binational Civic and Political Engagement of Mexican Migrant Hometown Associations and Federations in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xóchitl Bada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the history and current situation of Mexican hometown associations (HTAs in the United States with a special emphasis on Chicago-based Mexican hometown associations and federations. It presents empirical evidence of new forms of binational engagement among Mexican migrant communities in the United States leading to the creation of a Mexican migrant civil society.

  18. Concerning at distance: digital activism and social media empowerment between Latin-American migrants in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Plascencia, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on developing some important points about the use of social platforms in the life of Latin-Americans in Spain, particularly Mexican, Colombian and Venezuelan migrants. It shows the outcomes of data collected on closed groups in Facebook. The main topic centers on how social networks catalyze the spread of political engagement and public activism in between migrants concerning public matters in their homelands. Final outcomes will show that there is a clear inclination in us...

  19. Stress Resilience among Border Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern; Dugas, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors distinguishing Mexican American women living near the U.S.-Mexican border who are resilient to the experience of stress from those who are not. The study sample consisted of 418 participants ranging in age from 20 to 61 years. Data were gathered through a self-report survey instrument composed of…

  20. Mammagraphy Use by Older Mexican American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, Jean

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the determinants of mammographic screening in older Mexican- American women, particularly the influence of strong family relationships on promoting screening behavior...

  1. Household Composition and Longitudinal Health Outcomes for Older Mexican Return Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrazija, Stipica; López-Ortega, Mariana; Vega, William A.; Robledo, Luis Miguel Gutiérrez; Sribney, William

    2016-01-01

    Mexican return migrant population is increasing, yet our knowledge about their lives after resettlement in Mexico remains fragmentary. Using 2001–2012 longitudinal data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study, we investigate difference in household composition for older migrants who returned from the United States compared to nonmigrants. Furthermore, we fit a Cox proportional hazards model to assess the relationship between household composition and health and functional trajectories of return migrants and nonmigrants. The results indicate that return migrants with long duration of U.S. stay have different household composition than nonmigrants or short-term migrants: On average, they have smaller household size, including fewer females who may be available to offer assistance to older adults. Presence of middle-age females in the household has positive effects on health and functional trajectories. We highlight implications of this research for policy makers in Mexico and the United States. PMID:26966255

  2. Nervios and dysphoria in Mexican American widows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, M; Portillo, C

    1989-01-01

    One hundred widows participating in experimental research entitled Efficacy of Support Groups for Mexican American Widows were studied to learn how they express the loss of their husbands. Mourning practices, acknowledged symptoms of dysphoria, and somatic reactions were studied to learn if the syndrome of nervios subsumes their reaction to bereavement. In addition, their responses to instruments designed to measure depression, the Spanish version of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, were examined for correlation with nervios and relationships to Mexican American acculturation. Nervios seems to be a manifestation of dysphoria rather than a specific syndrome for these women.

  3. Exploring AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of female Mexican migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organista, P B; Organista, K C; Soloff, P R

    1998-05-01

    AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were assessed in female Mexican migrant laborers. Thirty-two women were administered a modified version of the Hispanic Condom Questionnaire. Respondents were knowledgeable about the major modes of HIV transmission, but one-third to one-half of the women believed that they could contract AIDS from unlikely casual sources. Although respondents reported few negative beliefs about condom use, actual condom use with sex partners was low and knowledge of proper condom use was problematic. Consequently, 75 percent reported never carrying condoms. Implications of these findings for future research and provision of services for female Mexican migrants are discussed.

  4. Reasons for self-medication and perceptions of risk among Mexican migrant farm workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sarah; Stewart, Analisia

    2012-08-01

    Although the frequency of self-medication among Mexican migrants has been well-documented in the public health literature, the multiple reasons for this practice are poorly understood. Most studies point to migrants' cultural preferences for Mexican medications, their prior experiences in countries where antibiotics are loosely regulated, and their lack of access to health care as the primary factors behind their self-medication. Based on participant observation and in-depth interviews with 23 Mexican migrants in a farm working community in the interior of California, we argue that occupational vulnerability is an equally important factor that encourages self-medication. All 23 of our interviewees reported having engaged in some degree of self-medication, notable in this location 8 h from the US-Mexico border. Among interviewees, occupational vulnerability represented an even more important factor influencing self-medication than lack of health insurance or lack of legal documentation. While interviewees did express a preference for Mexican medications as more potent and effective, this did not necessarily translate to a preference for using them without a doctor's supervision. Finally, we show that rather than remaining unaware of the risks of following this custom "transported from Latin America", Mexican migrants devised an elaborate hierarchy of resort of the safest self-medication practices to follow.

  5. Mexican-Americans in the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza, Ernesto; And Others

    With findings as presented in this 1969 book, a 2-year field study conducted by a 3-member team analyzed the economic, cultural, political, and educational conditions of Mexican Americans in the Southwest (California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Texas) with some reference to braceros and the situation in Mexico. An overview of 8 geographic…

  6. Weight Preoccupation in Female Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Jorgensen, Layne; Semper, Tom; Vincent, Vern

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the contribution of body size, self-esteem, age, mainstream acculturation, and athletic status to concern or preoccupation about weight among female Mexican American adolescents. Students had low acculturation, high body fatness, and moderate self-esteem. There was little difference between athletes and non-athletes. Greater body size…

  7. The Mexican American Woman and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Guadalupe

    For a long time Chicanas have been self-denying, self sacrificing. Well, it is time that Mexican American women began thinking of themselves. It follows that if women love and cherish others, they must begin by loving and cherishing themselves. From the mental health perspective it is essential that they do so, not only for their sake, but for…

  8. The Mexican-American and Dramatic Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Hector M.

    In the area of the arts, the Mexican American has discovered a rich cultural heritage which gives him a strong sense of pride and a deep feeling of satisfaction. A new interest in the literature of Mexico and the Southwestern states of Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and California has started the Chicano people reading classic and modern…

  9. "Hospital utilization by Mexican migrants returning to Mexico due to health needs".

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Block, Miguel A; de la Sierra-de la Vega, Luz A

    2011-04-18

    A total of 12.7 million Mexicans reside as migrants in the United States, of whom only 45% have health insurance in this country while access to health insurance by migrants in Mexico is fraught with difficulties. Health insurance has been shown to impact the use of health care in both countries. This paper quantifies hospitalizations by migrants who return from the US seeking medical care in public and private hospitals in the US-Mexico border area and in communities of origin. The proportion of bed utilization and the proportion of hospitalizations in Mexico out of the total expected by migrants in the US were estimated. The universe included 48 Ministry of Health and 47 private hospitals serving municipalities of high or very high migration in Mexico, where 17% of remittance-receiving households are located, as well as 15 public and 159 private hospitals in 10 Mexican cities along the border with the US. Hospitals were sampled through various methods to include 27% of beds. Patients and staff were interviewed and data triangulated to quantify migrants that returned to Mexico seeking medical care. Official hospital discharge statistics and secondary data from migration databases and published statistics were analyzed to identify bed occupancy, general migrant hospitalization rates and the size of the migrant population that maintains close relationships with households in communities of origin. Up to 1609 migrants were admitted to public hospitals (76.6%) and 492 to private hospitals (23.4%) serving municipalities of high and very high migration intensity in 2008. Up to 0.90% of public hospital capacity was used. In the border area up to 908 and 2416 migrants were admitted to public (27.3%) and private (72.7%) hospitals, respectively. Up to 1.18% of public hospital capacity was used. Between 2.4% and 20.4% of the expected hospitalization needs of migrants with dependent households are satisfied through these services. The most common diagnostic categories

  10. "Hospital utilization by Mexican migrants returning to Mexico due to health needs"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Sierra-de la Vega Luz A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A total of 12.7 million Mexicans reside as migrants in the United States, of whom only 45% have health insurance in this country while access to health insurance by migrants in Mexico is fraught with difficulties. Health insurance has been shown to impact the use of health care in both countries. This paper quantifies hospitalizations by migrants who return from the US seeking medical care in public and private hospitals in the US-Mexico border area and in communities of origin. The proportion of bed utilization and the proportion of hospitalizations in Mexico out of the total expected by migrants in the US were estimated. Methods The universe included 48 Ministry of Health and 47 private hospitals serving municipalities of high or very high migration in Mexico, where 17% of remittance-receiving households are located, as well as 15 public and 159 private hospitals in 10 Mexican cities along the border with the US. Hospitals were sampled through various methods to include 27% of beds. Patients and staff were interviewed and data triangulated to quantify migrants that returned to Mexico seeking medical care. Official hospital discharge statistics and secondary data from migration databases and published statistics were analyzed to identify bed occupancy, general migrant hospitalization rates and the size of the migrant population that maintains close relationships with households in communities of origin. Results Up to 1609 migrants were admitted to public hospitals (76.6% and 492 to private hospitals (23.4% serving municipalities of high and very high migration intensity in 2008. Up to 0.90% of public hospital capacity was used. In the border area up to 908 and 2416 migrants were admitted to public (27.3% and private (72.7% hospitals, respectively. Up to 1.18% of public hospital capacity was used. Between 2.4% and 20.4% of the expected hospitalization needs of migrants with dependent households are satisfied through these

  11. Mexican Perspectives on Mexican-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    while serving in the United States military, working in the Bracero program and in American factories. By working with Americans, Mexicans learned that...Mexican government blames the problem on the United States. During the history of the Bracero Program (1942 -1964) 4.6 million Mexicans traveled to...and became familiar to Mexican migrants.ŕ The termination of the Bracero Program did not discourage Mexican agricultural workers from entering the

  12. "Hospital utilization by Mexican migrants returning to Mexico due to health needs"

    OpenAIRE

    González-Block, Miguel A; de la Sierra-de la Vega, Luz A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background A total of 12.7 million Mexicans reside as migrants in the United States, of whom only 45% have health insurance in this country while access to health insurance by migrants in Mexico is fraught with difficulties. Health insurance has been shown to impact the use of health care in both countries. This paper quantifies hospitalizations by migrants who return from the US seeking medical care in public and private hospitals in the US-Mexico border area and in communities of o...

  13. Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Eliseo

    Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

  14. Concerning at distance: digital activism and social media empowerment between Latin-American migrants in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David RAMIREZ PLASCENCIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on developing some important points about the use of social platforms in the life of Latin-Americans in Spain, particularly Mexican, Colombian and Venezuelan migrants. It shows the outcomes of data collected on closed groups in Facebook. The main topic centers on how social networks catalyze the spread of political engagement and public activism in between migrants concerning public matters in their homelands. Final outcomes will show that there is a clear inclination in using social platforms to discuss, organize and participate in public activism focused on resolving homeland problems. In this context, these virtual spaces serve as a link to stay in touch with their communities in Latin-America. Migrants are not only using social networks to make new relations in their new context but to ensure not to lose the connection with their friends and relatives, and of course, participate in social and political activism.

  15. Mexican Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker Culture, Gender, and Language Ideologies: Platicas de HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Donald N.

    2013-01-01

    Lack of health access and limited health care services are major concerns for those who provide healthcare for marginalized Mexican migrant and seasonal farmworker communities (MMSF). Health risks related to several deadly illnesses generate a significant challenge in providing services to this transnational population. In the United States,…

  16. On the record: you can go home again: Mexican migrants return in record numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Agustín Escobar Latapí is a research professor at the Center for Research and Higher Learning in Social Anthropology in Guadalajara, Mexico, and is a member of Mexico’s National Academy of Sciences. A specialist in Mexican social policy and migration, he discusses the southward return of migrants and its implications.

  17. Trajectories of Mexican American and mainstream cultural values among Mexican American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P; Basilio, Camille D; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A; Liu, Yu; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2014-12-01

    Mexican Americans are one of the largest and fastest growing ethnic groups in the United States, yet we have limited knowledge regarding changes (i.e., developmental trajectories) in cultural orientation based upon their exposure to the Mexican American and mainstream cultures. We examined the parallel trajectories of Mexican American and mainstream cultural values in a sample of 749 Mexican American adolescents (49 % female) across assessments during the fifth grade (approximately 11 years of age), the seventh grade (approximately 13 years of age) and the tenth grade (approximately 16 years of age). We expected that these values would change over this developmental period and this longitudinal approach is more appropriate than the often used median split classification to identify distinct types of acculturation. We found four distinct acculturation trajectory groups: two trajectory groups that were increasing slightly with age in the endorsement of mainstream cultural values, one of which was relatively stable in Mexican American cultural values while the other was declining in their endorsement of these values; and two trajectory groups that were declining substantially with age in their endorsement of mainstream cultural values, one of which was also declining in Mexican American cultural values and the other which was stable in these values. These four trajectory groups differed in expected ways on a number of theoretically related cultural variables, but were not highly consistent with the median split classifications. The findings highlight the need to utilize longitudinal data to examine the developmental changes of Mexican American individual's adaptation to the ethnic and mainstream culture in order to understand more fully the processes of acculturation and enculturation.

  18. Cultural and social determinants of health among indigenous Mexican migrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghee; Donlan, William; Cardoso, Edgar Ezequiel Orea; Paz, Juan Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Despite growing numbers, indigenous Mexican migrants are relatively invisible to health practitioners who group them with nonindigenous, mestizo Mexican-origin populations. Associations between indigenous and mestizo cultural identifications with psychosocial characteristics and health indicators among indigenous Mexican migrants were examined. Results revealed gender differences in cultural identifications, perceived discrimination, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and various health indicators including depression severity, culture-bound syndromes, and self-rated health. Multivariate regression and structural equation path modeling demonstrated how indigenous cultural identification and perceived discrimination affects health. Findings suggest that interventions should utilize indigenous community-based activities designed to promote self-esteem and the value of indigenous culture, with a focus on females.

  19. Racial Identity and Racial Treatment of Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Vilma; Telles, Edward

    2012-04-01

    How racial barriers play in the experiences of Mexican Americans has been hotly debated. Some consider Mexican Americans similar to European Americans of a century ago that arrived in the United States with modest backgrounds but were eventually able to participate fully in society. In contrast, others argue that Mexican Americans have been racialized throughout U.S. history and this limits their participation in society. The evidence of persistent educational disadvantages across generations and frequent reports of discrimination and stereotyping support the racialization argument. In this paper, we explore the ways in which race plays a role in the lives of Mexican Americans by examining how education, racial characteristics, social interactions, relate to racial outcomes. We use the Mexican American Study Project, a unique data set based on a 1965 survey of Mexican Americans in Los Angeles and San Antonio combined with surveys of the same respondents and their adult children in 2000, thereby creating a longitudinal and intergenerational data set. First, we found that darker Mexican Americans, therefore appearing more stereotypically Mexican, report more experiences of discrimination. Second, darker men report much more discrimination than lighter men and than women overall. Third, more educated Mexican Americans experience more stereotyping and discrimination than their less-educated counterparts, which is partly due to their greater contact with Whites. Lastly, having greater contact with Whites leads to experiencing more stereotyping and discrimination. Our results are indicative of the ways in which Mexican Americans are racialized in the United States.

  20. Risk behaviours for HIV infection among travelling Mexican migrants: The Mexico-US border as a contextual risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Simon, Norma-Jean E; Hovell, Melbourne F; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Sipan, Carol L

    2017-01-01

    The Mexico-US border region is a transit point in the trajectory of Mexican migrants travelling to and from the USA and a final destination for domestic migrants from other regions in Mexico. This region also represents a high-risk environment that may increase risk for HIV among migrants and the communities they connect. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based survey, in Tijuana, Mexico, and compared Mexican migrants with a recent stay on the Mexico-US border region (Border, n = 553) with migrants arriving at the border from Mexican sending communities (Northbound, n = 1077). After controlling for demographics and migration history, border migrants were more likely to perceive their risk for HIV infection as high in this region and regard this area as a liberal place for sexual behaviours compared to Northbound migrants reporting on their perceptions of the sending communities (p migrants were more likely to engage in sex, and have unprotected sex, with female sex workers during their recent stay on the border compared to other contexts (rate ratio = 3.0 and 6.6, respectively, p migrants should be deployed in the Mexican border region to address migration related HIV transmission in Mexico and the USA.

  1. The relationship between Mexican American cultural values and resilience among Mexican American college students: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Consoli, Melissa L; Llamas, Jasmin D

    2013-10-01

    The current study investigated the role of cultural values in the resilience of Mexican American college students. Utilizing mixed methodology, 124 self-identified Mexican American college students were asked to complete an online survey, including a demographic questionnaire, the Resilience Scale, Mexican American Cultural Values Scale, and 2 open-ended questions concerning overcoming adversity and cultural values. As hypothesized, Mexican American traditional cultural values (Familismo, Respeto, Religiosidad, and Traditional Gender Roles) predicted resilience, with Familismo accounting for the majority of the variance. Consensual qualitative research (Hill, Thompson, & Nutt Williams, 1997) was used to identify emergent domains and themes within the open-ended question responses. Traditional Mexican American Value themes included Familismo, Ethnic Identity, Religiosidad, Perseverance, and Respeto. Results highlight the important role that certain Mexican American cultural values play in providing strength for overcoming adversities.

  2. The Mexican American in Higher Education: Implications for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, William F.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Literature reviews suggest that Mexican-American students place more emphasis on cooperation and group than on individual achievement. Education may be enhanced when teachers reinforce "successful behavior." Problems may arise using U.S.-based theories of "democratic" leadership styles because Mexican-American culture places emphasis on…

  3. Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research with Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    This is a description of the creation of a research methods tool, the "Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research With Mexican Americans." For conducting literature reviews of and planning mixed methods studies with Mexican Americans, it contains evaluative criteria calling for transformative mixed methods, perspectives…

  4. Risk behaviours for HIV infection among traveling Mexican migrants: The Mexico-US border as a contextual risk factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Simon, Norma-Jean E.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Sipan, Carol L.

    2016-01-01

    The Mexico-US border region is a transit point in the trajectory of Mexican migrants traveling to and from the U.S. and a final destination for domestic migrants from other regions in Mexico. This region also represents a high-risk environment that may increase risk for HIV among migrants and the communities they connect. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based survey, in Tijuana, Mexico, and compared Mexican migrants with a recent stay on the Mexico-US border region (Border, n=553) with migrants arriving at the border from Mexican sending communities (Northbound, n=1077). After controlling for demographics and migration history, border migrants were more likely to perceive their risk for HIV infection as high in this region and regard this area as a liberal place for sexual behaviours compared to Northbound migrants reporting on their perceptions of the sending communities (pmigrants were more likely to engage in sex, and have unprotected sex, with female sex workers during their recent stay on the border compared to other contexts (rate ratio= 3.0 and 6.6, respectively, pmigrants should be deployed in the Mexican border region to address migration related HIV transmission in Mexico and the U.S. PMID:26878494

  5. Parental Factors Associated with Mexican American Adolescent Alcohol Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mogro-Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to further the understanding of how parenting and the relationship between the parent and the youth influence adolescent alcohol use in Mexican American families, with particular attention to acculturation. Results indicated that parental warmth is a strong factor in predicting adolescent alcohol use among Mexican adolescents. The parent-youth relationship played an important role in lowering alcohol use for Mexican American youth. Acculturation has an impact on the level of warmth, control, and the parent-youth relationship for Mexican American families. Findings indicate that there are unique family mechanisms for Mexican American families that should be considered when developing prevention and treatment options.

  6. Health perceptions of Mexican American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Cindy

    2002-07-01

    This article describes the health perceptions of a sample of moderately to highly acculturated Mexican American women. Using an ethnographic design, the author interviewed 13 women to determine their health perceptions. The interviews were guided by the domains of health described in the World Health Organization (WHO) definition of health. Three broad categories of health perceptions were identified: the physical body, the emotional component, and finding balance. With the addition of a spiritual component, the WHO definition was a useful tool for uncovering health perceptions. The process of in-depth ethnographic interviewing provided a contextual view of health in which the complexity of intrafamilial relationships was revealed, as were the importance of spirituality as a coping mechanism and the perception of health as an integrated, holistic experience.

  7. FastStats: Health of Mexican American Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button NCHS Home Health of Mexican American Population Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Source: Summary Health Statistics Tables for the U.S. Population: National Health Interview Survey, 2015, Table P-1c [ ...

  8. The Food Environment in an Urban Mexican American Community

    OpenAIRE

    Lisabeth, Lynda D; Sánchez, Brisa N; Escobar, James; Hughes, Rebecca; Meurer, William J; Zuniga, Belinda; Garcia, Nelda; Brown, Devin L; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether ethnic composition of neighborhoods is associated with number and type of food stores in an urban, Mexican American US community. Data were from a commercial food store data source and the US Census. Multivariate count models were used to test associations with adjustment for neighborhood demographics, income, and commercialization. Neighborhoods at the 75th percentile of percent Mexican American (76%) had nearly four times the number of convenience stor...

  9. Family Structure and Family Processes in Mexican American Families

    OpenAIRE

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2011-01-01

    Despite increases in single-parent families among Mexican Americans (MA), few studies have examined the association of family structure and family adjustment. Utilizing a diverse sample of 738 Mexican American families (21.7% single parent), the current study examined differences across family structure on early adolescent outcomes, family functioning, and parent-child relationship variables. Results revealed that early adolescents in single parent families reported greater school misconduct,...

  10. The work experience of undocumented Mexican migrants in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R J; Deley, M

    1984-01-01

    This study, based on interviews with Mexican documented and undocumented women workers in Los Angeles county, finds that most of the women in both categories work in factories. Contrary to popular impression, only 10% of the undocumented women in this survey are engaged in private household employment, although 19% were so employed when they 1st came to the US. Despite this obvious change in occupation, in general occupational mobility from 1st jobs is insignificant. On the average, undocumented women's hourly rate of pay was 40 US cents higher than the minimum wage, and US$1.57 lower than the average documented women's wages. Within the same occupational category, the undocumented women earned less per hour. The smallest difference occured in the 'laborer's' category. Another departure from popular impression was that, 76% of undocumented workers were paid by check. The figure was 94% for documented women workers. The respondents who said they were paid in cash were most likely to be in the private household sector. 80% of the undocumented workers did not think that they were discriminated against in their jobs, suggesting that they are a rather timid group of workers who believe that they have no real options regarding their work life, and are relatively satisfied with what they have. Almost all the women said that they came to the US with the intention of staying permanently, or as long as they are not caught and sent back to Mexico, which is their biggest fear. Better job and better pay are the most important reasons given by most women for coming. Being temporarily laid off would not prompt them to return to Mexico, as they are confident that their chances of finding another minimum wage paying job are better in the US. A closek knit network of support usually tides them over during their period of joblessness.

  11. Mexicans' use of illicit drugs in an era of drug reform: national comparative analysis by migrant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G; Villatoro, Jorge Ameth; Kong, Yinfei; Gamiño, Marycarmen Bustos; Vega, William A; Mora, Maria Elena Medina

    2014-05-01

    Although rates of illicit drug use are considerably lower in Mexico than in the United States, rates in Mexico have risen significantly. This increase has particular implications for Mexican women and US migrants, who are considered at increased risk of drug use. Due to drug reforms enacted in Mexico in 2008, it is critical to evaluate patterns of drug use among migrants who reside in both regions. We analysed a sample of Mexicans (N=16,249) surveyed during a national household survey in 2011, the Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones (National Survey of Addictions). Comparative analyses based on Mexicans' migrant status - (1) never in the United States, (2) visited the United States, or (3) lived in the United States (transnationals) - featured analysis of variance and Chi-square global tests. Two multilevel regressions were conducted to determine the relationships among migrant status, women, and illicit drug use. Comparative findings showed significant differences in type and number of drugs used among Mexicans by migrant status. The regression models showed that compared with Mexicans who had never visited the United States, Mexican transnationals were more likely to report having used drugs (OR=2.453, 95% CI=1.933, 3.113) and using more illicit drugs (IRR=2.061, 95% CI=1.626, 2.613). Women were less likely than men to report having used drugs (OR=0.187, 95% CI=0.146, 0.239) and using more illicit drugs (IRR=0.153, 95% CI=0.116, 0.202). Overall, the findings support further exploration of risk factors for illicit drug use among Mexican transnationals, who exhibit greater drug use behaviours than Mexicans never in the United States. Because drug reform mandates referrals to treatment for those with recurrent issues of drug use, it is critical for the Mexican government and civic society to develop the capacity to offer evidence-based substance abuse treatment for returning migrants with high-risk drug behaviours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Familism, machismo and child rearing practices among Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamez, E G

    1981-09-01

    Mexican Americans form the 2nd largest minority group in the US. Fertility is 50% higher than in any other ethnic group. Income levels are inordinately low. In 1970, 42% of Mexican Americans were indigent, making approxiamtely 4200 annually. The Mexican American poor can be categorized into newly arrived aliens or 2nd or 3rd generation American citizens. In the 1st instance, the couple is young and English is not spoken. 2nd or 3rd generation Mexican Americans speak English. The persistent socioeconomic status of the Mexican American relates directly to the level of education. 52% of all Mexican Americans do not finish high school. Paz and Remos described the Mexican in terms of Adler's inferiority model. Murillo stated that to an individual, the family--whether nuclear or extended--is the center of life. The inherent responsibility is that the individual behave properly lest the family be disgraced. The family provides emotional and material security. Familism was seen as a deterrant to utilization of health care services, although some studies claim opposing views. Familism and occupational stability related positively to seeking medical care when ill. Hayden believed that supreme male dominance, individualism, pride, wife beating, aversion to contraceptives, and other characteristics were attributable to machismo. A predominant pattern in Mexican American culture is that of elders' ordering young men and women to establish obedience and male dominance. The husband represents authority and the wife-mother maintains a role of complete devotion to her husband and children. Role differentiation is taught implicitly and explicitly from infancy. Studies on the psychological differences between the sexes indicated that females were oppressed and had lower self esteem than males. 18-24 year old Mexican Americans are becoming less insistent upon strict separation of sex roles and are beginning to reject the traditional Mexican notion of masculine superiority. The word

  13. Children of the Harvest: The Schooling of Dust Bowl and Mexican Migrants during the Depression Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Paul; Donato, Ruben

    1990-01-01

    Chronicles experiences of depression era "Okies," juxtaposes them against experiences of Mexican Americans, and illuminates the diminution of agricultural labor in an industrializing society. Schooling for those groups was legitimized by their low occupational status. When economic circumstances improved, whites escaped from migrant…

  14. A Study of New Mexico Migrant Agricultural Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, John G.; And Others

    The intent of this report, as stated, is to bring about an awareness of the kinds of problems faced by migrant agricultural workers (Mexican Americans and Navajos), by farmers, and by agencies offering services to these migrants in New Mexico. An overview of the national and state migrant situation is presented, as well as case studies of various…

  15. Volunteer work in the church among older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Hayward, R David

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that influence the amount of volunteer work that older Mexican Americans perform in the place where they worship. The relationship between religion and volunteering is viewed from a social identity perspective. Data from a nationally representative sample of older Mexican Americans suggest that Evangelical/Pentecostal church members spend more time performing volunteer work at church than older Mexican Americans who affiliate with other denominations. Moreover, the findings indicate that the difference in the amount of volunteering between the two groups can largely be explained by differences in the nature of the spiritual support that Evangelical/Pentecostal receive from their fellow church members as well as depth of their commitment to their faith.

  16. Subjective Social Status, Mental and Psychosocial Health, and Birth Weight Differences in Mexican-American and Mexican Immigrant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-12-01

    Recent Mexican immigrant women on average have an unexpectedly low incidence of low birth weight (LBW). Birth weights decline and LBW incidence increases in post-immigrant generations. This pilot project tested the hypothesis that subjective social status (SSS) of pregnant women predicts variation in birth weight between Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women. 300 low-income pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women in South Texas were surveyed for SSS, depression, pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress and self-esteem and subsequent birth weight. No significant difference in SSS levels between pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women were found. However, SSS better predicted variation in birth weight across both groups than mental and psychosocial health variables. Results suggest distinct relationships among SSS, mental and psychosocial health that could impact birth weight. They underscore the relevance of a multilevel, biopsychosocial analytical framework to studying LBW.

  17. Gendered Boundaries among Latin American Migrants in Brussels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Pérez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on ethnographic research conducted in Brussels, this article analyses gender-based constructions in relation to paid domestic work. We focus our attention on Latin American migrants who, unlike migrants from other regions, come from societies where paid domestic work has been the main occupation of women throughout the twentieth century, where it was strongly shaped by a colonial legacy. We identify two main tropes within the discourse of our informants regarding this kind of work: the ‘(gendered professional’ and the ‘(domestic worker’. In our analysis, particular attention is given to the participation of men in paid domestic work within the context of migratory experiences.Resumen: Trabajadores domésticos y fronteras generizadas entre migrantes latinoamericanos en BruselasA partir de una investigación etnográfica realizada en Bruselas, este artículo analiza las construcciones de género relacionadas con el trabajo doméstico remunerado. Focalizamos la mirada en migrantes latinoamericanos, quienes, a diferencia de migrantes de otras regiones, provienen de sociedades donde el trabajo doméstico remunerado ha sido la principal ocupación para las mujeres durante el siglo XX, fuertemente marcada por una herencia colonial. Identificamos dos tropos centrales en el discurso de nuestros informantes sobre dicho trabajo, el ‘profesional (generizado’ y el ‘trabajador (doméstico’. Merece atención particular en nuestro análisis la participación de los varones en el trabajo doméstico remunerado en el marco de experiencias migratorias.

  18. Periodontitis associated with chronic kidney disease among Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidou, Effie; Hall, Yoshio; Swede, Helen; Himmelfarb, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    In comparison to non-Hispanic whites, a number of health-care disparities, including poor oral health, have been identified among Hispanics in general and Mexican Americans in particular. We hypothesized that Mexican Americans with chronic kidney disease (CKD) would have higher prevalence of chronic periodontitis compared with Mexican Americans with normal kidney function, and that the level of kidney function would be inversely related to the prevalence of periodontal disease. We examined this hypothesis using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-1994 (NHANES III) data set. We followed the American Academy of Periodontology/Center for Disease Control and Prevention case definition for periodontitis. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the CKD-Epidemiology equation for Hispanic populations. The classification to CKD stages was based on the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. Periodontitis prevalence increased across the kidney function groups showing a statistically significant dose-response association (Pperiodontitis compared with Mexican Americans with normal kidney function after adjusting for potential confounders such as smoking, diabetes, and socioeconomic status. Multivariate adjusted odds ratio for periodontitis significantly increased with 1, 5, and 10 mL/minute estimated glomerular filtration rate reduction from the mean. This is the first report, to the best our knowledge, that showed an increase of periodontitis prevalence with decreased kidney function in this population. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  19. A transnational approach to understanding indicators of mental health, alcohol use and reproductive health among indigenous mexican migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, María Luisa; Lewin Fischer, Pedro; Cornelius, Debra; Cornelius, Wayne; Goldenberg, Shira; Keyes, David

    2014-06-01

    The three studies presented in this Special Topics in Immigrant Health report findings from a novel transnational, mixed-methods study with indigenous Mayans in Yucatán, Mexico, and their satellite communities in Southern California. Indigenous migrants comprise the largest proportion of recent, first-time migrants from Mexico to the United States and are among the migrant populations most vulnerable to discrimination (e.g. work place) and health disparities. The studies presented focus on three topics: perceived discrimination and mental health among indigenous migrants and non-migrants, risky alcohol use behaviors associated with migration to the U.S. and within Mexico, and gendered power dynamics related to sexual health care access and utilization. This transnational research sheds new light on health issues and gender differences affecting indigenous Mexican migrant men, women and their families. Findings can serve to inform intervention research to improve migrant health in the U.S. and Mexico as well as transnational collaboration between countries.

  20. Contact with the Dead, Religion, and Death Anxiety among Older Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Bastida, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if contact with the dead is associated with lower death anxiety among older Mexican Americans. The data come from a nationwide survey of older Mexican Americans (N = 1,005). The study model specifies that (a) older Mexican Americans who have experienced contact with the dead are more likely to see the…

  1. Parents' Promotion of Psychological Autonomy, Psychological Control, and Mexican-American Adolescents' Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher-Censor, Efrat; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Mexican-American adolescents are at an elevated risk for adjustment difficulties. In an effort to identify parenting practices that can affect the adjustment of Mexican-American youth, the current study examined parents' promotion of psychological autonomy and parents' psychological control as perceived by Mexican-American early adolescents, and…

  2. Screening for depression among indigenous Mexican migrant farmworkers using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlan, William; Lee, Junghee

    2010-04-01

    U.S. farmworkers include growing numbers of individuals from indigenous, pre-Columbian communities in southern Mexico with distinctive languages and cultures. Given the high stress these farmworkers experience in their challenging work environments, they are very susceptible to depression and other mental and emotional health disorders. The present study explores the Spanish version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) as a screen for the presence and severity of depression among 123 indigenous Mexican-origin, migrant farmworkers in Oregon. Factor structure and inter-item correlations of the PHQ-9 are examined, along with associations between depression and culture-bound syndromes, self-esteem, self-efficacy, acculturation stress, and other sample psychosocial characteristics. The PHQ-9 exhibited strong factor loadings and internal consistency, and its severity score significantly correlated with other indicators of health status that were observed in previous studies to be significantly associated with depression. The PHQ-9 appears to be culturally relevant for use with Mexicans coming from a variety of indigenous cultures and having very low education and literacy.

  3. Determinants of Coping Responses among Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship of perceived stress, self-esteem, acculturation, and gender to the coping response of Mexican American adolescents. Data from self-report surveys indicated that adolescents had relatively high perceived stress levels, low acculturation, and a moderate self-esteem, with no significant gender differences. Self-esteem was…

  4. Interparental Relations, Maternal Employment, and Fathering in Mexican American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formoso, Diana; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Barrera, Manuel, Jr.; Dumka, Larry E.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined independent and interactive relations between the interparental relationship and maternal employment in predicting fathering within low-income, Mexican American two-parent families (N = 115). Interparental conflict was negatively related to quality fathering, and these relations were noted only for single-earner families. The…

  5. A Mexican American Woman Encounters Sociology: An Autobiographical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Norma

    1988-01-01

    Describes the author's experience of teaching bilingual educators. Identifies the bureaucratic structure of the school and the Mexican American culture as the two problem areas focused upon during the course. Concludes that her major areas of research interest in sociology are a direct product of her ethnicity, work experience, and this…

  6. Machismo sustains health and illness beliefs of Mexican American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobralske, Mary

    2006-08-01

    To inform nurse practitioners (NPs) about Mexican American men's health and illness beliefs and the ways in which these are influenced by their masculine identity and how they view themselves as men in their culture. The data sources used were based on a selected review of the literature about Mexican American men's health and illness beliefs and the concept of machismo. Several studies, including the author's study on Mexican American men's healthcare-seeking beliefs and behaviors and experience in providing primary health care to men across cultures, contributed new data. The meaning of manhood in the Mexican American culture is critical in understanding how men perceive health and illness and what they do when they are ill. Machismo enhances men's awareness of their health because they have to be healthy to be good fathers, husbands, brothers, sons, workers, and community members. Pain and disability are motivating factors in finding ways to regain their health. Men's health beliefs across cultures need further investigation by nurse researchers and NPs. How culture influences healthcare delivery to men should be better understood. If NPs are aware of men's views on masculinity, they are better prepared to understand and assist men in becoming more aware of their health status and to seek health care when appropriate.

  7. Attitudes toward Suicide among Mexican American and Anglo Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, George

    1981-01-01

    There were statistically significant differences between answers of 76 Anglo and 76 Mexican American youth on 35 of 100 opinion questionnaire items. Items centered on religion, psychopathology, aggression-impulsivity, acceptability of suicide, the "cry for help" dimension, and emotional impact. (Author/CM)

  8. Cultural and Contextual Influences on Parenting in Mexican American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Weaver, Scott R.; Nair, Rajni L.

    2009-01-01

    Family stress theory can explain associations between contextual stressors and parenting. The theory, however, has not been tested among Mexican Americans or expanded to include cultural-contextual risks. This study examined associations between neighborhood, economic, and acculturative stressors and parenting behaviors in a sample of 570…

  9. Parental Agency in Educational Decision Making: A Mexican American Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Margy

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: This article explores the experiences of one Mexican American family as they make a key curriculum choice for their 9-year-old son. Relatively little attention has been paid to parents' beliefs, attitudes, and, in particular, experiences as they actively engage in--and sometimes affect--their children's schooling. Parents'…

  10. Implicit Race/Ethnic Prejudice in Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Christelle Fabiola; Gasquoine, Philip Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Implicit race/ethnic prejudice was assessed using Spanish- and English-language versions of an Implicit Association Test that used Hispanic/Anglo first names and pleasant/unpleasant words as stimuli. This test was administered to a consecutive sample of Mexican American adults residing in the Rio Grande Valley region of Texas of whom about…

  11. Mexican American Televison: Applied Anthropology and Public Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiselein, E. B.; Marshall, Wes

    1976-01-01

    Fiesta Project provides a classic example of action anthropology in broadcasting. The project involved the research and production of a Spanish language public television series designed to attract, retain, and realistically help a Mexican American audience in southern Arizona. The project used anthropological research in initial program…

  12. Mexican American Women Pursuing Counselor Education Doctorates: A Narrative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Tamara J.; Carney, JoLynn V.

    2016-01-01

    The authors used narrative inquiry and Anzaldúa's (1999) bordlerlands theory to understand the cultural experiences of 5 Mexican American women in doctoral programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. Results indicated that participants navigated multiple cultural spheres and that the…

  13. HIV Prevention among Mexican Migrants at Different Migration Phases: Exposure to Prevention Messages and Association With Testing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Zhang, Xiao; Simon, Norma-Jean; Rhoads, Natalie; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J. Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ahmed Asadi

    2016-01-01

    Mobile populations are at increased risk for HIV infection. Exposure to HIV prevention messages at all phases of the migration process may help decrease im/migrants’ HIV risk. We investigated levels of exposure to HIV prevention messages, factors associated with message exposure, and the association between exposure to prevention messages and HIV testing behavior among Mexican im/migrants at different phases of the migration process. We conducted a cross-sectional, probability survey of Mexican im/migrants (N=3,149) traveling through the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. The results indicate limited exposure to prevention messages (57%–75%) and suboptimal last 12-month HIV testing rates (14%–25%) across five migration phases. Compared to pre-departure levels (75%), exposure to messages decreases at all post-departure migration phases (57%–63%, pmigration continuum. PMID:26595267

  14. A TWO-WAY ROAD: RATES OF HIV INFECTION AND BEHAVIORAL RISK FACTORS AMONG DEPORTED MEXICAN LABOR MIGRANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, M. Gudelia; Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Hovell, Melbourne; Sipan, Carol L.; Zellner, Jennifer A.; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, Eduardo; Kelley, Norma J.; Asadi-Gonzalez, Ahmed; Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    A large number of Mexican migrants are deported to Mexico and released in the North Mexican border region every year. Despite their volume and high vulnerability, little is known about the level of HIV infection and related risk behaviors among this hard-to-reach population. We conducted a cross-sectional, probability survey with deported Mexican migrants in Tijuana, Mexico (N=693) and estimated levels of HIV infection and behavioral risk factors among this migrant flow. The sample and population estimated rates of HIV for deported males were 1.23% and 0.80%, respectively. No positive cases were found among the female sample. We found high lifetime rates of reported sexually transmitted infections (22.3%) and last 12-months rates of unprotected sex (63.0%), sex with multiple sexual partners (18.1%), casual partners (25.7%), and sex workers (8.6%), compared to U.S. and Mexico adults. HIV prevention, testing, and treatment programs for this large, vulnerable, and transnational population need to be implemented in both the U.S. and Mexico. PMID:22562390

  15. Beliefs About Health and Illness in Latin-American Migrants with Diabetes Living in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelm, Katarina; Bard, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The study explored beliefs about health and illness in Latin American migrants diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) living in Sweden, and investigated the influence on health-related behavior including self-care and care-seeking behavior. Migrants are particularly affected in the diabetes pandemia. Beliefs about health and illness determine health-related behaviour and health but no studies have been found on Latin American migrants with DM. An explorative study design with focus-group inter...

  16. National Mexican Tourism Policy and North American Second Homeowners In Mexico: Local Tourism Development and Mexican Identity (Chapter 6)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Helene Balslev

    2018-01-01

    . Still the Mexican state does not seize the second home owners as a resource and ‘producers’ rather only as consumers of different Mexican objects, food etc. The chapter addresses this research gap and proposes rather than only perceive North American second home owners as part of tourism development...... participate in reshaping and reconfigure public policy and Mexican culture/identity construction. The purpose of the chapter is to explore the role of the North American second home owners and their impact on the planning and regulation of Mexican state policies, and how they might reconfigure practices and...

  17. Coyotaje from the point of view of Central American migrant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article, based on a qualitative methodology that includes in depth interviews with eighty Central American women who used migrant smugglers to reach the United States, examines her point of view about migrant smuggling. This paper concludes that one-sixth of respondents were deceived by migrant smugglers, and seven women suffered some form of sexual abuse from them, however more than two-thirds of the interviewees expressed a positive opinion towards migrant smugglers. This does not mean that women always trust migrant smugglers, they generally only trust those who were recommended for relatives or friends.

  18. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and Mexican nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Allison

    2011-03-01

    In the context of nurse migration, experts view trade agreements as either vehicles for facilitating migration or as contributing to brain-drain phenomena. Using a case study design, this study explored the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on the development of Mexican nursing. Drawing results from a general thematic analysis of 48 interviews with Mexican nurses and 410 primary and secondary sources, findings show that NAFTA changed the relationship between the State and Mexican nursing. The changed relationship improved the infrastructure capable of producing and monitoring nursing human resources in Mexico. It did not lead to the mass migration of Mexican nurses to the United States and Canada. At the same time, the economic instability provoked by the peso crisis of 1995 slowed the implementation of planned advances. Subsequent neoliberal reforms decreased nurses' security as workers by minimizing access to full-time positions with benefits, and decreased wages. This article discusses the linkages of these events and the effects on Mexican nurses and the development of the profession. The findings have implications for nursing human resources policy-making and trade in services.

  19. The Mexican Committee against Racism and What It Reveals about Relations between Mexican and American Jews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Katz Gugenheim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work reconstructs the origin, organization, development, and disappearance of the Mexican Committee against Racism (Comité Mexicano contra el Racismo, CMR, active in Mexico City from 1944 to 1946, inthe context of the relations between a leading Jewish organization in the United States and a Mexican Jewish institution. The CMR appears in historiography as a Mexican anti-fascist institution, but this research reveals that it was conceived, implemented, financed, and supervised by the American Jewish Committee (AJC, a Jewish social action organization based in the United States, with the aim of fighting against racist and anti-Semitic prejudices, creating a friendly climate towards Jewish-refugee immigration, and quelling anti-American feelings in Mexico. The AJC's involvement was kept a secret for Mexicans in general and for the Jewish community in Mexico. Drawing on archives in Mexico and the United States, this work details the reasons that led to its organization, describes its implementation, explains why the AJC's involvement was kept a secret, and why the CMR failed to prosper and eventually disappeared.

  20. Understanding the Impact of Migration on HIV Risk: An Analysis of Mexican Migrants' Sexual Practices, Partners, and Contexts by Migration Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Rhoads, Natalie; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Hovell, Melbourne F; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Sipan, Carol L; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J Eduardo; Martínez-Donate, Ana P

    2017-03-01

    HIV risk among Mexican migrants varies across migration phases (pre-departure, transit, destination, interception, and return), but there is limited knowledge about specific sexual behaviors, characteristics of sexual partners, and sexual contexts at different migration stages. To fill the gap, we used data from a cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in Tijuana, Mexico. Information on migration phase and last sexual encounter was collected from 1219 male migrants. Our findings suggest that compared to pre-departure migrants, repeat migrants returning from communities of origin were more likely to have sex with male partners, use substances before sex, and not use condoms; migrants in the transit phase in the Mexican border were more likely to have sex with casual partners and sex workers; and migrants in the interception phase were more likely to engage in anal sex and use substances before sex. Sexual behaviors, partners, and contexts vary significantly among migrants at different migration phases. Tailored HIV prevention programs targeting Mexican migrants need to be developed and implemented at all migration phases.

  1. The Relationship between Native American Ancestry, Body Mass Index and Diabetes Risk among Mexican-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Huff, Chad D; Yamamura, Yuko; Wu, Xifeng; Strom, Sara S

    2015-01-01

    Higher body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes are substantially higher among Mexican-Americans relative to non-Hispanic European Americans. Mexican-Americans are genetically diverse, with a highly variable distribution of Native American, European, and African ancestries. Here, we evaluate the role of Native American ancestry on BMI and diabetes risk in a well-defined Mexican-American population. Participants were randomly selected among individuals residing in the Houston area who are enrolled in the Mexican-American Cohort study. Using a custom Illumina GoldenGate Panel, we genotyped DNA from 4,662 cohort participants for 87 Ancestry-Informative Markers. On average, the participants were of 50.2% Native American ancestry, 42.7% European ancestry and 7.1% African ancestry. Using multivariate linear regression, we found BMI and Native American ancestry were inversely correlated; individuals with ancestry were 2.5 times more likely to be severely obese compared to those with >80% Native American ancestry. Furthermore, we demonstrated an interaction between BMI and Native American ancestry in diabetes risk among women; Native American ancestry was a strong risk factor for diabetes only among overweight and obese women (OR = 1.190 for each 10% increase in Native American ancestry). This study offers new insight into the complex relationship between obesity, genetic ancestry, and their respective effects on diabetes risk. Findings from this study may improve the diabetes risk prediction among Mexican-American individuals thereby facilitating targeted prevention strategies.

  2. Determinants of Adherence to Living on Dialysis for Mexican Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley A. Wells

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores perceptions that affect adherence behaviors among Mexican Americans living with dialysis. In-depth narrative interviews were conducted with 15 Mexican Americans with end-stage renal disease (ESRD living on dialysis, 15 family members, and 6 health care personnel who provided care to them. Four themes emerged: (a positive influences to adherence, (b obstacles to adherence, (c daily activity losses, and (d fears about living with dialysis. From the findings, the perceptions given for non-adherence with the dialysis regimen ranged from denial of the condition, lack of pre-education, to cultural factors. Those given for adherence included prolonged life, family, and hope of getting a transplant. Health care providers were the reminder to adhere. Several cultural factors influenced their adherence perceptions. Strategies to enhance adherence behaviors should focus on knowledge about dialysis, use of the collective efficacy of the family, and the inclusion of cultural values.

  3. Higher risk for obesity among Mexican-American and Mexican immigrant children and adolescents than among peers in Mexico.

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    Hernández-Valero, María A; Bustamante-Montes, L Patricia; Hernández, Mike; Halley-Castillo, Elizabeth; Wilkinson, Anna V; Bondy, Melissa L; Olvera, Norma

    2012-08-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1,717 children and adolescents of Mexican origin ages 5-19 years living in Mexico and Texas to explore the influence of country of birth and country of longest residence on their overweight and obesity status. Descriptive statistics were used to compare demographic and anthropometric characteristics of participants born and raised in Mexico (Mexicans), born in Mexico and raised in the United States (Mexican immigrants), and born and raised in the United States (Mexican-Americans). Univariate and multivariate nominal logistic regression was used to determine the demographic predictors of obesity adjusted by country of birth, country of residence, age, and gender. Almost half (48.8%) of the Mexican-Americans and 43.2% of the Mexican immigrants had body mass index at the 85th percentile or above, compared to only 29.3% of the Mexicans (P obese than their Mexican peers [Mexican-Americans: odds ratio (OR) = 2.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-3.4); Mexican immigrants: OR = 2.2 (95% CI 1.6-3.0)]. In addition, males were more likely than females to be obese [OR = 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.1)], and adolescents 15-19 years of age were less likely than their younger counterparts [OR = 0.5 (95% CI 0.4-0.7)] to be obese. The high prevalence of obesity among children of Mexican origin in the United States is of great concern and underscores the urgent need to develop and implement obesity preventive interventions targeting younger children of Mexican origin, especially newly arrived immigrant children. In addition, future obesity research should take into consideration the country of origin of the study population to develop more culturally specific obesity interventions.

  4. Social support, stressors, and frailty among older Mexican American adults.

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    Peek, M Kristen; Howrey, Bret T; Ternent, Rafael Samper; Ray, Laura A; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2012-11-01

    There is little research on the effects of stressors and social support on frailty. Older Mexican Americans, in particular, are at higher risk of medical conditions, such as diabetes, that could contribute to frailty. Given that the Mexican American population is rapidly growing in the United States, it is important to determine whether there are modifiable social factors related to frailty in this older group. To address the influence of social support and stressors on frailty among older Mexican Americans, we utilized five waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (Hispanic EPESE) to examine the impact of stressors and social support on frailty over a 12-year period. Using a modified version of the Fried and Walston Frailty Index, we estimated the effects of social support and stressors on frailty over time using trajectory modeling (SAS 9.2, PROC TRAJ). We first grouped respondents according to one of three trajectories: low, progressive moderate, and progressive high frailty. Second, we found that the effects of stressors and social support on frailty varied by trajectory and by type of stressor. Health-related stressors and financial strain were related to increases in frailty over time, whereas social support was related to less-steep increases in frailty. Frailty has been hypothesized to reflect age-related physiological vulnerability to stressors, and the analyses presented indicate partial support for this hypothesis in an older sample of Mexican Americans. Future research needs to incorporate measures of stressors and social support in examining those who become frail, especially in minority populations.

  5. Cultures of moderation and expression: emotional experience, behavior, and physiology in Chinese Americans and Mexican Americans.

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    Soto, José A; Levenson, Robert W; Ebling, Rachel

    2005-06-01

    Ethnographic accounts suggest that emotions are moderated in Chinese cultures and expressed openly in Mexican cultures. The authors tested this notion by comparing subjective, behavioral, and physiological aspects of emotional responses to 3 (warned, unwarned, instructed to inhibit responding) aversive acoustic startle stimuli in 95 Chinese Americans and 64 Mexican Americans. Subjective reports were consistent with ethnographic accounts; Chinese Americans reported experiencing significantly less emotion than Mexican Americans across all 3 startle conditions. Evidence from a nonemotional task suggested that these differences were not artifacts of cultural differences in the use of rating scales. Few cultural differences were found in emotional behavior or physiology, suggesting that these aspects of emotion are less susceptible to cultural influence.

  6. Allocentric and Idiocentric Self-Description and Academic Achievement among Mexican American and Anglo American Adolescents.

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    Dabul, Amy J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Posits a distinction between cultures motivated by individualistic value systems (idiocentric) and collectivistic value systems (allocentric). Study reveals that Mexican American adolescents describe themselves in more allocentric terms, while Anglo American adolescents choose idiocentric terms. Suggests a correlation between idiocentric values…

  7. Mentoring Factors in Doctoral Programs of Mexican American and American Indian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Madeline J.; Fenske, Robert H.

    The purpose of this study was to determine factors affecting satisfaction of Mexican American (MA) and American Indian (AI) students with their doctoral programs. Faculty mentoring plays an extremely significant role in minority education. Previous research indicates differences between males and females in their interaction with faculty. Minority…

  8. Family Cohesion in the Lives of Mexican American and European American Parents

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    Behnke, Andrew O.; MacDermid, Shelley M.; Coltrane, Scott L.; Parke, Ross D.; Duffy, Sharon; Widaman, Keith F.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated similarities and differences in relations between stress and parenting behaviors for 509 Mexican American and European American fathers and mothers in Southern California. Our model posited that family cohesion mediates the relation between stressors and parenting behavior, and we found that family cohesion strongly…

  9. Perceived social stress, pregnancy-related anxiety, depression and subjective social status among pregnant Mexican and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in subjective social status, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and pregnancy-related anxiety between pregnant Mexican American and Mexican immigrant women. Three hundred pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in South Texas were surveyed for pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and subjective social status. Pregnant Mexican immigrant women had higher levels of pregnancy-related anxiety and lower levels of depression and perceived social stress than pregnant Mexican American women. Change in these variables among Mexican immigrant women was relatively linear as time of residence in the United States increased. Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women had significantly different correlations between subjective social status, self-esteem and perceived social stress. Results indicate that subjective social status is an important psychosocial variable among pregnant Hispanic women. Results contribute to ongoing efforts to provide culturally responsive prenatal psychosocial support services.

  10. Cognitive Skill, Skill Demands of Jobs, and Earnings among Young European American, African American, and Mexican American Workers.

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    Farkas, George; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Analyses of National Longitudinal Survey data indicate that cognitive skill level affects access to high-skill occupations and earnings. Lower cognitive skill levels for African Americans and U.S.-born Mexican Americans explain a substantial proportion of income differences between these groups and European Americans but not the gender gap in pay…

  11. Parental Attachment, Self-Esteem, and Antisocial Behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…

  12. Anxiety disorders among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites in Los Angeles.

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    Karno, M; Golding, J M; Burnam, M A; Hough, R L; Escobar, J I; Wells, K M; Boyer, R

    1989-04-01

    This report from the Los Angeles site of the NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area study reveals significant ethnic and national origin differences in lifetime prevalence rates for three out of six specific, DSM-III-defined anxiety disorders. In the case of simple phobia, United States-born Mexican Americans report higher rates than native non-Hispanic whites or immigrant Mexican Americans, the latter two groups having similar rates. Mexican Americans born in the United States had higher rates of agoraphobia than immigrant Mexican Americans, and non-Hispanic whites reported higher lifetime rates of generalized anxiety disorder compared with both immigrant and native Mexican Americans. Neither ethnic nor national origin differences in lifetime prevalence rates were found for panic disorder, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Selective migration is postulated as a potential factor influencing prevalence differences between native and immigrant Mexican Americans.

  13. The role of familism in weight loss treatment for Mexican American women.

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    McLaughlin, Elizabeth A; Campos-Melady, Marita; Smith, Jane Ellen; Serier, Kelsey N; Belon, Katherine E; Simmons, Jeremiah D; Kelton, Katherine

    2017-10-01

    Mexican American women are disproportionately affected by overweight/obesity and the health complications accompanying them, but weight loss treatments are less successful in this ethnic group. High levels of familism, a value reflecting obligation to family that supersedes attention to oneself, interfere with weight loss for Mexican American women. This mixed methods study investigated overweight Mexican American women's beliefs about how familism, and Mexican American culture, might hinder weight loss success, and how treatments might be culturally adapted. Results suggest a need to support women in their commitment to family while also helping them make changes. Recommendations for culturally adapted treatments are made.

  14. Prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants: probability survey in the north border of Mexico

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    Gudelia Rangel M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants (MMIs in different geographic contexts, including the sending communities in Mexico, the receiving communities in the United States (US, and the Mexican North border region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a probability survey among MMIs traveling through key border crossing sites in the Tijuana (Baja California, Mexico-San Diego (California, US border region (N=1 429. RESULTS: The survey revealed substantial rates of reported sexually transmitted infections, needle-sharing and sexual risk practices in all migration contexts. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated levels of HIV risk call for further binational research and preventive interventions in all key geographic contexts of the migration experience to identify and tackle the different personal, environmental, and structural determinants of HIV risk in each of these contexts.

  15. Reproductive habitus, psychosocial health, and birth weight variation in Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-08-01

    The Latina Paradox, or persistent, unexplained variation in low birth weight rates in recently immigrated Mexican women and the trend toward higher rates in subsequent generations of Mexican American women, is most often attributed to unidentified sociocultural causes. We suggest herein that different disciplinary approaches can be synthesized under the constructs of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to identify influences of sociocultural processes on birth weight. Reproductive habitus are "modes of living the reproductive body, bodily practices, and the creation of new subjects through interactions between people and structures" (Smith-Oka, 2012: 2276). Subjective social status infers comparison of self to others based on community definitions of status or socioeconomic status (Adler 2007). We present results from a prospective study of low-income Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women from south Texas that tested the ability of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to elucidate the Latina Paradox. We hypothesized that reproductive habitus between Mexican immigrant women and Mexican American women inform different subjective social statuses during pregnancy, and different subjective social statuses mediate responses to psychosocial stressors known to correlate with low birth weight. Six hundred thirty-one women were surveyed for psychosocial health, subjective social status, and reproductive histories between 2011 and 2013. Eighty-three women were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 for status during pregnancy, prenatal care practices, and pregnancy narratives and associations. Birth weight was extracted from medical records. Results were mixed. Subjective social status and pregnancy-related anxiety predicted low birth weight in Mexican immigrant but not Mexican American women. Mexican immigrant women had significantly lower subjective social status scores but a distinct reproductive habitus that could explain improved psychosocial

  16. Diabetes is more lethal in Mexicans and Mexican Americans compared to non-Hispanic Whites

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    Hunt, Kelly J; Gonzalez, Maria Elena; Lopez, Ruy; Haffner, Steve M; Stern, Michael P; Gonzalez-Villalpando, Clicerio

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the mortality risk associated with diabetes in the Mexico City Diabetes Study (MCDS) and the San Antonio Heart Study (SAHS). Methods Prospective cohorts conducted 1990-2007 in MCDS and 1979-2000 in SAHS. Mortality risk was examined using Cox proportional hazard models in 1,402 non-Hispanic whites (NHW), 1,907 U.S.-born Mexican Americans (MA), 444 Mexican-born MA, 2,281 Mexico City residents (MCR) between the ages of 35 and 64. Results Age- and sex-adjusted mortality HRs comparing U.S.-born MA, Mexican-born MA and MCR to NHW were 1.09 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.37), 1.23 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.76) and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.23), respectively, in non-diabetic individuals; in contrast, mortality risk varied in diabetic individuals with respective HRs of 1.77 (95% CI: 1.20, 2.61), 1.08 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.97) and 2.27 (95% CI: 1.53, 3.35) (interaction p-value=0.0003). Excluding Mexican-born MA and non-diabetic individuals, controlling for medication use, insulin use, fasting glucose levels and duration of diabetes explained a significant proportion of the mortality differential (HRs relative to NHW were 1.31 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.98) in U.S.-born MA and 1.38 (95% CI: 0.89, 2.12) in MCR). Conclusions This study provides evidence that diabetes is more lethal in U.S.-born MA and MCR than in NHW. PMID:21840730

  17. Cognitive decline, mortality, and organophosphorus exposure in aging Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Kimberly C; Ling, Chenxiao; Lee, Anne; To, Tu My; Cockburn, Myles; Haan, Mary; Ritz, Beate

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a major health concern among older Mexican Americans, associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and may be influenced by environmental exposures. To investigate whether agricultural based ambient organophosphorus (OP) exposure influences 1) the rate of cognitive decline and mortality and 2) whether these associations are mediated through metabolic or inflammatory biomarkers. In a subset of older Mexican Americans from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (n = 430), who completed modified mini-mental state exams (3MSE) up to 7 times (1998-2007), we examined the relationship between estimated ambient OP exposures and cognitive decline (linear repeated measures model) and time to dementia or being cognitively impaired but not demented (CIND) and time to mortality (cox proportional hazards model). We then explored metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers as potential mediators of these relationships (additive hazards mediation). OP exposures at residential addresses were estimated with a geographic information system (GIS) based exposure assessment tool. Participants with high OP exposure in the five years prior to baseline experienced faster cognitive decline (β = 0.038, p = 0.02) and higher mortality over follow-up (HR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.12, 3.26). The direct effect of OP exposure was estimated at 241 (95% CI = 27-455) additional deaths per 100,000 person-years, and the proportion mediated through the metabolic hormone adiponectin was estimated to be 4% 1.5-19.2). No other biomarkers were associated with OP exposure. Our study provides support for the involvement of OP pesticides in cognitive decline and mortality among older Mexican Americans, possibly through biologic pathways involving adiponectin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Relation between Maternal and Child Depression in Mexican American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Marissa; McCarty, Carolyn; Cauce, Ana Mari; Robins, Richard W.; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to better understand possible pathways that lead to a relatively high incidence of depressive symptoms among Mexican American youth, an interpersonal stress model of depression was tested using a community sample of 674 Mexican American mothers and their 5th grade children. Structural equation analyses revealed that maternal…

  19. Mexican American Mothers' Perceptions of Childhood Obesity: A Theory-Guided Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Erica T.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity continues to increase, disproportionately affecting Mexican American children. The aims of this review are to (a) assess the literature regarding Mexican American mothers' knowledge and perceptions of childhood obesity, prevention, and their role in prevention; (b) critically evaluate the methodological quality of the research…

  20. Recent Increases in Intermarriage by Mexican American Males: Bexar County, Texas, from 1971 to 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Avelardo

    1983-01-01

    Consistent with previous decades, Mexican-American exogamy rates during the 1970s steadily increased. However, this increase was a result of a rise in outmarriage rates for Mexican-American males rather than females as was the case in the past. (Author)

  1. Predictors of Mexican American Mothers' and Fathers' Attitudes toward Gender Equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaper, Campbell; Valin, Dena

    1996-01-01

    Among 50 Mexican American married mothers and 33 Mexican American married fathers of preschool children, egalitarian gender attitudes were related to greater educational attainment and placing lower value on competitiveness for both mothers and fathers, and to U.S. birth and holding communal values for mothers. Suggests that egalitarian gender…

  2. Using a Positive Psychology and Family Framework to Understand Mexican American Adolescents' College-Going Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Sparrow, Gregory Scott; Gonzalez, Stacey Lee

    2017-01-01

    Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Mexican American adolescents' academic experiences. We used a quantitative, predictive design to explore how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, subjective happiness, hope, and family importance influenced 131 Mexican American adolescents' college-going beliefs. We used…

  3. Methodological Appendix of Research Methods Employed in the Mexican American Education Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights released Mexican American Education Study findings in a series of documents: (1) "The Ethnic Isolation of Mexican Americans in the Public Schools of the Southwest" (ED 052 849), "The Unfinished Education" (ED 056 821), and "The Excluded Student" (ED 062 069). The research methods employed in the study are…

  4. Para Los Ninos -- For the Children: Improving Education for Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor, Frank

    The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights conducted the Mexican American Education Study between 1969 and 1974. Drawn from the published and unpublished findings of this study, this report discusses the education of Mexican Americans in the 5 Southwestern states of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas, where about 85 percent of all…

  5. Aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism in North American, South American, and Mexican Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedde, H W; Agarwal, D P; Harada, S; Rothhammer, F; Whittaker, J O; Lisker, R

    1986-01-01

    While about 40% of the South American Indian populations (Atacameños, Mapuche, Shuara) were found to be deficient in aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme I (ALDH2 or E2), preliminary investigations showed very low incidence of isozyme deficiency among North American natives (Sioux, Navajo) and Mexican Indians (mestizo). Possible implications of such trait differences on cross-cultural behavioral response to alcohol drinking are discussed. PMID:3953578

  6. Identifying opportunities to increase HIV testing among mexican migrants: a call to step up efforts in health care and detention settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P Martínez-Donate

    Full Text Available HIV testing and counseling is a critical component of HIV prevention efforts and core element of current "treatment as prevention" strategies. Mobility, low education and income, and limited access to health care put Latino migrants at higher risk for HIV and represent barriers for adequate levels of HIV testing in this population. We examined correlates of, and missed opportunities to increase, HIV testing for circular Mexican migrants in the U.S. We used data from a probability-based survey of returning Mexican migrants (N=1161 conducted in the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. We estimated last 12-months rates of HIV testing and the percentage of migrants who received other health care services or were detained in an immigration center, jail, or prison for 30 or more days in the U.S., but were not tested for HIV. Twenty-two percent of migrants received HIV testing in the last 12 months. In general, utilization of other health care services or detention for 30 or more days in the U.S. was a significant predictor of last 12-months HIV testing. Despite this association, we found evidence of missed opportunities to promote testing in healthcare and/or correctional or immigration detention centers. About 27.6% of migrants received other health care and/or were detained at least 30 days but not tested for HIV. Health care systems, jails and detention centers play an important role in increasing access to HIV testing among circular migrants, but there is room for improvement. Policies to offer opt-out, confidential HIV testing and counseling to Mexican migrants in these settings on a routine and ethical manner need to be designed and pilot tested. These policies could increase knowledge of HIV status, facilitate engagement in HIV treatment among a highly mobile population, and contribute to decrease incidence of HIV in the host and receiving communities.

  7. Weight status of Mexican immigrant women: a comparison with women in Mexico and with US-born Mexican American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia D; Ritterman-Weintraub, Miranda L; Fernald, Lia C H; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha

    2013-09-01

    We assessed the association between birthplace, residence, or years in the United States and actual weight (body mass index), perceived weight accuracy, or provider screens for overweight or obesity among Mexican immigrant women. We used linked data from Health and Nutrition Examination Survey waves 2001-2006 and 2006 National Mexican Health and Nutrition Survey to compare 513 immigrants with 9527 women in Mexico and 342 US-born Mexican American women. Immigrants were more likely than women in Mexico to be obese and to perceive themselves as overweight or obese after adjustment for confounders. Recent immigrants had similar weight-related outcomes as women in Mexico. Immigrants were less likely to be obese than were US-born Mexican Americans. Within the overweight or obese population, reported provider screens were higher among immigrants than among women in Mexico, but lower than among US-born Mexican Americans. US residency of at least 5 years but less than 20 years and reporting insufficient provider screens elevated obesity risk. Mexican-origin women in the United States and Mexico are at risk for overweight and obesity. We found no evidence of a "healthy immigrant" effect.

  8. Social Relationships in the Church during Late Life: Assessing Differences between African Americans, Whites, and Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Bastida, Elena

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if there are differences in the social relationships that older African Americans, older whites, and older Mexican Americans form with the people where they worship. Data from two nationwide surveys are pooled to see if race differences emerge in eleven different measures of church-based social relationships. These measures assess social relationships with rank-and-file church members as well as social relationships with members of the clergy. The findings reveal that older African Americans tend to have more well-developed social relationships in the church than either older whites or older Mexican Americans. This is true with respect to relationships with fellow church members as well as relationships with the clergy. In contrast, relatively few differences emerged between older Americans of European descent and older Mexican Americans. However, when differences emerged in the data, older whites tend to score higher on the support measures than older Mexican Americans.

  9. They "miss more than anything their normal life back home": masculinity and extramarital sex among Mexican migrants in Atlanta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jennifer S; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Nyhus, Christina M; Yount, Kathryn M; Bauermeister, José A

    2009-03-01

    Gender has been recognized as a significant influence on sexual health behaviors. Labor migration presents an important context of vulnerability for sexual health. To understand how the context of migration affects risk-related practices, both cultural and social aspects of gender need to be explored. In the quantitative part of a mixed-methods study conducted in 1999 in Atlanta, 187 Mexican migrant men were asked about their demographic characteristics; sexual history; migration motivations; substance use; social support; leisure-time activities; and ideas about masculinity, sexuality and marriage. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to test the association between these domains and men's number of partners since their arrival in Atlanta. Number of partners was positively associated with owning a home in Mexico; number of trips back to Mexico; social network size; having had a sex worker as a partner; and going out dancing and to strip clubs on weekends (coefficients, 0.3-4.1). It was negatively associated with age, education, contact with social network members and feeling that sex is tied to emotional intimacy (-0.4 to -1.0). Programs must acknowledge and target migrant men's social networks and the spaces in which they may encounter risky sexual situations. Multilevel strategies, such as the development of more health-enhancing community spaces and the promotion of safer sexual practices should form part of comprehensive efforts to reduce sexual risk among migrant men.

  10. Perceived discrimination and health among Puerto Rican and Mexican Americans: buffering effect of the Lazo matrimonial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Ah; Ferraro, Kenneth F

    2009-06-01

    An emerging body of research shows that perceived discrimination adversely influences the mental health of minority populations, but is it also deleterious to physical health? If yes, can marriage buffer the effect of perceived discrimination on physical health? We address these questions with data from Puerto Rican and Mexican American residents of Chicago. Multivariate regression analyses reveal that perceived discrimination is associated with more physical health problems for both Puerto Rican and Mexican Americans. In addition, an interaction effect between marital status and perceived discrimination was observed: married Mexican Americans with higher perceived discrimination had fewer physical health problems than their unmarried counterparts even after adjusting for differential effects of marriage by nativity. The findings reveal that perceived discrimination is detrimental to the physical health of both Puerto Rican and Mexican Americans, but that the stress-buffering effect of marriage on physical health exists for Mexican Americans only.

  11. Alcohol Use Disorders in National Samples of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans: The Mexican National Addiction Survey and the U.S. National Alcohol Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Lown, Anne; Ye, Yu; Robertson, Marjorie J.; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Greenfield, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The authors show associations between immigration and alcohol disorders using data from the 1995 and 2000 U.S. National Alcohol Surveys and the 1998 Mexico National Household Survey on Addictions. The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 4.8% for the Mexicans, 4.2% for the Mexico-born immigrants, and 6.6% for the U.S.-born Mexican Americans. They…

  12. Effect of acculturation and mutuality on family loyalty among Mexican American caregivers of elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hsueh-Fen S; An, Kyungeh

    2012-06-01

    Informal family care for elders is conventional in Mexican American communities despite increasing intergenerational gaps in filial values. In our study, we explored whether acculturation and dyadic mutuality, as perceived by Mexican American family caregivers, explain the caregivers' expectations of family loyalty toward elderly relatives. A nonexperimental, correlational design with convenience sampling was used in El Paso, Texas, from October 2007 to January 2008. Three bilingual promotoras collected data from 193 Mexican American adult caregivers of community-dwelling elders using three scales designed for Mexican Americans: the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans II-Short Form, the Mutuality Scale, and the Expectations of Family Loyalty of Children Toward Elderly Relatives Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to analyze the data. Acculturation had a marginal effect (r = .21, p loyalty toward elderly relatives. There was no significant correlation between acculturation and mutuality (r = .05). Although Mexican American caregivers with strong Mexican orientation may have high expectations of family loyalty toward elderly relatives, mutuality exhibits more significant effects on expectations. Among Mexican Americans, mutuality between the caregiving dyad, as perceived by caregivers, may be a better predictor of filial values than caregivers' acculturation alone. It may be useful to incorporate the dual paradigm of acculturation and mutuality into immigrant family care for elderly relatives. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  13. A cross-over in Mexican and Mexican-American fertility rates: Evidence and explanations for an emerging paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Heuveline

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Against a backdrop of two new developments in the fertility behavior of the Mexican- Origin population in the U.S., the present discussion will update contemporary Mexican-Origin fertility patterns and address several theoretical weaknesses in the current approach to minority group fertility. Data come from six national surveys (three from Mexico and three from the U.S. that cover a twenty-five year period (1975-2000. The findings demonstrate dramatic decreases in the fertility rates in Mexico at the same time that continuous increases have been documented in the fertility rates of third-or-later generation Mexican-Americans in the U.S., particularly at younger ages. These changes necessitate a reexamination of the ubiquitous theory that Mexican pronatalist values are responsible for the high fertility rates found within the Mexican-Origin population in the U.S. Instead, they point to the increasing relevance of framing the fertility behavior of the Mexican-Origin population within a racial stratification perspective that stresses the influence of U.S. social context on fertility behavior. As a step in this direction, the analysis examines fertility patterns within the Mexican-Origin population in the U.S. Special attention is given to the role of nativity/generational status in contributing to within group differences.

  14. Evaluation of expressed emotion in schizophrenia: a comparison of Caucasians and Mexican-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelowicz, Alex; Zarate, Roberto; Gonzalez, Veronica; Lopez, Steven R; Ortega, Paula; Obregon, Nora; Mintz, Jim

    2002-05-01

    Social desirability, while a recognized source of respondent bias among Mexican-Americans, has not been evaluated as an explanation for the lower rate of high expressed emotion (EE) found in the family members of Mexican-Americans versus Caucasians with schizophrenia. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the lower rate of high EE (hostility and criticism) among Mexican-Americans was the result of cultural factors impacting on how information was reported by the Mexican-American relative of a patient with schizophrenia. We compared the ratings of EE between Caucasian (N = 17) and Mexican-American (N = 44) patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and their key relatives using the level of expressed emotion (LEE) scale (paper and pencil instrument rated by the patient and relative separately) and the Five Minute Speech Sample (observational experimenter rated). The ability of the various measures to predict relapse over two years was also examined. Contrary to our hypothesis, there were no differences between patient and family measures within ethnic group. Mexican-American patients and relatives reported lower rates of high EE than Caucasians across all measures. High EE predicted relapse across measures for Caucasian participants, but did not predict relapse for Mexican-Americans on any of the measurement instruments. We discuss the implications of these findings on cross-cultural research and family interventions for individuals with psychotic disorders.

  15. Migration, Culture and Health of Mexican Americans in an Acculturation Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Robert G.; Acosta, Phyllis B.

    In East Los Angeles, 26 Mexican American families with children in Head Start responded to a questionnaire gathering data on birthplace, family income, occupation, individuals in the home, dietary intake and habits of the children, food buying and preparation practices, and pregnancy history of the mothers. In San Ysidro, 101 Mexican American…

  16. Domestic Dramas: Mexican American Music as an Archive of Immigrant Women's Experiences, 1920s-1950s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Magdalena L.

    2012-01-01

    Mexican women's working and romantic lives were frequent subject matter in early-twentieth-century Mexican American music. Surprisingly, this trend is rendered nearly invisible by the corpus of scholarly work that focuses on the male-centered "heroic corrido," particularly the class and race conflicts represented in that "masculine" genre. This…

  17. United States versus Mexican Perceptions of the Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Joel D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Surveys U.S. and Mexican managerial attitudes concerning the impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) process on the United States. Discusses differences in Mexican and U.S. attitudes concerning NAFTA and a number of socioeconomic concerns. (SR)

  18. Neuroticism, acculturation and the cortisol awakening response in Mexican American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Deborah; Mintz, Jim; Javors, Martin; Marino, Elise

    2012-01-01

    Neuroticism is associated with greater susceptibility to the adverse effects of stress and greater exposure to the stressors associated with acculturation in U.S. born Mexican Americans. Neuroticism and acculturation have been associated with injury to crucial stress response systems and are known risk factors for certain mood and anxiety disorders. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of neuroticism, and acculturation on the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in healthy Mexican-American adults. Salivary cortisol samples were collected at awakening and 30, 45, and 60 min thereafter, on two consecutive weekdays from 59 healthy Mexican American adult males (26) and females (33), ages 18 to 38 years. Participants were assessed for level of neuroticism and acculturation. Data were analyzed using a mixed effects regression model with repeated measures at four time points. Results showed a significant Neuroticism×Acculturation×Time interaction. The CAR was virtually eliminated in highly acculturated Mexican Americans with greater Anglo orientation and high neuroticism compared with less acculturated Mexican Americans with greater Mexican orientation and lower neuroticism. Findings suggest that some Mexican Americans with high levels of neuroticism may be particularly susceptible to certain challenges and stressors associated with acculturation leading over time to the development of allostatic load, desensitization of the Hypothalamic CRF system and attenuation of the CAR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Study protocol: intervention in maternal perception of preschoolers' weight among Mexican and Mexican-American mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Peña, Yolanda; He, Meizi; Sosa, Erica T; Avila-Alpirez, Hermelinda; Trejo-Ortiz, Perla M

    2018-05-30

    . Qualitative data will be analyzed through analysis of inductive content. A combined coding model will be developed and used to code transcripts using the NVivo software. Healthy Change intervention could help change MPCW, an initial step for obesity prevention among preschoolers. This study presents a first of its kind intervention available in Spanish and English targeting Mexican and Mexican-American mothers in Mexico and USA. ISRCTN12281648.

  20. THE MEXICAN CALORIE ALLOCATION AMONG THE WORKING CLASS IN THE AMERICAN WEST, 1870-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Alan Carson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When measures for material conditions are sparse or unreliable, height and weight measurements are now widely accepted proxies that reflect changing economic conditions. This study uses two biological measurements related to height and weight: the basal metabolic rate (BMR and calorie accounting. BMRs and calories of Mexicans in the American West remained constant, indicating that their diets did not vary with United States economic development, but Mexican BMRs and diets varied with occupations. Farmers and unskilled workers had greater BMRs and received more calories per day than workers in other occupations. During much of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Mexicans born in Mexico received fewer calories in the US than Mexicans born in the West. Mexican nutrition and diets also did not vary by residence within the US, indicating that Mexican diets were similar across western states.

  1. Protective factors for HIV infection among Mexican American men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mark A; Champion, Jane Dimmitt

    2010-01-01

    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic. The purpose of this study was to identify potential themes for inclusion in effective HIV prevention interventions for Mexican American men who have sex with men (MSM). The authors used a phenomenological design to explore the lived experiences of Mexican American MSM who had grown up in Dallas, Texas, regarding protective factors for HIV infection. A total of 20 30- to 60-year-old Mexican American MSM participated in semistructured interviews. During data analysis, the following themes concerning protective behaviors for HIV emerged: (a) accepting one's sexuality; (b) machismo; (c) being in love; (d) respect for family, self, and life; and (e) having HIV-living now. Strategies for potential inclusion in HIV prevention interventions geared toward Mexican American MSM were identified based on these themes. The recommendations encompass modification of behavioral interventions and related social policies.

  2. Do health care needs of indigent Mexican-American, black, and white adolescents differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, S B; Fujii, C; Shragg, G P; Rice, L; Morgan, M; Felice, M E

    1990-03-01

    Few studies have addressed the specific health care needs of Mexican-American adolescents. This 2-year study assessed the routine health care needs and incidence of chronic illness among 279 Mexican-American, 233 white, and 333 black indigent adolescents enrolled in a vocational training program. Mexican-Americans were more likely to have a positive purified protein derivative tuberculin test and acne/eczema requiring treatment. Blacks were more likely to have incomplete immunizations and thyroid disorders, while whites were more likely to have musculoskeletal conditions and require family planning services and psychiatric intervention for mental health disorders. Although no difference in incidence of chronic illness was noted, our data suggests that routine health care needs may differ among indigent Mexican-American, white, and black adolescents.

  3. MEXICAN-AMERICAN STUDY PROJECT. ADVANCE REPORT 9, THE SPANISH AMERICANS OF NEW MEXICO--A DISTINCTIVE HERITAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GONZALEZ, NANCIE L.

    USING NEW MEXICO AS A BASIS TO TRACE THE SPANISH-AMERICAN AND MEXICAN-AMERICAN HERITAGE, THE AUTHOR STATES THAT ANY STIGMA PLACED ON THE LATTER GROUP IS ONE OF CLASS DISTINCTION. THERE IS EVIDENCE THAT ACCULTURATION AND ASSIMILATION OF BOTH GROUPS INTO THE ANGLO-AMERICAN SOCIETY IS PROCEEDING STEADILY, AND THAT THE WORLD WARS AND THE KOREAN…

  4. Prayer to the Saints or the Virgin and Health among Older Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Bastida, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a conceptual model that assesses whether praying to the saints or the Virgin is associated with the health of older Mexican Americans. A survey was conducted of 1,005 older Mexican Americans (Mean age = 73.9 years; SD = 6.6 years). Data from 795 of the Catholic respondents are presented in this study. The…

  5. Mexican Americans With Type 2 Diabetes: Perspectives on Definitions, Motivators, and Programs of Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mier, Nelda; Medina, Alvaro A; Ory, Marcia G

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Research documents that Mexican Americans bear excess health risk because of physical inactivity and have higher morbidity and mortality rates from chronic diseases than do other ethnic groups. Factors influencing physical activity in this minority population, however, are not well understood. This study examines perceptions of physical activity in a population of Mexican Americans who have type 2 diabetes and live in the Texas-Mexico border region and identifies motivators and b...

  6. Survey Response Styles, Acculturation, and Culture Among a Sample of Mexican American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel E; Resnicow, Ken; Couper, Mick P

    2011-10-01

    A number of studies have investigated use of extreme (ERS) and acquiescent (ARS) response styles across cultural groups. However, due to within-group heterogeneity, it is important to also examine use of response styles, acculturation, and endorsement of cultural variables at the individual level. This study explores relationships between acculturation, six Mexican cultural factors, ERS, and ARS among a sample of 288 Mexican American telephone survey respondents. Three aspects of acculturation were assessed: Spanish use, the importance of preserving Mexican culture, and interaction with Mexican Americans versus Anglos. These variables were hypothesized to positively associate with ERS and ARS. Participants with higher Spanish use did utilize more ERS and ARS; however, value for preserving Mexican culture and interaction with Mexican Americans were not associated with response style use. In analyses of cultural factors, endorsement of familismo and simpatia were related to more frequent ERS and ARS, machismo was associated with lower ERS among men, and la mujer was related to higher ERS among women. Caballerismo was marginally associated with utilization of ERS among men. No association was found between la mujer abnegada and ERS among women. Relationships between male gender roles and ARS were nonsignificant. Relationships between female gender roles and ARS were mixed but trended in the positive direction. Overall, these findings suggest that Mexican American respondents vary in their use of response styles by acculturation and cultural factors. This usage may be specifically influenced by participants' valuing of and engagement with constructs directly associated with social behavior.

  7. Decomposing associations between acculturation and drinking in Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Britain A.; Caetano, Raul

    2011-01-01

    Background Acculturation to life in the United States is a known predictor of Hispanic drinking behavior. We compare the ability of 2 theoretical models of this effect – sociocultural theory and general stress theory – to account for associations between acculturation and drinking in a sample of Mexican Americans. Limitations of previous evaluations of these theoretical models are addressed by using a broader range of hypothesized cognitive mediators and a more direct measure of acculturative stress. In addition, we explore nonlinearities as possible underpinnings of attenuated acculturation effects among males. Methods Respondents (N = 2,595, current drinker N = 1,351) were interviewed as part of 2 recent multistage probability samples in a study of drinking behavior among Mexican Americans in the United States. The ability of norms, drinking motives, alcohol expectancies, and acculturation stress to account for relations between acculturation and drinking outcomes (volume and heavy drinking days) were assessed with a hierarchical linear regression strategy. Nonlinear trends were assessed by modeling quadratic effects of acculturation and acculturation stress on cognitive mediators and drinking outcomes. Results Consistent with previous findings, acculturation effects on drinking outcomes were stronger for females than males. Among females, only drinking motives explained acculturation associations with volume or heavy drinking days. Among males, acculturation was linked to increases in norms, and norms were positive predictors of drinking outcomes. However, adjusted effects of acculturation were non-existent or trending in a negative direction, which counter-acted this indirect normative influence. Acculturation stress did not explain positive associations between acculturation and drinking. Conclusions Stress and alcohol outcome expectancies play little role in the positive linear association between acculturation and drinking outcomes, but drinking motives

  8. Decomposing associations between acculturation and drinking in Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Britain A; Caetano, Raul

    2012-07-01

    Acculturation to life in the United States is a known predictor of Hispanic drinking behavior. We compare the ability of 2 theoretical models of this effect-sociocultural theory and general stress theory-to account for associations between acculturation and drinking in a sample of Mexican Americans. Limitations of previous evaluations of these theoretical models are addressed using a broader range of hypothesized cognitive mediators and a more direct measure of acculturative stress. In addition, we explore nonlinearities as possible underpinnings of attenuated acculturation effects among men. Respondents (N = 2,595, current drinker N = 1,351) were interviewed as part of 2 recent multistage probability samples in a study of drinking behavior among Mexican Americans in the United States. The ability of norms, drinking motives, alcohol expectancies, and acculturation stress to account for relations between acculturation and drinking outcomes (volume and heavy drinking days) were assessed with a hierarchical linear regression strategy. Nonlinear trends were assessed by modeling quadratic effects of acculturation and acculturation stress on cognitive mediators and drinking outcomes. Consistent with previous findings, acculturation effects on drinking outcomes were stronger for women than men. Among women, only drinking motives explained acculturation associations with volume or heavy drinking days. Among men, acculturation was linked to increases in norms, and norms were positive predictors of drinking outcomes. However, adjusted effects of acculturation were nonexistent or trending in a negative direction, which counteracted this indirect normative influence. Acculturation stress did not explain the positive associations between acculturation and drinking. Stress and alcohol outcome expectancies play little role in the positive linear association between acculturation and drinking outcomes, but drinking motives appear to at least partially account for this effect

  9. The Work Experience of Undocumented Mexican Women Migrants in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Rita J.; DeLey, Margo

    1984-01-01

    Undocumented Mexican women workers in Los Angeles were interviewed about their work experience in the United States. Most of them work in factories, not in domestic service. Most earn a salary above minimum wage but below that earned by documented women, and 80 percent believe their treatment at work equals that of other workers. (KH)

  10. Losing American Students, Mexican Universities Struggle against a Scary Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Like most Mexicans, Eugenio Yarce has been deeply affected by the violence between drug cartels and the Mexican army, which has filled news coverage with accounts of kidnappings, assassinations, and torture. But for Mr. Yarce, deputy rector for outreach here at the private Autonomous Popular University of the State of Puebla, or Upaep, the…

  11. Depression and mental health among older Mexican American spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, J P; Peek, M K; Markides, K S

    2006-07-01

    Although the association between marriage and well-being is well established, few studies have focused on learning more about the context of marriage and mental health. Recent research studying the mechanisms of marriage and health has focused on contagion of well-being among spouses. This study examined the association of depression with self-esteem, social support, life satisfaction, concern for independence, and cognitive function using baseline data for 553 older, Mexican American couples. Overall, we found evidence to suggest an interdependent relationship between husbands' and wives' emotional states, but the association was not equal for couples. Husbands' depression was significantly associated with the well-being of their wife, but the wife's depression was rarely associated with the husband's well-being. The findings from this study add to the increasing literature on spousal contagion by focusing on an under studied minority group, examining how depression affects well-being, and highlighting unequal effects of marriage on spousal well-being.

  12. Attitudes and beliefs among Mexican Americans about type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Gloria D; Thompson, Beti; Tejeda, Silvia; Godina, Ruby

    2004-11-01

    Hispanics in the United States have a disproportionately high risk for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes) compared with non-Hispanic whites. Little is known of the attitudes and beliefs about diabetes in this group. Using data from six focus groups of 42 Mexican Americans (14 men and 28 women), we characterized perceptions about the causes of and treatments for type 2 diabetes. Many participants believed diabetes is caused by having a family history of the disease, eating a diet high in fat or sugar, and engaging in minimal exercise. Experiencing strong emotions such as fright (susto), intense anger (coraje), or sadness and depression (tristeza) was also thought to precipitate diabetes. Nearly all participants expressed the belief that it is important to follow doctors' recommendations for diet and exercise, oral medication or insulin; many also cited herbal therapies, such as prickly pear cactus (nopal) and aloe vera (savila) as effective treatments. These findings may be useful in designing interventions to reduce the burden of diabetes in Hispanic populations.

  13. Violencia postestructural: migrantes centroamericanos y cárteles de la droga en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-structural violence refers to those situations where the victim becomes the executioner as a survival mechanism in a violent environment. This article, based on in-depth interviews with 53 Central American migrants kidnapped and forced to participate in criminal activities in Mexico, analyses the mechanisms used by Mexican drug cartels to recruit undocumented migrants, and concludes that the fear of losing their lives transforms peaceful and fearful labor migrants into ferocious criminals.

  14. Mexican migrants experiences about emotions lived during their migration process, with alcohol and drugs consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Margarita Torres López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze migrant experiences in México and United States of America (USA about emotions lived during the migration process along with alcohol and drugs consumption. It was an ethnographic study with depth interviews, 19 in Mexico and 19 in USA. The analysis was phenomenological. The participants pointed out negative and depressive emotions, in connection with different consume patterns of alcohol and drugs, along the migration phases.

  15. Political Management of Migrants Suffering: New Practices by the Mexican State(s with their Emigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Lestage

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde los años noventa del siglo xx, el Estado y los estados mexicanos han ido implementando nuevas políticas públicas dedicadas a los migrantes mexicanos en Estados Unidos y a sus familiares, para apoyarlos económica y administrativamente en sus prácticas cotidianas transnacionales. Este artículo pretende mostrar que una parte importante de esta ayuda pública forma un sistema estructurado que la autora califica como “gestión política del sufrimiento de los migrantes”. Este sistema tiene funciones específicas, en particular, la de mantener a los migrantes en el cuerpo político de su país de origen. También impacta la vida social y el concepto de nación, básicamente porque transforma a los migrantes en beneficiarios de políticas públicas (y así en ciudadanos que reciben apoyo de formas muy específicas que pueden parecer “privilegios”.

  16. The Struggle against Separate and Unequal Schools: Middle Class Mexican Americans and the Desegregation Campaign in Texas, 1929-1957.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, Guadalupe, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Despite the efforts of Mexican American groups, such as the League of United Latin American Citizens and the G.I. Forum, and court orders to end segregation, schools in Texas continued to segregate Mexican American children. The political liberalism of these groups kept them from developing effective strategies against segregation. (IS)

  17. Space use and habitat selection of migrant and resident American Avocets in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Scott A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Warnock, N.; Athearn, N.D.

    2010-01-01

    San Francisco Bay is a wintering area for shorebirds, including American Avocets (Recurvirostra americana). Recently, a new resident population of avocets has emerged, presumably because of the development of tidal marshes into salt-evaporation ponds. In habitat restoration now underway, as many as 90% of salt ponds will be restored to tidal marsh. However, it is unknown if wintering and resident avocets coexist and if their requirements for space and habitat differ, necessitating different management for their populations to be maintained during restoration. We captured and radio-marked wintering avocets at a salt pond and a tidal flat to determine their population status (migrant or resident) and examine their space use and habitat selection. Of the radio-marked avocets, 79% were migrants and 21% were residents. At the salt pond, residents' fidelity to their location of capture was higher, and residents moved less than did migrants from the same site. Conversely, on the tidal flat, fidelity of residents to their site of capture was lower, and residents' home ranges were larger than those of migrants from the same site. Habitat selection of migrants and residents differed little; however, capture site influenced habitat selection far more than the birds' status as migrants or residents. Our study suggests that individual avocets have high site fidelity while wintering in San Francisco Bay, although the avocet as a species is plastic in its space use and habitat selection. This plasticity may allow wintering migrant and resident avocets to adapt to habitat change in San Francisco Bay. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  18. Correlates and Consequences of Spanking and Verbal Punishment for Low-Income White, African American, and Mexican American Toddlers

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    Berlin, Lisa J.; Ispa, Jean M.; Fine, Mark A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Brady-Smith, Christy; Ayoub, Catherine; Bai, Yu

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of spanking and verbal punishment in 2,573 low-income White, African American, and Mexican American toddlers at ages 1, 2, and 3. Both spanking and verbal punishment varied by maternal race/ethnicity. Child fussiness at age 1 predicted spanking and verbal punishment at all 3 ages.…

  19. Factors Related to Academic Outcomes of Mexican American and American Indian Students in Doctoral Programs. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Madeline J.; Fenske, Robert H.

    In response to concern about the supply of minority faculty available to replace retiring academics, a study investigated academic achievement in doctoral programs by two of the United States' fastest-growing subpopulations, Mexican-Americans (MA) and American Indians (AI). The objectives were to establish a conceptual framework, to refine…

  20. The Multidimensionality of Prosocial Behaviors and Evidence of Measurement Equivalence in Mexican American and European American Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Gustavo; Knight, George P.; McGinley, Meredith; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez

    2010-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the need to examine distinct forms of prosocial behaviors and to conduct research on prosocial behaviors among ethnic minorities. Middle school students (mean age = 12.67 years; 54% girls; European American, n = 290; Mexican American, n = 152) completed a multidimensional measure of prosocial behavior and measures…

  1. Siblings, Birth Order, and Cooperative-Competitive Social Behavior: A Comparison of Anglo-American and Mexican-American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P.; Kagan, Spencer

    1982-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that differences in cooperative-competitive social behavior between Anglo-Americans and Mexican Americans is a result of larger family size among the latter group. Found that, even after controlling for number of siblings and birth order, statistically significant differences in such behavior remained between the two groups.…

  2. The metabolic syndrome, biomarkers, and the acculturation-health relationship among older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Hector M; Tarraf, Wassim; Haan, Mary N

    2011-10-01

    To examine the acculturation-health relationship using metabolic syndrome biomarkers. Cross-sectional sample data. 1,789 Mexican Americans (60 years and older) from northern California. Biomarkers (waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipids) were used to construct the metabolic syndrome indicator using American Heart Association criteria. MAIN PREDICTOR: Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II scores. Higher acculturation scores were associated with a significantly lower risk for the metabolic syndrome for foreign-born, but not U.S.-born, Mexican Americans. Immigrant health advantages over U.S.-born Mexican Americans are not evident in older adulthood. Higher acculturation was associated with lowered metabolic syndrome risk among older foreign-born Mexican Americans. This suggests that the prevailing acculturative stress hypothesis may not apply to the health of older adults and that any negative relationship between acculturation and health found in younger adults may yield to different developmental health influences in later adulthood.

  3. Challenges in the management of Chagas disease in Latin-American migrants in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Maillo, B; López-Vélez, R

    2017-05-01

    Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America. Due to migration the infection has crossed borders and it is estimated that 68,000-120,000 people with Chagas disease are currently living in Europe and 30% of them may develop visceral involvement. However, up to 90% of Chagas disease cases in Europe remain undiagnosed. The challenges which have to be overcome in Chagas disease in non-endemic countries are focused on related downing barriers to health care access, and related to screening, diagnostic tools and therapeutic management. The aim of this review is to highlight how healthcare management for Latin American migrants with Chagas disease in Europe may be improved. Medical literature was searched using PubMed. No limits were placed with respect to the language or date of publication although most of the articles selected were articles published in the last five years. Chosen search terms were "Chagas disease" AND ("migrants" OR "screening" OR "transmission" OR "treatment"; OR "knowledge" OR "non-endemic countries"); migrants AND ("Public health" OR "Health Service Accessibility" OR "Delivery of Health care"); and "Congenital Chagas disease". Healthcare management of migrant populations with Chagas disease in Europe has to be improved: -Surveillance programmes are needed to measure the burden of the disease; -screening programmes are needed; -administrative and cultural barriers in the access to health care for migrants should be reduced; -education programmes on Chagas disease should be performed -research on new diagnostic tools and therapeutic options are required. This review highlights the needs of profound changes in the health care of Latin American migrants with Chagas disease in Europe. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing the Prayer Lives of Older Whites, Older Blacks and Older Mexican Americans: A Descriptive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see whether differences emerge between older whites, older blacks, and older Mexican Americans in 12 measures of prayer. These measures assess four dimensions of prayer: The social context of prayer, interpersonal aspects of prayer, beliefs about how prayer operates, and the content or focus of prayers. Data from two nationwide surveys of older adults suggest that with respect to all four dimensions, the prayer lives of older whites appear be less developed than the prayer lives of older blacks and older Mexican Americans. In contrast, relatively few differences were found in the prayer lives of older African Americans and older Mexican Americans. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22523464

  5. Mexican American Women's Adherence to Hemodialysis Treatment: A Social Constructivist Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijerina, Mary S.

    2009-01-01

    Mexican Americans have as much as a six-times greater risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) than non-Hispanic white Americans, and women show a faster rate of decline in diabetic renal functioning. The leading treatment for ESRD is hemodialysis, an intensive, complex treatment regimen associated with high levels of patient nonadherence. Previous…

  6. Improving the Science and Mathematic Achievement of Mexican American Students Through Culturally Relevant Science. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinez, Diana I.; Ortiz de Montellano, Bernardo R.

    There are many ways in which science can be made culturally relevant: archeoastronomy, mathematics, geology, ethnobotany, chemistry, and art can all be taught from a perspective celebrating the accomplishments of Mexican American and American Indian science and encouraging exploration. A culturally relevant curriculum provides teachers with…

  7. Acculturation and substance use in a Mexican American college student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Alfonso; Ramirez, Maria; Sharma, Rachita; Popan, Jason; Avalos Latorre, Maria Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Although the association between acculturation and substance use among Latino groups is important, it is often understudied, especially within specific Latino groups living in geographically distinct communities, such as the Mexican American population in South Texas. The researchers of this study aimed to better understand the effect of acculturation on substance use and alcohol dependence in a Mexican American college student population. This survey study investigated the correlation between acculturation and substance use and dependence by using the Vancouver Index of Acculturation (VIA), items related to substance use (nicotine, marijuana, and cocaine) in a Mexican American college student sample (N = 1,494), and the Short Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnaire (SADD; N = 715). The study was conducted in the Texas-Mexico border region. The results suggest that higher levels of acculturation do not predict increased drug use or alcohol dependence in the Mexican American college students. However, acculturation was found to be associated with lower use of cocaine and marijuana. The discussion examines commonalities and differences in drug use and dependence. Specifically, acculturation seems to have an inverse relationship to substance use and may serve as a protective factor to licit and illicit drug use among Mexican American college students.

  8. Cultural values, U.S. neighborhood danger, and Mexican American parents' parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M B; Zeiders, Katharine H; Gonzales, Nancy A; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Roosa, Mark W

    2013-06-01

    To begin accounting for cultural and contextual factors related to child rearing among Mexican American parents we examined whether parents' Mexican American cultural values and perceptions of neighborhood danger influenced patterns of parenting behavior in two-parent Mexican-origin families living in the U.S. To avoid forcing Mexican American parents into a predefined model of parenting styles, we used latent profile analysis to identify unique patterns of responsiveness and demandingness among mothers and fathers. Analyses were conducted using parent self-reports on parenting and replicated with youth reports on mothers' and fathers' parenting. Across reporters, most mothers and fathers exhibited a pattern of responsiveness and demandingness consistent with authoritative parenting. A small portion of parents exhibited a pattern of less-involved parenting. None of the patterns were indicative of authoritarianism. There was a modicum of evidence for no nonsense parenting among fathers. Both neighborhood danger and parents' cultural values were associated with the likelihood of employing one style of parenting over another. The value of using person-centered analytical techniques to examine parenting among Mexican Americans is discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Cultural Values, U.S. Neighborhood Danger, and Mexican American Parents' Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Roosa, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    To begin accounting for cultural and contextual factors related to child rearing among Mexican American parents we examined whether parents' Mexican American cultural values and perceptions of neighborhood danger influenced patterns of parenting behavior in two-parent Mexican-origin families living in the U.S. To avoid forcing Mexican American parents into a predefined model of parenting styles, we used latent profile analysis to identify unique patterns of responsiveness and demandingness among mothers and fathers. Analyses were conducted using parent self-reports on parenting and replicated with youth reports on mothers' and fathers' parenting. Across reporters most mothers and fathers exhibited a pattern of responsiveness and demandingness consistent with authoritative parenting. A small portion of parents exhibited a pattern of less-involved parenting. None of the patterns were indicative of authoritarianism. There was a modicum of evidence for no nonsense parenting among fathers. Both neighborhood danger and parents' cultural values were associated with the likelihood of employing one style of parenting over another. The value of using person-centered analytical techniques to examine parenting among Mexican Americans is discussed. PMID:23750519

  10. A Model of Maternal and Paternal Ethnic Socialization of Mexican-American Adolescents' Self-Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P; Carlo, Gustavo; Streit, Cara; White, Rebecca M B

    2017-11-01

    Data from a sample of 462 Mexican-American adolescents (M = 10.4 years, SD = .55; 48.1% girls), mothers, and fathers were used to test an ethnic socialization model of ethnic identity and self-efficacy that also considered mainstream parenting styles (e.g., authoritative parenting). Findings supported the ethnic socialization model: parents' endorsement of Mexican-American values were associated with ethnic socialization at fifth grade and seventh grade; maternal ethnic socialization at fifth grade and paternal ethnic socialization at seventh grade were associated with adolescents' ethnic identity exploration at 10th grade and, in turn, self-efficacy at 12th grade. The findings support ethnic socialization conceptions of how self-views of ethnicity develop from childhood across adolescence in Mexican-American children. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  11. Generational Patterns in Mexican Americans' Academic Performance in an Unwelcoming Political Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosmann, Danyel A. V.; Roosa, Mark W.; Knight, George P.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that immigrant students often do better academically than their U.S.-born peers from the same ethnic group but it is unclear whether this pattern holds for Mexican Americans. We examined the academic performance of four generations of Mexican American students from fifth to 10th grade looking for generation differences and explanations for them. Using data from 749 families, we tested a model with fifth grade variables that differed by generation as potential mediators linking student generation to 10th grade academic performance. Results showed that immigrants were academically behind at fifth grade but caught up by seventh. Only economic hardship mediated the long term relationship between student generation and 10th grade academic performance; maternal educational expectations and child language hassles, English usage, discrimination, and mainstream values helped explained the early academic deficit of immigrant children. The results identified potential targets for interventions to improve Mexican American students' academic performance. PMID:24578588

  12. A Biopsychosocial Approach to Examine Mexican American Adolescents’ Academic Achievement and Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Qu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Taking a comprehensive biopsychosocial approach and using a two-wave longitudinal design, this study examines the relation between brain development and the social environment in Mexican American youth’s (N = 41.56 percent female academic achievement and substance use. We find that both Mexican American youth’s structural brain development and social environment uniquely contribute to their adjustment. Specially, smaller hippocampal volume and parental cultural socialization each uniquely predict better academic achievement. Moreover, smaller nucleus accumbens volume and less affiliation with deviant peers each uniquely predict less substance use. These findings underscore the independent contributions of biological and psychosocial factors in youth’s adjustment. The study provides a new biopsychosocial perspective on Mexican American youth’s well-being.

  13. Mexican and Mexican-American children's funds of knowledge as interventions into deficit thinking: opportunities for praxis in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licona, Miguel M.

    2013-12-01

    In this case study, I use an ethnographic-style approach to understand the funds of knowledge of immigrant families living in colonias on both sides of the US/Mexico border. I focus on how these "knowledges" and concomitant experiences impact the ways we perceive and treat immigrant students who have all too often been viewed through deficit lenses that relegate them to the lowest expectations and outcomes in the classroom. I find that Mexican and Mexican-American families hold unusually sophisticated and relevant "knowledges" to mitigate their everyday lives. In this paper, I will refer to citizens of Mexico, whether they reside in Mexico or have crossed to the United States legally or without documentation for purposes of work, as Mexican. People who have crossed the border and are living in the US as legal residents or have gained citizenship are referred to as Mexican-Americans. They live a hybrid identity that is varied and dynamic, an issue that adds to the complexity of the content and contexts of this study. These families know and use these "knowledges" on a daily basis, yet they are not recognized by teachers in the US as a starting point to affirm and support immigrant children. Instead, immigrant children are relegated to the non-gifted and lower track classes where science is taught from an abstract and non-contextual and therefore less engaged basis. The approach I outline here, based on insights from my case study, can greatly improve teachers' abilities to prepare their curricula for diversity in science education and science literacy as well as for broad expectations for student success.

  14. Acculturative stress negatively impacts maternal depressive symptoms in Mexican-American women during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L.; Aleman, Brenda; Flores, Ana-Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Background Mexican-American women exhibit high rates of prenatal maternal depressive symptoms relative to the general population. Though pregnant acculturated Mexican-American women experience cultural stressors such as acculturation, acculturative stress and discrimination that may contribute to elevated depressive symptoms, the contribution of these socio-cultural correlates to depressive symptomology is unknown. Method Ninety-eight pregnant women of Mexican descent were recruited from a community hospital clinic during their first trimester. Women completed surveys about acculturation, acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, general perceived stress, and maternal depressive symptoms as well as the potential protective factor of Mexican cultural values. Results Women who experienced greater acculturative and perceived stress, but not perceived discrimination or acculturation, reported significantly elevated depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Also, women who experienced greater acculturative stress identified with a mixture of Mexican and American cultural values. However, only the Mexican cultural value of respect was protective against maternal depressive symptoms while adhering to the Anglo value of independence and self-reliance was a risk factor. Limitations A limitation in the study is the cross-sectional and descriptive self-report nature of the work, underscoring the need for additional research. Moreover, physiological measures of stress were not analyzed in the current study. Conclusions Results point to acculturative stress, above other cultural stressors, as a potential intervention target in culturally competent obstetric care. These findings have implications for maternal mental health treatment during pregnancy, which likely affects maternal-fetal programming and may favorably affect perinatal outcomes in the vulnerable Mexican-American population. PMID:25699668

  15. Análisis de las alternativas de los migrantes mexicanos en Estados Unidos de América para atender sus problemas de salud Strategies by Mexican migrants in the USA to seek health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Nigenda

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar las alternativas ideadas por los migrantes mexicanos para acceder a los servicios de salud en Estados Unidos de América y México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio etnográfico en cinco estados, seleccionados por su dinámica migratoria. Se realizaron grupos focales y entrevistas a profundidad con usuarios y prestadores de servicios. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron seis formas de atención utilizadas de acuerdo con la gravedad de la enfermedad: a automedicación; b consulta telefónica con familiares; c uso de servicios privados; d traslado a ciudades fronterizas; e retorno al lugar de nacimiento; f atención durante visitas estacionales al lugar de origen. DISCUSIÓN: Las alternativas empleadas por los migrantes para acceder a los servicios de salud se explican por las circunstancias del contexto de migración y la falta de opciones formales de atención. Es fundamental la aplicación de una política pública para la protección de la salud de estos ciudadanos en ambos lados de la frontera.OBJECTIVE: To identify the strategies used by Mexican migrants to access health services in the U.S. and Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethnographic study in five Mexican states, selected by their migration dynamics. A series of focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted with health services users and providers. RESULTS: Six strategies were identified and are used according to the severity of the disease: a self-medication, b telephone consultation with relatives, c utilization of private services, d travel to border towns, e return to place of birth, f getting medical care during their visits to places of origin. Discussion: The health care options used by Mexican migrants and their families are defined according to events related to the migration process. The implementation of public policies to protect the health of migrants on both sides of the border is critical.

  16. Mexican Americans in Higher Education: Cultural Adaptation and Marginalization as Predictors of College Persistence Intentions and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Lizette; Castillo, Linda G.; Rosales Meza, Rocío; Piña-Watson, Brandy

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how college persistence intentions and life satisfaction influenced by acculturation, enculturation, White marginalization, and Mexican American marginalization among 515 Mexican American college students. The utility of a path analysis model was supported. Enculturation positively predicted persistence and life satisfaction.…

  17. Understanding the Role of Identity and the Retention of Mexican American Students in Higher Education: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Juan, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative ethnographic narrative inquiry explored the role of identity and the retention of Mexican American students in higher education. Leadership identity, a dimension of identity, was explored using narratives provided by 13 Mexican American students, attending a university in the northwest United States. Interview data was compiled,…

  18. The Role of Ethnicity in Mexican American and Non-Hispanic White Students' Experience of Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Lisa K.; Gilbert, Lucia Albino

    2012-01-01

    This study explored dimensions of a social phenomenon not often investigated among Mexican American college students, namely sexual harassment. Mexican American (n = 261) and non-Hispanic White female students (n = 111) from three southwestern universities responded to scales assessing experiences of sexually harassing behaviors, harassment…

  19. Pitfalls in Measuring the Health Status of Mexican Americans: Comparative Validity of the English and Spanish Sickness Impact Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyo, Richard A.

    1984-01-01

    A test found responses to the Sickness Impact Profile highly reliable, whether administered in Spanish or English. However, construct validity of responses by Mexican Americans using the Spanish version, non-Hispanics using the English version, and Mexican Americans using the English version was weak. (CMG)

  20. Predictors of self-esteem for Mexican American and European American youths: a reexamination of the influence of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sonia Y; Roosa, Mark W; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2002-03-01

    Decades of research with European American middle-class families have found significant relations between parenting behavior and child self-esteem. Similar research with minority and low-income families is rare. The present study examined the relation between parenting practices and child self-esteem among 70 Mexican American and 161 European American youths. The analyses consisted of regressing child self-esteem on parenting practices (acceptance, rejection, inconsistent discipline, and hostile control), ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and the interactions between ethnicity, SES, and parenting practices. Several main effects and interactions were significant; for each interaction, behavior of low-income or Mexican American parents had less influence on children's self-esteem than did similar behavior by middle-class or European American parents.

  1. Feelings of Gratitude Toward God Among Older Whites, Older African Americans, and Older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2012-03-01

    The first goal of this study is to see if social relationships in the church influence feelings of gratitude toward God. The second goal is to assess the impact of race and ethnicity on this relationship. The data support the following hypotheses: (1) older people who go to church more often tend to receive more spiritual support from fellow church members; (2) older adults who receive more spiritual support at church will derive a deeper understanding of themselves and others; (3) older people who develop greater insight into themselves and others will derive a greater sense of religious meaning in life; and (4) older adults who develop a deeper sense of religious meaning in life will feel more grateful to God. The results also indicate that the study model explains how feelings of gratitude toward God arise among older blacks and whites, but not older Mexican Americans.

  2. Feelings of Gratitude Toward God Among Older Whites, Older African Americans, and Older Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2011-01-01

    The first goal of this study is to see if social relationships in the church influence feelings of gratitude toward God. The second goal is to assess the impact of race and ethnicity on this relationship. The data support the following hypotheses: (1) older people who go to church more often tend to receive more spiritual support from fellow church members; (2) older adults who receive more spiritual support at church will derive a deeper understanding of themselves and others; (3) older people who develop greater insight into themselves and others will derive a greater sense of religious meaning in life; and (4) older adults who develop a deeper sense of religious meaning in life will feel more grateful to God. The results also indicate that the study model explains how feelings of gratitude toward God arise among older blacks and whites, but not older Mexican Americans. PMID:23543840

  3. HIV Prevalence Among Central American Migrants in Transit Through Mexico to the USA, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Flores, René; Infante, César; Servan-Mori, Edson; Quintino-Pérez, Frida; Silverman-Retana, Omar

    2016-12-01

    HIV prevalence was estimated among migrants in transit through Mexico. Data were collected on 9108 Central American migrants during a cross-sectional study performed in seven migrant shelters from 2009 to 2013. Considerations focused on their sociodemographic characteristics, sexual and reproductive health, and experience with violence. Based on a sample of 46.6 % of respondents who agreed to be HIV tested, prevalence of the virus among migrants came to 0.71 %, reflecting the concentrated epidemic in their countries of origin. A descriptive analysis was performed according to gender: the distribution of the epidemic peaked at 3.45 % in the transvestite, transgender and transsexual (TTT) population, but fell to less than 1 % in men and women. This gender differential is characteristic of the epidemic in Central America. Furthermore, 23.5 % of TTTs and 5.8 % of women experienced sexual violence. The predominant impact of sexual violence on TTTs and women will influence the course of the AIDS epidemic.

  4. Neighborhood Contexts, Fathers, and Mexican American Young Adolescents' Internalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The family stress model posits that contextual stressors, such as neighborhood danger, negatively influence youth adjustment, including internalizing symptoms, via disruptions in parenting and family processes. The current study examined a culturally and contextually modified family stress model in a diverse sample of Mexican-origin fathers and…

  5. Music Therapy’s Effects on Mexican Migrant Farmworkers’ Levels of Depression, Anxiety and Social Isolation: A Mixed Methods Randomized Control Trial Utilizing Participatory Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swantes, Melody

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, the agricultural industry is dependent on men and women from Mexico who migrate throughout the country to participate in the care and harvest of crops. They often migrate independently of their families and leave loved ones behind. Separation from families and difficult...... are not able to meet the needs in culturally sensitive ways presented by this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music therapy on Mexican farmworkers’ levels of depression, anxiety, and social isolation. In addition, this study sought to examine how the migrant farmworkers used...... music-making sessions between music therapy sessions as a coping skill to further improve their overall mental health. Finally, this study sought to examine how migrant farmworkers engaged in the research process and how they valued their relationship with the researcher. This study utilized a mixed...

  6. Reading Achievement and In-Grade Retention Rate Differentials for Mexican-American and Black Students in Selected States of the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casavantes, Edward Joseph

    Two sets of data from the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights' Mexican American Education Study were selected for analysis in the areas of (1) comparative reading achievement rates of Mexican Americans and black students; and (2) differential in-grade retention rates of Anglo, Mexican American, and black students. Two separate issues were examined.…

  7. Mexican American Adolescent Couples Communicating about Conflict: An Integrated Developmental and Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Heidi Adams; Williams, Lela Rankin

    2016-01-01

    Using observational methods on a small sample of committed Mexican American couples (N = 10, ages 15-17, M length of relationship = 26.5 months), we describe and categorize developmental and cultural communication patterns concerning the negotiation of conflict issues. Videotaped dyadic interactions were transcribed and qualitatively coded using…

  8. Networks for Success: Preparing Mexican American AVID College Students for Credentials, Completion, and the Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Richard; Watt, Karen M.

    2018-01-01

    This qualitative study examines how Mexican American students participating in an AVID for Higher Education course perceived their preparation for the workforce and efficacy of completing a college credential. A focus group approach was used to explore how social and cultural networks (networks for success) contribute to college completion. The…

  9. Mexican American Children's Ethnic Identity, Understanding of Ethnic Prejudice, and Parental Ethnic Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Stephen M.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with 47 Mexican-American children in grades 2 and 6 and their parents revealed that parental ethnic socialization about ethnic discrimination was associated with children's development of ethnic knowledge. Children's understanding of ethnic prejudice was related to their ethnic knowledge but not their ethnic behaviors. Contains 24…

  10. The impact of acculturation level on weight status and weight outcomes in Mexican American children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently 39% of Hispanic children and adolescents are overweight and obese. Higher levels of acculturation have been shown to be related to obesity in Mexican American adults. Conflicting findings exists regarding this relationship in children and little is known about the impact of acculturation o...

  11. Mexican American Parents' Perceptions of Childhood Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Barbara J.; Barr, Kathleen L.; Baker, Sharon K.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the norms, values, and perceptions of urban immigrant Mexican American (MA) parents of school children relative to physical activity, healthy eating, and child risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Investigators facilitated five focus groups in an urban elementary school setting and analyzed data using qualitative…

  12. Mexican American Adolescents' Profiles of Risk and Mental Health: A Person-Centered Longitudinal Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Knight, George P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    Although Mexican American adolescents experience multiple risk factors in their daily lives, most research examines the influences of risk factors on adjustment independently, ignoring the additive and interactive effects of multiple risk factors. Guided by a person-centered perspective and utilizing latent profile analysis, this study identified…

  13. Adjusting Limit Setting in Play Therapy with First-Generation Mexican-American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Roxanna; Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Kranz, Peter L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on limit setting in play therapy with first-generation Mexican-American children in two important therapeutic environments that include the traditional indoor playroom and a proposed outdoor play area. The paper is based on a review of the literature and the authors' clinical experiences with this population. They concluded…

  14. Using Axline's Eight Principles of Play Therapy with Mexican-American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Flores-Torres, Leila L.; Kranz, Peter L.; Lund, Nick L.

    2005-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature on the application of client-centered play therapy to diverse cultures. In this regard, the purpose of the article is to discuss considerations related to using Axline's eight principles of play therapy with Mexican-American children. The principles involve multicultural acceptance and understanding, relationship…

  15. Home-Based Diabetes Symptom Self-Management Education for Mexican Americans with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alexandra A.; Brown, Sharon A.; Horner, Sharon D.; Zuñiga, Julie; Arheart, Kristopher L.

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated an innovative diabetes symptom awareness and self-management educational program for Mexican Americans, a fast growing minority population experiencing a diabetes epidemic. Patients with diabetes need assistance interpreting and managing symptoms, which are often annoying and potentially life-threatening. A repeated…

  16. Treatment for overweight Mexican American children: impact on quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood overweight is a serious health problem occurring in especially high rates among Mexican Americans. Although there is empirical support for behaviorally based treatments for pediatric overweight, there is limited evidence that treatment increases children's quality of life (QOL). Our obje...

  17. Conflict Resolution in Mexican American Adolescents' Friendships: Links with Culture, Gender and Friendship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Shawna M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Delgado, Melissa Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to describe the conflict resolution practices used in Mexican American adolescents' friendships, to explore the role of cultural orientations and values and gender-typed personality qualities in conflict resolution use, and to assess the connections between conflict resolution and friendship quality. Participants were 246…

  18. Birth Control and Low-Income Mexican-American Women: The Impact of Three Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Silvia; Casas, Jesus Manuel

    1990-01-01

    Assesses relationship between Mexican-American women's birth-control attitudes, knowledge, and usage, and values of motherhood, male dominance, and sexual expression. Multiple regression analysis links contraception attitudes with traditional values, regardless of acculturation. Establishes positive link between birth-control use and traditional…

  19. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment among Mexican American Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a stress process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. The authors also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the…

  20. Acculturation, Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Eating-Disorder Symptomatology in Adolescent Mexican American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Greg W.; Kashubeck, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Investigated the relationship among acculturation, body image, self-esteem, and eating disorder symptomatology in 120 Mexican-American adolescent women. Findings indicate that acculturation levels were not related to anorexic or bulimic symptomatology, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction or thinness of ideal and attractive figures. Also, lower…

  1. Machismo and Mexican American Men: An Empirical Understanding Using a Gay Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Fernando; Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Arciniega, G. Miguel; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2011-01-01

    Machismo continues to be a defining aspect of Mexican American men that informs a wide array of psychological and behavioral dimensions. Although strides have been made in this area of research, understanding of the role of this construct in the lives of gay men remains incomplete. Our purpose in this study was to gain a deeper understanding of…

  2. Perceived Family Support, Acculturation, and Life Satisfaction in Mexican American Youth: A Mixed-Methods Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lisa M.; Lopez, Shane J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a mixed-methods study designed to explore perceived family support, acculturation, and life satisfaction among 266 Mexican American adolescents. Specifically, the authors conducted a thematic analysis of open-ended responses to a question about life satisfaction to understand participants' perceptions of…

  3. The Effectiveness of Substance Abuse Prevention Videotapes with Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polansky, Joan M.; Buki, Lydia P.; Horan, John J.; Ceperich, Sherry Dyche; Burows, Deborah Dyer

    1999-01-01

    The effectiveness of three substance-abuse-prevention videotapes derived from contrasting theoretical frameworks was evaluated using 312 rural Mexican-American students in grades seven through eight. The assertion-training video produced higher levels of assertiveness among ninth-graders; the others had no impact. Discusses the importance of…

  4. Sexual Abuse and Eating Disorders in a Community Sample of Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachelin, Fary M.; Schug, Robert A.; Juarez, Laura C.; Monreal, Teresa K.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sexual abuse and eating disorders in a voluntary community sample of Mexican American women. Eighty eating disorder cases were compared to 110 healthy controls on presence of sexual abuse and on characteristics of the abuse. The Structured Clinical Interview for the "Diagnostic and…

  5. The Impact of Personalized Risk Feedback on Mexican Americans' Perceived Risk for Heart Disease and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Shelly R.; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Ashida, Sato; de Heer, Hendrik D.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of personalized risk information on risk perceptions over time, particularly among ethnically diverse subpopulations. The present study examines Mexican American's (MAs) risk perceptions for heart disease and diabetes at baseline and following receipt of risk feedback based on family health history. Participants…

  6. ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC ABNORMALITIES AMONG MEXICAN AMERICANS: CORRELATIONS WITH DIABETES, OBESITY, AND THE METABOLIC SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Saulette R; Smulevitz, Beverly; Rentfro, Anne R; Vatcheva, Kristina P; Kim, Hyunggun; McPherson, David D; Hanis, Craig L; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; McCormick, Joseph B; Laing, Susan T

    2012-04-01

    Resting ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities have been associated with cardiovascular mortality. Simple markers of abnormal autonomic tone have also been associated with diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in some populations. Data on these electrocardiographic abnormalities and correlations with coronary risk factors are lacking among Mexican Americans wherein these conditions are prevalent. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalent resting electrocardiographic abnormalities among community-dwelling Mexican Americans, and correlate these findings with coronary risk factors, particularly diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. Study subjects (n=1280) were drawn from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort comprised of community-dwelling Mexican Americans living in Brownsville, Texas at the United States-Mexico border. Ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities were defined as presence of ST/T wave abnormalities suggestive of ischemia, abnormal Q waves, and left bundle branch block. Parameters that reflect autonomic tone, such as heart rate-corrected QT interval and resting heart rate, were also measured. Ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities were more prevalent among older persons and those with hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. Subjects in the highest quartiles of QTc interval and resting heart rate were also more likely to be diabetic, hypertensive, obese, or have the metabolic syndrome. Among Mexican Americans, persons with diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome were more likely to have ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities, longer QTc intervals, and higher resting heart rates. A resting electrocardiogram can play a complementary role in the comprehensive evaluation of cardiovascular risk in this minority population.

  7. The Journey toward Developing Political Consciousness through Activism for Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Ebelia

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how Mexican American women made meaning of their undergraduate activism and its potential implications on their development toward self-authorship. The developing political consciousness model emerged from their interviews to demonstrate the process of developing increasingly complex social knowledge, the shift of motivation to…

  8. Personality and Physical Correlates of Bulimic Symptomatology among Mexican American Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Regan; Petrie, Trent A.

    1995-01-01

    Examined the relationship of personality and physical variables to bulimic symptoms. Hierarchical regression analysis of a sample of Mexican American female students revealed that body mass and endorsement of United States societal values concerning attractiveness were related positively to bulimic symptomatology; age, body satisfaction, and…

  9. Fears and Related Anxieties across Three Age Groups of Mexican American and White Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The authors compared levels and types of fears and anxieties in a sample of Mexican American children and adolescents with disabilities to a group of White children and adolescents with similar disabilities. Students (N = 238), parents, and teachers completed the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (T. H. Ollendick, 1983) and the Revised…

  10. Childhood Asthma Prevalence among Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans: Implications for Behavioral Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, A. Magdalena

    1995-01-01

    Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1982-84, were used to examine lifetime prevalence (LTP) of childhood asthma among Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans. LTP was related to Puerto Rican ethnicity, birth outside U.S. mainland, low weight for age, male gender, poverty, urban residence, and single parenthood. Implications…

  11. The Role of Behavioral and Cognitive Cultural Orientation on Mexican American College Students' Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Lizette; Edwards, Lisa M.; Hardin, Erin E.; Piña-Watson, Brandy

    2014-01-01

    We examined the role of behavioral (acculturation and enculturation) and cognitive cultural orientation (independent and interdependent self-construal) on Mexican American college students' life satisfaction. Analyses explained 28% of the variance in life satisfaction, with social class, grade point average, and independent self-construal being…

  12. Mexican American Women's Activism at Indiana University in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Ebelia

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a historical analysis of documents and narratives from Mexican American women that reflect the tumultuous 1990s at Indiana University. Their recollections reveal how they became activists, the racist incidents that compelled them into activism, and the racial tensions and backlash towards identity politics felt by students of…

  13. Right along the Border: Mexican-American Students Write Themselves into The(ir) World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerling, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Hidalgo County, Texas, is one of the poorest in the country. The population in the Lower Rio Grande Valley is 85% Mexican-American. Underprepared for college and juggling full time jobs, their own children, and sometimes dysfunctional extended families, students often do not expect to succeed. I recently taught a Creative Writing course which…

  14. Culturally Competent Diabetes Self-Management Education for Mexican Americans: The Starr County Border Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sharon A.; Garcia, Alexandra A.; Kouzekanani, Kamiar; Hanis, Craig L.

    2002-01-01

    In a culturally competent diabetes self-management intervention in Starr County, Texas, bilingual Mexican American nurses, dieticians, and community workers provided weekly instruction on nutrition, self-monitoring, exercise and other self-care topics. A biweekly support group promoted behavior change. Interviews and examinations with 256 Mexican…

  15. The Role of Character Strengths and Family Importance on Mexican American College Students' Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Sparrow, Gregory Scott; Ikonomopoulos, James; Gonzalez, Stacey L.; Rodriguez, Basilio

    2017-01-01

    We examined how character strengths and family importance influenced Mexican American college students' life satisfaction. Using multiple regression analysis, findings indicated that optimism, grit, and gratitude were significant predictors of life satisfaction. We provide a discussion regarding the importance of these findings as well as…

  16. Mexican Americans on the Home Front: Community Organizations in Arizona during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Christine

    During World War II Arizona's Mexican-American communities organized their own patriotic activities and worked, in spite of racism, to support the war effort. In Phoenix the Lenadores del Mundo, an active fraternal society, began this effort by sponsoring a festival in January 1942. Such "mutualistas" provided an essential support system…

  17. The Effects of Cuento Therapy on Reading Achievement and Psychological Outcomes of Mexican-American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Jain, Sachin; Flores-Torres, Leila L.; Perez, Roxanna; Carlson, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the effects of cuento therapy (an intervention using Spanish-language tales) on children's self-esteem, affect, and reading test performance. The sample was composed of 58 third-grade Mexican-American students who were randomly assigned to the treatment and control groups. The results showed a mean self-esteem gain…

  18. Parenting Style, Depressive Symptoms, and Substance Use in Mexican American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Emily J.; Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Pasch, Lauri A.

    2013-01-01

    This study of 151 Mexican American adolescents ages 12 to 15 examined the relationship between parenting and adolescents' self-reported level of depressive symptoms and substance use 6 months and 1 year later. Adolescents and their parents were recruited from a large health-maintenance organization and interviewed at three time points. Lower…

  19. Differing Cognitive Trajectories of Mexican American Toddlers: The Role of Class, Nativity, and Maternal Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; Bein, Edward; Kim, Yoonjeon; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies reveal early and wide gaps in cognitive and oral language skills--whether gauged in English or Spanish--among Latino children relative to White peers. Yet, other work reports robust child health and social development, even among children of Mexican American immigrants raised in poor households, the so-called "immigrant…

  20. Signal Detection Analysis of Factors Associated with Diabetes among Semirural Mexican American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanni, K. D.; Ahn, D. A.; Winkleby, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Signal detection analysis was used to evaluate a combination of sociodemographic, acculturation, mental health, health care, and chronic disease risk factors potentially associated with diabetes in a sample of 4,505 semirural Mexican American adults. Overall, 8.9% of adults had been diagnosed with diabetes. The analysis resulted in 12 mutually…

  1. Dissemination of an effective weight management program for Mexican American children in schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rates of child obesity are epidemic in the United States, and Mexican American children are at particular risk. We have found an intensive, multi-component, school-based, weight management intervention to be efficacious at reducing standardized body mass index (zBMI) in overweight children. Our ...

  2. Obese Mexican American children have elevated MCP-1, TNF-alpha, monocyte concentration, and dyslipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is an independent risk factor for chronic disease. The prevalence of obesity is especially high among Mexican American children. Peripheral blood monocytes are altered with obesity contributing to elevated systemic inflammation and increased risk of chronic disease. In addition, obesity alte...

  3. Social Cognitive Predictors of Mexican American College Students' Academic and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Lizette; Flores, Lisa Y.; Navarro, Rachel L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we used Lent's (2004) social cognitive model of well being to examine the academic and life satisfaction of 457 Mexican American college students attending a Hispanic-Serving Institution. Using structural equation modeling, results indicated that the model provided a good fit to the data. Specifically, we found positive relations…

  4. Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes: perspectives on definitions, motivators, and programs of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, Nelda; Medina, Alvaro A; Ory, Marcia G

    2007-04-01

    Research documents that Mexican Americans bear excess health risk because of physical inactivity and have higher morbidity and mortality rates from chronic diseases than do other ethnic groups. Factors influencing physical activity in this minority population, however, are not well understood. This study examines perceptions of physical activity in a population of Mexican Americans who have type 2 diabetes and live in the Texas-Mexico border region and identifies motivators and barriers to physical activity in this group. This study used a qualitative research design and employed six focus groups comprising 39 Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes who live in the Texas-Mexico border region. A team of bilingual Mexican American researchers systematically reviewed and analyzed focus group data by means of qualitative data analysis software. The study was conducted during 2005-2006. Most participants considered physical activity to be related not only to exercise but also to occupational and home activities. Walking was the preferred type of activity. Motivators to physical activity included family support and the sense of well-being derived from physical activity. Barriers to physical activity included individual and environmental factors, such as lack of time, physical pain, depression, being overweight, unsafe neighborhoods, and lack of facilities. Participants suggested that the ideal intervention would be low in cost, family-based, close to home, and led by bilingual instructors. Health promotion efforts to prevent or reduce the effects of chronic disease among Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes in the Texas-Mexico border region should focus on implementing neighborhood-based, family-oriented walking interventions.

  5. Parental perceptions of childhood overweight in the Mexican American population: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Carroll L

    2008-12-01

    The prevalence of overweight in Mexican American children has been increasing at a steady rate over the past few years. People of Mexican origin make up the largest proportion of the Hispanic population, which has been reported by the U.S. Census Bureau to be the fastest growing ethnic group in the United States. The purpose of this integrative review was to examine and summarize the current research on parental perceptions of childhood overweight in the Mexican American population. Four main themes evolved as a result of the data analysis: parental perception of overweight, parental practices, household food security status, and acculturation. School nurses are in a position to influence children in improving their nutritional status and increasing their physical activity. Understanding cultural values and beliefs regarding health status and overweight of Mexican American families should be a priority for school nurses. Identifying food-related parenting styles and the concept of acculturation should also be considered prior to incorporating relevant interventions in the school setting.

  6. Couples' cultural values, shared parenting, and family emotional climate within Mexican American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Peterson, Marcela; Figueredo, Aurelio J; Christensen, Donna H; Taylor, Angela R

    2012-06-01

    This study tested a model of shared parenting as its centerpiece that incorporates cultural values as predictors and family emotional climate as the outcome variable of interest. We aimed to assess the predictive power of the Mexican cultural values of familismo and simpatia over couples' shared parenting practices. We anticipated that higher levels of shared parenting would predict family emotional climate. The participants were 61 Mexican American, low income couples, with at least one child between 3 and 4 years of age, recruited from a home-based Head Start program. The predictive model demonstrated excellent goodness of fit, supporting the hypothesis that a positive emotional climate within the family is fostered when Mexican American couples practice a sufficient level of shared parenting. Empirical evidence was previously scarce on this proposition. The findings also provide evidence for the role of cultural values, highlighting the importance of family solidarity and avoidance of confrontation as a pathway to shared parenting within Mexican American couples. © FPI, Inc.

  7. Values and Communication of Chinese, Filipino, European, Mexican, and Vietnamese American Adolescents with Their Families and Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Catherine R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Total of 393 American college students of Chinese, Filipino, European, Mexican, and Vietnamese descent rated their families' familistic values and their relationship with their families. Mexican, Vietnamese, and Filipino descent students endorsed most strongly values regarding mutual support among siblings, whereas all groups reported more formal…

  8. Historical, Socio-Cultural, and Conceptual Issues to Consider When Researching Mexican American Children and Families, and other Latino Subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Buriel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order for the field of psychology in the United States to maintain its relevance and validity, it must become more inclusive in its theory and research of Latinos, who are now the largest "minority" group in the nation. In particular, due to immigration and birth rates, Mexican Americans are the largest and fastest growing segment of the Latino population. This paper addresses some of the most significant historical and socio-cultural factors contributing to the psychological nature and wellbeing of Mexican Americans. These factors should be understood and used to guide research and theory in order to make the discipline of psychology relevant for Mexican Americans. The concept of mestizaje is used to explain the biological and cultural mixing constituting the diverse origins of the Mexican people. Immigration to the U.S. is described in terms of selective socio-cultural variables giving rise to a diverse Mexican American culture that is resistant to complete assimilation. Within a U.S. context, the constructs of generational status, acculturation, and biculturalism are used to explain the socio-cultural adaptation of Mexican Americans. The special role of children in immigrant families as language and cultural brokers are also discussed, and used to explain the adjustment of Mexican American families.

  9. Towards an Informed Mexican and Mexican-American Citizenry: Bridging the Gap to Increase Human Capacity and Information Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, M. D.; Ramirez, D. M.

    2008-12-01

    The research translation and community outreach goal of The University of Arizona's (UA) Superfund Basic Research Program and U.S.-Mexico Binational Center for Environmental Sciences and Toxicology is to increase human capacity and information dissemination to diverse stakeholders, including federal, state, and local government agencies as well as northern Mexican and border community stakeholders. Due to Arizona's demographic characteristics and the UA's proximity to the U.S. - Mexico border, activities target primarily Mexican and Mexican-American populations. With this in mind, a model has been established that pulls from human capital, community-based participatory research and public participation theories. The theories applied to our target population have resulted in the creation of a successful model that is used in both research translation and community outreach work. The model contains four components: community needs (participation), science translation (information), engagement (outreach), and training (education). Examples of how this model operates for various stakeholders involved in environmental science and health issues will be discussed. A case in point of how this model has been applied effectively is the partnership with promotoras (community health advocates) to do environmental science and health trainings to increase the knowledge base of specific populations disproportionately exposed to contaminants of concern. Additional case studies and methodologies used to develop innovative communicative tools (that takes into consideration cultural idiosyncrasies) for stakeholders at all levels in Arizona, the border, and Mexico will be highlighted, such as: 1) information sheets regarding local environmental issues for communities neighboring contaminated sites, 2) SciTransfer Bulletins targeting professional level stakeholders such as Project Managers, Community Involvement Coordinators and the general public, 3) coordinating technical and

  10. Friendship Factors and Suicidality: Common and Unique Patterns in Mexican- and European-American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterrowd, Erin; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Chavez, Ernest L.

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests a link between friendships and suicidality among U.S. youth but this link has not been confirmed across ethnicities. This study examined the relationship between friendships and suicidality among Mexican- and European-American adolescents. Specifically, the role of friendship problems (i.e., social isolation, poor quality friendships) and problematic friends (i.e., friends who were disconnected from school, delinquent friends) was explored. Participants were 648 community youth. Friends’ school disconnection was related to Mexican-American girls’ suicidal ideation while friends’ delinquency was associated with European-American youth suicidal behavior. Friendship factors were no longer associated with suicidality after controlling for suicidality correlates such as depression. These findings indicate that the relationship between friendships and suicidality varies by gender and ethnicity. They also suggest a dominant role of depression. PMID:21309824

  11. A qualitative study of family healthy lifestyle behaviors of Mexican-American and Mexican immigrant fathers and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Barbara J; Navuluri, Neelima; Winkler, Paula; Vale, Shruthi; Finley, Erin

    2014-04-01

    This study qualitatively examines contrasting parental decision-making styles about family food choices and physical activities as well as willingness to change behaviors among Mexican-American and Mexican immigrant mothers and fathers of school-aged children. Twelve sex-specific focus groups were held in English or Spanish in 2012. Qualitative analysis informed by grounded theory examined parenting styles (ie, authoritative, authoritarian, or permissive), barriers to healthy lifestyle, and parents' stage of change about healthy lifestyles. One third of the 33 participating couples were born in Mexico. The majority of mothers and fathers described being permissive and allowing unhealthy food choices, and a minority of mothers reported more authoritarian approaches to promoting a healthier diet for their children. Mothers were more permissive than fathers about family physical activities and less engaged in these activities. Most mothers and fathers described only contemplating a healthier diet and more physical activity, while wanting their children to have a healthier lifestyle. These data suggest that clinicians need to assess and address differential parental roles when promoting a healthy lifestyle for children. Clinicians should also adopt culturally competent approaches to overcome barriers to parental engagement in diverse aspects of a healthy family lifestyle. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in Latin American migrants in transit through the México- USA border].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Rincón, Laura Mayela; Galaviz-Silva, Lucio; Molina-Garza, Zinnia Judith

    2018-03-15

    In recent years, American trypanosomiasis has become an emergent public health problem in countries receiving migrant populations such as México, USA, Canada or those in Europe. To analyze the prevalence of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in Latin American migrants on their way to USA and Canada by means of serological techniques. ELISA and IHA were performed to detect anti-T. cruzi antibodies. Also, each participant filled out a socioeconomic questionnaire to determine the associated factors with seropositive cases, which could facilitate the transmission in the migrants' country of origin. Total seroprevalence among the studied population was 20% (24/120). The highest prevalence was found in migrants from Guatemala with 37.5% (6/16), followed by Honduras (22.6%; 12/53), El Salvador (16%; 4/25), and México (8.7%, 3/23). From the total 120 surveyed migrants, 105 (87.5%) recognized the vector of Chagas' disease, and 62 (59%) assured having been bitten by it. Highly significant statistical associations were found between infection and the construction materials for walls and the presence of pets (dogs) inside houses (p≤0.01), as well as with the building materials for backyards, inadequate basic services, and animal breeding inside corrals built around dwellings (p≤0.05). Non-endemic countries receiving migrants from endemic areas should enhance or develop better health policies to prevent transfusion-transmitted Chagas or congenital parasite transmission.

  13. The Perceptions of Mexican-American Men as Fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Shears

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study explores the lived experience of self-identified Mexican men as fathers. The sample consists of 47 biological fathers of children residing in Denver, Colorado, all whom are participating in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project. The data suggests that these fathers engaged in traditionally conceptualized fathering roles. These men expressed the importance of being there, teaching, meeting the child’s needs, being a role model, offering emotional support, and giving affection and love. The fathers reported taking more responsibility, decreasing substance use, and limiting their leisure activities as a result of becoming a parent. The results suggest that, fathering in and of itself, may create resiliency and may have powerful positive influences on the lives of fathers.

  14. The Outsiders are the Map: Travel Narratives of Central American Migrants on Mexico’s Southern Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Parrini Roses

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the ways in which Central American migrants travelling through Mexico to reach the United States make oral maps to orient themselves during their journeys. These migrants, often fleeing poverty and violence, travel through Mexico in very irregular ways, such as on cargo trains or on-foot, and find themselves in a state of high vulnerability. Many of these travelers do not have access to printed or digital maps and as a result must rely on oral maps that the migrants create through their multiple attempts to cross the northern border into the United States. These oral maps narrate their journeys and in particular help to navigate specific parts of their journeys to the northern border. However, these maps do not estimate how long specific legs of the trip will take and thus the migrants experience a dislocated sense of temporality during their travels.

  15. Beliefs about health and illness in latin-american migrants with diabetes living in sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelm, Katarina; Bard, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The study explored beliefs about health and illness in Latin American migrants diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) living in Sweden, and investigated the influence on health-related behavior including self-care and care-seeking behavior. Migrants are particularly affected in the diabetes pandemia. Beliefs about health and illness determine health-related behaviour and health but no studies have been found on Latin American migrants with DM. An explorative study design with focus-group interviews of nine persons aged 36-77 years from a diabetes clinic was used. Health was described from a pathogenetic or a salutogenetic perspective: 'freedom from disease or feeling of well-being', and being autonomous and able to work. Economic hardship due to expenses for medications and food for DM affected health. Individual factors such as diet, exercise and compliance with advice, and social factors with good social relations and avoidance of stress, often caused by having experienced severe events related to migrational experiences, were considered important for maintaining health and could cause DM. Disturbed relations to others (social factors), punishment by God or Fate (supernatural factors), intake of diuretics and imbalance between warmth and cold (natural factors) were also perceived as causes. A mix of biomedical and traditional explanations and active self-care behaviour with frequent use of herbs was found. It is important to assess the individual's beliefs, and health professionals, particularly nurses, should incorporate discussions of alternative treatments and other components of explanatory models and co-operate with social workers to consider influence of finances and migrational experiences on health.

  16. Novel Somatic Copy Number Alteration Identified for Cervical Cancer in the Mexican American Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Torabi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer affects millions of Americans, but the rate for cervical cancer in the Mexican American is approximately twice that for non-Mexican Americans. The etiologies of cervical cancer are still not fully understood. A number of somatic mutations, including several copy number alterations (CNAs, have been identified in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinomas in non-Mexican Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate CNAs in association with cervical cancer in the Mexican American population. We conducted a pilot study of genome-wide CNA analysis using 2.5 million markers in four diagnostic groups: reference (n = 125, low grade dysplasia (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN-I, n = 4, high grade dysplasia (CIN-II and -III, n = 5 and invasive carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, n = 5 followed by data analyses using Partek. We observed a statistically-significant difference of CNA burden between case and reference groups of different sizes (>100 kb, 10–100 kb and 1–10 kb of CNAs that included deletions and amplifications, e.g., a statistically-significant difference of >100 kb deletions was observed between the reference (6.6% and pre-cancer and cancer (91.3% groups. Recurrent aberrations of 98 CNA regions were also identified in cases only. However, none of the CNAs have an impact on cancer progression. A total of 32 CNA regions identified contained tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. Moreover, the pathway analysis revealed endometrial cancer and estrogen signaling pathways associated with this cancer (p < 0.05 using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG. This is the first report of CNAs identified for cervical cancer in the U.S. Latino population using high density markers. We are aware of the small sample size in the study. Thus, additional studies with a larger sample are needed to confirm the current findings.

  17. Mexican-American mothers’ initiation and understanding of home oral hygiene for young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOEFT, Kristin S.; BARKER, Judith C.; MASTERSON, Erin E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate caregiver beliefs and behaviors as key issues in the initiation of home oral hygiene routines. Oral hygiene helps reduce the prevalence of early childhood caries, which is disproportionately high among Mexican-American children. Methods Interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 48 Mexican-American mothers of young children in a low income, urban neighborhood. Interviews were digitally recorded, translated, transcribed, coded and analyzed using standard qualitative procedures. Results The average age of tooth brushing initiation was 1.8±0.8 years; only a small proportion of parents (13%) initiated oral hygiene in accord with American Dental Association (ADA) recommendations. Mothers initiated 2 forms of oral hygiene: infant oral hygiene and regular tooth brushing. For the 48% of children who participated in infant oral hygiene, mothers were prompted by pediatrician and social service (WIC) professionals. For regular tooth brushing initiation, a set of maternal beliefs exist about when this oral hygiene practice becomes necessary for children. Beliefs are mainly based on a child’s dental maturity, interest, capacity and age/size. Conclusions Most (87%) of the urban Mexican-American mothers in the study do not initiate oral hygiene practices in compliance with ADA recommendations. These findings have implications for educational messages. PMID:19947134

  18. Perceived Social Support Trajectories and the All-Cause Mortality Risk of Older Mexican American Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Terrence D.; Uchino, Bert N.; Eckhardt, Jessica L.; Angel, Jacqueline L.

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies of non-Hispanic whites and blacks show that social integration and social support tend to favor longevity, it is unclear whether this general pattern extends to the Mexican American population. Building on previous research, we employed seven waves of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to examine the association between perceived social support trajectories and the all-cause mortality risk of older Mexican Americans. Growth mixture estimates revealed three latent classes of support trajectories: high, moderate, and low. Cox regression estimates indicated that older Mexican American men in the low support trajectory tend to exhibit a higher mortality risk than their counterparts in the high support trajectory. Social support trajectories were unrelated to the mortality risk of older Mexican American women. A statistically significant interaction term confirmed that social support was more strongly associated with the mortality risk of men. PMID:26966256

  19. Household food insecurity and dietary intake among Mexican-American women participating in federal food assistance programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study explored the association between food insecurity and dietary intake among Mexican-American women after controlling for sociocultural and economic factors including participation in federal food assistance programs. A cross-sectional design was used. Demographics, anthropometrics, accultur...

  20. A qualitative examination of the relationships that serve a mentoring function for Mexican American older adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Bernadette; Reyes, Olga; Singh, Joshua

    2006-10-01

    This exploratory study was an in-depth examination of Mexican American adolescents' relationships with nonparental adults. Qualitative interviews with 10 Mexican American adolescents revealed 23 nonparental adults who served a mentoring function in their lives. Six of these nonparental adults were also interviewed. Data analyses were conducted using a grounded theory approach so that the relationships were described in participants' words and experiences. The nonparental adults identified by adolescents included siblings, extended family members, older peers, and institutional figures. The support provided took many different forms, from emotional to informational/experiential support, to modeling behavior, for example. Further, adolescents were supported in eight different areas of their lives. Participants also discussed the perceived benefits of these relationships for adolescents. Future research directions and implications for youth programming are discussed. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  1. An assessment of individual-level factors associated with alcohol treatment utilization among Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M; Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A; Vaeth, Patrice A C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify enabling factors for treatment utilization for alcohol-related problems, and to evaluate how enabling factors vary by need for treatment, among two samples of Mexican American adults. These two distinct samples included 2,595 current and former drinkers (one sample included 787 U.S./Mexico border residents; the other sample included 740 Mexican Americans living in U.S. cities not proximal to the border). Need for treatment (alcohol disorder severity) and (male) gender were the primary correlates of treatment utilization; and there was no moderation in the enabling factors by need for treatment as "enablers" of utilization. Further theoretical and empirical research is necessary to determine which mechanisms are driving disparities in treatment utilization across racial/ethnic groups generally, and Hispanic national groups specifically. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stigmatized Biologies: Examining the Cumulative Effects of Oral Health Disparities for Mexican American Farmworker Children

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, Sarah; Barker, Judith C.

    2010-01-01

    Severe early childhood caries (ECC) can leave lasting effects on children’s physical development, including malformed oral arches and crooked permanent dentition. This article examines the way that ECC sets up Mexican American farm worker children in the United States for lasting dental problems and social stigma as young adults. We examine the role of dietary and environmental factors in contributing to what we call “stigmatized biologies,” and that of market-based dental public health insur...

  3. A Prospective Study of Mexican American Adolescents’ Academic Success: Considering Family and Individual Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Roosa, Mark W.; O’Donnell, Megan; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Zeiders, Katherine H.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Mexican American youth are at greater risk of school failure than their peers. To identify factors that may contribute to academic success in this population, this study examined the prospective relationships from 5th grade to 7th grade of family (i.e., human capital [a parent with at least a high school education], residential stability, academically and occupationally positive family role models, and family structure) and individual characteristics (i.e., externalizing symptoms, bilingualis...

  4. Acculturation, childhood trauma and the cortisol awakening response in Mexican-American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Deborah; Wand, Gary; Javors, Martin; Mintz, James

    2010-09-01

    Exposure to chronic and traumatic stress has been associated with the dysregulation of crucial stress response systems. Acculturation has been associated with unique forms of chronic psychosocial stress. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to early traumatic stress and acculturation on dysregulation of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in Mexican-American adults. Salivary cortisol samples were collected at awakening and 30, 45, and 60 min thereafter, on two consecutive weekdays from 59 healthy Mexican-American adult males (26) and females (33), ages 18-38 years. Participants were assessed for level of acculturation and exposure to early trauma. Data were analyzed using a mixed effects regression model with repeated measures at four time points. Mixed effects regression results indicated a significant Early Trauma x Time interaction (p=.0029) and a significant Acculturation x Time interaction (p=.0015), after controlling for age and sex. Subsequent analyses of the interaction of Trauma x Acculturation x Time showed that more than minimal exposure to either risk factor was associated with attenuation of the awakening cortisol response (p=.0002). Higher levels of acculturation with greater Anglo-orientation were associated with attenuation of the CAR in Mexican-American adults. Both moderate and higher levels of exposure to early trauma were associated with an attenuated CAR. However, greater exposure to both risk factors was only incrementally worse than exposure to either one. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neighborhood and family intersections: prospective implications for Mexican American adolescents' mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M B; Roosa, Mark W; Zeiders, Katharine H

    2012-10-01

    We present an integrated model for understanding Mexican American youth mental health within family, neighborhood, and cultural contexts. We combined two common perspectives on neighborhood effects to hypothesize that (a) parents' perceptions of neighborhood risk would negatively impact their children's mental health by disrupting key parenting and family processes, and (b) objective neighborhood risk would alter the effect parent and family processes had on youth mental health. We further incorporated a cultural perspective to hypothesize that an ethnic minority group's culture-specific values may support parents to successfully confront neighborhood risk. We provided a conservative test of the integrated model by simultaneously examining three parenting and family process variables: maternal warmth, maternal harsh parenting, and family cohesion. The hypothesized model was estimated prospectively in a diverse, community-based sample of Mexican American adolescents and their mothers (N = 749) living in the southwestern United States. Support for specific elements of the hypothesized model varied depending on the parenting or family process variable examined. For family cohesion results were consistent with the combined neighborhood perspectives. The effects of maternal warmth on youth mental health were altered by objective neighborhood risk. For harsh parenting, results were somewhat consistent with the cultural perspective. The value of the integrated model for research on the impacts of family, neighborhood, and cultural contexts on youth mental health are discussed, as are implications for preventive interventions for Mexican American families and youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Neighborhood and Family Intersections: Prospective Implications for Mexican American Adolescents’ Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Zeiders, Katharine H.

    2012-01-01

    We present an integrated model for understanding Mexican American youth mental health within family, neighborhood, and cultural contexts. We combined two common perspectives on neighborhood effects to hypothesize that (a) parents’ perceptions of neighborhood risk would negatively impact their children’s mental health by disrupting key parenting and family processes, and (b) objective neighborhood risk would alter the effect parent and family processes had on youth mental health. We further incorporated a cultural perspective to hypothesize that an ethnic minority group’s culture-specific values may support parents to successfully confront neighborhood risk. We provided a conservative test of the integrated model by simultaneously examining three parenting and family process variables: maternal warmth, maternal harsh parenting, and family cohesion. The hypothesized model was estimated prospectively in a diverse, community-based sample of Mexican American adolescents and their mothers (N = 749) living in the Southwestern, U.S. Support for specific elements of the hypothesized model varied depending on the parenting or family process variable examined. For family cohesion results were consistent with the combined neighborhood perspectives. The effects of maternal warmth on youth mental health were altered by objective neighborhood risk. For harsh parenting results were somewhat consistent with the cultural perspective. The value of the integrated model for research on the impacts of family, neighborhood, and cultural contexts on youth mental health are discussed, as are implications for preventive interventions for Mexican American families and youth. PMID:22866932

  7. The Diabetes Symptom Self-Care Inventory: development and psychometric testing with Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alexandra A

    2011-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes is prevalent throughout the world. In previous studies of Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes, 95%-97% of those sampled reported having symptoms they believe were caused by diabetes and most self-treated their symptoms. To more accurately capture Mexican Americans' symptom prevalence and their self-treatments, the Diabetes Symptom Self-Care Inventory (DSSCI) was adapted from the Diabetes Self-Care Instrument. This article describes the modification process used to perfect the DSSCI for use in improving self-care among people with type 2 diabetes. This instrumentation study used qualitative and quantitative methods. The study was completed in four phases that used focus groups, cognitive interviews, and survey administration. Four convenience samples were drawn from community-dwelling Mexican American adults, aged 25-75 years, with type 2 diabetes in an urban area and a rural location in Texas. Phase I: Seven focus groups (n=45) generated data for revising items. Phase II: Cognitive interviews with 16 participants were used to evaluate four revisions of the questionnaire. Phase III: Surveys were administered to 81 participants. Total number of symptoms on the DSSCI correlated with scores on the Centers for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (r=0.65, PPerception Questionnaire-Revised Diabetes Symptom subscale (r=0.57, PAmericans' diabetes symptoms and the actions they take to address them. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Traditional beliefs and practices among Mexican American immigrants with type II diabetes: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemley, Megan; Spies, Lori A

    2015-04-01

    To describe selected common health beliefs and practices among Mexican American immigrants with type II diabetes. Selected clinical trials, qualitative studies, and systematic reviews. The Hispanic folk illness belief susto refers to an episode of severe fright, and Mexican American immigrants hold varying views on its relation to diabetes. Culturally and in the research, susto has also been linked with depression. Sabila (aloe vera) and nopal (prickly pear cactus) are herbal remedies that have had widespread, longstanding use in Mexican culture and while this is not the gold standard of research, it does provide ample evidence and a strong cultural belief that these therapies work. There is some evidence in the literature to support their efficacy as glucose-lowering agents, but lack of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation, potential side effects, and a dearth of rigorous clinical trials preclude aloe vera and nopal from being recommended therapy. Awareness about susto beliefs, commonly used herbal remedies, and development of culturally sensitive communication skills are essential for nurse practitioners to effectively assist patients in this population achieve their glycemic goals. Research on the effects of nopal and aloe vera on diabetes is needed to guide clinical decisions. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  9. Evaluation of the spoken knowledge in low literacy in diabetes scale for use with Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alexandra A; Zuniga, Julie; Reynolds, Raquel; Cairampoma, Laura; Sumlin, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    This article evaluates the Spoken Knowledge in Low Literacy in Diabetes (SKILLD) questionnaire, a measure of essential knowledge for type 2 diabetes self-management, after it was modified for English- and Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans. We collected surveys (SKILLD, demographic, acculturation) and blood for A1C analysis from 72 community-recruited participants to analyze the SKILLD's internal consistency, interrater reliability, item analysis, and construct validity. Clinical experts evaluated content validity. The SKILLD demonstrated low internal consistency but high interrater reliability and content and construct validity. There were significant correlations in expected directions between SKILLD scores and acculturation, education, and A1C and significant differences in SKILLD scores between and within groups after an educational intervention and between high- and low-acculturated participants. The SKILLD generates useful information about Mexican Americans' diabetes knowledge. Lower SKILLD scores suggest less diabetes knowledge, lower health literacy, and participants' difficulties understanding items. Further modifications should improve use with low-acculturated Mexican Americans. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Comparison and evaluation of dietary quality between older and younger Mexican-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignotti, Giselle A P; Vega-López, Sonia; Keller, Colleen; Belyea, Michael; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Coonrod, Dean; Permana, Paska

    2015-10-01

    To compare and evaluate the dietary quality of young and older sedentary Mexican-American women. Understanding key dietary concerns, while considering developmental transition periods and cultural relevance, can provide insight for developing appropriate nutrition interventions. Cross-sectional dietary data were collected using unannounced 24 h diet recalls to assess nutrient intake adequacy (Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method) and dietary quality (Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010). Mujeres en Acción and Madres para la Salud, two community-based physical activity interventions. Participants were 139 young (28 (sd 6) years) and 124 older (55 (sd 7) years) overweight/obese sedentary Mexican-American women (BMI=25·0-35·0 kg/m2) of low socio-economic status. Older women consumed less Ca, Fe, folate, empty calories and energy from carbohydrate, but more fruit, vegetables, greens and beans, and fibre than younger women (all P<0·05). Over 60 % of all participants had an intake below recommendations for fibre, Ca, vitamin E, vitamin C and folate. Both groups had low total HEI-2010 scores (62 for older and 63 for younger women; NS), with 57 % of older and 48 % of younger women classified as having a poor diet. Despite differences in nutrient requirements according to developmental transition periods (childbearing v. perimenopausal), overall, older and younger Mexican-American women generally had low-quality diets and may benefit from dietary quality improvement.

  11. Perceived parental psychological control, familism values, and Mexican American college students' adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Gabrielle C; Killoren, Sarah E; Alfaro, Edna C

    2016-10-01

    Drawing from cultural ecological and risk and resilience perspectives, we investigated associations among Mexican American college students' perceptions of mothers' and fathers' psychological control and familism values, and college students' adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms and self-esteem). Additionally, we examined how familism values moderated the relations between perceived psychological control and college students' adjustment. Participants were 186 Mexican American college students (78.5% women; Mage = 21.56 years), and data were collected using self-report online surveys. Using path analyses, we found that perceived maternal psychological control was positively associated and familism values were negatively associated with college students' depressive symptoms. Additionally, perceived paternal psychological control was negatively associated with college students' self-esteem when college students reported low, but not high, familism values. Findings highlight the importance of family relationships for Mexican American college students and the significance of examining these relationships within this cultural context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Brief report: parenting styles and obesity in Mexican American children: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Norma; Power, Thomas G

    2010-04-01

    To assess longitudinally the relations between four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, uninvolved, and indulgent) and child weight status in Mexican American families. Sixty-nine low-income Mexican American mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children participated in a 4-year longitudinal study. Mothers completed demographic and parenting measures. Children's body weight and height were assessed annually. Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status. At baseline, 65% of children were found to be normal weight, 14% were overweight, and 21% were obese. Analyses examined how parenting styles at baseline predicted child's weight status 3 years later, controlling for initial weight status. Children of indulgent mothers were more likely to become overweight 3 years later than children of authoritative or authoritarian mothers. This study provides longitudinal evidence for the role of indulgent parenting in predicting overweight in Mexican American children. Possible mediating factors that may account for this relationship (e.g., dietary patterns, physical activity patterns, and children's self-regulation) are considered.

  13. Prenatal expectations in Mexican American women: development of a culturally sensitive measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress-Smith, Jenna L; Roubinov, Danielle S; Tanaka, Rika; Cmic, Keith; Cirnic, Keith; Gonzales, Nancy; Enders, Craig; Luecken, Linda J

    2013-08-01

    Prenatal expectations describe various domains a woman envisions in preparation for her role as a new mother and influence how women transition into the maternal role. Although the maternal role is strongly influenced by the prevailing familial and sociocultural context, research characterizing prenatal expectations in ethnic minority and low-income women is lacking. As part of the largest growing minority group in the USA, Latina mothers represent an important group to study. Two hundred and ten low-income Mexican American women were administered the Prenatal Experiences Scale for Mexican Americans (PESMA) that was adapted to capture specific cultural aspects of prenatal expectations. Measures of current support, prenatal depressive symptoms, and other sociodemographic characteristics were also completed to assess validity. Exploratory factor analysis identified three underlying factors of prenatal expectations: paternal support, family support, and maternal role fulfillment. Associations among these subscales and demographic and cultural variables were conducted to characterize women who reported higher and lower levels of expectations. The PESMA demonstrated good concurrent validity when compared to measures of social support, prenatal depressive symptoms, and other sociodemographic constructs. A culturally sensitive measure of prenatal expectations is an important step towards a better understanding of how Mexican American women transition to the maternal role and identify culturally specific targets for interventions to promote maternal health.

  14. Prenatal expectations in Mexican American women: Development of a culturally-sensitive measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress-Smith, Jenna L.; Roubinov, Danielle S.; Tanaka, Rika; Crnic, Keith; Gonzales, Nancy; Enders, Craig; Luecken, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Prenatal expectations describe various domains a woman envisions in preparation for her role as a new mother and influence how women transition into the maternal role. Although the maternal role is strongly influenced by the prevailing familial and sociocultural context, research characterizing prenatal expectations in ethnic minority and low-income women is lacking. As part of the largest growing minority group in the U.S., Latina mothers represent an important group to study. Methods Two hundred and ten low-income Mexican American women were administered the Prenatal Experiences Scale for Mexican Americans (PESMA) that was adapted to capture specific cultural aspects of prenatal expectations. Measures of current support, prenatal depressive symptoms, and other sociodemographic characteristics were also completed to assess validity. Results Exploratory factor analysis identified three underlying factors of prenatal expectations: Paternal Support, Family Support, and Maternal Role Fulfillment. Associations among these subscales, and demographics and cultural variables were conducted to characterize women who reported higher and lower levels of expectations. The PESMA demonstrated good concurrent validity when compared to measures of social support, prenatal depressive symptoms, and other sociodemographic constructs. Conclusions A culturally sensitive measure of prenatal expectations is an important step towards a better understanding of how Mexican American women transition to the maternal role and identify culturally specific targets for interventions to promote maternal health. PMID:23592028

  15. Family and Cultural Processes Linking Family Instability to Mexican American Adolescents' Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Danyel A.; Roosa, Mark W.; Knight, George P.; O'Donnell, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Despite the rapidly growing Mexican American population, no studies to date have attempted to explain the underlying relations between family instability and Mexican American children's development. Using a diverse sample of 740 Mexican American adolescents (49% female; 5th grade M age = 10.4; 7th grade M age = 12.8) and their mothers, we prospectively examined the relations between family instability and adolescent academic outcomes and mental health in the 7th grade. The model fit the data well and results indicated that family instability between 5th and 7th grade was related to increased 7th grade mother-adolescent conflict and in turn, mother-adolescent conflict was related to decreased school attachment and to increased externalizing and internalizing symptoms in the 7th grade. Results also indicated that 7th grade mother-adolescent conflict mediated the relations between family instability and 7th grade academic outcomes and mental health. Further, we explored adolescent familism values as a moderator and found that adolescent familism values served as a protective factor in the relation between mother-adolescent conflict and grades. Implications for future research and intervention strategies are discussed. PMID:23750521

  16. Perceived Discrimination, Peer Influence and Sexual Behaviors in Mexican American Preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Delida; Whittaker, Tiffany A; Hamilton, Emma

    2016-05-01

    Both discrimination and sexual health disparities have significant negative health implications for Latina/o preadolescent youth, including negative mental health outcomes, STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy, and ongoing poverty. Studying these links within this population, therefore, has significant public health relevance, both in terms of promoting sexual health in general as well as serving the specific needs of Latina/o youth. This study explored the relationship between perceived discrimination, peer influence and sexual behaviors among 438 Mexican American preadolescents in the Southwest United States (55.3 % male). Additionally, this study examined whether psychological distress, substance use, and sexual motives mediated and whether gender moderated these relations. A multiple-group path analysis of the analytical model was performed to examine the hypothesized relations between perceived discrimination, peer influence, psychological distress, substance use, sexual motives and sexual behaviors. The findings indicated that perceived discrimination was directly linked to sexual behaviors among participants and indirectly linked via substance use. The findings also indicated that peer influence was indirectly linked to sexual behaviors via substance use among participants and via sexual motives among boys. This study underscores the importance of substance use in the perceived discrimination, peer influence and sexual behavior link in Mexican American preadolescents. Additionally, it highlights the importance of sexual motives in the link between peer influence and sexual behaviors of Mexican American boys.

  17. Generation and acculturation status are associated with dietary intake and body weight in Mexican American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Hong; Chu, Yong H; Frongillo, Edward A; Probst, Janice C

    2012-02-01

    Mexican American children are disproportionately affected by obesity. Data on how the acculturation process influences diet and body weight among adolescents are limited. We used the data from the 1999-2004 NHANES, restricting to 2286 Mexican American children between 12 and 19 y old. Acculturation was measured by generation status and language preference. Diet was assessed using 24-h diet recall. Multiple linear, Tobit, logistic, and quantile regression models were used. We found, after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, health, dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors compared to the first generation, second and third generations had greater odds of overweight and obesity. Adolescents in the second generation had higher BMI Z-scores than adolescents in the first and third generations. Both second and third generation adolescents consumed less fruit, whole fruit, vegetables, grains, and meats but more sweetened beverages, whole grains, saturated fat, sodium, oil, and energy from discretionary foods. Higher language acculturation was associated with poorer diet and greater body weight. Our findings suggest that Mexican American adolescents face challenges in terms of poorer diet and excessive weight gain associated with their immigration experience.

  18. Sleep Moderates and Mediates the Relationship Between Acculturation and Depressive Symptoms in Pregnant Mexican-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L; Garcia, Esmeralda; Coussons-Read, Mary; Laudenslager, Mark L; Ross, Randal G

    2016-02-01

    Greater acculturation is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes in Mexican-American women, but the mechanisms by which acculturation influences perinatal outcomes are unclear. Pregnant acculturated Mexican-American women are more likely to engage in unhealthy prenatal behaviors relative to those less acculturated, including poor sleep. As sleep disruptions are associated with acculturation and negative perinatal outcomes, particularly maternal depression, alterations in sleep may adversely affect pregnant Mexican-American women. Sixty pregnant women of Mexican descent completed surveys about sleep, acculturation, depressive symptoms and potential protective factor of social support. Acculturation, but not social support, significantly predicted increased sleep disruptions as well as overall feeling less refreshed upon waking across pregnancy. Moderation analysis indicated that more acculturated women who took longer to fall asleep reported increased depressive symptoms. Feeling refreshed upon waking also mediated the relationship between increased acculturation and elevated maternal depressive symptoms. Acculturation and altered sleep contribute to greater risk in Mexican-American women for maternal depressive symptoms in the perinatal period. These findings have implications for prevention and treatment of maternal mental health disorders, which may adversely affect perinatal outcomes in the vulnerable Mexican-American population.

  19. Early growth of Mexican-American children: lagging in preliteracy skills but not social development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Alma D; Fuller, Bruce; Chu, Lynna; Kim, Anthony; Franke, Todd; Bridges, Margaret; Kuo, Alice

    2013-11-01

    Latino toddlers fall behind White peers at 24 months of age in oral language and interactive skills with their mothers in English or Spanish. But Latino children enter kindergarten with social skills that rival White peers, despite social-class disparities. We ask whether cognitive trajectories widen during the 24-48 month period, how these patterns differ for Latinos, especially Mexican-Americans, and whether similar gaps in social-emotional growth appear. We analyzed growth patterns for a nationally representative birth sample (n = 4,690) drawn in 2001, estimating levels of change in development from 24 to 48 months of age, focusing on Latino subgroups. The mean gap in cognitive processing for Mexican-American children, already wide at 24-months of age relative to Whites (three-fourths of a standard deviation), remained constant at 48 months. But differences in social-emotional status were statistically insignificant at both 24 and 48 months. Mexican-American mothers were observed to be equally warm and supportive relative to White peers during interaction tasks. Yet the former group engaged less frequently in cognitive facilitation, oral language, and preliteracy activities in the home. Growth in both cognitive and social domains was considerably lower in larger families, placing children raised in poor or Spanish-speaking homes within a large household at greater risk of delays. Pediatricians and practitioners must carefully gauge the social-emotional well-being of Latino children, in developmental surveillance activities. Growth in cognitive and social domains unfolds independently for children of Mexican heritage, even when raised in economically poor families.

  20. The sociocultural model of eating disorders in Mexican American women: behavioral acculturation and cognitive marginalization as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Cortney S; Castillo, Linda G; Gleaves, David H

    2010-01-01

    White American cultural values of appearance are implicated in the development of body dissatisfaction. This study examined whether the relationships between awareness of White American appearance ideals, internalization of such ideals, and body dissatisfaction are moderated by behavioral acculturation and attitudinal marginalization in a sample of 94 Mexican American women. Results indicated that behavioral acculturation moderated the relationship between awareness and internalization and cognitive marginalization moderated the relationship between internalization and body dissatisfaction. Body size was positively correlated with body dissatisfaction and negatively correlated with behavioral acculturation. These findings have important implications for clinical practice and research with Mexican American women.

  1. Data on genetic associations of carotid atherosclerosis markers in Mexican American and European American rheumatoid arthritis subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rector Arya

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Carotid Intima-media thickness (CIMT and plaque are well established markers of subclinical atherosclerosis and are widely used for identifying subclinical atherosclerotic disease. We performed association analyses using Metabochip array to identify genetic variants that influence variation in CIMT and plaque, measured using B-mode ultrasonography, in rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients. Data on genetic associations of common variants associated with both CIMT and plaque in RA subjects involving Mexican Americans (MA and European Americans (EA populations are presented in this article. Strong associations were observed after adjusting for covariate effects including baseline clinical characteristics and statin use. Susceptibility loci and genes and/or nearest genes associated with CIMT in MAs and EAs with RA are presented. In addition, common susceptibility loci influencing CIMT and plaque in both MAs and EAs have been presented. Polygenic Risk Score (PRS plots showing complementary evidence for the observed CIMT and plaque association signals are also shown in this article. For further interpretation and details, please see the research article titled “A Genetic Association Study of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT and Plaque in Mexican Americans and European Americans with Rheumatoid Arthritis” which is being published in Atherosclerosis (Arya et al., 2018 [1].(Arya et al., in press Thus, common variants in several genes exhibited significant associations with CIMT and plaque in both MAs and EAs as presented in this article. These findings may help understand the genetic architecture of subclinical atherosclerosis in RA populations.

  2. Acculturative stress is associated with trajectory of anxiety symptoms during pregnancy in Mexican-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preciado, Andrea; D'Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly

    2017-05-01

    Over half of pregnant women report anxiety symptoms and these symptoms may be precipitated by stressful experiences. Anxiety rates may be higher in Mexican-American women who experience sociocultural stressors, such as acculturation, acculturative stress and discrimination. However, the role of such stressors on the trajectory of anxiety symptoms across pregnancy is not yet known. Mexican-American women (n=151) completed surveys across pregnancy about acculturation, acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and state anxiety. Multilevel modeling found that acculturation (Anglo orientation, b=0.050, SE=0.379, t (137.561)=0.134, p=0.894; Mexican orientation, b=0.775, SE=0.692, t (133.424)=1.121, p=0.264) and perceived discrimination (b=-1.259, SE=0.921, t (137.489)=-1.367, p=0.174) were not associated with the trajectory of anxiety symptoms. However, acculturative stress, even while controlling for perceived stress, was associated with high levels of anxiety symptoms that were elevated early in pregnancy (b=-0.045, SE=0.022, t (135.749)=-2, p=0.047). This work highlights the unique role of acculturative stress in risk for prenatal anxiety in early pregnancy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Mexican energy and climate change policies in a North American context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    A review of Mexican energy and climate change policies was presented with reference to the implications for Mexico regarding energy supply, security and climate change policies. Mexico's development and energy indicators are considerably behind those of Canada and the United States, but its greenhouse gas emissions are also low in comparison. Mexican energy consumption and gross domestic product levels per capita are far below those of the United States and Canada. Although Mexico, a signatory of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, is not obligated to commit itself to any target greenhouse gas emissions, it has implemented an active climate change policy that promotes energy efficiency, fuel substitution, development of alternative energy sources, forest conservation and reforestation, and climate change research. The author concluded that in addition to constitutional reform, a fully integrated North American energy market would need physical connections for electricity and natural gas. 4 figs

  4. Role of physical activity in reducing cognitive decline in older Mexican-American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenbacher, Allison J; Snih, Soham Al; Bindawas, Saad M; Markides, Kyriakos S; Graham, James E; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Raji, Mukaila; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2014-09-01

    The effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults from minority and disadvantaged populations is not well understood. This study examined the longitudinal association between physical activity and cognition in older Mexican Americans. The study methodology included a prospective cohort with longitudinal analysis of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly. General linear mixed models were used to assess the associations and interactions between physical activity and cognitive function over 14 years. Community-based assessments were performed in participants' homes. Physical activity was recorded for 1,669 older Mexican Americans using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly. Cognition was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and separated into memory and nonmemory components. A statistically significant positive association was observed between levels of physical activity and cognitive function after adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, and comorbid health conditions. There was a statistically significant difference in MMSE scores over time between participants in the third (β = 0.11, standard error (SE) = 0.05) and fourth (β = 0.10, SE = 0.2) quartiles of physical activity and those in the first. The protective effect of physical activity on cognitive decline was evident for the memory component of the MMSE but not the nonmemory component after adjusting for covariates. Greater physical activity at baseline was associated with less cognitive decline over 14 years in older Mexican Americans. The reduction in cognitive decline appeared to be related to the memory components of cognitive function. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. SES Gradients Among Mexicans in the United States and in Mexico: A New Twist to the Hispanic Paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Palloni, Alberto; Riosmena, Fernando; Wong, Rebeca

    2016-10-01

    Recent empirical findings have suggested the existence of a twist in the Hispanic paradox, in which Mexican and other Hispanic foreign-born migrants living in the United States experience shallower socioeconomic status (SES) health disparities than those in the U.S. In this article, we seek to replicate this finding and test conjectures that could explain this new observed phenomenon using objective indicators of adult health by educational attainment in several groups: (1) Mexican-born individuals living in Mexico and in the United States, (2) U.S.-born Mexican Americans, and (3) non-Hispanic American whites. Our analytical strategy improves upon previous research on three fronts. First, we derive four hypotheses from a general framework that has also been used to explain the standard Hispanic paradox. Second, we study biomarkers rather than self-reported health and related conditions. Third, we use a binational data platform that includes both Mexicans living in Mexico (Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006) and Mexican migrants to the United States (NHANES 1999-2010). We find steep education gradients among Mexicans living in Mexico's urban areas in five of six biomarkers of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and in the overall MetS score. Mexican migrants living in the United States experience similar patterns to Mexicans living in Mexico in glucose and obesity biomarkers. These results are inconsistent with previous findings, suggesting that Mexican migrants in the United States experience significantly attenuated health gradients relative to the non-Hispanic white U.S. Our empirical evidence also contradicts the idea that SES-health gradients in Mexico are shallower than those in the United States and could be invoked to explain shallower gradients among Mexicans living in the United States.

  6. Mexican American mothers of low and middle socioeconomic status: communication behaviors and interactive strategies during shared book reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Barbara L; Hines, Rachel; Montiel, Miguel

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was to describe and compare the communication behaviors and interactive reading strategies used by Mexican American mothers of low- and middle-socioeconomic status (SES) background during shared book reading. Twenty Mexican American mother-child dyads from the Southwestern United States were observed during two book reading sessions. The data were coded across a number of communication behavior categories and were analyzed using the Adult/Child Interactive Reading Inventory (ACIRI; A. DeBruin-Parecki, 1999). Mexican American mothers used a variety of communication behaviors during shared book reading with their preschool children. Significant differences between the SES groups regarding the frequency of specific communication behaviors were revealed. Middle-SES mothers used positive feedback and yes/no questions more often than did low-SES mothers. Mexican American mothers also used a variety of interactive reading strategies with varying frequency, as measured by the ACIRI. They enhanced attention to text some of the time, but rarely promoted interactive reading/supported comprehension or used literacy strategies. There were no significant differences between the SES groups regarding the frequency of interactive reading strategies. Parent literacy programs should supplement Mexican American mothers' communication behaviors and interactive reading strategies to improve effectiveness and participation.

  7. A weight-loss intervention program designed for Mexican-American women: cultural adaptations and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nangel M; Stevens, Victor J; Vega-López, Sonia; Kauffman, Tia L; Calderón, Mariana Rosales; Cervantes, María Antonieta

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of a culturally-appropriate weight-loss intervention targeting obese Spanish-speaking Mexican women. This 12-month weight-loss program was based on behavioral interventions previously used successfully with English-speaking participants. Cultural adaptations included: female interventionists, minimal written materials, emphasis on group activities, focus on Mexican traditions and beliefs, and skill-building approach to food measurement. All sessions were conducted in Spanish. The study had few exclusionary criteria, which allowed participation of women with a wide range of literacy levels. Recruitment exceeded expectations, with 47 participants enrolling in the program. Not counting participants who became pregnant during the study, attendance at 6 and 12 months was 62 and 50 % respectively. Mean weight loss at 6 and 12 months was 5.3 and 7.2 kg, respectively, with a mean reduction in BMI of 4.0 and 5.5 kg/m(2) from baseline to 6 and 12 months, respectively. This pilot study shows that it is feasible to develop and implement culturally-appropriate behavioral lifestyle interventions for obesity treatment in Mexican-American women.

  8. Egg Intake and Dietary Quality among Overweight and Obese Mexican-American Postpartum Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Vega-López

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite their low cost and high nutrient density, the contribution of eggs to nutrient intake and dietary quality among Mexican-American postpartum women has not been evaluated. Nutrient intake and dietary quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010, were measured in habitually sedentary overweight/obese (body mass index (BMI = 29.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2 Mexican-American postpartum women (28 ± 6 years and compared between egg consumers (n = 82; any egg intake reported in at least one of three 24-h dietary recalls and non-consumers (n = 57. Egg consumers had greater intake of energy (+808 kJ (193 kcal or 14%; p = 0.033, protein (+9 g or 17%; p = 0.031, total fat (+9 g or 19%; p = 0.039, monounsaturated fat (+4 g or 24%; p = 0.020, and several micronutrients than non-consumers. Regarding HEI-2010 scores, egg consumers had a greater total protein foods score than non-consumers (4.7 ± 0.7 vs. 4.3 ± 1.0; p = 0.004, and trends for greater total fruit (2.4 ± 1.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.7; p = 0.070 and the total composite HEI-2010 score (56.4 ± 12.6 vs. 52.3 ± 14.4; p = 0.082. Findings suggest that egg intake could contribute to greater nutrient intake and improved dietary quality among postpartum Mexican-American women. Because of greater energy intake among egg consumers, recommendations for overweight/obese individuals should include avoiding excessive energy intake and incorporating eggs to a nutrient-dense, fiber-rich dietary pattern.

  9. Factors contributing to background television exposure in low-income Mexican American preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Background television (TV) exposure is harmful to young children, yet few studies have focused on predictors of exposure. This study’s objectives were to elucidate demographic, environmental, and behavioral correlates of background TV exposure in low-income Mexican American preschoolers and to explore caregiver beliefs about the impact of such exposure. Methods A convenience sample of low-income Mexican American female primary caregivers of preschoolers (3–5 years old, n=309), recruited in safety-net clinics, were surveyed by phone. Caregivers reported the frequency of their child’s exposure to background TV and responded to questions on the home media environment, TV use, and whether they had thought about background TV exposure and its impact on their child. Results Background TV exposure was common; 43% reported that their child was often, very often, or always exposed to background TV. More hours of TV viewing by the caregiver and greater frequency of TV viewing during meals were associated with an increased frequency of exposure to background TV. Only 49% of participants had ever thought about the impact of background TV. Believing that background TV is not harmful was associated with higher levels of background TV exposure. Conclusions Findings suggest that background TV exposure is frequent and caregiver awareness of its potential impact is low in low-income Mexican American families. Beliefs that background TV is not harmful may predict risk of exposure. Potential targets for interventions focused on reducing background TV exposure in this population include increasing caregiver awareness of the potential negative impact of such TV exposure. PMID:27007983

  10. Parental feeding practices in Mexican American families: initial test of an expanded measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although obesity rates are high among Latino children, relatively few studies of parental feeding practices have examined Latino families as a separate group. Culturally-based approaches to measurement development can begin to identify parental feeding practices in specific cultural groups. This study used qualitative and quantitative methods to develop and test the Parental Feeding Practices (PFP) Questionnaire for use with Mexican American parents. Items reflected both parent’s use of control over child eating and child-centered feeding practices. Methods In the qualitative phase of the research, 35 Latino parents participated in focus groups. Items for the PFP were developed from focus group discussions, as well as adapted from existing parent feeding practice measures. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 37 adults to evaluate items. In the quantitative phase, mothers and fathers of 174 Mexican American children ages 8–10 completed the PFP and provided demographic information. Anthropometric measures were obtained on family members. Results Confirmatory factor analyses identified four parental feeding practice dimensions: positive involvement in child eating, pressure to eat, use of food to control behavior, and restriction of amount of food. Factorial invariance modeling suggested equivalent factor meaning and item response scaling across mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers differed somewhat in their use of feeding practices. All four feeding practices were related to child body mass index (BMI) percentiles, for one or both parents. Mothers reporting more positive involvement had children with lower BMI percentiles. Parents using more pressure to eat had children with lower BMI percentiles, while parents using more restriction had children with higher BMI percentiles. Fathers using food to control behavior had children with lower BMI percentiles. Conclusions Results indicate good initial validity and reliability for the PFP. It can be

  11. Mobility limitations and fear of falling in non-English speaking older Mexican-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Eric G; Conatser, Phillip; Karabulut, Murat; Leveille, Suzanne G; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Cote, Sarah; Tucker, Katherine L; Barton, Bruce; Bean, Jonathan F; Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos S

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether older Mexican-Americans who cannot speak and/or understand spoken English have higher rates of mobility limitations or fear of falling than their English-speaking counterparts. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 1169 community-dwelling Mexican-Americans aged 72-96 years from the 2000-2001 wave of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly. Mobility limitations were defined as having a Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9, and fear of falling by participant report of being somewhat, fairly, or very afraid of falling. We determined the rates and odds ratios, for having mobility limitations and fear of falling as a function of English ability in those who were 72-96, English 85.7% had mobility limitations and 61.6% were afraid of falling, compared to 77.6% and 57.5%, respectively, of English speakers. Before adjusting for covariates, participants who did not speak and/or understand spoken English were more likely to have mobility limitations (odds ratio: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.4) but not fear of falling, compared to English speakers. Among those aged ≥80 years, but not those English were more likely to have mobility limitations (odds ratio: 4.8; 95% CI:2.0-11.5) and fear of falling (odds ratio: 2.0; 95% CI:1.3-3.1). Older Mexican-Americans who do not speak or understand spoken English have a higher rate of mobility limitations and fear of falling than their English-speaking counterparts.

  12. Parental feeding practices in Mexican American families: initial test of an expanded measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tschann Jeanne M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although obesity rates are high among Latino children, relatively few studies of parental feeding practices have examined Latino families as a separate group. Culturally-based approaches to measurement development can begin to identify parental feeding practices in specific cultural groups. This study used qualitative and quantitative methods to develop and test the Parental Feeding Practices (PFP Questionnaire for use with Mexican American parents. Items reflected both parent’s use of control over child eating and child-centered feeding practices. Methods In the qualitative phase of the research, 35 Latino parents participated in focus groups. Items for the PFP were developed from focus group discussions, as well as adapted from existing parent feeding practice measures. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 37 adults to evaluate items. In the quantitative phase, mothers and fathers of 174 Mexican American children ages 8–10 completed the PFP and provided demographic information. Anthropometric measures were obtained on family members. Results Confirmatory factor analyses identified four parental feeding practice dimensions: positive involvement in child eating, pressure to eat, use of food to control behavior, and restriction of amount of food. Factorial invariance modeling suggested equivalent factor meaning and item response scaling across mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers differed somewhat in their use of feeding practices. All four feeding practices were related to child body mass index (BMI percentiles, for one or both parents. Mothers reporting more positive involvement had children with lower BMI percentiles. Parents using more pressure to eat had children with lower BMI percentiles, while parents using more restriction had children with higher BMI percentiles. Fathers using food to control behavior had children with lower BMI percentiles. Conclusions Results indicate good initial validity and

  13. Targeting the taqueria: implementing healthy food options at Mexican American restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanni, Krista D; Garcia, Elan; Ellemberg, Cheryl; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2009-04-01

    As part of a 5-year community-based intervention in Salinas, California, the Steps to a Healthier Salinas team developed a taqueria intervention addressing obesity and diabetes among Mexican Americans. The authors present: (a) a comparison of service/entrée options for Salinas taquerias (n = 35) and fast-food restaurants ( n = 38) at baseline, (b) a case study of one taqueria, (c) a description of a healthy nutrition tool kit tailored to taquerias, and (d) an evaluation of the intervention at Year 3. It was found that traditional Mexican American-style menu offerings at taquerias tended to be healthier than American-style fast-food restaurant offerings. In addition, the initial response to the intervention has shown positive changes, which include the taqueria owners promoting available healthy menu items and modifying other menu offerings to reduce fats and increase fruit and vegetable availability. This, in turn, has led to a transition of the owners' perceptions of themselves as gatekeepers for a healthy community.

  14. The Effects of Ethnicity, SES, and Crime Status on Juror Decision Making: A Cross-Cultural Examination of European American and Mexican American Mock Jurors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Cynthia Willis; Espinoza, Russ K. E.; Culhane, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, a defendant's ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and crime status were varied for effects on verdict decisions, sentencing recommendations, culpability assignments, and trait assessments. In Study 1, European Americans (N = 221) provided a low SES Mexican American defendant with more guilt verdicts, a lengthier sentence, and…

  15. The Roles of Parental Inductions, Moral Emotions, and Moral Cognitions in Prosocial Tendencies among Mexican American and European American Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Gustavo; Knight, George P.; McGinley, Meredith; Hayes, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between parental inductions, sympathy, prosocial moral reasoning, and prosocial behaviors. A total of 207 early adolescents who self-identified as Mexican American (girls, n = 105; mean age = 10.91 years) and 108 who identified as European American (girls, n = 54; mean age = 11.07 years) completed measures of…

  16. Normative cultural values and the experiences of Mexican-American mothers in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Lisa M; Horner, Sharon D

    2012-04-01

    To explore the experiences of Mexican-American mothers who have had infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A convenience sample of 15 English-speaking, Mexican-American women was interviewed. The study used an exploratory qualitative approach. Data collection was conducted through audiotaped, transcribed, semistructured, individual interviews and field notes. The 5 normative cultural values for Latino families-(1) simpatia, (2) personalismo, (3) respeto, (4) familismo, and (5) fatalismo-were used as a sensitizing framework to guide data interpretation. The women's discussions of their NICU experiences clearly reflect the 5 normative Latino cultural values. Positive and negative exemplars of these values are provided as evidence. These findings can be used to inform nursing care provided for Mexican-American mothers and their infants by assisting nurses to customize care to meet the cultural needs of this population.

  17. Reconsidering the “acculturation gap” narrative through an analysis of parent–adolescent acculturation differences in Mexican American families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieri, Tanya; Grindal, Matthew; Adams, Michele A.; Cookston, Jeffrey T.; Fabricius, William V.; Parke, Ross D.; Saenz, Delia S.

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 193 Mexican American adolescents (M age at Wave 1 = 14) and three waves of data over two years, this study longitudinally examined the effects of parent-youth acculturation differences, relative to no differences, on parent-adolescent relationship quality and youth problem behavior. We examined parent-youth differences in overall acculturation, Mexican acculturation, and American acculturation. We differentiated between cases in which the adolescent was more acculturated than the parent and cases in which the parent was more acculturated than the adolescent. Adolescents were more commonly similar to their parents than different. Where differences existed, adolescents were not uniformly more American than their parents, no type of difference was associated with parent-adolescent relationship quality, and no type of difference in overall acculturation was associated with youth problem behavior. One type of difference by dimension (adolescent had less Mexican acculturation than mother) was associated with less risk of problem behavior. PMID:27695153

  18. Economic Stress and Cortisol Among Postpartum Low-Income Mexican American Women: Buffering Influence of Family Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Shannon L; Luecken, Linda J; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Crnic, Keith A; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2015-01-01

    Low-income Mexican American women experience significant health disparities during the postpartum period. Contextual stressors, such as economic stress, are theorized to affect health via dysregulated cortisol output. However, cultural protective factors including strong family support may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18-42; 82% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000-$15,000), we examined the interactive influence of economic stress and family support at 6 weeks postpartum on maternal cortisol output (AUCg) during a mildly challenging mother-infant interaction task at 12 weeks postpartum, controlling for 6-week maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms. The interaction significantly predicted cortisol output such that higher economic stress predicted higher cortisol only among women reporting low family support. These results suggest that family support is an important protective resource for postpartum Mexican American women experiencing elevated economic stress.

  19. Political Participation of Mexican Americans in California. A Report of the California State Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    The California State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights met on January 21-22, 1971, to discuss the political participation of Mexican Americans. This paper presents the committee's discussion and recommendations. Matters that are pertinent to the participation of Mexican Americans in the Political life of California are…

  20. ""Una Persona Derechita" (Staying Right in the Mind)": Perceptions of Spanish-Speaking Mexican American Older Adults in South Texas "Colonias"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R.; Sharf, Barbara F.; St. John, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the perceptions of brain health among older Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans who reside in colonia areas of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Design and Methods: In 2007, 33 Mexican American older adults (9 men and 24 women) were recruited by "promotoras" (community health workers) from clusters of…

  1. Mexican migrants organizations in the USA and their strategy for local development with a transnational approach: Advances and challenges / Las organizaciones de migrantes mexicanos en Estados Unidos y su estrategia de desarrollo local con enfoque transnacional: avances y desafíos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo García Zamora

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The "Three for One" program of collective remittances in Mexico, with its variations, conflicts and difficulties, has been a major breakthrough as a trans-national, organizational effort for the promotion of social development in communities of origin. The key to its success lies in the solidarity of migrant organizations toward their home communities in association with the three levels of the Mexican Government. This transnational philanthropy began spontaneously in the 1960s and thirty years later it began to receive the gradual support of the different levels of the government, until its institutionalization as a federal program in 2002, reporting to the Ministry of Social Development. In 2010, after more than three decades of experience with solidarity projects, the migrant Mexican organizations are considering moving towards a new phase of local development -with a transnational approach- in their regions of origin, seeking greater impact on the economic and social structure.

  2. Relationship styles of self-focused autonomy, other-focused connection, and mutuality among Mexican American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Kristin D; Brabeck, Kalina M; Kearney, Lisa K

    2006-10-01

    The author examined relationship styles of self-focused autonomy (SFA), other-focused connection (OFC), and mutuality among 415 European and Mexican American young adults in 2 U.S. colleges. Mutuality was the most commonly reported style for both ethnic groups, although Mexican American men were more likely than the others to indicate that they had the SFA style. Mexican American participants perceived their fathers' styles as SFA more often than did the others regarding either of their parents' styles. Mutuality was associated with the best mental-health outcomes regardless of gender or ethnicity. The present results indicate that the cultural influences on autonomy and connection are complex and that collectivistic cultural contexts may sometimes promote autonomy concerns in men.

  3. Intimate partner violence in Mexican-American women with disabilities: a secondary data analysis of cross-language research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divin, Chris; Volker, Deborah L; Harrison, Tracie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative descriptive study, guided by Antonovsky's salutogenic model, was to explore the manifestations of strength within the interviews of Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women aging with mobility impairments who also experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV events gleaned from 26 audiotaped interviews from 7 Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women, who ranged in age from 55 to 75 years, constituted the sample for this secondary analysis. Five categories were identified: abuse from early on that shaped sense of coherence; violencia tan cruel--threatened sense of coherence; "salutogenic" choices within the context of IPV; a quest for peace; and strength amid struggle.

  4. Mexican American adolescents' academic achievement and aspirations: the role of perceived parental educational involvement, acculturation, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Francisco D; You, Sukkyung; Chhuon, Vichet; Hudley, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    As the number of Mexican American school-aged children continues to increase, researchers, practitioners, and policymakers are in critical need of information to better understand and serve them. This study used structural equation modeling to examine the relationship among perceived parental educational involvement (PPEI), acculturation, gender, and self-esteem on the academic achievement and aspirations of Mexican American high school students (N = 298). Results revealed direct effects of perceived parental educational involvement, students' level of acculturation, and students' self-esteem on students' achievement and aspirations. Acculturation and self-esteem also revealed indirect effects on aspirations and achievement through parental educational expectations. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Brief report: An examination of the relationships between parental monitoring, self-esteem and delinquency among Mexican American male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Roslyn M; Beutler, Larry E; An Ross, Sylvia; Clayton Silver, N

    2006-06-01

    The present study examined relationships between parental monitoring (mother and father), self-esteem, and delinquency among 95 adjudicated Mexican American male adolescents who were on probationary status with the juvenile justice system. Consistent with previous literature pertaining to familial processes and delinquency among the general adolescent population, findings from the current study revealed that parental monitoring was negatively associated with delinquency. In addition, self-esteem was shown to be positively correlated with delinquency. These results highlight the generalizability of previous research related to familial, emotional, and behavioral processes among Mexican American male adolescents.

  6. The Link between Potassium and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Mexican-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul M. Vintimilla

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent evidence suggests that increasing dietary intake of minerals reduces the risk of dementia. This study aimed to examine the relationship between potassium and diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI in a sample of older Mexican-Americans from rural and urban populations. Methods: The sample was formed of a total of 139 participants with MCI and 371 normal controls from two independent cohorts: a rural cohort (Facing Rural Obstacles to Healthcare Now through Intervention, Education and Research [Project FRONTIER] and an urban cohort (the Health and Aging Brain among Latino Elders [HABLE] study. Serum electrolytes examined were sodium and potassium. Age and education were entered in the model as covariates. Results: Across both cohorts, the Project FRONTIER (OR = 3.1; p = 0.01 and the HABLE Project (OR = 2.0; p = 0.04, the results indicated that serum potassium levels significantly increased the risk of diagnosis of MCI. Conclusion: Our finding suggested a link between serum potassium levels and a diagnosis of MCI in Mexican-Americans. The results of this study support a previous research which has suggested that the risk factors for MCI may vary by ethnicity.

  7. Ethnopsychiatric interpretations of schizophrenic illness: the problem of nervios within Mexican-American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J H

    1988-09-01

    Among Mexican-American families, the concept of nervios (nerves) serves as a culturally meaningful illness category for a wide range of conditions, including schizophrenic disorders diagnosed according to psychiatric criteria. This article examines the nature and the meaning of nervios as a notion used by Mexican-American families to understand the schizophrenic illness of a relative. Family descriptions of the condition are presented and the emotional and symbolic meanings of the concept are discussed. The complex and somewhat ambiguous nature of folk conceptions is evidenced not only by variations in the description of nervios but also by the finding that nervios is but one way to view schizophrenic illness. It is suggested that a cultural preference for the term nervios is linked to the efforts of family members to reduce the stigma associated with a mental illness while also reinforcing the strength of family bonds and solidarity by fostering tolerant inclusion of the family member within the home. It is argued that the concept of nervios, and the family emotions that surround this folk label, may mediate the course and outcome of schizophrenic disorder.

  8. A Prospective Study of Mexican American Adolescents’ Academic Success: Considering Family and Individual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W.; O’Donnell, Megan; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Zeiders, Katherine H.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Mexican American youth are at greater risk of school failure than their peers. To identify factors that may contribute to academic success in this population, this study examined the prospective relationships from 5th grade to 7th grade of family (i.e., human capital [a parent with at least a high school education], residential stability, academically and occupationally positive family role models, and family structure) and individual characteristics (i.e., externalizing symptoms, bilingualism, gender, and immigrant status) to the academic performance of 749 Mexican American early adolescents (average age = 10.4 years and 48.7% were girls in 5th grade) from economically and culturally diverse families as these youth made the transition to junior high school. Results indicated that while controlling for prior academic performance, human capital and positive family role models assessed when adolescents were in in 5th grade positively related to academic performance in 7th grade. Further, being a girl also was related to greater 7th grade academic success, whereas externalizing symptoms were negatively related to 7th grade academic performance. No other variables in the model were significantly and prospectively related to 7th grade academic performance. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed. PMID:21863379

  9. A prospective study of Mexican American adolescents' academic success: considering family and individual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W; O'Donnell, Megan; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A; Zeiders, Katherine H; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana

    2012-03-01

    Mexican American youth are at greater risk of school failure than their peers. To identify factors that may contribute to academic success in this population, this study examined the prospective relationships from 5th grade to 7th grade of family (i.e., human capital [a parent with at least a high school education], residential stability, academically and occupationally positive family role models, and family structure) and individual characteristics (i.e., externalizing symptoms, bilingualism, gender, and immigrant status) to the academic performance of 749 Mexican American early adolescents (average age = 10.4 years and 48.7% were girls in 5th grade) from economically and culturally diverse families as these youth made the transition to junior high school. Results indicated that while controlling for prior academic performance, human capital and positive family role models assessed when adolescents were in 5th grade positively related to academic performance in 7th grade. Further, being a girl also was related to greater 7th grade academic success, whereas externalizing symptoms were negatively related to 7th grade academic performance. No other variables in the model were significantly and prospectively related to 7th grade academic performance. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed.

  10. Ancestral effect on HOMA-IR levels quantitated in an American population of Mexican origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hui-Qi; Li, Quan; Lu, Yang; Hanis, Craig L; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; McCormick, Joseph B

    2012-12-01

    An elevated insulin resistance index (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) is more commonly seen in the Mexican American population than in European populations. We report quantitative ancestral effects within a Mexican American population, and we correlate ancestral components with HOMA-IR. We performed ancestral analysis in 1,551 participants of the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort by genotyping 103 ancestry-informative markers (AIMs). These AIMs allow determination of the percentage (0-100%) ancestry from three major continental populations, i.e., European, African, and Amerindian. We observed that predominantly Amerindian ancestral components were associated with increased HOMA-IR (β = 0.124, P = 1.64 × 10(-7)). The correlation was more significant in males (Amerindian β = 0.165, P = 5.08 × 10(-7)) than in females (Amerindian β = 0.079, P = 0.019). This unique study design demonstrates how genomic markers for quantitative ancestral information can be used in admixed populations to predict phenotypic traits such as insulin resistance.

  11. Belief Reasoning and Emotion Understanding in Balanced Bilingual and Language-Dominant Mexican American Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Amy A; Gasquoine, Philip G

    2016-01-01

    Belief reasoning and emotion understanding were measured among 102 Mexican American bilingual children ranging from 4 to 7 years old. All children were tested in English and Spanish after ensuring minimum comprehension in each language. Belief reasoning was assessed using 2 false and 1 true belief tasks. Emotion understanding was measured using subtests from the Test for Emotion Comprehension. The influence of family background variables of yearly income, parental education level, and number of siblings on combined Spanish and English vocabulary, belief reasoning, and emotion understanding was assessed by regression analyses. Age and emotion understanding predicted belief reasoning. Vocabulary and belief reasoning predicted emotion understanding. When the sample was divided into language-dominant and balanced bilingual groups on the basis of language proficiency difference scores, there were no significant differences on belief reasoning or emotion understanding. Language groups were demographically similar with regard to child age, parental educational level, and family income. Results suggest Mexican American language-dominant and balanced bilinguals develop belief reasoning and emotion understanding similarly.

  12. Mexican-American Adolescents’ Gender-Typed Characteristics: The Role of Sibling and Friend Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorey A.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Schaefer, David R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of sibling and friend characteristics in Mexican-American youth’s gender-typed characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests, and leisure activities) in early versus middle adolescence using a sibling design. Mexican-American 7th graders (M = 12.51 years; SD = .58) and their older siblings (M = 15.48 years; SD = 1.57) from 246 families participated in home interviews and a series of seven nightly phone calls. Results revealed that younger/early adolescent siblings reported more traditional gender role attitudes than their older/middle adolescent siblings and older brothers were more traditional in their attitudes than older sisters. When comparing siblings’ gender-typed interests and leisure activities, boys reported more masculine orientations than girls and girls reported more feminine orientations than boys. Older brothers’ gender-typed characteristics were associated with the amount of time spent with and gender characteristics of their friendship group, but for younger brothers, sibling characteristics were associated with their gender-typed characteristics. In contrast, both sibling and friendship characteristics were significantly associated with older and younger sisters’ gender-typed characteristics. The discussion addressed the different correlates of older and younger sisters’ and brothers’ gender-typed characteristics. PMID:25539774

  13. Mexican-American Adolescents' Gender-Typed Characteristics: The Role of Sibling and Friend Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Schaefer, David R

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the role of sibling and friend characteristics in Mexican-American youth's gender-typed characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests, and leisure activities) in early versus middle adolescence using a sibling design. Mexican-American 7th graders (M = 12.51 years; SD = .58) and their older siblings (M = 15.48 years; SD = 1.57) from 246 families participated in home interviews and a series of seven nightly phone calls. Results revealed that younger/early adolescent siblings reported more traditional gender role attitudes than their older/middle adolescent siblings and older brothers were more traditional in their attitudes than older sisters. When comparing siblings' gender-typed interests and leisure activities, boys reported more masculine orientations than girls and girls reported more feminine orientations than boys. Older brothers' gender-typed characteristics were associated with the amount of time spent with and gender characteristics of their friendship group, but for younger brothers, sibling characteristics were associated with their gender-typed characteristics. In contrast, both sibling and friendship characteristics were significantly associated with older and younger sisters' gender-typed characteristics. The discussion addressed the different correlates of older and younger sisters' and brothers' gender-typed characteristics.

  14. Mexican-American perspectives on participation in clinical trials: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Arevalo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials are essential to advancing knowledge to reduce disease morbidity and mortality; however, ethnic and racial minorities remain under-represented in those studies. We explored knowledge and perceptions of clinical trials among Mexican-Americans in Texas. We conducted focus groups (N = 128 stratified by gender, language preference, and geographical location. This paper presents four emergent, primary themes: 1 knowledge and understanding of clinical trials, 2 fears and concerns about participating, 3 perceived benefits of participating, and 4 incentives to participate. Results suggest that lack of knowledge and understanding of clinical trials leads to misunderstanding about research, including fears and lack of trust. Participants indicated that fears related to perceived experimentation, harm, immigration status, and lack of clinical trial opportunities within their communities were barriers to participation. On the other hand, free healthcare access, helping family members in the future, and monetary incentives could facilitate participation. We also found differences across themes by language, gender, and place of residence. Findings from our study could inform the development of interventions to enhance recruitment of Mexican-American participants into clinical trials.

  15. Reduction of non-adherent behaviour in a Mexican-American adolescent with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piven, Emily; Duran, Rene

    2014-03-01

    This single-subject research aimed to evaluate the effect of occupation-based activities to improve diabetes self-management skills in a non-adherent 19-year-old Mexican-American adolescent transitioning to young adulthood. Using a pre-test/post-test design, the subject's performance was re-evaluated with five standardized measures following an 8-week intervention. The subject made major improvements on the Diabetes Self-Efficacy Scale, Exercise Behaviour and in goal attainment of targeted behaviours on the basis of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. The Adapted Intrusiveness Rating Scale and the Social/Role Activities Limitations Scale revealed increased intrusiveness of diabetes in his life, once he finally embraced his need to prioritize diabetes self-care. The study illuminated how a culturally sensitive, occupation-based early intervention might potentially prevent or reduce debilitating complications in adulthood. The value of this study is its contribution to body of diabetes literature on the role of occupational therapist in secondary prevention with Mexican-Americans. Research suggestions included expansion of single-subject design with larger samples and higher-level research studies with adolescents from various cultural backgrounds. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Quest for Integrity: The Mexican-U.S. Drug Issue in the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    migrant workers, and drugs into the United States and have provided medical treatments (e.g., for cancer , AIDS) that Americans want but find prohibited in...with North Africa for the European cannabis market, which in any case prefers hashish to marijuana. - 53 - and that Mexican marijuana is of lower

  17. A Norwegian speaks Norwegian : An analysis of categorization and identity construction in narratives of Latin American migrants in Oslo

    OpenAIRE

    Pajaro, Veronica

    2011-01-01

    This project seeks to trace how Latin American migrants residing in Oslo use group categories for self- and other-identification for the negotiation and construction of identities in interaction. Identity construction is an essential process for migration and resettlement, as the relocation of the self in a new context requires a constant process of redefinition of the self in relation to the new environment and community. I consider group categorization labels such as "foreigner," "Norweg...

  18. Mexican Americans, Chicanos, and Others: Ethnic Self-Identification and Selected Social Attributes of Rural Texas Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael V.

    1976-01-01

    Following the thesis that variations in ethnic identification reflect social differentiation within the Mexican American population, this paper sought to: (1) delineate primary terms for ethnic self-identification among youths residing in a relatively homogeneous area of South Texas, (2) test the generalizability of past findings, and (3) examine…

  19. The Influence of Acculturation and Enculturation on Mexican American High School Students' Decision to Apply to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Linda G.; Lopez-Arenas, Araceli; Saldivar, Isaac M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the influence of acculturation, enculturation, parental education level, financial concerns, and gender on 106 Mexican American high school students' decisions to apply to college. Results indicated that acculturation and female gender were significant predictors. Implications for interventions with Latino high school students…

  20. Physical Settings, Materials, and Related Spanish Terminology Recommended for Play Therapy with First-Generation Mexican-American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Peter L.; Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Flores-Torres, Leila; Steele, Richard; Lund, Nick L.

    2005-01-01

    There is a dearth of literature on multicultural aspects of play therapy, particularly for Mexican-American children. According to Landreth (2002), it is of utmost importance that children be able to communicate in a way that is most natural to them. The literature currently reflects a playroom based mostly on middle class European-American…

  1. Short sleep duration is associated with eating more carbohydrates and less dietary fat in Mexican American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short sleep duration is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Mechanisms are unclear, but may involve selection of high carbohydrate foods. This study examined the association between estimated sleep duration and macronutrient intake as percentages of total energy among Mexican American (MA) 9-11 yea...

  2. Learning Style Preferences of Korean-, Mexican-, Armenian-American, and Anglo Students in Secondary Schools. Research Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Clara C.

    1997-01-01

    Investigated the four basic learning style preferences (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile) of Korean-, Armenian-, and Mexican-American students attending 10 Los Angeles schools and compared them with those of Anglo students. All four ethnic groups, regardless of sex and academic achievement level, indicate a major preference for…

  3. Emergent Gender Roles within Tween Popular Culture: Perspectives from Mexican American Students in a Fifth-Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godina, Heriberto; Soto-Ramirez, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    This study examines fifth-grade Mexican American students' beliefs about emergent gender roles. We used participant-observation methodology to conduct research on six focal-student participants selected from the general fifth-grade population at an elementary school located in the Southwestern United States. Collected data included focal-student…

  4. School-based sports participation and its effects on weight maintenance in Mexican American adolescents: A two-year analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Participation in sports has been shown to decrease standardized body mass index (zBMI), especially in school settings. Few studies have examined the impact of sports participation in a Mexican American sample. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of sports participation on wei...

  5. Active Intervention Program Using Dietary Education and Exercise Training for Reducing Obesity in Mexican American Male Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukho; Misra, Ranjita; Kaster, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 10-week active intervention program (AIP), which incorporates dietary education with exercise training, among 30 healthy Mexican American male children, aged 8-12 years, in Laredo, Texas. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups: education (EDU), dietary education to participants and parents and…

  6. Depression in the barrio: An analysis of the risk and protective nature of cultural values among Mexican American substance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Yolanda R; Torres, Luis R; Stotts, Angela L; Ren, Yi; Sampson, Mcclain; Klawans, Michelle R; Bordnick, Patrick S

    2017-06-07

    Understanding the effect of cultural values on depression and how social networks influence these relationships may be important in the treatment of substance-using, Mexican American populations. Latino cultural values, familismo, personalismo, fatalismo, and machismo, may be associated with depression among Latinos. The current study identified the association of traditional Latino values on depressive symptomatology among a sample of Mexican American heroin injectors. A cross-sectional research design and field-intensive outreach methodology were utilized to recruit 227 Mexican American men. Participants were categorized into depressed and nondepressed groups. Relations among cultural values and depression were examined using logistic regression. Findings indicate that drug-using men with higher familismo and fatalismo scores are protected against depressive symptomatology. Relations between familismo and depression seem to be moderated by having a drug use network. In addition, findings reveal that age is inversely related to depressive symptomatology. Young Mexican American heroin users who do not ascribe to traditional Latino values may be highly associated with depression and therefore more vulnerable to riskier drug use behaviors. Moreover, drug-using social networks may affect the protective nature of certain cultural values. Further research is needed to identify whether culturally tailored treatments can cultivate these values while simultaneously undermining the effect of substance-using social networks in order to reduce depression symptoms among this group of high-risk substance users.

  7. Acculturation, White Marginalization, and Family Support as Predictors of Perceived Distress in Mexican American Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Linda G.; Conoley, Collie W.; Brossart, Daniel F.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the influence of psychosociocultural variables of acculturation, White attitudinal marginalization, family support, and income on perceived distress in 247 Mexican American female college students. Participants were bicultural and attended primarily White universities in the West and Southwest. Results showed that comfort with…

  8. Measuring Perceived Social Support in Mexican American Youth: Psychometric Properties of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lisa M.

    2004-01-01

    The utility of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) (Zimet, Dahlem, Zimet,& Farley, 1988) was investigated within a sample of 290 Mexican American adolescents. Results suggested that the three-subscale structure (Family, Friends, and Significant Other) of the MSPSS was confirmed, and adequate internal reliability for the…

  9. "Este Libro Es Mi Historia": Mother-Child Interactions during Storybook Reading in a Mexican-American Household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyak, Patrick

    A study explored the storybook reading experiences between Ms. Garza and her children. A broad conception of the zone of proximal development, involving use, adaptation, and transformation of culturally shaped tools in the process of shared activity, provides the framework for examining this particular Mexican-American family's reading behavior.…

  10. Challenges and Resources of Mexican American Students within the Family, Peer Group, and University: Age and Gender Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Edward M.

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 100 Mexican American undergraduate students assessed their perceptions of five challenges (and associated resources) to completing college: financial problems, domestic responsibilities, academic discouragement, and racial and gender discrimination. There were no differences between upper- and lower-division students. Males were more…

  11. Mother--Child and Father--Child Emotional Expressiveness in Mexican-American Families and Toddlers' Peer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Rivera, Mitzie

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation explored the association of mother--child and father--child emotional expressiveness during toddlerhood to children's prosocial and aggressive behaviour with peers. Data were collected from 62 Mexican-American families with toddlers (29 females, 33 males) during a home visit. Children's peer interactions were also…

  12. Eat, play, view, sleep: Exploring Mexican American mothers' perceptions of decision making for four behaviors associated with childhood obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel E; Cole, Suzanne M; Blake, Christine E; McKenney-Shubert, Shannon J; Peterson, Karen E

    2016-06-01

    This mixed methods study sought to understand who makes decisions about whether preschool-aged Mexican American children engage in eating, outdoor play, sleep, and screen time behaviors. Forty Mexican American mothers of children ages 3-4 participated in two interviews, during which both closed- and open-ended questions elicited perceptions of who made decisions for the four behaviors, as well as who was present, mealtime rules, and food choice values. Interviews were transcribed, coded for emergent themes, and compared across participants. Participants generally perceived themselves to be primary decision makers for all four behaviors; however, food decisions often seemed to be made collaboratively with the child. Fathers were most likely to participate in evening television decisions. Other family members were rarely mentioned. Selecting foods that children liked was a strong food choice value, while cost was rarely mentioned. Participants appeared to have low perceived control over their child's behaviors relative to their perceived roles in decision making. Mothers may be the primary audience for obesity prevention messages for preschool-aged, Mexican American children; however, health promotion programs may need to increase mothers' awareness of their control over children's behaviors. Understanding how children's behaviors are regulated is an important aspect of obesity prevention for low-income, Mexican American children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women with Binge Eating Disorders

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    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation…

  14. Mexican-American Disciplinary Practices and Attitudes toward Child Maltreatment: A Comparison of Foreign- and Native-Born Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriel, Raymond; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examines disciplinary practices and child-maltreatment attitudes in foreign- and native-born Mexican-American mothers. Subjects responded to accounts of child misconduct and mistreatment. Foreign-born mothers more likely than natives to use spanking and verbal reasoning. Spanking not preferred by either group. Child-mistreatment-response…

  15. Understanding and Alleviating Cultural Stressors and Health Disparities in the Perinatal Outcomes of Mexican-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly; Rivera, Kendra Dyanne

    2014-01-01

    Women from minority populations, such as Mexican-American women, face unique social and cultural stressors that are different from men and women in the majority population. These differences have important consequences for the physical and mental health of pregnant mothers and contribute to perinatal health inequalities. As the population in the…

  16. Mothers' Parenting Dimensions and Adolescent Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors in a Low-Income, Urban Mexican American Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manongdo, Jennifer A.; Garcia, Jorge I. Ramirez

    2007-01-01

    The relation between adolescent-reported parenting behaviors and mother-reported youth externalizing and internalizing behaviors was examined among 91 Mexican American mother-adolescent (ages 13-17) dyads recruited from an immigrant enclave in a large midwestern metropolitan area. Two major dimensions of mothers' parenting emerged: supportive…

  17. Evaluation of the Life Satisfaction and Subjective Happiness Scales with Mexican American High School and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Lerma, Eunice; Ikonomopoulos, James

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the psychometric properties of two meaningful measures of subjective well-being among Mexican American high school and college students. Participants completed the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) or Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) as measures of subjective well-being. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)…

  18. Ethnic Diversity and Latino/a College Access: A Comparison of Mexican American and Puerto Rican Beginning College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Anne-Marie; Crisp, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has indicated that there are differences among the diverse Latino/a ethnic groups in their K-12 educational experiences, but little is known about variations in their postsecondary experiences. Drawing on a conceptual framework informed by the theory of French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, this research examined Mexican American and…

  19. Family cohesion, acculturation, maternal cortisol, and preterm birth in Mexican-American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz RJ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available R Jeanne Ruiz,1 Rita H Pickler,2 C Nathan Marti,3 Nancy Jallo41College of Nursing, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Patient Services, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 3Abacist Analytics, Austin, TX, USA; 4School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USAObjective: To examine the potential moderating effects of family cohesion and acculturation on the physiological stress response (cortisol as a predictor of preterm birth (PTB in pregnant Mexican-American women.Methods: The sample included 470 participants; 33 had preterm births. All participants were self-identified as Mexican-American. In this cross-sectional study, family cohesion was measured by a self-report questionnaire. Acculturation was measured by self-report questionnaire as well as by years in the United States and country of birth. Stress was measured by serum cortisol. All measures were obtained at 22—24 weeks gestation. Additional data including history of PTB were obtained from the health record. Data analysis was primarily conducted using logistic regression.Results: The relationship between stress and PTB was predicted by family cohesion (estimate/standard error [E/SE] = —2.46, P = 0.014 and acculturation (E/SE = 2.56, P = 0.011. In addition, there was an interaction between family cohesion and history of previous PTB (E/SE = —2.12, P = 0.035.Conclusion: Results indicate that the impact of cortisol on PTB is predicted by acculturation and family cohesion such that higher levels of cortisol in conjunction with higher levels of acculturation and lower levels of family cohesion are associated with increased risk of PTB. In addition, low family cohesion in combination with a history of PTB was associated with higher levels of PTB. Assessment of family cohesion, including problem solving, adherence to family decisions, family shared space, and activity, should be included as part of prenatal

  20. Community integration and participation: the role of the social network in latin american migrants in a rural province (Teruel, Spain

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    Marta Gil-Lacruz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Social network play an important role in both the decision to emigrate and the choice of location. Related to migrants and its social net, very little is known about patterns of integration and community participation in rural and low population density contexts in Spain. This article explores these issues and is based on a study, in the province of Teruel (Spain, using a sample of 324 Latin American migrants over the age of 18, selected by sex and place of residence. A standardised test - the Musitu and Gracia AC-90 Community Social Support Questionnaire and open questions were employed. ANOVAS analysis showed significant differences in community integration and participation in accordance with socioeconomic, motivational and social interaction variables.

  1. [Central American migrants' sexual experiences and rights in their transit to the USA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, César; Silván, Rubén; Caballero, Marta; Campero, Lourdes

    2013-07-01

    To explore the causes and circumstances that determine the way in which migrants experience their sexuality and how this impacts their sexual rights. Qualitative study conducted between April 2009 and July 2010 in Chiapas, Oaxaca, San Luis Potosí, and Tamaulipas. We conducted 22 in-depth interviews to migrants in transit and to ten different key actors. For the analysis we used elements of grounded theory. Migrants know and identify the risks they may encounter in their transit but have scarce access to services to effectively exercise their sexual and reproductive rights. Their vulnerability makes them internalize and accept the violence enacted on them as part of their destiny and as what they must suffer in order to reach the USA. Violence, including sexual violence, determines much of the experiences of their transit through Mexico. Differences between groups and between male and female migrants are determined by gender inequalities and power.

  2. HIV infection in mobile populations: the case of Mexican migrants to the United States La infección por VIH en poblaciones migratorias: la situación de los obreros itinerantes mexicanos en los Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. Martínez-Donate

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have indicated varying rates of HIV infection among labor migrants to the United States of America. Most of these studies have been conducted with convenience samples of farmworkers, thus presenting limited external validity. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of HIV infection and risk factors among Mexican migrants traveling through the border region of Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, and San Diego, California, United States. This region handles 37% of the migrant flow between Mexico and the United States and represents the natural port of entry for Mexican migrants to California. METHODS: From April to December 2002 a probability survey was conducted at key migrant crossing points in Tijuana. Mexican migrants, including ones with a history of illegal migration to the United States, completed an interview on HIV risk factors (n = 1 429 and an oral HIV antibody test (n = 1 041. RESULTS: Despite reporting risk factors for HIV infection, none of the migrants tested positive for HIV. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings contrast with previous estimates of HIV among labor migrants in the United States that were based on nonprobability samples. Our findings also underline the need for early HIV prevention interventions targeting this population of Mexican migrants.OBJETIVO: Estudios anteriores han revelado diferentes tasas de infección por VIH en la población de obreros itinerantes que han ingresado en los Estados Unidos de América. La mayoría de esos estudios se efectuaron con muestras de trabajadores agrícolas tomadas por conveniencia, y por lo tanto su validez externa ha sido limitada. El presente estudio se realizó con el fin de calcular la prevalencia de la infección por VIH y de sus factores de riesgo en los obreros itinerantes mexicanos que se desplazan por el territorio fronterizo de Tijuana, Baja California, México y San Diego, California, Estados Unidos. Esta zona, por donde pasan 37% de los obreros

  3. Trust Development With the Spanish-Speaking Mexican American Patient: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon M

    2018-06-01

    Interpersonal trust between patient and nurse is important in patient-centered care. Trust development may be more difficult if the patient and nurse do not speak the same language. In this grounded theory study, Spanish-speaking Mexican American adults ( n = 20) hospitalized on a medical-surgical or obstetric unit in the Midwestern United States were interviewed. Through data analysis, a model of how trust develops between nurse and patient revealed eight categories and the core category Caring for Me Well Even When Not Understanding Me. The beginning phase had four categories: Asking for Help, Bothering, Communicating, and Understanding. The middle phase had two categories: Platicando (chatting) and Being Available. The end point category was Having Trust, and outcomes were Feeling Comfortable and Feeling Supported. The language barrier was a hindrance to trust development but the nurse's way of being (personality) was more important. Therefore, the patient did develop trust with nurses who did not speak Spanish.

  4. Making Me Feel Comfortable: Developing Trust in the Nurse for Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon M

    2015-11-01

    Trust (confianza) is an important component of patient-centered care and culturally competent care and a major element in the Hispanic culture. The aim of this study was to conceptualize the process of the development of interpersonal trust by hospitalized patients in their nurses. Using the grounded theory method, English-speaking Mexican American patients (N = 22) were interviewed. The core category was Making Me Feel Comfortable. The cyclical process included a beginning stage (Having Needs, Relying on the Nurse), middle stage (Coming Across to Me, Taking Care of Me, Connecting), and end point (Feeling Confianza) with two outcomes (Confiding in the Nurse, Taking Away the Negative). Anytime there was a negative element during the middle stage, this element halted any further development of trust with the nurse. Unique findings were related to Hispanic cultural values of familism and personalismo. The findings have implications which impact patient safety and quality care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Cuidando El Corazon--a weight-reduction intervention for Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, J P; Ramirez, A G; Cousins, J H

    1991-06-01

    Cuidando El Corazon (CEC; Taking Care of Your Heart) was designed to assess the effectiveness of a culturally adapted weight-reduction and exercise program for achieving long-term weight loss in Mexican Americans. CEC used a family-oriented approach to achieve lifestyle change in behavior. Participants were assigned to 1) a booklet-only comparison group that received a manual including behavior change, nutrition, and exercise information and traditional recipes modified in fat content; 2) an individual group that received the same manual and attended year-long classes; or 3) a family group that received a manual and attended classes that emphasized techniques for making changes in the family's eating and exercising habits. The family and individual groups had significantly greater weight losses than the information-only group. Weight loss was greatest in the family-involvement group and least in the information-only comparison group.

  6. Conservation of Mexican wetlands: role of the North American Wetlands Conservation Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.H.; Ryan, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    Mexico's wetlands support a tremendous biological diversity and provide significant natural resource benefits to local communities. Because they are also critical stopover and wintering grounds for much of North America's waterfowl and other migratory birds, Mexico has become an important participant in continental efforts to conserve these resources through the North American Wetlands Conservation Act. Funding from the Act has supported partnerships in a number of Mexico's priority wetlands to conduct data analyses and dissemination, mapping, environmental education, wetland restoration, development of sustainable economic alternatives for local people, and reserve planning and management. These partnerships, with the close involvement of Mexico's Federal Government authority, the Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, have advanced conservation in a uniquely Mexican model that differs from that employed in the United States and Canada.

  7. Drinking and driving among high-risk young Mexican-American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Dary D; Berger, Dale E; Ramirez, Juan R

    2007-01-01

    Determinants of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) were explored among a sample of relatively young Mexican-American males with limited income and education, high levels of alcohol consumption, and regular vehicle use. Data were collected using questionnaires (N=104) and focus groups (N=27), including a focus group with wives and girlfriends (N=4). Four mechanisms that may contribute to the high rate of DUI behavior in this population were identified: (1) a subculture of permissiveness toward drinking and driving for men, (2) heavy drinking, promoted by machismo and a propensity to measure masculinity with alcohol intake, (3) inadequate knowledge of DUI statutes and inadequate understanding of the relationships between BAC, impairment, and crash risk, and (4) for undocumented drivers, lack of accountability in case of an alcohol-related incident.

  8. Initial validation of the Personality Assessment Inventory-Spanish version with clients from Mexican American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, R; Flores, J; Ustad, K; Sewell, K W

    1995-04-01

    Psychological assessment of Hispanic populations are thwarted by the absence of clinical research on comparability of Spanish translations and the stability of their findings. In this study we examined the potential usefulness of the Spanish Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) for Hispanic clients residing in Mexican American communities. We administered the Spanish version on two occasions to 48 monolingual clients and the Spanish and English versions to 21 bilingual clients. Results indicated that the clinical scales had a moderate to good correspondence for Spanish-English (M r = .72) and good test-retest reliability for Spanish-Spanish (M r = .79). Much more variation was observed for the validity scales and the treatment/interpersonal scales. Also more variability was observed in the convergence of elevations across administrations. Because of these mixed results, we discuss the potential usefulness of the PAI clinical scales to screen for major psychopathology.

  9. The Socialization of Culturally Related Values and Prosocial Tendencies among Mexican American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P.; Carlo, Gustavo; Mahrer, Nicole E.; Davis, Alexandra N.

    2016-01-01

    The socialization of cultural values, ethnic identity, and prosocial behaviors is examined in a sample of 749 Mexican American adolescents [age 9–12 at the 5th grade; M(SD) = 10.42(.55); 49% female], their mothers, and fathers at the 5th, 7th and 10th grades. Parents’ familism values positively predicted their ethnic socialization practices. Mothers’ ethnic socialization positively predicted adolescents’ ethnic identity, which positively predicted adolescents’ familism. Familism was associated with several types of prosocial tendencies. Adolescents’ material success and personal achievement values were negatively associated with altruistic helping and positively associated with public helping, but not their parents’ corresponding values. Findings support cultural socialization models, asserting that parents’ traditional cultural values influence their socialization practices, youth cultural values, and youth prosocial behaviors. PMID:28262940

  10. Perceived Maternal Parenting Styles, Cultural Values, and Prosocial Tendencies Among Mexican American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alexandra N; Carlo, Gustavo; Knight, George P

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to extend research on parenting and positive development of Latino youth. Participants were 207 Mexican American adolescents (M age = 10.9 years, SD = 0.83 years; 50% girls) who completed measures of their parents' supportive and firm parenting, their own endorsement of respect and traditional gender role values, and their tendency to engage in six forms of prosocial behaviors. Maternal nativity was also considered as an initial predictor of parenting, adolescents' cultural values, and adolescents' prosocial behaviors. Overall, the results demonstrated that maternal nativity was associated with traditional gender roles and specific forms of prosocial behaviors. Parenting dimensions were differentially associated with respect and traditional gender role values and prosocial behaviors. Cultural values, in turn, were associated with multiple forms of prosocial behaviors. Gender differences in the processes were also explored.

  11. Collective Care: Multiple Caregivers and Multiple Care Recipients in Mexican American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bronwynne C; Coon, David W; Belyea, Michael J; Ume, Ebere

    2017-07-01

    Specific stressors associated with caregiving in Mexican American (MA) families are not well documented, yet caregiving issues are paramount because informal care for parents is central to their culture. Although MA families who band together to provide care for one member are not unique, the literature does not describe the phenomenon of collective caregiving, which may be widespread but unrecognized. This article describes these understudied families who are poorly served by contemporary health systems because their characteristics are unknown. Descriptive, multisite, longitudinal mixed-methods study of MA caregiving families. We identified three types of collective caregivers: those providing care for multiple family members simultaneously, those providing care successively to several family members, and/or those needing care themselves during their caregiving of others. Collective caregiving of MA elders warrants further investigation. Exploration of collective caregiving may provide a foundation for tailored family interventions.

  12. Influence of abuse on condom negotiation among Mexican-American women involved in abusive relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Yolanda R

    2002-01-01

    This study explored cultural and gender perspectives of abuse on condom negotiation behaviors for AIDS prevention among Mexican-American women in abusive intimate relationships. A convenience sample of 20 abused women participated in the study. Data were collected through a demographic questionnaire and audiotaped responses to a semistructured interview guide. Content analysis using QSR NUDIST was used to analyze the verbatim transcriptions of all participant interviews. The predominant category, "He always got his way," was developed in response to the content of the verbatim transcriptions. The category was further expanded to include the self-descriptive subcategories of "He beat me," "He made me feel bad," and "He forced me." Through content analysis, a relationship between abuse by male sexual partners and condom negotiation for AIDS prevention was identified. Trustworthiness of the data collection and analysis was established through methods suggested by Lincoln and Guba.

  13. Mexican-American children's perspectives: neighborhood characteristics and physical activity in Texas-Mexico border colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, Nelda; Lee, Chanam; Smith, Matthew Lee; Wang, Xiaohui; Irizarry, David; Avila-Rodriguez, Elias H; Trevino, Laura; Ory, Marcia G

    2013-10-01

    The qualitative study described in this article investigated perceptions about environmental factors influencing physical activity (PA) among children from underserved neighborhoods known as colonias in the U.S.-Mexico border. Ten focus groups were conducted with 67 Mexican-American colonia children ages 8 to 13 living in one of the poorest border counties in the U.S. Analyses indicated that PA among children was influenced by neighborhood characteristics, including litter, speeding cars, unleashed dogs, and dark streets. The children also underlined intrapersonal and social environmental factors. Findings may inform policy makers and public health professionals about ways to promote PA among underserved children through urban planning and programs focusing on PA-supportive infrastructure, neighborhood safety, and family- and home-based physical activities.

  14. Trust-based prayer expectancies and health among older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Hayward, R David

    2014-04-01

    This study assesses the health-related effects of trust-based prayer expectancies, which reflect the belief that God answers prayers at the right time and in the best way. The following relationships are evaluated in our conceptual model: (1) older Mexican Americans who attend worship services more often tend to develop a closer relationship with God; (2) people who feel close to God will be more likely to develop trust-based prayer expectancies; (3) people who endorse trust-based prayer expectancies will have greater feelings of self-esteem; and (4) higher self-esteem is associated with better self-rated health. The data support each of these relationships.

  15. Genetics of variation in HOMA-IR and cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voruganti, V Saroja; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan C; Nath, Subrata D; Rainwater, David L; Bauer, Richard; Cole, Shelley A; Maccluer, Jean W; Blangero, John; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2008-03-01

    Insulin resistance is a major biochemical defect underlying the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Mexican-Americans are known to have an unfavorable cardiovascular profile. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the genetic effect on variation in HOMA-IR and to evaluate its genetic correlations with other phenotypes related to risk of CVD in Mexican-Americans. The homeostatic model assessment method (HOMA-IR) is one of several approaches that are used to measure insulin resistance and was used here to generate a quantitative phenotype for genetic analysis. For 644 adults who had participated in the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS), estimates of genetic contribution were computed using a variance components method implemented in SOLAR. Traits that exhibited significant heritabilities were body mass index (BMI) (h (2) = 0.43), waist circumference (h (2) = 0.48), systolic blood pressure (h (2) = 0.30), diastolic blood pressure (h (2) = 0.21), pulse pressure (h (2) = 0.32), triglycerides (h (2) = 0.51), LDL cholesterol (h (2) = 0.31), HDL cholesterol (h (2) = 0.24), C-reactive protein (h (2) = 0.17), and HOMA-IR (h (2) = 0.33). A genome-wide scan for HOMA-IR revealed significant evidence of linkage on chromosome 12q24 (close to PAH (phenylalanine hydroxylase), LOD = 3.01, p HOMA-IR with BMI (rho (G) = 0.36), waist circumference (rho (G) = 0.47), pulse pressure (rho (G) = 0.39), and HDL cholesterol (rho (G) = -0.18). Identification of significant linkage for HOMA-IR on chromosome 12q replicates previous family-based studies reporting linkage of phenotypes associated with type 2 diabetes in the same chromosomal region. Significant genetic correlations between HOMA-IR and phenotypes related to CVD risk factors suggest that a common set of gene(s) influence the regulation of these phenotypes.

  16. The industrial division of labor among immigrants and internal migrants to the Los Angeles economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, M; Wright, R

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the industrial division of labor among immigrants and in-migrants in the Los Angeles, California, metropolitan area. It addresses debates about channeling of new arrivals into jobs among similar ethnic groups and human capital views. Data were obtained from the 1990 Census on resident native-born, resident foreign-born, in-migrants, and recent immigrants who arrived during 1985-90. Light and Rosenstein's (1995) concepts of groups and their resources were used to organize ideas about ethnic networks and their effectiveness in channeling migrant workers into 15 industrial sectors. Sectoral differences were revealed with the familiarity index of dissimilarity. Findings reveal that social networks were the strongest for Koreans, who supplied work for recent arrivals in the same sectors as Korean-born residents, regardless of education. Mexican new arrivals were less likely to work in the same sectors as their resident Mexican counterparts. Mexican networks placed new arrivals in durable manufacturing in the 1960s and 1970s when it was a key source of employment. By the 1980s and 1990s, the economy shifted and employment went down in durable manufacturing. Mexicans thus found employment elsewhere. Native White and Black in-migrants had the strongest channeling into same sector jobs. This is attributed to the small streams, the ability of the labor market to absorb these workers, and the availability of job vacancies among native out-migrants. Filipino migrants had similar patterns as Whites and Blacks. Mexican and Central American residents had more inter-ethnic competition over jobs than Whites or Blacks.

  17. Childhood asthma, air quality, and social suffering among Mexican Americans in California's San Joaquin Valley: "Nobody talks to us here".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Norah Anita; Pepper, David

    2009-10-01

    Nearly one in five Mexican American children residing in California's San Joaquin Valley (the Valley) in 2007 had an asthma attack at some point in their life. Numerous epidemiological studies have suggested that compared with other ethnic groups and Latino subgroups residing in the United States, Mexican origin children have the lowest rates of pediatric asthma. Ethnographic research conducted in central California, however, suggests otherwise. Known for its agricultural produce, extreme poverty, and poor air quality, the Valley is a magnet for the Mexican immigrant farm worker population. We conducted an exploratory ethnographic study to examine health disparities, social suffering, and childhood asthma in the Valley. Many Valley residents believe that their children's health concerns are being ignored. Open-ended interviews uncovered a largely rural community suffering not only from the effects of childhood asthma but the inability to have their experiences taken seriously.

  18. Increase in Mexican and Latin American scientific articles on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, R; López-Colombo, A; Schmulson, M

    2015-01-01

    There is an implied perception that little scientific information on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) comes out of Mexico and Latin America in the international medical literature, but the number and tendencies of articles from the region on IBS are not known. To determine the number and type of Mexican and Latin American articles on IBS published between 1990-2015. A systematic search of Medline was carried out employing the terms « Irritable Bowel Syndrome » or its abbreviation (IBS). Mexico and every other Latin American country were added to specify the search. The articles were selected if they were published in Mexico and/or the rest of Latin America, if they were international papers on IBS in the region, or if they were written by Mexican and/or Latin American authors. In addition, the articles were classified into the following categories: Reviews/Editorials/Letters to the Editor (REV/ED), Epidemiology/Quality of Life/Psychosocial Factors (EPI/QOL), Diagnostic (DX), Treatment (TX), and Translational/Pathophysiologic (TRANS) studies. A total of 66 articles from Mexico and 47 from Latin America were identified, but only 87.7 and 48.9%, respectively, fit the selection criteria. Category distribution was: EPI/QOL: 36.2%, REV/ED: 27.5%, TRANS: 18.8, TX: 10%, and DX: 7.5% and was similar between Mexico and Latin America (p=0.33). The year 2005 saw an increase in the number of articles in Mexico, with a peak in 2010. The figures for Latin American articles remained stable over the years, with a peak in 2012. A noticeable increase has been observed over the last decade in the research conducted on IBS in Mexico and Latin America. Even though the EPI/QOL studies predominate, the sophistication of research is reflected in the TRANS studies that are in third place of frequency. The information referred to herein demonstrates maturity in the field, making it possible to carry out consensuses based on local data. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Mexicana de

  19. Cambios alimenticios en mujeres morelenses migrantes a Estados Unidos Dietary changes in mexican women migrating to the U.S.

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    Luz Arenas-Monreal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la modificación de la alimentación y los procesos involucrados en la incorporación de nuevos alimentos, en mujeres mexicanas con experiencia migratoria hacia Estados Unidos de América. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio cualitativo basado en la teoría fundamentada, en el cual participaron mujeres con experiencia migratoria, residentes de zonas rurales de municipios del Estado de Morelos. Los datos fueron obtenidos a partir de 47 entrevistas en profundidad, realizadas entre febrero de 2005 y julio de 2006. RESULTADOS: La alimentación de las mujeres se modifica a partir de la experiencia migratoria, ya que se incrementa la cantidad de su consumo durante su estancia en Estados Unidos. Continúan cocinando comidas tradicionales mexicanas, pero incorporan alimentos del país de destino, lo cual se ve favorecido por el mayor poder de compra, aspectos laborales, y el acceso tanto a otro tipo de productos alimentarios, como a los diferentes espacios en los que se expende comida. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario profundizar en la relación de alimentación-migración en el contexto de México-Estados Unidos-México y en su impacto sobre la salud de las mujeres, además de proponer políticas públicas dirigidas a fortalecer sus hábitos saludables.OBJECTIVE: To describe the dietary changes and processes involved in the incorporation of new foods, in Mexican women with a migratory experience to the U.S. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted, based on grounded theory, of women who had had a migratory experience and were residing in rural zones of the state of Morelos, Mexico. The data were obtained from 47 in-depth interviews carried out from February, 2005 to July, 2006. RESULTS: The women's diet is modified by the migratory experience and the amount of consumption increases during their stay in the U.S. They continue cooking traditional Mexican meals but incorporate foods from their country of destination. These changes

  20. Adolescents' educational aspirations and ethnic background: The case of students of African and Latin American migrant origins in Spain

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    Carlos J. Gil-Hernández

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minority students were found to have high educational aspirations, considering their background characteristics. This finding is often attributed to 'migrant optimism.' Yet, whether socioeconomic, educational, or demographic differences between and within ethnic groups mediate and/or moderate students' educational aspirations remains an inconclusive question. Objective: This study investigates the educational aspirations of children of African and Latin American migrants in Spain, looking at four critical factors: (1 family background, (2 educational performance, (3 years lived in Spain, and (4 language used at home. Methods: Data comes from the 2010 General Evaluation of Educational Diagnostic (GEED on lower-secondary students aged 14 (n = 19,293, on average. Multivariate logistic models are applied using mediation and moderation analyses. Results: Results show that (1 minority students have higher college aspirations than students of Spanish origin after accounting for parental socioeconomic status and educational performance; (2 ethnic differentials in aspirations - especially for pupils with Latin American origin - are concentrated among low-performing and disadvantaged students; (3 recent arrival in Spain is not significantly associated with differences in educational aspirations within minority groups; (4 speaking Spanish at home does not lead to differences in aspirations for pupils of African origin. Conclusions: Migrant optimism, as opposed to family language use and years of contact with the Spanish culture and society, seems to be an important factor for the high (net educational aspirations of students from African and Latin American backgrounds. Contribution: The article provides new evidence on ethnic heterogeneity in educational aspirations, being the first that uses representative data from the whole Spanish educational system.

  1. A Qualitative Study Among Mexican Americans to Understand Factors Influencing the Adoption and Enforcement of Home Smoking Bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas, Lara S; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Hovell, Melbourne F; Escoffrey, Cam; Fernandez, Maria E; Jones, Jennifer A; Cavazos, Jazmine; Gutierrez Monroy, Jo Ann A; Kegler, Michelle C

    2017-11-07

    One-third of Mexican-American children, in addition to nonsmoker adults, are exposed to secondhand smoke at home, yet few interventions target Mexican-American households. An effective, brief English language program, tested with United Way 2-1-1 callers in Atlanta, increased home smoking bans (confirmed by air monitors). Two randomized controlled trials in North Carolina and Texas replicated those results. We explored factors determining adoption and enforcement of smoking bans in Mexican-American households to inform program linguistic and cultural adaptation to broaden program reach and relevance. Bilingual interviewers recruited convenience samples of Mexican-American smokers and nonsmokers living with at least one smoker in Houston and San Diego households and asked open-ended questions regarding conditions for implementing home and vehicle smoking bans and conditions for varying acceptance of bans. Investigators independently reviewed English transcripts and completed a descriptive analysis using ATLAS.ti. Participants (n = 43) were predominantly female (n = 31), current smokers (n = 26), interviewed in Spanish (n = 26), had annual household incomes less than $30000 (n = 24), and allowed smoking inside the home (n = 24). Themes related to difficulty creating and enforcing bans included courtesy, respect for guests and heads of household who smoke, and gender imbalances in decision making. Participants viewed protecting children's health as a reason for the ban but not protecting adult nonsmokers' health. A dual-language, culturally adapted intervention targeting multigenerational Mexican-American households should address household differences regarding language and consider influences of cultural values on family dynamics and interactions with guests that may weaken bans. Qualitative interviews suggested cultural and family considerations to address in adapting a brief evidence-based smoke-free homes intervention for Mexican Americans, including traditional

  2. Disciplinary Practices, Metaparenting, and the Quality of Parent-Child Relationships in African-American, Mexican-American, and European-American Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, George W; Hawk, Carol Kozak; Smith, Margaret M; Singh, Jimmy; Ashraf, Rose

    2017-01-01

    Coercive responses to children's behavior are well recognized to be problematic for children's adjustment. Less well understood is how parental social cognition is linked to discipline. In this study we sought to link metaparenting - parents' thoughts about their parenting - to the use of coercive discipline. We predicted that mothers who engaged in more metaparenting, thus reflecting more deliberate parenting, would use corporal punishment less frequently and instead engage in non-coercive discipline. We also expected that mothers who engaged in more metaparenting would report closer relationships with their children. In order to assess a diverse sample, data were collected from approximately equal numbers of African-American, European-American, and Mexican-American mothers. Participants included 113 mothers with target children in three age groups, ranging from 2 to 12 years. The results indicated reports of corporal punishment as well as non-coercive discipline did not significantly differ across child sex and child age groups, but did differ significantly across race/ethnicity. Reports of frequency of metaparenting also differed across racial/ethnic groups; African-American mothers reported more metaparenting than European-American mothers on three of four subscales. Metaparenting was significantly related to reports of the mother-child relationship but in the opposite direction than predicted. Based on these results, future research directions linking parental social cognition to discipline are proposed.

  3. Retrospective chart review for obesity and associated interventions among rural Mexican-American adolescents accessing healthcare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Collins, Jennifer L

    2013-11-01

    To report a retrospective analysis of data routinely collected in the course of healthcare services at a rural health clinic and to assess obesity incidence and associated interventions among rural Mexican-American adolescents. Two hundred and twelve charts reviewed; 98 (46.2%) males and 114 (53.8%) females. Data extracted included Medicaid exams conducted at the clinic within 5 years. Equal overweight or obese (n = 105, 49.5%), versus normal BMI categorizations (n = 107, 50.5%) documented overall and by gender. Female obesity higher (25.4%) than national norms (17.4%); male rates (25.5%) were within national norm. Interventions provided by nurse practitioners (94%) for 34.8%-80% of overweight/obese had limited follow-up (4%). Obesity incidence markedly increased between 13 and 18 years of age without associated interventions; 51.4%-75.6% without interventions. Obesity is a healthcare problem among rural Mexican-American adolescents accessing care at the rural health clinic. Obesity intervention and follow-up was suboptimal within this setting. Rural and ethnic minority adolescents experience health disparities concerning obesity prevalence and remote healthcare access. Obesity prevention and treatment during adolescence is a national health priority given physiologic and psychological tolls on health and potential for obesity into adulthood. Obesity assessment and translation of evidence-based interventions for rural Mexican-American adolescents at rural health clinics is implicated. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  4. Effects of Functional Disability and Depressive Symptoms on Mortality in Older Mexican-American Adults with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutambudzi, Miriam; Chen, Nai-Wei; Markides, Kyriakos S; Al Snih, Soham

    2016-11-01

    To examine the effect of co-occurring depressive symptoms and functional disability on mortality in older Mexican-American adults with diabetes mellitus. Longitudinal cohort study. Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (HEPESE) survey conducted in the southwestern United States (Texas, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, California). Community-dwelling Mexican Americans with self-reported diabetes mellitus participating in the HEPESE survey (N = 624). Functional disability was assessed using a modified version of the Katz activity of daily living scale. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Mortality was determined by examining death certificates and reports from relatives. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to examine the hazard of mortality as a function of co-occurring depressive symptoms and functional disability. Over a 9.2-year follow-up, 391 participants died. Co-occurring high depressive symptoms and functional disability increased the risk of mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.11-4.34). Risk was greater in men (HR = 8.11, 95% CI = 4.34-16.31) than women (HR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.42-3.43). Co-occurring depressive symptoms and functional disability in older Mexican-American adults with diabetes mellitus increases mortality risk, especially in men. These findings have important implications for research, practice, and public health interventions. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Role of Age and Acculturation in Diet Quality Among Mexican Americans - Findings From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yilin; Scribner, Richard; Chen, Liwei; Broyles, Stephanie; Phillippi, Stephen; Tseng, Tung-Sung

    2017-07-20

    Age and acculturation may play a role in diet quality among Mexican Americans. This study examined diet quality in Mexican Americans by age and whether acculturation influences diet quality across different age groups, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Diet quality, measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2010, improved with age except in categories of dairy, sodium, and refined grains. More acculturation was associated with lower scores in overall diet quality and categories of vegetables, fruits, and sodium and empty calories across almost all ages, but higher scores in grain categories, especially in younger groups. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables but low in fat and sodium should be promoted among more acculturated Mexican Americans, and whole-grain foods should be promoted among young but less acculturated Mexican Americans.

  6. Parent-Child Interactions Among Low-Income Mexican American Parents and Preschoolers: Do Clinic-Referred Families Differ From Nonreferred Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Kristen; Yeh, May; Lau, Anna; Argote, Carolina Bertely; Liang, June

    2009-01-01

    This study compared low-income Mexican American parents of young children referred for behavior problems to their nonreferred counterparts on an observational measure of parent-child interactions. Referred Mexican American parents demonstrated more negative behaviors than their nonreferred counterparts in both nondirective and highly directive situations. However, no differences were found at moderate levels of directiveness. The most and least directive situations in the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System best differentiated referred from nonreferred Mexican American families, and families differed more in their negative behaviors than positive behaviors. Many of the parenting behaviors that have been found to differ between referred and nonreferred Caucasian families were also observed to differ between their Mexican American counterparts. PMID:20171330

  7. Feeling close and doing well: the prevalence and motivational effects of interpersonally engaging emotions in Mexican and European American cultural contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savani, Krishna; Alvarez, Ayme; Mesquita, Batja; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigate whether interpersonally engaging emotions--those that bring the self closer to others (e.g., affection, shame)--are central to the model of self and relationships prevalent in Mexican cultural contexts. Study 1 demonstrated that compared to people in European American contexts, people in Mexican contexts were more likely to report experiencing interpersonally engaging emotions and less likely to report experiencing interpersonally disengaging emotions. Study 2 found that interpersonally engaging emotions had a substantial influence on performance motivation in Mexican contexts--Mexican participants solved more word search puzzles after recalling instances in which they experienced positive interpersonally engaging emotions, and fewer after recalling negative interpersonally disengaging emotions; in contrast, there were no differences by condition for European Americans. These findings significantly extend previous research by documenting the implications of relational concerns (e.g., simpatia, personalismo) for emotion and motivation in Mexican contexts, and are the first to demonstrate the motivational effects of interpersonally engaging emotions.

  8. Lifetime history of traumatic events in a young adult Mexican American sample: relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, acculturation stress, and PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Kim, Corinne; Gilder, David A.; Stouffer, Gina M.; Caetano, Raul; Yehuda, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the United States, and within this population, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with physical and mental health problems. Therefore, efforts to delineate factors that may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, PTSD, and substance use disorders over the lifetime in Mexican Americans are important to address health disparities and to develop treatment and prevention programs....

  9. "Machismo," self-esteem, education and high maximum drinking among anglo, black and Mexican-American male drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, J A; Prihoda, T J; Hoppe, S K

    1991-09-01

    This study seeks to clarify the relevance of machismo to patterns of high maximum drinking among male drinkers. Specifically, the study describes the psychometric properties of a newly developed 7-item machismo measure, compares levels of machismo and self-esteem for a sample of Anglo, black and Mexican-American males, and examines both main and interaction effects of machismo, self-esteem and education as predictors of alcohol use in these racial/ethnic subgroups. Logistic regression analyses document interaction between race/ethnicity, machismo, self-esteem and education, which calls into question the presumed importance of machismo as a cultural element causing heavy drinking patterns among Mexican-American males.

  10. Social relationships among family caregivers: a cross-cultural comparison between Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic White caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Linda R; Crist, Janice

    2008-10-01

    Sometimes, clinicians assume caregivers in cultural groups believed to have large social networks and strong social support need little intervention from health professionals. This longitudinal study tests five hypotheses about the social relationships of Mexican American compared to non-Hispanic White caregivers and whether negative changes in social support affect perceived health. The sample includes 66 Mexican American and 92 non-Hispanic White caregivers. Findings show that social networks and social support are similar at baseline and similarly stable for 1 year. Negative changes in social support are correlated with poorer health perceptions. Findings underscore the importance of designing interventions that are culturally competent based on what the caregiver is experiencing rather than cultural stereotypes.

  11. Friend affiliations and school adjustment among Mexican-American adolescents: the moderating role of peer and parent support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Guadalupe; Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Gonzales, Nancy A; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2014-12-01

    Studies examining friendships among Mexican-American adolescents have largely focused on their potentially negative influence. The current study examined the extent to which deviant and achievement-oriented friend affiliations are associated with Mexican-American adolescents' school adjustment and also tested whether support from friends and parents moderates these associations. High school students (N = 412; 49 % male) completed questionnaires and daily diaries; primary caregivers also completed a questionnaire. Although results revealed few direct associations between friend affiliations and school adjustment, several moderations emerged. In general, the influence of friends' affiliation was strongest when support from friends was high and parental support was low. The findings suggest that only examining links between friend affiliations and school outcomes does not fully capture how friends promote or hinder school adjustment.

  12. Transition from pre-diabetes to diabetes and predictors of risk in Mexican-Americans

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    Wu SH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Shenghui Wu,1 Joseph B McCormick,2 Joanne E Curran,3 Susan P Fisher-Hoch2 1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Texas Health at San Antonio-Laredo Campus, Laredo, 2Division of Epidemiology, University of Texas Health Science Center-Houston, School of Public Health, Brownsville Campus, Brownsville, 3South Texas Diabetes and Obesity Institute, School of Medicine, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Brownsville Campus, Brownsville, TX, USA Background: No studies have examined risk factors for the transition from pre-diabetes to diabetes in populations with widespread obesity and diabetes. We determined proximal changes and factors affecting the transition among Mexican-Americans with pre-diabetes.Methods: Participants with pre-diabetes (n=285 were recruited from our randomly sampled population-based Cameron County Hispanic Cohort. These participants were followed for an average of 27 months with repeat examination every 3 to 4 months. Metabolic health was defined as having less than 2 metabolic abnormalities (e.g., hypertension, elevated low-density lipoprotein, etc. Diabetes was identified as fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dL, glycated hemoglobin ≥6.5% and/or on hypoglycemic medication.Results: Ninety-six of 285 (33.7% participants transitioned to overt diabetes. The increased risk of diabetes in the metabolically unhealthy varying with follow-up time was 81% (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.09–3.02. The risk of diabetes increased 8% for each kg/m2 of increase in body mass index (BMI, OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.05–1.11 independent of covariates. Transition to diabetes was accompanied by a mean increase in BMI of 0.28 kg/m2, and deterioration in metabolic health of 9% (OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.003–1.18 compared with those who did not transition.Conclusions: Deteriorating metabolic health and/or increasing BMI significantly raises the risk of transitioning from pre-diabetes to diabetes. Transition itself was

  13. Support for Astronaut's View of Mexican/ Central American Fires and on-Line Earth Observations Training Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Charles F., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    A small project to compile remote sensing and in-site data to review the processes leading to the May 1998 Mexican/Central American fires was undertaken. A web page based on this project was assembled. The second project initiated involved an interactive and on-line program that will replace the paper version of the Earth Observations Preflight Training Manual. Technical support was provided to Prof. Marvin Glasser as needed.

  14. Prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants: probability survey in the north border of Mexico Prevalencia de factores de riesgo para la infección por VIH entre migrantes mexicanos: encuesta probabilística en la frontera norte de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gudelia Rangel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants (MMIs in different geographic contexts, including the sending communities in Mexico, the receiving communities in the United States (US, and the Mexican North border region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a probability survey among MMIs traveling through key border crossing sites in the Tijuana (Baja California, Mexico-San Diego (California, US border region (N=1 429. RESULTS: The survey revealed substantial rates of reported sexually transmitted infections, needle-sharing and sexual risk practices in all migration contexts. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated levels of HIV risk call for further binational research and preventive interventions in all key geographic contexts of the migration experience to identify and tackle the different personal, environmental, and structural determinants of HIV risk in each of these contexts.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de prácticas de riesgo para la infección por VIH en migrantes mexicanos durante su estancia en distintos contextos geográficos, incluyendo sus comunidades de origen en México, las comunidades de destino en Estados Unidos de América (EUA, y la frontera Norte de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Encuesta probabilística de migrantes mexicanos que transitan por la región fronteriza Tijuana (Baja California, México-San Diego (California, EUA (N=1 429. RESULTADOS: La encuesta reveló una alta prevalencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual, uso compartido de agujas, y prácticas sexuales de riesgo en todos los contextos geográficos estudiados. CONCLUSIONES: Los niveles de riesgo de infección por VIH estimados para migrantes mexicanos en diferentes contextos geográficos exigen estudios e intervenciones preventivas binacionales que identifiquen y aborden los distintos factores de riesgo personales, ambientales, y estructurales que contribuyen al riesgo de infección por VIH en cada

  15. Effects of Exercise Training on Fat Loss and Lean Mass Gain in Mexican-American and Korean Premenopausal Women

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    Shenghui Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of exercise training on body composition change in women. Nineteen Mexican-American and 18 Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women were randomized into one of the following groups: control, low-intensity training group (LI, and high-intensity training group (HI. Subjects completed 12 weeks of training at 50–56% maximal oxygen consumption (LI or 65–70% maximal oxygen consumption (HI. Body composition components were measured at baseline and after training using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for Mexican-Americans, while whole-body composition was measured by the direct segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and abdominal fat was measured by single-slice computed tomography for Koreans. Data were analyzed using mixed-model repeated measures independent of age, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI. Exercise training showed a significant effect on BMI, fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass, and visceral adipose tissue area. HI significantly decreased fat mass and fat percentage but increased lean mass (all P<0.05. LI significantly reduced BMI, fat mass, fat percentage, and visceral adipose tissue area but increased lean mass (all P<0.05. Exercise training had a beneficial effect on reducing BMI, fat percentage, fat mass, and visceral adipose tissue area but had no effect on increasing lean mass for Mexican-American and Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women.

  16. Stigmatized biologies: Examining the cumulative effects of oral health disparities for Mexican American farmworker children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sarah; Barker, Judith C

    2010-06-01

    Severe early childhood caries (ECC) can leave lasting effects on children's physical development, including malformed oral arches and crooked permanent dentition. This article examines the way that the ECC of Mexican American farmworker children in the United States sets them up for lasting dental problems and social stigma as young adults. We examine the role of dietary and environmental factors in contributing to what we call "stigmatized biologies," and that of market-based dental public health insurance systems in cementing their enduring effects. We adapt Margaret Lock's term, local biology, to illustrate the way that biology differs not only because of culture, diet, and environment but also because of disparities in insurance coverage. By showing the long-term effects of ECC and disparate dental treatment on farmworker adults, we show how the interaction of immigrant caregiving practices and underinsurance can having lasting social effects. An examination of the long-term effects of farmworker children's ECC illustrates the ways that market-based health care systems can create embodied differences that in turn reproduce a system of social inequality.

  17. Insulin Clearance Is Associated with Hepatic Lipase Activity and Lipid and Adiposity Traits in Mexican Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artak Labadzhyan

    Full Text Available Reduction in insulin clearance plays an important role in the compensatory response to insulin resistance. Given the importance of this trait to the pathogenesis of diabetes, a deeper understanding of its regulation is warranted. Our goal was to identify metabolic and cardiovascular traits that are independently associated with metabolic clearance rate of insulin (MCRI. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of metabolic and cardiovascular traits in 765 participants from the Mexican-American Coronary Artery Disease (MACAD project who had undergone blood sampling, oral glucose tolerance test, euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and carotid ultrasound. We assessed correlations of MCRI with traits from seven domains, including anthropometry, biomarkers, cardiovascular, glucose homeostasis, lipase activity, lipid profile, and liver function tests. We found inverse independent correlations between MCRI and hepatic lipase (P = 0.0004, insulin secretion (P = 0.0002, alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.0045, total fat mass (P = 0.014, and diabetes (P = 0.03. MCRI and apolipoprotein A-I exhibited a positive independent correlation (P = 0.035. These results generate a hypothesis that lipid and adiposity associated traits related to liver function may play a role in insulin clearance.

  18. Commands, competence, and cariño: maternal socialization practices in Mexican American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livas-Dlott, Alejandra; Fuller, Bruce; Stein, Gabriela L; Bridges, Margaret; Mangual Figueroa, Ariana; Mireles, Laurie

    2010-05-01

    Early research on the socialization of Latino children has posited that mothers exercise authoritarian practices, compared with lateral reasoning (authoritative) strategies emphasized by Anglo mothers. This work aimed to categorize fixed types of parenting practices tied to the mother's personality rather than to culturally bounded contexts; it often ignored the emotional warmth or harshness present in compliance attempts and relied on interview questions rather than naturalistic observation. We built from ecocultural theory to observe daily home activities in which Mexican American mothers attempted to correct their young child's behavior or encourage completion of a task (compliance attempt). We observed 24 first- or second-generation mothers and their 4-year-old children and analyzed the activity contexts and multiple forms of 1,477 compliance attempts. Mothers typically led with direct verbal commands in their attempt to achieve compliance. Many blended commands with other compliance strategies, rather than repeating simple behaviors. Drawing on Crockenberg and Litman's (1990) differentiation of variable compliance strategies, we find that most mothers relied on low power-assertive methods, including verbal commands, rather than inductive strategies that involved reasoning. Few compliance episodes prompted high power-assertive or harsh strategies. The degree of reliance on verbal commands and the complexity of mothers' repertoires appear to be related to their education and acculturation levels. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Acceptance and expressed emotion in Mexican American caregivers of relatives with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorian, Marina; Ramírez García, Jorge I; López, Steven R; Hernández, Brenda

    2008-06-01

    The relation between Expressed Emotion (EE) and caregiver acceptance was tested with the use of video-recorded interactions between 31 Mexican American family caregivers and their relatives with schizophrenia. Borrowing the concept from Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy, acceptance was defined as caregiver's engagement with the ill relative along with low levels of expectations for behavioral change. Three aspects of caregiver acceptance were measured: global acceptance of the patient, unified detachment (i.e., nonblaming but engaged problem discussion), and low aversive responses to patient behavior (e.g., criticisms and demanding change). Relative to high EE caregivers, low EE caregivers were consistently more accepting of their ill relatives across the three measures of acceptance. Unified detachment was negatively associated with emotional overinvolvement and aversive responses were positively related to criticism. Warmth was not related to acceptance. The findings suggest that the study of acceptance in family caregivers is a heuristic avenue for future research due to its potential to shed light on specifically what family members do in caring for their ill relatives with schizophrenia.

  20. Impact of acculturation on cardiovascular risk factors among elderly Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Lenny; Peralta, Carmen A; Lee, Anne; Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Haan, Mary N

    2014-10-01

    Higher levels of acculturation among Latinos have been shown to be associated with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in some studies of middle-age persons. The association of acculturation and prevalence of CV risk factors in elderly Latinos is less well established. Acculturation was measured using the validated bidimensional Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the association of acculturation with prevalence of CV risk factors among 1789 elderly men and women from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging using multivariate linear and logistic regression. We tested for the interaction of acculturation with risk factors by nativity status. Median age was 69.8 years. Higher acculturation was associated with lower systolic blood pressure, lower low-density lipoprotein, higher high-density lipoprotein, and lower prevalence of CV disease after age and sex adjustment. Higher acculturation remained associated with lower level of low-density lipoprotein and higher level of high-density lipoprotein after full adjustment. Nativity status did not affect these results. Contrary to other reports in middle-aged persons, higher levels of acculturation were associated with better lipid profiles and no significant differences in other CV risk factors by acculturation level in elderly Latinos. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mexican American adolescent couples' vulnerability for observed negativity and physical violence: Pregnancy and acculturation mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Rueda, Heidi Adams

    2016-10-01

    Stress and vulnerability for dating violence may be heightened among acculturating Mexican American (MA) adolescents, and MA adolescent parents, because of differing cultural values and norms within romantic relationships. We hypothesized, in a sample of MA heterosexual couples (N = 30, 15-17 years), that: 1) within-couple level acculturation discrepancies, and pregnancy/parenting, would predict physical violence perpetration, and 2) that this association would have an indirect effect through couple-level negativity during an observed dyadic video-taped discussion of conflict. Using a path model we found that pregnant/parenting adolescents (B = .37, SE = .16, p = .002), and couples with greater acculturation mismatch resulted in greater couple negativity (B = .16, SE = .06, p = .01), which was associated with self-reported physical violence perpetration (B = .41, SE = .22, p = .02; indirect effect, B = .15, SE = .07, p = .03). Within-couple acculturation discrepancies and pregnancy/parenting may be a pathway to dating violence through poor communication skills around conflict for MA youth. Support services that strengthen communication skills, particularly for pregnant/parenting couples, are recommended. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acculturation and Diabetes Risk in the Mexican American Mano a Mano Cohort.

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    Anderson, Chelsea; Zhao, Hua; Daniel, Carrie R; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Dong, Qiong; Elhor Gbito, Kplola Y; Wu, Xifeng; Chow, Wong-Ho

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the association between acculturation and diabetes risk in the Mexican American Mano a Mano (hand to hand) Cohort. We recruited 15 975 men and women in the Houston, Texas, area from 2001 to 2014. We used language use, birth country, and duration of US residence (among Mexico-born) to assess acculturation. Participants self-reported a physician's diagnosis of diabetes during annual follow-up over an average of 5.4 (range = 1-13) years. Self-reported diabetes status was validated in medical records for a subset of 235 participants with 98% agreement. Diabetes risk was higher among immigrants with 15 to 19, 20 to 24, and 25 or more years (relative risk = 1.47; 95% confidence interval = 1.07, 2.01) of US residence, relative to those with less than 5 years. Neither language acculturation nor birth country was significantly associated with diabetes risk. Among participants born in Mexico, diabetes risk increased with longer duration of US residence.

  3. Randomized Trial of a Broad Preventive Intervention for Mexican American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, N.A.; Dumka, L.E.; Millsap, R.E.; Gottschall, A.; McClain, D.B.; Wong, J.J.; Germán, M.; Mauricio, A.M.; Wheeler, L.; Carpentier, F.D.; Kim, S.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This randomized trial of a family-focused preventive intervention for Mexican American (MA) adolescents evaluated intervention effects on adolescent substance use, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and school discipline and grade records in 8th grade, one year after completion of the intervention. The study also examined hypothesized mediators and moderators of intervention effects. Method Stratified by language of program delivery (English vs. Spanish), the trial included a sample of 516 MA adolescents (50.8% female; M =12.3 years, SD=.54) and at least one caregiver that were randomized to receive a low dosage control group workshop or the 9-week group intervention that included parenting, adolescent coping, and conjoint family sessions. Results Positive program effects were found on all five outcomes at one-year posttest, but varied depending on whether adolescents, parents, or teachers reported on the outcome. Intervention effects were mediated by posttest changes in effective parenting, adolescent coping efficacy, adolescent school engagement, and family cohesion. The majority of direct and mediated effects were moderated by language, with a larger number of significant effects for families that participated in Spanish. Intervention effects also were moderated by baseline levels of mediators and outcomes, with the majority showing stronger effects for families with poorer functioning at baseline. Conclusion Findings support the efficacy of the intervention to decrease multiple problem outcomes for MA adolescents, but also demonstrate differential effects for parents and adolescents receiving the intervention in Spanish vs. English, and depending on their baseline levels of functioning. PMID:22103956

  4. Away from home: experiences of Mexican American families in pediatric palliative care.

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    Contro, Nancy; Davies, Betty; Larson, Judith; Sourkes, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors describe the experiences of Mexican American family members who immigrated to the United States and then experienced the death of a child. Participants described difficulties they encountered crossing the border, leaving the culture of their homeland, and then caring for a seriously ill child. Key themes that characterized their experience of being far from home included a backdrop of poverty, absence of traditional social support, and challenges caring for healthy siblings. Participants made comparisons between health care in Mexico and the United States and assessed the trade-off they made to come to the United States, discussing access to medical care and how they were able to relate to health care providers. Further, participants conveyed how rituals from their home country were important in maintaining connections with the child who died. Based on these themes, clinical implications and strategies that focus on understanding participants' experiences with past traumas, communication and literacy needs, and the challenges of living in poverty--especially with a critically ill child--are needed.

  5. Bilingualism in older Mexican-American immigrants is associated with higher scores on cognitive screening.

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    Padilla, Claudia; Mendez, Mario F; Jimenez, Elvira E; Teng, Edmond

    2016-11-24

    Bilingualism may protect against cognitive aging and delay the onset of dementia. However, studies comparing monolinguals and bilinguals on such metrics have produced inconsistent results complicated by confounding variables and methodological concerns. We addressed this issue by comparing cognitive performance in a more culturally homogeneous cohort of older Spanish-speaking monolingual (n = 289) and Spanish-English bilingual (n = 339) Mexican-American immigrants from the Sacramento Longitudinal Study on Aging. After adjusting for demographic differences and depressive symptoms, both groups performed similarly at baseline on verbal memory but the bilingual group performed significantly better than the monolingual group on a cognitive screening test, the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS; p bilingual group, neither language of testing nor degree of bilingualism was significantly associated with 3MS or verbal memory scores. Amongst individuals who performed in the normal or better range on both tests at baseline and were followed for an average of 6 years, both monolinguals and bilinguals exhibited similar rates of cognitive decline on both measures. These findings suggest that bilingualism is associated with modest benefits in cognitive screening performance in older individuals in cross-sectional analyses that persist across longitudinal analyses. The effects of bilingualism should be considered when cognitively screening is performed in aging immigrant populations.

  6. Bilingualism in older Mexican-American immigrants is associated with higher scores on cognitive screening

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    Claudia Padilla

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bilingualism may protect against cognitive aging and delay the onset of dementia. However, studies comparing monolinguals and bilinguals on such metrics have produced inconsistent results complicated by confounding variables and methodological concerns. Methods We addressed this issue by comparing cognitive performance in a more culturally homogeneous cohort of older Spanish-speaking monolingual (n = 289 and Spanish-English bilingual (n = 339 Mexican-American immigrants from the Sacramento Longitudinal Study on Aging. Results After adjusting for demographic differences and depressive symptoms, both groups performed similarly at baseline on verbal memory but the bilingual group performed significantly better than the monolingual group on a cognitive screening test, the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS; p < 0.001. Group differences on the 3MS were driven by language/executive and language/praxis factors. Within the bilingual group, neither language of testing nor degree of bilingualism was significantly associated with 3MS or verbal memory scores. Amongst individuals who performed in the normal or better range on both tests at baseline and were followed for an average of 6 years, both monolinguals and bilinguals exhibited similar rates of cognitive decline on both measures. Conclusions These findings suggest that bilingualism is associated with modest benefits in cognitive screening performance in older individuals in cross-sectional analyses that persist across longitudinal analyses. The effects of bilingualism should be considered when cognitively screening is performed in aging immigrant populations.

  7. Respiratory Health in Migrant Populations: A Crisis Overlooked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguin, Fernando; Moughrabieh, M. Anas; Ojeda, Victoria; Patel, Sanjay R.; Peyrani, Paula; Pinedo, Miguel; Celedón, Juan C.; Douglas, Ivor S.; Upson, Dona J.

    2017-01-01

    The crisis in the Middle East has raised awareness about the challenges encountered by migrant populations, in particular, health-care access and delivery. Similar challenges are encountered by migrant populations around the world, including those entering the United States as refugees and/or survivors of torture as well as Mexicans and other Latin Americans crossing the border. During the 2016 International American Thoracic Society Meeting held in San Francisco, California, a group of researchers and health-care providers discussed these challenges at a minisymposium devoted to the respiratory health of migrants. The discussion focused on the increased incidence of airway diseases among individuals migrating to more developed countries, the problems created by sleep disorders and their implications for cardiovascular and mental health, the challenges inherent in the control of infections in refugee populations, and the problems resulting from deportation. The group also discussed the potential impact of novel strategies made available by Internet-based technologies and how these strategies could be deployed to support worldwide efforts in assisting migrants and refugees, even in countries that find themselves in the direst circumstances. These presentations are summarized in this document, which is not meant to be exhaustive, but to improve awareness about the challenges confronted by migrants and their host nations regarding respiratory health-care access and delivery, and about the need for adequate investment of resources to better define these challenges through research and for the development of efficient strategies for intervention. PMID:28146384

  8. Identity Theft: Gentrification, Latinidad, and American Girl Marisol Luna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Jennifer Domino

    2009-01-01

    Released by Mattel in 2005, American Girl doll Marisol Luna quickly provoked controversy. The doll's accompanying narrative depicts her Chicago neighborhood of Pilsen as "dangerous" and recounts her family's move to the suburbs. Pilsen, located just south and west of downtown Chicago, has a long history as a Mexican (im)migrant port of…

  9. Political Participation of Latin American Migrants in Andalusia: Opportunities and Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia BERMÚDEZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es presentar los resultados de un proyecto sobre la participación política de los migrantes latinoamericanos en Andalucía (fundamentalmente en las ciudades de Sevilla y Huelva. Partiendo de una concepción amplia de lo político que incluye tanto prácticas consideradas cívicas como las asociadas a la participación política más convencional, el estudio adopta una perspectiva transnacional y se basa en el análisis de 45 entrevistas semiestructuradas a migrantes con algún grado de implicación, así como a miembros y representantes de partidos políticos y otras instituciones. Entre los resultados principales se destaca la importancia de las experiencias políticas previas de los migrantes, así como el papel que juegan las asociaciones que los agrupan a la hora de analizar la participación política de éstos.

  10. Mexican Americans Receive Less Intensive Stroke Rehabilitation Than Non-Hispanic Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Lewis B; Sais, Emma; Fuentes, Michael; Ifejika, Nneka L; Jiang, Xiaqing; Horn, Susan D; Case, Erin; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2017-06-01

    Mexican Americans (MAs) have worse neurological, functional, and cognitive outcomes after stroke. Stroke rehabilitation is important for good outcome. In a population-based study, we sought to determine whether allocation of stroke rehabilitation services differed by ethnicity. Patients with stroke were identified as part of the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project, TX, USA. Cases were validated by physicians using source documentation. Patients were followed prospectively for 3 months after stroke to determine rehabilitation services and transitions. Descriptive statistics were used to depict the study population. Continuous baseline variables were compared using 2 sample t tests or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests by ethnicity. Categorical baseline variables were compared using χ 2 tests. Ethnic comparisons of rehabilitation services were compared using χ 2 tests, Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. Seventy-two subjects (50 MA and 22 non-Hispanic white [NHW]) were followed. Mean age, NHW-69 (SD 13), MA-66 (SD 11) years, sex (NHW 55% male, MA 50% male) and median presenting National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale did not differ significantly. There were no ethnic differences among the proportion of patients who were sent home without any rehabilitation services ( P =0.9). Among those who received rehabilitation, NHWs were more likely to get inpatient rehabilitation (73%) compared with MAs (30%), P =0.016. MAs (51%) were much more likely to receive home rehabilitation services compared with NHWs (0%) ( P =0.0017). In this population-based study, MAs were more likely to receive home-based rehabilitation, whereas NHWs were more likely to get inpatient rehabilitation. This disparity may, in part, explain the worse stroke outcome in MAs. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. "Carrying Ibuprofen in the Bag": Priority Health Concerns of Latin American Migrants in Spain- A Participatory Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Roura

    Full Text Available An estimated 2.7 million Latin Americans reside in Europe, mostly in Spain. Part of a broader project aimed at developing a research agenda on the health status and determinants of this population, this qualitative study engaged Latin American migrants in the identification of research priorities.We conducted 30 group discussions between November 2012-March 2013 with 84 participants purposively selected for maximum diversity in Madrid and Barcelona (Spain. We facilitated sequences of task-oriented visual activities to explore their views on priority health concerns. We tape-recorded and transcribed discussions and developed a coding frame based on socio-ecological frameworks, which we applied to all the data using NVIVO-10. A final round of eight group discussions allowed us to triangulate and enrich interpretations by including participants' insights.The cumulative toll of daily stresses was the major health concern perceived by a population that conceptualised ill-health as a constellation of symptoms rather than as specific diseases. Work-related factors, legislative frameworks regulating citizenship entitlements and feeling ethnically discriminated were major sources of psycho-social strain. Except for sexually transmitted infections, participants rarely referred to communicable diseases as a concern. The perception that clinicians systematically prescribed painkillers discouraged health seeking and fostered self-medication. Participants felt that the medicalised, chemicalised, sexually liberal and accelerated culture of the host society damaged their own, and the local populations' health.Health systems bear a disproportionate responsibility in addressing health problems rooted in other sectors. Occupational and migration policies should be recognised explicitly as health policies. The mismatch between researchers' emphasis on communicable infections and the health concerns of Latin American migrants highlights the need for greater

  12. Factors influencing food preparation behaviours: findings from focus groups with Mexican-American mothers in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M; Dunton, Genevieve F; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore food preparation behaviours, attitudes, meal planning and shopping among Mexican-American mothers. Data were collected through four focus groups with mothers of Mexican origin/ancestry who considered themselves to be the primary food preparer. Topics included food preparation behaviours and influencers (culture, family, attitudes, barriers, meal planning and shopping). Data were analysed using a qualitative grounded theory approach. All focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded for themes. Data were collected in southern California, USA in 2013. Of the sample of twenty-one Mexican-American mothers, thirteen were born outside the USA and the mean household size was five members. Participants reported that food was often prepared using traditional staples and food preparation behaviours were learned from maternal family members. Participants also suggested that health was influenced by foods eaten and how they were prepared. Salient factors influencing food preparation behaviours included culture and tradition, maternal family members' food preparation behaviours, food preparation self-efficacy and attitudes towards healthy eating. Time and busy schedules were cited as barriers. Future interventions should consider utilizing family-based approaches and teaching culturally relevant food preparation skills, especially to youth, while reinforcing more healthful dietary practices.

  13. The Role of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors in Explaining the Association Between Acculturation and Obesity Among Mexican-American Adults.

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    Murillo, Rosenda; Albrecht, Sandra S; Daviglus, Martha L; Kershaw, Kiarri N

    2015-01-01

    We investigated associations of acculturation with various types of activity (moderate-vigorous leisure-time physical activity [LTPA], moderate-vigorous work- and transportation-related physical activity, and sedentary activity), and whether these activities mediated the acculturation-obesity association among Mexican-Americans. Cross-sectional. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010. Mexican-American NHANES participants aged ≥20 years (n = 1902). Demographic characteristics, physical activity, sedentary behavior, acculturation, and body mass index. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate associations of acculturation with categories of self-reported activity. Path analysis was used to test whether the activity measures mediated acculturation-obesity associations. In adjusted models, compared to U.S.-born Mexican-Americans, foreign-born Mexican-Americans living in the United States for less than 10 years were significantly less likely to be in the highest LTPA and sedentary activity categories, and more likely to be in the highest total and transportation activity categories. Foreign-born Mexican-Americans living in the United States for 10 years or more were significantly less likely to engage in high sedentary activity but more likely to engage in high transportation activity. Sedentary behavior was the strongest mediator of the acculturation-obesity association, accounting for 40.7% and 57.1% of the total effect of acculturation on obesity among foreign-born Mexican-Americans living in the United States for less than 10 years and for 10 years or more, respectively, compared to U.S.-born Mexican-Americans. Reducing sedentary behavior may lower the negative impact of acculturation on obesity.

  14. Conceptions of schizophrenia as a problem of nerves: a cross-cultural comparison of Mexican-Americans and Anglo-Americans.

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    Jenkins, J H

    1988-01-01

    This paper explores indigenous conceptions of psychosis within family settings. The cultural categories nervios and 'nerves', as applied by Mexican-American and Anglo-American relatives to family members diagnosed with schizophrenia, are examined. While Mexican-Americans tended to consider nervios an appropriate interpretation of the problem, Anglo-Americans explicitly dismissed the parallel English term 'nerves'. Anglo-American relatives were likely to consider the problem as 'mental' in nature, often with specific reference to psychiatric diagnostic labels such as 'schizophrenia'. Although variations in conceptions appear related to both ethnicity and socioeconomic status, significant cultural differences were observed independent of socioeconomic status. These results raise questions concerning contemporary anthropological views that psychosis is conceptualized in substantially similar ways cross-culturally, and underscore the need for more contextualized understanding of the meaning and application of indigenous concepts of mental disorder. The paper concludes with a discussion of psychocultural meanings associated with ethnopsychiatric labels for schizophrenia and their importance for the social and moral status of patients and their kin.

  15. A history of binge drinking during adolescence is associated with poorer sleep quality in young adult Mexican Americans and American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Wills, Derek; Gilder, David A

    2018-06-01

    Binge drinking during adolescence is common, and adolescents and young adults with alcohol problems may also have sleep difficulties. However, few studies have documented the effects of a history of adolescent binge drinking on sleep in young adulthood in high-risk minority populations. To quantify sleep disturbance, as indexed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), in a sample of young adult Mexican American and American Indian men and women (18-30 years, n = 800) with and without a history of alcohol binge drinking during adolescence, controlling for age, gender, and race. Gender was found to affect PSQI responses with females reporting waking up at night, having more bad dreams, and later habitual bedtimes than males, and males reporting more problems with breathing and snoring. Increasing age was associated with snoring or coughing, less hours spent in bed, and later evening bedtimes. Race also influenced the PSQI with American Indians reporting longer sleep latencies and sleep durations, more hours spent in bed, and more trouble with coughing and snoring than Mexican Americans, and Mexican Americans reporting later bedtimes. A history of adolescent regular binge drinking was associated with longer sleep latencies, more problems with breathing, bad dreams, and an overall higher PSQI total score, when controlling for age, race, and gender. This report suggests, like what has been found in young adults in general population samples, that binge drinking during adolescence is associated with deleterious consequences on sleep quality in young adulthood in these high-risk and understudied ethnic groups.

  16. Internalization of U.S. female beauty standards as a mediator of the relationship between Mexican American women's acculturation and body dissatisfaction.

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    Poloskov, Elizabeth; Tracey, Terence J G

    2013-09-01

    The relationships among acculturation, internalization of U.S. sociocultural standards of female beauty, and body dissatisfaction were examined in a sample of 211 Mexican American college women. Structural equation modeling was used to identify the paths among these three factors. Results demonstrated that there are two distinct types of body dissatisfaction: global evaluations and composite site-specific evaluations. The relationships between acculturation toward dominant U.S. culture and both types of body dissatisfaction were found to be fully mediated by internalization of U.S. standards of female beauty. There were no relationships between Mexican orientation and any of the study variables. The results from this study imply that it is important for therapists working with Mexican American female clients to assess the client's level of acculturation, examine the cultural (U.S. and Mexican) messages the client receives, and explore how these messages impact her body image. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Depression, obesity, and metabolic syndrome: prevalence and risks of comorbidity in a population-based representative sample of Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Rene L; Williamson, Douglas E; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; Vatcheva, Kristina P; McCormick, Joseph B

    2015-10-01

    We examined the prevalence of depression, obesity, and metabolic syndrome and associations between them in a population-based representative cohort of Mexican Americans living on the United States-Mexico border. The sample in this cross-sectional analysis consisted of 1,768 Mexican American adults (≥ 18 years of age) assessed between the years 2004 and 2010, with whom we tested our central hypothesis of a significant relationship between obesity and depression. Depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) with a cutoff score of ≥ 16 for depression and a cutoff score of ≥ 27 for severe depression. We categorized body mass index (BMI) values as obese (≥ 30kg/m(2)) and later subdivided the obese subjects into obese (30-39 kg/m(2)[inclusive]) and morbidly obese (≥ 40 kg/m(2)). Metabolic syndrome was defined using the American Heart Association definition requiring at least 3 of the following: increased waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, and elevated fasting glucose. Weighted data were analyzed to establish prevalence of depression, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Univariate and multivariable weighted regression models were used to test potential associations between these disorders. Using weighted prevalence, we observed high rates of depression (30%), obesity (52%), and metabolic syndrome (45%). Univariate models revealed female gender (P = .0004), low education (P = .003), low HDL level (P = .009), and increased waist circumference (P = .03) were associated with depression. Female gender (P = .01), low education (P = .003), and morbid obesity (P = .002) were risk factors for severe depression and remained significant in multivariable models. In this large cohort of Mexican Americans, obesity, female gender, and low education were identified risk factors for depression. These indicators may serve as targets for early

  18. Mexican Americans receive less intensive stroke rehabilitation than non Hispanic whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Sais, Emma; Fuentes, Michael; Ifejika, Nneka L.; Jiang, Xiaqing; Horn, Susan D.; Case, Erin; Lisabeth, Lynda D.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Mexican Americans (MAs) have worse neurologic, functional and cognitive outcomes after stroke. Stroke rehabilitation is important for good outcome. In a population-based study, we sought to determine if allocation of stroke rehabilitation services differed by ethnicity. Methods Stroke patients were identified as part of the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project, Texas, USA. Cases were validated by physicians using source documentation. Patients were followed prospectively for three months following stroke to determine rehabilitation services and transitions. Descriptive statistics were used to depict the study population. Continuous baseline variables were compared using two sample t-tests or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests by ethnicity. Categorical baseline variables were compared using chi-squared tests. Ethnic comparisons of rehabilitation services were compared using chi-squared tests, Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression. Results Seventy-two subjects (50 MA and 22 non-Hispanic white [NHW]) were followed. Mean age, NHW-69 (sd-13), MA-66 (sd-11) years, sex (NHW 55% male, MA 50% male) and median presenting NIHSS did not differ significantly. There were no ethnic differences among the proportion of patients who were sent home without any rehabilitation services (p=0.9). Among those who received rehabilitation NHWs were more likely to get inpatient rehabilitation (73%) compared with MAs (30%), p=0.016. MAs (51%) were much more likely to receive home rehabilitation services compared with NHWs (0%) (p=0.0017). Conclusions In this population-based study, MAs were more likely to receive home-based rehabilitation while NHWs more likely to get inpatient rehabilitation. This disparity may, in part, explain the worse stroke outcome in MAs. PMID:28386042

  19. Fathers' feeding practices and children's weight status in Mexican American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penilla, Carlos; Tschann, Jeanne M; Deardorff, Julianna; Flores, Elena; Pasch, Lauri A; Butte, Nancy F; Gregorich, Steven E; Greenspan, Louise C; Martinez, Suzanna M; Ozer, Emily

    2017-10-01

    Mothers' feeding practices are associated with their children's weight status, but little is known about the associations between fathers' feeding practices and children's weight status. Moreover, there is a dearth of research on Latino fathers' feeding practices and children's weight status, even though Latino children suffer some of the highest obesity rates in the U.S. We examined the associations between fathers' feeding practices and child weight status, conditional on mothers' feeding practices, within 174 Mexican American families with children aged 8-10 years. Parents completed the Parental Feeding Practices Questionnaire, which consists of four subscales: positive involvement in child eating, pressure to eat, use of food to control behavior, and restriction of amount of food. To assess child weight status, body mass index (BMI) was calculated and converted to age- and gender-specific percentile scores (BMI z-score). We fit four sets of regression models, one set for each of the four parental feeding practices subscales, with child BMI z-score as the outcome variable. Fathers' pressure to eat (b = -0.20, p = 0.04; 95% CI: -0.39, -0.01) and use of food to control behavior (b = -0.36, p = 0.02; 95% CI: -0.65, -0.07) were associated with lower child BMI z-score, and restriction of amount of food (b = 0.56, p Fathers' positive involvement in child eating was not associated with child BMI z-score. These findings provide empirical evidence that fathers' feeding practices are independently associated with children's weight status, even when mothers' feeding practices are taken into account, and suggest that fathers' feeding practices also matter in regard to children's weight status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ambient Air Pollutants Have Adverse Effects on Insulin and Glucose Homeostasis in Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanghua; Salam, Muhammad T.; Toledo-Corral, Claudia; Watanabe, Richard M.; Xiang, Anny H.; Buchanan, Thomas A.; Habre, Rima; Bastain, Theresa M.; Lurmann, Fred; Wilson, John P.; Trigo, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Recent studies suggest that air pollution plays a role in type 2 diabetes (T2D) incidence and mortality. The underlying physiological mechanisms have yet to be established. We hypothesized that air pollution adversely affects insulin sensitivity and secretion and serum lipid levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were selected from BetaGene (n = 1,023), a study of insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell function in Mexican Americans. All participants underwent DXA and oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests and completed dietary and physical activity questionnaires. Ambient air pollutant concentrations (NO2, O3, and PM2.5) for short- and long-term periods were assigned by spatial interpolation (maximum interpolation radius of 50 km) of data from air quality monitors. Traffic-related air pollution from freeways (TRAP) was estimated using the dispersion model as NOx. Variance component models were used to analyze individual and multiple air pollutant associations with metabolic traits. RESULTS Short-term (up to 58 days cumulative lagged averages) exposure to PM2.5 was associated with lower insulin sensitivity and HDL-to-LDL cholesterol ratio and higher fasting glucose and insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) (all P ≤ 0.036). Annual average PM2.5 was associated with higher fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, and LDL-C (P ≤ 0.043). The effects of short-term PM2.5 exposure on insulin sensitivity were largest among obese participants. No statistically significant associations were found between TRAP and metabolic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to ambient air pollutants adversely affects glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and blood lipid concentrations. Our findings suggest that ambient air pollutants may contribute to the pathophysiology in the development of T2D and related sequelae. PMID:26868440

  1. Mexican Americans are Less Likely to Return to Work Following Stroke: Clinical and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Lesli E; Wing, Jeffrey J; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Brown, Devin L; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2016-08-01

    Greater poststroke disability and U.S. employment policies may disadvantage minority stroke survivors from returning to work. We explored ethnic differences in return to work among Mexican Americans (MAs) and non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) working at the time of their stroke. Stroke patients were identified from the population-based BASIC (Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi) study from August 2011 to December 2013. Employment status was obtained at baseline and 90-day interviews. Sequential logistic regression models were built to assess ethnic differences in return to work after accounting for the following: (1) age (working at the time of their stroke, of which 125 (63%) completed the 90-day outcome interview. Forty-nine (40%) stroke survivors returned to work by 90 days. MAs were less likely to return to work (OR = .45, 95% CI .22-.94) than NHWs. The ethnic difference became nonsignificant after adjusting for NIHSS (OR = .59, 95% CI .24-1.44) and further attenuated after adjusting for education (OR = .85, 95% CI .32- 2.22). The majority of stroke survivors did not return to work within 90 days of their stroke. MA stroke survivors were less likely to return to work after stroke than NHW stroke survivors which was due to their greater neurological deficits and lower educational attainment compared with that of NHW stroke survivors. Future work should focus on clinical and policy efforts to reduce ethnic disparities in return to work. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Family obligation values and family assistance behaviors: protective and risk factors for Mexican-American adolescents' substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Gonzales, Nancy; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent substance use is one of today's most important social concerns, with Latino youth exhibiting the highest overall rates of substance use. Recognizing the particular importance of family connection and support for families from Mexican backgrounds, the current study seeks to examine how family obligation values and family assistance behaviors may be a source of protection or risk for substance use among Mexican-American adolescents. Three hundred and eighty-five adolescents (51% female) from Mexican backgrounds completed a questionnaire and daily diary for 14 consecutive days. Results suggest that family obligation values are protective, relating to lower substance use, due, in part, to the links with less association with deviant peers and increased adolescent disclosure. In contrast, family assistance behaviors are a source of risk within high parent-child conflict homes, relating to higher levels of substance use. These findings suggest that cultural values are protective against substance use, but the translation of these values into behaviors can be a risk factor depending upon the relational context of the family.

  3. Family Obligation Values and Family Assistance Behaviors: Protective and Risk Factors for Mexican-American Adolescents’ Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent substance use is one of today’s most important social concerns, with Latino youth exhibiting the highest overall rates of substance use. Recognizing the particular importance of family connection and support for families from Mexican backgrounds, the current study seeks to examine how family obligation values and family assistance behaviors may be a source of protection or risk for substance use among Mexican-American adolescents. Three hundred and eighty-five adolescents (51% female) from Mexican backgrounds completed a questionnaire and daily diary for 14 consecutive days. Results suggest that family obligation values are protective, relating to lower substance use, due, in part, to the links with less association with deviant peers and increased adolescent disclosure. In contrast, family assistance behaviors are a source of risk within high parent-child conflict homes, relating to higher levels of substance use. These findings suggest that cultural values are protective against substance use, but the translation of these values into behaviors can be a risk factor depending upon the relational context of the family. PMID:23532598

  4. Identification of Diabetic Retinopathy Genes through a Genome-Wide Association Study among Mexican-Americans from Starr County, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ping Fu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify genetic loci for severe diabetic retinopathy, 286 Mexican-Americans with type 2 diabetes from Starr County, Texas, completed physical examinations including fundus photography for diabetic retinopathy grading. Individuals with moderate-to-severe non-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy were defined as cases. Direct genotyping was performed using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 100 K Set, and SNPs passing quality control criteria were used to impute markers available in HapMap Phase III Mexican population (MXL in Los Angeles, California. Two directly genotyped markers were associated with severe diabetic retinopathy at a P-value less than .0001: SNP rs2300782 (P=6.04×10−5 mapped to an intron region of CAMK4 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV on chromosome 5, and SNP rs10519765 (P=6.21×10−5 on chromosomal 15q13 in the FMN1 (formin 1 gene. Using well-imputed markers based on the HapMap III Mexican population, we identified an additional 32 SNPs located in 11 chromosomal regions with nominal association with severe diabetic retinopathy at P-value less than .0001. None of these markers were located in traditional candidate genes for diabetic retinopathy or diabetes itself. However, these signals implicate genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and cell adhesion for the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy.

  5. TEXAS MIGRANT LABOR, THE 1964 MIGRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    THE MAJORITY OF TEXAS MIGRANTS LIVE IN SOUTH TEXAS AND APPROXIMATELY 95 PERCENT OF THEM ARE OF MEXICAN EXTRACTION. MOST OF THE OTHER FIVE PERCENT ARE EAST TEXAS NEGROES. THE MECHANIZATION OF COTTON HARVESTING AND THE EXPIRATION OF THE "BRACERO PROGRAM" IN 1964 HAVE CAUSED MORE TEXAS MIGRANTS TO SEEK EMPLOYMENT OUTSIDE OF THE STATE. DURING 1964,…

  6. The Cortisol Awakening Response Mediates the Relationship Between Acculturative Stress and Self-Reported Health in Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Antonio F; Wilborn, Kristin; Mangold, Deborah L

    2017-12-01

    The assessment of acculturative stress as synonymous with acculturation level overlooks the dynamic, interactive, and developmental nature of the acculturation process. An individual's unique perception and response to a range of stressors at each stage of the dynamic process of acculturation may be associated with stress-induced alterations in important biological response systems that mediate health outcomes. Evidence suggests the cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a promising pre-clinical biomarker of stress exposure that may link acculturative stress to self-reported health in Mexican Americans. The aim of the current study was to examine whether alterations in the CAR mediate the relationship between acculturative stress and self-reported health in Mexican Americans. Salivary cortisol samples were collected at awakening, 30, 45, and 60 min thereafter, on two consecutive weekdays from a sample of adult Mexican Americans. Acculturative stress and self-reported health were assessed. Data were aggregated and analyzed (n = 89) using a mixed effects regression model and path analysis. Poorer self-reported health was associated with attenuated CAR profiles (primarily due to a diminished post-awakening rise in cortisol) predicted by both moderate and high levels of exposure to acculturative stress. Stress-induced alterations in the CAR mediated the relationship between exposure to acculturative stressors and self-reported health. Findings demonstrate that different levels of acculturative stress are associated with distinct CAR profiles and suggest the CAR is one possible biological pathway through which exposure to culturally unique stressors may be linked to health disparities.

  7. Mobile Phone Use and its Association With Sitting Time and Meeting Physical Activity Recommendations in a Mexican American Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisman, Matthew; Chow, Wong-Ho; Daniel, Carrie R; Wu, Xifeng; Zhao, Hua

    2016-06-16

    The benefits of physical activity (PA) are well-documented. Mobile phones influence PA by promoting screen-based sedentary time, providing prompts or reminders to be active, aiding in tracking and monitoring PA, or providing entertainment during PA. It is not known how mobile phone use is associated with PA and sitting time in Mexican Americans, and how mobile phone users may differ from nonusers. To determine the associations between mobile phone use, PA, and sitting time and how these behaviors differ from mobile phone nonusers in a sample of 2982 Mexican-American adults from the Mano a Mano cohort. Differences in meeting PA recommendations and sitting time between mobile phone users and nonusers were examined using chi-square and analysis of variance tests. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between mobile phone use, PA, and sitting. Mobile phone users were more likely to be obese by body mass index criteria (≥30 kg/m(2)), younger, born in the United States and lived there longer, more educated, and sit more hours per day but more likely to meet PA recommendations than nonusers. Males (odds ratio [OR] 1.42, 95% CI 1.16-1.74), use of text messaging (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.03-1.56), and having a higher acculturation score (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.07-1.52) were associated with higher odds of meeting PA recommendations. Sitting more hours per day was associated with being male, obese, born in the United States, a former alcohol drinker, and having at least a high school education. Among nonusers, being born in the United States was associated with higher odds of more sitting time, and being married was associated with higher odds of meeting PA recommendations. Mobile phone interventions using text messages could be tailored to promote PA in less acculturated and female Mexican American mobile phone users.

  8. The association between insulin resistance, metabolic variables, and depressive symptoms in Mexican-American elderly: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Breno S; Fisher-Hoch, Susan; McCormick, Joseph

    2018-02-01

    Depressive symptoms are common among older adults with obesity and diabetes. Nonetheless, the mechanisms for this association are not clear but may involve changes in the insulin cascade signaling. We aimed to investigate the association, and potential mediators, between obesity, insulin resistance, and depressive symptoms among older adults from a homogenous cohort of Mexican-Americans. We included a total of 500 Mexican-American older adults assessed in the Cameron County Health Study. We evaluated depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiologic Survey Depression Scale (CES-D). Central obesity was defined by waist circumference. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the HOMA-IR index. We estimated the association between obesity, insulin resistance, and depressive symptoms by carrying out univariate and multivariate regression analyses. In unadjusted regression analysis, HOMA-IR (unstandardized β = 0.31 ± 0.12, P = 0.007), waist circumference (unstandardized β = 0.066 ± 0.0.028, P = 0.017), and Hb1Ac levels (unstandardized β = 0.52 ± 0.24, P = 0.03) were significantly associated with CES-D scores. The association of HOMA-IR and CES-D remained statistically significant after controlling for socio-demographic and clinical variables in multivariate analysis (unstandardized β = 0.28 ± 0.11, P = 0.01). Our results suggest that depressive symptoms are associated with insulin resistance in older Mexican-American adults. In addition, poorer glucose control and obesity are important mediators of this relationship. Additional studies are needed to evaluate whether interventions that increase insulin sensitivity can also reduce depressive symptoms in this population. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. That's how Life is over there, Isn't it? Family Life Changes among Mexican Non-Migrants who Stayed behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela ECHEGOYÉN NAVA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudian las experiencias de los familiares no migrantes de mexicanos indocumentados en Estados Unidos. Considerando las relaciones de cónyuges, hermanos, padres e hijos, se pretende lograr una mejor comprensión de los cambios y negociaciones en la vida familiar de los que se quedan. En primer lugar, se analizan las percepciones e imaginarios de los no migrantes sobre la vida de sus migrantes en el extranjero y se sugieren tres conceptualizaciones al respecto: sobrecompensación positiva, perspectiva neutra y compensación negativa. Posteriormente se estudia el rol que la familia extensa y política juega en los arreglos intrafamiliares. Por último, se discuten las relaciones y reajustes que tienen lugar entre los migrantes de retorno y los que se quedan.

  10. Living conditions and health. A population-based study of labour migrants and Latin American refugees in Sweden and those who were repatriated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, J

    1995-06-01

    To examine whether there are differences in living conditions and self-rated health between South European labour migrants and Latin American refugees and those who were repatriated to Latin America. Analysis of data from a survey (face-to-face interviews) in 1991 of 338 Latin American refugees and 60 repatriated refugees. A random sample of 161 South European and 396 Finnish labour migrants from the Swedish Annual Level-of-Living Surveys 1980-1981 and 1988-89 was analysed. A random sample of 1,159 age-, sex- and education-matched Swedes served as controls. Lund, a medium-sized town in southern Sweden, Santiago and Montevideo, capitals of Chile and Uruguay, respectively, and Sweden. Labour migrants and refugees in particular lived in rented flats while Swedes lived in privately-owned one-family homes. All immigrants and in particular repatriated Latin Americans had low material standard and meagre economic resources compared with Swedes. Being a Latin American refugee, a South European or Finnish labour migrant were independent risk indicators of self-rated poor health in logistic regression (multivariate analyses). Not feeling secure in everyday life and poor leisure opportunities were independent risk factors for poor health with an estimated odds ratio of 3.13(2.09-4.45) and 1.57(1.22-2.00), respectively. This study shows a clear ethnic segregation in housing and other living conditions between Swedes and immigrants, where Latin American refugees and repatriated Latin Americans were most vulnerable. All immigrants had increased self-rated poor health compared with Swedes. Being an immigrant was a risk factor for poor health of equal importance to more traditional risk factors such as lifestyle factors.

  11. Come bien, camina y no se preocupe--eat right, walk, and do not worry: selective biculturalism during pregnancy in a Mexican American community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganá, Kathleen

    2003-04-01

    Mexican American childbearing women appear to offer a healthy model for pregnancy. However, statistics suggest that they may be at increased risk for poor birth outcome as they acculturate to a U.S. lifestyle. An ethnographic study in Watsonville, California, examined the influence of acculturation on pregnancy beliefs and practices of 29 Mexican American childbearing women. Data from formal semi-structured interviews were submitted to content analysis. During pregnancy, women balanced well-documented, traditional Mexican cultural beliefs with the individualistic beliefs common to Anglo-Americans. Selective biculturalism emerged as a protective approach to stress reduction and health promotion. Stress reduction interventions as part of routine prenatal care have potential benefit for all pregnant women. Future research on cultural barriers to family-based social support during pregnancy is needed.

  12. High-mountain lakes provide a seasonal niche for migrant American dippers

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Garwood; K. L. Pope; R. M. Bourque; M. D. Larson

    2009-01-01

    We studied summer use of high elevation lakes by American Dippers (Cinclus mexicanus) in the Trinity Alps Wilderness, California by conducting repeated point-count surveys at 16 study lakes coupled with a 5-year detailed survey of all available aquatic habitats in a single basin. We observed American Dippers during 36% of the point-count surveys...

  13. Associations between language acculturation, age of immigration, and obesity in the Mexican American Mano A Mano cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisman, Matthew; Chow, Wong-Ho; Daniel, Carrie R; Wu, Xifeng; Zhao, Hua

    As Mexican immigrants to the U.S. become acculturated, they face worsening health outcomes such as obesity. The role of language acculturation in the development of obesity has not been thoroughly examined. To examine associations between language acculturation and obesity, data were drawn from the Mexican-American Mano A Mano cohort study. Participants aged 20 years and over (n=18,298) completed baseline questionnaires on socio-demographic and behavioural factors, including physical activity and sitting time. The Bi-dimensional Acculturation Scale for Hispanics assessed language acculturation. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression was conducted to investigate associations between language acculturation, immigration age, and obesity, and whether sitting time and physical activity mediated these associations. Individuals with obesity were more linguistically acculturated than individuals who were normal weight or overweight (Pobesity (OR=1.35, 95% CI: 1.12-1.62) in U.S.-born participants and lower risk in Mexico-born participants (OR=0.90, 95%CI=0.81-1.00). For Mexico-born participants, arrival in the U.S. as an adult (≥20years old) was associated with a reduced obesity risk (OR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.67-0.80). Sitting time mediated the association between language acculturation and obesity. Language acculturation may influence obesity development among the U.S.-born Mexican Americans in this cohort, but not their Mexico-born counterparts. Sitting time could be targeted in obesity prevention efforts in this population. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lack of Association between SLC30A8 Variants and Type 2 Diabetes in Mexican American Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SLC30A8 encodes zinc transporter 8 which is involved in packaging and release of insulin. Evidence for the association of SLC30A8 variants with type 2 diabetes (T2D is inconclusive. We interrogated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs around SLC30A8 for association with T2D in high-risk, pedigreed individuals from extended Mexican American families. This study of 118 SNPs within 50 kb of the SLC30A8 locus tested the association with eight T2D-related traits at four levels: (i each SNP using measured genotype approach (MGA; (ii interaction of SNPs with age and sex; (iii combinations of SNPs using Bayesian Quantitative Trait Nucleotide (BQTN analyses; and (iv entire gene locus using the gene burden test. Only one SNP (rs7817754 was significantly associated with incident T2D but a summary statistic based on all T2D-related traits identified 11 novel SNPs. Three SNPs and one SNP were weakly but interactively associated with age and sex, respectively. BQTN analyses could not demonstrate any informative combination of SNPs over MGA. Lastly, gene burden test results showed that at best the SLC30A8 locus could account for only 1-2% of the variability in T2D-related traits. Our results indicate a lack of association of the SLC30A8 SNPs with T2D in Mexican American families.

  15. Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavioral Guided Self-Help for Binge Eating: A Feasibility Study with Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachelin, Fary M.; Shea, Munyi; Phimphasone, Phoutdavone; Wilson, G. Terence; Thompson, Douglas R.; Striegel, Ruth H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective was to test feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral self-help program to treat binge eating and related problems in Mexican Americans. Participants were 31 women recruited from the Los Angeles area and diagnosed with binge eating disorder, recurrent binge eating or bulimia nervosa. Participants completed a culturally adapted version of a CBT-based self-help program with 8 guidance sessions over a 3-month period. Treatment efficacy was evaluated in terms of binge eating, psychological functioning, and weight loss. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed 35.5% abstinence from binge eating at post-treatment and 38.7% diagnostic remission. Results indicated significant pre-treatment to post-treatment improvement on distress level, BMI, eating disorder psychopathology, and self-esteem. Satisfaction with the program was high. Findings demonstrate that the program is acceptable, feasible, and efficacious in reducing binge eating and associated symptoms for Mexican American women. Study provides “proof of concept” for implementation of culturally adapted forms of evidence-based programs. PMID:25045955

  16. Factors Associated with Depression Among Mexican Americans Living in U.S.-Mexico Border and Non-Border Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, Patrice A C; Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A

    2016-08-01

    Factors associated with CES-D depression among Mexican Americans living on and off the U.S.-Mexico border are examined. Data are from two studies of Mexican American adults. The Border Survey conducted face-to-face interviews in urban U.S.-Mexico border counties of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas (N = 1307). The non-border HABLAS survey conducted face-to-face interviews in Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, and Miami (N = 1288). Both surveys used a multistage cluster sample design with response rates of 67 and 76 %, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that border residence and higher perceived neighborhood collective efficacy were protective for depression among men. Among men, lower education, unemployment, increased weekly drinking, and poor health status were associated with depression. Among women, alcohol-related problems and poorer health status were also associated with depression. Further examinations of how neighborhood perceptions vary by gender and how these perceptions influence the likelihood of depression are warranted.

  17. The Comorbid Influence of High Depressive Symptoms and Diabetes on Mortality and Disability in Mexican Americans Aged 75 and Above

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Downer PhD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the individual and combined effects of depression and diabetes on mortality and disability over 6 years among Mexican Americans aged ≥75. Method: The final sample included 1,785 participants from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios for incidence for mortality and disability according to diabetes and depressive symptoms. Results: Diabetics were more likely to become activities of daily living (ADL disabled Hazard Ratio (HR = 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.18, 1.77] and deceased (HR = 1.47, 95% CI = [1.24, 1.74] compared with non-diabetics. Diabetics reporting high depressive symptomatology were more than two times as likely to become ADL disabled and deceased compared with diabetics not reporting high depressive symptoms. Participants with high depressive symptoms and taking insulin alone or both oral medications and insulin were at the greatest risk of disability (HR = 3.83, 95% CI = [1.66, 8.81]. Conclusion: Diabetes increases the risk of disability and mortality, especially among Mexican Americans with high depressive symptoms or who are taking insulin alone or both oral medications and insulin. Interventions that are able to reduce the prevalence of depression and diabetes are needed to limit the future burden of disability and mortality in this population.

  18. Transmission of Cultural Values among Mexican American Parents and their Adolescent and Emerging Adult Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths’ adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents’ and two offspring’s cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers’ values were associated with increases in youths’ values five years later. In contrast, youths’ familism values were associated with increases in fathers’ familism values five years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant-status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support are crucial. PMID:25470657

  19. The Dissolution of the Mexican-American Border and Redefinition of Chicano/a /Mexican Identity in Leslie Marmon Silko's Almanac of the Dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harding, David

    2006-01-01

    In Leslie Marmon Silko's Almanac of the Dead, notions of Mexican identity are deconstructed. This article analyzes how Silko, through a variety of characters and sub-plotlines, brings to the surface hidden tensions in the contsruction of Mexican identity through the melding of the sangre limpia...

  20. The role of immigration age on alcohol and drug use among border and non-border Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingle, Jennifer M; Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A; Vaeth, Patrice A C

    2014-07-01

    To determine the age of immigration at which the marked increase in risk for alcohol- and drug-use problems in adulthood is observed among Mexican American adults residing in 2 distinct contexts: the U.S.-Mexico border, and cities not proximal to the border. We used 2 samples of Mexican American adults: specifically, 1,307 who resided along the U.S.-Mexico border, and 1,288 non-border adults who were interviewed as a part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey study. Survey logistic and Poisson regression methods were used to examine how immigration age during adolescence is related to alcohol- and drug-use behavior in adulthood. We found that participants who immigrate to the United States prior to age 14 have qualitatively different alcohol- and drug-related outcomes compared to those who immigrate later in life. Adults who immigrated at younger ages have alcohol- and drug-use patterns similar to those who were U.S.-born. Adults who immigrated at young ages and reside distal from the U.S.-Mexico border are at greater risk for alcohol and drug use than those who live in border contexts. Immigration from Mexico to the U.S. before age 14 results in alcohol- and drug-related behavior that mirrors the behavior of U.S.-born residents, and the alcohol- and drug-use effects were more pronounced among adults who did not reside proximal to the U.S.-Mexico border. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. Two Faces of Attrition: Analysis of a Mismatched Strategy against Mexican and Central American Drug Traffickers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    on big Strategy, LeTort Paper, Strategic Studies Institute (Carlisle, PA, February 2006), 13. 21 U.S. President, National Security Council, U.S...generations in certain regions.5 Historically, the Colombian traffickers were renowned for their cocaine trafficking into the United States under the... Colombian cartels opened the way for Mexican cartels to expand their operations from just acting as transportation groups to purchasers of cocaine.8

  2. The Family Festival Prevention Model: Findings from a Pilot of a Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Programme Conceptualised by and for Mexican American Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Erby, Yvette; Stauss, Kim; Koh, Eun

    2015-01-01

    Despite an overall reduction in teenage pregnancy rates in the USA, the decrease for young women of Mexican heritage in the USA has been less significant than the decrease for their White and African-American peers. Furthermore, the availability of teenage pregnancy prevention models that are conceptualised specifically for people of Mexican…

  3. Fathers' and Mothers' Language Acculturation and Parenting Practices: Links to Mexican American Children's Academic Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Claire E.

    2018-01-01

    This study used a family-centered ecological lens to examine predictive relations among fathers' and mothers' language acculturation, parenting practices, and academic readiness in a large sample of Mexican American children in preschool (N = 880). In line with prior early childhood research, parent language acculturation was operationalized as…

  4. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease in Mexican American Children Aged 5 to 17 Years: Results from Southwestern HHANES, 1982-83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amid L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease in Mexican American children of the southwestern United States occur mainly in molars, lending strong support for the use of fissure sealants as a preventive procedure. This study also reports on the prevalence of fillings decay and gingivitis in this population. (VM)

  5. The Social Significance and Value Dimension of Current Mexican American Dialectal Spanish. A Glossary for the Human Service Professions. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Ernesto; Cerda, Gilberto

    Results of a study documenting the Mexican American's unique Spanish dialectal expressions used in the barrios of San Antonio, Texas, and its surrounding areas are presented. The expressions included are those which were not recorded in the "Diccionario de la Real Academia Espanola" (19th Edition) or which were recorded therein but with…

  6. Communicating with Mexican Americans: Por Su Buena Salud = Communicando Con Mexico Americanos: For Their Good Health. Proceedings of the Conference (Houston, TX, September 13-14, 1979).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas J., Ed.; And Others

    The conference focused on the role of the Mexican American's cultural language, tradition, life style, health practices, and media utilization in the design of effective health education and information programs. Representing various local, state, and national health, education, and media organizations, the 108 participants attended sessions on…

  7. Vocabulary Instruction and Mexican-American Bilingual Students: How Two High School Teachers Integrate Multiple Strategies to Build Word Consciousness in English Language Arts Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Lasisi

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significance of vocabulary knowledge to student learning, limited studies have examined English language arts (ELA) teachers' skills and practices that may be effective for building word consciousness in high school Mexican-American bilingual students. The research objective of the present study is to examine how two high school ELA…

  8. Prevalence of Anguillicoloides crassus and growth variation in migrant yellow-phase American eels of the upper Potomac River drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Jennifer L.; Welsh, Stuart A.

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of the non-native swim bladder nematode Anguillicoloides crassus has recently increased in American eels from estuaries of the North American Atlantic coast, but little is known about parasite prevalence or conditions of previous infection in upstream migrant eels within upper watersheds. This study is the first to confirm presence of A. crassus in the upper Potomac River watershed. We estimated A. crassus prevalence during 3 time periods: September to October 2006 (5/143 eels, 3.5%), August to October 2007 (0/49 eels), and June 2008 (0/50 eels). All eels were sampled from the Millville Dam eel ladder on the lower Shenandoah River, a Potomac River tributary located approximately 285 km upstream of Chesapeake Bay, USA. Of the 5 infected eels, parasite intensity was 1 for each eel, and mean intensity was also 1.0. A swim bladder degenerative index (SDI) was calculated for the 50 eels from the final sampling period, and 38% of those eels (19 of 50) showed signs of previous infection by A. crassus. We also aged 42 of the 50 eels (mean ± SE = 6.7 ± 0.29 yr, range 4 to 11 yr) from the final sampling period. Based on the range of possible SDI scores (0 to 6), severity of previously infected swim bladders was moderate (SDI = 1 or 2). Previously infected eels, however, had a lower length-at-age than that of uninfected eels. Female yellow-phase eels in upper watersheds develop into large highly fecund silver-phase adults; hence, a parasite-induced effect on growth of yellow-phase eels could ultimately reduce reproductive potential.

  9. Exposure to DDT and diabetic nephropathy among Mexican Americans in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Charles J; Thompson, Olivia M; Dismuke, Clara E

    2017-03-01

    Concentrations of the pesticide DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and its metabolite DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), in the blood of Mexican Americans, were evaluated to determine their relationships with diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. The data were derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 (unweighted N = 1,411, population estimate = 13,760,609). The sample included teens, 12-19 years old, which accounted for 19.8% of the data. The time of the study overlapped the banning of DDT in Mexico in the year 2000, and those participants born in Mexico were exposed to DDT before they immigrated to the US. We sought to better understand the relationship of DDT with diabetes in a race/ethnicity group prone to develop diabetes and exposed to DDT. In this study, nephropathy was defined as urinary albumin to creatinine ratio >30 mg/g, representing microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria, and total diabetes was defined as diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes (glycohemoglobin, A1c ≥ 6.5%). The proportion with the isomer p,p'-DDT >0.086 ng/g (above the maximum limit of detection) was 13.3% for Mexican Americans born in the US, and 36.9% for those born in Mexico. Levels of p,p'-DDT >0.086 ng/g were associated with total diabetes with nephropathy (odds ratio = 4.42, 95% CI 2.23-8.76), and with total diabetes without nephropathy (odds ratio = 2.02, 95% CI 1.19-3.44). The third quartile of p,p'-DDE (2.99-7.67 ng/g) and the fourth quartile of p,p'-DDE (≥7.68 ng/g) were associated with diabetic nephropathy and had odds ratios of 5.32 (95% CI 1.05-26.87) and 14.95 (95% CI 2.96-75.48) compared to less than the median, respectively, whereas p,p'-DDE was not associated with total diabetes without nephropathy. The findings of this study differ from those of a prior investigation of the general adult US population in that there were more associations found with the Mexican Americans sample. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Self-schema as a non-drinker: a protective resource against heavy drinking in Mexican-American college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Kuei; Stein, Karen F; Corte, Colleen; Steffen, Alana

    2017-03-21

    Alcohol use is considered less acceptable for women than men in the Mexican culture. However, recent studies of Mexican-American (MA) women show that prevalence and rates of alcohol use are escalating, particularly in those with high acculturation to Western standards. Building on recent studies that demonstrated that drinking-related identities (self-schemas) are important predictors of alcohol use in college populations, this secondary data analysis investigated the association between acculturation, MA cultural values, and acculturative stress, drinking-related self-schemas and heavy drinking over time in college-enrolled MA women. Data were drawn from a 12-month longitudinal study of self-schemas and health-risk behaviors in 477 college-enrolled MA women. Drinking-related self-schemas, acculturation, MA cultural values and acculturative stress were measured at baseline, and heavy drinking was measured at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Thirty-six percent of women had a non-drinker self-schema but only 3% had a drinker self-schema. Higher spirituality was protective against heavy drinking, and this effect can be partially explained by presence of a non-drinker self-schema. Interventions that emphasize the personal relevance of being a non-drinker and support the importance of spirituality may help to prevent heavy drinking in MA college women. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Cross-cultural study of idioms of distress among Spanish nationals and Hispanic American migrants: susto, nervios and ataque de nervios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durà-Vilà, Glòria; Hodes, Matthew

    2012-10-01

    Susto (fright), nervios (nerves) and ataque de nervios (attack of nerves) are idioms of distress widely experienced amongst Hispanic Americans, often associated with psychiatric disorders. This study explores understanding of these idioms of distress and attitudes to help seeking amongst indigenous Spanish and Hispanic American residents in Spain. A population survey was undertaken in four adult education centres in Spain. Hypothetical case vignettes of individuals suffering from the idioms of distress were used to investigate understanding and help seeking by a Spanish sample compared with Hispanic American migrants to Spain. 350 questionnaires were obtained (94.6% response rate). The idioms ataque de nervios and nervios were recognised by the majority of the Spanish group but by significantly more of the Hispanic American migrants. However, susto was infrequently recognised by the Spanish group but it was recognised by half of the Hispanic Americans. Hispanic Americans were also more likely to recommend consultation with a psychiatrist/psychologist than Spanish respondents for ataque de nervios and nervios. The Spanish group were more likely to recommend non-medical sources of support such as relatives and priest than Hispanic Americans. Hispanic Americans, more recently arrived, did not show greater recognition of the three idioms than those who have been in Spain longer. Regression analysis showed that being Hispanic American and having lower educational attainment was associated with greater use of susto. The study suggests that people hold multiple models of distress and disorder. This may influence clinical presentations and help seeking behaviour in Spanish as well as Hispanic American populations.

  12. "We Don't Want to be Judged": Perceptions about Professional Help and Attitudes Towards Help-Seeking among Pregnant and Postpartum Mexican-American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recto, Pamela; Champion, Jane Dimmitt

    2018-04-27

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to understand how depression is recognized, as well as perceptions of professional help and attitudes concerning perinatal depression among pregnant and postpartum (perinatal) Mexican-American adolescents. This qualitative descriptive study used deductive and inductive content analysis to analyze data. Categories and subcategories describing the mental health literacy of perinatal Mexican-American adolescents concerning perinatal depression are presented. A convenience sample of 20 perinatal Mexican-American adolescents between the ages of 15 and 19 years were interviewed. Participants were recruited from parenting classes across urban high-schools in Southwestern United States. Adolescents expressed difficulties in recognizing perinatal depression. Depressive symptoms were identified through self-appraisals or the appraisal of others. Establishing rapport with empathetic health care providers facilitated trust among adolescents. Fear of judgement was the most common response and prevented help-seeking. Lack of trust, normalization of depression, and reluctance with disclosing symptoms were also indicated by participants. Stigma concerning perinatal depression was identified as a barrier for help-seeking among participants who were already experiencing criticism due to their pregnancy status. The quality of interactions with health providers may hinder or facilitate adolescents from professional help-seeking. Active engagement and collaboration with Mexican-American adolescents are indicated in identification and treatment of perinatal depression. Integration of mental health services in primary care settings is suggested to facilitate help-seeking for perinatal depression. Mental Health First Aid may be utilized to improve knowledge and decrease stigma concerning perinatal depression among Mexican-American adolescents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Language Brokering and Depressive Symptoms in Mexican American Adolescents: Parent-Child Alienation and Resilience as Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Hou, Yang; Gonzalez, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to untangle the mixed effects of language brokering by examining a contextual factor (i.e., parent-child alienation) and a personal attribute (i.e., resilience) that may relate to adolescents’ feelings during translating (i.e., sense of burden and efficacy) and that may moderate the association between such feelings and adolescent depressive symptoms. Participants included 557 adolescent language brokers (Mage = 12.96) in Mexican-American families. Results showed that adolescents with a strong sense of alienation from parents or low resilience a) experienced more burden or less efficacy in translating, and b) were more susceptible to the detrimental effects of feeling a sense of burden and the beneficial effects of experiencing a sense of efficacy, as measured by depressive symptoms. PMID:27637380

  14. Mexican Women, Migration and Sex Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Reynaldo; Dexter, Bryan

    1985-01-01

    Compares Mexican women involved in migration to understand how their sex roles and status have been affected. Uses data from two separate studies: ethnography on migrants' wives left at home in a Mexican village and a survey of unauthorized immigrants in the Los Angeles area. (SA)

  15. Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development: the role of adolescents' gender and nativity and parents' gender role attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; McHale, Susan M; Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Wheeler, Lorey A; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A

    2014-12-01

    Gender development has long term implications for education and career endeavors and family formation behaviors, but we know very little about the role of sociocultural factors in developmental and individual differences. In this study, we investigated one domain of gender development, gender role attitudes, in Mexican-American adolescents (N = 246; 51 % female), using four phases of longitudinal data across 8 years. Data were collected when adolescents averaged 12.51 years (SD = 0.58), 14.64 years (SD = 0.59), 17.72 years (SD = 0.57), and 19.60 years of age (SD = 0.66). Mothers' and fathers' gender role attitudes also were assessed in Phases 1, 3, and 4. Findings revealed that gender attitude development varied as a function of the interaction between adolescents' nativity and gender. Among Mexico-born adolescents, females exhibited significant declines in traditional attitudes from early to late adolescence, but males' attitudes were stable over time. U.S.-born females and males, in contrast, did not differ in their gender attitude trajectories. Examining the links between mothers', fathers', and adolescents' gender role attitudes revealed within-person associations between mothers' and adolescents' gender role attitudes: on occasions when mothers reported more traditional attitudes relative to their own cross-time average, adolescents also reported more traditional attitudes than usual. In addition, fathers' more traditional gender role attitudes were associated with daughters', but not sons', more traditional gender role attitudes at the between-person level. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development from a cultural ecological perspective.

  16. Mexican American Adolescents’ Gender Role Attitude Development: The Role of Adolescents’ Gender and Nativity and Parents’ Gender Role Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; McHale, Susan M.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A.

    2014-01-01

    Gender development has long term implications for education and career endeavors and family formation behaviors, but we know very little about the role of sociocultural factors in developmental and individual differences. In this study, we investigated one domain of gender development, gender role attitudes, in Mexican American adolescents (N = 246; 51% female), using four phases of longitudinal data across eight years. Data were collected when adolescents averaged 12.51 years (SD = 0.58), 14.64 years (SD = 0.59), 17.72 years (SD = 0.57), and 19.60 years of age (SD = 0.66). Mothers’ and fathers’ gender role attitudes also were assessed in Phases 1, 3, and 4. Findings revealed that gender attitude development varied as a function of the interaction between adolescents’ nativity and gender. Among Mexico-born adolescents, females exhibited significant declines in traditional attitudes from early to late adolescence, but males’ attitudes were stable over time. U.S.-born females and males, in contrast, did not differ in their gender attitude trajectories. Examining the links between mothers’, fathers’, and adolescents’ gender role attitudes revealed within-person associations between mothers’ and adolescents’ gender role attitudes: on occasions when mothers reported more traditional attitudes relative to their own cross-time average, adolescents also reported more traditional attitudes than usual. In addition, fathers’ more traditional gender role attitudes were associated with daughters’, but not sons’, more traditional gender role attitudes at the between-person level. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of Mexican American adolescents’ gender role attitude development from a cultural ecological perspective. PMID:24777649

  17. Qualitative description of dental hygiene practices within oral health and dental care perspectives of Mexican-American adults and teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupome, Gerardo; Aguirre-Zero, Odette; Westerhold, Chi

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify dental hygiene themes voiced by adults and teenagers of Mexican origin [or Mexican Americans (MAs)] and place these themes within the larger landscape of oral health and dental care perceptions. Interviews with urban-based MAs were analyzed to identify barriers, beliefs, and behaviors influencing engagement in dental hygiene practices. Adult (n = 16, ages 33-52) and teenage (n = 17, ages 14-19) MAs reported themes pertaining to structural factors (financial and economic-related barriers, the dual challenges of reduced access to care vis-à-vis successfully navigating the dental care system, and the effects of reduced social support derived from migration) and to individual factors (different agendas between MAs and health systems for dental care utilization and indications for oral self-care, including limited dental hygiene instruction from professionals and larger impacts from school-based and mass media). Also, prior experiences with dental hygiene, prevention, and associated themes were characterized by a range of attitudes from fatalistic to highly determined agency. Good family upbringing was instrumental for appropriate dental hygiene, anteceding good oral health; and outlining a loose structure of factors affecting oral health such as diet, having "weak" teeth, or personal habits. Themes from adults and teenagers in the Midwest United States were generally similar to other groups of MA parents and younger children. Dental hygiene was not salient relative to other oral health and dental care matters. Several opportunities for improvement of knowledge and enhancing motivation for dental hygiene practices were identified, both within and outside professional resources. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  18. Life Course Experiences, Pain and Suffering: A Case Study of an Older Mexican American Woman with Mobility Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Janiece L.; Harrison, Tracie C.; Hendrickson, Sherry G.

    2012-01-01

    There is a dearth of literature examining how adversity shapes the experiences of pain and/or suffering in a middle aged Mexican American women. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to understand pain and suffering from a life course perspective as described by a Mexican American woman aging with early onset mobility impairment. This Hispanic woman experienced episodes of abuse and rejection over the life course, which may have significantly influenced her pain and suffering experience in adulthood. This adds to the literature on how adversity influences later life pain experience and provides insight on why pharmacological treatment alone may not be as successful as a holistic intervention. Hay escasez de literatura que examine cómo la adversidad da forma a las experiencias de dolor y / o sufrimiento en mujeres mexicana-americana mayores de edad. El propósito de este estudio descriptivo cualitativo fue comprender el dolor y el sufrimiento desde una perspectiva de ciclo de vida como descrito por una mujer mexicana-americana envejeciendo con inicio temprano de deterioro de movilidad. Esta Latina experimentó episodios de maltrato y rechazo, que se percibió haber afectado su experiencia de dolor y sufrimiento luego como adulta. Este estudio aumenta la literatura sobre cómo la adversidad influya la experiencia de dolor más tarde en la vida, y nos permite comprender mejor como el tratamiento farmacológico por sí solo no es tan exitoso como pueda ser una intervención integral. PMID:24830728

  19. Variation in PPARG is associated with longitudinal change in insulin resistance in Mexican Americans at risk for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mary Helen; Wu, Jun; Takayanagi, Miwa; Wang, Nan; Taylor, Kent D; Haritunians, Talin; Trigo, Enrique; Lawrence, Jean M; Watanabe, Richard M; Buchanan, Thomas A; Xiang, Anny H

    2015-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) is a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although cross-sectional associations have been reported, primarily for Pro12Ala, few longitudinal studies in nondiabetic populations have been conducted. This study aimed to examine whether and to what extent variation in PPARG is associated with longitudinal changes in anthropometric and metabolic traits in Mexican Americans at risk for T2DM. Subjects were participants of BetaGene, a family-based study of obesity, insulin resistance, and β-cell function, who completed a baseline and follow-up study visit (n = 378; mean followup, 4.6 ± 1.5 y). Phenotypes included body fat assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; insulin sensitivity (SI), acute insulin response, and β-cell function (disposition index; DI) were estimated from iv glucose tolerance tests with Minimal Model analysis. Eighteen tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) capturing variation in a 156-kb region surrounding PPARG were tested for association with changes in longitudinal traits. P-values were Bonferroni-corrected for multiple testing. Six SNPs (rs2972164, rs11128598, rs17793951, rs1151996, rs1175541, rs3856806) were significantly associated with rate of change in SI after adjustment for age, sex, and body fat percentage, but not with changes in adiposity. rs17793951 also had a significant effect on change in DI over time. Association between rs1175541 and change in SI varied by changes in adiposity such that only carriers of the minor allele who reduced body fat over followup improved SI. rs1306470 (captured Pro12Ala, r(2) = 0.9) was not associated with rates of change in any traits and its effects were not modified by changes in adiposity. Variation in PPARG, but not Pro12Ala, contributes to declining SI and concomitant deterioration in β-cell function in Mexican Americans at risk for T2DM.

  20. Predictors of trying to lose weight among overweight and obese Mexican-Americans: a signal detection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersamin, Andrea; Hanni, Krista D; Winkleby, Marilyn A

    2009-01-01

    Signal detection analysis, a form of recursive partitioning, was used to identify combinations of sociodemographic and acculturation factors that predict trying to lose weight in a community-based sample of 957 overweight and obese Mexican-American adults (ages 18-69 years). Data were pooled from the 2004 and 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System conducted in a low-income, semi-rural community in California. Overall, 59 % of the population reported trying to lose weight. The proportion of adults who were trying to lose weight was highly variable across the seven mutually exclusive groups identified by signal detection (range 30-79 %). Significant predictors of trying to lose weight included BMI, gender, age and income. Women who were very overweight (BMI > 28.5 kg/m2) were most likely to be trying to lose weight (79 %), followed by very overweight higher-income men and moderately overweight (BMI = 25.0-28.5 kg/m2) higher-income women (72 % and 70 %, respectively). Moderately overweight men, aged 28-69 years, were the least likely to be trying to lose weight (30 %), followed by moderately overweight lower-income women (47 %) and very overweight lower-income men (49 %). The latter group is of particular concern since they have characteristics associated with medical complications of obesity (low education and poor access to medical care). Our findings highlight opportunities and challenges for public health professionals working with overweight Mexican-American adults - particularly lower-income adults who were born in Mexico - who are not trying to lose weight and are therefore at high risk for obesity-related co-morbidities.

  1. A case study of the effects of social experiences on the science identity formation of Mexican American females in high school chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeton, Renee P.

    Mexican Americans are a rapidly growing ethnic group in the United States. However, they are noticeably absent from physical science fields. Little research has explored the experiences of Mexican American girls in high school chemistry. The theories of identity based on communities of practice and multicultural feminism framed this year-long case study of nine Mexican American girls in a high school chemistry course. This study explored the social encounters and experiences that shaped the participants' identities and how their views of themselves affected their attitudes towards high school chemistry and future science careers. Data collection included a focus group and in-depth interviews with the participants, classroom observations, and teacher interviews. Five main identities influenced the participants' potential to become a scientist: ethnic, gender, science, student, and college. Mexican ethnic identity was the overarching identity; however gender also influenced the participants' other identities. The participants were aware of ethnic gender stereotypes that might hinder them from being successful in science. Also, ethnic factors, such as citizenship and abilities to receive financial aid limited their views of themselves as chemists. Participatory science, student, and school identities were all needed in order for the participants to be potential scientists. Family expectations, authentic relationships with teachers, and personal connections were important factors in the development of these participatory identities.

  2. Addressing cultural orientations in fear appeals: promoting AIDS-protective behaviors among Mexican immigrant and African American adolescents and American and Taiwanese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Johnson, L; Witte, K; Liu, W Y; Hubbell, A P; Sampson, J; Morrison, K

    2001-01-01

    Fear appeals threatening the individual have been shown to be powerful persuasive devices in the cultures where they have been studied. However, most fear appeal research has been conducted with members of individualist cultures. Individualist cultures place self-needs above group concerns, while collectivist cultures place group needs above self-concerns. Little is known about the effectiveness of fear appeals (or other persuasive strategies) in collectivist cultures. Two studies assessed the effectiveness of AIDS-prevention fear appeals threatening the self versus fear appeals threatening the group (i.e., family) on members of individualist and collectivist cultures. The first study focuses on African American and Mexican immigrant junior high school youth. The second study focuses on U.S. and Taiwanese college undergraduates. The results indicated that fear appeals should address cultural orientation (i.e., individualist versus collectivist orientation) to achieve maximum effectiveness. The results also indicate that one cannot assume cultural orientation based on ethnicity.

  3. Neighborhood Disorder and Children’s Antisocial Behavior: The Protective Effect of Family Support Among Mexican American and African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Rand D.; Conger, Katherine J.; Martin, Monica J.; Brody, Gene; Simons, Ronald; Cutrona, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a sample of 673 Mexican Origin families, the current investigation examined the degree to which family supportiveness acted as a protective buffer between neighborhood disorder and antisocial behavior during late childhood (i.e. intent to use controlled substances, externalizing, and association with deviant peers). Children’s perceptions of neighborhood disorder fully mediated associations between census and observer measures of neighborhood disorder and their antisocial behavior. Family support buffered children from the higher rates of antisocial behavior generally associated with living in disorderly neighborhoods. An additional goal of the current study was to replicate these findings in a second sample of 897 African American families, and that replication was successful. These findings suggest that family support may play a protective role for children living in dangerous or disadvantaged neighborhoods. They also suggest that neighborhood interventions should consider several points of entry including structural changes, resident perceptions of their neighborhood and family support. PMID:22089092

  4. Clinical and pathological characteristics of Hispanic BRCA-associated breast cancers in the American-Mexican border city of El Paso, TX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahleh, Zeina; Otoukesh, Salman; Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Mallawaarachchi, Indika; Sanchez, Luis; Saldivar, J Salvador; Cataneda, Kayla; Heydarian, Rosalinda

    2015-01-01

    Hispanics in El Paso, TX, a large American-Mexican border city constitute 85% of the population. Limited cancer research has been conducted in this population. We sought to study the prevalence of BRCA mutations among Hispanic patients of Mexican origin, identify reported Mexican founder or recurrent mutations, and study the breast cancer characteristics in mutation carriers. Hispanic women of Mexican descent with a personal history of breast cancer, who presented consecutively for genetic cancer risk assessment, were enrolled in an Institutional Review Board-approved registry and underwent BRCA testing based on national guidelines. The characteristics of tumors and patients with positive BRCA mutation were analyzed. 88 patients were screened; 18 patients (20%) were BRCA carriers. Among BRCA carriers, 72% were diagnosed with breast cancer at younger than 50 years, 61% had "Triple negative disease". BRCA carriers had a significantly higher Body Mass Index (BMI) than non-carriers. Thirteen patients had BRCA1 mutations and five had BRCA2 mutations. A total of 17 deleterious BRCA Mutations were observed. Seven have been previously reported as specific genes from Mexico as country of origin. Five new mutations in BRCA carriers of Mexican descent were identified. Hispanic breast cancer patients of Mexican origin present at a younger age, and have predominantly triple negative tumors and high BMI. We identified 5 new mutations not reported previously in Hispanic BRCA carriers of Mexican descent. Interestingly, 41% of BRCA mutations identified have been reported as recurrent mutations in Hispanic individuals from Mexico as the country of origin. A more cost-effective approach to initial screening of Hispanic individuals based on country of origin is desirable and would potentially decrease the number of cases requiring complete sequencing.

  5. United States-Mexico cross-border health insurance initiatives: Salud Migrante and Medicare in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Laugesen, Miriam; Caban, Mabel; Rosenau, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    While U.S. health care reform will most likely reduce the overall number of uninsured Mexican-Americans, it does not address challenges related to health care coverage for undocumented Mexican immigrants, who will remain uninsured under the measures of the reform; documented low-income Mexican immigrants who have not met the five-year waiting period required for Medicaid benefits; or the growing number of retired U.S. citizens living in Mexico, who lack easy access to Medicare-supported services. This article reviews two promising binational initiatives that could help address these challenges-Salud Migrante and Medicare in Mexico; discusses their prospective applications within the context of U.S. health care reform; and identifies potential challenges to their implementation (legal, political, and regulatory), as well as the possible benefits, including coverage of uninsured Mexican immigrants, and their integration into the U.S. health care system (through Salud Migrante), and access to lower-cost Medicare-supported health care for U.S. retirees in Mexico (Medicare in Mexico).

  6. Passage of downstream migrant American eels through an airlift-assisted deep bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alexander J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Noreika, John

    2016-01-01

    Traditional downstream guidance and bypass facilities for anadromous fishes (i.e., surface bypasses, surface guidance structures, and behavioral barriers) have frequently been ineffective for anguillid eels. Because eels typically spend the majority of their time near the bottom in the vicinity of intake structures, deep bypass structures with entrances near the bottom hold promise for increased effectiveness, thereby aiding in the recovery of this important species. A new design of a deep bypass system that uses airlift technology (the Conte Airlift Bypass) to induce flow in a bypass pipe was tested in a simulated intake entrance environment under controlled laboratory conditions. Water velocities of 0.9–1.5 m s−1 could be generated at the bypass entrance (opening with 0.073 m2 area), with corresponding flows through the bypass pipe of 0.07–0.11 m3 s−1. Gas saturation and hydrostatic pressure within the bypass pipe did not vary appreciably from a control (no air) condition under tested airflows. Migratory silver-phase American eels (Anguilla rostrata) tested during dark conditions readily located, entered, and passed through the bypass; initial avoidance rates (eels approaching but not entering the bypass entrance) were lower at higher entrance velocities. Eels that investigated the bypass pipe entrance tended to enter headfirst, but those that then exited the pipe upstream did so more frequently at lower entrance velocities. Eels appeared to swim against the flow while being transported downstream through the pipe; median transit times through the bypass for each test velocity ranged from 5.8 to 12.2 s, with transit time decreasing with increasing entrance velocity. Eels did not show strong avoidance of the vertical section of the pipe which contained injected air. No mortality or injury of bypassed eels was observed, and individual eels repeatedly passed through the bypass at rates of up to 40 passes per hour, suggesting that individuals do not

  7. Condom use and migration in a sample of Mexican migrants: potential for HIV/STI transmission Uso de condón y migración en una muestra de migrantes mexicanos: potencial para la transmisión de VIH/ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Fosados

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between condom use and migration to the United States (US in two Mexican municipalities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, non-probabilistic study of egocentric social networks was conducted in Cuauhtémoc, Colima and Tonalá, Jalisco during the months of December 2003 and January 2004, in 354 migrant subjects. Migration, sexual network, history and risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs characteristics were surveyed. Statistical analyses was conducted using logistic regression. RESULTS: Increased migration travel to the US was significantly associated with consistent condom use for Cuauhtémoc (OR: 3.87; pOBJETIVO: Analizar la asociación entre el uso del condón y la migración a Estados Unidos en dos municipios mexicanos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal no probabilístico de redes sociales egocéntricas. Muestra de 354 migrantes. Cuestionario sobre prácticas y redes sexuales, historia de ITS y migración. Análisis mediante regresiones logísticas. RESULTADOS: La mayor experiencia migratoria se asoció significativamente al uso consistente del condón en Tonalá (RM: 4.12; p<.05 y Cuauhtémoc (RM: 3.87; p< .05. Otros predictores fueron: edad, tipo de pareja y percepción de la fidelidad. CONCLUSIÓN: Los datos apoyan la hipótesis de la asociación entre la migración y el uso del condón.

  8. Lifetime history of traumatic events in a young adult Mexican American sample: Relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, acculturation stress, and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Kim, Corinne; Gilder, David A; Stouffer, Gina M; Caetano, Raul; Yehuda, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the United States, and within this population, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with physical and mental health problems. Therefore, efforts to delineate factors that may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, PTSD, and substance use disorders over the lifetime in Mexican Americans are important to address health disparities and to develop treatment and prevention programs. Six hundred fourteen young adults (age 18-30 yrs) of Mexican American heritage, largely second generation, were recruited from the community and assessed with the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism and an acculturation stress scale. More males (51.2%) reported experiencing traumas than females (41.1%), however, a larger proportion of females received a PTSD diagnosis (15%) than males (8%). Alcohol dependence and affective disorders, but not anxiety disorders, antisocial disorders, nicotine, marijuana, or stimulant dependence, were significantly comorbid with PTSD. Endorsing higher levels of acculturation stress was also significantly associated with both trauma exposure and a diagnosis of PTSD. Logistic regression revealed that female gender, having an affective disorder, alcohol dependence, higher levels of acculturation stress, and lower levels of education were all predictors of PTSD status. Additionally, alcohol dependence generally occurred after the PTSD diagnosis in early adulthood in this high-risk population. These studies suggest that treatment and prevention efforts should particularly focus on young adult second generation Mexican American women with higher levels of acculturation stress, who may be at higher risk for PTSD, affective disorder, and alcohol dependence following trauma exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The association of depression and anxiety with glycemic control among Mexican Americans with diabetes living near the U.S.-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Chen, Minxing; Reininger, Belinda M; Businelle, Michael S; Stewart, Diana W; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; Rentfro, Anne R; Wetter, David W; McCormick, Joseph B

    2014-02-18

    The prevalence of diabetes is alarmingly high among Mexican American adults residing near the U.S.-Mexico border. Depression is also common among Mexican Americans with diabetes, and may have a negative influence on diabetes management. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the associations of depression and anxiety with the behavioral management of diabetes and glycemic control among Mexican American adults living near the border. The characteristics of Mexican Americans with diabetes living in Brownsville, TX (N = 492) were compared by depression/anxiety status. Linear regression models were conducted to evaluate the associations of depression and anxiety with BMI, waist circumference, physical activity, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Participants with clinically significant depression and/or anxiety were of greater age, predominantly female, less educated, more likely to have been diagnosed with diabetes, and more likely to be taking diabetes medications than those without depression or anxiety. In addition, anxious participants were more likely than those without anxiety to have been born in Mexico and to prefer study assessments in Spanish rather than English. Greater depression and anxiety were associated with poorer behavioral management of diabetes (i.e., greater BMI and waist circumference; engaging in less physical activity) and poorer glycemic control (i.e., higher fasting glucose, HbA1c). Overall, depression and anxiety appear to be linked with poorer behavioral management of diabetes and glycemic control. Findings highlight the need for comprehensive interventions along the border which target depression and anxiety in conjunction with diabetes management.

  10. Lifetime history of traumatic events in a young adult Mexican American sample: relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, acculturation stress, and PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Kim, Corinne; Gilder, David A.; Stouffer, Gina M.; Caetano, Raul; Yehuda, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the United States, and within this population, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with physical and mental health problems. Therefore, efforts to delineate factors that may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, PTSD, and substance use disorders over the lifetime in Mexican Americans are important to address health disparities and to develop treatment and prevention programs. Six hundred fourteen young adults (age 18–30 yrs) of Mexican American heritage, largely second generation, were recruited from the community and assessed with the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism and an acculturation stress scale. More males (51.2%) reported experiencing traumas than females (41.1%), however, a larger proportion of females received a PTSD diagnosis (15%) than males (8%). Alcohol dependence and affective disorders, but not anxiety disorders, antisocial disorders, nicotine, marijuana, or stimulant dependence, were significantly comorbid with PTSD. Endorsing higher levels of acculturation stress was also significantly associated with both trauma exposure and a diagnosis of PTSD. Logistic regression revealed that female gender, having an affective disorder, alcohol dependence, higher levels of acculturation stress, and lower levels of education were all predictors of PTSD status. Additionally, alcohol dependence generally occurred after the PTSD diagnosis in early adulthood in this high-risk population. These studies suggest that treatment and prevention efforts should particularly focus on young adult second generation Mexican American women with higher levels of acculturation stress, who may be at higher risk for PTSD, affective disorder, and alcohol dependence following trauma exposure. PMID:27569652

  11. Perceived discrimination and sexual precursor behaviors in Mexican American preadolescent girls: The role of psychological distress, sexual attitudes, and marianismo beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Delida; Whittaker, Tiffany A; Hamilton, Emma; Zayas, Luis H

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the relation between perceived discrimination and sexual precursor behaviors among 205 Mexican American preadolescent middle school girls. In addition, this study examined whether psychological distress and sexual attitudes mediated and whether marianismo beliefs moderated this relation. A categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA) of the Marianismo Beliefs Scale (MBS) was conducted to test the factor structure with a preadolescent Mexican American population (ages 11-14). A path analysis of analytic models was then performed to examine the hypothesized relations between perceived discrimination, psychological distress, sexual attitudes, marianismo beliefs, and sexual precursor behaviors. Results of the CCFA did not support the original 5-factor structure of the MBS for preadolescent Latina girls. However, a revised version of the MBS indicated an acceptable model fit, and findings from the path analysis indicated that perceived discrimination was both directly and indirectly linked to sexual precursor behaviors via psychological distress. Marianismo was not found to moderate the relation between perceived discrimination and sexual risk behaviors, however certain marianismo pillars were significantly negatively linked with sexual attitudes and precursor behaviors. This study underscores the importance of psychological distress in the perceived discrimination and sexual precursor link as well as the compensatory aspects of marianismo against sexual precursor behaviors in Mexican American preadolescent girls. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Food Insecurity, Not Stress is Associated with Three Measures of Obesity in Low-Income, Mexican-American Women in South Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jennifer J; Shropshire, William; Nino, Ana; Parra-Medina, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    To determine the relationship between obesity, food insecurity and perceived stress in very low income Mexican American women. Cross-sectional baseline data analysis of a randomized clinical trial. Texas-Mexico border region of South Texas. Very Low Income Mexican American Women. The relationship between obesity and food insecurity in a sample of very low income Hispanic women living in South Texas depends on the measure of obesity and the dimension of food insecurity. The only measure of food insecurity associated with all measures of obesity was often not having enough money to afford to eat balanced meals. Waist circumference was associated with the most dimensions of food insecurity, while BMI had the least associations. Finally, perceived stress was not significantly associated with BMI, waist circumference or percent body fat when adjusted for other covariates. We have found a strong and significant relationship between food insecurity related to having enough resources to eat a balanced diet and BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat in low-income Mexican American women. While behavioural change is an important strategy for reducing obesity, consideration may need to be made as to how food access with high nutritional value, may be in and of itself a contributing factor in obesity in low income populations.

  13. An experimental test of the Bridges to High School intervention on harsh parenting and early age intercourse among Mexican American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germán, Miguelina; Gonzales, Nancy A; West, Stephen G; Wheeler, Lorey A

    2017-07-01

    Can an intervention that contained no content on sex or contraception reduce rates of early-age intercourse among Mexican American adolescents? The current study examined whether the Bridges to High School intervention designed, in part, to decrease harsh parenting, had a longitudinal effect on decreasing rates of early-age intercourse in the treatment versus control groups, as well as the moderating role of gender and linguistic acculturation. The sample consisted of 516 Mexican American adolescents (Mage = 12.31 years; 50.8% female) and their mothers who participated in a randomized, intervention trial. A series of longitudinal, meditational path models were used to examine the effects of the intervention on harsh parenting practices and early-age intercourse. Our findings revealed that participation in the treatment versus control group was indirectly linked to a lower likelihood of early-age intercourse through decreased maternal harsh parenting. Tests of mediation were significant. These findings did not vary across gender and linguistic acculturation. Results suggest that the Bridges to High School intervention successfully decreased early-age intercourse among Mexican American adolescents through reduced harsh parenting among mothers. This finding is consistent with positive youth development programs that have been found to have broad, and sometimes nontargeted, effects on adolescent sexual behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. El Lenguaje de los Chicanos (The Language of Chicanos). Regional and Social Characteristics of Language Used by Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Chavez, Eduardo, Ed.; And Others

    The following articles are included in this anthology on Chicano speech: (1) "Mexican Spanish," D.N. Cardenas; (2) "The Archaic and the Modern in the Spanish of New Mexico," J. Ornstein; (3) "Problemas Lexicograficos del Espanol del Sudoeste," A.M. Espinosa, Jr.; (4) "Associative Interference in New Mexican Spanish," J.B. Rael; (5) "Some Aspects…

  15. North American Free Trade Agreement : coordinated operational plan needed to ensure Mexican trucks' compliance with U.S. standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    In response to concerns about the safety of Mexican trucks, the General Accounting Office (GAO) was asked to examine (1) the extent to which Mexican-domiciled commercial trucks are likely to travel beyond U.S. border commercial zones once the border ...

  16. Neighborhood socioeconomic context and cognitive decline among older Mexican Americans: results from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Haan, Mary N; Osypuk, Theresa; Abdou, Cleopatra; Hinton, Ladson; Aiello, Allison E

    2011-08-15

    In 1 previous study, it was shown that neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with cognitive decline among Latinos. No studies have explored whether and to what extent individual-level socioeconomic factors account for the relation between neighborhood disadvantage and cognitive decline. The purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP) on cognitive decline and examine how individual-level SEP factors (educational level, annual income, and occupation) influenced neighborhood associations over the course of 10 years. Participants (n = 1,789) were community-dwelling older Mexican Americans from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging. Neighborhood SEP was derived by linking the participant's individual data to the 2000 decennial census. The authors assessed cognitive function with the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination. Analyses used 3-level hierarchical linear mixed models of time within individuals within neighborhoods. After adjustment for individual-level sociodemographic characteristics, higher neighborhood SEP was significantly associated with cognitive function (β = -0.033; P cognition but not with rates of decline. Differences in individual educational levels explained most of the intra- and interneighborhood variance. These results suggest that the effect of neighborhood SEP on cognitive decline among Latinos is primarily accounted for by education.

  17. Associations of Adiponectin with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diet in Young, Healthy, Mexican Americans and Non-Latino White Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rocio I; Low Wang, Cecilia C; Wolfe, Pamela; Havranek, Edward P; Long, Carlin S; Bessesen, Daniel H

    2015-12-22

    Low circulating adiponectin levels may contribute to higher diabetes risk among Mexican Americans (MA) compared to non-Latino whites (NLW). Our objective was to determine if among young healthy adult MAs have lower adiponectin than NLWs, independent of differences in adiposity. In addition, we explored associations between adiponectin and diet. This was an observational, cross-sectional study of healthy MA and NLW adults living in Colorado (U.S.A.). We measured plasma total adiponectin, adiposity (BMI, and visceral adipose tissue), insulin sensitivity (IVGTT), and self-reported dietary intake in 43 MA and NLW adults. Mean adiponectin levels were 40% lower among MA than NLW (5.8 ± 3.3 vs. 10.7 ± 4.2 µg/mL, p = 0.0003), and this difference persisted after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and visceral adiposity. Lower adiponectin in MA was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (R² = 0.42, p diet support the need for future studies exploring the regulation of adiponectin by diet and other environmental factors.

  18. The biology of three Mexican-American species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatoma recurva, Triatoma protracta and Triatoma rubida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alejandro Martínez-Ibarra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The values of biological parameters related to hatching, lifespan, the number of blood meals between moults, mortality, time lapse before the beginning of feeding, feeding time and defecation delay for each instar of three Mexican-American species of Triatominae, Triatoma recurva, Triatoma protracta (former subspecies protracta and Triatoma rubida (former subspecies uhleri, were evaluated and compared. No significant (p > 0.05 differences were recorded among the three species with respect to the average time required to hatch. This time was approximately 19 days. The average egg-to-adult development time was significantly (p < 0.05 shorter for T. rubida. The number of blood meals at each nymphal instar varied from one-five for each species. The mortality rates were higher for the first-instar nymphs of the three species studied. The mean time lapse before the beginning of feeding was between 0.3-3 min for most nymphs of all instars of each species studied. The mean feeding time was the longest for T. recurva, followed by T. protracta. The defecation delay was less than 10 min for T. recurva and T. rubida. Given these results, only T. rubida should be considered an important potential vector of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission to humans in areas of Mexico where these species exist, whereas T. recurva and T. protracta would be of secondary importance.

  19. Impact of parental weight status on a school-based weight management programme designed for Mexican-American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J P; Johnston, C A; Hernandez, D C; LeNoble, J; Papaioannou, M A; Foreyt, J P

    2016-10-01

    While overweight and obese children are more likely to have overweight or obese parents, less is known about the effect of parental weight status on children's success in weight management programmes. This study was a secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial and investigated the impact of having zero, one or two obese parents on children's success in a school-based weight management programme. Sixty-one Mexican-American children participated in a 24-week school-based weight management intervention which took place in 2005-2006. Children's heights and weights were measured at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. Parental weight status was assessed at baseline. Repeated measures anova and ancova were conducted to compare changes in children's weight within and between groups, respectively. Within-group comparisons revealed that the intervention led to significant decreases in standardized body mass index (zBMI) for children with zero (F = 23.16, P weight management programme appears to be most efficacious for children with one or no obese parents compared to children with two obese parents. These results demonstrate the need to consider parental weight status when engaging in childhood weight management efforts. © 2015 World Obesity.

  20. The effect of urinary cadmium on cardiovascular fitness as measured by VO2 max in white, black and Mexican Americans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egwuogu, Heartley; Shendell, Derek G.; Okosun, Ike S.; Goodfellow, Lynda

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: We explored potential effects of cadmium exposure on cardiovascular fitness measures, including gender and racial/ethnic differences. Methods: Data were from the 1999 to 2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); 1963 participating subjects were included in our analysis. Volume of oxygen consumed at sub-maximum activity (VO 2 max) were recorded in a series of graded exercises; the goal was to elicit 75% of predetermined age-specific heart rates. Cadmium from urine samples was measured in the laboratory using standard methods. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to determine potential relationships. Results: Increased urinary cadmium concentrations were generally associated with decreased estimated VO 2 max values. Gender and racial/ethnic differences were also observed. Specifically, associations were statistically significant for white males and Mexican American females. Conclusion: Inverse associations between urinary cadmium concentrations and estimated VO 2 max values were observed, including racial and gender differences. The implications of such gender and racial/ethnic differences on long-term cardiovascular health and health disparities of present public health concern warrant further investigation

  1. Bacterial microbiome of breast milk and child saliva from low-income Mexican-American women and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davé, Veronica; Street, Kelly; Francis, Stephen; Bradman, Asa; Riley, Lee; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2016-06-01

    The childhood salivary microbiome, which plays an important role in healthy development, may be influenced by breast milk consumption. The composition of the milk microbiome and the role it plays in the establishment of the infant microbiome are not well understood. Here, we sequenced the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to characterize microbial communities in breast milk and 5-year-old child saliva from 10 low-income, Mexican-American mother-child pairs with a high prevalence of obesity. Members of the genus Streptococcus dominated both milk and salivary microbial communities in most subjects. Staphylococcus was observed predominately in milk samples while Prevotella was more prevalent in child saliva. No statistically significant relationships were observed between maternal and child microbiomes or between child microbiome and BMI. However, prepregnancy BMI was correlated with both lower Streptococcus abundance (r = -0.67) and higher microbial diversity (r = 0.77) in breast milk (P milk and salivary microbiomes in mother-child pairs and may inform future studies seeking to elucidate the relationship between early-life microbial exposures and pediatric health.

  2. Interpersonal and personal factors influencing sexual debut among Mexican-American young women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Melissa L; Berlin, Amy; Kozloski, Mike; Hernandez, Maida; Grundy, Maureen

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand factors influencing the age of sexual initiation among Latina youth. Prior qualitative research with young women from the target population and the existing literature determined the theoretical framework for this study. A quantitative instrument was then developed and pre-tested. We enrolled a convenience sample of predominantly Mexican-American adolescent and young adult women from the west side of Chicago. A total of 271 participants were included in the analysis. Bi-variate and multivariable analyses were conducted to determine factors associated with age of first sexual intercourse. We found that personal, family, and peer/partner related factors influence the sexual decision making of these young women. Strong family expectations regarding educational attainment, negative parental messages about premarital sex and pregnancy, resistance to the influence of peers and partners, greater sense of personal control over sexual behaviors, preference for speaking Spanish, and small age difference between the young woman and her first sexual partner were all positively associated with age of sexual initiation. Among these, greater sense of personal control over behaviors was the strongest factor influencing age of sexual initiation. This study provides a model that can be used to better understand Latina sexual decision making. Our findings might also inform future programs for Latinas, as they suggest that increasing girls' feelings of personal control over decisions regarding sexual debut and helping Latino parents to communicate strong messages about educational achievement, pregnancy, and sexuality may lead to positive health behaviors.

  3. From "Kickeando las malias" (kicking the withdrawals) to "Staying clean": The impact of cultural values on cessation of injection drug use in aging Mexican-American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, David V; Torres, Luis R; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Bordnick, Patrick S; Ren, Yi; Torres, Melissa I M; Deleon, Freddie; Pericot-Valverde, Irene; Lopez, Tenee

    2014-06-01

    Drug use among older adults is a growing concern, particularly for the burgeoning Hispanic population. Older adults seeking drug treatment will double over the next decade to almost 6 million. Cultural factors influence drug use, and more specifically, Hispanic cultural values influence heroin use. This study explored Mexican-American injection drug users' adherence to traditional Hispanic cultural values and their impact on cessation. Ethnographic interviews endorsed contextualized influences of values on heroin use. Cultural values functioned dichotomously, influencing both initiation and cessation. Understanding the impact of cultural values on substance abuse is critical given the changing demographics in American society.

  4. "Chinese-Mexicans" and "Blackest Asians": Filipino American Youth Resisting the Racial Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutuape, Erica D.

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a deeper understanding of the interracial connections not just between non-whites and whites, but among non-whites. Filipino American youth attending high school in New York City contended with a dominant bipolar racial discourse that marginalizes the racialized experiences of Asians and Pacific Islanders. However, instead of…

  5. Spanish Translation, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Validation of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Foot and Ankle Outcomes Questionnaire in Mexican-Americans With Traumatic Foot and Ankle Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelle, Boris A; Francisco, Ben S; Bossmann, James P; Fajardo, Roberto J; Bhandari, Mohit

    2017-05-01

    Hispanics represent the largest minority group within the US population accounting for an estimated 55.4 million individuals. Enrolling Hispanics into clinical outcome studies is important in order for study populations to be externally valid and representative of the US population. Inclusion of Mexican-Americans in clinical studies is frequently limited by the lack of validated outcome measures. The goal of this study was to validate a Spanish version of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Foot and Ankle Outcomes Questionnaire (AAOS-FAOQ) in Mexican-Americans with traumatic foot and ankle injuries. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation procedure was performed by a committee of bilingual speakers using the following steps: (1) forward translation and adaptation, (2) synthesis, (3) back translation, (4) committee review, and (5) pilot testing. The validation was performed in 100 Mexican-Americans with traumatic foot and ankle injuries. A total of 41 females and 59 males were enrolled in this study. The mean age was 42.98 years (range 18-88). The Spanish version of the Global Foot and Ankle Scale of the AAOS-FAOQ showed statistically significant correlations with all 8 subscales of the Spanish SF-36 as well as the Physical Component Summary scale and the Mental Component Summary scale (P Foot and Ankle scale of the Spanish AAOS-FAOQ demonstrated a test-retest reliability of 0.68. We provide a Spanish translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the AAOS-FAOQ. The instrument demonstrates appropriate psychometric properties in Mexican-Americans with traumatic foot and ankle injuries.

  6. Chinese Investment in Latin American Ports: The Ecuadorian, Mexican, And Colombian Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Cooperation MPA Manta Port Authority NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement NOL Neptune Orient Lines NPC National Planning Commission NDRC National...operate in the same operational environment, constitutes a serious management challenge. For this reason the port authorities and cargo handling...region that made adjustments to FDI used some similar methods. One basic characteristic of the changes was that new laws gave permission to companies

  7. Longitudinal changes in PON1 enzymatic activities in Mexican-American mothers and children with different genotypes and haplotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huen, Karen; Harley, Kim; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2010-01-01

    The paraoxonase 1 (PON1) enzyme prevents low-density lipoprotein oxidation and also detoxifies the oxon derivatives of certain neurotoxic organophosphate (OP) pesticides. PON1 activity in infants is low compared to adults, rendering them with lower metabolic and antioxidant capacities. We made a longitudinal comparison of the role of genetic variability on control of PON1 phenotypes in Mexican-American mothers and their children at the time of delivery (n = 388 and 338, respectively) and again 7 years later (n = 280 and 281, respectively) using generalized estimating equations models. At age 7, children's mean PON1 activities were still lower than those of mothers. This difference was larger in children with genotypes associated with low PON1 activities (PON1 -108TT , PON1 192QQ , and PON1 -909CC ). In mothers, PON1 activities were elevated at delivery and during pregnancy compared to 7 years later when they were not pregnant (p < 0.001). In non-pregnant mothers, PON1 polymorphisms and haplotypes accounted for almost 2-fold more variation of arylesterase (AREase) and chlorpyrifos-oxonase (CPOase) activity than in mothers at delivery. In both mothers and children, the five PON1 polymorphisms (192, 55, -108, -909, -162) explained a noticeably larger proportion of variance of paraoxonase activity (62-78%) than AREase activity (12.3-26.6%). Genetic control of PON1 enzymatic activity varies in children compared to adults and is also affected by pregnancy status. In addition to known PON1 polymorphisms, unidentified environmental, genetic, or epigenetic factors may also influence variability of PON1 expression and therefore susceptibility to OPs and oxidative stress.

  8. Blood glucose self-monitoring patterns in Mexican Americans: further lessons from the Starr County Border Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Heather E; Brown, Sharon A; García, Alexandra A; Winter, Mary; Brown, Adama; Hanis, Craig L

    2015-02-01

    The purpose was to describe patterns of home self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus enrolled in a diabetes self-management education protocol. Research questions were as follows: (1) What were the patterns and rates of home glucose self-monitoring over the 6-month course of the study? (2) What were the differences in monitoring rates between experimental and control groups? (3) What were the relationships between rates of monitoring and glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C), gender, and years with diabetes? We used a randomized (by group) repeated-measures pretest/posttest control group design. Glucometer data from an experimental group (diabetes self-management education plus nurse case management) and a comparison group (diabetes self-management education only) were analyzed. Data were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Overall average SMBG rates were low. Experimental and control group monitoring levels were not significantly different. More females than males never monitored glucose values, but more females than males checked at least one time per week. Those participants who checked their glucose levels more than once per week had diabetes for a longer period of time. Rates of monitoring were not strongly associated with A1C levels at 3 and 6 months, but at 6 months A1C levels were statistically significantly different based on whether or not individuals monitored their glucose levels (P=0.03, n=71). SMBG rates were low in this study despite SMBG education and access to free glucometers and test strips. The lower rates of SMBG may reflect the effects of unexpected environmental challenges, but exact causes remain unclear. Reasons for low rates of SMBG need to be explored further, especially in underserved communities.

  9. Short Sleep Duration Is Associated With Eating More Carbohydrates and Less Dietary Fat in Mexican American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Tschann, Jeanne M; Butte, Nancy F; Gregorich, Steve E; Penilla, Carlos; Flores, Elena; Greenspan, Louise C; Pasch, Lauri A; Deardorff, Julianna

    2017-02-01

    Short sleep duration is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Mechanisms are unclear, but may involve selection of high carbohydrate foods. This study examined the association between estimated sleep duration and macronutrient intake as percentages of total energy among Mexican American (MA) 9-11 year olds. This cross-sectional study measured diet using two 24-hour recalls and estimated sleep duration using hip-worn accelerometry in MA children (n = 247) who were part of a cohort study. Child and maternal anthropometry were obtained; mothers reported on demographic information. Using linear regression, we examined the relationship of sleep duration with energy intake, sugar intake, and the percentage of energy intake from carbohydrates, fat, and protein. Children were 47% male; mean age was 10 (SD = 0.9) years. Mean sleep duration was 9.6 (SD = 0.8) hours; 53% were overweight/obese, with a mean energy intake of 1759 (SD = 514) calories. Longer sleep duration was independently associated with a lower percentage of energy intake from carbohydrates (β = -0.22, p fat (β = 0.19, p children who slept longer consumed diets with a lower percentage of calories from carbohydrates and a higher percentage from fat, especially from PUFA. Short sleep duration may be a risk factor for food cravings that are high in carbohydrate content and may displace heart-healthy dietary fat, and thereby increase obesity risk among children. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Genetics of serum carotenoid concentrations and their correlation with obesity-related traits in Mexican American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farook, Vidya S; Reddivari, Lavanya; Mummidi, Srinivas; Puppala, Sobha; Arya, Rector; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Fowler, Sharon P; Chittoor, Geetha; Resendez, Roy G; Kumar, Birunda Mohan; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Curran, Joanne E; Lehman, Donna M; Jenkinson, Christopher P; Lynch, Jane L; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Blangero, John; Hale, Daniel E; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Vanamala, Jairam Kp

    2017-07-01

    Background: Dietary intake of phytonutrients present in fruits and vegetables, such as carotenoids, is associated with a lower risk of obesity and related traits, but the impact of genetic variation on these associations is poorly understood, especially in children. Objective: We estimated common genetic influences on serum carotenoid concentrations and obesity-related traits in Mexican American (MA) children. Design: Obesity-related data were obtained from 670 nondiabetic MA children, aged 6-17 y. Serum α- and β-carotenoid concentrations were measured in ∼570 (α-carotene in 565 and β-carotene in 572) of these children with the use of an ultraperformance liquid chromatography-photodiode array. We determined heritabilities for both carotenoids and examined their genetic relation with 10 obesity-related traits [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, fat mass (FM), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin and glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance] by using family data and a variance components approach. For these analyses, carotenoid values were inverse normalized, and all traits were adjusted for significant covariate effects of age and sex. Results: Carotenoid concentrations were highly heritable and significant [α-carotene: heritability ( h 2 ) = 0.81, P = 6.7 × 10 -11 ; β-carotene: h 2 = 0.90, P = 3.5 × 10 -15 ]. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found significant ( P ≤ 0.05) negative phenotypic correlations between carotenoid concentrations and the following traits: BMI, WC, FM, and triglycerides (range: α-carotene = -0.19 to -0.12; β-carotene = -0.24 to -0.13) and positive correlations with HDL cholesterol (α-carotene = 0.17; β-carotene = 0.24). However, when the phenotypic correlations were partitioned into genetic and environmental correlations, we found marginally significant ( P = 0.051) genetic correlations only between

  11. [Diagnosis of capacity to perform essential public health functions in the Central American countries, the Dominican Republic, and the Mexican states of Chiapas and Quintana Roo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Block, Miguel Ángel; González Robledo, Luz María; Cuadra Hernández, Silvia Magali

    2013-04-01

    Characterize the capacity of public and private institutions in the Central American countries, the Dominican Republic, and the Mexican states of Chiapas and Quintana Roo to perform essential public health functions (EPHFs). An online survey of 83 organizations in Belize, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, and the Mexican states of Chiapas and Quintana Roo was conducted to learn about their capacity to perform each of the 11 EPHFs. The results were validated in a workshop with representatives of the ministries of health from the seven countries and the two participating Mexican states. High levels of performance capacity were found most often for EPHF 1 (monitoring, evaluation, and analysis of health status of the population), EPHF 2.1.1 (surveillance, research, and control of risks and threats to public health from infectious diseases), and EPHF 5 (policy development and health planning). The greatest weakness was found in EPHF 2.1.2 (surveillance, research, and monitoring of noninfectious diseases). Asymmetries in EPHF performance within each country mainly revealed weaknesses in the laboratory and public health research functions. In the countries and territories analyzed, there is a need to improve strategic performance in most of the EPHFs, as well as to strengthen infrastructure, upgrade equipment, and further develop human resources at both the strategic and the tactical levels. A regional approach should be used to take advantage of the different levels of capacity, with a view to greater strengthening and enhanced technical support and cooperation.

  12. Shorter Leukocyte Telomere Length in Relation to Presumed Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mexican-American Men in NHANES 1999–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M. Wojcicki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length is shorter in response to chronic disease processes associated with inflammation such as diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES from 1999 to 2002 was used to explore the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and presumed NAFLD, as indicated by elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels, obesity, or abdominal obesity. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between telomere length and presumed markers of NAFLD adjusting for possible confounders. There was no relationship between elevated ALT levels, abdominal obesity, or obesity and telomere length in adjusted models in NHANES (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.48–2.65; OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.52–2.62, resp.. Mexican-American men had shorter telomere length in relation to presumed NAFLD (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.006–0.79 and using different indicators of NAFLD (OR 0.012, 95% CI 0.0006–0.24. Mexican origin with presumed NAFLD had shorter telomere length than men in other population groups. Longitudinal studies are necessary to evaluate the role of telomere length as a potential predictor to assess pathogenesis of NALFD in Mexicans.

  13. Retrospective chart review of obesity and episodic and chronic illness among rural Mexican-American adolescents accessing rural health clinic services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Pierce, Sherrie; Collins, Jennifer L

    2015-06-01

    Obesity impacts the physical and psychological health of children and adolescents, and is a risk factor for development of episodic and chronic illness. Rural Mexican-American adolescents are at risk for obesity and associated chronic illnesses.The study used a retrospective chart review of data collected routinely in a rural health clinic setting from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2010 to assess incidence of overweight/obesity status and episodic or chronic illness among Mexican-American adolescents aged 12-18 years. Analyses included body mass index, age, gender, and episodic or chronic illness diagnoses. Two hundred twelve charts were audited; women (n = 114, 53.8%), men (n = 98 46.2%); normal (n = 105, 49.5%), overweight/obese (n = 107, 50.5%). There were more female normal (n = 61, 53.5%) vs. overweight/obese (n = 53, 46.5%). More male overweight/obese (n = 54, 55.1%) than normal weight (n = 44, 44.9%). Age at first documented overweight/obesity status occurred in early adolescence (median = 13 years, mode = 12 years). Chronic illness incidence was higher among men than women, and overweight/obese vs. normal weight adolescents and in sub-categorizations by weight and specific illness. Incidence of episodic illness was higher among women than men, with variation by weight and specific illness. Disproportionately high incidence of episodic or chronic illness and overweight/obesity identified among rural Mexican-American adolescents compels intervention modification to improve effectiveness. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Experiencias de mujeres mexicanas migrantes indocumentadas en California, Estados Unidos, en su acceso a los servicios de salud sexual y reproductiva: estudio de caso Experiências de mulheres mexicanas migrantes sem documentação na Califórnia, Estados Unidos, no acesso aos serviços de saúde sexual e reprodutiva: estudo de caso Experiences of undocumented Mexican migrant women when accessing sexual and reproductive health services in California, USA: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra G. García

    2013-05-01

    ção das enfermidades. Deve-se incorporar a perspectiva intercultural nos serviços de saúde.This study focuses on the experience of Mexican women migrants in California, USA, with the use of formal health services for sexual and reproductive health issues. The authors used a qualitative interpretative approach with life histories, interviewing eight female users of healthcare services in California and seven key informants in Mexico and California. There were three main types of barriers to healthcare: immigration status, language, and gender. Participants reported long waiting times, discriminatory attitudes, and high cost of services. A combination of formal and informal healthcare services was common. The assessment of quality of care was closely related to undocumented immigration status. Social support networks are crucial to help solve healthcare issues. Quality of care should take intercultural health issues into account.

  15. Parenting and Preschooler TV Viewing in Low-Income Mexican Americans: Development of the Parenting Practices Regarding TV Viewing (PPRTV) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A; Johnson, Susan L; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Schmiege, Sarah J; Boles, Richard E; Lev, Jerusha; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2016-01-01

    To develop and test a comprehensive, culturally based measure of parenting practices regarding television (TV) viewing in low-income Mexican-American mothers of preschoolers. Low-income Mexican-American female primary caregivers of preschoolers were recruited in urban safety-net pediatric clinics during the 2013 to 2014 academic year. Items on parenting practices regarding TV viewing were developed from a prior scale, review of the literature, and results from semistructured interviews. Items were administered by phone, and analyses included evaluation of the factor structure and psychometric properties of a 40-item measure of parenting practices regarding TV viewing (PPRTV). Using exploratory factor analysis, a 7-factor model emerged as the best fit for the data representing the following domains of parenting practices: time restriction, behavioral control, instructive practices, coviewing, planful restriction, reactive content restriction, and commercial endorsement. Internal reliabilities were acceptable (Cronbach's alpha >.75). Correlations among the resulting subscales were small to moderate (rs = 0.01-0.43). Subscales were correlated with child TV viewing amounts: time restriction (-0.14, p TV use. Results of such work will be important to informing the design of interventions aiming to ensure healthy screen media habits in young children.

  16. Self-reported discrimination and mental health status among African descendants, Mexican Americans, and other Latinos in the New Hampshire REACH 2010 Initiative: the added dimension of immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Gilbert C; Ryan, Andrew; Laflamme, David J; Holt, Jeanie

    2006-10-01

    We examined whether self-reported racial discrimination was associated with mental health status and whether this association varied with race/ethnicity or immigration status. We performed secondary analysis of a community intervention conducted in 2002 and 2003 for the New Hampshire Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health 2010 Initiative, surveying African descendants, Mexican Americans, and other Latinos. We assessed mental health status with the Mental Component Summary (MCS12) of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 12, and measured discrimination with questions related to respondents' ability to achieve goals, discomfort/anger at treatment by others, and access to quality health care. Self-reported discrimination was associated with a lower MCS12 score. Additionally, the strength of the association between self-reported health care discrimination and lower MCS12 score was strongest for African descendants, then Mexican Americans, then other Latinos. These patterns may be explained by differences in how long a respondent has lived in the United States. Furthermore, the association of health care discrimination with lower MCS12 was weaker for recent immigrants. Discrimination may be an important predictor of poor mental health status among Black and Latino immigrants. Previous findings of decreasing mental health status as immigrants acculturate might partly be related to experiences with racial discrimination.

  17. "Una persona derechita (staying right in the mind)": perceptions of Spanish-speaking Mexican American older adults in South Texas colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Sharf, Barbara F; St John, Julie A

    2009-06-01

    This study describes the perceptions of brain health among older Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans who reside in colonia areas of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. In 2007, 33 Mexican American older adults (9 men and 24 women) were recruited by promotoras (community health workers) from clusters of colonias in Hidalgo County to participate in focus group discussions conducted in Spanish. After participants completed a 19-item questionnaire (in Spanish), a bilingual and bicultural researcher from the community, trained as a moderator, conducted 4 focus groups using a semistructured interview guide, culturally modified with the assistance of promotoras. All discussions were audio recorded; audio recordings were transcribed verbatim in Spanish and then translated into English. Analyses were conducted in English. Almost 85% had less than a high school education and 100% reported a household income less than $20,000/year. Groups attached cultural meaning to aging well. The idea of "staying straight in the mind" resonated as a depiction of brain health. Participants also mentioned the types of activities they could do to stay "right in the mind." Particular attention must be focused on development of programs that provide satisfying culturally appropriate activities for older participants and the delivery of health messages that take into consideration culture and language.

  18. Beliefs About Child TV Viewing in Low-Income Mexican American Parents of Preschoolers: Development of the Beliefs About Child TV Viewing Scale (B-TV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A; Johnson, Susan L; Schmiege, Sarah J; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Boles, Richard E; Lev, Jerusha; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2018-06-01

    Objectives Parental beliefs about child television viewing may affect the way parents regulate child television viewing. Despite this, little research has focused on the development of measures of parental beliefs about child television viewing, particularly among ethnic minority parents and parents of young children. This study's objective was to develop and test a culturally-based measure of parental beliefs about television viewing in low-income Mexican American mothers of preschoolers. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, 22 items reflecting parental beliefs about influences of TV on children were developed and assessed for psychometric properties in a sample of 312 low-income Mexican American mothers of preschoolers. Results Using exploratory factor analysis, we identified four factors reflecting four domains of parental beliefs: positive general beliefs, positive sleep-related beliefs, positive functional beliefs, and negative general beliefs. Internal reliabilities were acceptable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.70-0.89) for all factors except negative general beliefs (Cronbach's alpha = 0.61). Positive sleep-related beliefs and Positive Functional Beliefs were correlated with children's average daily hours of TV (r = 0.16, p parental beliefs regarding child TV viewing, and has good initial reliability and validity for three factors. Future use will allow investigators to conduct more in-depth evaluations on the influence of parental beliefs on the way parents shape their child's use of the TV.

  19. The relationship between trajectories of family/cultural stressors and depression and suicidal ideation among substance using Mexican-American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Onge, Jarron M; Cepeda, Alice; Lee King, Patricia A; Valdez, Avelardo

    2013-12-01

    We used an intersectional minority stress perspective to examine the association between family/cultural stress and mental health among substance-using Mexican-Americans. Employing a unique longitudinal sample of 239 socioeconomically disadvantaged, non-injecting heroin-using Mexican-Americans from San Antonio, Texas, we examined how culturally relevant stressors are related to depression and suicidal ideation. First, we identified depression and suicidal ideation prevalence rates for this disadvantaged sample. Second, we determined how cultural stress is experienced over time using stress trajectories. Third, we evaluated how family/cultural stressors and stress trajectories are related to depression and suicidal ideation outcomes. Results showed high rates of baseline depression (24 %) and suicidal ideation (30 %). We used latent class growth analysis to identify three primary stress trajectories (stable, high but decreasing, and increasing) over three time points during 1 year. We found that the increasing stressors trajectory was associated with higher rates of depression and suicidal ideation, and that stress trajectories had unique relationships with mental illness. We also showed that baseline stressors, sum stressors, and high but decreasing stressors maintained positive associations with mental illness after controlling for baseline depression. Our results highlight the importance of focusing on within-group, culturally specific stressors and addressing both operant and cumulative stressors in the study of mental health for marginalized populations and suggest the importance of early intervention in minimizing stressors.

  20. The Migrant Border Crossing Study: A methodological overview of research along the Sonora-Arizona border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Daniel E; Slack, Jeremy; Beyerlein, Kraig; Vandervoet, Prescott; Klingman, Kristin; Molina, Paola; Manning, Shiras; Burham, Melissa; Walzak, Kylie; Valencia, Kristen; Gamboa, Lorenzo

    2017-07-01

    Increased border enforcement efforts have redistributed unauthorized Mexican migration to the United States (US) away from traditional points of crossing, such as San Diego and El Paso, and into more remote areas along the US-Mexico border, including southern Arizona. Yet relatively little quantitative scholarly work exists examining Mexican migrants' crossing, apprehension, and repatriation experiences in southern Arizona. We contend that if scholars truly want to understand the experiences of unauthorized migrants in transit, such migrants should be interviewed either at the border after being removed from the US, or during their trajectories across the border, or both. This paper provides a methodological overview of the Migrant Border Crossing Study (MBCS), a unique data source on Mexican migrants who attempted an unauthorized crossing along the Sonora-Arizona border, were apprehended, and repatriated to Nogales, Sonora in 2007-09. We also discuss substantive and theoretical contributions of the MBCS.

  1. Association between chronic kidney disease detected using creatinine and cystatin C and death and cardiovascular events in elderly Mexican Americans: the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Carmen A; Lee, Anne; Odden, Michelle C; Lopez, Lenny; Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Neuhaus, John; Haan, Mary N

    2013-01-01

    Creatinine, the current clinical standard to detect chronic kidney disease (CKD), is biased by muscle mass, age and race. The authors sought to determine whether cystatin C, an alternative marker of kidney function less biased by these factors, can identify elderly Mexican Americans with CKD who are at high risk for death and cardiovascular disease. Longitudinal, with mean follow-up of 6.8 years. Sacramento Area Latino Study of Aging (SALSA). One thousand four hundred and thirty five Mexican Americans aged 60 to 101. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, mL/min per 1.73 m(2)) was determined according to creatinine (eGFRcreat) and cystatin C (eGFRcys), and participants were classified into four mutually exclusive categories: CKD neither (eGFRcreat ≥60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2); eGFRcys ≥60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)), CKD creatinine only (eGFRcreat cause death and cardiovascular (CV) death were studied using Cox regression. At baseline, mean age was 71 ± 7; 481 (34%) had diabetes mellitus, and 980 (68%) had hypertension. Persons with CKD both had higher risk for all-cause (HR = 2.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.78-2.98) and CV disease (CVD) (HR = 2.75, 95% CI = 1.96-3.86) death than CKD neither after full adjustment. Persons with CKD cystatin C only were also at greater risk of all-cause (HR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.37-2.67) and CV (HR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.64-3.99) death than CKD neither. In contrast, persons with CKD creatinine only were not at greater risk for CV death (HR = 1.39, 95% CI = 0.71-2.72) but were at higher risk for all-cause death (HR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.27-2.98). Cystatin C may be a useful alternative to creatinine for detecting high risk of death and CVD in elderly Mexican Americans with CKD. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. The Smell of Memories. A Mexican Migrant’s Search for Emotional Sustainability through Mexican Films.

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Coronado

    2011-01-01

    For more than 10 years living as a Mexican migrant, between two countries (Mexico and Australia), two cities (Mexico City and Sydney), and two social worlds (Mexican and multicultural Australian ‘families-friends’), I have been immersed in a systematic process of self observation and self reflection on my life in my country of destination. During this time I have explored my memories of place and their relationship with my emotional experiences, looking for strategies to continue to be connec...

  3. Migrant workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starren, A.; Drupsteen, L.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores Health and Safety aspects related to migrants working in multi-cultural settings (heterogeneous teams, working together on one location). Several assumptions can be made related to cultural differences and safe and healthy behaviour, but research evidence on this matter is very

  4. Marathon Migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; van de Kam, Jan

    Marathon Migrants onderscheidt zich van alle andere vogelboeken door de combinatie van tekst van de trekvogelecoloog en waddenonderzoeker prof. dr. Theunis Piersma en de sublieme foto’s van de bekende vogelfotograaf Jan van de Kam. Door de wetenschappelijke blik van de fotograaf zijn de foto’s meer

  5. Soluble Forms of Intercellular and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecules Independently Predict Progression to Type 2 Diabetes in Mexican American Families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kulkarni

    Full Text Available While the role of type 2 diabetes (T2D in inducing endothelial dysfunction is fairly well-established the etiological role of endothelial dysfunction in the onset of T2D is still a matter of debate. In the light of conflicting evidence in this regard, we conducted a prospective study to determine the association of circulating levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1 and soluble vessel cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1 with incident T2D.Data from this study came from 1,269 Mexican Americans of whom 821 initially T2D-free individuals were longitudinally followed up in the San Antonio Family Heart Study. These individuals were followed for 9752.95 person-years for development of T2D. Prospective association of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 with incident T2D was studied using Kaplan-Meier survival plots and mixed effects Cox proportional hazards modeling to account for relatedness among study participants. Incremental value of adhesion molecule biomarkers was studied using integrated discrimination improvement (IDI and net reclassification improvement (NRI indexes.Decreasing median values for serum concentrations of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were observed in the following groups in this order: individuals with T2D at baseline, individuals who developed T2D during follow-up, individuals with prediabetes at baseline and normal glucose tolerant (NGT individuals who remained T2D-free during follow-up. Top quartiles for sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were strongly and significantly associated with homeostatic model of assessment--insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Mixed effects Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed that after correcting for important clinical confounders, high sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 concentrations were associated with 2.52 and 1.99 times faster progression to T2D as compared to low concentrations, respectively. Individuals with high concentrations for both sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 progressed to T2D 3.42 times faster than those with low values for both

  6. Exploring the Effect of Mentoring in the Degree Attainment and Career Paths of First Generation Mexican American Women Employed in Senior Administrative Leadership Roles at Hispanic-Serving Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Vivian A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This qualitative, phenomenological study explored the effect of mentoring in the degree attainment and career paths of first generation Mexican American women who are employed in senior administrative leadership roles at Hispanic-serving institutions (HSIs). Methodology: This exploratory study employed a phenomenological research…

  7. Genomic diversity of human papillomavirus-16, 18, 31, and 35 isolates in a Mexican population and relationship to European, African, and Native American variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleja-Macias, Itzel E.; Kalantari, Mina; Huh, John; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Gonzalez-Guerrero, Juan F.; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Hagmar, Bjoern; Wiley, Dorothy J.; Villarreal, Luis; Bernard, Hans-Ulrich; Barrera-Saldana, Hugo A.

    2004-01-01

    Cervical cancer, mainly caused by infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs), is a major public health problem in Mexico. During a study of the prevalence of HPV types in northeastern Mexico, we identified, as expected from worldwide comparisons, HPV-16, 18, 31, and 35 as highly prevalent. It is well known that the genomes of HPV types differ geographically because of evolution linked to ethnic groups separated in prehistoric times. As HPV intra-type variation results in pathogenic differences, we analyzed genomic sequences of Mexican variants of these four HPV types. Among 112 HPV-16 samples, 14 contained European and 98 American Indian (AA) variants. This ratio is unexpected as people of European ethnicity predominate in this part of Mexico. Among 15 HPV-18 samples, 13 contained European and 2 African variants, the latter possibly due to migration of Africans to the Caribbean coast of Mexico. We constructed phylogenetic trees of HPV-31 and 35 variants, which have never been studied. Forty-six HPV-31 isolates from Mexico, Europe, Africa, and the United States (US) contained a total of 35 nucleotide exchanges in a 428-bp segment, with maximal distances between any two variants of 16 bp (3.7%), similar to those between HPV-16 variants. The HPV-31 variants formed two branches, one apparently the European, the other one an African branch. The European branch contained 13 of 29 Mexican isolates, the African branch 16 Mexican isolates. These may represent the HPV-31 variants of American Indians, as a 55% prevalence of African variants in Mexico seems incomprehensible. Twenty-seven HPV-35 samples from Mexico, Europe, Africa, and the US contained 11 mutations in a 893-bp segment with maximal distances between any two variants of only 5 mutations (0.6%), including a characteristic 16-bp insertion/deletion. These HPV-35 variants formed several phylogenetic clusters rather than two- or three-branched trees as HPV-16, 18, and 31. An HPV-35 variant typical for American

  8. Quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 2p, 4p, and 13q influence bone mineral density of the forearm and hip in Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Candace M; Schneider, Jennifer L; Cole, Shelley A; Hixson, James E; Samollow, Paul B; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Perez, Reina; Dyer, Thomas D; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Bauer, Richard L; Mitchell, Braxton D

    2003-12-01

    We performed a genome scan using BMD data of the forearm and hip on 664 individuals in 29 Mexican-American families. We obtained evidence for QTL on chromosome 4p, affecting forearm BMD overall, and on chromosomes 2p and 13q, affecting hip BMD in men. The San Antonio Family Osteoporosis Study (SAFOS) was designed to identify genes and environmental factors that influence bone mineral density (BMD) using data from large Mexican-American families. We performed a genome-wide linkage analysis using 416 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers spaced approximately 9.5 cM apart to locate and identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affect BMD of the forearm and hip. Multipoint variance components linkage analyses were done using data on all 664 subjects, as well as two subgroups of 259 men and 261 premenopausal women, from 29 families for which genotypic and phenotypic data were available. We obtained significant evidence for a QTL affecting forearm (radius midpoint) BMD in men and women combined on chromosome 4p near D4S2639 (maximum LOD = 4.33, genomic p = 0.006) and suggestive evidence for a QTL on chromosome 12q near locus D12S2070 (maximum conditional LOD = 2.35). We found suggestive evidence for a QTL influencing trochanter BMD on chromosome 6 (maximum LOD = 2.27), but no evidence for QTL affecting the femoral neck in men and women combined. In men, we obtained evidence for QTL affecting neck and trochanter BMD on chromosomes 2p near D2S1780 (maximum LOD = 3.98, genomic p = 0.013) and 13q near D13S788 (maximum LOD = 3.46, genomic p = 0.039), respectively. We found no evidence for QTL affecting forearm or hip BMD in premenopausal women. These results provide strong evidence that a QTL on chromosome 4p affects radius BMD in Mexican-American men and women, as well as evidence that QTL on chromosomes 2p and 13q affect hip BMD in men. Our results are consistent with some reports in humans and mice. J Bone Miner Res 2003;18:2245-2252

  9. Evaluation of quality improvement performance in the Community Diabetes Education (CoDE) program for uninsured Mexican Americans: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezio, Elizabeth A; Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Shuval, Kerem; Cheng, Dunlei; Kendzor, Darla E; Culica, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to quantify quality improvement using data from a randomized controlled trial that tested the effectiveness of a community health worker in the primary role of diabetes educator in a clinic serving uninsured Mexican Americans. The intervention group received 7 hours of diabetes education/case management in excess of usual medical care. Of 16 process and outcome measures evaluated, the intervention group was significantly more likely to have received a dilated retinal examination, and 53% achieved a hemoglobin A1c below 7% compared with 38% of the control group participants. Composite quality measures were similar in magnitude with published practice-based benchmarks at study conclusion. This suggests that the overall diabetes care delivered in this clinic serving uninsured patients was comparable to the levels of excellence achieved in other primary care settings. Quantitative measurements of quality improvement can inform health policy regarding the relative effectiveness of diabetes interventions.

  10. The Ala54Thr Polymorphism of the Fatty Acid Binding Protein 2 Gene Modulates HDL Cholesterol in Mexican-Americans with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena M. Salto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The alanine to threonine amino acid substitution at codon 54 (Ala54Thr of the intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP2 has been associated with elevated levels of insulin and blood glucose as well as with dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of this FABP2 polymorphism in Mexican-Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2D in the context of a three-month intervention to determine if the polymorphism differentially modulates selected clinical outcomes. For this study, we genotyped 43 participant samples and performed post-hoc outcome analysis of the profile changes in fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, lipid panel and body composition, stratified by the Ala54Thr polymorphism. Our results show that the Thr54 allele carriers (those who were heterozygous or homozygous for the threonine-encoding allele had lower HDL cholesterol and higher triglyceride levels at baseline compared to the Ala54 homozygotes (those who were homozygous for the alanine-encoding allele. Both groups made clinically important improvements in lipid profiles and glycemic control as a response to the intervention. Whereas the Ala54 homozygotes decreased HDL cholesterol in the context of an overall total cholesterol decrease, Thr54 allele carriers increased HDL cholesterol as part of an overall total cholesterol decrease. We conclude that the Ala54Thr polymorphism of FABP2 modulates HDL cholesterol in Mexican-Americans with T2D and that Thr54 allele carriers may be responsive in interventions that include dietary changes.

  11. Effect of Middle School Interventions on Alcohol Misuse and Abuse in Mexican American High School Adolescents: Five-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Nancy A; Jensen, Michaeline; Tein, Jenn Yun; Wong, Jessie J; Dumka, Larry E; Mauricio, Anne Marie

    2018-03-21

    Substance abuse preventive interventions frequently target middle school students and demonstrate efficacy to prevent early onset and use of alcohol and illicit drugs. However, evidence of sustained results to prevent later patterns of alcohol misuse and more serious alcohol abuse disorders has been lacking, particularly for US Latino populations. To test whether a universal middle school prevention program can reduce the frequency of alcohol misuse and rates of alcohol use disorder 5 years after implementation with a Mexican American sample. A previous randomized clinical trial was conducted with 516 Mexican American 7th graders and at least 1 parent who identified as having Mexican origin. Three annual cohorts of families were recruited from rosters of 4 middle schools and randomized to the 9-session Bridges/Puentes family-focused group intervention or a workshop control condition. Recruitment, screening, pretest, and randomization occurred in the same academic year for each cohort: 2003-2004, 2004-2005, and 2005-2006. Data acquisition for the follow-up assessments of late-adolescent alcohol misuse and abuse, which were not included in the initial randomized clinical trial, was conducted from September 2009 to September 2014; analysis was conducted between August 2016 and July 2017. In this assessment, 420 children (81.4%) of the sample were included, when the majority were in their final year of high school. The 9-session Bridges/Puentes intervention integrated youth, parent, and family intervention sessions that were delivered in the spring semester at each school, with separate groups for English-dominant vs Spanish-dominant families. The control workshop was offered during the same semester at each school, also in English and Spanish. Primary outcomes were diagnostic assessment of lifetime alcohol use disorder in the 12th grade, 5 years after the intervention, based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children and past-year frequency of alcohol use

  12. Migrants in transit: the importance of monitoring HIV risk among migrant flows at the Mexico-US border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Hovell, Melbourne F; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Zhang, Xiao; Sipan, Carol L; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J Eduardo

    2015-03-01

    We conducted a probability-based survey of migrant flows traveling across the Mexico-US border, and we estimated HIV infection rates, risk behaviors, and contextual factors for migrants representing 5 distinct migration phases. Our results suggest that the influence of migration is not uniform across genders or risk factors. By considering the predeparture, transit, and interception phases of the migration process, our findings complement previous studies on HIV among Mexican migrants conducted at the destination and return phases. Monitoring HIV risk among this vulnerable transnational population is critical for better understanding patterns of risk at different points of the migration process and for informing the development of protection policies and programs.

  13. Proyectos de Educacion Migrante (Migrant Education Projects).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ramon; Garcia, Jose D.

    Written in Spanish and English for project personnel, parents, and others interested in migrant education, the booklet summarizes general concepts and requirements behind Title I-Migrant activities in Oregon, which has been allocated $4,439,341 in Title I-Migrant funds for fiscal year 1980. Following brief definitions of important terms,…

  14. Interstate Migrant Education Task Force: Migrant Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    Because ill-clothed, sick, or hungry migrant children learn poorly, the Task Force has emphasized the migrant health situation in 1979. Migrant workers have a 33% shorter life expectancy, a 25% higher infant mortality rate, and a 25% higher death rate from tuberculosis and other communicable diseases than the national average. Common among…

  15. Observed differentials in the levels of selected environmental contaminants among Mexican and other Hispanic American children, adolescents, adults, and senior citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2018-02-01

    Starting with the 2007-2008 cycle, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) also oversampled Hispanics other than Mexicans (OHISP) making it possible to treat OHISP as a separate demographic group along with Mexican Americans (MAs), non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), and non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs). Yet, more often than not, OHISP have been merged with MA to form an all-Hispanic demographic group (HISP) thus limiting comparisons between NHW, NHB, and HISP. Consequently, for the first time, this study was undertaken to evaluate differences in the observed levels of selected environmental contaminants between MA and OHISP from five groups of environmental contaminants, namely, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), iodine uptake inhibitors (IUIs), environmental phenols (EPHs), priority pesticides (PPs), and perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Data for 2007-2010 from NHANES were used to conduct this study. OHISP children born in USA had higher levels of selected PAH metabolites than USA-born MA, and Mexican-born MA adolescents had higher levels of selected PAH metabolites than USA-born MA adolescents. USA-born adolescent MA had higher levels of selected parabens than USA-born adolescent OHISP, and OHISP adults born in another Spanish-speaking country had higher levels of selected parabens than USA-born OHISP adults. USA-born MA adults and seniors had higher levels of selected dichlorophenols than Mexico-born MA adults and seniors, respectively. Females had higher levels of selected PAH metabolites, EPHs, and PPs than males among children, adolescents, adults, and seniors, but the reverse was true for the levels of selected IUIs and PFAAs among adolescents and seniors. Smokers had higher levels of almost all PAH metabolites than non-smokers for adolescents, adults, and seniors. The same was true for urinary thiocynate for adolescents, adults, and seniors. OHISP is a multiracial multiethnic demographic group substantially different from MA with possibly

  16. “Adiós soccer, here comes fútbol!”: Transnationalization of the Mexican Sports Communities in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Kummels

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the sport dynamics of the Mexican communities in the United States in the context of soccer. From the analysis of Mexican groups which immigrated to the American territory, and from their soccer practices (of resistance, this research questions whether we would be witnessing a sportive “latinoamericanization” of the U.S. through the soccer practices. As a counter-response to a homogenization and subordination, the Mexican Americans (and, by extension, the Latinos in general have created new cultural practices (and, among them sportive ones that put together Mexican traditions with American values of society constituting, in that way, “a third space”, which extends beyond the borders of both national States. This paper, therefore, examines why a growing number of migrants strengthens relationships with their communities of origin in Mexico through the (recreation of a soccer world itself, expressing thereby a “transnational mexicanity”, which is not “harmonic” by itself, but marked by conflicts. In this “new mexicanities” gender, class and ethnic, national and local conflicts – which occur simultaneously in the U.S. and Mexico, influencing each other – appear.

  17. Children’s Migration to the United States from Mexico and Central America: Evidence from the Mexican and Latin American Migration Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine M. Donato

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of rising numbers of unaccompanied minors at the Mexico-US border in 2014, this article examines child migration from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua. Using data from the Mexican and Latin American Migration Projects that permit us to go beyond simple descriptive analysis about children apprehended at the border, we investigate the extent to which children from these countries: (1 enter without legal authorization to do so; (2 are more likely to cross the border now than in the past; and (3 are tied to their parents’ migration. In theory, if immigration and refugee protections worked well for children and offered them legal pathways to reunify with their families, then we would expect low levels of unauthorized entry and no dramatic shifts over time. However, our examination of child migration shows that it is strongly linked to unauthorized entry, period of entry, and parents’ US experience.The findings show that the migration of children is closely linked to their parents’ migration history. Although the overall likelihood of a Mexican child making a first US trip is quite low, it is practically non-existent for children whose parents have no US experience. Thus, the increase in child migration from Central America, and the continued high levels of child migration from Mexico result from widespread migration networks and the United States’ long-standing reliance on the children’s parents as immigrant workers. The findings suggest that these children need protection in the form of family reunification and permanent legal status.

  18. A pilot test of the Latin active hip hop intervention to increase physical activity among low-income Mexican-American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Andrea J

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of the current study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a hip hop dance intervention, Latin Active, among low-income Mexican-American adolescents. Mexican-descent adolescents tend to have disproportionate rates of low physical activity, overweight status, and obesity. A 5-week intervention design with pretest and post-test self-report measures. Charter middle school (grades 6-9) health/science classes in a low-income neighborhood were the setting for the Latin Active intervention. Overall, 81 participants were recruited; 73 (n  =  41, female; n  =  32, male) provided active parental consent to complete pretest/post-test surveys. Intervention . The Latin Active program included 10 interactive 50-minute lessons that were delivered twice a week during science/health classes. The curriculum was created on the basis of Social Cognitive Theory, Critical Hip Hop Pedagogy, and feedback from key stakeholders. The lessons focused on increasing physical activity as well as neighborhood barriers. The self-report pretest (n  =  73) and post-test (n  =  56) surveys included measures for frequency of vigorous physical activity, self-efficacy, and neighborhood barriers. Analysis . Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean differences from pretest to post-test results for intervention outcomes by gender. The Latin Active program (with 77% retention at post-test) significantly increased vigorous physical activity and dance (p hip hop physical activity program, Latin Active demonstrated preliminary efficacy to increase girl's vigorous physical activity and boy's perception of neighborhood barriers to physical activity. Future research will need to use a randomized, controlled design and investigate the effect of the program on measures of body mass index.

  19. [The remittances in U.S. dollars that Mexican migrants send home from the United States (a study based on data from the Survey of Migration in the Northern Frontier Region of Mexico)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona Vasquez, R

    1998-01-01

    The difficulties in obtaining reliable data on remittances to Mexico by Mexican immigrants in the United States are first outlined. An analysis of such remittances is then attempted using data from a recent survey, the Encuesta sobre Migracion en la Frontera Norte. Data from this survey are used to analyze several aspects of remittances "such as the direct determination of the amount of the remittances and the identification of the immigrants that send them according to their social and demographic features, and the location of Mexican zones where the remittances arrive, [and] the variations in the amount and frequency of the remittances among the different groups of immigrants." (EXCERPT)

  20. Diabetes-related mortality among Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans in the United States La mortalidad relacionada con la diabetes en mexicanoestadounidenses, puertorriqueños y cubanoestadounidenses en los Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystal A. S. Smith

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Hispanics are the most rapidly growing minority group in the United States, and Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans and Cuban Americans are the three largest Hispanic subgroups. Among Hispanics, type 2 diabetes is the fifth leading cause of death. This paper examines diabetes-related mortality in Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans over 35 years of age in the United States during 1996 and 1997. METHODS: Using data from the National Vital Statistics System and the 1990 and 2000 censuses, we calculated age-adjusted and age-specific diabetes-related death rates for Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans over 35 years of age. Diabetes-related deaths were determined to be any death for which diabetes was coded as either the underlying or contributing cause of death. RESULTS: The diabetes-related mortality rate for Mexican Americans (251 per 100 000 and Puerto Ricans (204 deaths per 100 000 was twice as high as the diabetes-related mortality rate for Cuban Americans (101 deaths per 100 000. Cuban American decedents had the highest proportion of deaths with diabetes coded as the underlying cause of death (44%. After diabetes, heart disease (31% followed by cancer (8% and stroke (6% were the most frequent primary underlying causes of diabetes-related deaths in all three ethnic groups. CONCLUSION: Our analyses of these data demonstrate that diabetes-related mortality differed among Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans and Cuban Americans more than 35 years of age in the United States in 1996 and 1997. Socioeconomic factors such as low educational attainment and low income may be factors that contributed to the disparities in these mortality rates for different subgroups. Further research is needed to update these findings and to investigate explanatory risk factors. Diversity among Hispanic subgroups has persisted in recent years and should be considered when health policies and services targeted at these populations

  1. Migration Decision-Making among Mexican Youth: Individual, Family, and Community Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Christine M.; Torres-Pereda, Pilar; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio A.

    2013-01-01

    We explored migration decisions using in-depth, semistructured interviews with male and female youth ages 14 to 24 (n = 47) from two Mexican communities, one with high and one with low U.S. migration density. Half were return migrants and half were nonmigrants with relatives in the United States. Migrant and nonmigrant youth expressed different…

  2. Genome-wide association analysis confirms and extends the association of SLC2A9 with serum uric acid levels to Mexican Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Saroja eVoruganti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased serum uric acid (SUA is a risk factor for gout and renal and cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic factors that affect the variation in SUA in 632 Mexican Americans participants of the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS. A genome-wide association analysis was performed using the Illumina Human Hap 550K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP microarray. We used a linear regression-based association test under an additive model of allelic effect, while accounting for non-independence among family members via a kinship variance component. All analyses were performed in the software package SOLAR. SNPs rs6832439, rs13131257 and rs737267 in solute carrier protein 2 family, member 9 (SLC2A9 were associated with SUA at genome-wide significance (p <1.3×10-7. The minor alleles of these SNPs had frequencies of 36.2%, 36.2%, and 38.2 %, respectively, and were associated with decreasing SUA levels. All of these SNPs were located in introns 3-7 of SLC2A9, the location of the previously reported associations in European populations. When analyzed for association with cardiovascular-renal disease risk factors, conditional on SLC2A9 SNPs strongly associated with SUA, significant associations were found for SLC2A9 SNPs with BMI, body weight and waist circumference (p < 1.4 x 10-3 and suggestive associations with albumin-creatinine ratio and total antioxidant status. The SLC2A9 gene encodes an urate transporter that has considerable influence on variation in SUA. In addition to the primary association locus, suggestive evidence (p<1.9×10-6 for joint linkage/association was found at a previously-reported urate quantitative trait locus (Logarithm of odds score = 3.6 on 3p26.3. In summary, our GWAS extends and confirms the association of SLC2A9 with SUA for the first time in a Mexican American cohort and also shows for the first time its association with cardiovascular-renal disease risk factors.

  3. Mexican Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuzger, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    It was the complex and far-reaching transformation of the Mexican Revolution rather than the First World War that left its mark on Mexican history in the second decade of the 20th century. Nevertheless, although the country maintained its neutrality in the international conflict, it was a hidden theatre of war. Between 1914 and 1918, state actors in Germany, Great Britain and the United States defined their policies towards Mexico and its nationalist revolution with a view not only to improve...

  4. How Women Work: The Symbolic and Material Reproduction of Migrant Labor Camps in United States Agribusiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert CARLEY

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes gender exploitation in Mexican and Central American migrant farm worker camps in the U.S through small group interactions. We describe how gender exploitation and oppression is transmitted through the social fabric of the camp. We argue that the camp produces an endogenous system of social interaction, which maintains uneven gender relationships. Our data is based on observations of twenty-five women and girls in three labor camps in North Carolina. Research was conducted over a period of six weeks. We found that women who served as the primary bearers of patrimonial authority best maintained the camp community. We conclude that women who successfully reproduce the authority structure gain social status in the camps and are more likely to stay.

  5. Social-environmental influences on children's diets: results from focus groups with African-, Euro- and Mexican-American children and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, K W; Baranowski, T; Rittenberry, L; Olvera, N

    2000-10-01

    Children's fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) and fat intakes do not meet recommended guidelines. Since personal factors account for only a small percentage of the variability in children's FJV consumption, social and environmental influences were explored via focus group discussions with Grade 4-6 African-, Euro- and Mexican-American students and parents. Questions included the effects of social influences, availability and accessibility on children's FJV and low-fat food choices. Few ethnic differences were noted. A variety of low-fat items and fresh FJV (not cut-up) were available at home; older children were expected to prepare their own. Eating out occurred at least twice a week; FJV were not usual restaurant choices. Students reported some modeling by parents (more mothers) and friends (usually at lunch). Negative peer responses for eating vegetables were reported. Parents were concerned with children eating too much junk food and not enough FJV, recognized the outside influences their children received about food, and reported several methods to encourage children to eat FJV. Recommendations for future interventions are proposed.

  6. Comparison of six commercial DNA extraction kits for detection of Brucella neotomae in Mexican and Central American-style cheese and other milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Tina S; Strain, Errol; Kase, Julie A

    2013-05-01

    Raw or inadequately pasteurized milk from infected animals and cheese made with such milk are a frequent vehicle for human brucellosis infection. Also, biological terrorism is a concern with certain Brucella spp. Due to matrix-associated real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) inhibitors, robust sample preparations are crucial. We compared six commercial nucleic acid extraction kits using nine Mexican and Central American-style soft cheeses or creams and three liquid milk products inoculated with Brucella neotomae, a surrogate for pathogenic Brucella spp. Kits were evaluated by purity and quantity of DNA as determined by qPCR Ct values, reproducibility across cheese and milk types, and cost. At 10(7) CFU/g in four different cheeses, Qiagen statistically outperformed all other kits. When two cheese styles were inoculated at dual levels, Qiagen and High Pure kit extracted samples at 1.5 × 10(5) CFU/g produced average Ct values of 34-39, while PrepSEQ and MagMAX kit extracted samples exhibited higher or no Ct values. High Pure and Qiagen kits excelled also with liquid milk products. Considering matrices, inoculation levels, and kits evaluated, High Pure and Qiagen products produced Brucella DNA of high quality and quantity indicated by the lowest Ct values and were the least expensive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A randomized clinical trial of diabetes self-management for Mexican Americans: Are there serendipitous health benefits for supporters of study participants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon A Brown

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Studies of social support in diabetes have focused on the effects of support on the person with type 2 diabetes. We explored diabetes prevention effects of a culturally tailored diabetes self-management intervention in individuals without diabetes who were supporters of intervention participants. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial that involved 256 Mexican Americans with diabetes. Each study participant designated a supporter—spouse, relative, friend—who attended intervention sessions and assisted participants in attaining effective diabetes self-management. Supporter’s glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C data were tracked for 1 year to determine diabetes conversion rates in supporters without diabetes at baseline. Results: Fewer individuals in the intervention group (n = 9 converted to an A1C above the 7% threshold, compared to the 1-year wait-listed control group (n = 16. We found a statistically significant difference (p = .021 at 12 months in the number of individuals whose A1C was ⩽8%, with fewer supporters above threshold in the intervention group (reduction of 48%. Supporters in the intervention group with prediabetes, based on baseline A1C, experienced a slight reduction in A1C, while control group supporters with prediabetes experienced an increase. Discussion: The results suggest that there are potential benefits for family members and other supporters of persons with diabetes who participated in diabetes self-management programs.

  8. Cultural stressors and mental health symptoms among Mexican Americans: a prospective study examining the impact of the family and neighborhood context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Rajni L; White, Rebecca M B; Roosa, Mark W; Zeiders, Katharine H

    2013-10-01

    Studies of stress consistently have linked individuals' experiences of stress to maladjustment, but limited attention has been given to cultural stressors commonly experienced by minority individuals. To address this, the current study examined the links between cultural stressors and prospective changes in mental health symptoms in a sample of 710 (49 % female) Mexican American youth. In addition, the moderating role of both family and neighborhood cohesion was examined. In-home interviews were completed with youth, mothers (required) and fathers (optional) to collect data on youth's experiences of cultural stressors (discrimination and language hassles) and internalizing/externalizing behavior, and mothers' report of family cohesion and mothers' and fathers' report of neighborhood cohesion. Analyses revealed that youth's experiences of discrimination and language hassles at 5th grade were related positively to increases in internalizing symptoms at 7th grade. Additionally, youths who reported higher levels of language hassles in 5th grade experienced increases in externalizing symptoms across the 2-year span. Both family and neighborhood cohesion emerged as significant moderating factors but their impact was conditional on youth's gender and nativity. Limitations and future implications are discussed.

  9. A Tale of Two Stories: An Exploration of Identification, Message Recall, and Narrative Preferences Among Low-Income, Mexican American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel E; Dal Cin, Sonya; Cole, Suzanne M; Reyes, Ligia I; McKenney-Shubert, Shannon J; Fleischer, Nancy L; Densen, Lynna Chung; Peterson, Karen E

    2017-11-01

    Additional research is needed to guide the design of narratives for use in practice-oriented, naturalistic settings to maximize health behavior change, particularly among populations affected by health disparities. This mixed-methods study explored the influence of cultural tailoring and emotional arousal on identification and message recall in narratives promoting childhood obesity prevention among 40 Mexican American mothers. Participants were also asked about narrative exposure, narrative preferences, and beliefs about the purpose of a story. Participants were randomly assigned to listen to two stories: (a) a story tailored on noncultural or cultural variables, and (b) a story designed to enhance or minimize emotional arousal. Participants reported high engagement and identification with all stories. Participants generally envisioned protagonists as Latina, despite limited cues, and identified with protagonists in four ways: sharing personal characteristics; having similar thoughts and feelings; engaging in similar actions; and experiencing similar situations. Mothers were most interested in narratives that helped them to improve their lives. Findings from this study yield several hypotheses for consideration in future study, including ways in which story setting and message enactment may moderate message recall.

  10. Associations of doctor-diagnosed asthma with immigration status, age at immigration, and length of residence in the United States in a sample of Mexican American School Children in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldeirawi, Kamal; McConnell, Rob; Furner, Sylvia; Freels, Sally; Stayner, Leslie; Hernandez, Eva; Amoruso, Lisa; Torres, Shioban; Persky, Victoria W

    2009-10-01

    Among Mexican Americans in the United States, children who were born in the US had higher rates of asthma than their Mexico-born peers. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of doctor-diagnosed asthma with immigration-related variables and to investigate whether these associations could be explained by factors that may change with migration. We surveyed parents of 2,023 school children of Mexican descent and examined the associations of asthma with nativity, age at immigration, and length of residence in the US after adjusting for potential confounding variables. In multivariate analyses, US-born children had a 2.42-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.52-3.83) increased odds of asthma compared with their Mexico-born peers. Mexico-born participants who moved to the US before 2 years of age were almost twice as likely to experience asthma compared with Mexico-born children who moved to the US >or=2 years of age. In addition, Mexico-born participants who lived in the US for 10 years or more were 2.37 times more likely to have asthma than Mexico-born students who lived in the US for less than 10 years. These associations were not explained by a wide variety of factors such as place of residence in infancy; exposure to animals/pets; history of infections, Tylenol use, and antibiotic use in infancy; breastfeeding; exposure to environmental tobacco smoke; daycare attendance and number of siblings; and language use. Our findings point to the effects of nativity, age at immigration, and duration of residence in the US on the risk of asthma in Mexican American children, suggesting that potentially modifiable factors that change with migration may be linked with the disease. The findings of this study should stimulate further research to explain factors that may be responsible for the observed differentials in the risk of asthma among Mexican Americans.

  11. From “Kickeando las malias” (Kicking the Withdrawals) to “Staying clean”: The Impact of Cultural Values on Cessation of Injection Drug Use in Aging Mexican-American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, David V.; Torres, Luis R.; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Bordnick, Patrick S.; Ren, Yi; Torres, Melissa I. M.; DeLeon, Freddy; Pericot-Valverde, Irene; Lopez, Tenee

    2013-01-01

    Drug use among older adults is a growing concern, particularly for the burgeoning Hispanic population. Older adults seeking drug treatment will double over the next decade to almost 6 million. Cultural factors influence drug use, and more specifically, Hispanic cultural values influence heroin use. This study explored Mexican-American injection drug users' adherence to traditional Hispanic cultural values and their impact on cessation. Ethnographic interviews endorsed contextualized influences of values on heroin use. Cultural values functioned dichotomously, influencing both initiation and cessation. Understanding the impact of cultural values on substance abuse is critical given the changing demographics in American society. PMID:24779493

  12. Migrant networks and pathways to child obesity in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Mathew J; Goldman, Noreen; Teruel, Graciela; Rubalcava, Luis

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: 1) to assess the link between migrant networks and becoming overweight or obese and 2) to explore the pathways by which migrant networks may contribute to the increasing overweight and obese population of children in Mexico. Using two waves of the Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS), we find that children and adolescents (ages 3 to 15) living in households with migrant networks are at an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese over the period of observation, relative to their peers with no migrant networks. Sedentary behavior and household-level measures of economic wellbeing explain some of the association between networks and changes in weight status, but the role of extended networks remains significant. Community-level characteristics related to migration do not account for any of the observed relationship between household-level networks and becoming overweight or obese. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Migrants' access to healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, Marie

    2011-01-01

    There are strong pragmatic and moral reasons for receiving societies to address access to healthcare for migrants. Receiving societies have a pragmatic interest in sustaining migrants' health to facilitate integration; they also have a moral obligation to ensure migrants' access to healthcare...... according to international human rights principles. The intention of this thesis is to increase the understanding of migrants' access to healthcare by exploring two study aims: 1) Are there differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy I and II); and 2) Why...... are there possible differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy III and IV). The thesis builds on different methodological approaches using both register-based retrospective cohort design, cross-sectional design and survey methods. Two different measures of access were...

  14. Highly Skilled Migrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Martin

    2016-01-01

    . It is pointed out that while the system facilitated speedy entry to the job market, the lack of inclusion in the Gulf economies of the migrants, the lack of long-term prospects of residing in the countries and the highly asymmetric power balance between sponsor and migrant, provides few incentives...... for the highly skilled migrants to fully contribute to the Gulf economies....

  15. A direct comparison of popular models of normal memory loss and Alzheimer's disease in samples of African Americans, Mexican Americans, and refugees and immigrants from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauf, Robert W; Iris, Madelyn

    2011-04-01

    To understand how people differentiate normal memory loss from Alzheimer's disease (AD) by investigating cultural models of these conditions. Ethnographic interviews followed by a survey. Cultural consensus analysis was used to test for the presence of group models, derive the "culturally correct" set of beliefs, and compare models of normal memory loss and AD. Chicago, Illinois. One hundred eight individuals from local neighborhoods: African Americans, Mexican Americans, and refugees and immigrants from the former Soviet Union. Participants responded to yes-or-no questions about the nature and causes of normal memory loss and AD and provided information on ethnicity, age, sex, acculturation, and experience with AD. Groups held a common model of AD as a brain-based disease reflecting irreversible cognitive decline. Higher levels of acculturation predicted greater knowledge of AD. Russian speakers favored biological over psychological models of the disease. Groups also held a common model of normal memory loss, including the important belief that "normal" forgetting involves eventual recall of the forgotten material. Popular models of memory loss and AD confirm that patients and clinicians are speaking the same "language" in their discussions of memory loss and AD. Nevertheless, the presence of coherent models of memory loss and AD, and the unequal distribution of that knowledge across groups, suggests that clinicians should include wider circles of patients' families and friends in their consultations. These results frame knowledge as distributed across social groups rather than simply the possession of individual minds. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Distribution of Serum Total Homocysteine and Its Association with Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk Factors of the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Mexican American Men: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillum Richard

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data have been published on the association of variables of the insulin resistance syndrome and serum total homocysteine (tHcy, a putative risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity, in representative samples of total populations or in Hispanic Americans. Methods To describe the distributions of serum tHcy concentration and variables associated with insulin resistance in Mexican American men and to assess their association, data from a cross-sectional survey of a large national sample, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Analyses were restricted to Mexican American men aged 40–74 years with data on glycated hemoglobin (%, body mass index (BMI, body fat distribution, HDL cholesterol, fasting serum insulin, serum triglycerides and serum tHcy concentrations. Results Cumulative distributions of serum tHcy shifted to the right with increasing age. Log serum tHcy was not associated with prevalence of diagnosed diabetes mellitus or glycated hemoglobin percent or other risk factors other than age. Log serum tHcy concentration showed borderline significant (p = 0.049 positive association with fasting serum insulin concentration independent of age and BMI, only in men aged 60–74. Conclusion No consistent association of tHcy with diabetes prevalence or variables of the insulin resistance syndrome were found in Mexican American men aged 40–74 years. Further research is needed on the associations of serum tHcy concentration with insulin resistance and other components of the insulin resistance syndrome in persons of varying ethnicity.

  17. The Rights of Undocumented Mexicans in the United States after "Plyler v. Doe": A Sketch of Moral and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia y Griego, Manuel

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes moral and legal obligations the U.S. has toward undocumented Mexicans in the U.S. Reviews past cases and draws implications regarding the nature and extent of such obligations. Discusses several court decisions regarding the rights of undocumented migrants. Provides an overview of trends in Mexican-US migration. (MD)

  18. Migrant women: issues in organization and solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Castro, M

    1986-01-01

    To understand the situation of migrant women and their increased vulnerability, it is necessary to consider the structural factors--economic, political, and cultural--that have impelled the movement of labor, and specifically of women, from developing to developed, and also within capitalist countries. Unequal access to land and other resources has been the historic cause of rural men and women migrating, but it is the internationalization of former agrarian economies and their increased dependence on the world economic system that stand out as important new factors. In the US, about 40% of the women in domestic service work are Black women and the rest are predominantly foreigners, especially Latin Americans, Caribbeans, and to a lesser degree, Asians. Contrary to the myth that migrant women have been a passive labor force, the history of the garment industry shows that they have been in the forefront of labor issues in many developed nations. There is a need to guarantee conditions that will enable women to organize and work in labor and migrant organizations and still protect their special characteristics as women. Women migrants, because of their conditions as women and because of their status as citizens without citizenship, especially when they are undocumented, are greatly in need of a solidarity group to educate national populations of migrant worker's rights. It is essential to guarantee the autonomy of migrant women's organization without interfering with their specific demands, considering their race, nationality, and social class.

  19. Moving In and Out of Bilingualism: Investigating Native Language Maintenance and Shift in Mexican-Descent Children. Research Report: 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease-Alvarez, Lucinda

    A study investigated patterns and influences in Mexican-American children's Spanish language maintenance and shift toward English dominance or monolingualism. Subjects were 64 Mexican-descent children, ages 8-9, of varying immigration backgrounds (Mexican-born, U.S.-born of Mexican-born parents, U.S.-born of U.S.-born parents), and their families…

  20. Deconstructive humour: subverting Mexican and Chicano stereotypes in ‘Un Día Sin Mexicanos’

    OpenAIRE

    Barrow, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    a long time, US cinema developed unshakeable stereotypes of Mexican ‘otherness’, with characters of Mexican cultural and ethnic heritage stigmatised as criminals or as sensual objects of desire. Filmmakers in Mexico, meanwhile, treated Mexican Americans as misfits who belonged nowhere, or ignored them and their complex experience completely. The emergence of a distinct ‘Chicano cinema’ in the 1960s allowed for the development of a more powerful set of images of Mexican Americans, exploiting t...

  1. Medical advice and diabetes self-management reported by Mexican-American, Black- and White-non-Hispanic adults across the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaccaro Joan A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, particularly among minorities, and if improperly managed can lead to medical complications and death. Healthcare providers play vital roles in communicating standards of care, which include guidance on diabetes self-management. The background of the client may play a role in the patient-provider communication process. The aim of this study was to determine the association between medical advice and diabetes self care management behaviors for a nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes. Moreover, we sought to establish whether or not race/ethnicity was a modifier for reported medical advice received and diabetes self-management behaviors. Methods We analyzed data from 654 adults aged 21 years and over with diagnosed diabetes [130 Mexican-Americans; 224 Black non-Hispanics; and, 300 White non-Hispanics] and an additional 161 with 'undiagnosed diabetes' [N = 815(171 MA, 281 BNH and 364 WNH] who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2008. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether medical advice to engage in particular self-management behaviors (reduce fat or calories, increase physical activity or exercise, and control or lose weight predicted actually engaging in the particular behavior and whether the impact of medical advice on engaging in the behavior differed by race/ethnicity. Additional analyses examined whether these relationships were maintained when other factors potentially related to engaging in diabetes self management such as participants' diabetes education, sociodemographics and physical characteristics were controlled. Sample weights were used to account for the complex sample design. Results Although medical advice to the patient is considered a standard of care for diabetes, approximately one-third of the sample reported not receiving dietary, weight management, or physical

  2. The Arg59Trp variant in ANGPTL8 (betatrophin) is associated with total and HDL-cholesterol in American Indians and Mexican Americans and differentially affects cleavage of ANGPTL3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Robert L; Leti, Fatjon; Tsinajinnie, Darwin; Kobes, Sayuko; Puppala, Sobha; Curran, Joanne E; Almasy, Laura; Lehman, Donna M; Blangero, John; Duggirala, Ravindranath; DiStefano, Johanna K

    2016-06-01

    We previously identified a locus linked to total cholesterol (TC) concentration in Pima Indians on chromosome 19p. To characterize this locus, we genotyped >2000 SNPs in 1838 Pimas and assessed association with log(TC). We observed evidence for association with log(TC) with rs2278426 (3.5% decrease/copy of the T allele; P=5.045×10(-6)) in the ANGPTL8 (angiopoietin-like 8) gene. We replicated this association in 2413 participants of the San Antonio Mexican American Family Study (SAMAFS: 2.0% decrease per copy of the T allele; P=0.005842). In a meta-analysis of the combined data, we found the strongest estimated effect with rs2278426 (P=2.563×10(-7)). The variant T allele at rs2278426 predicts an Arg59Trp substitution and has previously been associated with LDL-C and HDL-C. In Pimas and SAMAFS participants, the T allele of rs2278426 was associated with reduced HDL-C levels (P=0.000741 and 0.00002, respectively), and the combined estimated effect for the two cohorts was -3.8% (P=8.526×10(-8)). ANGPTL8 transcript and protein levels increased in response to both glucose and insulin. The variant allele was associated with increased levels of cleaved ANGPTL3. We conclude that individuals with the variant allele may have lower TC and HDL-C levels due to increased activation of ANGPTL3 by ANGPTL8. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Technology evaluation of a USA-Mexico health information system for epidemiological surveillance of Mexican migrant workers Evaluación tecnológica de un sistema de información de salud mexicano-estadounidense para la vigilancia epidemiológica de los trabajadores itinerantes mexicanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Eduardo Velasco-Mondragón

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available From 1994 through 1996, federal, state, and nongovernmental organizations in Mexico and in the United States of America developed and piloted a Binational Health Information System for Epidemiological Surveillance of Mexican migrant workers. The system allowed data exchange for epidemiological surveillance between the state of Guanajuato in Mexico and the Commonwealth (state of Pennsylvania in the United States, for case detection, prevention, and treatment, through shared contact investigation and case management of communicable diseases. The target population consisted of migrant workers traveling between Guanajuato and Pennsylvania to work mainly in the mushroom industry, and their sexual partners in their Mexican communities of origin. Computerized migrant health information modules were set up in Guanajuato and in Pennsylvania. Patient information and epidemiological surveillance data were encrypted and communicated electronically between the modules, using the WONDER communications system of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Evaluation of the Guanajuato-Pennsylvania Binational Health Information System showed that major barriers to binational epidemiological surveillance and control are: a lack of communication binationally; b interrupted medical care due to migration; c inconsistent diagnosis and treatment criteria between the two countries; d lack of referral clinical records from one country to the other; and e deficient legal regulations concerning binational clinical data transfer. To our knowledge, this is the first project that has successfully demonstrated the technological feasibility of a binational disease control system linking a state in the interior of one country with a state in the interior of another country, rather than just states in the border region. The project also advanced the understanding of health service organizational issues that facilitate or hinder communication, outreach, disease

  4. Migrant Education Projects. Projectos de Educacion Migrante. Oregon Migrant Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Written in both English and Spanish, this booklet briefly summarizes the general concepts and requirements behind Title I Migrant activities for use by project personnel, parents, and others interested in those projects. After a brief discussion of project funding and definitions of commonly used terms, there is an outline of requirements which…

  5. Migrants in Transit: The Importance of Monitoring HIV Risk Among Migrant Flows at the Mexico–US Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Zhang, Xiao; Sipan, Carol L.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J. Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a probability-based survey of migrant flows traveling across the Mexico–US border, and we estimated HIV infection rates, risk behaviors, and contextual factors for migrants representing 5 distinct migration phases. Our results suggest that the influence of migration is not uniform across genders or risk factors. By considering the predeparture, transit, and interception phases of the migration process, our findings complement previous studies on HIV among Mexican migrants conducted at the destination and return phases. Monitoring HIV risk among this vulnerable transnational population is critical for better understanding patterns of risk at different points of the migration process and for informing the development of protection policies and programs. PMID:25602882

  6. Older migrants in exile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorthe Susanne; Minet, Lisbeth; Zeraiq, Lina

    2017-01-01

    , Lost in language barriers and Having a national sense of belonging. The main findings emphasise the vulnerability of older migrants in a resettlement country. With an unclear national identity and without the local language, older migrants struggle to develop a clear vision of their role in a minority...

  7. BETTER HEALTH FOR MIGRANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Board of Health, Jacksonville.

    THIS ISSUE OF "FLORIDA HEALTH NOTES" DISCUSSES FLORIDA'S MIGRANTS AND THE MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES PROVIDED BY THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH AND THE COUNTY HEALTH DEPARTMENTS. THE FOLLOWING TOPICS ARE DISCUSSED--THEIR HOUSING AND SANITATION FACILITIES, THEIR LONG WORKING HOURS AND LOW WAGES, THEIR SUMMER MIGRATION PATTERNS, THEIR HEALTH…

  8. Synergistic and singular effects of river discharge and lunar illumination on dam passage of upstream migrant yellow-phase American eels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Stuart A.; Aldinger, Joni L.; Braham, Melissa A.; Zimmerman, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of dam passage can be useful for management and conservation assessments of American eel, particularly if passage counts can be examined over multiple years. During a 7-year study (2007–2013) of upstream migration of American eels within the lower Shenandoah River (Potomac River drainage), we counted and measured American eels at the Millville Dam eel pass, where annual study periods were determined by the timing of the eel pass installation during spring or summer and removal during fall. Daily American eel counts were analysed with negative binomial regression models, with and without a year (YR) effect, and with the following time-varying environmental covariates: river discharge of the Shenandoah River at Millville (RDM) and of the Potomac River at Point of Rocks, lunar illumination (LI), water temperature, and cloud cover. A total of 17 161 yellow-phase American eels used the pass during the seven annual periods, and length measurements were obtained from 9213 individuals (mean = 294 mm TL, s.e. = 0.49, range 183–594 mm). Data on passage counts of American eels supported an additive-effects model (YR + LI + RDM) where parameter estimates were positive for river discharge (β = 7.3, s.e. = 0.01) and negative for LI (β = −1.9, s.e. = 0.34). Interestingly, RDM and LI acted synergistically and singularly as correlates of upstream migration of American eels, but the highest daily counts and multiple-day passage events were associated with increased RDM. Annual installation of the eel pass during late spring or summer prevented an early spring assessment, a period with higher RDM relative to those values obtained during sampling periods. Because increases in river discharge are climatically controlled events, upstream migration events of American eels within the Potomac River drainage are likely linked to the influence of climate variability on flow regime.

  9. Age at migration and disability-free life expectancy among the elder Mexican-origin population

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    Marc Garcia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migration selectivity is thought to shape the health profiles of Mexican immigrants. Objective: This study examines how the experience of Mexican migration to the United States affects the health process and the quality of life in old age by age at migration, specific to sex. Methods: We use 20 years of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to estimate the proportion of life spent disability-free prior to death across eight subgroups by sex, nativity, and age at migration among Mexican-origin elderly in the United States. Results: Female migrants are at a significant disadvantage in terms of IADL disability-free life expectancy relative to US-born women, particularly late-life migrants. Conversely, mid- and late-life male migrants exhibit an advantage in ADL disability-free life expectancy compared to their US-born counterparts. Conclusions: Foreign-born Mexican elders are not a homogeneous group. This issue merits special attention in the development of community-based long-term care programs in order to appropriately target the specific needs of different subgroups of older Mexican individuals entering their last decades of life. Contribution: This study contributes to immigrant health literature by providing a more comprehensive documentation of nativity differentials, by distinguishing subgroups of Mexican elderly by sex, nativity, and age at migration.

  10. Stress, Depression, and Occupational Injury among Migrant Farmworkers in Nebraska

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    Athena K. Ramos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most dangerous industries in the United States. Farmworkers, including migrant farmworkers, are at risk for work-related injuries. This study explores the association between stress, depression, and occupational injury among migrant farmworkers in Nebraska. Occupational injury was hypothesized to significantly increase the odds of farmworkers being stressed and depressed. Two hundred migrant farmworkers (mean age = 33.5 years, standard deviation (SD = 12.53; 93.0% men, 92.9% of Mexican descent were interviewed. In bivariate analyses, results indicated that stress and depression were positively associated with occupational injury. Two logistic regression models were developed. Occupational injury was a significant factor for depression, but not for stress. Participants who had been injured on the job were over seven times more likely to be depressed. These results highlight the interconnection between the work environment and mental health. More must be done to foster well-being in rural, agricultural communities. Improving occupational health and safety information and training, integrating behavioral health services into primary care settings, and strengthening the protections of the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act may improve conditions for migrant farmworkers in the rural Midwest.

  11. Cardiovascular disease surveillance in Mexicans and Mexican Americans: a tale of two countries Enfermedad cardiovascular en mexicanos y estadounidenses de ascendencia mexicana: una historia de dos países

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    Ramón Angel Durazo-Arvizu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available La migración a gran escala que tiene lugar actualmente de México a los Estados Unidos de América origina nuevos retos para la salud pública. Se deben diseñar políticas de salud bien fundamentadas que aborden los problemas emergentes de salud en los estadounidenses de origen mexicano y otras subpoblaciones de los Estados Unidos. En este artículo se describe un enfoque que permite analizar la carga de las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV, tanto en mexicanos como en estadounidenses de ascendencia mexicana (en el contexto de la sociedad que acaban de abandonar. Estos datos se analizan también en el contexto de otras poblaciones de ascendencia hispanoamericana. La caracterización rigurosa de la población migrante mexicana permitirá explicar el estado de salud de los estadounidenses de ascendencia mexicana. De manera similar, la copiosa experiencia en salud pública acumulada en los Estados Unidos puede ser útil en la lucha para controlar las ECV en México. El primer paso lógico puede ser alinear los sistemas existentes de datos de los dos países y describir los patrones fundamentales del desenlace y las situaciones de riesgo de la enfermedad.

  12. Obesity and central adiposity in Mexican adults: results from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Obesidad y adiposidad central en adultos mexicanos: resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006

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    Simón Barquera; Ismael Campos-Nonato; Lucía Hernández-Barrera; Mario Flores; Ramón Durazo-Arvizu; Rebecca Kanter; Juan A Rivera

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central adiposity in Mexico, and to explore trends compared to the previous Mexican National Health Survey (ENSA 2000) and to Mexican-Americans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006) was used to describe overweight, obesity and central adiposity. Trends over time were assessed using the ENSA 2000 and by comparing the ENSANUT 2006 results to those of Mexican-Americans using the...

  13. An Ethnographic Study of the Social Context of Migrant Health in the United States

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    Holmes, Seth M

    2006-01-01

    Background Migrant workers in the United States have extremely poor health. This paper aims to identify ways in which the social context of migrant farm workers affects their health and health care. Methods and Findings This qualitative study employs participant observation and interviews on farms and in clinics throughout 15 months of migration with a group of indigenous Triqui Mexicans in the western US and Mexico. Study participants include more than 130 farm workers and 30 clinicians. Data are analyzed utilizing grounded theory, accompanied by theories of structural violence, symbolic violence, and the clinical gaze. The study reveals that farm working and housing conditions are organized according to ethnicity and citizenship. This hierarchy determines health disparities, with undocumented indigenous Mexicans having the worst health. Yet, each group is understood to deserve its place in the hierarchy, migrant farm workers often being blamed for their own sicknesses. Conclusions Structural racism and anti-immigrant practices determine the poor working conditions, living conditions, and health of migrant workers. Subtle racism serves to reduce awareness of this social context for all involved, including clinicians. The paper concludes with strategies toward improving migrant health in four areas: health disparities research, clinical interactions with migrant laborers, medical education, and policy making. PMID:17076567

  14. An ethnographic study of the social context of migrant health in the United States.

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    Seth M Holmes

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migrant workers in the United States have extremely poor health. This paper aims to identify ways in which the social context of migrant farm workers affects their health and health care. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This qualitative study employs participant observation and interviews on farms and in clinics throughout 15 months of migration with a group of indigenous Triqui Mexicans in the western US and Mexico. Study participants include more than 130 farm workers and 30 clinicians. Data are analyzed utilizing grounded theory, accompanied by theories of structural violence, symbolic violence, and the clinical gaze. The study reveals that farm working and housing conditions are organized according to ethnicity and citizenship. This hierarchy determines health disparities, with undocumented indigenous Mexicans having the worst health. Yet, each group is understood to deserve its place in the hierarchy, migrant farm workers often being blamed for their own sicknesses. CONCLUSIONS: Structural racism and anti-immigrant practices determine the poor working conditions, living conditions, and health of migrant workers. Subtle racism serves to reduce awareness of this social context for all involved, including clinicians. The paper concludes with strategies toward improving migrant health in four areas: health disparities research, clinical interactions with migrant laborers, medical education, and policy making.

  15. [Migrant vaccinations in Poland].

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    Sakowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    After the European Union accession in 2004, Poland has been perceived by foreigners as an attractive destination of their migration, and also as a popular transit country for people going further to the Western Europe countries. The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine is involved in the implementation of the international project PROMOVAX (Promote Vaccinations among Migrant Populations in Europe). The objective of the project is to promote immunizations among migrant populations in Europe. This article presents the up-to-date legal regulations that are effective in Poland, taking into account their relevance to the issue of vaccinations in migrant population. The analysis of the Polish legislation concerning this problem shows that there are no specific regulations addressed to migrant population staying in our country. This issue seems to be popular in the European Union, where immunization of migrants is given high priority. From the point of view of health care professionals it is important to be aware of the fact that EU open borders favor the increased flow of people between countries. The scale of migration from outside the EU to its member states also contributes to the increase in potential contacts between health care workers and migrants working in Poland.

  16. Transcriptomic identification of ADH1B as a novel candidate gene for obesity and insulin resistance in human adipose tissue in Mexican Americans from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES.

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    Deidre A Winnier

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a complex metabolic disease that is more prevalent in ethnic groups such as Mexican Americans, and is strongly associated with the risk factors obesity and insulin resistance. The goal of this study was to perform whole genome gene expression profiling in adipose tissue to detect common patterns of gene regulation associated with obesity and insulin resistance. We used phenotypic and genotypic data from 308 Mexican American participants from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES. Basal fasting RNA was extracted from adipose tissue biopsies from a subset of 75 unrelated individuals, and gene expression data generated on the Illumina BeadArray platform. The number of gene probes with significant expression above baseline was approximately 31,000. We performed multiple regression analysis of all probes with 15 metabolic traits. Adipose tissue had 3,012 genes significantly associated with the traits of interest (false discovery rate, FDR ≤ 0.05. The significance of gene expression changes was used to select 52 genes with significant (FDR ≤ 10(-4 gene expression changes across multiple traits. Gene sets/Pathways analysis identified one gene, alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B that was significantly enriched (P < 10(-60 as a prime candidate for involvement in multiple relevant metabolic pathways. Illumina BeadChip derived ADH1B expression data was consistent with quantitative real time PCR data. We observed significant inverse correlations with waist circumference (2.8 x 10(-9, BMI (5.4 x 10(-6, and fasting plasma insulin (P < 0.001. These findings are consistent with a central role for ADH1B in obesity and insulin resistance and provide evidence for a novel genetic regulatory mechanism for human metabolic diseases related to these traits.

  17. Unemployment Among Mexican Immigrant Men in the United States, 2003 – 2012

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    Laird, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Based on their socioeconomic characteristics, Mexican immigrant men should have very high un-employment. More than half do not have a high school diploma. One in four works in construction; at the height of the recent recession, 20% of construction workers were unemployed. Yet their unemployment rates are similar to those of native-born white men. After controlling for education and occupation, Mexican immigrant men have lower probabilities of unemployment than native-born white men – both before and during the recent recession. I consider explanations based on eligibility for unemployment benefits, out-migrant selection for unemployment, and employer preferences for Mexican immigrant labor. PMID:25432614

  18. Mexican Parenting Questionnaire (MPQ)

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    Halgunseth, Linda C.; Ispa, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted in four phases and constructed a self-report parenting instrument for use with Mexican immigrant mothers of children aged 6 to 10. The 14-item measure was based on semistructured qualitative interviews with Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 10), was refined by a focus group of Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 5), and was…

  19. ‘Historiography and the retracing of Latin American art history’: The Academy of San Carlos and Mexican Art History by Ray Hernández-Durán, Politics, History, and Art in Nineteenth-Century Mexico, London and New York: Routledge, 2017

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    Claudia Mattos Avolese

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Academy of San Carlos and Mexican Art History presents an account of the cultural and political circumstances that led to the installation of the first gallery of colonial art at the Academy of San Carlos in mid-nineteenth century Mexico City, and to the associated publication of the first art historical account of colonial Mexico. The author proposes that these two endeavors relate closely to the ambitions of the Mexican conservative elite to create a Mexican corporate identity based on the colonial past. Ray Hernández-Durán also argues that the gallery and the associated book can be seen as the starting point for the construction of the field of Latin American art history as we know it today.

  20. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 percent are overweight ... inhqrdr/data/query At a Glace – Risk Factors: Obesity is a risk ... Americans Heart Disease – See Heart Disease and Hispanic Americans ...