WorldWideScience

Sample records for mexicaanse roodmussen carpodacus

  1. A multiplex set of microsatellite markers for the scarlet rosefinch (Carpodacus erythrinus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poláková, Radka; Vyskočilová, Martina; Martin, J.-F.; Mays Jr., H. L.; Hill, G. E.; Bryja, Josef; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2007), s. 1375-1378 ISSN 1471-8278 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/0851 Grant - others:NSF(US) DEB-0077804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Carpodacus * cross-amplification * heterozygosity * microsatellites Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.257, year: 2007

  2. Extremely high MHC class I variation in a population of a long-distance migrant, the Scarlet Rosefinch (Carpodacus erythrinus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Promerová, Marta; Albrecht, Tomáš; Bryja, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2009), s. 451-461 ISSN 0093-7711 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930608; GA ČR GA206/06/0851; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : MHC class I * scarlet rosefinch * positive selection * recombination Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.988, year: 2009

  3. Male ornamentation and within-pair paternity are not associated with male provisioning rates in scarlet rosefinches Carpodacus erythrinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schnitzer, J.; Exnerová, A.; Poláková, Radka; Vinkler, Michal; Tomášek, Oldřich; Munclinger, P.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2014), s. 89-97 ISSN 0873-9749 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Carotenoid-based ornamentation * Extra-pair paternity * Feeding effort * Parental care Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2014

  4. Effect of extra-pair paternity and parental quality on brood sex ratio in the scarlet rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poláková, Radka; Schnitzer, J.; Vinkler, Michal; Bryja, Josef; Munclinger, P.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, 3-4 (2012), s. 225-232 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR GA206/06/0851 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : sex allocation * extra-pair mating * parental attractiveness Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.494, year: 2012

  5. Edge effect in wetland-arable land boundary determines nesting success of scarlet rosefinches (Carpodacus erythrinus) in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Albrecht, Tomáš

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 2 (2004), s. 361-371 ISSN 0004-8038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : artificial nests * reproductive success * breeding birds Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.673, year: 2004 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4090400

  6. Occurrence of extra-pair paternity is connected to social male’s MHC-variability in the scarlet rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Promerová, Marta; Vinkler, Michal; Bryja, Josef; Poláková, Radka; Schnitzer, J.; Munclinger, P.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2011), s. 5-10 ISSN 0908-8857 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930608; GA ČR GA206/06/0851; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : scarlet rosefinch * Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) * mate choice decisions * good genes * sexual selection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.280, year: 2011

  7. Ebola: werknemers in de frontlijn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Ebola is de zoveelste zoönose die de Nederlandse samenleving treft binnen een paar jaar tijd. Denk maar aan de Mexicaanse griep, het Schmallenbergvirus, H5N8 aviaire influenza, MERS-CoV16, Q-koorts en de ziekte van Lyme. De schaal waarop Nederlandse UMC’s en andere ketenpartners zich voorbereiden op

  8. Eenvoudige systemen in buitenland koppelen aan hightech oplossingen : MexiCultura verstevigt samenwerking Nederland en Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, van P.; Elings, A.; Garcia Victoria, N.

    2015-01-01

    Zaken doen met Mexicaanse ondernemers staat hoog op het verlanglijstje van Nederlandse bedrijven. Dat lukt niet zomaar met het bouwen van hightech kassen. De lokale ondernemers hebben juist behoefte om hun bestaande manier van telen te verbeteren. Hollanders kunnen hun diensten aanbieden met kennis

  9. Mexico and the global problematic: power relations, knowledge and communication in neoliberal Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez-Llata Cázares, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    Enrique Gómez-Llata onderzocht welke sociale structuren tussen 1980 en 2010 hebben bijgedragen aan de toename van armoede en agressie in de Mexicaanse samenleving. Hij richtte zich met name op de communicatiepraktijken die tijdens deze periode in Mexico gebruikelijk waren. Gómez-Llata concludeert

  10. Mexican protected horticulture: Production and market of Mexican protected horticulture described and analysed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Victoria, N.; Valk, van der O.M.C.; Elings, A.

    2011-01-01

    Referaat Deze studie beschrijft en analyseert de Mexicaanse bedekte tuinbouwsector, die zich sterk ontwikkelt, en daarmee een relevante partner voor de Nederlandse toeleverende industrie is. De sector is geografisch over het grote land verspreid, en wordt gekenmerkt door een grote variatie in

  11. Unveiling the face of diversity: interlegality and legal pluralism in the Mayan area of the Yucatan Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrera, J.I.

    2011-01-01

    José Israel Herrera bestudeerde het eigen recht en de eigen rechtstoepassing door Maya-gemeenschappen in Mexico. Worden deze eigen normen in het officiële Mexicaanse recht serieus genomen? Geeft Mexico gevolg aan de internationale verplichting om de eigen cultuur en leefwijzen van inheemse volken

  12. Stationing a U.S. Army Reserve Black Hawk Helicopter Company at Joint Forces Training Base Los Alamitos, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    include the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglotos), black phoebe (Saynoris nigricans), house finch (Carpodacus...cumulative impacts. Any wildlife killed during aviation activities is reported to the JFTB Los Alamitos Environmental Office for proper identification

  13. Evaluation of two approaches to genotyping major histocompatibility complex class I in a passerine—CE-SSCP and 454 pyrosequencing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Promerová, Marta; Babik, W.; Bryja, Josef; Albrecht, Tomáš; Stuglik, M.; Radwan, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2012), s. 285-292 ISSN 1755-098X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930608; GA ČR GA206/06/0851; GA ČR GAP505/10/1871 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : avian * Carpodacus erythrinus * major histocompatibility complex * next-generation sequencing * scarlet rosefinch Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 7.432, year: 2012

  14. Phytohaemagglutinin skin-swelling test in scarlet rosefinch males: low-quality birds respond more strongly

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinkler, Michal; Schnitzer, J.; Munclinger, P.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 1 (2012), s. 17-23 ISSN 0003-3472 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930608; GA ČR GA206/06/0851; GA ČR GAP505/10/1871; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Carpodacus erythrinus * condition * ecoimmunology * ecological immunology * health signalling * immunocompetence * ornamentation * phytohaemagglutinin * ptilochronology * scarlet rosefinch Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.068, year: 2012

  15. Multilocus resolution of phylogeny and timescale in the extant adaptive radiation of Hawaiian honeycreepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Heather R L; Meyer, Matthias; James, Helen F; Hofreiter, Michael; Fleischer, Robert C

    2011-11-08

    Evolutionary theory has gained tremendous insight from studies of adaptive radiations. High rates of speciation, morphological divergence, and hybridization, combined with low sequence variability, however, have prevented phylogenetic reconstruction for many radiations. The Hawaiian honeycreepers are an exceptional adaptive radiation, with high phenotypic diversity and speciation that occurred within the geologically constrained setting of the Hawaiian Islands. Here we analyze a new data set of 13 nuclear loci and pyrosequencing of mitochondrial genomes that resolves the Hawaiian honeycreeper phylogeny. We show that they are a sister taxon to Eurasian rosefinches (Carpodacus) and probably came to Hawaii from Asia. We use island ages to calibrate DNA substitution rates, which vary substantially among gene regions, and calculate divergence times, showing that the radiation began roughly when the oldest of the current large Hawaiian Islands (Kauai and Niihau) formed, ~5.7 million years ago (mya). We show that most of the lineages that gave rise to distinctive morphologies diverged after Oahu emerged (4.0-3.7 mya) but before the formation of Maui and adjacent islands (2.4-1.9 mya). Thus, the formation of Oahu, and subsequent cycles of colonization and speciation between Kauai and Oahu, played key roles in generating the morphological diversity of the extant honeycreepers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evolution of sex-biased maternal effects in birds: I. Sex-specific resource allocation among simultaneously growing oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R L; Badyaev, A V

    2004-11-01

    Females in species that produce broods of multiple offspring need to partition resources among simultaneously growing ova, embryos or neonates. In birds, the duration of growth of a single egg exceeds the ovulation interval, and when maternal resources are limited, a temporal overlap among several developing follicles in the ovary might result in a trade-off of resources among them. We studied growth of oocytes in relation to their future ovulation order, sex, and overlap with other oocytes in a population of house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) where strongly sex-biased maternal effects are favoured by natural selection. We found pronounced differences in growth patterns between oocytes that produced males and females. Male oocytes grew up to five times faster and reached their ovulation size earlier than female oocytes. Early onset and early termination of male oocytes' growth in relation to their ovulation resulted in their lesser temporal overlap with other growing ova compared with female oocytes. Consequently, ovulation mass of female but not male oocytes was strongly negatively affected by temporal overlap with other oocytes. In turn, mass of male oocytes was mostly affected by the order of ovulation and by maternal incubation strategy. These results provide a mechanism for sex-biased allocation of maternal resources during egg formation and provide insights into the timing of the sex-determining meiotic division in relation to ovulation in this species.

  17. Blood-feeding patterns of the Culex pipiens complex in Sacramento and Yolo Counties, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Matthew J; Thiemann, Tara; Macedo, Paula; Brown, David A; Scott, Thomas W

    2011-03-01

    Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex are competent vectors of West Nile virus (WNV; family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) in the laboratory, and field-collected mosquitoes have tested positive for the virus in California and elsewhere. A better understanding of Cx. pipiens complex blood-feeding patterns will help define the threat that these mosquitoes pose to human health and their role in WNV amplification in northern California. We collected blood-engorged Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes from resting sites near and away from human habitation in Sacramento and Yolo Counties. Cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene sequences were used to identify the vertebrate species from which blood meals were taken. Of 330 engorged mosquitoes collected at 28 sites from June through August 2007 and May through August 2008, >99% fed on an avian host. Three mosquitoes contained bovine blood and none had fed on a human. American Robins (Turdus migratorius) were bitten most often, and the proportion of American Robin blood meals increased significantly over the summer. Other important avian hosts included House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus), Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica), Western Meadowlarks (Sturnella neglecta), and Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura). In rural areas, Barn Swallows, Brewer's Blackbirds (Euphagus cyanocephalus), and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) were frequent hosts. In settings near human habitation, Mourning Doves and Western Meadowlarks were common hosts. Our data indicate that in north central California mosquitoes in the Cx. pipiens complex may be more important as epiornitic than epidemic vectors of WNV.

  18. Notes on the breeding biology of common resident birds in an urbanized area of Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iriana Zuria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos información sobre la biología reproductiva y las características del sitio de anidación para seis especies de aves comunes en una pequeña reserva ecológica inmersa en la ciudad de Pachuca, Hidalgo, México: Columbina inca (tórtola cola larga, Pyrocephalus rubinus (mosquero cardenal, Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus (matraca del desierto, Toxostoma curvirostre (cuitlacoche pico curvo, Pipilo fuscus (toquí pardo y Carpodacus mexicanus (pinzón mexicano. Seguimos 65 nidos activos, principalmente de C. mexicanus y C. brunneicapillus. La densidad de nidos alcanzó 15 nidos por hectárea en algunas áreas del parque. Las principales causas de fracaso reproductivo en los nidos fracasados (74% fueron las fuertes lluvias y el disturbio humano. Los nidos se encontraron en siete sustratos diferentes, principalmente en Cylindropuntia imbricata y Cupressus spp. Presentamos, para cada especie, datos sobre las características del sitio de anidación, incluyendo las plantas utilizadas para anidar, el promedio de su altura y diámetro a la altura del pecho, altura promedio del nido, tamaño de nidada, extensión de la temporada de anidación y causas particulares de fracaso reproductivo. Al final, sugerimos algunas recomendaciones generales de manejo que pueden ayudar a la conservación de aves que anidan en parques del centro de México.

  19. Mate choice for a male carotenoid-based ornament is linked to female dietary carotenoid intake and accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toomey Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coevolution of male traits and female mate preferences has led to the elaboration and diversification of sexually selected traits; however the mechanisms that mediate trait-preference coevolution are largely unknown. Carotenoid acquisition and accumulation are key determinants of the expression of male sexually selected carotenoid-based coloration and a primary mechanism maintaining the honest information content of these signals. Carotenoids also influence female health and reproduction in ways that may alter the costs and benefits of mate choice behaviours and thus provide a potential biochemical link between the expression of male traits and female preferences. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the dietary carotenoid levels of captive female house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus and assessed their mate choice behavior in response to color-manipulated male finches. Results Females preferred to associate with red males, but carotenoid supplementation did not influence the direction or strength of this preference. Females receiving a low-carotenoid diet were less responsive to males in general, and discrimination among the colorful males was positively linked to female plasma carotenoid levels at the beginning of the study when the diet of all birds was carotenoid-limited. Conclusions Although female preference for red males was not influenced by carotenoid intake, changes in mating responsiveness and discrimination linked to female carotenoid status may alter how this preference is translated into choice. The reddest males, with the most carotenoid rich plumage, tend to pair early in the breeding season. If carotenoid-related variations in female choice behaviour shift the timing of pairing, then they have the potential to promote assortative mating by carotenoid status and drive the evolution of carotenoid-based male plumage coloration.

  20. Ultrafast evolution and loss of CRISPRs following a host shift in a novel wildlife pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel F Delaney

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Measureable rates of genome evolution are well documented in human pathogens but are less well understood in bacterial pathogens in the wild, particularly during and after host switches. Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG is a pathogenic bacterium that has evolved predominantly in poultry and recently jumped to wild house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus, a common North American songbird. For the first time we characterize the genome and measure rates of genome evolution in House Finch isolates of MG, as well as in poultry outgroups. Using whole-genome sequences of 12 House Finch isolates across a 13-year serial sample and an additional four newly sequenced poultry strains, we estimate a nucleotide diversity in House Finch isolates of only ∼2% of ancestral poultry strains and a nucleotide substitution rate of 0.8-1.2×10(-5 per site per year both in poultry and in House Finches, an exceptionally fast rate rivaling some of the highest estimates reported thus far for bacteria. We also found high diversity and complete turnover of CRISPR arrays in poultry MG strains prior to the switch to the House Finch host, but after the invasion of House Finches there is progressive loss of CRISPR repeat diversity, and recruitment of novel CRISPR repeats ceases. Recent (2007 House Finch MG strains retain only ∼50% of the CRISPR repertoire founding (1994-95 strains and have lost the CRISPR-associated genes required for CRISPR function. Our results suggest that genome evolution in bacterial pathogens of wild birds can be extremely rapid and in this case is accompanied by apparent functional loss of CRISPRs.

  1. The effects of dietary carotenoid supplementation and retinal carotenoid accumulation on vision-mediated foraging in the house finch.

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    Matthew B Toomey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For many bird species, vision is the primary sensory modality used to locate and assess food items. The health and spectral sensitivities of the avian visual system are influenced by diet-derived carotenoid pigments that accumulate in the retina. Among wild House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus, we have found that retinal carotenoid accumulation varies significantly among individuals and is related to dietary carotenoid intake. If diet-induced changes in retinal carotenoid accumulation alter spectral sensitivity, then they have the potential to affect visually mediated foraging performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In two experiments, we measured foraging performance of house finches with dietarily manipulated retinal carotenoid levels. We tested each bird's ability to extract visually contrasting food items from a matrix of inedible distracters under high-contrast (full and dimmer low-contrast (red-filtered lighting conditions. In experiment one, zeaxanthin-supplemented birds had significantly increased retinal carotenoid levels, but declined in foraging performance in the high-contrast condition relative to astaxanthin-supplemented birds that showed no change in retinal carotenoid accumulation. In experiments one and two combined, we found that retinal carotenoid concentrations predicted relative foraging performance in the low- vs. high-contrast light conditions in a curvilinear pattern. Performance was positively correlated with retinal carotenoid accumulation among birds with low to medium levels of accumulation (∼0.5-1.5 µg/retina, but declined among birds with very high levels (>2.0 µg/retina. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that carotenoid-mediated spectral filtering enhances color discrimination, but that this improvement is traded off against a reduction in sensitivity that can compromise visual discrimination. Thus, retinal carotenoid levels may be optimized to meet the visual demands of specific

  2. Breeding avifauna of Niemodlin countryside (SW Poland during the years 2002-2007, and its changes over the last 56 years (1962-2007

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    Kopij Grzegorz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Niemodlin countryside (c. 300 km2 is situated in the south-western part of Opole Silesia, SW Poland. Forests occupy c. 40%, arable grounds – 1/3, and meadows and pastures – 7%. There are 31 fish-ponds with a total diked surface of 663 ha. The paper presents results of field investigations carried out during the years 2002-2007 and an analysis of changes in the breeding avifauna over the last 56 years. During the years 2002-2007, 123 breeding and 11 probably breeding bird species were recorded in this area. During the years 1962-2007 151 species were recorded as breeding residents; and additional five species – as probably breeding resident. The following species were recorded as breeding for the first time in 1962-2007: Haliaeetus albicilla, Larus canus, Motacilla cinerea, Saxicola torquata, Locustella luscinioides, Ficedula albicollis, Corvus corax and Carpodacus erythrinus. In the same period the following species became extinct: Podiceps nigricollis, Anas clypeata, Milvus milvus, and Tringa glareola. The following species increaed in numbers in 1962-2007: Coturnix coturnix, Grus grus, Columba oenas, Apus apus, Dryocopus martius, Dendrocopos medius, Motacilla cinerea, Saxicola torquata and Corvus corax. In the same period, Tachybaptus ruficollis, Podiceps cristatus, Podiceps grisegena, Ciconia ciconia, Aythya nyroca, Perdix perdix, Gallinago gallinago, Larus ridibundus, Tyto alba, Alcedo atthis, Picus viridis, Riparia riparia and Corvus cornix decreased in numbers. The areas with the highest concentration of rare and endangered species are postulated to be protected as nature reserves, landscape parks and other spatial forms of nature conservation.

  3. Prevalence of blood parasites in eastern versus Western house finches: are eastern birds resistant to infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew K; Hood, Wendy R; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2013-09-01

    The rapid spread of the bacterial disease, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), throughout the introduced range of house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) in eastern North America, compared to its slower spread through the native western range, has puzzled researchers and highlights the need to understand the relative differences in health state of finches from both populations. We conducted a light-microscope survey of hemoparasites in populations of finches from Arizona (within the western range) and from Alabama (within the eastern range), and compared our estimates of prevalence to published reports from house finches sampled in both ranges. Of the 33 Arizona birds examined, we recorded hematozoan infections in 16 (48.5%) individuals, compared to 1 infected Alabama bird out of 30 birds examined (3.3%). Based on independent surveys of seven western North American and five eastern North American populations of house finches the average prevalence of blood parasites in western populations is 38.8% (±17.9 SD), while the average prevalence within the eastern range is only 5.9% (±6.1 SD). The average rate of infection among all songbirds sampled in the east is 34.2% (±4.8 SD). Thus, our surveys of wild birds as well as previously published observations point to eastern house finches having a much lower prevalence of blood parasite infections than their western counterparts. Combined with the fact that eastern finches also tend to have lower rates of avian pox infections than do western birds (based on a literature review), these observations suggest that eastern birds have either strong resistance to these infections or high susceptibility and associated mortality.

  4. The evolution of sexual size dimorphism in the house finch. V. Maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyaev, Alexander V; Beck, Michelle L; Hill, Geoffrey E; Whittingham, Linda A

    2003-02-01

    The phenotype of a mother and the environment that she provides might differentially affect the phenotypes of her sons and daughters, leading to change in sexual size dimorphism. Whereas these maternal effects should evolve to accommodate the adaptations of both the maternal and offspring generations, the mechanisms by which this is accomplished are rarely known. In birds, females adjust the onset of incubation (coincident with the first egg or after all eggs are laid) in response to the environment during breeding, and thus, indirectly, determine the duration of offspring growth. In the two house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) populations that breed at the extremes of the species' distribution (Montana and Alabama), females experience highly distinct climatic conditions during nesting. We show that in close association with these conditions, females adjusted jointly the onset of incubation and the sequence in which they produced male and female eggs and consequently modified the growth of sons and daughters. The onset of incubation in newly breeding females closely tracked ambient temperature in a pattern consistent with the maintenance of egg viability. Because of the very different climates in Montana and Alabama, females in these populations showed the opposite patterns of seasonal change in incubation onset and the opposite sex bias in egg-laying order. In females with breeding experience, incubation onset and sex bias in laying order were closely linked regardless of the climatic variation. In nests in which incubation began with the onset of egg laying, the first-laid eggs were mostly females in Montana, but mostly males in Alabama. Because in both populations, male, but not female, embryos grew faster when exposed to longer incubation, the sex-bias produced highly divergent sizes of male and female juveniles between the populations. Overall, the compensatory interaction between the onset of incubation and the sex-biased laying order achieved a compromise

  5. Disease emergence in birds: Challenges for the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton; McLean, R.G.; Dein, F.J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper by Hartup et al. (2001) on House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) conjunctivitis is an example of the rapid geographic spread that can result from disease emergence in naïve populations. That event was neither novel nor transient relative to its occurrence or effects. Disease emergence and reemergence are hallmarks of the latter part of the twentieth century (Center for Disease Control 1994, Levins et al. 1994, DaSilva and Laccarino 1999, Gratz 1999). Current examples involving domestic animals include the problems in Europe with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or “mad cow disease”) (Brown 2001) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) (Kitching 1999). Human health has been affected by diseases caused by an array of viruses (Morse 1993, Nichol et al. 1993, Murphy and Nathanson 1994), bacteria (Dennis 1998, DaSilva and Laccarino 1999), rickettsia (Walker and Dumier 1996, Azad et al. 1997), protozoans (Tuerrant 1997, Saini et al. 2000), and metazoan parasites (Hildreth et al. 1991, Gubler 1998), as well as other causes. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has received the most notoriety of those diseases (Hahn et al. 2000, Schwartlander et al. 2000). A similar pattern exists on a global scale for free-ranging wildlife populations (Table 1) (Friend 1994, 1995; Epstein et al. 1998, Daszak et al. 2000). However, in comparison to disease emergence affecting humans and domestic animals, response to emerging diseases of wildlife is generally superficial. We present concepts and data to support our contention that failure to adequately address disease emergence in free-ranging wildlife is resulting in a diminished capability to achieve and sustain desired geographic distributions and population abundance for species of wild birds, including some threatened and endangered avifauna.For clarity, we define disease and disease emergence in the context of our use of those terms because they are the focus of our comments. Disease is any departure from health

  6. The birds-consumers of the fruits and disseminators of Phellodendron Rupr. seeds in the south of Russian Far East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Nechaev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of the long-term investigation, carried out in the Russian Far East (Primorye and Khabarovsk Territories, Amur and Sakhalin regions, and published data about bird ecology, the actual material about the birds feeding seeds and berries of the Amur cork-tree, Phellodendron amurense Rupr. and Sakhalin cork-tree, Ph. sachalinensis (Fr. Schmidt Sarg., is given in the article. It has been found 43 carpophagous bird species from 15 families and 5 orders. The cork-tree berries, small roundish juicy fruits with little stones, are eaten by the birds of 40 species from 13 families; basically by Grey-headed Woodpecker – Picus canus, Azure-winged Magpies – Cyanopica cyanus, Bohemian and Japanaese Waxwings – Bombycilla garrulus and B. japonica, Thrushes: Pale Thrush – Turdus pallidus, Eyebrowed Thrush – Turdus obscurus, Grey-backed Thrush – T. hortulorum, Naumann’s Thrush – T. naumanni, and Dusky Thrush – T. eunomus, Eurasian Nuthatch – Sitta europaea, Pallas’s Rose Finch – Carpodacus roseus. The secondary birds – 16 species. On the Sakhalin isl. the Sakhalin cork-tree, Ph. sachalinensis berries are eaten by the birds of 33 species from 12 families, on the South Kuriles (Kunashir isl. – by the birds of 28 species from 11 families. On Sakhalin the berries are eaten basically by the Waxwings (2 species, Dusky and Brown-headed – Turdus chrysolaus – Thrushes, Eurasian Nuthatch, Pallas’s Rose Finch; and secondary birds – 12 species. There are 5 species of the primary birds and 8 species of the secondary birds on the Kunashir isl. A participation of the birds in the dissemination of the cork-tree, Phellodendron Rupr., during seasonal migrations in winter and autumn has been considered. The active birds in the seed distribution are Grey-headed Woodpecker, Azure-winged Magpies, Waxwings, Thrushes and others; while they are eating the berries, the seeds are not damaged in the gastrointestinal tract and pushed