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Sample records for mev ni ions

  1. Depth distribution of damage in copper irradiated with MeV, Ni and He ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, J.; Noggle, T.S.; Oen, O.S.

    1975-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy was used to study radiation damage as a function of depth caused by 58 and 4-MeV 58 Ni and 1-MeV He ions in copper single crystals at ambient temperature. The experimental damage density vs penetration depth distributions were compared with calculations based on the atomic collision theory of Lindhard et al. (LSS). For 58-MeV Ni ions, the calculated damage profile using the theoretical LSS value of the electronic stopping parameter (k = 0.167) agrees well with experiment. However, for 4-MeV Ni ions it is necessary to use k = 0.12 to get agreement with the experimental data. In the case of 1-MeV He, the depth location of the calculated damage peak is in good agreement with experiment when the electronic stopping determined by Chu and Powers is used whereas it is about 15 percent too close to the surface using the tables of Northcliffe and Schilling. (auth)

  2. 160 MeV Ni12+ ion irradiation effects on the dielectric properties of polyaniline nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarika, J.; Nath, Chandrani; Kumar, A.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the dielectric properties and a.c. conductivity studies of CSA doped polyaniline nanotubes. Nanotubes of 47–100 nm diameter, were synthesized by the self-assembly method and irradiated using Ni 12+ ions of 160 MeV energy with fluences of 1 × 10 10 , 5 × 10 10 , 1 × 10 11 and 3 × 10 11 ions/cm 2 . X-ray diffraction studies reveal an increase in the degree of crystallinity and consequently, the extent of order of the nanotubes with increasing fluence, but show a lower degree of crystallinity at higher fluence. The decrease in d-spacing for the (100) reflections with fluence is ascribed to the decrease in the tilt angle of the aligned polymer chains. A significant change was seen after irradiation in dielectric and electrical properties which may be correlated with the increased carrier concentration and structural modifications in the polymer films. The surface conductivity of films increases with increasing fluence, which also decreases at higher fluence. The a.c. conduction mechanism for the nanotubes could be explained in terms of correlated barrier hopping model. The existence of polarons as the major charge carriers in the present nanotube system was confirmed by the low values of polaron binding energy, found to decrease with fluence. The hopping distance increases with fluence indicating that the hopping probability increases with fluence.

  3. Photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation studies in 80 MeV Ni ion irradiated MOCVD grown GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaraju, G. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Central University P.O., Hyderabad 500 046 (India); Pathak, A.P., E-mail: appsp@uohyd.ernet.in [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Central University P.O., Hyderabad 500 046 (India); Srinivasa Rao, N.; Saikiran, V. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Central University P.O., Hyderabad 500 046 (India); Enrichi, Francesco [Coordinamento Interuniversitario Veneto per le Nanotecnologie (CIVEN), via delle Industrie 5, Marghera, I-30175Venice (Italy); Trave, Enrico [Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica, Universita Ca' Foscari Venezia, Dorsoduro 2137, I-30123 Venice (Italy)

    2011-09-01

    Highlights: {yields} MOCVD grown GaN samples are irradiated with 80 MeV Ni ions at room temperature. {yields} PL and PLE studies have been carried out for band to band, BL and YL emissions. {yields} Ni ions irradiated GaN shows BL band at 450 nm besides YL band. {yields} Radiation annealed Ga vacancies have quenching effect on YL intensity. {yields} We speculated that BL and YL are associated with N and Ga vacancies, respectively. - Abstract: We report damage creation and annihilation under energetic ion bombardment at a fixed fluence. MOCVD grown GaN thin films were irradiated with 80 MeV Ni ions at a fluence of 1 x 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. Irradiated GaN thin films were subjected to rapid thermal annealing for 60 s in nitrogen atmosphere to anneal out the defects. The effects of defects on luminescence were explored with photoluminescence measurements. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra from pristine sample revealed presence of band to band transition besides unwanted yellow luminescence. Irradiated GaN does not show any band to band transition but there is a strong peak at 450 nm which is attributed to ion induced defect blue luminescence. However, irradiated and subsequently annealed samples show improved band to band transitions and a significant decrease in yellow luminescence intensity due to annihilation of defects which were created during irradiation. Irradiation induced effects on yellow and blue emissions are discussed.

  4. Comparison of 4.2 MeV Fe+ and 46.5 MeV Ni6+ ion irradiation for the study of void swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blamires, N.G.; Worth, J.H.

    1975-11-01

    Void formation in pure nickel and 316 steel containing 10 ppm He has been studied using 4.2 MeV Fe+ ions from the Harwell Van de Graaff accelerator. The dose dependence of swelling in nickel at 525degC and the dose and temperature dependence of swelling in 316 steel is reported. The results are compared with those of other workers, especially those sup(13,14) using 46.5 MeV Ni 6+ ions. In general, there is good agment, except for a marked decrease in swelling of 316 steel at 650degC and 700degC compared with the Ni 6+ bombardment. The reason for this is thought to result from the restricted width of the damaged region in the low energy case which at the high temperatures is comparable with the inter-void spacing. Anomalous void distributions adjacent to grain boundaries are reported and are probably caused by grain boundary movement. Denuded zones at grain boundaries in 316 steel vary in width from approximatly 1300A at 450degC to approximatly 8800A at 700degC. The region adjacent to the surface of the nickel specimens exhibits an abnormally high swelling. Possible explanations are suggested

  5. 120 MeV Ni Ion beam induced modifications in poly (ethylene terephthalate) used in commercial bottled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Sonkawade, R. G.; Ali, Yasir; Dhaliwal, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    We report the effects of heavy ion irradiation on the optical, structural, and chemical properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film used in commercial bottled water. PET bottles were exposed with 120 MeV Ni ions at fluences varying from 3 x 10 10 to 3 x 10 12 ion/cm 2 . The modifications so induced were analyzed by using UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Substantial decrease in optical band gap is observed with the increase in ion fluence. In the FTIR spectra, most of bands are decreased due the degradation of the molecular structure. XRD measurements show the decrease in peak intensity, which reflects the loss of crystallinity after irradiation.

  6. Radiation-induced effects in MgO single crystal by 200 keV and 1 MeV Ni ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryohei; Nakai, Yoshihiro; Hamaguchi, Dai [Kyoto Inst. of Tech. (Japan); and others

    1997-03-01

    MgO(100) single crystals were implanted with 1.0 MeV and 200 keV Ni ions between 10{sup 15} and 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. Before and after thermal annealing the radiation damage and the lattice location of implanted Ni ions were analyzed by using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry with channeling and optical absorption measurements. For 1.0 MeV Ni ions, the disorder of Mg atoms increased slowly with ion dose near surface region, while it increased sharply and saturated with ion dose from 2x10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} near ion range. The radiation damage was recovered and implanted Ni ions diffused to the whole of crystal and occupied substitutional positions after 1400degC annealing. For 200 keV Ni ions, the disorder of Mg atoms increased with dose near ion range and had a maximum at about 5x10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. This tendency agrees with the behavior of color centers obtained from optical measurements. For thermal annealing the radiation damage did not change during 500degC annealing, but the aggregate centers appeared after 300degC annealing. (author)

  7. 160 MeV Ni{sup 12+} ion irradiation effects on the dielectric properties of polyaniline nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, J.; Nath, Chandrani [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India); Kumar, A., E-mail: ask@tezu.ernet.in [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India)

    2012-10-01

    We report on the dielectric properties and a.c. conductivity studies of CSA doped polyaniline nanotubes. Nanotubes of 47-100 nm diameter, were synthesized by the self-assembly method and irradiated using Ni{sup 12+} ions of 160 MeV energy with fluences of 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}, 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}, 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} and 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2}. X-ray diffraction studies reveal an increase in the degree of crystallinity and consequently, the extent of order of the nanotubes with increasing fluence, but show a lower degree of crystallinity at higher fluence. The decrease in d-spacing for the (100) reflections with fluence is ascribed to the decrease in the tilt angle of the aligned polymer chains. A significant change was seen after irradiation in dielectric and electrical properties which may be correlated with the increased carrier concentration and structural modifications in the polymer films. The surface conductivity of films increases with increasing fluence, which also decreases at higher fluence. The a.c. conduction mechanism for the nanotubes could be explained in terms of correlated barrier hopping model. The existence of polarons as the major charge carriers in the present nanotube system was confirmed by the low values of polaron binding energy, found to decrease with fluence. The hopping distance increases with fluence indicating that the hopping probability increases with fluence.

  8. 160 MeV Ni12+ ion irradiation effects on the structural, optical and electrical properties of spherical polypyrrole nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarika, J.; Kumar, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Upon SHI irradiation the average diameters of PPy nanoparticles increases. • Crystallinity of PPy nanoparticles increases with increasing ion fluence. • IR active vibrational bands have different cross sections for SHI irradiation. • Upon SHI irradiation optical band gap energy of PPy nanoparticles decreases. • Upon SHI irradiation thermal stability of PPy nanoparticles increases. -- Abstract: In this study we report 160 MeV Ni 12+ swift heavy ion irradiation induced enhancement in the structural, optical and electrical properties of spherical polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles. High resolution transmission electron microscope results show that the pristine PPy nanoparticles have an average diameter of 11 nm while upon irradiation the average diameter increases to 18 nm at the highest ion fluence of 1 × 10 12 ions/cm 2 . X-ray diffraction studies show an enhancement of crystallinity and average crystallite size of PPy nanoparticles with increasing fluence. Studies of Fourier transform infrared spectra suggest the structural modifications of different functional groups upon irradiation. It also reveals that different functional groups have different sensitivity to irradiation. The infrared active N–H vibrational band at 3695 cm −1 is more sensitive to irradiation with a formation cross-section of 5.77 × 10 −13 cm 2 and effective radius of 4.28 nm. The UV–visible absorption spectra of PPy nanoparticles show that the absorption band undergoes a red shift with increasing fluence. Moreover upon irradiation the optical band gap energy decreases and Urbach’s energy increases with fluence. Thermo-gravimetric analysis studies suggest that upon irradiation the thermal stability of PPy nanoparticles increases which may be attributed to their enhanced crystallinity. Current–voltage characteristics of PPy nanoparticles exhibit non-Ohmic, symmetric behavior which increases with fluence

  9. Effect of 120 MeV 28Si9+ ion irradiation on structural and magnetic properties of NiFe2O4 and Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R.; Raghuvanshi, S.; Satalkar, M.; Kane, S. N.; Tatarchuk, T. R.; Mazaleyrat, F.

    2018-05-01

    NiFe2O4, Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 samples were synthesized using sol-gel auto combustion method, and irradiated by using 120 MeV 28Si9+ ion with ion fluence of 1×1012 ions/cm2. Characterization of pristine, irradiated samples were done using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). XRD validates the single phase nature of pristine, irradiated Ni- Zn nano ferrite except for Ni ferrite (pristine, irradiated) where secondary phases of α-Fe2O3 and Ni is observed. FE- SEM images of pristine Ni, Ni-Zn ferrite show inhomogeneous nano-range particle size distribution. Presence of diamagnetic ion (Zn2+) in NiFe2O4 increases oxygen positional parameter (u 4¯3m ), experimental, theoretical saturation magnetization (Msexp., Msth.), while decreases the grain size (Ds) and coercivity (Hc). With irradiation Msexp., Msth. increases but not much change are observed in Hc. New antistructure modeling for the pristine, irradiated Ni and Ni-Zn ferrite samples was used for describing the surface active centers.

  10. Compositional, structural, and optical changes of polyimide implanted by 1.0 MeV Ni+ ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšová, Romana; Macková, Anna; Pupíková, Hana; Malinský, Petr; Slepička, P.; Švorčík, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 406, SEP (2017), s. 199-204 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Ni ion implantation * polyimide * polymer degradation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2016

  11. 160 MeV Ni{sup 12+} ion irradiation effects on the structural, optical and electrical properties of spherical polypyrrole nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, J.; Kumar, A., E-mail: ask@tezu.ernet.in

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Upon SHI irradiation the average diameters of PPy nanoparticles increases. • Crystallinity of PPy nanoparticles increases with increasing ion fluence. • IR active vibrational bands have different cross sections for SHI irradiation. • Upon SHI irradiation optical band gap energy of PPy nanoparticles decreases. • Upon SHI irradiation thermal stability of PPy nanoparticles increases. -- Abstract: In this study we report 160 MeV Ni{sup 12+} swift heavy ion irradiation induced enhancement in the structural, optical and electrical properties of spherical polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles. High resolution transmission electron microscope results show that the pristine PPy nanoparticles have an average diameter of 11 nm while upon irradiation the average diameter increases to 18 nm at the highest ion fluence of 1 × 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}. X-ray diffraction studies show an enhancement of crystallinity and average crystallite size of PPy nanoparticles with increasing fluence. Studies of Fourier transform infrared spectra suggest the structural modifications of different functional groups upon irradiation. It also reveals that different functional groups have different sensitivity to irradiation. The infrared active N–H vibrational band at 3695 cm{sup −1} is more sensitive to irradiation with a formation cross-section of 5.77 × 10{sup −13} cm{sup 2} and effective radius of 4.28 nm. The UV–visible absorption spectra of PPy nanoparticles show that the absorption band undergoes a red shift with increasing fluence. Moreover upon irradiation the optical band gap energy decreases and Urbach’s energy increases with fluence. Thermo-gravimetric analysis studies suggest that upon irradiation the thermal stability of PPy nanoparticles increases which may be attributed to their enhanced crystallinity. Current–voltage characteristics of PPy nanoparticles exhibit non-Ohmic, symmetric behavior which increases with fluence.

  12. TSD current investigations in pristine and 100 MeV Ni-ion irradiated PET/0.3 PHB polymer liquid crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quamara, J.K.; Singh, Nafa; Prabhavathi, T.; Sridharbabu, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The dielectric relaxations investigations have been carried out in pristine as well as 100 MeV 58 Ni ion irradiated (PELLETRON facility, Nuclear Science Center, New Delhi) PET/0.3 PHB PLC samples. Thermally stimulated depolarization current technique (TSDC) has been employed for this purpose. The plc samples were polarized at 180 deg C under the influence of various polarizing fields following the usual method. Three current maxima are observed around 35deg, 120deg and 155degC which are ascribed as β', β and α transitions. These transitions are mainly due to the fast reacting dipoles of PHB regions, dipolar character due to carbonyl groups in PET rich phase and to the cold crystallization of PET. The results confirm the biphasic nature of this plc. The high energy irradiation influences both β and α transitions. Increase in fluence shifts the β peak as well as α peak towards higher temperature. This confirms that high energy irradiation has not only affected the carbonyl groups but has created new phases. (author)

  13. Tuning of optical and electrical properties of wide band gap Fe:SnO{sub 2}/Li:NiO p-n junctions using 80 MeV oxygen ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistry, Bhaumik V.; Joshi, U.S. [Gujarat University, Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Ahmedabad (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi (India)

    2016-12-15

    Electrical and optical properties of pristine and swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiated p-n junction diode have been investigated for advanced electronics application. Fe:SnO{sub 2}/Li:NiO p-n junction was fabricated by using pulsed laser deposition on c-sapphire substrate. The optical band gaps of Fe:SnO{sub 2} and Li:NiO films were obtained to be 3.88 and 3.37 eV, respectively. The current-voltage characteristics of the oxide-based p-n junction showed a rectifying behaviour with turn-on voltage of 0.95 V. The oxide-based p-n junction diode was irradiated to 80 MeV O{sup +6} ions with 1 x 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} fluence. Decrease in grain size due to SHI irradiation is confirmed by the grazing angle X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. In comparison with the pristine p-n junction diode, O{sup +6} ion irradiated p-n junction diode shows the increase of surface roughness and decrease of percentage transmittance in visible region. For irradiated p-n junction diode, current-voltage curve has still rectifying behaviour but exhibits lower turn-on voltage than that of virgin p-n junction diode. (orig.)

  14. Energy loss of /sup 14/N ions in Ni, Ag, and Cu and the lifetimes of the states at 2.3 and 3.9 MeV in /sup 14/N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, M.; Baek, W.Y.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Gassen, D.; Neuwirth, W.

    1987-01-01

    The energy loss of /sup 14/N ions in Ni, Ag, and Cu has been investigated via the inverted Doppler-shift attenuation technique in the energy range up to 3.1 MeV. Excited /sup 14/N nuclei were produced in the reaction /sup 12/C( 3 He,p) /sup 14/N/sup */, and energy-loss information was obtained from the analysis of the Doppler-broadened 2.313-MeV γ-ray line, observed with a Ge(Li) detector. This analysis also yielded the lifetimes of the levels at 2.3 and 3.9 MeV in /sup 14/N, which were determined to be 97.7 +- 5.5 and 5.6 +- 1.1 fs, respectively, in reasonable agreement with previous measurements and theoretical calculations. The stopping cross sections obtained for all three stopping media are compared with existing theoretical calculations, especially with regard to the oscillations with the atomic number of the stopping medium

  15. Scattering of 130 MeV helions on 58Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djaloeis, A.; Alderliesten, C.; Bojowald, J.; Oelert, W.; Turek, P.

    1982-01-01

    Angular distributions for the tau + 58 Ni scattering to the (g.s., 0 + ) (1.45 MeV, 2 + ) and giant resonance (Esub(x) approximately 63Asup(-1/3) MeV) states in 58 Ni have been measured at Esub(tau) = 130 MeV in an angular range thetasub(c.m.) = 6 0 -83 0 . Optical model and DWBA analyses have been performed. The use of helion optical potentials with either a volume (Woods-Saxon) or a surface (Woods-Saxon derivative) absorption results in good fits to the g.s. and 1.45 MeV data. However, the volume absorption gives consistently a better fit quality. The discrete ambiguity of the helion optical potential has been resolved in favour of the shallow potential family. The giant resonance is found to have a dominant quadrupole (L=2) character with about 6% (EWSR) L=4 admixture. (Auth.)

  16. K-shell x-ray production cross sections of selected elements Al to Ni for 4.0 to 38.0 MeV 10B ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monigold, G.; McDaniel, F.D.; Duggan, J.L.; Mehta, R.; Rice, R.; Miller, P.D.

    1976-01-01

    K-Shell x-ray production cross sections for the target elements Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni were measured for incident 10 B ions over the energy range 4.0 to 38.0 MeV. The cross section data were compared to the theoretical predictions of the binary encounter approximation (BEA); the plane wave born approximation (PWBA); and the PWBA modified to include corrections for increased binding energy (B), Coulomb deflection of the incident ion (C), orbital perturbation due to polarization (P), and relativistic effects (R). In addition, fluorescence yield variations (W/sub K/) and contributions to the cross sections from electron capture (EC) were included. It was found that the predictions of the fully modified PWBA with contributions from electron capture and fluorescence yield variations included provided the best fit to the experimental data over the entire energy range for each target element. The Kβ/Kα x-ray intensity ratios were compared to theoretical values that assume single hole ionization, and the x-ray energy shifts presented as a function of the energy of the incident ion. These two measurements provided confirmation of the occurrence of multiple ionization for 10 B bombardment of target elements in the range 21 less than or equal to Z 2 less than or equal to 28

  17. K-shell x-ray production cross sections of selected elements Al to Ni for 4. 0 to 38. 0 MeV /sup 10/B ions. [Cross sections, 4. 0 to 38 MeV, binding energy, electron capture decay, PWBA, energy shifts, multiple ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monigold, G.; McDaniel, F.D.; Duggan, J.L.; Mehta, R.; Rice, R.; Miller, P.D.

    1976-01-01

    K-Shell x-ray production cross sections for the target elements Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni were measured for incident /sup 10/B ions over the energy range 4.0 to 38.0 MeV. The cross section data were compared to the theoretical predictions of the binary encounter approximation (BEA); the plane wave born approximation (PWBA); and the PWBA modified to include corrections for increased binding energy (B), Coulomb deflection of the incident ion (C), orbital perturbation due to polarization (P), and relativistic effects (R). In addition, fluorescence yield variations (W/sub K/) and contributions to the cross sections from electron capture (EC) were included. It was found that the predictions of the fully modified PWBA with contributions from electron capture and fluorescence yield variations included provided the best fit to the experimental data over the entire energy range for each target element. The K..beta../K..cap alpha.. x-ray intensity ratios were compared to theoretical values that assume single hole ionization, and the x-ray energy shifts presented as a function of the energy of the incident ion. These two measurements provided confirmation of the occurrence of multiple ionization for /sup 10/B bombardment of target elements in the range 21 less than or equal to Z/sub 2/ less than or equal to 28.

  18. MEV Energy Electrostatic Accelerator Ion Beam Emittance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    I.G. Ignat’ev; M.I. Zakharets; S.V. Kolinko; D.P. Shulha

    2014-01-01

    The testing equipment was designed, manufactured and tried out permitting measurements of total current, current profile and emittance of an ion beam extracted from the ion beam. MeV energy electrostatic accelerator ion H + beam emittance measurement results are presented.

  19. Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2009-06-30

    Original technical objectives of CRADA number PVI C-03-09 between BNL and Poole Ventura, Inc. (PVI) were to develop an intense, high charge state, ion source for MeV ion implanters. Present day high-energy ion implanters utilize low charge state (usually single charge) ion sources in combination with rf accelerators. Usually, a MV LINAC is used for acceleration of a few rnA. It is desirable to have instead an intense, high charge state ion source on a relatively low energy platform (de acceleration) to generate high-energy ion beams for implantation. This de acceleration of ions will be far more efficient (in energy utilization). The resultant implanter will be smaller in size. It will generate higher quality ion beams (with lower emittance) for fabrication of superior semiconductor products. In addition to energy and cost savings, the implanter will operate at a lower level of health risks associated with ion implantation. An additional aim of the project was to producing a product that can lead to long­ term job creation in Russia and/or in the US. R&D was conducted in two Russian Centers (one in Tomsk and Seversk, the other in Moscow) under the guidance ofPVI personnel and the BNL PI. Multiple approaches were pursued, developed, and tested at various locations with the best candidate for commercialization delivered and tested at on an implanter at the PVI client Axcelis. Technical developments were exciting: record output currents of high charge state phosphorus and antimony were achieved; a Calutron-Bemas ion source with a 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art). Record steady state output currents of higher charge state phosphorous and antimony and P ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb {sup 4 +}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. Ultimate commercialization goals did not succeed (even though a number of the products like high

  20. Effects of high-energy (MeV) ion implantation of polyester films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Keiji; Matsumoto, Yasuyo; Nishimiya, Nobuyuki; Noshiro, Mitsuru; Satou, Mamoru

    1991-01-01

    The effects of high-energy ion beam irradiation on polyester (PET) films using a 3 MeV tandem-type ion beam accelerator were studied. O, Ni, Pt, and Au as ion species were irradiated at 10 14 -10 15 ions/cm 2 on 50 μm thick PET films. Physical properties and molecular structure changes were studied by the surface resistivity measurements and RBS. The surface resistivity decreases with an increase in irradiation dose. At 10 15 ions/cm 2 irradiation, the surface resistivity is 10 8 Ω/□. According to RBS and XPS analyses, some carbon and oxygen atoms in the PET are replaced by implanted ions and the -C=O bonds are destroyed easily by the ion beam. (orig.)

  1. 0,01-5 MeV heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, V.P.; Ivanov, A.S.; Nikiforov, S.A.; Svin'in, M.P.; Tarvid, G.V.; Troshikhin, A.G.; Fedotov, M.T.

    1983-01-01

    The results of development of an accelerating complex on the base of the UP-2-1 heavy ion charge exchange accelerator and IMPLANT-500 high-voltage heavy ion accelerator are given. The accelerating complex provides overlapping of the 0.01 MeV to 5 MeV energy range at accelerated beam currents of 10 -3 -10 -6 A order. The structural features of accelerators and their basic units and systems are considered. The UP-2-1 accelerator is designed for researches in the field of experimental physics and applied problem solutions. The IMPLANT-500 accelerator is designed for commercial ion-beam facilities with closed loop of silicon plate treatment

  2. Microbeam line of MeV heavy ions for materials modification and in-situ analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horino, Yuji; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Kiuchi, Masato; Fujii, Kanenaga; Satoh, Mamoru; Takai, Mikio.

    1990-01-01

    A microbeam line for MeV heavy ions of almost any element has been developed for microion-beam processing such as maskless MeV ion implantation and its in-situ analysis. Beam spot sizes of 4.0 μm x 4.0 μm for 3 MeV C 2+ and 9.6 μm x 4.8 μm for 1.8 MeV Au 2+ beams were obtained. Maskless MeV gold ion implantation to a silicon substrate and in-situ microanalysis before and after ion implantation were demonstrated. (author)

  3. The irradiation hardening of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy under Xe26+ ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaican; Hai, Yang; Liu, Renduo; Jiang, Li; Ye, Xiang-xi; Li, Jianjian; Xue, Wandong; Wang, Wanxia; Tang, Ming; Yan, Long; Yin, Wen; Zhou, Xingtai

    2018-04-01

    The irradiation hardening of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy was investigated. 7 MeV Xe26+ ion irradiation was performed at room temperature and 650 °C with peak damage dose from 0.05 to 10 dpa. With the increase of damage dose, the hardness of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy increases, and reaches saturation at damage dose ≥1 dpa. Moreover, the damage dose dependence of hardness in both alloys can be described by the Makin and Minter's equation, where the effective critical volume of obstacles can be used to represent irradiation hardening resistance of the alloys. Our results also show that Ni-W-Cr alloy has better irradiation hardening resistance than Ni-Mo-Cr alloy. This is ascribed to the fact that the W, instead of Mo in the alloy, can suppress the formation of defects under ion irradiation.

  4. Ion beam induced luminescence from diamond using an MeV ion microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettiol, A A; Jamieson, D N; Prawer, S; Allen, M G [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1994-12-31

    Analysis of the luminescence induced by a MeV ion beam offers the potential to provide useful information about the chemical properties of atoms in crystals to complement the information provided by more traditional Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), ion channeling and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Furthermore, the large penetration depth of the MeV ion beam offers several advantages over the relatively shallow penetration of keV electrons typically employed in cathodoluminescence. An Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL) detection system was developed for the Melbourne microprobe that allows the spatial mapping of the luminescence signal along with the signals from RBS and PIXE. Homoepitaxial diamond growth has been studied and remarkable shifts in the characteristic blue luminescence of diamond towards the green were observed in the overgrowth. This has been tentatively identified as being due to transition metal inclusions in the epitaxial layers. 8 refs., 2 refs.

  5. Ion beam induced luminescence from diamond using an MeV ion microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettiol, A.A.; Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Allen, M.G. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1993-12-31

    Analysis of the luminescence induced by a MeV ion beam offers the potential to provide useful information about the chemical properties of atoms in crystals to complement the information provided by more traditional Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), ion channeling and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Furthermore, the large penetration depth of the MeV ion beam offers several advantages over the relatively shallow penetration of keV electrons typically employed in cathodoluminescence. An Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL) detection system was developed for the Melbourne microprobe that allows the spatial mapping of the luminescence signal along with the signals from RBS and PIXE. Homoepitaxial diamond growth has been studied and remarkable shifts in the characteristic blue luminescence of diamond towards the green were observed in the overgrowth. This has been tentatively identified as being due to transition metal inclusions in the epitaxial layers. 8 refs., 2 refs.

  6. Identification and imaging of modern paints using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry with MeV ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanović Radović, Iva; Siketić, Zdravko; Jembrih-Simbürger, Dubravka

    2017-01-01

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry using MeV ion excitation was applied to analyse modern paint materials containing synthetic organic pigments and binders. It was demonstrated that synthetic organic pigments and binder components with molecular masses in the m/z range from 1 to 1200 could be identi......Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry using MeV ion excitation was applied to analyse modern paint materials containing synthetic organic pigments and binders. It was demonstrated that synthetic organic pigments and binder components with molecular masses in the m/z range from 1 to 1200 could...... be identified in different paint samples with a high efficiency and in a single measurement. Different ways of mounting of mostly insulating paint samples were tested prior to the analysis in order to achieve the highest possible yield of pigment main molecular ions. As Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer for Me......V Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry is attached to the heavy ion microprobe, molecular imaging on cross-sections of small paint fragments was performed using focused ions. Due to the fact that molecules are extracted from the uppermost layer of the sample and to avoid surface contamination, the paint samples...

  7. Fragmentation of neutron-hole strengths in 59Ni observed in the 60Ni(p, d) 59Ni reaction at 65 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoba, M.; Ohgaki, H.; Kugimiya, H.; Ijiri, H.; Maki, T.; Nakano, M.

    1995-01-01

    The 60 Ni(p, d) 59 Ni reaction has been studied with 65 MeV polarized protons. Angular distributions of the differential cross section and analyzing power have been measured for neutron hole states in 59 Ni up to the excitation energies of 7 MeV. The data analysis with a standard distorted-wave Born approximation theory provides transferred angular momenta l, j and spectroscopic factors for thirty-nine transitions. The nuclear damping mechanism of the single hole states is discussed. ((orig.))

  8. DC and RF ion accelerators for MeV energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanus, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis deals with the transport and acceleration of intense ion beams in single-ended Van de Graaff accelerators and the multiple beam rf accelerator MEQALAC (Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Array Linear Accelerator). Ch. 2 discusses several beam-envelope calculation techniques and describes the ion-optical components of a 1 MV, high-current, heavy-ion implantation facility and a 2 MV facility for analyzing purposes. The X-ray level of these accelerators is kept low, such that no shielding is needed, by keeping the energy of the secondary electrons sufficiently low, which is accomplished by a suppression system of small permanent magnets built in the acceleration tubes (ch. 3). Ch.'s 4,5 and 6 cover various aspects of stage II of the MEQALAC project. This stage deals with the parallel acceleration of four high-current N + beams from 40 keV to 1 MeV. Acceleration takes place in 32 rf gaps which are part of a modified interdigital H-resonator. In between the accelerating gaps, small electrostatic quadrupoles are mounted, which oppose the space charge forces of the intense ion beams. The lenses are arranged in a periodic focusing structure. A bucket-type plasma ion source is used, which produces both N + and N 2 + ions. In between the ion source and the MEQALAC section, a Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) section is mounted which provides for the drift space for a buncher. The latter device transforms the extracted dc beams into bunched beams which are accepted by the MEQALAC section. In ch. 4 the transport of ion beams that contain both N + and N 2 + ions, so-called mixed beams, through the LEBT section is discussed and equations for the current limit of a mixed beam are derived. Bunching of mixed N + , N 2 + beams is discussed in ch. 5. Multichannel acceleration of N + ions with the MEQALAC is discussed in ch. 6. (author). 122 refs.; 67 figs.; 1 tab

  9. Precipitation in Ni-Si during electron and ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, G. E.; Zama, T.; Ishino, S.

    1986-11-01

    This study was undertaken to further investigate how the nature of the irradiation condition affects precipitation in a dilute Ni-Si system. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) discs of a solution annealed Ni alloy containing 5 at% Si were irradiated with 400 keV Ar + ions, 200 keV He + ions and 1 MeV electrons at average displacement rates in the range 2 × 10 -5dpa/s to 2 × 10 -3dpa/s at temperatures in the range 25°C to 450°C. Samples irradiated with electrons were observed in situ in an HVEM, while ion irradiated specimens were examined in a TEM after irradiation. Precipitation of Ni 3Si was detected by the appearance of superlattice spots in the electron diffraction patterns. It was found that as the mass of the irradiating species increased, the lower bound temperature at which Ni 3Si precipitation was first observed increased. For electron irradiation, the lower bound temperature at 2 × 10 -3dpa/s was ˜125°C, whereas for 400 keV Ar + irradiation at a similar average displacement rate the lower boundary was approximately 325°C. This suggests that cascade disordering competes with radiation induced solute segregation.

  10. Precipitation in Ni-Si during electron and ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, G.E.; Zama, T.; Ishino, S.

    1986-01-01

    This study was undertaken to further investigate how the nature of the irradiation condition affects precipitation in a dilute Ni-Si system. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) discs of a solution annealed Ni alloy containing 5 at% Si were irradiated with 400 keV Ar + ions, 200 keV He + ions and 1 MeV electrons at average displacement rates in the range 2x10 -5 dpa/s to 2x10 -3 dpa/s at temperatures in the range 25 0 C to 450 0 C. Samples irradiated with electrons were observed in situ in an HVEM, while ion irradiated specimens were examined in a TEM after irradiation. Precipitation of Ni 3 Si was detected by the appearance of superlattice spots in the electron diffraction patterns. It was found that as the mass of the irradiating species increased, the lower bound temperature at which Ni 3 Si precipitation was first observed increased. For electron irradiation, the lower bound temperature at 2x10 -3 dpa/s was ∝125 0 C, whereas for 400 keV Ar + irradiation at a similar average displacement rate the lower boundary was approximately 325 0 C. This suggests that cascade disordering competes with radiation induced solute segregation. (orig.)

  11. Focussed MeV ion beam implanted waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Bibra, M L; Roberts, A; Nugent, K; Jamieson, D N [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Single mode buried optical waveguides have been fabricated in fused silica by MeV proton implantation using a focussed hydrogen ion beam. The technique has the potential to direct write waveguide devices and produce multi-layered structures, without the need for intermediate steps such as mask fabrication or layered depositions. A micron resolution Confocal Raman Spectrometer has been used to map the distribution of atomic vacancies that forms the waveguiding region. The results are compared with theoretical calculations. Losses of 3 dB cm{sup -1} have been measured in unannealed samples, which decreases to less than 0.5 dB cm{sup -1} after annealing at 500 degrees Celsius. We describe methods for determining the refractive index distribution of single mode buried waveguides from their output intensity distributions via an inversion of the scalar wave equation. (authors). 5 figs.

  12. Focussed MeV ion beam implanted waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Bibra, M.L.; Roberts, A.; Nugent, K.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Single mode buried optical waveguides have been fabricated in fused silica by MeV proton implantation using a focussed hydrogen ion beam. The technique has the potential to direct write waveguide devices and produce multi-layered structures, without the need for intermediate steps such as mask fabrication or layered depositions. A micron resolution Confocal Raman Spectrometer has been used to map the distribution of atomic vacancies that forms the waveguiding region. The results are compared with theoretical calculations. Losses of 3 dB cm{sup -1} have been measured in unannealed samples, which decreases to less than 0.5 dB cm{sup -1} after annealing at 500 degrees Celsius. We describe methods for determining the refractive index distribution of single mode buried waveguides from their output intensity distributions via an inversion of the scalar wave equation. (authors). 5 figs.

  13. Effect of swift heavy ion-irradiation on Cr/Fe/Ni multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ratnesh; Gupta, Ajay; Avasthi, D.K.; Principi, G.; Tosello, C.

    1999-01-01

    A multilayer film having overall composition Fe 50 Cr 25 Ni 25 , was irradiated successively by 80 MeV Si ions and Ag ions of 150 and 200 MeV energy. The energy deposited in the multilayer in the form of electronic excitations results in significant modification at the interfaces. The interfacial roughness increases in the system after the irradiations as revealed by X-ray reflectivity measurement. Moessbauer measurements provide evidence of intermixing after the irradiation by 200 MeV Ag ions. Comparison of heavy ion irradiated multilayer has been done with annealed and low energy ion irradiated samples. Results suggest that the phases formed at the interfaces of iron as a result of electronic energy loss are similar to those in the cases of thermal diffusion and keV energy ion beam irradiation

  14. A 1MeV, 1A negative ion accelerator test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, M.; Dairaku, M.; Inoue, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Ohara, Y.; Okumura, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Yokoyama, K.

    1995-01-01

    For the Proof-of-Principle test of negative ion acceleration up to 1 MeV, the beam energy required for ITER, a negative ion test facility named MeV Test Facility (MTF) and an ion source/accelerator have been designed and constructed. They are designed to produce a 1 MeV H- beam at a low source pressure of 0.13Pa. The MTF has a power supply system, which constituts of a 1MV, 1A, 60 s Cockcroft-Walton type dc high energy generator and power supplies for negative ion generation and extraction (ion source power supplies). The negative ion source/accelerator is composed of a cesiated volume source and a 5-stage, multi-aperture, electrostatic accelerator. The MTF and the ion source/accelerator have been completed, and the accelertion test up to 1 MeV of the H- ions has started. (orig.)

  15. EPR and cathodoluminescence of defects in diamond irradiated by nickel ions with energy of 335 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varichenko, V.S.; Martinovich, V.A.; Filipp, A.Z.; Didyk, A.Yu.

    1995-01-01

    Defect production in natural diamond irradiated by 335 MeV Ni ions within a dose range of 5·10 12 - 5·10 14 cm -2 has been studied by EPR and cathodoluminescence techniques. It is shown that the high energy ion irradiation leads to the appearance of modified track like one-dimensional structures with nontetrahedral coordination of atoms. A mechanism of microwave conductivity in modified structures of irradiated samples discussed in frame of a model of mobile quasi-particles of corresponding paramagnetic centres. Peculiarities of concentration distributions of paramagnetic centres corresponding to ion-modified structures and cathodoluminescence centres through the irradiated layer are connected with track channeling and stopped of a part of ions because of their elastic collisions with lattice atoms during ion stopping. (author). 18 refs., 5 figs

  16. Identification and imaging of modern paints using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry with MeV ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanović Radović, Iva; Siketić, Zdravko; Jembrih-Simbürger, Dubravka; Marković, Nikola; Anghelone, Marta; Stoytschew, Valentin; Jakšić, Milko

    2017-09-01

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry using MeV ion excitation was applied to analyse modern paint materials containing synthetic organic pigments and binders. It was demonstrated that synthetic organic pigments and binder components with molecular masses in the m/z range from 1 to 1200 could be identified in different paint samples with a high efficiency and in a single measurement. Different ways of mounting of mostly insulating paint samples were tested prior to the analysis in order to achieve the highest possible yield of pigment main molecular ions. As Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer for MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry is attached to the heavy ion microprobe, molecular imaging on cross-sections of small paint fragments was performed using focused ions. Due to the fact that molecules are extracted from the uppermost layer of the sample and to avoid surface contamination, the paint samples were not embedded in the resin as is usually done when imaging of paint samples using different techniques in the field of cultural heritage.

  17. Si-nanoparticle synthesis using ion implantation and MeV ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chulapakorn, T.; Wolff, M.; Primetzhofer, D.; Possnert, G. [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, P.O. Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Sychugov, I.; Suvanam, S.S.; Linnros, J. [Royal Institute of Technology, School of Information and Communication Technology, P.O. Box Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Hallen, A. [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, P.O. Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Royal Institute of Technology, School of Information and Communication Technology, P.O. Box Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden)

    2015-12-15

    A dielectric matrix with embedded Si-nanoparticles may show strong luminescence depending on nanoparticles size, surface properties, Si-excess concentration and matrix type. Ion implantation of Si ions with energies of a few tens to hundreds of keV in a SiO{sub 2} matrix followed by thermal annealing was identified as a powerful method to form such nanoparticles. The aim of the present work is to optimize the synthesis of Si-nanoparticles produced by ion implantation in SiO{sub 2} by employing MeV ion irradiation as an additional annealing process. The luminescence properties are measured by spectrally resolved photoluminescence including PL lifetime measurement, while X-ray reflectometry, atomic force microscopy and ion beam analysis are used to characterize the nanoparticle formation process. The results show that the samples implanted at 20%-Si excess atomic concentration display the highest luminescence and that irradiation of 36 MeV {sup 127}I ions affects the luminosity in terms of wavelength and intensity. It is also demonstrated that the nanoparticle luminescence lifetime decreases as a function of irradiation fluence. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Structural, thermal and optical behavior of 84 MeV oxygen and 120 MeV silicon ions irradiated PES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samra, Kawaljeet Singh; Thakur, Sonika; Singh, Lakhwant

    2011-01-01

    In order to study structural, thermal and optical behavior, thin flat samples of polyethersulfone were irradiated with oxygen and silicon ions. The changes in properties were analyzed using different techniques viz: X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared, UV-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A noticeable increase in the intensity of X-ray diffraction peaks was observed after irradiation with 84 MeV oxygen ions at low and medium fluences, which may be attributed to radiation-induced cross-linking in polymer. Fourier transform infrared and thermo-gravimetric analysis corroborated the results of X-ray diffraction analysis. No noticeable change in the Fourier transform infrared spectra of oxygen ion irradiated polyethersulfone were observed even at the highest fluence of 1 x 10 13 ions cm -2 , but after irradiation with silicon ions, a reduction in intensity of almost all characteristic bands was revealed. An increase in the activation energy of decomposition of polyethersulfone was observed after irradiation with 84 MeV oxygen ions up to medium fluences but degradation was revealed at higher fluences. Similar trends were observed by photoluminescence analysis.

  19. Evolution of ion damage at 773K in Ni- containing concentrated solid-solution alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shi; He, Mo-Rigen; Jin, Ke; Bei, Hongbin; Robertson, Ian M.

    2018-04-01

    Quantitative analysis of the impact of the compositional complexity in a series of Ni-containing concentrated solid-solution alloys, Ni, NiCo, NiFe, NiCoCr, NiCoFeCr, NiCoFeCrMn and NiCoFeCrPd, on the evolution of defects produced by 1 MeV Kr ion irradiation at 773 K is reported. The dynamics of the evolution of the damage structure during irradiation to a dose of 2 displacements per atom were observed directly by performing the ion irradiations in electron transparent foils in a transmission electron microscope coupled to an ion accelerator. The defect evolution was assessed through measurement of the defect density, defect size and fraction of perfect and Frank loops. These three parameters were dependent on the alloying element as well as the number of elements. The population of loops was sensitive to the ion dose and alloy composition as faulted Frank loops were observed to unfault to perfect loops with increasing ion dose. These dependences are explained in terms of the influence of each element on the lifetime of the displacement cascade as well as on defect formation and migration energies.

  20. Electron and ion currents relevant to accurate current integration in MeV ion backscattering spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson, S.; Nicolet, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    The magnitude and characteristics of the currents which flow in the target and the chamber of an MeV ion backscattering spectrometer are examined. Measured energy distributions and the magnitude of high-energy secondary electron currents are reported. An empirical universal curve is shown to fit the energy distribution of secondary electrons for several combinations of ion energy, targets and ion species. The magnitude of tertiary electron currents which arise at the vacuum vessel walls is determined for various experimental situations and is shown to be non-negligible in many cases. An experimental arrangement is described which permits charge integrations to 1% arruracy without restricting access to the target as a Faraday cage does. (Auth.)

  1. Anisotropic deformation of metallo-dielectric core-shell colloids under MeV ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penninkhof, J.J.; Dillen, T. van; Roorda, S.; Graf, C.; Blaaderen, A. van; Vredenberg, A.M.; Polman, A.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the deformation of metallo-dielectric core-shell colloids under 4 MeV Xe, 6 and 16 MeV Au, 30 MeV Si and 30 MeV Cu ion irradiation. Colloids of silica surrounded by a gold shell, with a typical diameter of 400 nm, show anisotropic plastic deformation under MeV ion irradiation, with the metal flowing conform the anisotropically deforming silica core. The 20 nm thick metal shell imposes a mechanical constraint on the deforming silica core, reducing the net deformation strain rate compared to that of pure silica. In colloids consisting of a Au core and a silica shell, the silica expands perpendicular to the ion beam, while the metal core shows a large elongation along the ion beam direction, provided the silica shell is thick enough (>40 nm). A minimum electronic energy loss of 3.3 keV/nm is required for shape transformation of the metal core. Silver cores embedded in a silica shell show no elongation, but rather disintegrate. Also in planar SiO 2 films, Au and Ag colloids show entirely different behavior under MeV irradiation. We conclude that the deformation model of core-shell colloids must include ion-induced particle disintegration in combination with thermodynamical effects, possibly in combination with mechanical effects driven by stresses around the ion tracks

  2. Anisotropic deformation of metallo-dielectric core shell colloids under MeV ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninkhof, J. J.; van Dillen, T.; Roorda, S.; Graf, C.; van Blaaderen, A.; Vredenberg, A. M.; Polman, A.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the deformation of metallo-dielectric core-shell colloids under 4 MeV Xe, 6 and 16 MeV Au, 30 MeV Si and 30 MeV Cu ion irradiation. Colloids of silica surrounded by a gold shell, with a typical diameter of 400 nm, show anisotropic plastic deformation under MeV ion irradiation, with the metal flowing conform the anisotropically deforming silica core. The 20 nm thick metal shell imposes a mechanical constraint on the deforming silica core, reducing the net deformation strain rate compared to that of pure silica. In colloids consisting of a Au core and a silica shell, the silica expands perpendicular to the ion beam, while the metal core shows a large elongation along the ion beam direction, provided the silica shell is thick enough (>40 nm). A minimum electronic energy loss of 3.3 keV/nm is required for shape transformation of the metal core. Silver cores embedded in a silica shell show no elongation, but rather disintegrate. Also in planar SiO2 films, Au and Ag colloids show entirely different behavior under MeV irradiation. We conclude that the deformation model of core-shell colloids must include ion-induced particle disintegration in combination with thermodynamical effects, possibly in combination with mechanical effects driven by stresses around the ion tracks.

  3. N/Z equilibration in damped collisions induced by E/A = 8.5 MeV /sup 58/Ni and /sup 64/Ni on /sup 238/U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planeta, R.; Zhou, S.H.; Kwiatkowski, K.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclide distributions have been measured for damped collision products formed in the reaction of E/A = 8.5 MeV /sup 58/Ni and /sup 64/Ni ions with /sup 238/U. The data demonstrate that in these very asymmetric systems the evolution of the nucleon-exchange process as a function of energy loss depends strongly on the N/Z value of the projectile and the corresponding gradient in the potential-energy surface. Comparison of the data with transport model calculations shows qualitative agreement with the N and Z centroids, variances, and correlation coefficients. However, absolute discrepancies exist which suggest the need for improvement in the model

  4. Search for diffusion of counter-passing MeV ions in the TFTR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Boivin, R.; Chang, C.S.; Hammett, G.; Mynick, H.E.

    1991-07-01

    Confinement studies of MeV ions will play an important role in the research leading to burning plasmas in tokamaks, since any significant radial transport of MeV alpha particles will affect the heating rate or heating profiles of these plasmas. Because the energy, gyroradius, and collisionality of these MeV ions is very different from that of the background plasma, their transport rates cannot be assumed equal to those of the bulk plasma ions. Note that the desired confinement time for 3.5 MeV alphas is set by their thermalization time, which can be up to τ th,α ∼1 sec for the steady-state phase of ITER, requiring D 2 /sec. This is equivalent to over ∼100,000 alpha particle transits of the torus. 28 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs

  5. XRD study of yttria stabilized zirconia irradiated with 7.3 MeV Fe, 10 MeV I, 16 MeV Au, 200 MeV Xe and 2.2 GeV Au ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, K.; Yoshizaki, H. [Department of Materials Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Saitoh, Y. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Ishikawa, N. [Tokai Research and Development Center, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Iwase, A., E-mail: iwase@mtr.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2016-03-01

    To simulate energetic neutron irradiation effects, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) which is one of the major materials for electrical corrosion potential sensors (ECP sensors) was irradiated with heavy ions at energies ranging from 7.3 MeV to 2.2 GeV. Ion irradiation effects on the lattice structure were analyzed using the X-ray diffraction (XRD). The increase in lattice constant was induced by the ion irradiation. It was dominated by the elastic collision process and not by the electronic excitation process. The lattice disordering which was observed as a broadening of XRD peaks was also induced by the irradiation especially for 200 MeV Xe ion irradiation. The present result suggests that the expansion and/or the disordering of YSZ lattice induced by energetic neutrons may affect the durability of a joint interface between a metal housing and YSZ membrane for the usage of ECP sensors in nuclear power reactors.

  6. Cluster ion-surface interactions: from meV to MeV energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordlund, Kai; Meinander, Kristoffer; Jaervi, Tommi T.; Peltola, Jarkko; Samela, Juha [Accelerator Laboratory, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    The nature of cluster ion-surface interactions changes dramatically with the kinetic energy of the incoming cluster species. In this talk I review some of our recent work on the nature of cluster-surface interactions spanning an energy range from a few MeV/cluster to about 1 MeV/cluster and cluster sizes in the range of 10 - 1000 atoms/cluster. In the energy range of a few MeV/cluster ion, the kinetic energy of the incoming ion is insignificant compared to the energy gained when the surface potential energy at the cluster-surface interface is released and partly translated into kinetic energy. Even in this energy regime I show that surprisingly drastic effects can occur. When the energy of the incoming cluster is raised to a few eV/atom, the kinetic energy of the incoming cluster starts to affect the deposition. It will cause the cluster to entirely reform on impact. When the energy is raised to the range of keV's/cluster, the clusters start to penetrate the sample, fairly similar to conventional ion implantation. However, in dense targets the cluster ions may stick close to each other long enough to cause a significant enhancement of the heat spike in the material. Finally, I show that at kinetic energies around 1 MeV/cluster the cluster enhancement of the heat spike may lead to dramatic surface effects.

  7. MeV ion loss during 3He minority heating in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Hammett, G.; Boivin, R.; Phillips, C.; Wilson, R.

    1992-01-01

    The loss of MeV ions during 3 He ICRH minority heating experiments has been measured using scintillator detectors near the wall of TFTR. The observed MeV ion losses to the bottom (90 degrees poloidal) detector are generally consistent with the expected first-orbit loss of D- 3 He alpha particle fusion products, with an inferred global reaction rate up to ∼10 16 reactions/sec. A qualitatively similar but unexpectedly large loss occurs 45 degrees poloidally below the outer midplane. This additional loss might be due to ICRH tail ions or to ICRH wave-induced loss of previously confined fusion products

  8. Swift heavy ion irradiation effects in Pt/C and Ni/C multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ajay; Pandita, Suneel; Avasthi, D. K.; Lodha, G. S.; Nandedkar, R. V.

    1998-12-01

    Irradiation effects of 100 MeV Ag ion irradiation on Ni/C and Pt/C multilayers have been studied using X-ray reflectivity measurements. Modifications are observed in both the multilayers at (dE/dx)e values much below the threshold values for Ni and Pt. This effect is attributed to the discontinuous nature of the metal layers. In both the multilayers interfacial roughness increases with irradiation dose. While Ni/C multilayers exhibit large ion-beam induced intermixing, no observable intermixing is observed in the case of Pt/C multilayer. This difference in the behavior of the two systems suggests a significant role for chemically guided defect motion in the mixing process associated with swift heavy ion irradiation.

  9. Defect production in natural diamond irradiated with high energy Ni ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varichenko, V.S.; Martinovich, V.A.; Penina, N.M.; Zajtsev, A.M.; Stel'makh, V.F.; Didyk, A.Yu.; Fahrner, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    Defect production in diamond irradiated by 335 MeV Ni ions within a dose range of 5 · 10 12 - 5 · 10 14 cm -2 has been studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method. The irradiation leads to the appearance in diamond lattice of quasi-one-dimensional track like structures with non tetrahedral atomic configurations. Possible mechanism of microwave conductivity in the modified structures is discussed. Peculiarities of depth distribution profile of concentration of paramagnetic centres in modified structures are explained by track channeling and by stopped ions because of their elastic collisions with lattice atoms during ion stopping. (author). 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. A comparative study of 30MeV boron4+ and 60MeV oxygen8+ ion irradiated Si NPN BJTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M. Vinay; Krishnaveni, S.; Yashoda, T.; Dinesh, C. M.; Krishnakumar, K. S.; Jayashree, B.; Ramani

    2015-01-01

    The impact of 30MeV boron 4+ and 60MeV oxygen 8+ ion irradiation on electrical characteristics of 2N3773 Si NPN Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) is reported in the present study. The transistors were decapped and irradiated at room temperature. Gummel characteristics, DC current gain and Capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics were studied before and after irradiation at different fluences. DC current gain has decreased significantly in both boron and oxygen ion irradiation. Also the value of capacitance decreased 3-4 times with increase in fluence. Both 30MeV boron ion and 60MeV oxygen ion induced similar extent of degradation in electrical characteristics of the transistor

  11. Transmission property and its applications of MeV ion beams with various capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, N; Ishii, K; Ogawa, H

    2012-01-01

    In order to clarify transmission properties of an ion beam extracted with various capillaries into the air, we have measured intensity distributions for the core and the halo components of MeV ion beams using various capillaries. In addition, we have performed in-air-RBS and in-air-PIXE from the point of the application. At the conference, progress report of transmission properties of ion beams with various capillaries and its applications will be presented.

  12. Large scale silver nanowires network fabricated by MeV hydrogen (H+) ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S, Honey; S, Naseem; A, Ishaq; M, Maaza; M T, Bhatti; D, Wan

    2016-01-01

    A random two-dimensional large scale nano-network of silver nanowires (Ag-NWs) is fabricated by MeV hydrogen (H + ) ion beam irradiation. Ag-NWs are irradiated under H +  ion beam at different ion fluences at room temperature. The Ag-NW network is fabricated by H + ion beam-induced welding of Ag-NWs at intersecting positions. H +  ion beam induced welding is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the structure of Ag NWs remains stable under H +  ion beam, and networks are optically transparent. Morphology also remains stable under H +  ion beam irradiation. No slicings or cuttings of Ag-NWs are observed under MeV H +  ion beam irradiation. The results exhibit that the formation of Ag-NW network proceeds through three steps: ion beam induced thermal spikes lead to the local heating of Ag-NWs, the formation of simple junctions on small scale, and the formation of a large scale network. This observation is useful for using Ag-NWs based devices in upper space where protons are abandoned in an energy range from MeV to GeV. This high-quality Ag-NW network can also be used as a transparent electrode for optoelectronics devices. (paper)

  13. L-shell ionization in Au by O5+ -and Ni5+ -ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, D.P.; Singh, B.P.; Verma, H.R.

    1995-01-01

    The L X-ray production cross sections in gold by 60 to 72 MeV O 5+ ions and 58 to 87 MeV Ni 5+ -ions have been measured. The L-subshell ionization cross sections derived from these experimental results have been compared with the direct ionization theories viz. plane wave Born approximation (PWBA) theory and modified perturbed-stationary-state theory with energy loss, Coulomb deflection and relativistic effects (MECPSSR). A new procedure has been described to account for the change in the yield ratio Lβ 1 /Lβ 2.15 with energy, for Ni 5+ -ion impact on gold. The L sub-shell ionization cross sections have been derived from Lβ 1 , Lβ 4 and Lβ 2.15 lines of the Lβ group in addition to those calculated by the conventional Datz TRY3 technique using Lα, Lγ 1 and Lγ 2.3 X-ray lines. From the shift in the energies of various L X-ray lines and changes in their intensities, 3 and 5 spectator vacancies in the M-and N-shells in gold have been estimated with O 5+ -ion impact while 7, 20 and 4 to 6 spectator vacancies have been inferred in the M-, N- and O-shells respectively with Ni 5+ -ion impact in the energy range of the projectiles undertaken in the present studies. (orig.)

  14. The Energy Dependence of Flow in Ni Induced Collisions from 400A to 1970A MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chance, J.; Brady, F.; Cebra, D.; Kintner, J.; Partlan, M.; Romero, J.; Albergo, S.; Caccia, Z.; Costa, S.; Insolia, A.; Potenza, R.; Romanski, J.; Russo, G.; Tuve, C.; Bieser, F.; Cebra, D.; Lisa, M.; Matis, H.; McMahan, M.; McParland, C.; Olson, D.; Rai, G.; Rasmussen, J.; Ritter, H.; Symons, T.; Wieman, H.; Wienold, T.; Choi, Y.; Elliott, J.; Gilkes, M.; Hauger, J.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Porile, N.; Scharenberg, R.; Srivastava, B.; Tincknell, M.; Warren, P.; Chacon, A.; Wolf, K.

    1997-01-01

    We study the energy dependence of collective (hydrodynamic-like) nuclear matter flow in (400 endash 1970)A MeV Ni+Au and (1000 endash 1970)A MeV Ni+Cu reactions. The flow increases with energy, appears to reach a maximum, and then to decrease at higher energies. A way of comparing the energy dependence of flow values for different projectile-target mass combinations is introduced, which demonstrates a more-or-less common scaling behavior among flow values from different systems. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  15. High-resolution Auger spectroscopy on 79 MeV Ar5+, 89 MeV Ar6+, and 136 MeV Ar7+ ions after excitation by helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.

    1988-01-01

    In this thesis the atomic structure of highly excited Ar 6+ and Ar 7+ ions was studied. For this 79 MeV Ar 5+ , 89 MeV Ar 6+ , and 136 MeV Ar 7+ ions of a heavy ion accelerator were excited by a He gas target to autoionizing states and the Auger electrons emitted in the decay were measured in highly-resolving state. The spectra were taken under an observational angle of zero degree relative to the beam axis in order to minimize the kinematical broadening of the Auger lines. (orig./HSI) [de

  16. Changes of surface structure of Ni, W and chromium-nickel steel Cr18Ni10 irradiated by high fluences of krypton ions with high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didyk, A.Yu.; Semina, V.K.; Khalil, A.; Suvorov, A.L.; Stepanov, A.Eh.; Cheblukov, Yu.N.

    1999-01-01

    The surfaces of W single crystal, Ni polycrystal and chromium-nickel steel, irradiated by Kr ions with energy 305 and 245 MeV up to the fluences 2*10 15 and 3*10 15 ion/cm 2 , were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy. The evaporation coefficients of material surfaces were estimated on the base of changes of surface relief. The values of these coefficients turned out much more than ones predicted by the inelastic sputtering model. The method of 'step' was offered and realized for the more correct estimations evaporation coefficient on the Ni example. The phenomenological model explaining the observed phenomena is introduced

  17. Benchmark experiments with 14 MeV neutrons transmitted through Pe, Fe, Ni and Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tichy, M.; Kralik, M.; Pulpan, J.

    1989-01-01

    Spectra of 14 MeV neutrons transmitted through 7.6 cm of Pb, Fe, Ni and Al are presented. The target of d-t generator was placed to the center of the sphere from the tested material (outer diam. 24 cm). The detector (NE-213 scintillator diameter 5.08 cmx5.08 cm) was located at the distance 3 m and background was subtracted by means of 1 m iron cone. Measured pulse height spectra were processed by two methods and the results were compared with spectra calculated by means of the Blank and Brand codes using Endl and ENDF/B-IV libraries. Preliminary results show remarkable differences between calculation and experiment which requires additional calculations and an improvement of experimental equipment. (orig.)

  18. Study of tapered glass capillary focusing MeV ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zhiyu; Yan Sha; Ma Hongji; Nie Rui; Xue Jianming; Wang Yugang

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, tapered glass capillary ion beam focusing is developing rapidly. It is attractive for simple, compact, low cost and easy use. However, the focusing mechanism for MeV ion beams is still indistinct. We present several experimental results of focusing 2 MeV He + beam. Ion beams were focused by tapered glass capillaries with various outlet inner diameters from several micron to hundred micron. The current densities, angle divergences and energy spectra of the transmitted ion beams are measured. The results proved that 2 MeV He + ions can focused and guided by our capillaries. The energy spectra show that a great part of transmitted ions experienced obvious energy loss, which is different from results of others research groups. We discussed the reason and charged it to the larger incident angle. Considered the incident ions with larger incident angle, the charge will distribute in a layer of micro meter depth in the capillary’s inner wall, but not the surface. The energy loss and many other spectra characters can be explained in this way.

  19. MeV ion-beam analysis of optical data storage films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, J. A.; Mcintyre, L. C., Jr.; Lin, Z.

    1993-01-01

    Our objectives are threefold: (1) to accurately characterize optical data storage films by MeV ion-beam analysis (IBA) for ODSC collaborators; (2) to develop new and/or improved analysis techniques; and (3) to expand the capabilities of the IBA facility itself. Using H-1(+), He-4(+), and N-15(++) ion beams in the 1.5 MeV to 10 MeV energy range from a 5.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, film thickness (in atoms/sq cm), stoichiometry, impurity concentration profiles, and crystalline structure were determined by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), high-energy backscattering, channeling, nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Most of these techniques are discussed in detail in the ODSC Annual Report (February 17, 1987), p. 74. The PIXE technique is briefly discussed in the ODSC Annual Report (March 15, 1991), p. 23.

  20. Contrast of dry and water-saturated arabidopsis seeds irradiated by MeV energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Tao; Qin Huaili; Xue Jianming; Wang Yugang

    2007-01-01

    The dry and water-saturated seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana were irradiated by H + ions with 6.5 MeV in atmosphere. The ion fluence used in this experiment was in the range of 4 x 10 9 -1 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 . According to the structure of the seed and TRIM simulation, the ions with the energy of 6.5 MeV can penetrate the whole seed. The experiment shows that the fluence-response curves for the dry seeds and water-saturated seeds had distinct shoulders and reduced rapidly. The experimental results show that the water-imbibed seeds were more sensitive than the dry seeds and the reason is from free radicals reaction. A model has been constructed, and primely simulates the experiment data. (authors)

  1. Amorphization and recrystallization in MeV ion implanted InP crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, F.; Nieh, C.W.; Jamieson, D.N.; Vreeland, T. Jr.; Tombrello, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive study of MeV- 15 N-ion-implanted InP by a variety of analytical techniques has revealed the physical processes involved in MeV ion implantation into III-V compound semiconductors as well as the influence of post-implantation annealing. It provides a coherent picture of implant distribution, structural transition, crystalline damage, and lattice strain in InP crystals induced by ion implantation and thermal annealing. The experimental results from the different measurements are summarized in this report. Mechanisms of amorphization by implantation and recrystallization through annealing in MeV-ion-implanted InP are proposed and discussed in light of the results obtained

  2. Theoretical study of cylindrical energy analyzers for MeV range heavy ion beam probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, A.; Hamada, Y.

    1993-07-01

    A cylindrical energy analyzer with drift spaces is shown to have a second order focusing for beam incident angle when the deflection angle is properly chosen. The analyzer has a possibility to be applied to MeV range heavy ion beam probes, and will be also available for accurate particle energy measurements in many other fields. (author)

  3. Suppression of X-radiation from 2 MeV ion electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignat'ev, I.G.; Miroshnichenko, V.I.; Sirenko, A.M.; Storizhko, V.E.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents results concerning studies of X-radiation from 2 MeV ion electrostatic accelerator 'Sokol' used for nuclear microprobe analysis. The radiation protection system of the accelerator was developed and tested. Tests of the system of the accelerator show that it reduces doses rate by two orders of magnitude

  4. Growth rate of dislocation loop in Fe-Ni-Cr alloy under Kr+ ion and electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimoto, T.; Allen, C.W.; Rehn, L.E.

    1991-10-01

    In order to examine the effect of irradiating particle species on the growth rate of radiation-induced dislocation loops, a solution-annealed Fe-25Ni-15Cr-0.02C alloy was irradiated at 723 K first by 1.5 MeV Kr + ions for 2520 sec, then by 1.5 MeV Kr + ions and 1.0 MeV electrons simultaneously for 780 sec, and finally by 1.0 MeV electrons for 780 sec with the HVEM-Tandem Facility in Argonne National Laboratory. The calculated damage rate by 1.5 MeV Kr + ions was 5.8 x 10 -4 dpa/s, and that by 1.0 MeV electrons was 1 x 10 -4 dpa/s. The growth rate of a dislocation loop located at the center of the specimen was 7 x 10 -3 nm/s for the Kr + ion irradiation, 4 x 10 -2 nm/s for the simultaneous Kr + and electron irradiation, and (2--3) x 10 -2 nm/s for the electron irradiation. This implies that the electron irradiation is about 19 times more effective in the growth of radiation-induced dislocation loops than the Kr + ion irradiation. The dislocation loop growth rate under the simultaneous Kr + and electron irradiation is higher than the sum of the growth rates under the individual Kr + and electron irradiations. 5 refs., 4 figs

  5. Understanding self ion damage in FCC Ni-Cr-Fe based alloy using X-ray diffraction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder Banerjee, R.; Sengupta, P.; Chatterjee, A.; Mishra, S. C.; Bhukta, A.; Satyam, P. V.; Samajdar, I.; Dey, G. K.

    2018-04-01

    Using X-ray diffraction line profile analysis (XRDLPA) approach the radiation response of FCC Ni-Cr-Fe based alloy 690 to 1.5 and 3 MeV Ni2+ ion damage was quantified in terms of its microstructural parameters. These microstructural parameters viz. average domain size, microstrain and dislocation density were found to vary anisotropically with fluence. The anisotropic behaviour is mainly attributable to presence of twins in pre-irradiated microstructure. After irradiation, surface roughness increases as a function of fluence attributable to change in surface and sub-surface morphology caused by displacement cascade, defects and sputtered atoms created by incident energetic ion. The radiation hardening in case of 1.5 MeV Ni2+ irradiated specimens too is a consequence of the increase in dislocation density formed by interaction of radiation induced defects with pre-existing dislocations. At highest fluence there is an initiation of saturation.

  6. Excitation function of alpha-particle-induced reactions on {sup nat}Ni from threshold to 44 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, M.S. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Tandem Accelerator Facilities, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Kim, K.S.; Nadeem, M.; Kim, G.N. [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, Buk-gu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Sudar, S. [Debrecen University, Institute of Experimental Physics, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2017-05-15

    Excitation functions of the {sup nat}Ni(α,x){sup 62,63,65}Zn, {sup nat}Ni(α,x){sup 56,57}Ni and {sup nat}Ni(α,x){sup 56,57,58m+g}Co reactions were measured from the respective thresholds to 44MeV using the stacked-foil activation technique. The tests for the beam characterization are described. The radioactivity was measured using HPGe γ-ray detectors. Theoretical calculations on α-particles-induced reactions on {sup nat}Ni were performed using the nuclear model code TALYS-1.8. A few results are new, the others strengthen the database. Our experimental data were compared with results of nuclear model calculations and described the reaction mechanism. (orig.)

  7. Energy loss and straggling of MeV ions through biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lei; Wang Yugang; Xue Jianming; Chen Qizhong; Zhang Weiming; Zhang Yanwen

    2007-01-01

    Energy loss and energy straggling of energetic ions through natural dehydrated biological samples were investigated using transmission technique. Biological samples (onion membrane, egg coat, and tomato coat) with different mass thickness were studied, together with Mylar for comparison. The energy loss and energy straggling of MeV H and He ions after penetrating the biological and Mylar samples were measured. The experimental results show that the average energy losses of MeV ions through the biological samples are consistent with SRIM predictions; however, large deviation in energy straggling is observed between the measured results and the SRIM predictions. Taking into account inhomogeneity in mass density and structure of the biological sample, an energy straggling formula is suggested, and the experimental energy straggling values are well predicted by the proposed formula

  8. Development of an MeV ion beam lithography system in Jyvaeskylae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelick, Sergey [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 (Finland)]. E-mail: Sergey.Gorelick@phys.jyu.fi; Ylimaeki, Tommi [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 (Finland); Sajavaara, Timo [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 (Finland); Laitinen, Mikko [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 (Finland); Sagari, A.R.A. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 (Finland); Whitlow, Harry J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 (Finland)

    2007-07-15

    A lithographic facility for writing patterns with ion beams from cyclotron beams is under development for the Jyvaeskylae cyclotron. Instead of focusing and deflecting the beam with electrostatic and magnetic fields a different approach is used. Here a small rectangular beam spot is defined by the shadow of a computer-controlled variable aperture in close proximity to the sample. This allows parallel exposure of rectangular pattern elements of 5-500 {mu}m side with protons up to 6 MeV and heavy ions ({sup 20}Ne, {sup 85}Kr) up to few 100 MeV. Here we present a short overview of the system under construction and development of the aperture design, which is a critical aspect for all ion beam lithography systems.

  9. Surface structural determination of UO2(111) using MeV ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.A.; Ellis, W.P.; Taylor, T.N.; Valone, S.M.; Maggiore, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The UO 2 (111) surface was studied using MeV ions incident along the and directions. In addition, this surface was well characterized by LEED and Auger analysis. A resonance at 3.05 MeV for 4 He elastic scattering from 16 O made it possible to study the surface peaks for uranium and oxygen simultaneously. By combining previous surface studies with detailed analysis of the surface peaks and rocking curves for this compound material, an outward relaxation of 0.19 A +- 0.01 A was determined for uranium

  10. 120 MeV Ag ion induced effects in Au/HfO2/Si MOSCAPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikanthababu, N.; Prajna, K.; Pathak, A. P.; Rao, S. V. S. Nageswara

    2018-05-01

    HfO2/Si thinfilms were deposited by RF sputtering technique. 120 MeV Ag ion irradiation has been used to study the electrical properties of Au/HfO2/Si MOSCAPs. SHI (120 MeV Ag) induced annealing, defects creation and intermixing effects on the electrical properties of these systems have been studied. Here, we have observed that the high electronic excitation can cause a significant reduction of leakage currents in these MOSCAP devices. Various quantum mechanical tunneling phenomenon has been observed from the I-V characteristics.

  11. Contribution of DIAMANT and EUROGAM detectors association to the study of heavy ion-induced fusion-evaporation reactions. Application to the de-excitation study of 90Ru compound nucleus formed in the 32S + 58Ni reaction at 120 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgine, Frederic

    1996-01-01

    For the first time, the sensitivity of statistical evaporation model has been established in detail from 1 H and 4 He energy distributions analysis for different exit channels. The association of the light charged particle multidetector DIAMANT and the γ-spectrometer EUROGAM II shows that precise study of the compound nucleus high spin states deexcitation can be done for small particle channels. These channels are fed by the biggest angular momentum values of the compound nucleus. The analysis of pα channel in 32 S + 58 Ni at 120 MeV reaction exhibits that a particles have an energy distribution which leads to an entry region of the residual nucleus 85 Nb parallel to the yrast line. (author) [fr

  12. Thin film adhesion modification by MeV ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugden, S.

    1991-08-01

    The adhesion of thin films, and in particular the way in which such adhesion may be improved by irradiation, is rather poorly understood. The radiation enhanced adhesion effect has been investigated through the use of Ultra High Vacuum sample preparation, analysis and irradiation techniques, in order to gain control over surface and interface composition. In the systems studied, Au on Ta, Au on Si and Ag on Si, films deposited on atomically clean surfaces show good adhesion, and no evidence of enhancement due to irradiation is observed in the case of such clean interfaces. The results are entirely consistent with radiation enhanced adhesion being due to radiolytic effects on contaminant containing layers at the film/substrate interface. In addition, on silicon substrates the observations highlight the superiority of thermal cleaning over low energy sputtering as a route for producing a clean surface. A model of the radiation enhanced adhesion observations for dirty interface systems is developed, which takes into account the two dimensional nature of the ion energy deposition process. All the observations on such systems are broadly consistent with an activation energy for the process of approximately 5 eV. This value is sufficiently large to bring about chemical bonding rearrangement at the critical film/substrate interface. (Author)

  13. STIM with energy loss contrast: An imaging modality unique to MeV ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, H.W.; Schofield, R.M.S.; Bench, G.S.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) through measurement of energy loss of individual ions is a quantitative imaging technique with several unique capabilities. The uniqueness derives conjointly from the large penetration with small scattering of MeV ions in low-Z specimens, from the simple relationship between energy loss and projected or areal density, and from the almost 100% efficiency with which one obtains pixel data from individual ions. Since contrast is in energy loss and not in numbers of events, the statistics of energy loss straggling affects the image but the statistics of counting does not. Small scattering makes it possible to observe details within transparent specimens. High efficiency makes it possible to collect large data sets for computed tomography, stereo, or high-definition imaging with a small radiation dose. High efficiency allows one to minimize aberrations by use of small apertures, to achieve good precision in the determination of areal density, or even to image live biological specimens in air since only one or a few ions per pixel are required. This paper includes a bibliography on STIM with MeV ions, it discusses the accuracy that one can achieve in the areal density coloring of a pixel with data from one or a few ions, and it supplements that review with recent examples from the Melbourne and the Eugene microprobes. (orig.)

  14. Ion shaking in the 200 MeV XLS-ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoki, E.; Kramer, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    It has been shown that ions, trapped inside the beam's potential, can be removed by the clearing electrodes when the amplitude of the ion oscillation is increased by vertically shaking the ions. We will report on a similar experiment in the 200 Mev XLS ring. The design of the ion clearing system for the ring and the first results obtained, were already reported. In the present series of experiments, RF voltage was applied on a pair of vertical strip-lines. The frequency was scanned in the range of the ion (from H 2 to CO 2 ) bounce frequencies in the ring (1--10 MHz). The response of the beam size, vertical betatron tune and lifetime was studied

  15. Accelerator based synthesis of hydroxyapatite by MeV ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautray, Tapash R.; Narayanan, R.; Kwon, Tae-Yub; Kim, Kyo-Han

    2010-01-01

    Accelerator based MeV ion implantation of Ca 2+ and P 2+ into the titanium substrate to form hydroxyapatite (HA) has been carried out. Calcium hydroxide was formed after heating the calcium implanted titanium in air at 80 o C for 3 h. Upon subsequent annealing for 5 min at 600 o C HA was formed on the surface. Penetration depth of the HA layer in this method is much higher as compared to keV ion implantation. By elemental analysis, Ca/P ratio of the HA was found to be 1.76 which is higher than the ideal 1.67. This higher Ca/P ratio is attributed to the higher penetration depth of the MeV technique used.

  16. Folding model analysis of 58Ni + 64Ni elastic and inelastic scattering at Elab=203.8 and 219.2 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, J.A.; Ferrero, J.L.; Bilwes, B.; Bilwes, R.

    1992-01-01

    Angular distributions of elastic scattering of 58 Ni by 64 Ni and inelastic scattering leading to the first 2 + state in 58 Ni or in 64 Ni were measured at E lab =203.8 and 219.2 MeV. The data were analyzed in the frame of the folding model. A renormalization N of the folding potential consistently lower than unity (N∼0.65) is needed to reproduce the elastic scattering data. Coupled-channel calculations including the main inelastic channels explain partly this discrepancy. They reproduce the elastic and inelastic scattering data with a renormalization of N∼0.8 at both energies. Interference between Coulomb and nuclear excitation is shown to play an important role in the repulsive character of the polarization potential. (author) 38 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  17. Effects produced in GaAs by MeV ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wie, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    The first part of this thesis presents work performed on the ionizing energy beam induced adhesion enhancement of thin (approx.500 A) Au films on GaAs substrates. The ionizing beam, employed in the present thesis, is the MeV ions (i.e., 16 O, 19 F, and 35 Cl), with energies between 1 and 20 MeV. Using the Scratch test for adhesion measurement, and ESCA for chemical analysis of the film substrate interface, the native oxide layer at the interface is shown to play an important role in the adhesion enhancement by the ionizing radiation. A model is discussed that explains the experimental data on the dependence of adhesion enhancement on the energy which was deposited into electronic processes at the interface. The second part of the thesis presents research results on the radiation damage in GaAs crystals produced by MeV ions. Lattice parameter dilatation in the surface layers of the GaAs crystals becomes saturated after a high dose bombardment at room temperature. The strain produced by nuclear collisions is shown to relax partially due to electronic excitation (with a functional dependence on the nuclear and electronic stopping power of bombarding ions. Data on the GaAs and GaP crystals suggest that low temperature recovery stage defects produce major crystal distortion

  18. Charge collection efficiency degradation induced by MeV ions in semiconductor devices: Model and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittone, E., E-mail: ettore.vittone@unito.it [Department of Physics, NIS Research Centre and CNISM, University of Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Pastuovic, Z. [Centre for Accelerator Science (ANSTO), Locked bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2234 (Australia); Breese, M.B.H. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Garcia Lopez, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), Sevilla University, J. Andalucia, CSIC, Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Jaksic, M. [Department for Experimental Physics, Ruder Boškovic Institute (RBI), P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Raisanen, J. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014 (Finland); Siegele, R. [Centre for Accelerator Science (ANSTO), Locked bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2234 (Australia); Simon, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Vizkelethy, G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Highlights: • We study the electronic degradation of semiconductors induced by ion irradiation. • The experimental protocol is based on MeV ion microbeam irradiation. • The radiation induced damage is measured by IBIC. • The general model fits the experimental data in the low level damage regime. • Key parameters relevant to the intrinsic radiation hardness are extracted. - Abstract: This paper investigates both theoretically and experimentally the charge collection efficiency (CCE) degradation in silicon diodes induced by energetic ions. Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) measurements carried out on n- and p-type silicon diodes which were previously irradiated with MeV He ions show evidence that the CCE degradation does not only depend on the mass, energy and fluence of the damaging ion, but also depends on the ion probe species and on the polarization state of the device. A general one-dimensional model is derived, which accounts for the ion-induced defect distribution, the ionization profile of the probing ion and the charge induction mechanism. Using the ionizing and non-ionizing energy loss profiles resulting from simulations based on the binary collision approximation and on the electrostatic/transport parameters of the diode under study as input, the model is able to accurately reproduce the experimental CCE degradation curves without introducing any phenomenological additional term or formula. Although limited to low level of damage, the model is quite general, including the displacement damage approach as a special case and can be applied to any semiconductor device. It provides a method to measure the capture coefficients of the radiation induced recombination centres. They can be considered indexes, which can contribute to assessing the relative radiation hardness of semiconductor materials.

  19. The (p→,t) reaction on 58Ni and 56Fe at 24.6 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polane, J.H.; Feix, W.F.; Hall, P.J. van; Klein, S.S.; Nijgh, G.J.; Poppema, O.J.; Wassenaar, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The (p, t) reactions on 56 Fe and 58 Ni initiated by 24.6 MeV polarised protons has been investigated. The reaction process is described in terms of simultaneous and sequential neutron transfer. For all five final states studied the sequential process competes strongly with simultaneous transfer of a neutron pair. Theoretical values for the spectroscopic amplitudes were derived from shell-model wavefunctions; these seem to give a reliable description of the reaction process. (author)

  20. Study of elastic pion scattering from 9Be, 28Si, 58Ni, and 208Pb at 162 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devereux, M.J.

    1979-05-01

    Elastic pion scattering from 9 Be, 28 Si, 58 Ni, and 208 Pb at 162 MeV is analyzed and compared with an optical model theory which incorporates a pion--nucleon range. Excellent fits to the data are obtained in all but one case. The fitted values of the pion--nucleon range, as well as other fitted values are listed. 108 references

  1. MeV ion induced damage production and accumulation in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Motoyuki; Okazaki, Makoto; Shin, Kazuo; Takagi, Ikuji; Yoshida, Koji

    1993-01-01

    Measurement and analysis were made for radiation damages in silicon induced by MeV ions. A single crystal silicon was bombarded by 800 keV O + and 700 keV Si + with the dose from 2x10 15 up to 8x10 15 cm -2 . And defects induced by the ion bombardments were observed by the channeling method. Some new modifications were made to the analysis of the channeling RBS spectrum so that the accuracy of the unfolded defect distribution may be improved. A new model of point-defect clustering and amorphous formation was proposed, which well reproduced the observed defect distribution in silicon. (author)

  2. Optimal synthesis of a Ni(II)-dimethylglyoxime ion-imprinted polymer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Ni(II)-dimethylglyoxime ion-imprinted polymer {Ni(II)-DMG IIP} was optimised by the uniform design experimental method and used to adsorb Ni(II) ions from water, soil and mine tailing samples. This aimed to improve the performance of this ion-imprinted polymer in trapping Ni(II) ions from soil and mine tailing samples ...

  3. 130 MeV Au ion irradiation induced dewetting on In2Te3 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheswaran, P.; Abhirami, K.M.; Gokul, B.; Sathyamoorthy, R.; Prakash, Jai; Asokan, K.; Kanjilal, D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In 2 Te 3 phase formed from In/Te bilayer by 130 MeV Au ion irradiation. ► Lower fluence results mixed phases with initial state of dewetting. ► At higher fluence, In 2 Te 3 phase with complete dewetting pattern is formed. ► Thermal spike model is used to explain the inter face mixing phenomena. ► SHI irradiation may be used to functionalize the structural and surface properties of thin films. - Abstract: In/Te bilayer thin films were prepared by sequential thermal evaporation and subsequently irradiated by 130 MeV Au ions. The pristine and irradiated samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) techniques. RBS spectra reveal the sputtering of Te film and interface mixing, with increasing fluence. The surface morphology showed the beginning of dewetting of Te thin film and formation of the partially connected with the mixed zones at the fluence of 1 × 10 13 ions/cm 2 . At the higher fluence of 3 × 10 13 ions/cm 2 , dewetted structures were isolated at the surface. Above results are explained based on the formation of craters, sputtering and dewetting followed by inter-diffusion at the interface of molten zones due to thermal spike induced by Au ions.

  4. GXRD study of 100 MeV Fe9+ ion irradiated indium phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, R.L.; Dubey, S.K.; Kachhap, N.K.; Kanjilal, D.

    2014-01-01

    Swift heavy ions with MeV to GeV kinetic energy offer unique possibilities of modifying material properties. Each projectile passing through the target material causes loss of its energy by ion-electrons and ion-atoms interaction with the target material. The consequence of formal one is to change in surface properties and latter to produces damage deep in the target material near the projected range of projectile. In the present work, indium phosphide samples were irradiated at 100 MeV 56 Fe 9+ ions with different fluences varying from 1x10 12 to 1x10 14 ions cm -2 using the 15UD Pelletron facilities at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi. Grazing angle X-ray diffraction technique was used to investigate the structural properties of irradiated indium phosphide at different depths. The GXRD spectra of non-irradiated and irradiated samples were recorded at different grazing angle i.e 1°, 2°, 3°, 4° and 5° to get the structural information over the projected range. The detailed result will be presented and discussed in the conference. (author)

  5. Radiolysis and sputtering of carbon dioxide ice induced by swift Ti, Ni, and Xe ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejía, C. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCN), CIMAP-Ganil, BP 5133, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, 14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Departamento de Física, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Marquês de São Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bender, M.; Severin, D. [Materials Research Department, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Trautmann, C. [Materials Research Department, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Boduch, Ph. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCN), CIMAP-Ganil, BP 5133, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, 14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Bordalo, V. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCN), CIMAP-Ganil, BP 5133, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, 14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Observatório Nacional-MCTI, Rua General José Cristino 77, 20921-400 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Domaracka, A.; Lv, X.Y. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCN), CIMAP-Ganil, BP 5133, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, 14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France); and others

    2015-12-15

    Solid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is found in several bodies of the solar system, the interstellar medium (ISM) and young stellar objects, where it is exposed to cosmic and stellar wind radiation. Here, the chemical and physical modifications induced by heavy ion irradiation of pure solid CO{sub 2} at low temperature (T = 15–30 K) are analyzed. The experiments were performed with Ti (550 MeV) and Xe (630 MeV) ions at the UNILAC of GSI/Darmstadt and with Ni ions (46 and 52 MeV) at IRRSUD of GANIL/Caen. The evolution of the thin CO{sub 2} ice films (deposited on a CsI window) was monitored by mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR). The dissociation rate of CO{sub 2}, determined from the fluence dependence of the IR absorption peak intensity, is found to be proportional to the electronic stopping power S{sub e}. We also confirm that the sputtering yield shows a quadric increase with electronic stopping power. Furthermore, the production rates of daughter molecules such as CO, CO{sub 3} and O{sub 3} were found to be linear in S{sub e}.

  6. The emittance and brightness characteristics of negative ion sources suitable for MeV ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides the description and beam properties of ion sources suitable for use with ion implantation devices. Particular emphasis is placed on the emittance and brightness properties of state-of-the-art, high intensity, negative ion sources based on the cesium ion sputter principle

  7. Ni-Ni ion pair excitation transfer in D sub(3h) symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrile, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms contributing to excitation transfer are examined for Ni-Ni ion pairs in order to explain the delocalized character of electronic excitations observed in CsNiF sub(3). Using both first-and second-order perturbation theory and from symmetry arguments, the kind of interactions giving matrix elements between states connecting different sites for the position of the excitation are discussed. (author)

  8. Imaging of single cells and tissue using MeV ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, F.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kan, J.A. van; Ynsa, M.D.; Ren Minqin; Rajendran, R.; Cui Huifang; Sheu, F.-S.; Jenner, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    With the attainment of sub-100 nm high energy (MeV) ion beams, comes the opportunity to image cells and tissue at nano-dimensions. The advantage of MeV ion imaging is that the ions will penetrate whole cells, or relatively thick tissue sections, without any significant loss of resolution. In this paper, we demonstrate that whole cells (cultured N2A neuroblastoma cells ATCC) and tissue sections (rabbit pancreas tissue) can be imaged at sub-100 nm resolutions using scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM), and that sub-cellular structural details can be identified. In addition to STIM imaging we have also demonstrated for the first time, that sub-cellular proton induced fluorescence imaging (on cultured N2A neuroblastoma cells ATCC) can also be carried out at resolutions of 200 nm, compared with 300-400 nm resolutions achieved by conventional optical fluorescence imaging. The combination of both techniques offers a potentially powerful tool in the quest for elucidating cell function, particularly when it should be possible in the near future to image down to sub-50 nm.

  9. Ion-beam texturing of uniaxially textured Ni films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.J.; Norton, D.P.; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2005-01-01

    The formation of biaxial texture in uniaxially textured Ni thin films via Ar-ion irradiation is reported. The ion-beam irradiation was not simultaneous with deposition. Instead, the ion beam irradiates the uniaxially textured film surface with no impinging deposition flux, which differs from conventional ion-beam-assisted deposition. The uniaxial texture is established via a nonion beam process, with the in-plane texture imposed on the uniaxial film via ion beam bombardment. Within this sequential ion beam texturing method, grain alignment is driven by selective etching and grain overgrowth

  10. MeV ion beam interaction with polymer films containing cross-linking agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evelyn, A. L.

    1999-01-01

    Polymer films containing cross linking enhancers were irradiated with MeV alpha particles to determine the effects of MeV ion beam interaction on these materials. The contributed effects from the electronic and nuclear stopping powers were separated by irradiating stacked thin films of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polystyrene (PS) and polyethersulfone (PES). This layered system allowed most of the effects of the electronic energy deposited to be experienced by the first layers and the last layers to receive most of the effects of the nuclear stopping power. RGA, Raman microprobe analysis, RBS and FTIR measured changes in the chemical structures of the irradiated films. The characterization resolved the effects of the stopping powers on the PVC, PS and PES and the results were compared with those from previously studied polymers that did not contain any cross linking agents

  11. Energy loss of carbon transmitted 1-MeV H2+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, M.; Kimura, K.; Susuki, Y.; Mannami, M.

    1994-01-01

    Energy losses of 1-MeV H 2 + ions passing through carbon foils of 2-8 μg/cm 2 thickness have been measured and show besides the linear increase with target thickness a 0.4 keV offset. The stopping power derived from the observed energy losses is 1.15 times as large as the sum of the stopping powers for two single H + of the same velocity. Calculations of the stopping powers for H 2 + ions and diprotons, using first Born approximation, indicate that the H 2 + ions lose the binding electron upon entrance into the foil, traverse the target as diprotons and recapture target electrons at the exit surface, a scenario also supported by the 0.4 keV offset at zero thickness. (author)

  12. New source of MeV negative ion and neutral atom beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ter-Avetisyan, S., E-mail: sargis@gist.ac.kr [Center for Relativistic Laser Science, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Photon Science, GIST, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Braenzel, J.; Schnürer, M. [Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy, Berlin 12489 (Germany); Prasad, R. [Institute for Laser and Plasma Physics, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf 40225 (Germany); Borghesi, M. [School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen’s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7-1NN (United Kingdom); Jequier, S.; Tikhonchuk, V. [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, CEA, CNRS, University of Bordeaux, 33405 Talence (France)

    2016-02-15

    The scenario of “electron-capture and -loss” was recently proposed for the formation of negative ion and neutral atom beams with MeV kinetic energies. However, it does not explain why the formation of negative ions in a liquid spray is much more efficient than with an isolated atom. The role of atomic excited states in the charge-exchange processes is considered, and it is shown that it cannot account for the observed phenomena. The processes are more complex than the single electron-capture and -loss approach. It is suggested that the shell effects in the electronic structure of the projectile ion and/or target atoms may influence the capture/loss probabilities.

  13. New source of MeV negative ion and neutral atom beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Braenzel, J.; Schnürer, M.; Prasad, R.; Borghesi, M.; Jequier, S.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2016-01-01

    The scenario of “electron-capture and -loss” was recently proposed for the formation of negative ion and neutral atom beams with MeV kinetic energies. However, it does not explain why the formation of negative ions in a liquid spray is much more efficient than with an isolated atom. The role of atomic excited states in the charge-exchange processes is considered, and it is shown that it cannot account for the observed phenomena. The processes are more complex than the single electron-capture and -loss approach. It is suggested that the shell effects in the electronic structure of the projectile ion and/or target atoms may influence the capture/loss probabilities

  14. Measurement and modelling of the radiation damage of silicon by MeV Ag ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, J.K.N.; Eder, J.; Stritzker, B.

    1999-01-01

    Depth profiles of the radiation damage produced by 4 MeV Ag ions in Si(111) at temperatures of 210--450 K are studied by optical reflectivity depth profiling and TEM for doses between 10 12 and 10 15 Ag/cm 2 . For high implantation temperatures, the depth of maximum damage is shown to be dose dependent. Point defect diffusion is shown to result in long tails of defect depth profiles. High-temperature amorphization is observed to proceed via the formation and bridge-like coalescence of isolated amorphous volumina. The damage at the depth of the maximum in the nuclear stopping power is described as a function of dose and temperature by the Hecking model. The model parameters and a comparison with those obtained for lighter ions reflect the particular properties of heavy ion collision cascades

  15. Enhanced photoelectrochemical properties of 100 MeV Si8+ ion irradiated barium titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanki, Anjana; Choudhary, Surbhi; Satsangi, Vibha R.; Shrivastav, Rohit; Dass, Sahab

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of 100 MeV Si 8+ ion irradiation on photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of BaTiO 3 thin films was studied. ► Films were deposited on Indium doped Tin Oxide (ITO) coated glass by sol–gel spin coating technique. ► Optimal irradiation fluence for best PEC response was 5 × 10 11 ion cm −2 . ► Maximum photocurrent density was observed to be 0.7 mA cm −2 at 0.4 V/SCE. ► Enhanced photo-conversion efficiency was due to maximum negative flatband potential, donor density and lowest resistivity. -- Abstract: Effects of high electronic energy deposition on the structure, surface topography, optical property and photoelectrochemical behavior of barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ) thin films were investigated by irradiating films with 100 MeV Si 8+ ions at different ion fluences in the range of 1 × 10 11 –2 × 10 13 ions cm −2 . BaTiO 3 thin films were deposited on indium tin oxide coated glass substrate by sol gel spin coating method. Irradiation induced modifications in the films were analyzed using the results from XRD, SEM, cross sectional SEM, AFM and UV–Vis spectrometry. Maximum photocurrent density of 0.7 mA cm −2 at 0.4 V/SCE and applied bias hydrogen conversion efficiency (ABPE) of 0.73% was observed for BaTiO 3 film irradiated at 5 × 10 11 ions cm −2 , which can be attributed to maximum negative value of the flatband potential and donor density and lowest resistivity

  16. Study of the thermal oxidation of titanium and zirconium under argon ion irradiation in the low MeV range (E = 15 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, N.-L.

    2012-01-01

    We have shown that argon ion irradiation between 1 and 15 MeV produces damage on both titanium and zirconium surfaces, taking the form of accelerated oxidation and/or craterization effects, varying as a function of the projectile energy and the annealing atmosphere (temperature and pressure) simulating the environmental conditions of the fuel/cladding interface of PWR fuel rods. Using AFM, we have shown that the titanium and zirconium surface is attacked under light argon ion bombardment at high temperature (up to 500 C) in weakly oxidizing medium (under rarefied dry air pressure ranging from 5,7 10 -5 Pa to 5 10 -3 Pa) for a fixed fluence of about 5 10 14 ions.cm -2 . We observed the formation of nano-metric craters over the whole titanium surface irradiated between 2 and 9 MeV and the whole zirconium surface irradiated at 4 MeV, the characteristics of which vary depending on the temperature and the pressure. In the case of the Ar/Ti couple, the superficial damage efficiency increases when the projectile energy decreases from 9 to 2 MeV. Moreover, whereas the titanium surface seems to be transparent under the 15-MeV ion beam, the zirconium surface exhibits numerous micrometric craters surrounded by a wide halo. The crater characteristics (size and superficial density) differ significantly from that observed both in the low energy range (keV) where the energy losses are controlled by ballistic collisions (Sn) and in the high energy range (MeV - GeV) where the energy losses are controlled by electronic excitations (Se), which was not completely unexpected in this intermediate energy range for which combined Sn - Se stopping power effects are possibly foreseen. Using XPS associated to ionic sputtering, we have shown that there is an irradiation effect on thermal oxidation of titanium, enhanced under the argon ion beam between 2 and 9 MeV, and that there is also an energy effect on the oxide thickness and stoichiometry. The study conducted using Spectroscopic

  17. Determining the stereochemical structures of molecular ions by ''Coulomb-explosion'' techniques with fast (MeV) molecular ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmell, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    Recent studies on the dissociation of fast (MeV) molecular ion beams in thin foils suggest a novel alternative approach to the determination of molecular ion structures. In this article we review some recent high-resolution studies on the interactions of fast molecular ion beams with solid and gaseous targets and indicate how such studies may be applied to the problem of determining molecular ion structures. The main features of the Coulomb explosion of fast-moving molecular ion projectiles and the manner in which Coulomb-explosion techniques may be applied to the problem (difficult to attack by more conventional means) of determining the stereochemical structures of molecular ions has been described in this paper. Examples have been given of early experiments designed to elicit structure information. The techniques are still in their infancy, and it is to be expected that as both the technology and the analysis are refined, the method will make valuable contributions to the determination of molecular ion structures

  18. Comparison of secondary ion emission induced in silicon oxide by MeV and KeV ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allali, H.; Nsouli, B.; Thomas, J.P.; Szymczak, W.; Wittmaack, K.

    1993-09-01

    The surface and near-surface composition of SiO 2 layers, has been investigated by negative secondary ion emission mass spectrometry (SIMS) using MeV and KeV ion bombardment in combination with time-of-flight (TOF) mass analysis. The spectra recorded in the mass range 0-100 u are dominated by surface impurities, notably hydrocarbons and silicon polyanions incorporating H and OH entities. The characteristic (fragmentation) patterns are quite different for light and high-velocity ion impact. In high-velocity TOF-SIMS analysis of P-doped layers, prepared by chemical vapour deposition (CVD), the mass lines at 63 and 79 u are very prominent and appear to correlate with the phosphorus concentration (PO 2 and PO 3 , respectively). It is shown, however, that for unambiguous P analysis one has to use dynamic SIMS or high mass resolution. (author) 11 refs., 5 figs

  19. Anti-biofilm efficacy of 100 MeV gold ion irradiated polycarbonate against Salmonella typhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, R. P.; Hareesh, K.; Bankar, A.; Sanjeev, G.; Asokan, K.; Kanjilal, D.; Dahiwale, S. S.; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Dhole, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    Polycarbonate (PC) films were irradiated by 100 MeV gold (Au7+) ions and characterized to study changes in its optical, chemical, surface morphology and thermal properties. UV-Visible spectroscopic results revealed the decrease in the optical band gap of PC after ion irradiation due to chain scission mainly at the carbonyl group which is corroborated by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopic results. X-ray diffractogram study showed decrease in crystallinity of PC film after irradiation. Scanning electron microscopic results showed the micropores formation in PC which results in surface roughening. Differential scanning calorimetric results revealed decrease in glass transition temperature indicating the decrease in molecular weight of PC corroborated by rheometric studies. PC films irradiated by 100 MeV Au7+ ions showed increased anti-biofilm activity against the human pathogen, Salmonella typhi (S. typhi). Morphology of S. typhi was changed due to stress of Au7+ irradiated PC. Cells length was increased with increasing fluences. The average cell length, cell volume and surface area was increased significantly (PBiofilm formation was inhibited ≈ 20% at lower fluence and 96% at higher fluence, which observed to be enhanced anti-biofilm activity in Au7+ irradiated PC.

  20. A gas ionisation Direct-STIM detector for MeV ion microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norarat, Rattanaporn; Guibert, Edouard; Jeanneret, Patrick; Dellea, Mario; Jenni, Josef; Roux, Adrien; Stoppini, Luc; Whitlow, Harry J.

    2015-01-01

    Direct-Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (Direct-STIM) is a powerful technique that yields structural information in sub-cellular whole cell imaging. Usually, a Si p-i-n diode is used in Direct-STIM measurements as a detector. In order to overcome the detrimental effects of radiation damage which appears as a broadening in the energy resolution, we have developed a gas ionisation detector for use with a focused ion beam. The design is based on the ETH Frisch grid-less off-axis Geiger–Müller geometry. It is developed for use in a MeV ion microscope with a standard Oxford Microbeams triplet lens and scanning system. The design has a large available solid angle for other detectors (e.g. proton induced fluorescence). Here we report the performance for imaging ReNcells VM with μm resolution where energy resolutions of <24 keV fwhm could be achieved for 1 MeV protons using isobutane gas

  1. Applications of focused MeV light ion beams for high resolution channeling contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D N; Breese, M B.H.; Prawer, S; Dooley, S P; Allen, M G; Bettiol, A A; Saint, A [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Ryan, C G [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1994-12-31

    The technique of Nuclear Microscopy, utilizing a focused ion probe of typically MeV H{sup +} or He{sup +} ions, can produce images where the contrast depends on typical Ion Beam Analysis (lBA) processes. The probe forming lens system usually utilizes strong focusing, precision magnetic quadrupole lenses and the probe is scanned over the target to produce images. Originally, this imaging technique was developed to utilize backscattered particles with incident beam currents typically of a few nA, and the technique became known as Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM). Recently, the technique has been developed further to utilize the forward scattering of ions incident along a major crystal axis in thin crystals. This technique is known as Channeling Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (CSTIM). Since nearly all incident ions are detected, CSTIM is highly efficient and very low beam currents are sufficient for imaging, typically as low as a few fA. This allows probes as small as 50 nm to be used. In this paper we briefly review the recent applications of these emerging techniques to a variety of single crystal materials (authors). 13 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Applications of focused MeV light ion beams for high resolution channeling contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D.N.; Breese, M.B.H.; Prawer, S.; Dooley, S.P.; Allen, M.G.; Bettiol, A.A.; Saint, A. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Ryan, C.G. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1993-12-31

    The technique of Nuclear Microscopy, utilizing a focused ion probe of typically MeV H{sup +} or He{sup +} ions, can produce images where the contrast depends on typical Ion Beam Analysis (lBA) processes. The probe forming lens system usually utilizes strong focusing, precision magnetic quadrupole lenses and the probe is scanned over the target to produce images. Originally, this imaging technique was developed to utilize backscattered particles with incident beam currents typically of a few nA, and the technique became known as Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM). Recently, the technique has been developed further to utilize the forward scattering of ions incident along a major crystal axis in thin crystals. This technique is known as Channeling Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (CSTIM). Since nearly all incident ions are detected, CSTIM is highly efficient and very low beam currents are sufficient for imaging, typically as low as a few fA. This allows probes as small as 50 nm to be used. In this paper we briefly review the recent applications of these emerging techniques to a variety of single crystal materials (authors). 13 refs., 5 figs.

  3. The real potential continuous ambiguity for 90 MeV Li ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.; Barnwell, J.M.; Clarke, N.M.; Griffiths, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    The features of discrete and continuous ambiguities in the real phenomenological optical potential are clarified. The continuous ambiguity in the real potential for the scattering of 90 MeV 6 Li and 7 Li ions from 27 Al is investigated. For 6 Li the ambiguity is of Igo (Phys. Rev. Lett.; 1: 72 (1958) and Phys. Rev.; 115: 1665 (1959)) type but for 7 Li it is of Vrsup(n) = constant type. The implications of this are that 7 Li is less strongly absorbed than 6 Li. (author)

  4. Backscattering/transmission of 2 MeV He{sup ++} ions quantitative correlation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berec, V., E-mail: bervesn@gmail.com [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Germogli, G.; Mazzolari, A.; Guidi, V. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); De Salvador, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo n.8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale Università 2, 35020 Legnaro, PD (Italy); Bacci, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale Università 2, 35020 Legnaro, PD (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    In this work we report on detailed findings of planar channeling oscillations of 2 MeV He{sup ++} particles in (1 1 0) silicon crystal. The exact correlation and coherence mechanism between confined particles oscillating trajectories are analyzed theoretically and experimentally in backscattering/transmission geometry. Regular patterns of channeled He{sup ++} ion planar oscillations are shown to be dominated by the crystal harmonic-oscillator potential and multiple scattering effect. For the first time it was shown that under the planar channeling conditions trajectories of positively charged particles exhibit observable correlation dynamics, including the interference effect. Quantitative estimation of channeling efficiency is performed using path integral method.

  5. Experimental study of the slowing down of heavy ions at 20 to 100 MeV per nucleon in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herault, J.

    1988-01-01

    The measurements of typical parameters on heavy ions penetration through matter presented in this work have been performed at the GANIL accelerator facility, using the LISE magnetic spectrometer from 20 to 100 MeV per nucleon. Two magnetic optical configurations of the spectrometer LISE corresponding respectively to energy and angle analysis, have been used. In the first configuration, the analysis of the energy loss distribution, caused by the interaction of the heavy ions beam with the target material, permit to determine the stopping power and the energy straggling. The stopping power is defined experimentally by the ratio of the average energy loss in the target to the thickness of this one. This quantity has been measured for a set of heavy ions ( 17 O, 40 Ar, 86 Kr and 132 Xe) in gaseous media (H 2 , He, N 2 , Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, CH 4 , C 4 H 10 , CO 2 and CF 4 ) and compared to semi-empirical tabulations. These determinations are compared to those obtained in solid media to study the evolution of the solid-gas difference. This effect vanishes progressively when the projectile tends to be totally stripped (the charge state becomes identical to the atomic number). The heavy ion energy distributions at the exit of degraders and particularly their full width at half maximum have been measured for various projectiles ( 16 O, 40 Ar, 84 Kr, 86 Kr, 100 Mo and 132 Xe) in solid (Be, C, Al, Si, Ti, Ni, Cu, Ag, Ta, Au and Mylar) and gaseous media (the same as for stopping power determinations). A significant contribution of charge exchange straggling to the energy loss straggling is observed for partially stripped ions. A second optical configuration of the beam line LISE has been used, to obtain an image of heavy ions beams passing through targets for various heavy ions ( 16 O, 17 O, 40 Ar, 86 Kr and 100 Mo) in gaseous and solid media. The scaling law for angular straggling is confirmed and extended over five orders of magnitude [fr

  6. Diffusion of alpha-like MeV ions in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boivin, R.L.; Zweben, S.J.; Chang, C.S.; Hammett, G.; Mynick, H.E.; White, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    Single particle confinement of alpha particles is of crucial importance in reactor-grade tokamaks like BPX and ITER. Besides the well-known process of first-orbit losses, mechanisms that could lead to significant loss of alpha particles are turbulence-induced diffusion and toroidal field ripple stochastic diffusion. These two mechanisms have been separately studied in TFTR using two different detectors (one at the bottom of the machine and the other near the outer midplane) which can detect escaping charged fusion products, namely the 1 MeV triton and the 3 MeV proton in D-D plasmas (and also the 3.5 MeV alpha in D-T). The main difficulty in this type of experiment lies in the necessity of distinguishing the diffusion process from the always-present first-orbit loss-process. In this paper, we show how these two processes can be distinguished using the pitch-angle discrimination of the detectors. The pitch-angle is defined here as the angle of the particle trajectory with respect to the toroidal direction and so is a measure of the ion magnetic moment, μ. Results obtained at the midplane would be the first reported evidence of TF ripple diffusion in a tokamak. (author) 3 refs., 2 figs

  7. Design study of prototype accelerator and MeV test facility for demonstration of 1 MeV, 1 A negative ion beam production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Takashi; Hanada, Masaya; Miyamoto, Kenji; Ohara, Yoshihiro; Okumura, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Maeno, Shuichi.

    1994-08-01

    In fusion reactors such as ITER, a neutral beam injector of MeV class beam energy and several tens MW class power is required as one of candidates of heating and current drive systems. However, the beam energy of existing high power accelerators are one order of magnitude lower than the required value. In order to realize a neutral beam injector for the fusion reactor, 'Proof-of-Principle' of such high energy acceleration is a critical issue at a reactor relevant beam current and pulse length. An accelerator and an accelerator facility which are necessary to demonstrate the Proof-of-Principle acceleration of negative ion beams up to 1 MeV, have been designed in the present study. The accelerator is composed of a cesium-volume type ion source and a multi-stage electrostatic acceleration system [Prototype Accelerator]. A negative hydrogen ion beam with the current of about one ampere (1 A) can be accelerated up to 1 MeV at a low operating pressure. Two types of acceleration system, a multi-multi type and a multi-single type, have been studied. The test facility has sufficient capability for the test of the Prototype Accelerator [MeV Test Facility]. The dc high voltage generator for negative ion acceleration is a Cockcroft-Walton type and capable of delivering 1 A at 1 MV (=1 MW) for 60 s. High voltage components including Prototype Accelerator are installed in a SF 6 vessel pressurized at 6 kg/cm 2 to overcome high voltage gradients. The vessel and the beamline are installed in a X-ray shield. (author)

  8. 100 MeV silver ions induced defects and modifications in silica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadhav, Vijay S.; Deore, Avinash V.; Dahiwale, S.S. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi 110067 (India); Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Dhole, S.D., E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: •Study of silver ion induced defects and modifications in silica glass. •Variation in oxygen deficiency centres (ODA-II) and nonbridging oxygen hole centres (NBOHC). •Study of structural damage in terms of Urbach energy. -- Abstract: A few silica glass samples having 1 cm{sup 2} area and 0.1 cm thickness were irradiated with 100 MeV energy Ag{sup 7+} ions for the fluences ranging from 1 × 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} to 5 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The optical properties and the corresponding induced defects were characterised by the techniques such as UV–Visible, Photoluminescence (PL), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The UV–Visible absorption spectra show two peaks, one at 5 eV and another weak peak at 5.8 eV. A peak observed at 5.0 eV corresponds to B{sub 2} band (oxygen deficiency in SiO{sub 2} network) and the peak at 5.8 eV is due to the paramagnetic defects like E′ centre. The intensities of these peaks found to be increased with increase in ion fluence. It attributes to the increase in the concentration of E′ centres and B{sub 2} band respectively. In addition, the optical band gap energy, Urbach energy and the defects concentration have been calculated using Urbach plot. The optical band gap found to be decreased from 4.65 eV to 4.39 eV and the Urbach energy found to be increased from 60 meV to 162 meV. The defect concentration of nonbridging oxygen hole centres (NBOHC) and E′ centres are found to be increased to 1.69 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −3} and 3.134 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3} respectively. In PL spectra, the peak appeared at 1.92 eV and 2.7 eV envisage the defects of nonbridging oxygen hole centres and B{sub 2α} oxygen deficient centres respectively. ESR spectra also confirms the existence of E′ and NBOHC centres. FTIR spectra shows scissioning of Si-O-Si bonds and the formation of Si-H and Si-OH bonds, which supports to the co-existence of the defects induced by Ag

  9. Structural disorder in sapphire induced by 90.3 MeV xenon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, A.; Meftah, A.; Stoquert, J.P.; Toulemonde, M.; Monnet, I.; Izerrouken, M.

    2010-01-01

    In our previous work , we have evidenced, using RBS-C, two effects in the aluminium sublattice of sapphire irradiated with 90.3 MeV xenon ions: a partial disorder creation that saturates at ∼40% followed above a threshold fluence by a highly disordered layer appearing behind the surface. In this work, by RBS-C analysis of the oxygen sublattice, we have observed only one regime of partial disorder creation that saturates at ∼60% in tracks of cross-section double of that found for the aluminium sublattice. Complementary analysis by X-ray diffraction shows that the lattice strain increases with the fluence until a maximum is reached about 7.5 x 10 12 ions/cm 2 . For higher fluences, strain decreases first indicating a little stress relaxation in the material and tends afterwards, to remain constant. This stress relaxation is found to be related to the aluminium sublattice high disorder.

  10. Effects of high energy (MeV) ion beam irradiation on polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nandlal; Sharma, Anita; Avasthi, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    Irradiation effects of 50 MeV Li 3+ ion beams in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films were studied with respect to their structural and electrical properties by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and ac electrical measurement in the frequency range: 50-100 kHz at different temperatures of 30-150 deg. C. It is found that ac resistivity of PET decreases as frequency increases. The temperature dependencies of dielectric loss tangent exhibit a peak (T g ) at 60 deg. C. The capacitance value of irradiated PET is almost temperature independent and ones increases with an increasing of lithium fluence. FTIR spectra show various bands related to C-H, C-O, C-O-C molecular bonds and groups which get modified or break down due to ion beam irradiation

  11. RBS cross-section of MeV ions channeling in crystals from quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Besten, J.L.; Jamieson, D.N.; Spizzirri, P.G.; Allen, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    We present an alternative approach to describing Rutherford Backscattered (RBS) angular yield scans. The Bloch wave method to formulate the cross-section is a fundamental approach originating from Schrodinger's equation. This quantum formulation is often used when describing various aspects of electron diffraction including Backscattering, EDX and TEM but has seen little application to the very short wavelength regime of MeV ions. It offers several significant advantages. Great freedom is given to crystal properties and structure in the theory allowing a fundamental insight into the channeling phenomena and hence the crystal itself. We have calculated both planar and axial channeling scans and these maps are shown to be in good agreement to their experimental counterparts. There is excellent correlation between the theoretical and experimental results for both χ min and Ψ 1/2 . Further investigation is required into the area of absorption or dechanneling. This phenomenon requires different mechanisms for electron and ion scattering differ greatly

  12. Structure Characterization of Modified Polyimide Films Irradiated by 2 MeV Si Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian-Xiang, Chen; Shu-De, Yao; Kun, Wang; Huan, Wang; Zhi-Bo, Ding; Di, Chen

    2009-01-01

    Structures of polyimide (6051) films modified by irradiation of 2.0 MeV Si ions with different fluences are studied in detail. Variations of the functional groups in polyimide are investigated by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the functional groups can be destroyed gradually with the increasing ion fluence. The variations of structure and element contents are characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that the contents of N and O decrease significantly compared with the original samples, some graphite-like and carbon-rich phases are formed in the process of irradiation

  13. Observations of defect structure evolution in proton and Ni ion irradiated Ni-Cr binary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, Samuel A., E-mail: sabriggs2@wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Barr, Christopher M. [Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Pakarinen, Janne [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); SKC-CEN Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Mamivand, Mahmood [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hattar, Khalid [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Morgan, Dane D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Taheri, Mitra [Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Sridharan, Kumar [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Two binary Ni-Cr model alloys with 5 wt% Cr and 18 wt% Cr were irradiated using 2 MeV protons at 400 and 500 °C and 20 MeV Ni{sup 4+} ions at 500 °C to investigate microstructural evolution as a function of composition, irradiation temperature, and irradiating ion species. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was applied to study irradiation-induced void and faulted Frank loops microstructures. Irradiations at 500 °C were shown to generate decreased densities of larger defects, likely due to increased barriers to defect nucleation as compared to 400 °C irradiations. Heavy ion irradiation resulted in a larger density of smaller voids when compared to proton irradiations, indicating in-cascade clustering of point defects. Cluster dynamics simulations were in good agreement with the experimental findings, suggesting that increases in Cr content lead to an increase in interstitial binding energy, leading to higher densities of smaller dislocation loops in the Ni-18Cr alloy as compared to the Ni-5Cr alloy. - Highlights: • Binary Ni-Cr alloys were irradiated with protons or Ni ions at 400 and 500 °C. • Higher irradiation temperatures yield increased size, decreased density of defects. • Hypothesize that varying Cr content affects interstitial binding energy. • Fitting CD models for loop nucleation to data supports this hypothesis.

  14. 75 MeV boron ion irradiation studies on Si PIN photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakara Rao, Y.P.; Praveen, K.C. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570006 (India); Rejeena Rani, Y. [Integrated Circuits Division, Bharat Electronics Limited, Bangalore 560013, Karnataka (India); Tripathi, Ambuj [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Gnana Prakash, A.P., E-mail: gnanap@hotmail.com [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570006 (India)

    2013-12-01

    The highly sensitive silicon PIN photodiodes were fabricated to use in radiation environments. The Si PIN photodiodes are coated with 150 nm silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) as anti-reflective (AR) coating. The presence of AR coating on the performance of irradiated PIN photodiodes is studied up to a total dose of 10 Mrad. The effects of 75 MeV boron (B{sup 5+}) ions and {sup 60}Co gamma radiation on the I–V, C–V and spectral responses of PIN photodiodes were studied systematically to understand the radiation tolerance of the devices. The 75 MeV B{sup 5+} irradiation results are compared with {sup 60}Co gamma irradiated results in the same dose range for 1 mm × 1 mm and 10 mm × 10 mm active area PIN photodiodes. The irradiation results show that the ion irradiated PIN photodiodes show more degradation when compared {sup 60}Co gamma irradiated devices. The irradiation results are presented in this paper and the possible mechanism behind the degradation of photodiodes is also discussed in the paper.

  15. Effect of solute atoms on swelling in Ni alloys and pure Ni under He + ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, E.; Ezawa, T.; Imamura, J.; Takenaka, T.; Tanabe, T.; Oshima, R.

    2002-12-01

    The effects of solute atoms on microstructural evolutions have been investigated using Ni alloys under 25 keV He + irradiation at 500 °C. The specimens used were pure Ni, Ni-Si, Ni-Co, Ni-Cu, Ni-Mn and Ni-Pd alloys with different volume size factors. The high number densities of dislocation loops about 1.5×10 22 m -3 were formed in the specimens irradiated to 1×10 19 ions/m 2, and they were approximately equivalent, except for Ni-Si. The mean size of loops tended to increase with the volume size factor of solute atoms. In a dose of 4×10 20 ions/m 2, the swelling was changed from 0.2% to 4.5%, depending on the volume size factors. The number densities of bubbles tended to increase with the absolute values of the volume size factor, and the swelling increased with the volume size factors. This suggests that the mobility of helium and vacancy atoms may be influenced by the interaction of solute atoms with them.

  16. Isoscaling in central {sup 124}Sn+{sup 64}Ni, {sup 112}Sn+{sup 58}Ni collisions at 35 A MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraci, E.; Bruno, M.; D' Agostino, M. E-mail: dagostino@bo.infn.it; De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.; Vannini, G.; Alderighi, M.; Anzalone, A.; Auditore, L.; Baran, V.; Barna, R.; Bartolucci, M.; Berceanu, I.; Blicharska, J.; Bonasera, A.; Borderie, B.; Bougault, R.; Brzychczyk, J.; Cardella, G.; Cavallaro, S.; Chbihi, A.; Cibor, J.; Colonna, M.; De Pasquale, D.; Di Toro, M.; Giustolisi, F.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guazzoni, P.; Guinet, D.; Iacono-Manno, M.; Italiano, A.; Kowalski, S.; La Guidara, E.; Lanzalone, G.; Lanzano, G.; Le Neindre, N.; Li, S.; Lo Nigro, S.; Maiolino, C.; Majka, Z.; Manfredi, G.; Paduszynski, T.; Papa, M.; Petrovici, M.; Piasecki, E.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Pop, A.; Porto, F.; Rivet, M.F.; Rosato, E.; Russo, S.; Russotto, P.; Sechi, G.; Simion, V.; Sperduto, M.L.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Trifiro, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Vigilante, M.; Wieleczko, J.P.; Wilczynski, J.; Wu, H.; Xiao, Z.; Zetta, L.; Zipper, W

    2004-02-23

    {sup 124}Sn+{sup 64}Ni and {sup 112}Sn+{sup 58}Ni reactions at 35 A MeV incident energy were studied by using the 688 Si-CsI telescopes of the forward part (1 deg. {<=}{theta}{sub lab}{<=}30 deg.) of CHIMERA multi-detector. The most central part, 1% of the total measured cross section was selected by means of a multidimensional analysis of the experimental observables. The detected isotopes of light fragments (3{<=}Z{<=}8) provided information on breakup temperatures of the emitting sources. The space-time structure of these sources was deduced from fragment correlations. An odd-even effect in the fragment production, enhanced by the isospin of the entrance channel, was observed. Freeze-out unbound neutron-to-proton relative densities for both studied reactions have been deduced, indicating for a possible isospin distillation mechanism related to a phenomenon of the liquid-gas phase transition in asymmetric systems.

  17. High energy (MeV) ion-irradiated π-conjugated polyaniline: Transition from insulating state to carbonized conducting state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.K.; Lee, S.Y.; Lee, C.S.; Kim, H.M.; Joo, J.; Beag, Y.W.; Koh, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    High energy (MeV) C 2+ , F 2+ , and Cl 2+ ions were irradiated onto π-conjugated polyaniline emeraldine base (PAN-EB) samples. The energy of an ion beam was controlled to a range of 3-4.5 MeV, with the ion dosage varying from 1x10 12 to 1x10 16 ions/cm 2 . The highest dc conductivity (σ dc ) at room temperature was measured to be ∼60 S/cm for 4.5 MeV Cl 2+ ion-irradiated PAN-EB samples with a dose of 1x10 16 ions/cm 2 . We observed the transition of high energy ion-irradiated PAN-EB samples from insulating state to conducting state as a function of ion dosage based on σ dc and its temperature dependence. The characteristic peaks of the Raman spectrum of the PAN-EB samples were reduced, while the D-peak (disordered peak) and the G peak (graphitic peak) appeared as the ion dose increased. From the analysis of the D and G peaks of the Raman spectra of the systems compared to multiwalled carbon nanotubes, ion-irradiated graphites, and annealed carbon films, the number of the clusters of hexagon rings with conducting sp 2 -bonded carbons increased with ion dosage. We also observed the increase in the size of the nanocrystalline graphitic domain of the systems with increasing ion dosage. The intensity of normalized electron paramagnelic resonance signal also increased in correlation with ion dose. The results of this study demonstrate that π-conjugated pristine PAN-EB systems changed from insulating state to carbonized conducting state through high energy ion irradiation with high ion dosage

  18. Experimental and Calculated Effectiveness of a Radiochromic Dye Film to Stopping 21 MeV 7Li- and 64 MeV 16O Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kjeld J; Hansen, Johnny

    1984-01-01

    Relative radiation effectiveness, RE, of 21 MeV 7Li and 64 MeV 16O ions being completely stopped in a tissue equivalent film dose meter has been measured as a function of penetration depth and energy, and the results have been compared with calculations based on a δ-ray theory for heavy charged...... particles developed by Katz et al. The experiment was designed to test calculations particularly in the Bragg-peak region of the slowing down particles where significant deviation between theory and experiment was found. Fitting of the characteristic D37 dose and the size of the radiation sensitive element...... in the detector, which are important parameters in the theoretical model, does not improve the overall correlation between theory and experiment. It is concluded that disagreement between theoretical and experimental RE-values below 1.5 MeV/amu is partly due to lack of equivalence between the δ-ray spectrum...

  19. Calibration of BAS-TR image plate response to high energy (3-300 MeV) carbon ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doria, D.; Kar, S.; Ahmed, H.; Alejo, A.; Fernandez, J.; Cerchez, M.; Gray, R. J.; Hanton, F.; MacLellan, D. A.; McKenna, P.; Najmudin, Z.; Neely, D.; Romagnani, L.; Ruiz, J. A.; Sarri, G.; Scullion, C.; Streeter, M.; Swantusch, M.; Willi, O.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the calibration of Fuji BAS-TR image plate (IP) response to high energy carbon ions of different charge states by employing an intense laser-driven ion source, which allowed access to carbon energies up to 270 MeV. The calibration method consists of employing a Thomson parabola spectrometer to separate and spectrally resolve different ion species, and a slotted CR-39 solid state detector overlayed onto an image plate for an absolute calibration of the IP signal. An empirical response function was obtained which can be reasonably extrapolated to higher ion energies. The experimental data also show that the IP response is independent of ion charge states.

  20. Stopping power of liquid water for carbon ions in the energy range between 1 MeV and 6 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahm, J M; Baek, W Y; Rabus, H; Hofsäss, H

    2014-01-01

    The stopping power of liquid water was measured for the first time for carbon ions in the energy range between 1 and 6 MeV using the inverted Doppler shift attenuation method. The feasibility study carried out within the scope of the present work shows that this method is well suited for the quantification of the controversial condensed phased effect in the stopping power for heavy ions in the intermediate energy range. The preliminary results of this work indicate that the stopping power of water for carbon ions with energies prevailing in the Bragg-peak region is significantly lower than that of water vapor. In view of the relatively high uncertainty of the present results, a new experiment with uncertainties less than the predicted difference between the stopping powers of both water phases is planned. (paper)

  1. Enhanced AC conductivity and dielectric relaxation properties of polypyrrole nanoparticles irradiated with Ni12+ swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarika, J.; Kumar, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the 160 MeV Ni 12+ swift heavy ions (SHIs) irradiation effects on AC conductivity and dielectric relaxation properties of polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles in the frequency range of 42 Hz–5 MHz. Four ion fluences of 5 × 10 10 , 1 × 10 11 , 5 × 10 11 and 1 × 10 12 ions/cm 2 have been used for the irradiation purpose. Transport properties in the pristine and irradiated PPy nanoparticles have been investigated with permittivity and modulus formalisms to study the polarization effects and conductivity relaxation. With increasing ion fluence, the relaxation peak in imaginary modulus (M ″ ) plots shifts toward high frequency suggesting long range motion of the charge carriers. The AC conductivity studies suggest correlated barrier hopping as the dominant transport mechanism. The hopping distance (R ω ) of the charge carriers decreases with increasing the ion fluence. Binding energy (W m ) calculations depict that polarons are the dominant charge carriers

  2. Momentum transfer with light ions at energies from 70 MeV to 1000 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint Laurent, F.; Conjeaud, M.; Dayras, R.; Harar, S.; Oeschler, H.; Volant, C.

    1982-01-01

    Angular correlations of fission fragments induced by bombarding a 232 Th target with protons, deuterons and alpha particles of energies from 70 MeV to 1000 MeV have been measured. They give information about the forward momentum imparted to the fissioning nuclei. We present the average values of the transferred linear momentum ([p vertical stroke vertical stroke ]) as a function of the incident energy and propose a classification into three regimes of dominating processes leading to fission: (I) low-energy behaviour, for E/A less than 10 MeV/u [p vertical stroke vertical stroke ]/psub(i) approx. equal to 1. (II) Between 10 MeV/u and about 70 MeV/u, [p vertical stroke vertical stroke ]/psub(i) decreases progressively down to 0.5 but remains proportional to the projectile mass. (III) The region between 70 MeV/u and about 1000 MeV/u corresponds to a transition region where the projectiles, whatever their masses, tend to transfer the same momentum. (orig.)

  3. High repetition rate laser-driven MeV ion acceleration at variable background pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Joseph; Ngirmang, Gregory; Orban, Chris; Feister, Scott; Morrison, John; Frische, Kyle; Chowdhury, Enam; Roquemore, W. M.

    2017-10-01

    Ultra-intense laser-plasma interactions (LPI) can produce highly energetic photons, electrons, and ions with numerous potential real-world applications. Many of these applications will require repeatable, high repetition targets that are suitable for LPI experiments. Liquid targets can meet many of these needs, but they typically require higher chamber pressure than is used for many low repetition rate experiments. The effect of background pressure on the LPI has not been thoroughly studied. With this in mind, the Extreme Light group at the Air Force Research Lab has carried out MeV ion and electron acceleration experiments at kHz repetition rate with background pressures ranging from 30 mTorr to >1 Torr using a submicron ethylene glycol liquid sheet target. We present these results and provide two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation results that offer insight on the thresholds for the efficient acceleration of electrons and ions. This research is supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under LRIR Project 17RQCOR504 under the management of Dr. Riq Parra and Dr. Jean-Luc Cambier. Support was also provided by the DOD HPCMP Internship Program.

  4. 100 MeV Ag{sup 7+} ion induced physicochemical changes in isotactic polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathakari, N.L. [Microtron Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, Maharashtra (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Center, New Delhi (India); Bhoraskar, V.N. [Microtron Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, Maharashtra (India); Dhole, S.D. [Microtron Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, Maharashtra (India)], E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ernet.in

    2008-04-15

    Thin films of isotactic polypropylene having 500 {mu}m thickness were irradiated with 100 MeV Ag{sup 7+} ions at the fluences varying from 10{sup 11} to 5 x 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}. The properties such as chemical, optical, structural and surface morphology were characterized by techniques namely FTIR, UV-visible, photoluminescence, XRD, SEM and contact angle method. The FTIR spectra show the scissioning of C-H and C-C bonds, whereas, in photoluminescence, the intensities of the peaks at 440 and 480 nm in emission spectra and at 236 nm in excitation spectra observed to be decreased with increase in ion fluence. This may be due to the decomposition of luminescent centers. The UV-visible spectra also show a remarkable red shift from 218 to 367 nm and the subsequent large reduction in the optical band gap from 5.37 to 3.39 eV. This attributes to the carbonization or graphitization of polypropylene. On the contrary, the intensities of XRD peaks, particularly the peak due to 1 1 0 planes, shows sufficient enhancement which signifies overall increase in crystallinity. This ascribes to relief in the local strain on the crystallites due to scissioning of tie molecules in the amorphous zones. The contact angle has increased from 78 deg. to 97 deg. which reveals the absence of hydrophilic functional groups, carbonization and surface roughening. The result is also supported by SEM analysis.

  5. Depth distribution of carrier lifetime in 65 MeV oxygen ion irradiated silicon wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, N.S. [Ecotopia Science Institute, Division of Energy Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Dahiwale, S.S. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi (India); Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)]. E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ernet.in

    2006-03-15

    CZ-grown, n-doped crystalline Si(1 1 1) of resistivity 60 {omega} cm and 140 {omega} cm were irradiated with 65 MeV energy oxygen ions, in the fluence range of 2 x 10{sup 1}-10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}. The depth and spatial profile of excess minority carrier recombination time {tau} (lifetime) was measured using photoconductive decay (PCD) method. Lifetime measurements were carried out before the stopping range of impinging ions. Results show a monotonous decrease in lifetime with fluence, which is attributed to defect creation mechanism by electronic energy loss based on the thermal spike model. Also, surface modification is expected with a small loss in crystalline quality. This surface is considered to be a multi-crystalline surface with large grain boundaries that act as trapping sites for excess holes in n-Si(1 1 1). Annealing of the irradiated samples showed a near complete recovery at 750 deg. C for a period of 1 h.

  6. Investigations on 40 MeV Li3+ ions irradiated GaN epilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Kumar, V.; Kumar, J.; Kanjilal, D.; Asokan, K.; Mohanty, T.; Tripathi, A.; Rossi, Francisca; Zappettini, A.; Lazzarani, L.; Ferrari, C.

    2008-01-01

    The Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (MOCVD) grown n-type Gallium nitride (GaN) layers on sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates have been irradiated at low and room temperatures with 40 MeV Li 3+ ions at the fluence of 1 x 10 13 ions cm -2 . Irradiated samples were characterised by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XRD results show that the formation of Ga 2 O 3 has been observed upon irradiation. This is due to interface mixing of GaN/Al 2 O 3 , at both temperatures. Also the GaN (0 0 0 2) peak splits into two at low temperature irradiation. PL measurements show a yellow emission band shift towards blue band side upon irradiation at 77 K. Raman studies indicate that the lattice disorder is high at room temperature irradiation compared to low temperature irradiation. AFM images indicate the increasing surface roughness after ion irradiation at room temperature when compared to pristine GaN and low temperature irradiated GaN. These observations are discussed in detail with the use of complementary techniques

  7. Magnetic properties of a stainless steel irradiated with 6 MeV Xe ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chaoliang; Liu, Xiangbing; Qian, Wangjie; Li, Yuanfei

    2017-11-01

    Specimens of austenitic stainless steel were irradiated with 6 MeV Xe ions at room temperature to 2, 7, 15 and 25 dpa. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PLS) were carried out to analysis the magnetic properties and microstructural variations. The magnetic hysteresis loops indicated that higher irradiation damage causes more significant magnetization phenomenon. The equivalent saturated magnetization Mes and coercive force Hc were obtained from magnetic hysteresis loops. It is indicated that the Mes increases with irradiation damage. While Hc increases first to 2 dpa and then decreases continuously with irradiation damage. The different contributions of irradiation defects and ferrite precipitates on Mes and Hc can explain these phenomena.

  8. Restoration of an electrical breakdown Terahertz emitter by 2 MeV He+ ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang kang; Ma Mingwang; Chen Xiliang; Zhu Zhiyong

    2009-01-01

    The irradiation of solids by energetic particles may cause extensive displacement cascades and point defects (vacancies and interstitials), and can be widely used for material modification. In order to repair an electrical breakdown photoconductive antenna (PCA), we irradiated the (100)-oriented, low-temperature (LT) grown GaAs substrate with 10 16 /cm 2 of 2 MeV helium ions. After being implanted, electric resistance of the PCA has increased from 800 Ω to 60 ΜΩ. The irradiated PCA exhibits improvements in the output power in comparison with the electrical breakdown PCA and its signal intensity has increased from 2 nA to 8 nA. Accordingly, its output power has become more than one order of magnitude higher than that before irradiation. The frequency range of PCA has obviously improvement. (authors)

  9. Fragment ion distribution in charge-changing collisions of 2-MeV Si ions with C60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, A.; Tsuchida, H.; Miyabe, K.; Majima, T.; Nakai, Y.

    2001-09-01

    We have measured positive fragment ions produced in collisions of 2 MeV Siq+ (q=0, 1, 2, 4) projectiles with a C60 molecular target. The measurement was performed with a time-of-flight coincidence method between fragment ions and charge-selected outgoing projectiles. For all the charge-changing collisions investigated here, the mass distribution of small fragment ions C+n (n=1-12) can be approximated fairly well by a power-law form of n-λ as a function of the cluster size n. The power λ derived from each mass distribution is found to change strongly according to different charge-changing collisions. As a remarkable experimental finding, the values of λ(loss) in electron loss collisions are almost the same for the same final charge states k irrespective of the initial charge q, exhibiting a nearly perfect linear relationship with k. We also performed calculations of the projectile ionization on the basis of the semiclassical approximation and obtained inelastic energy deposition for individual collision processes. The estimated energy deposition is found to have a simple correlation with the experimentally determined values of λ(loss).

  10. Triple differential cross section for angle, atomic number and energy (or angular momentum transfer) calculated for the 280MeV 40Ar+58Ni (or 365 MeV 63Cu+197Au) system in a simple model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlanger, M.; Grange, P.; Richert, J.; Hofmann, H.; Ngo, C.

    1978-01-01

    A dynamical model including both dissipation and statistical fluctuations is applied to the computation of triple differential cross sections for deep inelastic reactions. It is seen that for different Z values the overall pattern of the cross section (calculated, for the 280 MeV 40 Ar+ 58 Ni system) as a function of E and theta is fairly well reproduced - the mean angular momentum transfer for the 365MeV 63 Cu+ 197 Au system is calculated and compared with γ-multiplicity measurements. In both applications, possible implications of the remaining discrepancies are discussed

  11. Charge-state distribution in close collisions of 3 MeV C2+ ions with Ag and Au atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, D.O; Arnoldbik, W.M.; Kabachnik, N.M.; Khodyrev, V.A.

    The charge-state distributions of 3 MeV carbon ions scattered over angles of 40 degrees and 60 degrees from sub-monolayers of Ag and Au atoms evaporated on a substrate and from thick layers of Ag and Au have been measured. A close similarity of the charge distributions in all cases is interpreted as

  12. Fluctuation Induced Conductivity Studies of 100 MeV Oxygen Ion Irradiated Pb Doped Bi-2223 Superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, Tamalika; Kumar, Ravi; Kanjilal, D.; Ramasamy, S.

    2000-01-01

    We report on 100 MeV oxygen ion irradiation in Pb doped Bi-2223 superconductors. Resistivity measurements reveal that both grains as well as the grain boundaries are affected by such irradiation. An analysis of the excess conductivity has been made within the framework of Aslamazov-Larkin (AL) and

  13. Measurement of (n,α) cross-sections for Cr, Fe and Ni at 14 MeV neutron energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattecamps, E.; Liskien, H.; Arnotte, F.

    1983-01-01

    Helium production cross-sections for the main constituents of stainless steel (Cr, Fe, Ni) have recently been published for neutron energies between 5 and 10 MeV. The α-particles were detected with a multi-angle telescope and cross-section data relative to the well known n-p scattering cross-section were deduced. Those measurements have been performed now also at 14 MeV. At this energy the background condition had to be improved by changing the neutron collimation, by reducing the sensitive volume of the ΔE-proportional counters, and by replacing remaining low-Z material inside the chamber by tantalum. Listing mode data acquisition is used and α-particle identification is performed by transforming the observed (ΔE,E) signal into a (MZ 2 ,E) signal. The measurements yield the angle-differential cross sections for five fixed angles. Angle-integrated cross-sections are compared with the few results available in literature. (Auth.)

  14. Conceptual study of a heavy-ion-ERDA spectrometer for energies below 6 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julin, Jaakko; Sajavaara, Timo

    2017-09-01

    Elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) is a well established technique and it offers unique capabilities in thin film analysis. Simultaneous detection and depth profiling of all elements, including hydrogen, is possible only with time-of-flight ERDA. Bragg ionization chambers or ΔE - E detectors can also be used to identify the recoiling element if sufficiently high energies are used. The chief limitations of time-of-flight ERDA are the beam induced sample damage and the requirement of a relatively large accelerator. In this paper we propose a detector setup, which could be used with 3 MeV to 6 MeV medium heavy beams from either a single ended accelerator (40Ar) or from a tandem accelerator (39K). The detector setup consists of two timing detectors and a gas ionization chamber energy detector. Compared to use of very heavy low energy ions the hydrogen recoils with this beam have sufficient energy to be detected with current gas ionization chamber energy detector. To reduce the beam induced damage the proposed detector setup covers a solid angle larger than 1 msr, roughly an order of magnitude improvement over most time-of-flight ERDA setups. The setup could be used together with a small accelerator to be used for light element analysis of approximately 50 nm films. The concept is tested with 39K beam from a 1.7 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator with the Jyväskylä ToF-ERDA setup. In addition to the measurements effects related to low energies and increase in the solid angle are simulated with Monte Carlo methods.

  15. Capacitance-voltage investigation of silicon photodiodes damaged by MeV energy light ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinka, G.; Simon, A.; Novak, M.; Kiss, A.Z.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Nuclear radiation creates not only deep centers, but in addition influences shallow dopant concentration in semiconductors, as well. At a given temperature the maximum frequency a center can respond to depends on its energy level, therefore the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of radiation damaged semiconductor diodes should ideally be measured as function of frequency in order to obtain the physical and energy depth distribution of ionized centers [1,2]. In our experiments C-V plots of MeV energy ion irradiated photodiodes were taken at fixed 1 kHz frequency, which is low enough to be sensitive at room temperature to some of the deep levels expected. During, for example, an irradiation with 5.5 MeV α particles the capacitance of a p + nn + diode increased significantly at low voltages, but showed rather small changes at higher ones. The former turned out to be merely related to a decrease of the built in voltage, corresponding to a lifetime to relaxation type transition of the semiconductor [3]. Rescaling C-V data for this change, the remaining, actual capacitance changes could be interpreted as related to nuclear recoil caused damage located around the end of particle tracks. C-V technique has also been used for follow up investigation of spontaneous self annealing at room temperature of irradiated samples. This is shown here by plotting capacitance data normalized to their virgin values as function of depletion depth for irradiation with 430 keV protons, whose range is about 5 μm. The sensitivity of the method is illustrated for low fluence of 6.5 MeV oxygen, whose range is 5 μm, too, and where the normalization is now made to data taken one week after the irradiation. Acknowledgement This work was supported by the Hungarian Research and Technology Innovation Fund and the Croatian Ministry of Science, Education and Sports within the framework of the Hungarian-Croatian Intergovernmental Science and Technology Co

  16. Ion beam synthesis of IrSi3 by implantation of 2 MeV Ir ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoreen, T.P.; Chisholm, M.F.; Hinneberg, H.J.

    1992-11-01

    Formation of a buried IrSi 3 layer in (111) oriented Si by ion implantation and annealing has been studied at an implantation energy of 2 MeV for substrate temperatures of 450--550C. Rutherford backscattering (RBS), ion channeling and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy showed that a buried epitaxial IrSi 3 layer is produced at 550C by implanting ≥ 3.4 x 10 17 Ir/cm 2 and subsequently annealing for 1 h at 1000C plus 5 h at 1100C. At a dose of 3.4 x 10 17 Ir/cm 2 , the thickness of the layer varied between 120 and 190 nm and many large IrSi 3 precipitates were present above and below the film. Increasing the dose to 4.4 x 10 17 Ir/cm 2 improved the layer uniformity at the expense of increased lattice damage in the overlying Si. RBS analysis of layer formation as a function of substrate temperature revealed the competition between the mechanisms for optimizing surface crystallinity vs. IrSi 3 layer formation. Little apparent substrate temperature dependence was evident in the as-implanted state but after annealing the crystallinity of the top Si layer was observed to deteriorate with increasing substrate temperature while the precipitate coarsening and coalescence improved

  17. Microstructure evolution and hardness change in ordered Ni3V intermetallic alloy by energetic ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, A.; Kaneno, Y.; Semboshi, S.; Yoshizaki, H.; Saitoh, Y.; Okamoto, Y.; Iwase, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ni 3 V bulk intermetallic compounds with ordered D0 22 structure were irradiated with 16 MeV Au ions at room temperature. The irradiation induced phase transformation was examined by means of the transmission electron microscope (TEM), the extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurement (EXAFS) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD). We also measured the Vickers hardness for unirradiated and irradiated specimens. The TEM observation shows that by the Au irradiation, the lamellar microstructures and the super lattice spot in diffraction pattern for the unirradiated specimen disappeared. This TEM result as well as the result of XRD and EXAFS measurements means that the intrinsic D0 22 structure of Ni 3 V changes into the A1 (fcc) structure which is the lattice structure just below the melting point in the thermal equilibrium phase diagram. The lattice structure change from D0 22 to A1 (fcc) accompanies a remarkable decrease in Vickers microhardness. The change in crystal structure was discussed in terms of the thermal spike and the sequential atomic displacements induced by the energetic heavy ion irradiation

  18. Angular distribution and cross section measurements of 64Zn(n,α)61Ni reaction for neutron energy 5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yingtang; Chen Zemin; Qi Huiquan; Li Mingtao

    1995-01-01

    A twin gridded ionization chamber with dual parameter data acquisition system is used to study neutron induced charged particle emission reaction. The angular distribution and cross section of α-particles from the 64 Zn(n,α) 61 Ni reaction are measured at neutron energy 5 MeV

  19. Calculated neutron-induced cross sections for /sup 58,60/Ni from 1 to 20 MeV and comparisons with experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetrick, D.M.; Fu, C.Y.; Larson, D.C.

    1987-06-01

    Nuclear model codes were used to compute cross sections for neutron-induced reactions on both 58 Ni and 60 Ni for incident energies from 1 to 20 MeV. The input parameters for the model codes were determined through analysis of experimental data in this energy region. Discussion of the models used, the input data, the resulting calculations, extensive comparisons to measured data, and comparisons to the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B-V) for Ni (MAT 1328) are included in this report. 118 refs., 101 figs., 19 tabs

  20. Development of the integrated control system for the microwave ion source of the PEFP 100-MeV proton accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Gi; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Jang, Ji-Ho; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2012-07-01

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) 20-MeV proton linear accelerator is currently operating at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The ion source of the 100-MeV proton linac needs at least a 100-hour operation time. To meet the goal, we have developed a microwave ion source that uses no filament. For the ion source, a remote control system has been developed by using experimental physics and the industrial control system (EPICS) software framework. The control system consists of a versa module europa (VME) and EPICS-based embedded applications running on a VxWorks real-time operating system. The main purpose of the control system is to control and monitor the operational variables of the components remotely and to protect operators from radiation exposure and the components from critical problems during beam extraction. We successfully performed the operation test of the control system to confirm the degree of safety during the hardware performance.

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of channeled and random profiles of heavy ions implanted in silicon at high energy (1.2 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzone, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In order to study channeling effects and implants of heavy ions with energy of few MeV in silicon, ion distributions are calculated with a Monte Carlo method for axial [(001) axis], planar, and nominally random directions for As + and P + ions implanted into silicon with energies in the range 100 keV to 2 MeV. The calculation indicates an appreciable channeling at the higher energy only for the (001) axis and the (110) planes. For heavy ions with energy in the MeV range the subsidence of channeling into major channels and the disappearance of minor channels are shown

  2. In situ MeV ion beam analysis of ceramic surfaces modified by 100-400 keV ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.J.; Yu, N.; Sickafus, K.E.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes use of the in situ ion beam analysis facility developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the study of irradiation effects in ceramic materials. In this facility, an analytical beamline of 3 MV tandem accelerator and an irradiation bean-dine of 200 kV ion implanter are connected at 60 degrees to a common target chamber. This facility provides a fast, efficient, and quantitative measurement tool to monitor changes of composition and crystallinity of materials irradiated by 100-400 keV ions, through sequential measurement of backscattering events of MeV ions combined with ion channeling techniques. We will describe the details of the in situ ion beam analysis and ion irradiation and discuss some of the important issues and their solutions associated with the in situ experiment. These issues include (1) the selection of axial ion channeling direction for the measurement of radiation damage; (2) surface charging and charge collection for data acquisition; (3) surface sputtering during ion irradiation; (4) the effects of MeV analytical beam on the materials; and (5) the sample heating effect on ion beam analysis

  3. Light-Ion Production in the Interaction of 96 MeV Neutrons with Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippawan, U.; Dangtip, S.; Pomp, S.; Atac, A.; Bergenwall, B.; Blomgren, J.; Hildebrand, A.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Mermod, P.; Oesterlund, M.; Nilsson, L.; Elmgren, K.; Olsson, N.; Jonsson, O.; Prokofiev, A.V.; Renberg, P.-U.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Corcalciuc, V.; Watanabe, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation effects induced by terrestrial cosmic rays in microelectronics, on board aircrafts as well as at sea level, have recently attracted much attention. The most important particle radiation is due to spallation neutrons, created in the atmosphere by cosmic-ray protons. When, e.g., an electronic memory circuit is exposed to neutron radiation, charged particles can be produced in a nuclear reaction. The charge released by ionization can cause a flip of the memory content in a bit, which is called a single-event upset (SEU). This induces no hardware damage to the circuit, but unwanted re-programming of memories, CPUs, etc., can have consequences for the reliability, and ultimately also for the safety of the system.Data on energy and angular distributions of the secondary particles produced by neutrons in silicon nuclei are essential input for analyses and calculation of SEU rate. In this work, double-differential cross sections of inclusive light-ion (p, d, t, 3He and α) production in silicon, induced by 96 MeV neutrons, are presented. Energy distributions are measured at eight laboratory angles from 20 deg. to 160 deg. in steps of 20 deg. Deduced energy-differential and production cross sections are reported as well. Experimental cross sections are compared to theoretical reaction model calculations and existing experimental data in the literature

  4. Strain buildup in GaAs due to 100 MeV Ag ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Shramana; Bhaumik, Sudipta; Panda, Jaya Kumar [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Ojha, Sunil [Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Dhar, Achintya [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Kabiraj, D. [Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Roy, Anushree, E-mail: anushree@phy.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

    2013-12-01

    The formation of strained layers and a non-monotonic evolution of strain in high energy (100 MeV) silver ion (Ag{sup 7+}) irradiated undoped semi-insulating GaAs are observed and analyzed using Raman scattering and high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements. At low fluence, compressively strained layers are formed, whereas, with increase in fluence both compressive and tensile strains appear as observed from HRXRD measurements. Further, at low fluence, the change in compressive strain with increase in fluence is found to be sharper than what is observed at higher fluence, thereby suggesting a critical fluence value, beyond which there is a simultaneous generation and annihilation of vacancy type defects. The initial blue shift and subsequent relative red shift beyond above critical fluence in the Raman peak also qualitatively reveal non-monotonic evolution of strain in this case. Finally, we demonstrate the sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy in detecting the decrease in lattice ordering in the crystal in the low fluence regime, below the detection limit of Rutherford back-scattering channeling (c-RBS) measurements.

  5. On the Ni-Ion release rate from surfaces of binary NiTi shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševčíková, Jana; Bártková, Denisa; Goldbergová, Monika; Kuběnová, Monika; Čermák, Jiří; Frenzel, Jan; Weiser, Adam; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2018-01-01

    The study is focused on Ni-ion release rates from NiTi surfaces exposed in the cell culture media and human vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) culture environments. The NiTi surface layers situated in the depth of 70 μm below a NiTi oxide scale are affected by interactions between the NiTi alloys and the bio-environments. The finding was proved with use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electron microscopy experiments. As the exclusive factor controlling the Ni-ion release rates was not only thicknesses of the oxide scale, but also the passivation depth, which was two-fold larger. Our experimental data strongly suggested that some other factors, in addition to the Ni concentration in the oxide scale, admittedly hydrogen soaking deep below the oxide scale, must be taken into account in order to rationalize the concentrations of Ni-ions released into the bio-environments. The suggested role of hydrogen as the surface passivation agent is also in line with the fact that the Ni-ion release rates considerably decrease in NiTi samples that were annealed in controlled hydrogen atmospheres prior to bio-environmental exposures.

  6. Alpha-heavy-ion angular correlations from /sup 28/Si + /sup 12/C. [84 to 91. 5 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ost, R; Cole, A J [Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, 38 - Grenoble (France); Clover, M R; Fulton, B R; Sikora, B [Rochester Univ., NY (USA). Nuclear Structure Research Lab.

    1980-06-01

    Alpha particles have been measured in coincidence with heavy recoil nuclei from the /sup 28/Si + /sup 12/C reaction. At Esub(lab) = 87 MeV angular correlations for alphas between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/ and heavy ions at angles -9/sup 0/, -12/sup 0/ and -15/sup 0/ have been taken. An excitation function of coincidence events with THETAsub(..cap alpha..) = 30/sup 0/ and THETAsub(HI) = -12/sup 0/ has been measured for 84 MeV < Esub(lab) < 91.5 MeV. The results are well described by a statistical-model calculation for compound nucleus decay. No evidence is found for additional processes.

  7. High energy (MeV) ion beam modifications of sputtered MoS2 coatings on sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, R.S.; Rai, A.K.; Erdemir, A.

    1991-01-01

    The present article reports on the results of our investigations of high-energy (MeV) ion irradiation on the microstructural and tribological properties of dc magnetron sputtered MoS 2 films. Films of thicknesses 500-7500 A were deposited on NaCl, Si and sapphire substrates and subsequently ion irradiated by 2 MeV Ag + ions at a dose of 5x10 15 cm -2 . Scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Rutherford backscattering and X-ray diffraction techniques were utilized to study the structural, morphological and compositional changes of the film due to ion irradiation. The friction coefficient and sliding life were determined by pin-on-disc tests. Both as-deposited and ion-irradiated films were found to be amorphous having a stoichiometry of MoS 1.8 . A low friction coefficient in the range 0.03-0.04 was measured for both as-deposited and ion-irradiated films. However, the sliding life of ion-irradiated film was found to increase more than tenfold compared to as-deposited films indicating improved bonding at the interface. (orig.)

  8. Experimental and calculated effectiveness of a radiochromic dye film to stopping 21 MeV 7Li and 64 MeV 16O ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, K.J.; Hansen, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Relative radiation effectiveness, RE, of 21 MeV 7 Li and 64 MeV 16 O ions being completely stopped in a tissue equivalent film dose meter has been measured as a function of penetration depth and energy, and the results have been compared with calculations based on a delta-ray theory for heavy charged particles developed by Katz et al. The experiment was designed to test calculations particularly in the Bragg-peak region of the slowing down particles where significant deviation between theory and experiment was found. Fitting of the characteristic D 37 dose and the size of the radiation sensitive element in the detector, which are important parameters in the theoretical model, does not improve the overall correlation between theory and experiment. It is concluded that disagreement between theoretical and experimental RE-values below 1.5 MeV/amu is partly due to lack of equivalence between the delta-ray spectrum and the slowing down spectrum of electrons from low-LET radiation, and partly from approximations in the calculated distribution of energy deposition of the delta-rays. (orig.)

  9. Energies of Electronic States of Ni (II) Ion in NiO-Al2O3 Catalyst Prepared by Impregnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obadovic, D. Z.; Kiurski, J.; Marinkovic-Neducin, R. P.

    2007-01-01

    The behavior of NiO-Al2O3 catalysts is strongly dependent on the preparation method, as well as on pretreatment conditions. In the present work we investigated the influences of Ni(II) ion on NiO-Al2O3 catalysts properties due to the preparation by impregnation method. Based on experimental diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) data of electronic d-d transitions of Ni (II) promoter ion the energies of electronic states in spinel-like structure were calculated, and the most probable scheme of molecular orbital have been proposed

  10. 0.5 to 6 MeV Ar ion induced X-ray emission in view to analytical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenorio Castilleros, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the X-ray emission induced by 0.5 to 6 MeV Ar ions has been realized in view of multielemental analytical applications. The historical development of the use of heavy ion induced X-ray emission in analysis and the theoretical background of inner-shell ionization in heavy ion-atom collisions are described. The emission of non characteristic X-rays and the effects related to the penetration of heavy ions in matter are also related. The experimental part contains a description of the experimental devices and of the X-ray spectra fitting method. Thick target yields as a function of the target Z and the Ar ion energy are reported. The analytical possibilities are examined and an application to the analysis of Si and Cl in cadmium telluride crystals is given [fr

  11. Charge-state distributions of 100, 175, 275, and 352 MeV gold ions emerging from thin carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.A.; Auble, R.L.; Erb, K.A.; Jones, C.M.; Olsen, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    These measurements were undertaken as a consequence of our failure early this year to accelerate Au +46 ions in the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron using an injected beam of 352 MeV 197 Au +17 from the 25 MV tandem accelerator. Following that unsuccessful test, we made a preliminary measurement of the charge-state distribution of 352 MeV 197 Au ions emerging from a carbon foil using the bending magnet that is a part of the cyclotron beam injection system. The measured mean charge was approx.38.5, about 4.5 charge-states lower than predicted by the Sayer semi-empirical formula. The measurements reported here were done more precisely and systematically confirm that preliminary result. 12 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Charge-state distributions of 100, 175, 275, and 352 MeV gold ions emerging from thin carbon foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.A.; Auble, R.L.; Erb, K.A.; Jones, C.M.; Olsen, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    These measurements were undertaken as a consequence of our failure early this year to accelerate Au/sup +46/ ions in the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron using an injected beam of 352 MeV /sup 197/Au/sup +17/ from the 25 MV tandem accelerator. Following that unsuccessful test, we made a preliminary measurement of the charge-state distribution of 352 MeV /sup 197/Au ions emerging from a carbon foil using the bending magnet that is a part of the cyclotron beam injection system. The measured mean charge was approx.38.5, about 4.5 charge-states lower than predicted by the Sayer semi-empirical formula. The measurements reported here were done more precisely and systematically confirm that preliminary result. 12 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Stripping of 1.04 MeV per nucleon krypton ions in high molecular weight vapours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Joy, T.; Clark, R.B.; King, R.

    1976-01-01

    Equilibrium charge state distributions have been measured for 1.04 MeV per nucleon krypton ions in heavy vapours with molecular weights from 462 to 6500. Non-equilibrium data are presented for the heaviest vapour. A maximum increase of 0.8 in the mean charge is found relative to a conventional diatomic gas but the pressures required are two orders of magnitude less. (Auth.)

  14. Nonlinear optical waveguides produced by MeV ion implantation in LiNbO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkisov, S.S.; Curley, M.J.; Williams, E.K.; Ila, D.; Svetchnikov, V.L.; Zandbergen, H.W.; Zykov, G.A.; Banks, C.; Wang, J.-C.; Poker, D.B.; Hensley, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze microstructure, linear and nonlinear optical properties of planar waveguides produced by implantation of MeV Ag ions into LiNbO 3 . Linear optical properties are described by the parameters of waveguide propagation modes and optical absorption spectra. Nonlinear properties are described by the nonlinear refractive index. Operation of the implanted crystal as an optical waveguide is due to modification of the linear refractive index of the implanted region. The samples as implanted do not show any light-guiding. The implanted region has amorphous and porous microstructure with the refractive index lower than the substrate. Heat treatment of the implanted samples produces planar light-guiding layer near the implanted surface. High-resolution electron microscopy reveals re-crystallization of the host between the surface and the nuclear stopping region in the form of randomly oriented crystalline grains. They make up a light-guiding layer isolated from the bulk crystal by the nuclear stopping layer with low refractive index. Optical absorption of the sample as implanted has a peak at 430 nm. This peak is due to the surface plasmon resonance in nano-clusters of metallic silver. Heat treatment of the samples shifts the absorption peak to 545 nm. This is more likely due to the increase of the refractive index back to the value for the crystalline LiNbO 3 . The nonlinear refractive index of the samples at 532 nm (of the order of 10 -10 cm 2 W -1 ) was measured with the Z-scan technique using a picosecond laser source. Possible applications of the waveguides include ultra-fast photonic switches and modulators

  15. Electron angular distributions in He single ionization impact by H2+ ions at 1 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shaofeng; Ma Xinwen; Suske, J; Fischer, D; Kuehnel, K U; Voitkiv, A; Najjaril, B; Krauss, A; Moshammer, R; Ullrich, J; Hagmann, S

    2009-01-01

    For the first time we investigated in a kinematically complete experiment the ionization of helium in collisions with H 2 + -molecular ions at 1 MeV. Using two separate detectors, the orientation of the projectile H 2 + -molecular ions was determined at the instance of the collision. The electron angular distribution was measured by a R eaction Microscope . The observed structures are found in agreement with theoretical calculations, indicating that the ionized electron of He shows a slight preferential emission direction parallel to the molecular axis.

  16. Dose as a function of radial distance from a 930 MeV 4He ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, M.N.; Paretzke, H.; Baum, J.W.; Lyman, J.T.; Howard, J.

    1975-01-01

    A unique mesh wall ionization chamber (approximating a wall-less ionization chamber) was used to measure dose as a function of radial distance from a 930 MeV 4 He ion beam in air. Measurements were made at distances from about 10 to 40 cm from the ion path. This represents simulated distances of approximately 102 to 404 μm in tissue having a density of 1 g/cm 3 . Experimental values are compared with theoretical calculations, and probable causes of differences found are discussed. (auth)

  17. Gamma-ray multiplicity measurements in the 28Si + 64Ni reaction at 163.8 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Pietro, A.; Cardella, G.; Musumarra, A.; Papa, M.; Pappalardo, G.; Rizzo, F.; De Rosa, A.; D'Onofrio, A.; Inglima, G.; Roca, V.; Romano, M.; Romoli, M.; Sandoli, M.; Terrasi, F.; Fioretto, E.

    1994-01-01

    The 28 Si+ 64 Ni reaction at 163.8 MeV incident energy is studied by measuring in coincidence γ-rays and charged particles identified from Z 2 to Z = 16. The transition from quasi-elastic to more damped reactions is observed when the difference between the detected charge and the projectile one is increased. The strong influence of the particle decay on the measured γ-ray multiplicity is evidenced with the help of the statistical model computer code CASCADE. Dissipative events are well described in the rolling limit with excitation energy equally shared between the fragments. The overall agreement is lost for the fragments with the projectile charge which show a small value of the γ-multiplicity even for dissipative events. This is probably connected with the previously observed non statistical behavior of gamma rays emitted in coincidence with projectile-like fragments. In the alpha-spectrum measured in coincidence with gamma-rays, the deexcitation of fused systems is clearly separated from in flight emission of deep inelastic fragments. The low measured gamma-ray multiplicity for fusion events is qualitatively explained taking into account the effect of alpha-emission in the statistical decay. (orig.)

  18. Ion-source dependence of the distributions of internuclear separations in 2-MeV HeH+ beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanter, E.P.; Gemmell, D.S.; Plesser, I.; Vager, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments involving the use of MeV molecular-ion beams have yielded new information on atomic collisions in solids. A central part of the analyses of such experiments is a knowledge of the distribution of internuclear separations contained in the incident beam. In an attempt to determine how these distributions depend on ion-source gas conditions, we have studied foil-induced dissociations of H 2+ , H 3+ , HeH + , and OH 2+ ions. Although changes of ion-source gas compositions and pressure were found to have no measurable influence on the vibrational state populations of the beams reaching our target, for HeH + we found that beams produced in our rf source were vibrationally hotter than beams produced in a duoplasmatron. This was also seen in studies of neutral fragments and transmitted molecules

  19. Electroplating Ni-63 metal ions in chloride bath on the Cu-plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Kwon Mo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Park, Keun Yung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Ni-63 plating is similar to other electroplating processes that employ soluble metal anodes. The nickel plating solution described by Watts in 1916 eventually replaced all other strategies in use up to that time. Charged Ni ions are formed by sulfate, sulfamate, chloride, and a Watts bath. However, charged Ni-63 ions are formed by dissolving metal Ni-63. Specifically, it requires the passage of direct current (DC) between two electrodes that are immersed in a conductive, aqueous solution of nickel salts. The flow of a DC causes one of the electrodes (the anode) to dissolve and the other electrode (the cathode) to become covered with nickel. The nickel in the solution is present in the form of divalent positively charged ions (Ni{sup 2+}). When the current flows, the positive ions react with two electrons (2e{sup -}) and are converted into metallic nickel (Ni{sup 0}) at the cathode surface. In the present study, we optimize and established process for the electroplating Ni-63 on Cu-plate. Nanocrystalline nickel (Ni) coatings were synthesized by DC electro deposition at a current density of 15 mA/cm{sup 2}. The bath was primarily composed of 0.2 M Ni ions, prepared by dissolving Ni-63 metal particles in HCl. The prototype for electroplating radioactive Ni-63 has been established. The electroplating was carried out by two-step processes such as preparation of ionic solution including Ni-63, and coating processes on the substrate.

  20. Electroplating Ni-63 metal ions in chloride bath on the Cu-plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Kwon Mo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Park, Keun Yung

    2014-01-01

    Ni-63 plating is similar to other electroplating processes that employ soluble metal anodes. The nickel plating solution described by Watts in 1916 eventually replaced all other strategies in use up to that time. Charged Ni ions are formed by sulfate, sulfamate, chloride, and a Watts bath. However, charged Ni-63 ions are formed by dissolving metal Ni-63. Specifically, it requires the passage of direct current (DC) between two electrodes that are immersed in a conductive, aqueous solution of nickel salts. The flow of a DC causes one of the electrodes (the anode) to dissolve and the other electrode (the cathode) to become covered with nickel. The nickel in the solution is present in the form of divalent positively charged ions (Ni 2+ ). When the current flows, the positive ions react with two electrons (2e - ) and are converted into metallic nickel (Ni 0 ) at the cathode surface. In the present study, we optimize and established process for the electroplating Ni-63 on Cu-plate. Nanocrystalline nickel (Ni) coatings were synthesized by DC electro deposition at a current density of 15 mA/cm 2 . The bath was primarily composed of 0.2 M Ni ions, prepared by dissolving Ni-63 metal particles in HCl. The prototype for electroplating radioactive Ni-63 has been established. The electroplating was carried out by two-step processes such as preparation of ionic solution including Ni-63, and coating processes on the substrate

  1. Comparison between thermal annealing and ion mixing of multilayered Ni-W films on Si. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, C.S.; Lau, S.S.; Poker, D.B.; Hung, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    The reactions between bilayered Ni/W films and Si substrates induced by thermal annealing and ion mixing were investigated and compared. Samples were prepared by electron-beam sequential deposition of Ni and W onto the Si substrates and following by either furnace annealing (approx. 200--900 0 C) or ion mixing (approx. 2 x 10 15 -- 4 x 10 16 86 Kr + ions/cm 2 ). The reactions were analyzed by Rutherford backscattering and x-ray diffraction (Read camera). Thermal annealing of both W/Ni/Si and Ni/W/Si samples led to the formation of Ni silicide next to the Si substrate and W silicide on the sample surface (layer reversal between Ni and W in the Ni/W/Si case). Ion mixing of W/Ni/Si samples led to the formation of Ni silicide with a thin layer of Ni-W-Si mixture located at the sample surface. For Ni/W/Si samples a ternary amorphous mixture of Ni-W-Si was obtained with ion mixing. These reactions were rationalized in terms of the mobilities of various atoms and the intermixings between layers

  2. Optical, structural, and chemical properties of CR-39 implanted with 5.2 MeV doubly charged carbon ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Dilawar; Butt, M. Z.; Ishtiaq, Mohsin; Waqas Khaliq, M.; Bashir, Farooq

    2016-11-01

    Poly-allyl-diglycol-carbonate (CR-39) specimens were irradiated with 5.2 MeV doubly charged carbon ions using Pelletron accelerator. Ion dose was varied from 5 × 1013 to 5 × 1015 ions cm-2. Optical, structural, and chemical properties were investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy, x-ray diffractometer, and FTIR/Raman spectroscopy, respectively. It was found that optical absorption increases with increasing ion dose. Absorption edge shifts from UV region to visible region. The measured opacity values of pristine and ion implanted CR-39 range from 0.0519 to 4.7959 mm-1 following an exponential growth (9141%) with the increase in ion dose. The values of direct and indirect band gap energy decrease exponentially with an increase in ion dose by 59% and 71%, respectively. However, average refractive index in the visible region increases from 1.443 to 2.864 with an increase in ion dose, by 98%. A linear relation between band gap energy and crystallite size was observed. Both the number of carbon atoms in conjugation length and the number of carbon atoms per cluster increase linearly with the increase in ion dose. FTIR spectra showed that on C+2 ions irradiation, the intensity of all bands decreases gradually without appearance of any new band, indicating degradation of polymer after irradiation. Raman spectra revealed that the density of -CH2- group decreases on C+2 ions irradiation. However, the structure of CR-39 is completely destroyed on irradiation with ion dose 1 × 1015 and 5 × 1015 ions cm-2.

  3. Effect of 1.2 MeV argon ions irradiation on magnetic properties of ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, D.K.; Mohapatra, Jyoshnarani; Mahato, Banashree; Kumar, P.; Mitra, Amitav; Singh, S.K.; Kanjilal, D.

    2013-01-01

    Room temperature ferromagnetism in 1.2 MeV argon ions irradiated polycrystalline ZnO has been observed. The magnetic contribution in form of saturation magnetization is higher in sample irradiated with ion fluence of 1 × 10 15 ions/cm 2 . However, annealing of the defects at higher fluences of 5 × 10 15 ions/cm 2 reduce the magnetic contribution in comparison to the magnetic contribution of the lower fluences. The X-ray diffraction reveals that the degree of crystallinity decreases with the increase of ion fluences upto 1 × 10 15 ions/cm 2 and further it increases at a fluence of 5 × 10 15 ions/cm 2 . The inhomogeneous arrangement of grains and changes in their sizes with increasing ion fluences decrease the magnetic ordering of the system. The electron probe microstructure analyses and micro-Raman spectra of irradiated samples show in-homogeneity in zinc and oxygen ratio which is one of the causes to show ferromagnetism.

  4. Charge steering of laser plasma accelerated fast ions in a liquid spray — creation of MeV negative ion and neutral atom beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnürer, M.; Abicht, F.; Priebe, G.; Braenzel, J.; Prasad, R.; Borghesi, M.; Andreev, A.; Nickles, P. V.; Jequier, S.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.

    2013-01-01

    The scenario of “electron capture and loss” has been recently proposed for the formation of negative ion and neutral atom beams with up to MeV kinetic energy [S. Ter-Avetisyan, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051501 (2011)]. Validation of these processes and of their generic nature is here provided in experiments where the ion source and the interaction medium have been spatially separated. Fast positive ions accelerated from a laser plasma source are sent through a cold spray where their charge is changed. Such formed neutral atom or negative ion has nearly the same momentum as the original positive ion. Experiments are released for protons, carbon, and oxygen ions and corresponding beams of negative ions and neutral atoms have been obtained. The electron capture and loss phenomenon is confirmed to be the origin of the negative ion and neutral atom beams. The equilibrium ratios of different charge components and cross sections have been measured. Our method is general and allows the creation of beams of neutral atoms and negative ions for different species which inherit the characteristics of the positive ion source

  5. /sup 58/Ni(/sup 16/O, /sup 12/C)/sup 62/Zn reaction at an incident energy 80 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, Yasuhiko [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics; Motobayashi, Tooru; Takimoto, Kiyohiko; Shimoura, Susumu; Ogino, Kouya; Fukada, Mamoru; Suehiro, Teruo; Matsuki, Seishi; Yanabu, Takuji

    1983-03-01

    Cross section angular distributions for the /sup 16/O + /sup 58/Ni elastic scattering and the /sup 58/Ni(/sup 16/O, /sup 12/C)/sup 62/Zn- 3.8416 MeV reaction leading to the discrete and continuum states at an incident energy Esub(lab)(/sup 16/O) = 80 MeV have been measured. The eight low-lying single and double energy levels were observed in the energy spectra of the /sup 58/Ni(/sup 16/O, /sup 12/C)/sup 62/Zn reaction. Populations of these levels have the cross sections of 1-200 ..mu..b/sr. The ground state cross section was proved to change with the incident energy by comparing the present data with the other 46 and 60 MeV data. The cross section angular distribution for the ground state transition changes also with the incident energy. The data points for the 46 MeV show a typical bell shape angular distribution. The angular distribution for the 60 MeV reveals a forward peaked and pronounced oscillation pattern, while that for the 80 MeV shows an oscillation damping with the angle and then a monotonous fall on the angle. Optical model parameters were deduced from the best fit to the measurements of the /sup 16/O + /sup 58/Ni elastic scattering. The EFR-DWBA calculations of the (/sup 16/O, /sup 12/C) results were performed with reasonable fits for the cross section angular distributions of observed energy levels. The optical model parameters giving good representations of the ..cap alpha..-transfer data have the property that the real diffuseness parameter has a large value almost equal to the radius parameter. The inclusion of Coulomb correction in the transfer interaction causes a reduction of 0.9 times in cross section, but no change in angular distribution. The dependence of the angular distribution shape on the incident energy can be reproduced by the EFR-DWBA calculation even if only one parameter set is used in the calculation over the wide incident energy range.

  6. Beam-envelope calculations of space-charge loaded beams in MeV dc ion-implantation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanus, W.H.; Bannenberg, J.G.; Doorn, S.; Saris, F.W.; Koudijs, R.; Dubbelman, P.; Koelewijn, W.

    1989-01-01

    MeV dc ion accelerators are being developed that can deliver a beam current up to several hundred micro-amperes. At the low-energy part of the accelerator, the beam transport is space-charge dominated rather than emittance dominated. A system of differential equations has been derived, based on the Kapchinski-Vladimirski equations, which describe the envelope of a space-charge loaded ion beam, taking a longitudinal electrical field in an accelerating tube into account. The equations have been used to design the accelerator of a high-current 1 MV heavy-ion implantation facility. Furthermore, the design of a 2 MV accelerator is presented, which is used for analyzing techniques such as RBS and PIXE. Both facilities are based on single-ended Van de Graaff accelerators. (orig.)

  7. Optimal synthesis of a Ni(II)-dimethylglyoxime ion-imprinted polymer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Ni(II)-dimethylglyoxime ion-imprinted polymer {Ni(II)-DMG IIP} was optimised by the uniform design experimental ... The bonds formed between the template and the functional monomers in ion- imprinted polymerisation reactions are weaker, non-covalent. (Arshady and Mosbach, 1981; ..... where the polymer did not form.

  8. Tokamak ion temperature and poloidal field diagnostics using 3 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W.W.; Strachan, J.D.

    1984-10-01

    The 3 MeV protons created by d(d,p)t fusion reactions in a moderately sized tokamak leave the plasma on trajectories determined by the position of their birth and by the poloidal magnetic field. Pitch-angle resolution of the escaping 3 MeV protons can separately resolve the spatial distribution of the d(d,p)t fusion reactions and the poloidal field distribution inside the tokamak. These diagnostic techniques have been demonstrated on PLT with an array of collimated surface barrier detectors

  9. Correlations of fragments and their sequential products from the 3He-induced reaction on 58Ni at 130 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockhorst, H.

    1986-01-01

    The 3 He breakup on the 58 Ni nucleus was studied with a projectile energy of 130 MeV. The main topic of this studies lies thereby on the absorptive breakup in which a fragment from the 3 He breakup is absorbed by the target nucleus. Beside the single and coincidence measurements on the 3 He breakup on the one hand the reaction 58 Ni(d,pp') was studied at a projectile energy of 80 MeV and on the other hand the inclusive reactions 58 Ni(d,yX) and 58 Ni(p,yX) whereby the light particles y up to A=3 were spectroscoped in a wide angular range. The projectile energies were selected in such a way that they correspond almost to the energies of the primary fragments deuteron and proton from the 3 He breakup (E d =79 MeV and E p =39 MeV). The study of the elastic 3 He breakup resulted that the shapes of the deuteron and proton spectra can be well described by a PWBA model and reproduce the momentum distribution of the fragments before the 3 He breakup. The spectra are therefore determined by properties of the projectiles. However the proton and deuteron spectra from the absorptive breakup show distinct components which cannot be reduced to 3 He properties. Rather they are in their shape comparable with the inclusive spectra of the (d,p) respectively (p,p') reaction. Especially this is valid for spectra from the 3 He breakup in which a fragment was registrated with an energy corresponding to the projectile velocity. This suggests that in the absorptive 3 He breakup a two-stage process is present in which after the 3 He fragmentation in a second stage a (d,p) or (p,p') reaction occurs. The study of the 3 He breakup resulted that such processes yield an essential contribution to the inclusive cross section of the reactions 58 Ni( 3 He,dX) and 58 Ni( 3 He,pX). (HSI) [de

  10. Probing the semi-magicity of $^{68}$Ni via the $^{3}$H($^{66}$Ni,$^{68}$Ni)p two-neutron transfer reaction in inverse kinematics

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Blazhev, A A; Kruecken, R; Franchoo, S; Mertzimekis, T; Darby, I G; Van de walle, J; Raabe, R; Elseviers, J; Gernhaeuser, R A; Sorlin, O H; Georgiev, G P; Bree, N C F; Habs, D; Chapman, R; Gaudefroy, L; Diriken, J V J; Jenkins, D G; Kroell, T; Axiotis, M; Huyse, M L; Patronis, N

    We propose to perform the two-neutron transfer reaction $^{3}$H($^{66}$Ni, $^{68}$Ni)$p$ using the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam at 2.7 $A$ MeV and the MINIBALL + T-REX setup to characterize the 0$^{+}$ and 2$^{+}$ states in $^{68}$Ni.

  11. Effect of 50 MeV Li3+ ion irradiation on electrical characteristics of high speed NPN power transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinesh, C.M.; Ramani; Radhakrishna, M.C.; Dutt, R.N.; Khan, S.A.; Kanjilal, D.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon NPN overlay RF power high speed commercial bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) find applications in military, space and communication equipments. Here we report the effect of 50 MeV Li 3+ ion irradiation in the fluence range 1 x 10 11 -1.8 x 10 12 ions cm -2 on NPN power transistor. The range (R), electronic energy loss (S e ), nuclear energy loss (S n ), total ionizing dose (TID) and total displacement damage (D d ) in the silicon target are calculated from TRIM Monte Carlo Code. Output resistance is 3.568 x 10 4 Ω for unirradiated device and it increases to 6 x 10 7 Ω as the fluence is increased from 1 x 10 11 to 1.8 x 10 12 ions cm -2 . The capacitance of the emitter-base junction of the transistor decreases and dielectric loss of the emitter-base junction increases with increase in ion fluence. The built in voltage of the unirradiated sample is 0.5 V and it shifts to 0.4 V after irradiation at fluence of 1.8 x 10 12 ions cm -2 and the corresponding doping density reduced to 5.758 x 10 16 cm -3 . The charge carrier removal rate varies linearly with the increase in ion fluence

  12. Exfoliation on stainless steel and inconel produced by 0.8-4 MeV helium ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paszti, F.; Mezey, G.; Pogany, L.; Fried, M.; Manuaba, A.; Kotai, E.; Lohner, T.; Pocs, L.

    1982-11-01

    Trying to outline the energy dependence of surface deformations such as exfoliation and flaking on candidate CTR first-wall materials, stainless steel and two types of inconels were bombarded by 0.8, 1 and 4 MeV helium ions. All the bombarded spots could be characterized by by large exfoliations covering almost the total implanted area. No spontaneous rupture was observed except on one type of inconel where flaking took place right after reaching the critical dose. After mechanical opening of the formations, similar inner morphology was found as in our previous studies on gold. (author)

  13. 130 MeV Au ion irradiation induced dewetting on In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matheswaran, P.; Abhirami, K.M.; Gokul, B. [Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641029 (India); Sathyamoorthy, R., E-mail: rsathya1959@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641029 (India); Prakash, Jai [Department of Chemistry, M.M.H. College, Ghaziabad 201001 (India); Asokan, K.; Kanjilal, D. [Materials Science Division, Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2012-09-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} phase formed from In/Te bilayer by 130 MeV Au ion irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lower fluence results mixed phases with initial state of dewetting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At higher fluence, In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} phase with complete dewetting pattern is formed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal spike model is used to explain the inter face mixing phenomena. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SHI irradiation may be used to functionalize the structural and surface properties of thin films. - Abstract: In/Te bilayer thin films were prepared by sequential thermal evaporation and subsequently irradiated by 130 MeV Au ions. The pristine and irradiated samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) techniques. RBS spectra reveal the sputtering of Te film and interface mixing, with increasing fluence. The surface morphology showed the beginning of dewetting of Te thin film and formation of the partially connected with the mixed zones at the fluence of 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. At the higher fluence of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}, dewetted structures were isolated at the surface. Above results are explained based on the formation of craters, sputtering and dewetting followed by inter-diffusion at the interface of molten zones due to thermal spike induced by Au ions.

  14. Potentiometric Zinc Ion Sensor Based on Honeycomb-Like NiO Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Willander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study honeycomb-like NiO nanostructures were grown on nickel foam by a simple hydrothermal growth method. The NiO nanostructures were characterized by field emission electron microscopy (FESEM, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. The characterized NiO nanostructures were uniform, dense and polycrystalline in the crystal phase. In addition to this, the NiO nanostructures were used in the development of a zinc ion sensor electrode by functionalization with the highly selective zinc ion ionophore 12-crown-4. The developed zinc ion sensor electrode has shown a good linear potentiometric response for a wide range of zinc ion concentrations, ranging from 0.001 mM to 100 mM, with sensitivity of 36 mV/decade. The detection limit of the present zinc ion sensor was found to be 0.0005 mM and it also displays a fast response time of less than 10 s. The proposed zinc ion sensor electrode has also shown good reproducibility, repeatability, storage stability and selectivity. The zinc ion sensor based on the functionalized NiO nanostructures was also used as indicator electrode in potentiometric titrations and it has demonstrated an acceptable stoichiometric relationship for the determination of zinc ion in unknown samples. The NiO nanostructures-based zinc ion sensor has potential for analysing zinc ion in various industrial, clinical and other real samples.

  15. Bulk-compositional changes of Ni2Al3 and NiAl3 during ion etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Houwen; Wang Rong

    2008-01-01

    Bulk-compositional changes of Ni 2 Al 3 and NiAl 3 in a Ni-50 wt% Al alloy during ion etching have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analyses. After etching with 7, 5 and 3 keV Ar + ions for 15, 24 and 100 h nickel contents in both Ni 2 Al 3 and NiAl 3 exceeded greatly those in the initial compounds and increased with the decrement of the sputtering energy. After 100 h etching with 3 keV Ar + ions the compositions of these two compounds reached a similar value, about Ni 80-83 Al 12-15 Fe 3-4 Cr 1-2 (at%). A synergistic action of preferential sputtering, radiation-induced segregation and radiation-enhanced diffusion enables the altered-layers at the top and bottom of the film extend through the whole film. The bulk-compositional changes are proposed to occur in the unsteady-state sputtering regime of ion etching and caused by an insufficient supply of matter in a thin film

  16. TL response of Eu activated LiF nanocubes irradiated by 85 MeV carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salah, Numan, E-mail: nsalah@kau.edu.sa [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Alharbi, Najlaa D. [Sciences Faculty for Girls, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Habib, Sami S. [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Lochab, S.P. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2015-09-01

    Carbon ions were found to be effective for cancer treatment. These heavy ions have a high relative biological effectiveness compared to those of photons. They have higher linear energy transfer and sharper Bragg peak with a very excellent local tumor control. However, the dose of these swift heavy ions needs to be measured with great accuracy. Lithium fluoride (LiF) is a highly sensitive phosphor widely used for radiation dosimetry. In this work Eu activated LiF nanocubes were exposed to 85 MeV C{sup 6+} ion beam and evaluated for their thermoluminescence (TL) response. Pellet forms of this nanomaterial were exposed to these ions in the fluence range 10{sup 9}–10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The obtained result shows a prominent TL glow peak at around 320 °C, which is different than that induced by gamma rays. This glow peak exhibits a linear response in the range 10{sup 9}–10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}, corresponding to the equivalent absorbed doses 0.273–273 kGy. The absorbed doses, penetration depths and main energy loss were calculated using TRIM code based on the Monte Carlo simulation. The supralinearity function and stopping power in this nanomaterial were also studied. The modification induced in the glow curve structure as a result of changing irradiation type might be utilized to use LiF:Eu nanocubes as a dosimeter for mixed filed radiations. Moreover, the wide linear response of LiF:Eu nanocubes along with the low fading are another imperative results suggesting that this nanomaterial might be a good candidate for carbon ions dosimetry.

  17. TL response of Eu activated LiF nanocubes irradiated by 85 MeV carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah, Numan; Alharbi, Najlaa D.; Habib, Sami S.; Lochab, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon ions were found to be effective for cancer treatment. These heavy ions have a high relative biological effectiveness compared to those of photons. They have higher linear energy transfer and sharper Bragg peak with a very excellent local tumor control. However, the dose of these swift heavy ions needs to be measured with great accuracy. Lithium fluoride (LiF) is a highly sensitive phosphor widely used for radiation dosimetry. In this work Eu activated LiF nanocubes were exposed to 85 MeV C 6+ ion beam and evaluated for their thermoluminescence (TL) response. Pellet forms of this nanomaterial were exposed to these ions in the fluence range 10 9 –10 13 ions/cm 2 . The obtained result shows a prominent TL glow peak at around 320 °C, which is different than that induced by gamma rays. This glow peak exhibits a linear response in the range 10 9 –10 12 ions/cm 2 , corresponding to the equivalent absorbed doses 0.273–273 kGy. The absorbed doses, penetration depths and main energy loss were calculated using TRIM code based on the Monte Carlo simulation. The supralinearity function and stopping power in this nanomaterial were also studied. The modification induced in the glow curve structure as a result of changing irradiation type might be utilized to use LiF:Eu nanocubes as a dosimeter for mixed filed radiations. Moreover, the wide linear response of LiF:Eu nanocubes along with the low fading are another imperative results suggesting that this nanomaterial might be a good candidate for carbon ions dosimetry

  18. Physical and chemical changes induced by 70 MeV carbon ions in polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virk, H.S.; Chandi, P.S.; Srivastava, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Physical and chemical changes induced by 70 MeV carbon ions ( 12 C 5+ ) have been investigated in bulk polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer. The induced changes have been studied with respect to their optical, chemical and structural response using UV-visible, FTIR and XRD techniques. The ion fluences ranging from 2.5x10 11 to 9x10 13 ions cm -2 have been used to study the irradiation effects. It has been observed that at the fluence of 9x10 13 ions cm -2 the PVDF sample became brittle and practically it was not possible to handle it for any further measurements. The recorded UV-visible spectra show that the optical absorption increases with increasing fluence, indicating maximum absorption at 200 nm. An interesting feature of UV-visible spectra is that dips change into peaks and vice versa with increase of fluence. In the FTIR spectra, development of new peaks at 1714 and 3692 cm -1 along with disappearance of peaks at 2363 and 3025 cm -1 and shifting of peak at 2984-2974 cm -1 have been observed due to high energy irradiation, indicating the chemical changes induced by 12 C 5+ . The diffraction pattern of PVDF indicates that this polymer is semi-crystalline in nature; a large decrease in the diffraction intensity indicates decrease in crystallinity. Increase in crystallite size has also been observed due to heavy ion irradiation

  19. Comparison between thermal annealing and ion mixing of alloyed Ni-W films on Si. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, C.S.; Lau, S.S.; Poker, D.B.; Hung, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    The reactions between Ni-W alloys and Si substrates induced by thermal annealing and ion mixing were investigated and compared. Samples were prepared by sputtering of Ni-W alloys, both Ni-rich and W-rich, onto the Si substrates, and followed by either furnace annealing (200--900 0 C) or ion mixing (2 x 10 15 -- 4 x 10 16 86 Kr + ions/cm 2 ). The reactions were analyzed by Rutherford backscattering and x-ray diffraction (Read camera). In general, thermal annealing and ion mixing lead to similar reactions. Phase separation between Ni and W with Ni silicides formed next to the Si substrate and W silicide formed on the surface was observed for both Ni-rich and W-rich samples under thermal annealing. Phase separation was also observed for Ni-rich samples under ion mixing; however, a Ni-W-Si ternary compound was possibly formed for ion-mixed W-rich samples. These reactions were rationalized in terms of the mobilities of various atoms and the energetics of the systems

  20. Microstructure and Nano-Hardness of 10 MeV Cl-Ion Irradiated T91 Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jing; Wang Xianping; Gao Yunxia; Zhuang Zhong; Zhang Tao; Fang Qianfeng; Liu Changsong

    2015-01-01

    Hardening and elemental segregation of T91 martenstic steel irradiated by 10 MeV Cl ions to doses from 0.06 dpa to 0.83 dpa were investigated with the nanoindentation technique and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results demonstrated that the irradiation hardening was closely related with irradiation dose. By increasing the dose, the hardness increased rapidly at first from the initial value of 3.15 GPa before irradiation, and then tended to saturate at a value of 3.58 GPa at the highest dose of 0.83 dpa. Combined with TEM observation, the mechanism of hardening was preliminary attributed to the formation of M(Fe,Cr) 2 3C 6 carbides induced by the high energy Cl-ion irradiation. (paper)

  1. MeV Si ion modifications on the thermoelectric generators from Si/Si + Ge superlattice nano-layered films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, S.; Heidary, K.; Johnson, R. B.; Colon, T.; Muntele, C.; Ila, D.

    2014-08-01

    The performance of thermoelectric materials and devices is characterized by a dimensionless figure of merit, ZT = S2σT/K, where, S and σ denote, respectively, the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity, T is the absolute temperature in Kelvin and K represents the thermal conductivity. The figure of merit may be improved by means of raising either S or σ or by lowering K. In our laboratory, we have fabricated and characterized the performance of a large variety of thermoelectric generators (TEG). Two TEG groups comprised of 50 and 100 alternating layers of Si/Si + Ge multi-nanolayered superlattice films have been fabricated and thoroughly characterized. Ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) was utilized to assemble the alternating sandwiched layers, resulting in total thickness of 300 nm and 317 nm for 50 and 100 layer devices, respectively. Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) was employed in order to monitor the precise quantity of Si and Ge utilized in the construction of specific multilayer thin films. The material layers were subsequently impregnated with quantum dots and/or quantum clusters, in order to concurrently reduce the cross plane thermal conductivity, increase the cross plane Seebeck coefficient and raise the cross plane electrical conductivity. The quantum dots/clusters were implanted via the 5 MeV Si ion bombardment which was performed using a Pelletron high energy ion beam accelerator. We have achieved remarkable results for the thermoelectric and optical properties of the Si/Si + Ge multilayer thin film TEG systems. We have demonstrated that with optimal setting of the 5 MeV Si ion beam bombardment fluences, one can fabricate TEG systems with figures of merits substantially higher than the values previously reported.

  2. MeV Si ion modifications on the thermoelectric generators from Si/Si + Ge superlattice nano-layered films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budak, S., E-mail: satilmis.budak@aamu.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Alabama A and M University, Huntsville, AL (United States); Heidary, K. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Alabama A and M University, Huntsville, AL (United States); Johnson, R.B.; Colon, T. [Department of Physics, Alabama A and M University, Huntsville, AL (United States); Muntele, C. [Cygnus Scientific Services, Huntsville, AL (United States); Ila, D. [Department of Physics, Fayetteville St. University, Fayetteville, NC (United States)

    2014-08-15

    The performance of thermoelectric materials and devices is characterized by a dimensionless figure of merit, ZT = S{sup 2}σT/K, where, S and σ denote, respectively, the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity, T is the absolute temperature in Kelvin and K represents the thermal conductivity. The figure of merit may be improved by means of raising either S or σ or by lowering K. In our laboratory, we have fabricated and characterized the performance of a large variety of thermoelectric generators (TEG). Two TEG groups comprised of 50 and 100 alternating layers of Si/Si + Ge multi-nanolayered superlattice films have been fabricated and thoroughly characterized. Ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) was utilized to assemble the alternating sandwiched layers, resulting in total thickness of 300 nm and 317 nm for 50 and 100 layer devices, respectively. Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) was employed in order to monitor the precise quantity of Si and Ge utilized in the construction of specific multilayer thin films. The material layers were subsequently impregnated with quantum dots and/or quantum clusters, in order to concurrently reduce the cross plane thermal conductivity, increase the cross plane Seebeck coefficient and raise the cross plane electrical conductivity. The quantum dots/clusters were implanted via the 5 MeV Si ion bombardment which was performed using a Pelletron high energy ion beam accelerator. We have achieved remarkable results for the thermoelectric and optical properties of the Si/Si + Ge multilayer thin film TEG systems. We have demonstrated that with optimal setting of the 5 MeV Si ion beam bombardment fluences, one can fabricate TEG systems with figures of merits substantially higher than the values previously reported.

  3. Enhanced AC conductivity and dielectric relaxation properties of polypyrrole nanoparticles irradiated with Ni{sup 12+} swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, J.; Kumar, A., E-mail: ask@tezu.ernet.in

    2014-08-15

    In this paper, we report the 160 MeV Ni{sup 12+} swift heavy ions (SHIs) irradiation effects on AC conductivity and dielectric relaxation properties of polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles in the frequency range of 42 Hz–5 MHz. Four ion fluences of 5 × 10{sup 10}, 1 × 10{sup 11}, 5 × 10{sup 11} and 1 × 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} have been used for the irradiation purpose. Transport properties in the pristine and irradiated PPy nanoparticles have been investigated with permittivity and modulus formalisms to study the polarization effects and conductivity relaxation. With increasing ion fluence, the relaxation peak in imaginary modulus (M{sup ″}) plots shifts toward high frequency suggesting long range motion of the charge carriers. The AC conductivity studies suggest correlated barrier hopping as the dominant transport mechanism. The hopping distance (R{sub ω}) of the charge carriers decreases with increasing the ion fluence. Binding energy (W{sub m}) calculations depict that polarons are the dominant charge carriers.

  4. Improvement of the wear resistance of electroplated Au-Ni coatings by Zr ion bombardment of Ni-B sublayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyazgin, Alexander; Shugurov, Artur; Sergeev, Viktor; Neufeld, Vasily; Panin, Alexey; Shesterikov, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    The effect of bombardment of the Ni-B sublayer by Zr ion beams on the surface morphology and tribomechanical properties of Au-Ni coatings was investigated. It was found that the treatment has no significant effect on the surface roughness and grain size of the Au-Ni coatings, while it provides essential reducing of their friction coefficient and improvement of wear resistance. It is shown that increased wear resistance of these coatings was caused by their strain hardening resulted from localization of plastic strain. The optimal Zr fluence were determined that provide the maximum reduction of linear wear of the coatings

  5. Charge-state distribution of MeV He ions scattered from the surface atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kenji; Ohtsuka, Hisashi; Mannami, Michihiko

    1993-01-01

    The charge-state distribution of 500-keV He ions scattered from a SnTe (001) surface has been investigated using a new technique of high-resolution high-energy ion scattering spectroscopy. The observed charge-state distribution of ions scattered from the topmost atomic layer coincides with that of ions scattered from the subsurface region and does not depend on the incident charge state but depends on the exit angle. The observed exit-angle dependence is explained by a model which includes the charge-exchange process with the valence electrons in the tail of the electron distribution at the surface. (author)

  6. Effects of C+ ion implantation on electrical properties of NiSiGe/SiGe contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, B.; Yu, W.; Zhao, Q.T.; Buca, D.; Breuer, U.; Hartmann, J.-M.; Holländer, B.; Mantl, S.; Zhang, M.; Wang, X.

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the morphology and electrical properties of NiSiGe/SiGe contact by C + ions pre-implanted into relaxed Si 0.8 Ge 0.2 layers. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy revealed that both the surface and interface of NiSiGe were improved by C + ions implantation. In addition, the effective hole Schottky barrier heights (Φ Bp ) of NiSiGe/SiGe were extracted. Φ Bp was observed to decrease substantially with an increase in C + ion implantation dose

  7. Scanning deep level transient spectroscopy using an MeV ion microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, J S; Bardos, R A; Saint, A; Moloney, G M; Legge, G F.J. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Traditionally the scanning ion microprobe has given little or no information regarding the electronic structure of materials in particular semiconductors. A new imaging technique called Scanning Ion Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (SIDLTS) is presented which is able to spatially map alterations in the band gap structure of materials by lattice defects or impurities. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Meqalac Results - Multichannel Rf Acceleration of Nitrogen-Ions to 1 Mev

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojke, R. G. C.; Bannenberg, J. G.; Vijftigschild, A. J. M.; Giskes, F. G.; Ficke, H. G.; Klein, H.; Thomae, R. W.; Schempp, A.; Weis, T.; van Amersfoort, P. W.; Urbanus, W. H.

    1991-01-01

    In the MEQALAC (Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Linear Accelerator) multiple N+ ion beams are accelerated in 32 rf gaps, which are part of a modified interdigital-H-resonator operating at 25 MHz. The transverse focusing of the intense ion beams is achieved by means of sets of miniaturized

  9. Scanning deep level transient spectroscopy using an MeV ion microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Saint, A.; Moloney, G.M.; Legge, G.F.J. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Traditionally the scanning ion microprobe has given little or no information regarding the electronic structure of materials in particular semiconductors. A new imaging technique called Scanning Ion Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (SIDLTS) is presented which is able to spatially map alterations in the band gap structure of materials by lattice defects or impurities. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Light charged particles emitted in coincidence with deeply inelastic collisions in the 280 MeV 40Ar + 58Ni reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreau, D.; Galin, J.; Babinet, R.

    1979-01-01

    A detailed study was made of the light charged particles (mainly protons and alpha particles) in coincidence with the main fragments from deep inelastic collisions in the reaction 280 MeV 40 Ar + 58 Ni. A survey of relevant data is followed by a discussion of the origin of the light charged particles as it can be deduced from the p, α-fragment coincidence experiment. The results of out-of-plane distributions of the α-particles are presented and they are discussed in terms of the extreme sticking limit

  11. Effect of 120 MeV Ag{sup 9+} ion irradiation of YCOB single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arun Kumar, R., E-mail: rarunpsgtech@yahoo.com [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Department of Basic Sciences - Physics Division, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641 004 (India); Dhanasekaran, R. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2012-09-15

    Single crystals of yttrium calcium oxy borate (YCOB) grown from boron-tri-oxide flux were subjected to swift heavy ion irradiation using silver Ag{sup 9+} ions from the 15 UD Pelletron facility at Inter University Accelerator Center, New Delhi. The crystals were irradiated at 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13}, 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} and 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} fluences at room temperature and with 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} fluence at liquid nitrogen temperature. The pristine and the irradiated samples were characterized by glancing angle X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis-NIR and photoluminescence studies. From the characterization studies performed on the samples, it is inferred that the crystals irradiated at liquid nitrogen temperature had fewer defects compared to the crystals irradiated at room temperature and the defects increased when the ion fluence was increased at room temperature.

  12. Heavy ion elastic and quasi-elastic scattering above E/A = 30 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrette, J.

    1986-05-01

    At high energy, heavy-ion elastic scattering probes the ion-ion potential in a large domain much inside the strong absorption radius. This results in a more precise determination of the real part of the nuclear potential and a consistent picture of its evolution with energy begins to emerge. It is relatively similar to that observed in light ion scattering. Even if the inelastic angular distributions seem to contain less refractive or interior contribution, coupled channel effects from these states are still important at least up to 20 MeV/n. Heavy-ion induced transfer reactions to discrete states have small cross sections but present a very strong selectivity for states with the highest available spin and could thus provide new and interesting spectroscopic information

  13. Doubly coherent production of π- by 3He ions of 910 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanides, E.; Fassnacht, P.; Hibou, F.; Chiavassa, E.; Dellacasa, G.; Gallio, M.; Musso, A.; Bressani, T.; Puddu, G.

    1979-01-01

    The inclusive pion spectrum from the reaction 3 He+ 6 Li → π - +X at 910 MeV was measured at 0 0 with moderate resolution up to the kinematic limit of the two-body final-state reaction. A first analysis shows that the production of high-energy pions cannot be explained by the NN → NNπ process using conventional nucleon momentum distributions. At the end of the spectrum a clear deviation from the general falloff slope is observed and attributed to the doubly coherent reaction 3 He+ 6 Li → 9 C+π -

  14. Ion heating up to 1 MeV range with higher harmonic ICRF wave on JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, M.; Kusama, Y.; Hamamatsu, K.; Kimura, H.; Fujii, T.; Moriyama, S.; Saigusa, M.; Afanassiev, V.I.

    1997-01-01

    The properties of protons under accleration by an ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) waves with the second to fourth hydrogen harmonics have been investigated in the JT-60U tokamak at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Protons have been accelerated up to 1 MeV in the presence of an ICRF wave of fixed frequency, neutral beams (NB), and a fixed toroidal magnetic field which is scanned through several plasma discharges. The tail temperature of the protons, which is evaluated in the range 0.32-0.86 MeV, has been observed to increase in the second to third harmonics, however increase of the tail temperature in the third to fourth harmonics has not been observed clearly. Furthermore, the dependence of tail temperature on the harmonic number has been found to be in qualitative agreement with results from a simulation code analysis based upon the one-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation coupled with the kinetic wave equation. Experimental values for the stored energy of the accelerated ions have shown, however, that the response of stored energy to changes in absorbed ICRF power is much stronger than the response to changes in harmonic number. Also, the incremental energy confinement times for heating discharges matching the third and fourth harmonics (3 ω CH) and 4 ω CH) of hydrogen have been observed to be less than half that for those matching the second harmonic. It has been found that suppression of the absorbed ICRF power accompanied with the occurence of cavity resonance in the 3ω CH and 4ω CH heating discharges reduces the stored energy of the accelerated ions and the incremental energy confinement time. (Author)

  15. Influence of the ion implantation on the nanoscale intermetallic phases formation in Ni-Ti system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, M.P.; Kurzina, I.A.; Bozhko, I.A.; Kozlov, E.V.; Fortuna, S.V.; Sivin, D.O.; Stepanov, I.B.; Sharkeev, Yu.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The ion implantation at a high intensity mode is an effective method for modification of the surface properties of metals and alloys. Improvement of mechanical and tribological properties of irradiated materials using the high intensity implantation is connected with an element composition and microstructure modification of the surface and subsurface layers. One shows a great interest in intermetallic phase's synthesis by ion implantation, because of unique physical-mechanical properties of the intermetallic compounds. The influence of the irradiation conditions on the structural state and surface properties of implanted materials is not clear enough. The study of the factors influencing on the formation of the surface ion - alloyed layers of metal targets having the high tribological and mechanical properties by high intensity ion implantation is actual. The aim of the present work is a study of the microstructure, phase composition, physical and mechanical properties of the ion-alloyed Ni surfaces formed at high intensity implantation of Ti ions. The implantation Ti ions into Ni samples at high intensity mode was realized using ion source 'Raduga - 5'. The implantation Ti ions into Ni was carried out at accelerating voltage 20 kV for 2 h. The regimes were differed in the samples temperature (580 - 700 K), the distance from the ion implanted samples to the ion source (0.43-0.93 m) and the dose of irradiated ions (0.3·10 18 -2.9·10 18 ion/cm -2 ). The element composition of the implanted samples was analyzed by the electron spectroscopy. The structural-phase state of the Ni ion-modified layers was investigated by the transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. Additionally, the investigation of mechanical and tribological properties of the implanted Ni samples was carried out. It was established that the maximum thickness of the ion-alloyed nickel layers at high intensity mode allows forming the nanoscale intermetallic phases (Ni

  16. Light charged particles emitted in coincidence with deeply inelastic collisions in the 280MeV 40Ar+58Ni reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreau, D.; Galin, J.; Babinet, R.

    1979-01-01

    A detailed study of the light charged particles (mainly protons and alpha particles) has been undertaken in coincidence with the main fragments from DIC in the reaction 280 MeV 40 Ar + 58 Ni. This study is divided in three sections. The first one is a quick survey of the preexisting data on the 40 Ar + 58 Ni that are relevant to this particular experiment. The second one deals mainly with the origin of the light charged particles as it can be deduced from the p, α-fragments coincidence experiment. Finally, the third section is devoted to the tangential friction aspects. The results of the out-of-plane distributions of the α-particles are presented and they are discussed in term of the extreme sticking limit

  17. Surface Morphologies of Ti and Ti-Al-V Bombarded by 1.0-MeV Au+ Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. A.; Rickards, J.; Cuerno, R.; Trejo-Luna, R.; Cañetas-Ortega, J.; de la Vega, L. R.; Rodríguez-Fernández, L.

    2017-12-01

    Ion implantation is known to enhance the mechanical properties of biomaterials such as, e.g., the wear resistance of orthopedic joints. Increasing the surface area of implants may likewise improve their integration with, e.g., bone tissue, which requires surface features with sizes in the micron range. Ion implantation of biocompatible metals has recently been demonstrated to induce surface ripples with wavelengths of a few microns. However, the physical mechanisms controlling the formation and characteristics of these patterns are yet to be understood. We bombard Ti and Ti-6Al-4V surfaces with 1.0-MeV Au+ ions. Analysis by scanning electron and atomic force microscopies shows the formation of surface ripples with typical dimensions in the micron range, with potential indeed for biomedical applications. Under the present specific experimental conditions, the ripple properties are seen to strongly depend on the fluence of the implanted ions while being weakly dependent on the target material. Moreover, by examining experiments performed for incidence angle values θ =8 ° , 23°, 49°, and 67°, we confirm the existence of a threshold incidence angle for (ripple) pattern formation. Surface indentation is also used to study surface features under additional values of θ , agreeing with our single-angle experiments. All properties of the surface structuring process are very similar to those found in the production of surface nanopatterns under low-energy ion bombardment of semiconductor targets, in which the stopping power is dominated by nuclear contributions, as in our experiments. We consider a continuum model that combines the effects of various physical processes as originally developed in that context, with parameters that we estimate under a binary-collision approximation. Notably, reasonable agreement with our experimental observations is achieved, even under our high-energy conditions. Accordingly, in our system, ripple formation is determined by mass

  18. Acridine-based fluorescence chemosensors for selective sensing of Fe3+ and Ni2+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaoyu; Fu, Jiaxin; Yao, Kun; Xue, Kun; Xu, Kuoxi; Pang, Xiaobin

    2018-06-01

    Two novel acridine-based fluorescence chemosensors (L1 and L2) were prepared and their metal ions sensing properties were investigated. L1 (L2) exhibited an excellent selective fluorescence response toward Fe3+ (Ni2+) and the stoichiometry ratio of L1-Fe3+ and L2-Ni2+ were 1:1. The detection limits of L1 and L2 were calculated by the fluorescence titration to be 4.13 μM and 1.52 μM, respectively, which were below the maximum permissive level of Fe3+ and Ni2+ ions in drinking water set by the EPA. The possible mechanism of the fluorescence detection of Fe3+ and Ni2+ had been proposed according to the analysis of Job's plot, IR spectra and ESI-MS. The determination of Fe3+ and Ni2+ ions in living cells had been applied successfully.

  19. Simulation of the channelling of ions from MeV C60 in crystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, A; Sinclair, L; Tanushev, N; Tombrello, T; Nardi, E

    2007-01-01

    Simulations were performed describing the motion and breakup of energetic C 60 ions interacting with crystalline targets. A hybrid algorithm was used that employs a binary collision model for the scattering of the carbon ions by the atoms of the solid, and molecular dynamics for the Coulomb interactions of the 60 carbon ions with one another. For the case of yttrium iron garnet (YIG), directions such as [1 1 0], [1 0 0], [0 1 0] and [0 0 1] demonstrate channelling for a large fraction of the C ions. For directions such as [1 1 1], [2 1 1] and [7 5 3] the trajectories show no more channelling than for random directions. The effects of tilt, shielding and wake-field interactions were investigated for YIG and α-quartz

  20. Adsorption study on orange peel: Removal of Ni(II) ions from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    orange peel was investigated to evaluate the effects of pH, initial nickel ion concentration and adsorbent dose on the removal of Ni(II) systematically. The optimal pH value for Ni(II) adsorption onto the orange peel was found to be 5.0. Greater ...

  1. Removal of Ni (II), Co (II) and Pb (II) ions from aqueous media using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Removal of Ni (II), Co (II) and Pb (II) ions from aqueous media using Starch ... The results showed that 0.025 % loaded SSMNPs gave the optimal sorption ... constants (Lagergren and Pseudo-2nd-order) for Ni2+ and Co2+ adsorption were ... Langmuir correlation coefficients showed a better fit for the adsorption isotherms.

  2. Polypropylene compositional evolution under 3.5 MeV He{sup +} ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdesselam, M., E-mail: abdesselam_m@yahoo.fr [Faculte de Physique, USTHB, BP32, El Alia, 16111 BEZ (Algeria); Muller, D. [InESS, UMR7163, 23 rue du Loess, BP20, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 02 (France); Djebara, M.; Chami, A.C. [Faculte de Physique, USTHB, BP32, El Alia, 16111 BEZ (Algeria); Montgomery, P. [InESS, UMR7163, 23 rue du Loess, BP20, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 02 (France)

    2012-05-01

    A helium beam at 3.5 MeV was used to induce damage in thin polypropylene film of 5.1 {mu}m in thickness. The fluence ranges from 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} to 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The evolution of the atomic composition (C and H) as a function of the fluence was investigated in situ by forward elastic scattering (C({alpha}, {alpha})C) and hydrogen elastic recoil detection (H({alpha}, H){alpha}), respectively. The helium beam was used at the same time for irradiation and analysis. In respect to the high sensitivity of the polypropylene to radiation damage, the beam current was kept at very low intensity of 0.5 nA. The mass loss becomes significant above a fluence of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} He{sup +} cm{sup -2}. The carbon depletion levels off at a fluence of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} He{sup +} cm{sup -2} approximately while hydrogen loss continues to be present along the whole of the studied fluence range. The final carbon and hydrogen losses, at the highest fluence, are around 17% and 48% of their initial contents, respectively. Satisfactory fits to the release curves have been obtained in the framework of the bulk molecular recombination model (BMR). The deduced hydrogen and carbon release cross sections are 7.8 and 65.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -16} cm{sup 2}, respectively. A comparison with our previous measurements of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film irradiated with 3.7 MeV He{sup +} beam is made.

  3. Polypropylene compositional evolution under 3.5 MeV He+ ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdesselam, M.; Muller, D.; Djebara, M.; Chami, A.C.; Montgomery, P.

    2012-01-01

    A helium beam at 3.5 MeV was used to induce damage in thin polypropylene film of 5.1 μm in thickness. The fluence ranges from 2 × 10 12 to 3.5 × 10 15 cm −2 . The evolution of the atomic composition (C and H) as a function of the fluence was investigated in situ by forward elastic scattering (C(α, α)C) and hydrogen elastic recoil detection (H(α, H)α), respectively. The helium beam was used at the same time for irradiation and analysis. In respect to the high sensitivity of the polypropylene to radiation damage, the beam current was kept at very low intensity of 0.5 nA. The mass loss becomes significant above a fluence of ∼5 × 10 13 He + cm −2 . The carbon depletion levels off at a fluence of ∼5 × 10 14 He + cm −2 approximately while hydrogen loss continues to be present along the whole of the studied fluence range. The final carbon and hydrogen losses, at the highest fluence, are around 17% and 48% of their initial contents, respectively. Satisfactory fits to the release curves have been obtained in the framework of the bulk molecular recombination model (BMR). The deduced hydrogen and carbon release cross sections are 7.8 and 65.2 × 10 −16 cm 2 , respectively. A comparison with our previous measurements of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film irradiated with 3.7 MeV He + beam is made.

  4. Polypropylene compositional evolution under 3.5 MeV He+ ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdesselam, M.; Muller, D.; Djebara, M.; Chami, A. C.; Montgomery, P.

    2012-05-01

    A helium beam at 3.5 MeV was used to induce damage in thin polypropylene film of 5.1 μm in thickness. The fluence ranges from 2 × 1012 to 3.5 × 1015 cm-2. The evolution of the atomic composition (C and H) as a function of the fluence was investigated in situ by forward elastic scattering (C(α, α)C) and hydrogen elastic recoil detection (H(α, H)α), respectively. The helium beam was used at the same time for irradiation and analysis. In respect to the high sensitivity of the polypropylene to radiation damage, the beam current was kept at very low intensity of 0.5 nA. The mass loss becomes significant above a fluence of ˜5 × 1013 He+ cm-2. The carbon depletion levels off at a fluence of ˜5 × 1014 He+ cm-2 approximately while hydrogen loss continues to be present along the whole of the studied fluence range. The final carbon and hydrogen losses, at the highest fluence, are around 17% and 48% of their initial contents, respectively. Satisfactory fits to the release curves have been obtained in the framework of the bulk molecular recombination model (BMR). The deduced hydrogen and carbon release cross sections are 7.8 and 65.2 × 10-16 cm2, respectively. A comparison with our previous measurements of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film irradiated with 3.7 MeV He+ beam is made.

  5. Effect of 100 MeV swift heavy ions [silver (Ag8+)] on morphological and electrical properties of polypyrrole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amarjeet; Dhillon, Anju; Avasthi, D. K.

    2009-10-01

    Polypyrrole (PPY) films were prepared by the electrochemical polymerization technique. The fully undoped samples were irradiated with different fluences ranging from 1010 to 1012 ions/cm2 of 100 MeV silver (Ag8+) ions. In order to explain the effect of these radiations, a comparative study of samples before and after irradiation was performed by using various techniques such as surface electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. With an increase in fluence, the surface structure of PPY films becomes smoother, and the conductivity increases by two orders, which has been explained in light of reordering of polymer chains. The temperature dependence of the dc conductivity of irradiated as well as unirradiated samples has been investigated at 77-300 K. The charge transport properties before and after irradiation are retained although conductivity increases. It has been proposed that swift heavy ion irradiation affects the interchain conductivity. The conductivity of irradiated samples is stable under atmospheric conditions for more than 9 months. The present investigations open up the scope for the applicability of irradiated conducting polymers as microstructures with defined conductivity for sensor applications.

  6. Effect of 100 MeV swift heavy ions [silver (Ag8+)] on morphological and electrical properties of polypyrrole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Amarjeet; Dhillon, Anju; Avasthi, D. K.

    2009-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPY) films were prepared by the electrochemical polymerization technique. The fully undoped samples were irradiated with different fluences ranging from 10 10 to 10 12 ions/cm 2 of 100 MeV silver (Ag 8+ ) ions. In order to explain the effect of these radiations, a comparative study of samples before and after irradiation was performed by using various techniques such as surface electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. With an increase in fluence, the surface structure of PPY films becomes smoother, and the conductivity increases by two orders, which has been explained in light of reordering of polymer chains. The temperature dependence of the dc conductivity of irradiated as well as unirradiated samples has been investigated at 77-300 K. The charge transport properties before and after irradiation are retained although conductivity increases. It has been proposed that swift heavy ion irradiation affects the interchain conductivity. The conductivity of irradiated samples is stable under atmospheric conditions for more than 9 months. The present investigations open up the scope for the applicability of irradiated conducting polymers as microstructures with defined conductivity for sensor applications.

  7. 125 MeV Si 9+ ion irradiation of calcium phosphate thin film coated by rf-magnetron sputtering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayaraja, K.; Joshy, M. I. Ahymah; Suganthi, R. V.; Kalkura, S. Narayana; Palanichamy, M.; Ashok, M.; Sivakumar, V. V.; Kulriya, P. K.; Sulania, I.; Kanjilal, D.; Asokan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Titanium substrate was coated with hydroxyapatite by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering (rf-magnetron sputtering) technique and subjected to swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation of 125 MeV with Si 9+ at fluences of 1 × 10 10, 1 × 10 11 and 1 × 10 12 ions/cm 2. The glancing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis confirmed the HAp phase of the irradiated film. There was a considerable decrease in crystallinity and particle size after irradiation. In addition, DRS-UV reflectance spectra revealed a decrease in optical band gap ( Eg) from 5.2 to 4.6 eV. Wettability of biocompatible materials plays an important role in biological cells proliferation for tissue engineering, drug delivery, gene transfer and bone growth. HAp thin films irradiated with 1 × 10 11 ions/cm 2 fluence showed significant increase in wettability. While the SHI irradiated samples exhibited enhanced bioactivity, there was no significant variation in cell viability. Surface roughness, pores and average particle size were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  8. Three-dimensional recoil-ion momentum analyses in 8.7 MeV O7+-He collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambara, T.; Tang, J.Z.; Awaya, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Using high-resolution recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy we have measured the differential cross sections of single-electron capture and target single-ionization processes for 8.7 MeV O 7+ -He collisions as functions of scattering angle. A transverse momentum resolution of ±0.2 au, which corresponds to an angular resolution of about ±1.5x10 -6 rad for the projectile scattering angle, was obtained by intersecting a well collimated O 7+ beam with a target of a supersonic He jet from a pre-cooled gas and by measuring the recoil-ion transverse momentum. For the single capture reaction, information on the n-value of the electron final state in O 6+ (1snl) is obtained from the longitudinal momentum of the recoil ions. In pure single-electron capture, the dominant contributions to capture were found to be those from the n=4 and higher states, whereas single capture accompanied by the ionization of the second target electron mainly populates n=2 to n=4 states. Furthermore, the measured transverse momentum distribution differs significantly between pure single capture and capture with simultaneous ionization. The measured data for the pure capture process compare favourably with theoretical results based on a molecular-state expansion method. Other experimental data are discussed in terms of the classical overbarrier model. (author)

  9. Mechanical properties of MeV ion-irradiated SiC/SiC composites characterized by indentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.Y.; Park, K.H.; Kim, W.; Kishimoto, H.; Kohyama, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: SiC/SiC composites have been considered as a structural material for advanced fusion concepts. In the core of fusion reactor, those SiC/SiC composites are experienced the complex attacks such as strong neutron, high temperature and transmuted gases. One of the vital data for designing the SiC/SiC composites to the fusion reactor is mechanical properties under the severe neutron irradiation. In this work, various SiC/SiC composites were prepared by the different fabrication processes like CVI (chemical vapor infiltration), WA-CVI (SiC whisker assisted CVI) and hot-pressed method. The expected neutron irradiation was simulated by a silicon self-ion irradiation at a DuET facility; Dual-beam for Energy Technologies, Kyoto University. The irradiation temperature were 600 deg. C and 1200 deg. C, and the irradiation does were 5 dpa and 20 dpa, respectively. The 5.1 MeV Si ions were irradiated to the intrinsic CVI-SiC, SiC whisker reinforced SiC and SiC composites produced by hot-press method. The mechanical properties like hardness, elastic modulus and fracture toughness were characterized by an indentation technique. The ion irradiation caused the increase of the hardness and fracture toughness, which was dependent on the irradiation temperature. SiC whisker reinforcement in the SiC matrix accelerated the increase of the fracture toughness by the ion irradiation. For SiC/SiC composites after the ion irradiation, this work will provide the additional data for the mechanical properties as well as the effect of SiC whisker reinforcement. (authors)

  10. Augmentation of thermoelectric performance of VO2 thin films irradiated by 200 MeV Ag9+-ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, G.R.; Kandasami, A.; Bhat, B.A.

    2016-01-01

    Swift Heavy Ion (SHI) irradiation with 200 MeV Ag 9+ -ion beam at ion fluences of 1E11, 5E11, 1E12, and 5E12 for tuning of electrical transport properties of VO 2 thin films fabricated by so–gel technique on alumina substrates has been demonstrated in the present paper. The point defects created by SHI irradiation modulate metal to insulator phase transition temperature, carrier concentration, carrier mobility, electrical conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient of VO 2 thin films. The structural properties of the films were characterized by XRD and Raman spectroscopy and crystallite size was found to decrease upon irradiation. The atomic force microscopy revealed that the surface roughness of specimens first decreased and then increased with increasing fluence. Both resistance as well as Seebeck coefficient measurements demonstrated that all the samples exhibit metal–insulator phase transition and the transition temperatures decreases with increasing fluence. Hall effect measurements exhibited that carrier concentration increased continuously with increasing fluence which resulted in an increase of electrical conductivity by several orders of magnitude in the insulating phase. Seebeck coefficient in insulating phase remained almost constant in spite of an increase in the electrical conductivity by several orders of magnitude making SHI irradiation an alternative stratagem for augmentation of thermoelectric performance of the materials. The carrier mobility at room temperature decreased up to the beam fluence of 5E11 and then started increasing whereas Seebeck coefficient in metallic state first increased with increasing ion beam fluence up to 5E11 and thereafter decreased. Variation of these electrical transport parameters has been explained in detail. - Highlights: • Thermoelectric properties of VO 2 thin films enhance upon SHI irradiation. • Structural properties show that crystallite size decrease upon SHI irradiation. • Metal–insulator phase

  11. QMD simulation of multifragment production in heavy ion collisions at E/A=600 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begemann-Blaich, M.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Aichelin, J.; Hubele, J.; Imme, G.; Leray, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Liu, Z.; Lynen, U.; Meijer, R.J.; Milkau, U.; Moroni, A.; Ogilvie, C.A.; Pochodzalla, J.; Raciti, G.; Schuettauf, A.; Stuttge, L.; Tucholski, A.

    1993-04-01

    With the ALADIN forward spectrometer the fragmentation of gold nuclei at 600 MeV per nucleon after interaction with carbon, aluminum, copper and lead targets has been investigated. The results are compared to quantum-molecular-dynamics calculations using soft and hard equations of state as well as soft equation of state with momentum dependent forces. Whereas the QMD has been successfully applied to heavy ion collisions at lower energies, it is not possible to reproduce the fragment distributions and the light particle multiplicities observed in this experiment at relativistic energies. To study the reasons for the discrepancy between the experimental data and the simulations, we investigated the time evolution of the nuclear system after a collision and the disintegration pattern of excited nuclei in the QMD approach. (orig.). 9 figs

  12. Si effects on radiation induced segregation in high purity Fe-18Cr-14Ni alloys irradiated by Ni ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Joji; Kako, Kenji; Mayuzumi, Masami; Kusanagi, Hideo; Suzuki, Takayoshi

    1999-01-01

    To illustrate the effects of the element Si on radiation induced segregation, which causes irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), we investigated grain boundary chemistry of high purity Fe-18Cr-14Ni-Si alloys irradiated by Ni ions using FE-TEM. The addition of Si up to 1% does not affect the Cr depletion at grain boundaries, while it slightly enhances the depletion of Fe and the segregation of Ni and Si. The addition of 2% Si causes the depletion of Cr and Fe and the segregation of Ni and Si at grain boundaries. Thus, the Si content should be as low as possible. In order to reduce the depletion of Cr at grain boundaries, which is one of the major causes of IASCC, Si content should be less than 1%. (author)

  13. Coincidence measurements of slow recoil ions with projectile ions in 42-MeV Arq+-Ar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonuma, T.; Kumagai, H.; Matsuo, T.; Tawara, H.

    1989-01-01

    Slow Ar recoil-ion production cross sections by projectiles of 1.05-MeV/amu Ar q+ (q=4,6,8,10,12,14) were measured using a projectile-ion--recoil-ion coincidence technique. The present results indicate that the average recoil ion charges left-angle i right-angle increase with increasing the incident projectile charge q and the number of the lost and captured electrons from and/or into projectiles, whereas the projectile charge-changing cross sections for loss ionization decrease steeply with increasing q for low-charge-state projectiles, and those for transfer ionization increase rapidly with increasing q for high-charge-state projectiles. For Ar projectiles with q=10, which corresponds to the equilibrium charge state of Ar projectiles at the present collision energy, the average recoil-ion charges are nearly the same in both loss and transfer ionization, and a pure ionization process plays a much more important role in producing highly charged recoil ions, in contrast to projectile electron loss or transfer processes, which play a role in other projectile charge states

  14. Fundamentals and applications of heavy ion collisions below 10 MeV/ nucleon energies

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, R

    2018-01-01

    An up-to-date text, covering the concept of incomplete fusion (ICF) in heavy ion (HI) interactions at energies below 10 MeV/nucleon. Important concepts including the exciton model, the Harp Miller and Berne model, Hybrid model, Sum rule model, Hot spot model and promptly emitted particles model are covered in depth. It studies the ICF and PE-emission in heavy ion reactions at low energies using off-beam and in-beam experimental techniques. Theories of complete fusion (CF) of heavy ions based on Compound Nucleus (CN) mechanism of statistical nuclear reactions, details of the Computer code PACE4 based on CN mechanism, pre-equilibrium (PE) emission, modeling of (ICF) and their limits of application are discussed in detail.

  15. Distinct atomic structures of the Ni-Nb metallic glasses formed by ion beam mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, K. P.; Wang, L. T.; Liu, B. X.

    2007-01-01

    Four Ni-Nb metallic glasses are obtained by ion beam mixing and their compositions are measured to be Ni 77 Nb 23 , Ni 55 Nb 45 , Ni 31 Nb 69 , and Ni 15 Nb 85 , respectively, suggesting that a composition range of 23-85 at. % of Nb is favored for metallic glass formation in the Ni-Nb system. Interestingly, diffraction analyses show that the structure of the Nb-based Ni 31 Nb 69 metallic glass is distinctly different from the structure of the Nb-based Ni 15 Nb 85 metallic glass, as the respective amorphous halos are located at 2θ≅38 and 39 deg. To explore an atomic scale description of the Ni-Nb metallic glasses, an n-body Ni-Nb potential is first constructed with an aid of the ab initio calculations and then applied to perform the molecular dynamics simulation. Simulation results determine not only the intrinsic glass forming range of the Ni-Nb system to be within 20-85 at. % of Nb, but also the exact atomic positions in the Ni-Nb metallic glasses. Through a statistical analysis of the determined atomic positions, a new dominant local packing unit is found in the Ni 15 Nb 85 metallic glass, i.e., an icositetrahedron with a coordination number to be around 14, while in Ni 31 Nb 69 metallic glasses, the dominant local packing unit is an icosahedron with a coordination number to be around 12, which has been reported for the other metallic glasses. In fact, with increasing the irradiation dose, the Ni 31 Nb 69 metallic glasses are formed through an intermediate state of face-centered-cubic-solid solution, whereas the Ni 15 Nb 85 metallic glass is through an intermediate state of body-centered-cubic-solid solution, suggesting that the structures of the constituent metals play an important role in governing the structural characteristics of the resultant metallic glasses

  16. Measurement of omega, the energy required to create an ion pair, for 150-MeV protons in nitrogen and argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petti, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide a 1% measurement of omega, the energy required to produce an ion pair, for 150 MeV protons in various gases. Such a measurement should improve the accuracy of proton ionization chamber dosimetry at the Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory. Currently, no measurements of omega exist in the energy range of 30 to 150 MeV, and present ionization chamber dosimetry at the Cyclotron relies on average values of measurements at lower and higher energies (i.e. for E < 3 MeV and E = 340 MeV). Contrary to theoretical expectations, these low and high energy data differ by as much as 9% in some gases. The results of this investigation demonstrate that the existing high energy data is probably in error, and current proton ionization chamber dosimetry underestimates omega, and hence the proton dose, by 5%

  17. Effect of 50 and 80 MeV phosphorous ions on the contribution of interface and oxide state density in n-channel MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, N.S.; Dhole, S.D.; Kanjilal, D.; Bhoraskar, V.N. E-mail: vnb@physics.unipune.ernet.in

    1999-07-02

    n-channel depletion MOS devices were irradiated with 50 and 80 MeV phosphorous ions, with different fluences varying in the range from 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The pre and post irradiation I-V characteristics were measured and the corresponding threshold shift {delta}V{sub TH} was estimated. In both the cases, the drain current I{sub D} and the threshold voltage V{sub TH} were found to decrease with the ion fluence. The increase in the threshold voltage shift {delta}V{sub TH} with the ion fluence, was greater for the devices irradiated with 80 MeV ions than those irradiated with 50 MeV ions. The interface and oxide state densities were determined through the subthreshold voltage measurements. To separate the contributions of oxide and interface states towards the threshold voltage shift, the ion irradiated MOS devices were annealed at 150 deg. C. The threshold shift during annealing initially decreased and later increased with increasing annealing period. The rate of change of the interface states during annealing was higher than that of the oxide states. It was also found that depletion mode (normally ON) MOSFETs switched operation to enhancement mode (normally OFF)

  18. Surface Modification of NiTi Alloy via Cathodic Plasma Electrolytic Deposition and its Effect on Ni Ion Release and Osteoblast Behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Ying; Cai Kaiyong; Yang Weihu; Liu Peng

    2013-01-01

    To reduce Ni ion release and improve biocompatibility of NiTi alloy, the cathodic plasma electrolytic deposition (CPED) technique was used to fabricate ceramic coating onto a NiTi alloy surface. The formation of a coating with a rough and micro-textured surface was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry test showed that the formed coating significantly reduced the release of Ni ions from the NiTi alloy in simulated body fluid. The influence of CPED treated NiTi substrates on the biological behaviors of osteoblasts, including cell adhesion, cell viability, and osteogenic differentiation function (alkaline phosphatase), was investigated in vitro. Immunofluorescence staining of nuclei revealed that the CPED treated NiTi alloy was favorable for cell growth. Osteoblasts on CPED modified NiTi alloy showed greater cell viability than those for the native NiTi substrate after 4 and 7 days cultures. More importantly, osteoblasts cultured onto a modified NiTi sample displayed significantly higher differentiation levels of alkaline phosphatase. The results suggested that surface functionalization of NiTi alloy with ceramic coating via the CPED technique was beneficial for cell proliferation and differentiation. The approach presented here is useful for NiTi implants to enhance bone osteointegration and reduce Ni ion release in vitro

  19. Surface Modification of NiTi Alloy via Cathodic Plasma Electrolytic Deposition and its Effect on Ni Ion Release and Osteoblast Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Cai, Kaiyong; Yang, Weihu; Liu, Peng

    2013-07-01

    To reduce Ni ion release and improve biocompatibility of NiTi alloy, the cathodic plasma electrolytic deposition (CPED) technique was used to fabricate ceramic coating onto a NiTi alloy surface. The formation of a coating with a rough and micro-textured surface was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry test showed that the formed coating significantly reduced the release of Ni ions from the NiTi alloy in simulated body fluid. The influence of CPED treated NiTi substrates on the biological behaviors of osteoblasts, including cell adhesion, cell viability, and osteogenic differentiation function (alkaline phosphatase), was investigated in vitro. Immunofluorescence staining of nuclei revealed that the CPED treated NiTi alloy was favorable for cell growth. Osteoblasts on CPED modified NiTi alloy showed greater cell viability than those for the native NiTi substrate after 4 and 7 days cultures. More importantly, osteoblasts cultured onto a modified NiTi sample displayed significantly higher differentiation levels of alkaline phosphatase. The results suggested that surface functionalization of NiTi alloy with ceramic coating via the CPED technique was beneficial for cell proliferation and differentiation. The approach presented here is useful for NiTi implants to enhance bone osseointegration and reduce Ni ion release in vitro.

  20. Fabrication of NiO nanoflakes and its application in lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Shibing; Li Tao; Yang Xuelin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this study we develop a simple two-step method to fabricate NiO nanoflakes. ► We study the electrochemical properties of the NiO nanoflakes as anode material of lithium ion batteries. ► NiO nanoflakes show high capacity at low current density and excellent cycle performance at high current density. ► In this study we conclude that NiO nanoflakes have potential applications in lithium ion batteries. - Abstract: NiO nanoflakes with mean size about 2 μm and mean thickness about 20 nm have been successfully synthesized via a simple two-step method. Electrochemical properties of the as-synthesized NiO nanoflakes as anode electrode of lithium ion batteries were studied by conventional charge/discharge tests, showing initial discharge and charge capacities of 1213 mAh g −1 and 902 mAh g −1 at a current density of 100 mA g −1 . After 50 cycles, the discharge and charge capacities of NiO nanoflakes electrode were 1015 and 990 mAh g −1 , respectively. The first discharge and charge capacities of the as-prepared NiO electrode were 749 and 541 mAh g −1 at a current density of 800 mA g −1 , being of 578 and 567 mAh g −1 after 50 cycles.

  1. Crystal structure of TiNi nanoparticles obtained by Ar ion beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A. Torres; Cuellar, E. Lopez; Mendez, U. Ortiz; Yacaman, M. Jose

    2008-01-01

    Nanoparticles are a state of matter that have properties different from either molecules or bulk solids, turning them into a very interesting class of materials to study. In the present work, the crystal structure of TiNi nanoparticles obtained by ion beam deposition is characterized. TiNi nanoparticles were obtained from TiNi wire samples by sputtering with Ar ions using a Gatan precision ion polishing system. The TiNi nanoparticles were deposited on a Lacey carbon film that was used for characterization by transmission electron microscopy. The nanoparticles were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, high-angle annular dark-field imaging, electron diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results of nanodiffraction seem to indicate that the nanoparticles keep the same B2 crystal structure as the bulk material but with a decreased lattice parameter

  2. Study of the nuclear reactions 208Pb + 58Ni and 208Pb + 64Ni with a focusing time-of-flight spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapotta, K.

    1983-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis the construction of a time-of-flight spectrometer for heavy ions with magnetic focusing is described. Then ion trajectories are calculated, and the effective spatial angle and the angular resolution are determined. In the second part the study of quasielastic transfer and deep inelastic reactions of 58 Ni and 64 Ni with 208 Pb at E=265 MeV respectively 260 MeV by means of this spectrometer is described. (HSI) [de

  3. MeV ion irradiation effects on the luminescence properties of Si-implanted SiO{sub 2}-thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chulapakorn, T.; Primetzhofer, D. [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, P.O. Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Sychugov, I.; Suvanam, S.S.; Linnros, J.; Hallen, A. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), School of Information and Communication Technology, P.O. Box Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden)

    2016-12-15

    The effects of MeV heavy ion irradiation at varying fluence and flux on excess Si, introduced in SiO{sub 2} by keV ion implantation, are investigated by photoluminescence (PL). From the PL peak wavelength (λ) and decay lifetime (τ), two PL sources are distinguished: (i) quasi-direct recombination of excitons of Si-nanoparticles (SiNPs), appearing after thermal annealing (λ > 720 nm, τ ∝ μs), and (ii) fast-decay PL, possibly due to oxide-related defects (λ ∝ 575-690 nm, τ ∝ ns). The fast-decay PL (ii) observed before and after ion irradiation is induced by ion implantation. It is found that this fast-decay luminescence decreases for higher irradiation fluence of MeV heavy ions. After thermal annealing (forming SiNPs), the SiNP PL is reduced for samples irradiated by MeV heavy ions but found to stabilize at higher level for higher irradiation flux; the (ii) band vanishes as a result of annealing. The results are discussed in terms of the influence of electronic and nuclear stopping powers. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on structural and magnetic properties of GdFe{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} (x≤0.2) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Pawanpreet [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, H.P. 177005 (India); Sharma, K.K., E-mail: kknitham@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, H.P. 177005 (India); Pandit, Rabia [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, H.P. 177005 (India); Choudhary, R.J. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research at Indore, M.P. 452 001 (India); Kumar, Ravi [Centre for Material Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, H.P 177005 (India)

    2016-01-15

    The present work reports the effect of Ni doping and 200 MeV Ag{sup 15+} ion irradiation on the structural and magnetic properties of GdFe{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} (x≤0.2) thin films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) substrate by pulse laser deposition (PLD). From the XRD patterns ‘c-axis’ oriented growth in the pristine films is noticed, whereas after irradiation amorphization in the films is noticed. The atomic force microscopic (AFM) images reveal the increase in surface roughness with doping and irradiation as well. The irreversibility in the zero field cooled and field cooled magnetic curves indicates to the possibility of magnetic disorder in all the pristine as well as irradiated samples. Magnetization has been found to decrease with increasing Ni{sup 3+} ion substitution at room temperature whereas an enhancement in magnetization is noticed after ion irradiation for all the films. The disparity in the magnetic properties of pristine GdFe{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} (0.0≤x≤0.2) orthoferrites thin films can be correlated to the difference in hybridization in transition metal ion and O{sup 2−} ion orbitals. However, presence of strains caused by the columnar defects is responsible for the change in structural, morphological and magnetic properties in the irradiated samples. - Highlights: • ‘c-axis’ oriented GdFe{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} (x≤0.2) thin films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} substrate. • Thin films have been irradiated by 200 MeV Ag{sup 15+} ions. • Presence of columnar defects have been estimated using SRIM. • Magnetic disorder in all the film samples have been seen at lower temperatures. • Structural and magnetic characteristics altered with doping and ion irradiation.

  5. Damage accumulation in MgO irradiated with MeV Au ions at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachiller-Perea, Diana, E-mail: dianabachillerperea@gmail.com [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM), Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS-IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405, Orsay Cedex (France); Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/Faraday 3, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Dpto. de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria de Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Debelle, Aurélien, E-mail: aurelien.debelle@u-psud.fr [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM), Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS-IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405, Orsay Cedex (France); Thomé, Lionel [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM), Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS-IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405, Orsay Cedex (France); Behar, Moni [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, C.P. 15051, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    The damage accumulation process in MgO single crystals under medium-energy heavy ion irradiation (1.2 MeV Au) at fluences up to 4 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2} has been studied at three different temperatures: 573, 773, and 1073 K. Disorder depth profiles have been determined through the use of the Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling configuration (RBS/C). The analysis of the RBS/C data reveals two steps in the MgO damage process, irrespective of the temperature. However, we find that for increasing irradiation temperature, the damage level decreases and the fluence at which the second step takes place increases. A shift of the damage peak at increasing fluence is observed for the three temperatures, although the position of the peak depends on the temperature. These results can be explained by an enhanced defect mobility which facilitates defect migration and may favor defect annealing. X-ray diffraction reciprocal space maps confirm the results obtained with the RBS/C technique. - Highlights: • High-temperature MeV-ion irradiated MgO exhibits a two-step damage process. • The occurrence of the second step is delayed with increasing temperature. • The damage level decreases with increasing temperature. • A shift of the damage peak is observed with increasing fluence. • A high defect mobility at high temperatures in MgO is clearly evidenced.

  6. Secondary electron emission of thin carbon foils under the impact of hydrogen atoms, ions and molecular ions, under energies within the MeV range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovic, Z.

    1997-06-01

    This work focuses on the study of the emission statistics of secondary electrons from thin carbon foils bombarded with H 0 , H 2 + and H 3 + projectiles in the 0.25-2.2 MeV energy range. The phenomenon of secondary electron emission from solids under the impact of swift ions is mainly due to inelastic interactions with target electrons. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions, as well as a summary of the main theoretical models are the subject of the first chapter. The experimental set-up used to measure event by event the electron emission of the two faces of a thin carbon foil traversed by an energetic projectile is described in the chapter two. In this chapter are also presented the method and algorithms used to process experimental spectra in order to obtain the statistical distribution of the emitted electrons. Chapter three presents the measurements of secondary electron emission induced by H atoms passing through thin carbon foils. The secondary electron yields are studied in correlation with the emergent projectile charge state. We show the peculiar role of the projectile electron, whether it remains or not bound to the incident proton. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the secondary electron emission induced by H 2 + and H 3 + polyatomic ions. The results are interpreted in terms of collective effects in the interactions of these ions with solids. The role of the proximity of the protons, molecular ion fragments, upon the amplitude of these collective effects is evidenced from the study of the statistics of forward emission. These experiences allowed us to shed light on various aspects of atom and polyatomic ion inter-actions with solid surfaces. (author)

  7. MeV single-ion beam irradiation of mammalian cells using the Surrey vertical nanobeam, compared with broad proton beam and X-ray irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Jeynes, J.C.G.; Merchant, M.J.; Kirkby, K.; Kirkby, N. [Surrey Ion Beam Center, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Science, University of Surrey, Guildford Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Thopan, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •Recently completed nanobeam at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre was used. •3.8-MeV single and broad proton beams irradiated Chinese hamster cells. •Cell survival curves were measured and compared with 300-kV X-ray irradiation. •Single ion irradiation had a lower survival part at ultra-low dose. •It implies hypersensitivity, bystander effect and cell cycle phase of cell death. -- Abstract: As a part of a systematic study on mechanisms involved in physical cancer therapies, this work investigated response of mammalian cells to ultra-low-dose ion beam irradiation. The ion beam irradiation was performed using the recently completed nanobeam facility at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre. A scanning focused vertical ion nano-beam was applied to irradiate Chinese hamster V79 cells. The V79 cells were irradiated in two different beam modes, namely, focused single ion beam and defocused scanning broad ion beam of 3.8-MeV protons. The single ion beam was capable of irradiating a single cell with a precisely controlled number of the ions to extremely low doses. After irradiation and cell incubation, the number of surviving colonies as a function of the number of the irradiating ions was measured for the cell survival fraction curve. A lower survival for the single ion beam irradiation than that of the broad beam case implied the hypersensitivity and bystander effect. The ion-beam-induced cell survival curves were compared with that from 300-kV X-ray irradiation. Theoretical studies indicated that the cell death in single ion irradiation mainly occurred in the cell cycle phases of cell division and intervals between the cell division and the DNA replication. The success in the experiment demonstrated the Surrey vertical nanobeam successfully completed.

  8. Angle-resolved imaging of single-crystal materials with MeV helium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strathman, M D; Baumann, S [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The simplest form of angle-resolved mapping for single-crystal materials is the creation of a channeling angular scan. Several laboratories have expanded this simple procedure to include mapping as a function of two independent tilts. These angle-resolved images are particularly suited to the assessment of crystal parameters including disorder, lattice location of impurities, and lattice stress. This paper will describe the use of the Charles Evans and Associates RBS-400 scattering chamber for acquisition, display, and analysis of angle-resolved images obtained from backscattered helium ions. Typical data acquisition times are 20 min for a {+-}2deg X-Y tilt scan with 2500 pixels (8/100deg resolution), and 10 nC per pixel. In addition, we will present a method for automatically aligning crystals for channeling measurements based on this imaging technology. (orig.).

  9. Energy loss and straggling of MeV Si ions in gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vockenhuber, C., E-mail: vockenhuber@phys.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Arstila, K. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Jensen, J. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Julin, J.; Kettunen, H.; Laitinen, M.; Rossi, M.; Sajavaara, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Thöni, M. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Whitlow, H.J. [Institut des Microtechnologies Appliquées Arc, Haute Ecole Arc Ingénierie, 2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland)

    2017-01-15

    We present measurements of energy loss and straggling of Si ions in gases. An energy range from 0.5 to 12 MeV/u was covered using the 6 MV EN tandem accelerator at ETH Zurich, Switzerland, and the K130 cyclotron accelerator facility at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland. Our energy-loss data compare well with calculation based on the SRIM and PASS code. The new straggling measurements support a pronounced peak in He gas at around 4 MeV/u predicted by recent theoretical calculations. The straggling curve structure in the other gases (N{sub 2}, Ne, Ar, Kr) is relatively flat in the covered energy range. Although there is a general agreement between the straggling data and the theoretical calculations, the experimental uncertainties are too large to confirm or exclude the predicted weak multi-peak structure in the energy-loss straggling.

  10. Angle-resolved imaging of single-crystal materials with MeV helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strathman, M.D.; Baumann, S.

    1992-01-01

    The simplest form of angle-resolved mapping for single-crystal materials is the creation of a channeling angular scan. Several laboratories have expanded this simple procedure to include mapping as a function of two independent tilts. These angle-resolved images are particularly suited to the assessment of crystal parameters including disorder, lattice location of impurities, and lattice stress. This paper will describe the use of the Charles Evans and Associates RBS-400 scattering chamber for acquisition, display, and analysis of angle-resolved images obtained from backscattered helium ions. Typical data acquisition times are 20 min for a ±2deg X-Y tilt scan with 2500 pixels (8/100deg resolution), and 10 nC per pixel. In addition, we will present a method for automatically aligning crystals for channeling measurements based on this imaging technology. (orig.)

  11. Response of metallic glasses Fe40Ni40P14B6 and Fe80B20 to irradiation with 800-MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost, J.R.; Sommer, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    Metallic glasses with compositions of Fe 40 Ni 40 P 14 B 6 and Fe 80 B 20 were irradiated in the 800 MeV proton beam at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility while the electrical resistance and length changes were monitored. The resistance and the length of the first alloy were both found to increase and saturate with dose to ΔR/R approx. = 5 x 10 -3 and ΔL/L approx. = 2 x 10 -3 . For the second alloy the total dose of 1.1 x 10 19 p/cm 2 , which was calculated to give roughly 0.12 dpa, was slightly less than that required for saturation. No annealing of these increases was observed for anneals from room temperature to 250 0 C. These results are interpreted in terms of a model in which collision cascades create small regions of increased atomic disorder which fully overlap each other at saturation

  12. Light particle emission in deeply inelastic collisions of 280 MeV 40Ar + 58Ni: Thermal equilibrium and angular momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babinet, R.; Cauvin, B.; Girard, J.; Alexander, J.M.; Chiang, T.H.; Galin, J.; Gatty, B.; Guerreau, D.; Tarrago, X.

    1980-01-01

    Protons and α-particles emitted in coincidence with a deep inelastic fragment produced in the reaction 40 Ar(280 MeV) + 58 Ni have been measured. From a detailed study of their in-plane angular distribution, it is shown that the bulk of the light charged particle emission can be attributed to a secondary evaporation process by the two primary deep inelastic fragments. A lowest estimate of the fragment spin (assuming total alignment perpendicular to the reaction plane) is obtained from the anisotropy of the out-of-plane angular distribution of the α-particles. For very asymmetric splitting, the heavy fragment spin estimate as obtained from the α-anisotropy measurement is consistent with the observed proton to α-particle multiplicity ratio. The results are in agreement with the hypothesis of a sticking configuration between two deformed nuclei. (orig.) 891 WL/orig. 892 MB

  13. Ion Beam Materials Analysis and Modifications at keV to MeV Energies at the University of North Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Bibhudutta; Dhoubhadel, Mangal S.; Poudel, Prakash R.; Kummari, Venkata C.; Lakshantha, Wickramaarachchige J.; Manuel, Jack E.; Bohara, Gyanendra; Szilasi, Szabolcs Z.; Glass, Gary A.; McDaniel, Floyd D.

    2014-02-01

    The University of North Texas (UNT) Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL) has four particle accelerators including a National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC) 9SDH-2 3 MV tandem Pelletron, a NEC 9SH 3 MV single-ended Pelletron, and a 200 kV Cockcroft-Walton. A fourth HVEC AK 2.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator is presently being refurbished as an educational training facility. These accelerators can produce and accelerate almost any ion in the periodic table at energies from a few keV to tens of MeV. They are used to modify materials by ion implantation and to analyze materials by numerous atomic and nuclear physics techniques. The NEC 9SH accelerator was recently installed in the IBMAL and subsequently upgraded with the addition of a capacitive-liner and terminal potential stabilization system to reduce ion energy spread and therefore improve spatial resolution of the probing ion beam to hundreds of nanometers. Research involves materials modification and synthesis by ion implantation for photonic, electronic, and magnetic applications, micro-fabrication by high energy (MeV) ion beam lithography, microanalysis of biomedical and semiconductor materials, development of highenergy ion nanoprobe focusing systems, and educational and outreach activities. An overview of the IBMAL facilities and some of the current research projects are discussed.

  14. Low frequency alternating current conduction and dielectric relaxation in polypyrrole irradiated with 100 MeV swift heavy ions of silver (Ag{sup 8+})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Amarjeet, E-mail: amarkaur@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Dhillon, Anju [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Inter University Accelerator Center (IUAC), Aruna Asaf Ali Road, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2013-07-15

    Polypyrrole (PPY) films were prepared by electrochemical polymerization technique. The fully undoped samples were irradiated with different radiation fluences ranging from 10{sup 10} to 10{sup 12} ions cm{sup −2} of 100 MeV silver (Ag{sup 8+}) ions. The temperature dependence of ac conductivity [σ{sub m}(ω)], dielectric constant (ε′) and dielectric loss (ε′′) of both irradiated as well as unirradiated samples have been investigated in 77–300 K. There exists typical Debye type dispersion. Giant increase in dielectric constant has been observed for irradiated samples which is attributed to polaronic defects produced during irradiation. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Polypyrrole samples were prepared by electrochemical technique. • The fully undoped samples were irradiated with 100 MeV silver (Ag{sup 8+}) ions. • Giant increase in dielectric constant in irradiated samples is observed. • Dielectric behaviour is attributed to polaronic defects produced during irradiation.

  15. Low frequency alternating current conduction and dielectric relaxation in polypyrrole irradiated with 100 MeV swift heavy ions of silver (Ag8+)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Amarjeet; Dhillon, Anju; Avasthi, D.K.

    2013-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPY) films were prepared by electrochemical polymerization technique. The fully undoped samples were irradiated with different radiation fluences ranging from 10 10 to 10 12 ions cm −2 of 100 MeV silver (Ag 8+ ) ions. The temperature dependence of ac conductivity [σ m (ω)], dielectric constant (ε′) and dielectric loss (ε′′) of both irradiated as well as unirradiated samples have been investigated in 77–300 K. There exists typical Debye type dispersion. Giant increase in dielectric constant has been observed for irradiated samples which is attributed to polaronic defects produced during irradiation. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Polypyrrole samples were prepared by electrochemical technique. • The fully undoped samples were irradiated with 100 MeV silver (Ag 8+ ) ions. • Giant increase in dielectric constant in irradiated samples is observed. • Dielectric behaviour is attributed to polaronic defects produced during irradiation

  16. Elastic atomic displacements and color center creation in LiF crystals irradiated with 3-, 9- and 12-MeV Au ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, M.V.; Papaleo, R.M.; Schwartz, K.

    2009-01-01

    Creation of color centers in LiF under irradiation with 3-12-MeV Au ions was studied. Comparison of experimental data of color center creation with computer simulation of the energy deposition and elastic atomic displacements reveals the role of elastic collisions in defect creation by these ions, which have comparable magnitudes of electronic and elastic stopping. The experimentally measured efficiency of color center creation and that predicted by the simulation of elastic displacements have a similar dependence on the projectile energy. Thus, the color center creation is mainly associated with the elastic collisions, despite the relatively large values of the electronic stopping power for these ions. (orig.)

  17. A Monte Carlo computer code for evaluating energy loss of 10 keV to 10 MeV ions in amorphous silicon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramli, H.; Elbounagui, O.; Misdaq, M.A.; Merzouki, A.

    2007-01-01

    The basic concepts of a computer simulation code for determining the energy loss of ions in the 10 keV to 10 MeV energy range in amorphous silicon materials were presented and discussed. Data obtained were found in good agreement with those obtained by using a SRIM programme. Electronic and nuclear energy losses were evaluated. Variation of the energy loss as a function of the incident ion energy were studied. This new computer code is a good tool for evaluating stopping powers of various materials for light and heavy ions

  18. Adsorption study on orange peel: Removal of Ni(II) ions from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-16

    Jan 16, 2012 ... The optimal pH value for Ni(II) adsorption onto the orange peel was found to be 5.0. ... Various bio-sorbents have been examined for the removal of diverse type of ... modifications such as alkaline, acid, ethanol and acetone treatment (Pérez et .... To find a suitable pH for the effective adsorption of. Ni(II) ions ...

  19. Hydrothermal-synthesized NiO nanowall array for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xiaoyan; Tong, Xili; Wang, Jian; Gong, Changwei; Zhang, Mingang; Liang, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Freestanding NiO nanowall array is prepared via a hydrothermal synthesis method and shows noticeable Li battery performance with good cycle life and high capacity. Highlights: ► NiO nanowall array is prepared by a hydrothermal synthesis method. ► NiO nanowall array with high capacity as anode material for Li ion battery. ► Nanowall array structure is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. -- Abstract: We report a self-supported NiO nanowall array prepared by a facile hydrothermal synthesis method. The microstructure and morphology of the sample are characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hydrothermal-synthesized NiO nanowalls with thicknesses of ∼20 nm arrange vertically to the substrate forming a net-like nanowall array structure. As anode material for lithium ion batteries, the NiO nanowall array exhibits better electrochemical performances with higher coulombic efficiency and better cycling performance as compared to the dense NiO film. The NiO nanowall array shows an initial coulombic efficiency of 76%, as well as good cycling stability with a capacity of 567 mAh g −1 at 0.3 A g −1 after 50 cycles, higher than those of the dense polycrystalline NiO film (361 mAh g −1 ). The superior electrochemical performance is mainly due to the unique nanowall array structure with shorter diffusion length for mass and charge transport

  20. Correlation between the structure modification and conductivity of 3 MeV Si ion-irradiated polyimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Youmei; Zhu Zhiyong; Li Changlin

    2002-01-01

    The surface modification of the polyimide (PI/Kapton) films was carried out by 3 MeV Si + implantation to fluences ranging from 1x10 12 to 1.25x10 15 ions/cm 2 . Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman and ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopes were employed to investigate the chemical degradation of function groups in the irradiated layer. FTIR results show that the absorbance of typical function group decreases exponentially as a function of fluence. The damage cross-section of typical bonds of PI was evaluated from the FTIR spectra. Raman analysis shows the absorbed dose for destruction of all function groups is above 218 MGy. The red shifting of the absorption edge from UV to visible reveals the band gap closing which results from increase of the cluster size. The production efficiency of the chromophores was discussed according to UV/Vis analysis. Irradiation dramatically enhances the electrical conductivity and the sheet resistivity in our experiment descends nearly 10 orders of magnitude compared with its intrinsic value

  1. Disordering and amorphization of Zr3Al by 3.8 MeV Zr3+ ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.C.; Ardell, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    The ordered intermetallic compound Zr 3 Al was irradiated with 3. 8 MeV Zr 3+ ions at various fluences up to 5 x 10 12 tons/mm 2 at a temperature of 250 degrees C and the irradiation- induced microstructures were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Disordering began at the lowest dose, 0.0033 dpa, and complete loss of chemical long-range order occurred at a dose of 0.33 dpa. The onset of amorphization was also observed at this dose. Electron diffraction patterns from irradiated samples showed satellite reflections along in thin foils in [100] orientation and streaking along in foils oriented [011]. These diffraction effects are attributed to the presence of irradiation-induced microstructural defects that, when imaged in dark field, resemble rows of dislocation loops. A model of these arrays of loops, which are suggested to have Burgers vectors of the Frank type, is proposed. The model accounts for the contrast effects observed in the images and the streaking and satellites seen in the diffraction patterns. At the highest dose, 1.6 dpa, a new phase, Zr 5 Al 3 , appeared unexpectedly, most likely as a consequence of irradiation-induced solute segregation

  2. The fabrication of foam-like 3D mesoporous NiO-Ni as anode for high performance Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Peng; Zhang, Xin; Wei, Jumeng; Pan, Jiaqi; Sheng, Yingzhou; Feng, Boxue

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Foam-like 3 dimensional (3D) mesoporous NiO on 3D micro-porous Ni was fabricated. - Highlights: • We prepare NiO-Ni foam composite via hydrothermal etching and subsequent annealing. • The NiO exhibits novel foam-like 3D mesoporous architecture. • The NiO-Ni anode shows good cycle stability. - Abstract: Foam-like three dimensional mesoporous NiO on Ni foam was fabricated via facile hydrothermal etching and subsequent annealing treatment. The porous NiO consists of a large number of nanosheets with mean thickness about 50 nm, among which a large number of mesoscopic pores with size ranges from 100 nm to 1 μm distribute. The electrochemical performance of the as-prepared NiO-Ni as anode for lithium ion battery was studied by conventional charge/discharge test, which shows excellent cycle stability and rate capability. It exhibits initial discharge and charge capacities of 979 and 707 mA h g −1 at a charge/discharge rate of 0.7 C, which maintain of 747 and 738 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles. Even after 60 cycles at various rates from 0.06 to 14 C, the 10th discharge and charge capacities of the NiO-Ni electrode can revert to 699 and 683 mA h g −1 when lowering the charge/discharge rate to 0.06 C

  3. Use of radial self-field geometry for intense pulsed ion beam generation above 6 MeV on Hermes III.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renk, Timothy Jerome [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harper-Slaboszewicz, Victor Jozef [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ginn, William Craig [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mikkelson, Kenneth A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schall, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cooper, Gary Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the generation and propagation of intense pulsed ion beams at the 6 MeV level and above using the Hermes III facility at Sandia National Laboratories. While high-power ion beams have previously been produced using Hermes III, we have conducted systematic studies of several ion diode geometries for the purpose of maximizing focused ion energy for a number of applications. A self-field axial-gap diode of the pinch reflex type and operated in positive polarity yielded beam power below predicted levels. This is ascribed both to power flow losses of unknown origin upstream of the diode load in Hermes positive polarity operation, and to anomalies in beam focusing in this configuration. A change to a radial self-field geometry and negative polarity operation resulted in greatly increased beam voltage (> 6 MeV) and estimated ion current. A comprehensive diagnostic set was developed to characterize beam performance, including both time-dependent and time-integrated measurements of local and total beam power. A substantial high-energy ion population was identified propagating in reverse direction, i.e. from the back side of the anode in the electron beam dump. While significant progress was made in increasing beam power, further improvements in assessing the beam focusing envelope will be required before ultimate ion generation efficiency with this geometry can be completely determined.

  4. Transient field for W ions traversing Fe hosts and for Os ions traversing Fe and Ni hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchbery, A.E.; Bolotin, H.H.; Doran, C.E.

    1987-02-01

    Transient field strengths were measured for 184 W and 186 W ions traversing thin, magnetized Fe foils with velocities in the range 1.8 ≤ v/v>=o ≤ 5.7 (v>=o Bohr velocity) and for 188 Os, 190 Os, 192 Os ions traversing polarized Ni hosts with average velocities =o> ∼ 4. The present measured transient field strengths, together with previously measured results for W, Os ions, are compared with transient-field strength parametrizations, and discussed in terms of microscopic models of the transient field

  5. Development of Highly Nano-Dispersed NiO/GDC Catalysts from Ion Exchange Resin Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Caravaca

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel NiO/GDC (Gadolinium-doped Ceria cermet catalysts were developed by the Weak Acid Resin (WAR method using an ion exchange resin template. In addition, the specific surface area of these tunable materials was enhanced by NiO partial dissolution in aqueous acid solution. The whole procedure highly improved the micro-structural properties of these materials compared to previous studies. Catalysts with high metal loadings (≥10%, small Ni nanoparticles (<10 nm, and high specific surface areas (>70 m2/g were achieved. These properties are promising for catalytic applications such as methane steam reforming for H2 production.

  6. Moessbauer of phase separation in FeNi multilayers under ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, L.; Paesano, A.; Brueckman, M.E. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Scorzelli, R.B.; Dominguez, A.B. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Shinjo, T.; Ono, T.; Hosoito, N. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Chemical Research

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the effect of noble gas irradiation (He, Ne, Ar and Xe) on the Fe-Ni multilayers with a very thin modulation and nominal composition in the invar region Fe{sub 0.63} Ni{sub 0.37}. The evaluation of the formation/stability of the Fe-Ni phases formed under irradiation with different ions and doses was followed by conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS). (author). 21 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.; e-mail: scorza at novell.cat.cbpf.br.

  7. Irradiation effects in Fe-30%Ni alloy during Ar ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soukieh, Mohamad; Al-Mohamad, Ali

    1993-12-01

    The use of metallic thin films for studying the processes which take place during ion irradiation has recently increased. For example, ion implantation is widely used to study the structural defects in transition metallic thin films such as (Fe, Ni, Co), because it can simulate the effects occurring in nuclear reactors during neutron irradiation especially the swelling of reactor materials. The swelling of metals and alloys is strongly related to the material structure and to the irradiation conditions. The general feature of formation of structural defects as a function of irradiation dosage and annealing temperature is well known. However, the detailed mechanisms are still not well understood. For example, the swelling of iron alloy with 30-35% nickel is very small in comparison with other Ni concentrations, and there is no clear information on the possibility of phase transitions in fe-Ni alloys during irradiation. The aim of this work is to study the phase-structural changes in Fe-30% Ni implanted by high dose of argon ions. The effect of irradiation with low energy argon ions (40 KeV, and fluences of 10.E15 to 10.E17 ions/cm) on the deposited thin films of Fe-30% Ni alloy was investigated using RBS and TEM techniques. The thicknesses of these films were about 65+-10 nm deposited on ceramic, KBr, and Be fiols substrates. Gas bubble formation and profile distribution of the implanted argon ions were investigated. Formation of an ordered phase Fe 3 Ni during irradiation appears to inhibit gas bubble formations in the film structure. (author). 17 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Surface deformation effects on stainless steel, Ni, Cu and Mo produced by medium energy He ions irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Florescu, V.; Sarbu, C.

    1993-01-01

    To investigate dose and energy dependence of surface deformation effects (blistering and flaking), different kinds of candidate CTR first wall materials as 12KH18N10T, W-4541, W-4016 and SS-304 stainless steels, Ni, Cu, Mo were irradiated at room temperature with 3.0, 4.7 and 6.8 MeV He + ions at IAP Cyclotron. The effects were investigated by means of a TEMSCAN 200 CX electron microscope and two metallographic Orthoplan Pol Leitz and Olympus microscopes. We observed two dose dependent main phenomena: blistering and flaking (craters). So, blisters occurrence on the irradiated surface is almost instantaneous when a critical dose (number of He ions accumulated in the region at the end of alpha particles range) is reached. Increasing irradiation dose, we reached flaking stage. So, isolated submicronic fissures along grain boundaries were observed on the blister skin, chronologically followed by large (5-20 μm) deep cracks of hundreds of microns in length, blisters opening and, finally, flaking appearance. (author) 8 figs., 1 tab

  9. Gas cluster ion beam assisted NiPt germano-silicide formation on SiGe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, Ahmet S., E-mail: asozcan@us.ibm.com [IBM Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, San Jose, California 95120 (United States); Lavoie, Christian; Jordan-Sweet, Jean [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Alptekin, Emre; Zhu, Frank [IBM Semiconductor Research and Development Center, 2070 Route 52, Hopewell Junction, New York 12533 (United States); Leith, Allen; Pfeifer, Brian D.; LaRose, J. D.; Russell, N. M. [TEL Epion Inc., 900 Middlesex Turnpike, Bldg. 6, Billerica, Massachusetts 01821 (United States)

    2016-04-21

    We report the formation of very uniform and smooth Ni(Pt)Si on epitaxially grown SiGe using Si gas cluster ion beam treatment after metal-rich silicide formation. The gas cluster ion implantation process was optimized to infuse Si into the metal-rich silicide layer and lowered the NiSi nucleation temperature significantly according to in situ X-ray diffraction measurements. This novel method which leads to more uniform films can also be used to control silicide depth in ultra-shallow junctions, especially for high Ge containing devices, where silicidation is problematic as it leads to much rougher interfaces.

  10. Ionic conduction in 70-MeV C5+-ion-irradiated poly(vinylidenefluoride- co-hexafluoropropylene)-based gel polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikia, D.; Kumar, A.; Singh, F.; Avasthi, D.K.; Mishra, N.C.

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to increase the Li + -ion diffusivity, poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)-(propylene carbonate+diethyl carbonate)-lithium perchlorate gel polymer electrolyte system has been irradiated with 70-MeV C 5+ -ion beam of nine different fluences. Swift heavy-ion irradiation shows enhancement in ionic conductivity at lower fluences and decrease in ionic conductivity at higher fluences with respect to unirradiated gel polymer electrolyte films. Maximum room-temperature (303 K) ionic conductivity is found to be 2x10 -2 S/cm after irradiation with a fluence of 10 11 ions/cm 2 . This interesting result could be attributed to the fact that for a particular ion beam with a given energy, a higher fluence provides critical activation energy for cross linking and crystallization to occur, which results in the decrease in ionic conductivity. X-ray-diffraction results show decrease in the degree of crystallinity upon ion irradiation at low fluences (≤10 11 ions/cm 2 ) and increase in crystallinity at higher fluences (>10 11 ions/cm 2 ). Analysis of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy results suggests the bond breaking at a fluence of 5x10 9 ions/cm 2 and cross linking at a fluence of 10 12 ions/cm 2 and corroborate conductivity and x-ray-diffraction results. Scanning electron micrographs exhibit increased porosity of the polymer electrolyte after ion irradiation

  11. Effect of 100 MeV Ag{sup +7} ion irradiation on the bulk and surface magnetic properties of Co–Fe–Si thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hysen, T., E-mail: hysenthomas@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682 022, Kerala (India); Department of Physics, Christian College, Chengannur, Kerala 689 122 (India); Geetha, P. [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682 022, Kerala (India); Al-Harthi, Salim; Al-Omari, I.A. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Al Khod 123 (Oman); Lisha, R. [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682 022, Kerala (India); Ramanujan, R.V. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639 798 (Singapore); Sakthikumar, D. [Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Kawagoe (Japan); Avasthi, D.K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Anantharaman, M.R., E-mail: mra@cusat.ac.in [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682 022, Kerala (India)

    2014-12-15

    Thin films of Co–Fe–Si were vacuum evaporated on pre-cleaned float glass substrates employing thermal evaporation. The films were subsequently irradiated with 100 MeV Ag{sup +7} ions at fluences of 1×10{sup 11}, 1×10{sup 12} and 1×10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The pristine and irradiated samples were subjected to surface analysis using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM) and Magneto Optic Kerr Effect (MOKE) measurements. The as deposited film has a root mean square roughness (Rq) of 8.9 nm and an average roughness of (Ra) 5.6 nm. Irradiation of the as deposited films with 100 MeV Ag{sup 7+} ions modifies the surface morphology. Irradiating with ions at fluences of 1×10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2} smoothens the mesoscopic hill-like structures, and then, at 1×10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} new surface structures are created. When the fluence is further increased to 1×10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} an increase in the surface roughness is observed. The MOKE loop of as prepared film indicated a squareness ratio of 0.62. As the film is irradiated with fluences of 1×10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2}, 1×10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} and 1×10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} the squareness ratio changes to 0.76, 0.8 and 0.86 respectively. This enhancement in squareness ratio towards 1 is a typical feature when the exchange interaction starts to dominates the inherent anisotropies in the system. The variation in surface magnetisation is explained based on the variations in surface roughness with swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. - Highlights: • We have irradiated thermally evaporated Co–Fe–Si thin films on glass substrate with 100 MeV Ag{sup +7} ions using the 15 UD Pelletron Accelerator at IUAC, New Delhi, India. • Surface morphology and magnetic characteristics of the films can be altered with ion irradiation. • It was observed that the variation in surface magnetic properties correlates well with the changes in surface morphology, further reiterating the

  12. Effect of solute elements in Ni alloys on blistering under He + and D + ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, E.; Ezawa, T.; Takenaka, T.; Imamura, J.; Tanabe, T.; Oshima, R.

    2007-08-01

    Effects of solute atoms on microstructural evolution and blister formation have been investigated using Ni alloys under 25 keV He + and 20 keV D + irradiation at 500 °C to a dose of about 4 × 10 21 ions/m 2. The specimens used were pure Ni, Ni-Si, Ni-Co, Ni-Cu, Ni-Mn and Ni-Pd alloys. The volume size factors of solute elements for the Ni alloys range from -5.8% to +63.6%. The formations of blisters were observed in the helium-irradiated specimens, but not in the deuteron-irradiated specimens. The areal number densities of blisters increased with volume size difference of solute atoms. The dependence of volume size on the areal number densities of blisters was very similar to that of the number densities of bubbles on solute atoms. The size of the blisters inversely decreased with increasing size of solute atoms. The formation of blisters was intimately related to the bubble growth, and the gas pressure model for the formation of blisters was supported by this study.

  13. Thermal spike model interpretation of sputtering yield data for Bi thin films irradiated by MeV {sup 84}Kr{sup 15+} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mammeri, S. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger, B.P. 399, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger-gare, Algiers (Algeria); Ouichaoui, S., E-mail: souichaoui@gmail.com [Université des Sciences et de la Technologie H. Boumediene (USTHB), Faculté de Physique, Laboratoire SNIRM, B.P. 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Ammi, H. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger, B.P. 399, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger-gare, Algiers (Algeria); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, CPUT, P.O. Box 1906, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Dib, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger, B.P. 399, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger-gare, Algiers (Algeria); Msimanga, M. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P. Bag 11, Wits 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); Department of Physics, Tshwane University of Technology, P. Bag X680, Pretoria 001 (South Africa)

    2015-07-01

    A modified thermal spike model initially proposed to account for defect formation in metals within the high heavy ion energy regime is adapted for describing the sputtering of Bi thin films under MeV Kr ions. Surface temperature profiles for both the electronic and atomic subsystems have been carefully evaluated versus the radial distance and time with introducing appropriate values of the Bi target electronic stopping power for multi-charged Kr{sup 15+} heavy ions as well as different target physical proprieties like specific heats and thermal conductivities. Then, the total sputtering yields of the irradiated Bi thin films have been determined from a spatiotemporal integration of the local atomic evaporation rate. Besides, an expected non negligible contribution of elastic nuclear collisions to the Bi target sputtering yields and ion-induced surface effects has also been considered in our calculation. Finally, the latter thermal spike model allowed us to derive numerical sputtering yields in satisfactorily agreement with existing experimental data both over the low and high heavy ion energy regions, respectively, dominated by elastic nuclear collisions and inelastic electronic collisions, in particular with our data taken recently for Bi thin films irradiated by 27.5 MeV Kr{sup 15+} heavy ions. An overall consistency of our model calculation with the predictions of sputtering yield theoretical models within the target nuclear stopping power regime was also pointed out.

  14. Synchrotron radiation-based 61Ni Mössbauer spectroscopic study of Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 cathode materials of lithium ion rechargeable battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segi, Takashi; Masuda, Ryo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Tsubota, Takayuki; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Seto, Makoto

    2016-12-01

    Layered rocksalt type oxides, such as Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2, are widely used as the cathode active materials of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. Because the nickel ions are associated with the role of the charge compensation at discharge and charge, the 61Ni Mössbauer measurements at 6 K using synchrotron radiation were performed to reveal the role of Ni. The Ni ions of the active materials play two roles for the redox process between the charge and discharge states of lithium-ion batteries. Half of the total Ni ions change to the low-spin Ni3+ with Jahn-Teller distortion from the Ni2+ ions of the discharge state. The remainder exhibit low-spin state divalent Ni ions.

  15. CR-39 track detector calibration for H, He, and C ions from 0.1-0.5 MeV up to 5 MeV for laser-induced nuclear fusion product identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccou, C; Yahia, V; Depierreux, S; Neuville, C; Goyon, C; Consoli, F; De Angelis, R; Ducret, J E; Boutoux, G; Rafelski, J; Labaune, C

    2015-08-01

    Laser-accelerated ion beams can be used in many applications and, especially, to initiate nuclear reactions out of thermal equilibrium. We have experimentally studied aneutronic fusion reactions induced by protons accelerated by the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism, colliding with a boron target. Such experiments require a rigorous method to identify the reaction products (alpha particles) collected in detectors among a few other ion species such as protons or carbon ions, for example. CR-39 track detectors are widely used because they are mostly sensitive to ions and their efficiency is near 100%. We present a complete calibration of CR-39 track detector for protons, alpha particles, and carbon ions. We give measurements of their track diameters for energy ranging from hundreds of keV to a few MeV and for etching times between 1 and 8 h. We used these results to identify alpha particles in our experiments on proton-boron fusion reactions initiated by laser-accelerated protons. We show that their number clearly increases when the boron fuel is preformed in a plasma state.

  16. Growing imbedded Ni3C-rich layer with sharp interfaces by means of ion beam mixing of C/Ni layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barna, Arpad; Kotis, Laszlo; Labar, Janos; Sulyok, Attila; Toth, Attila L; Menyhard, Miklos; Panjan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    C/Ni bilayers of various layer thicknesses (20-40 nm) were ion bombarded using Ga + and Ni + projectiles of energies 20 and 30 keV. Ion bombardment resulted in the growth of a Ni 3 C rich layer with the following features: (a) sharp carbon/Ni 3 C rich layer interface, (b) the amount of Ni 3 C produced by the irradiation proportional to the square root of the fluence and dependent on the type of projectile, (c) good correlation between the distribution of vacancies produced by the ion bombardment and the distribution of Ni 3 C. The formation of the metastable Ni 3 C compound was explained by a vacancy-assisted process. The sharp interface is the consequence of a relaxation process removing the intermixed Ni from the carbon layer. The square root of fluence dependence of the thickness of the Ni 3 C-rich layer can be explained by a usual diffusion equation considering moving boundaries.

  17. Effect of Ni +-ION bombardment on nickel and binary nickel alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roarty, K. B.; Sprague, J. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Smidt, F. A.

    1981-03-01

    Pure nickel and four binary nickel alloys have been subjected to high energy Ni ion bombardment at 675, 625 and 525°C. After irradiation, each specimen was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The pure nickel control was found to swell appreciably (1 to 5%) and the Ni-Al and the Ni-Ti samples were found to swell at all temperatures, but to a lesser degree (0.01 to 0.35%). The Ni-Mo contained a significant density of voids only at 525° C, while swelling was suppressed at all temperatures in the Ni-Si alloy. The dislocation structure progressed from loops to tangles as temperature increased in all materials except the Ni-Ti, in which there was an absence of loops at all temperatures. Dislocation densities decreased as temperature increased in all samples. These results do not correlate well with the relative behavior of the same alloys observed after neutron irradiation at 455°C. The differences between these two sets of data appear to be caused by different mechanisms controlling void nucleation in ion and neutron irradiation of these alloys.

  18. Experimental evaluation of the response of micro-channel plate detector to ions with 10s of MeV energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Tae Won; Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Singh, P. K.; Kakolee, K. F.; Scullion, C.; Ahmed, H.; Hadjisolomou, P.; Alejo, A.; Kar, S.; Borghesi, M.

    2016-01-01

    The absolute calibration of a microchannel plate (MCP) assembly using a Thomson spectrometer for laser-driven ion beams is described. In order to obtain the response of the whole detection system to the particles’ impact, a slotted solid state nuclear track detector (CR-39) was installed in front of the MCP to record the ions simultaneously on both detectors. The response of the MCP (counts/particles) was measured for 5–58 MeV carbon ions and for protons in the energy range 2–17.3 MeV. The response of the MCP detector is non-trivial when the stopping range of particles becomes larger than the thickness of the detector. Protons with energies E ≳ 10 MeV are energetic enough that they can pass through the MCP detector. Quantitative analysis of the pits formed in CR-39 and the signal generated in the MCP allowed to determine the MCP response to particles in this energy range. Moreover, a theoretical model allows to predict the response of MCP at even higher proton energies. This suggests that in this regime the MCP response is a slowly decreasing function of energy, consistently with the decrease of the deposited energy. These calibration data will enable particle spectra to be obtained in absolute terms over a broad energy range.

  19. Experimental evaluation of the response of micro-channel plate detector to ions with 10s of MeV energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Tae Won; Singh, P. K.; Scullion, C.; Ahmed, H.; Kakolee, K. F.; Hadjisolomou, P.; Alejo, A.; Kar, S.; Borghesi, M.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.

    2016-08-01

    The absolute calibration of a microchannel plate (MCP) assembly using a Thomson spectrometer for laser-driven ion beams is described. In order to obtain the response of the whole detection system to the particles' impact, a slotted solid state nuclear track detector (CR-39) was installed in front of the MCP to record the ions simultaneously on both detectors. The response of the MCP (counts/particles) was measured for 5-58 MeV carbon ions and for protons in the energy range 2-17.3 MeV. The response of the MCP detector is non-trivial when the stopping range of particles becomes larger than the thickness of the detector. Protons with energies E ≳ 10 MeV are energetic enough that they can pass through the MCP detector. Quantitative analysis of the pits formed in CR-39 and the signal generated in the MCP allowed to determine the MCP response to particles in this energy range. Moreover, a theoretical model allows to predict the response of MCP at even higher proton energies. This suggests that in this regime the MCP response is a slowly decreasing function of energy, consistently with the decrease of the deposited energy. These calibration data will enable particle spectra to be obtained in absolute terms over a broad energy range.

  20. Experimental evaluation of the response of micro-channel plate detector to ions with 10s of MeV energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Tae Won; Ter-Avetisyan, S. [Center for Relativistic Laser Science, Institute of Basic Science (IBS), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Photon Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Singh, P. K.; Kakolee, K. F. [Center for Relativistic Laser Science, Institute of Basic Science (IBS), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Scullion, C.; Ahmed, H.; Hadjisolomou, P.; Alejo, A.; Kar, S.; Borghesi, M. [School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen’s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    The absolute calibration of a microchannel plate (MCP) assembly using a Thomson spectrometer for laser-driven ion beams is described. In order to obtain the response of the whole detection system to the particles’ impact, a slotted solid state nuclear track detector (CR-39) was installed in front of the MCP to record the ions simultaneously on both detectors. The response of the MCP (counts/particles) was measured for 5–58 MeV carbon ions and for protons in the energy range 2–17.3 MeV. The response of the MCP detector is non-trivial when the stopping range of particles becomes larger than the thickness of the detector. Protons with energies E ≳ 10 MeV are energetic enough that they can pass through the MCP detector. Quantitative analysis of the pits formed in CR-39 and the signal generated in the MCP allowed to determine the MCP response to particles in this energy range. Moreover, a theoretical model allows to predict the response of MCP at even higher proton energies. This suggests that in this regime the MCP response is a slowly decreasing function of energy, consistently with the decrease of the deposited energy. These calibration data will enable particle spectra to be obtained in absolute terms over a broad energy range.

  1. Investigation of the channeling of light ions through gold crystals having thicknesses of several hundreds of angstroms from 0.5 to 2 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poizat, J.C.; Remillieux, J.

    A technique to obtain a few hundred A thick self-supporting gold crystal is described. These crystals have been used to perform three channeling experiments with 0.5 to 2 MeV light ions: i) The wide angle scattering probability as a function of the distance from the crystal surface was studied for a beam of particles incident in planar and axial directions. ii) The influence of channeling on the light emission from crystal-excited atomic beams was investigated. iii) A strong channeling effect was found on the probability of transmission of a molecular beam of H 2 + ions through a thin crystal

  2. Adsorption of Cu 2+ and Ni 2+ ions from their aqueous solutions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adsorption of Cu2+ and Ni2+ions at room temperature (27°C) onto two types of biomass produced from orange mesocarp namely: untreated orange mesocarp (Me) of 250 μm particle size and xanthated orange mesocarp (XMe) produced from Me of 250 μm particle size were studied. The results obtained showed that ...

  3. Ion tail formation and its effect on 14-MeV neutron generation in D-3He plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, H.; Nakao, Y.; Kudo, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the triton distribution function in D- 3 He plasmas which is distorted from a Maxwellian owing to the presence of a 1.01-MeV birth component. The deuteron-triton reaction rate (i.e., 14-MeV neutron generation rate) in the plasma should be smaller than the values evaluated by assuming a Maxwellian triton distribution. A local Fokker-Planck calculation shows that although the degree of the decrease in 14-MeV neutron generation strongly depends on the plasma conditions and also on the energy loss mechanism, it becomes appreciable in actual burning plasmas

  4. Modification of the microstructure and electronic properties of rutile TiO_2 thin films with 79 MeV Br ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, Haripriya; Dash, P.; Singh, U.P.; Avasthi, D.K.; Kanjilal, D.; Mishra, N.C.

    2015-01-01

    Modifications induced by 79 MeV Br ions in rutile titanium dioxide thin films, synthesized by dc magnetron sputtering are presented. Irradiations did not induce any new XRD peak corresponding to any other phase. The area and the width of the XRD peaks were considerably affected by irradiation, and peaks shifted to lower angles. But the samples retained their crystallinity at the highest fluence (1 × 10"1"3 ions cm"−"2) of irradiation even though the electronic energy loss of 79 MeV Br ions far exceeds the reported threshold value for amorphization of rutile TiO_2. Fitting of the fluence dependence of the XRD peak area to Poisson equation yielded the radius of ion tracks as 2.4 nm. Ion track radius obtained from the simulation based on the thermal spike model matches closely with that obtained from the fluence dependence of the area under XRD peaks. Williamson–Hall analysis of the XRD spectra indicated broadening and shifting of the peaks are a consequence of irradiation induced defect accumulation leading to microstrains, as was also indicated by Raman and UV–Visible absorption study.

  5. Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF{sub 2} crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banyasz, I., E-mail: bakonyjako@yahoo.es [Department of Crystal Physics, Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Berneschi, S. [Centro Studi e Ricerche ' Enrico Fermi' , Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy); MDF-Lab, ' ' Nello Carrara' ' Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Khanh, N.Q.; Lohner, T. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Lengyel, K. [Department of Crystal Physics, Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Fried, M. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Peter, A. [Department of Crystal Physics, Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Petrik, P.; Zolnai, Z. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Watterich, A. [Department of Crystal Physics, Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Nunzi-Conti, G.; Pelli, S.; Righini, G.C. [MDF-Lab, ' ' Nello Carrara' ' Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2012-09-01

    Ion implantation, compared with other waveguide fabrication methods, has some unique advantages. It has proved to be a universal technique for producing waveguides in most optical materials. The authors of the present article reported fabrication of channel and slab waveguides in an Erbium-doped tungsten tellurite glass by implantation of MeV energy N{sup +} ions. The present article reports successful adaptation of the same technique to the fabrication of slab waveguides in eulytine type bismuth germanate (BGO) and CaF{sub 2} crystals. This is the first report on successful waveguide fabrication in these materials using 3.5 MeV N{sup +} ions at implanted fluences between 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} and 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. Spectroscopic ellipsometric measurements revealed the existence of guiding structures in both materials. M-line spectroscopic measurements indicated guiding effect in the as-implanted BGO up to 1550 nm and up to 980 nm in the as-implanted CaF{sub 2}. Ion implantation induced the appearance of three peaks in the UV/Vis absorption spectrum of CaF{sub 2}, that can be attributed to colour centres.

  6. Investigations on Cu-Ni and Cu-Al systems with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Murcia, H.; Beske, H.E.

    1976-04-01

    The ratio of the ionization coefficients of secondary atomic ions emitted from the two component systems Cu-Ni and Cu-Al was investigated as a function of the concentration of the two components. In the low concentration range the ratio of the ionization coefficients is a constant. An influence of the phase composition on the ratio of the ionization coefficients was found in the Cu-Al system. In addition, the cluster ion emission was investigated as a function of the concentration and the phase composition of the samples. The secondary atomic ion intensity was influenced by the presence of cluster ions. The importance of the cluster ions in quantitative analysis and phase determination by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry are discussed. (orig.) [de

  7. Photoresponse of 60Ni below 10-MeV excitation energy: Evolution of dipole resonances in fp-shell nuclei near N=Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheck, M.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Fritzsche, M.; Joubert, J.; Aumann, T.; Beller, J.; Isaak, J.; Kelley, J. H.; Kwan, E.; Pietralla, N.; Raut, R.; Romig, C.; Rusev, G.; Savran, D.; Schorrenberger, L.; Sonnabend, K.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H. R.; Zilges, A.; Zweidinger, M.

    2013-10-01

    Background: Within the last decade, below the giant dipole resonance the existence of a concentration of additional electric dipole strength has been established. This accumulation of low-lying E1 strength is commonly referred to as pygmy dipole resonance (PDR).Purpose: The photoresponse of 60Ni has been investigated experimentally and theoretically to test the evolution of the PDR in a nucleus with only a small neutron excess. Furthermore, the isoscalar and isovector M1 resonances were investigated.Method: Spin-1 states were excited by exploiting the (γ,γ') nuclear resonance fluorescence technique with unpolarized continuous bremsstrahlung as well as with fully linearly polarized, quasimonochromatic, Compton-backscattered laser photons in the entrance channel of the reaction.Results: Up to 10 MeV a detailed picture of J=1 levels was obtained. For the preponderant number of the individual levels spin and parity were firmly assigned. Furthermore, branching ratios, transition widths, and reduced B(E1) or B(M1) excitation probability were calculated from the measured scattering cross sections. A comparison with theoretical results obtained within the quasiparticle phonon model allows an insight into the microscopic structure of the observed states.Conclusions: Below 10 MeV the directly observed E1 strength [∑B(E1)↑=(153.8±9.5) e2(fm)2] exhausts 0.5% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. This value increases to 0.8% of the sum rule [∑B(E1)↑=(250.9±31.1) e2(fm)2] when indirectly observed branches to lower-lying levels are considered. Two accumulations of M1 excited spin-1 states near 8 and 9 MeV excitation energy are identified as isoscalar and isovector M1 resonances dominated by proton and neutron f7/2→f5/2 spin-flip excitations. The B(M1)↑ strength of these structures accumulates to 3.94(27)μN2.

  8. In situ crystallization of sputter-deposited TiNi by ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikenaga, Noriaki; Kishi, Yoichi; Yajima, Zenjiro; Sakudo, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We developed a sputtering deposition process equipped with an ion irradiation system. ► Ion irradiation enables crystallization at lower substrate temperature. ► Ion fluence has an effective range for low-temperature crystallization. ► Crystallized films made on polyimide by the process show the shape memory effect. -- Abstract: TiNi is well known as a typical shape-memory alloy, and the shape-memory property appears only when the structure is crystalline. Until recently, the material has been formed as amorphous film by single-target sputtering deposition at first and then crystallized by being annealed at high temperature over 500 °C. Therefore, it has been difficult to make crystalline TiNi film directly on a substrate of polymer-based material because of the low heat resistance of substrate. In order to realize an actuator from the crystallized TiNi film on polymer substrates, the substrate temperature should be kept below 200 °C throughout the whole process. In our previous studies we have found that deposited film can be crystallized at very low temperature without annealing but with simultaneous irradiation of Ar ions during sputter-deposition. And we have also demonstrated the shape-memory effect with the TiNi film made by the new process. In order to investigate what parameters of the process contribute to the low-temperature crystallization, we have focused to the ion fluence of the ion irradiation. Resultantly, it was found that the transition from amorphous structure to crystal one has a threshold range of ion fluence

  9. Systematic study of multi-nucleon transfer reactions for 12C + 58Ni and 12C + 56Fe systems at ELab(12C) = 45 and 60 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, B.J.; Jha, V.; Biswas, D.C.; Parmar, A.; Mohanty, Biraja; Oswal, M.; Jhingan, Akhil; Nandi, T.

    2013-01-01

    With a motivation to understand the reaction mechanism aspects, systematic study of multi-nucleon transfer in different projectile + target combinations has been made. Data taken at the BARC-TIFR Pelletron - LINAC facility, Mumbai for the systems 18 O+ 206 Pb and 18 O+ 12 C both studied at an incident energy of E( 18 O) = 140.4 MeV are reported in different communications to this proceedings. The present communication reports the measurements for 58 Ni( 12 C, x) and 56 Fe( 12 C, x) at incident 12 C energies of E( 12 C) = 45 and 60 MeV carried out at the pelletron accelerator facility, IUAC, Delhi

  10. Multiple scattering of MeV ions: Comparison between the analytical theory and Monte-Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, M.; Arstila, K.; Nordlund, K.; Edelmann, E.; Keinonen, J.

    2006-01-01

    Angular and energy distributions due to multiple small angle scattering were calculated with different models, namely from the analytical Szilagyi theory, the Monte-Carlo code MCERD in binary collision approximation and the molecular dynamics code MDRANGE, for 2 MeV 4 He in Au at backscattering geometry and for 20 MeV 127 I recoil analysis of carbon. The widths and detailed shapes of the distributions are compared, and reasons for deviations between the different models are discussed

  11. Ni(II) ion-imprinted solid-phase extraction and preconcentration in aqueous solutions by packed-bed columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersoez, Arzu; Say, Ridvan; Denizli, Adil

    2004-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns packed with materials based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were used to develop selective separation and preconcentration for Ni(II) ion from aqueous solutions. SPE is more rapid, simple and economical method than the traditional liquid-liquid extraction. MIPs were used as column sorbent to increase the grade of selectivity in SPE columns. In this study, we have developed a polymer obtained by imprinting with Ni(II) ion as a ion-imprinted SPE sorbent. For this purpose, NI(II)-methacryloylhistidinedihydrate (MAH/Ni(II)) complex monomer was synthesized and polymerized with cross-linking ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate to obtain [poly(EGDMA-MAH/Ni(II))]. Then, Ni(II) ions were removed from the polymer getting Ni(II) ion-imprinted sorbent. The MIP-SPE preconcentration procedure showed a linear calibration curve within concentration range from 0.3 to 25 ng/ml and the detection limit was 0.3 ng/ml (3 s) for flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Ni(II) ion-imprinted microbeads can be used several times without considerable loss of adsorption capacity. When the adsorption capacity of nickel imprinted microbeads were compared with non-imprinted microbeads, nickel imprinted microbeads have higher adsorption capacity. The K d (distribution coefficient) values for the Ni(II)-imprinted microbeads show increase in K d for Ni(II) with respect to both K d values of Zn(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) ions and non-imprinted polymer. During that time K d decreases for Zn(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) ions and the k' (relative selectivity coefficient) values which are greater than 1 for imprinted microbeads of Ni(II)/Cu(II), Ni(II)/Zn(II) and Ni(II)/Co(II) are 57.3, 53.9, and 17.3, respectively. Determination of Ni(II) ion in sea water showed that the interfering matrix had been almost removed during preconcentration. The column was good enough for Ni determination in matrixes containing similar ionic radii ions such as Cu(II), Zn(II) and Co(II)

  12. Measurement of the total reaction cross section for interactions between heavy ions (application to the system 12C+12C at 112MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkaoui-Tadili, R.

    1982-01-01

    The total reaction cross-section σsub(R) for interactions between heavy ions is predicted to decrease rapidly with the energy of the incident projectile over the energy range 10 MeV/A - 100 MeV/A. We present here an experimental met σsub(R) to test the model based predictions. The method consists in counting the number of all incoming projectiles and the number of out going projectiles that did not interact with the target. The difference between these two numbers corresponds to the number of particles that reacted with the target nuclei and is therefore proportional to σsub(R). Values of σsub(R) have been measured for the system 12 C + 12 C at two incident energies of 112 MeV and 996 MeV. The results of 1444 +- 70 (112 MeV) and 994 +- 50 (996 MeV) show a total reaction cross-section decreasing with energy as predicted from the Glauber model and optical model fits to elastic scattering [fr

  13. Heavy ion irradiation induced effects in Ni3N/Al bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, S.; Rissanen, L.; Engel, K.; Wenderoth, M.; Lieb, K.P.

    2001-01-01

    The article reports on the Xe ion beam irradiation studies of Ni 3 N/Al bilayers at 80 K. The ion-induced modifications were monitored by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), resonant nuclear reaction analysis (RNRA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We found preferential loss of nitrogen from the surface region of the Ni 3 N top layers. The surface roughness Δσ S and the interface broadening variance Δσ int 2 increase linearly with the Xe ion fluence PHI. The experimental mixing rate of Δσ 2 /PHI=1.8 nm 4 is explained by considering an enhancement of ballistic mixing due to chemical reactions at the interface

  14. Adsorption kinetic parameters of Fe3+ and Ni2+ ions by gyrolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kestutis Baltakys

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work the adsorption kinetic parameters for Fe3+ and Ni2+ ions by gyrolite are presented. Additionally, the adsoption mechanism was described by using pseudo first order and pseudo second order  equations. It was determined that the adsorption capacity of gyrolite and intrusion of heavy metals ions in its structure depends on reaction time and the pH value of adsorptive. It was observed that the incorporation of Fe3+ ions occurs more intensive than Ni2+ ions. It was found that in the acidic solution the intrusion of Fe3+ ions into gyrolite structure proceeds by two types of chemical reaction mechanisms: substitution and addition. Meanwhile, nickel ions were participated only in substitution reaction: gyrolite-Ca0 + Mex+ ↔ gyrolite-Me0 + Ca2+. It was observed that the pseudo second order model fit well for iron and nickel ions adsorption mechanism. It was estimated that the adsorption reactions are not reversible process and the crystal structure of gyrolite is stable. Moreover, synthetic adsorbent and the products of sorption were characterized by XRD, STA and FT-IR methods.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.5735

  15. Thermoluminescence properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb nanoparticles irradiated by gamma rays and 85 MeV C{sup 6+} ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salah, Numan, E-mail: nsalah@kau.edu.sa [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Alharbi, Najlaa D. [Sciences Faculty for Girls, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Habib, Sami S. [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Lochab, S.P. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Carbon ions beam is recently recognized as an ideal cancer treatment modality, because of its excellent local tumor control. These ions have a high relative biological effectiveness resulting from high linear energy transfer (LET) and their sharp Bragg peak. However, the dose of those energetic ions needs to be measured with great precision using a proper dosimeter. Aluminum Oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is a highly luminescent phosphor widely used for radiation dosimetry using thermoluminesence (TL) technique. In this work nanoparticles of this material activated by different elements like Eu, Tb, Dy, Cu and Ag were evaluated for their TL response to gamma rays irradiation. Tb doped sample is found to be the most sensitive sample, which could be selected for exposure to 85 MeV C{sup 6+} ion beam in the fluence range 10{sup 9}–10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The obtained result shows that C ion beam irradiated sample has a simple glow curve structure with a prominent glow peak at around 230 °C. This glow curve has a dosimetric peak better than those induced by gamma rays. This glow peak exhibits a linear response in the range 10{sup 9}–10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2}, corresponding to the equivalent absorbed doses 0.285–28.5 kGy. The absorbed doses, penetration depths and main energy loss were calculated using TRIM code based on the Monte Carlo simulation. The wide linear response of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb nanoparticles along with the low fading makes this low cost nanomaterial a good candidate for C ion beam dosimetry. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped with Eu, Tb, Dy, Cu and Ag were synthesised. • They were evaluated for their TL response to gamma rays and C ion beam irradiation. • Tb doped sample is the most sensitive sample to gamma rays. • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb was exposed to 85 MeV C{sup 6+} ion beam in the fluence range 10{sup 9}-10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. • The glow peak induced by C ions has a linear response in the range 10{sup 9

  16. Thermoluminescence properties of Al2O3:Tb nanoparticles irradiated by gamma rays and 85 MeV C6+ ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah, Numan; Alharbi, Najlaa D.; Habib, Sami S.; Lochab, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon ions beam is recently recognized as an ideal cancer treatment modality, because of its excellent local tumor control. These ions have a high relative biological effectiveness resulting from high linear energy transfer (LET) and their sharp Bragg peak. However, the dose of those energetic ions needs to be measured with great precision using a proper dosimeter. Aluminum Oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) is a highly luminescent phosphor widely used for radiation dosimetry using thermoluminesence (TL) technique. In this work nanoparticles of this material activated by different elements like Eu, Tb, Dy, Cu and Ag were evaluated for their TL response to gamma rays irradiation. Tb doped sample is found to be the most sensitive sample, which could be selected for exposure to 85 MeV C 6+ ion beam in the fluence range 10 9 –10 13 ions/cm 2 . The obtained result shows that C ion beam irradiated sample has a simple glow curve structure with a prominent glow peak at around 230 °C. This glow curve has a dosimetric peak better than those induced by gamma rays. This glow peak exhibits a linear response in the range 10 9 –10 11 ions/cm 2 , corresponding to the equivalent absorbed doses 0.285–28.5 kGy. The absorbed doses, penetration depths and main energy loss were calculated using TRIM code based on the Monte Carlo simulation. The wide linear response of Al 2 O 3 :Tb nanoparticles along with the low fading makes this low cost nanomaterial a good candidate for C ion beam dosimetry. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles of Al 2 O 3 doped with Eu, Tb, Dy, Cu and Ag were synthesised. • They were evaluated for their TL response to gamma rays and C ion beam irradiation. • Tb doped sample is the most sensitive sample to gamma rays. • Al 2 O 3 :Tb was exposed to 85 MeV C 6+ ion beam in the fluence range 10 9 -10 13 ions/cm 2 . • The glow peak induced by C ions has a linear response in the range 10 9 -10 11 ions/cm 2

  17. Contribution to very inelastic collisions. Emission mechanism of light charged particles and angular momentum transfer in 40Ar (280 MeV) + 58Ni nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babinet, R.

    1981-07-01

    This work ends a particularly detailed study on very inelastic collisions in 40 A (280 MeV) + 58 Ni reaction. The two experiments in coincidence (fragment-fragment and particle-fragment) which are this work basis, essentially experimental, are the following of the very precise inclusive measurements already done on this system. They allowed to precise many important aspects of the reaction mechanism. Conclusions from a precise analysis of the fragment kinematics near the mass symmetry is the new aspect of this study. Information implicitely contained in the two complementary fragment angular correlation width are particularly detailed. Concerning the particle-fragment coincidence experiment, a quantitative analysis method of the invariant cross sections (in the reaction plane) has been developed; it shows clearly what is the origin of the emitted particles. The result of a two-stage mechanism allows to interpret simply the anisotropy out-of-plane of the alpha particle emission. The individual spin has been obtained for the first time for each of the two fragments of very inelastic collisions in nearly all the mass asymmetry domain [fr

  18. MeV ion irradiation induced evolution of morphological, structural and optical properties of nanostructured SnO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, Satyabrata; Bhardwaj, Neha; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured SnO 2 thin films were prepared by carbothermal evaporation method. Morphological, structural and optical properties of the SnO 2 thin films, before and after 8 MeV Si ion irradiation to fluences varying from 1 × 10 13 to 1 × 10 15 ions cm −2 , were well characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). XRD studies revealed the presence of SnO 2 and Sn nanoparticles in the as-deposited samples. AFM and FESEM studies on the irradiated samples revealed formation of nanoring-like structures, at a fluence of 1 × 10 15 ions cm −2 , with a central hole and circular rim consisting of nearly monodisperse SnO 2 nanoparticles. PL studies revealed strong enhancement in UV emissions upon 8 MeV Si ion irradiation. A growth mechanism underlying the formation of SnO 2 nanorings involving self-assembly of SnO 2 nanoparticles around nanoholes is tentatively proposed. (paper)

  19. Improvement on corrosion resistance of NiTi orthopedic materials by carbon plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, Ray W.Y.; Ho, Joan P.Y.; Luk, Camille M.Y.; Liu Xuanyong; Chung, Jonathan C.Y.; Chu, Paul K.; Yeung, Kelvin W.K.; Lu, William W.; Cheung, Kenneth M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Nickel-titanium shape memory alloys (NiTi) have potential applications as orthopedic implants because of their unique super-elastic properties and shape memory effects. However, the problem of out-diffusion of harmful Ni ions from the alloys during prolonged use inside a human body must be overcome before they can be widely used in orthopedic implants. In this work, we enhance the corrosion resistance of NiTi using carbon plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII and D). Our corrosion and simulated body fluid tests indicate that either an ion-mixed amorphous carbon coating fabricated by PIII and D or direct carbon PIII can drastically improve the corrosion resistance and block the out-diffusion of Ni from the materials. Results of atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicate that both C 2 H 2 -PIII and D and C 2 H 2 -PIII do not roughen the original flat surface to an extent that can lead to degradation in corrosion resistance

  20. Effect of Xe ion (167 MeV) irradiation on polycrystalline SiC implanted with Kr and Xe at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlatshwayo, T T; Kuhudzai, R J; Njoroge, E G; Malherbe, J B; O’Connell, J H; Skuratov, V A; Msimanga, M

    2015-01-01

    The effect of swift heavy ion (Xe 167 MeV) irradiation on polycrystalline SiC individually implanted with 360 keV Kr and Xe ions at room temperature to fluences of 2  ×  10 16 cm −2 and 1  ×  10 16 cm −2 respectively, was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Implanted specimens were each irradiated with 167 MeV Xe +26 ions to a fluence of 8.3  ×  10 14 cm −2 at room temperature. It was observed that implantation of 360 keV Kr and Xe ions individually at room temperature amorphized the SiC from the surface up to a depth of 186 and 219 nm respectively. Swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation reduced the amorphous layer by about 27 nm and 30 nm for the Kr and Xe samples respectively. Interestingly, the reduction in the amorphous layer was accompanied by the appearance of randomly oriented nanocrystals in the former amorphous layers after SHI irradiation in both samples. Previously, no similar nanocrystals were observed after SHI irradiations at electron stopping powers of 33 keV nm −1 and 20 keV nm −1 to fluences below 10 14 cm −2 . Therefore, our results suggest a fluence threshold for the formation of nanocrystals in the initial amorphous SiC after SHI irradiation. Raman results also indicated some annealing of radiation damage after swift heavy ion irradiation and the subsequent formation of small SiC crystals in the amorphous layers. No diffusion of implanted Kr and Xe was observed after swift heavy ion irradiation. (paper)

  1. Interconnected Ni_2P nanorods grown on nickel foam for binder free lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qin; Ma, Jingjing; Wang, Huijun; Yang, Xia; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report a moderate and simple approach to synthesize nickel phosphide nanorods on nickel foam (Ni_2P/NF), which was employed as anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this paper, interconnected Ni_2P nanorods were fabricated through hydrothermal treatment of NF and subsequently by high temperature phosphating. NF is not only regarded as nickel source and metal current collector, but also as a support to grow electro-active material (Ni_2P). Therefore, Ni_2P/NF could act as a self-supported working electrode for LIBs without any extra addition of cohesive binders. Moreover, benefiting from the conductive capacity of Ni_2P/NF, the active compound behaved superior lithium storage performance and cycling reversibility during electrochemical cycling process. The Ni_2P/NF delivered excellent reversibility of 507 mAh g"−"1 at the current density of 50 mA g"−"1 after 100 cycles. This work may provide a potential method for preparation of metal phosphides as promising materials for LIBs, hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) or other fields.

  2. Attenuation curves in concrete of neutrons from 100 to 400 MeV per nucleon He, C, Ne, Ar, Fe and Xe ions on various targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosteo, S.; Nakamura, T.; Silari, M. E-mail: marco.silari@cern.ch; Zajacova, Z

    2004-04-01

    Data on transmission of neutrons in concrete generated by heavy ions of intermediate energies (of typically up to 1 GeV per nucleon) are of interest for shielding design of accelerators for use in both the research and in the medical field. The energy distributions of neutrons produced by ions of different species (from He to Xe) striking various targets at energies from 100 to 800 MeV per nucleon were recently measured by Kurosawa et al. in the angular range 0-90 deg. . These spectra were used as input data for Monte Carlo simulations to determine source terms and attenuation lengths in ordinary concrete. The present paper presents calculations for 100 MeV/u helium ions on a Cu target, 100 MeV/u carbon ions on C, Al, Cu and Pb, 100 MeV/u neon ions on Cu and Pb, 400 MeV/u carbon ions on C, Al, Cu and Pb, 400 MeV/u neon ions on Cu, 400 MeV/u Ar ions on Cu, 400 MeV/u Fe ions on Cu and 400 MeV/u Xe ions on Cu. The results include the contributions of all secondaries. Some of the resulting attenuation curves are best fitted by a double-exponential function rather than the usual single-exponential. The effect of various approximations introduced in the simulations is discussed. A comparison is made with shielding data for protons scaled with the ion mass number. A comparison is also made with a simple analytical model in use at GANIL.

  3. Surface temperature measurements for ion-bombarded Si and GaAs at 1.0 to 2.0 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, L.F.; Kennedy, J.K.; Davies, D.E.; Deane, M.L.; Eyges, L.J.

    1975-01-01

    Surface temperatures of ion-bombarded silicon and gallium arsenide have been measured using an infrared detector. Ion beams of N + , N + 2 , O + , O + 2 , C + , CO + , and H + were used at energies from 1--2.0 MeV and at current densities up to 12 μAcenter-dotcm/sup -2/. No temperature dependence was found on ion species, energy, or current. The change in temperature depended only on beam power, target material, and sample mounting technique. With proper mounting temperature increases of 20 degreeC for silicon and 65 degreeC for gallium arsenide were observed for a beam power density of 1.0 Wcenter-dotcm/sup -2/

  4. Effects of C3+ ion irradiation on structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Ni nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlimas, D. I.; Kozlovskiy, A. L.; Zdorovets, M. V.; Kadyrzhanov, K. K.; Uglov, V. V.; Kenzhina, I. E.; Shumskaya, E. E.; Kaniukov, E. Y.

    2018-03-01

    Ion irradiation is an attractive method for obtaining nanostructures that can be used under extreme conditions. Also, it is possible to control the technological process that allows obtaining nanomaterials with new properties at ion irradiation. In this paper, we study the effect of irradiation with 28 MeV C3+ ions and fluences up to 5 × 1011 cm-2 on the structure and properties of template-synthesized nickel nanotubes with a length of 12 μm, with diameters of 400 nm, and a wall thickness of 100 nm. It is demonstrated that the main factor influencing the degradation of nanostructures under irradiation in PET template is the processes of mixing the material of nanostructures with the surrounding polymer. The influence of irradiation with various fluences on the crystal structure, electrical and magnetic properties of nickel nanotubes is studied.

  5. Observation of transient lattice vacancies produced during high-energy ion irradiation of Ni foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Hidetsugu; Iwai, Takeo; Awano, Misa; Kishida, Mutsumi; Katayama, Ichiro; Jeong, Sun-Chang; Ogawa, Hidemi; Sakamoto, Naoki; Komatsu, Masao; Itoh, Akio

    2007-01-01

    Real-time positron annihilation spectroscopy has been applied for the first time for the investigation of lattice vacancies produced during ion irradiation. Measurements were performed for thin nickel foils irradiated with 2.5 MeV C ions. Doppler broadenings of positron annihilation γ-rays were measured alternately during beam-on and beam-off conditions. It was found that the Doppler broadening line-shape parameter measured during irradiation is larger than those obtained before and after irradiation. This evidently implies that transient or non-survivable vacancy defects are produced during ion irradiation. On the other hand, no such significant change in the line-shape parameter was observed for other face-centred-cubic metal forms of aluminium

  6. Study of elastic pion scattering from /sup 9/Be, /sup 28/Si, /sup 58/Ni, and /sup 208/Pb at 162 MeV. [Total and differential cross sections, scattering yields, scattering amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devereux, M.J.

    1979-05-01

    Elastic pion scattering from /sup 9/Be, /sup 28/Si, /sup 58/Ni, and /sup 208/Pb at 162 MeV is analyzed and compared with an optical model theory which incorporates a pion--nucleon range. Excellent fits to the data are obtained in all but one case. The fitted values of the pion--nucleon range, as well as other fitted values are listed. 108 references.

  7. High-resolution measurements of sup(58,60,62)Ni(p,p) scattering cross section in the proton energy range of 3.0 to 4.0 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Eiichi; Ogawa, Masao

    1976-01-01

    Differential cross sections were measured at four angles for proton scattering on sup(58,60,62)Ni at energies from 3.0 to 4.0 MeV by using a high-resolution beam from the Tokyo Institute of Technology 4 MV Van de Graaff. An overall resolution of 400 eV (FWHM) was realized using thin solid targets. (author)

  8. Measurement of the stopping power of water for carbon ions in the energy range of 1 MeV-6 MeV using the inverted Doppler-shift attenuation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahm, Johannes Martin

    2016-10-31

    Cancer therapy using carbon ions has gained increasing interest in the last decade due to its advantageous dose distributions. For the dosimetry and treatment planning, the accurate knowledge of the stopping power of water for carbon ions is of crucial importance. In the high energy region, the stopping power can be calculated rather accurately by means of the Bethe-Bloch formula. In the case of projectile velocities comparable to those of the valence electrons of the target, these calculations are subject to large uncertainties. There exist no experimental data for the stopping power of water for projectile energies prevailing in the so-called Bragg peak region. The currently available stopping power data for water are derived from measurements in water vapour or D{sub 2}O ice and, hence, neglect the dependence on the state of aggregation. The stopping power of water for charged particles is of high interest not only for practical applications but also to consider how physical and chemical state of the target influence the collisional energy transfer. For the measurement of the stopping power of water, the inverted Doppler-shift attenuation method was used in this work. This method has the advantage that the projectile itself is not needed to be detected and can be slowed down entirely in the target. In this method, the stopping power is determined from the Doppler-shift of the gamma-quanta emitted by projectiles during their slow down. This experiment can be performed at atmospheric pressure and consequently, the stopping power of water can be measured in its real physiological condition. In this work, the stopping power of water for carbon ions was measured for the first time in the energy range between 1 MeV and 6 MeV covering the kinetic energies of carbon ions in the Bragg peak region. The experimental method is presented in detail along with the design of the apparatus and of the data acquisition system. A comprehensive analysis of instrumental effects

  9. Porous Hollow Superlattice NiMn2O4/NiCo2O4 Mesocrystals as a Highly Reversible Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjun Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As a promising high-capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries, NiMn2O4 always suffers from the poor intrinsic conductivity and the architectural collapse originating from the volume expansion during cycle. Herein, a combined structure and architecture modulation is proposed to tackle concurrently the two handicaps, via a facile and well-controlled solvothermal approach to synthesize NiMn2O4/NiCo2O4 mesocrystals with superlattice structure and hollow multi-porous architecture. It is demonstrated that the obtained NiCo1.5Mn0.5O4 sample is made up of a new mixed-phase NiMn2O4/NiCo2O4 compound system, with a high charge capacity of 532.2 mAh g−1 with 90.4% capacity retention after 100 cycles at a current density of 1 A g−1. The enhanced electrochemical performance can be attributed to the synergistic effects of the superlattice structure and the hollow multi-porous architecture of the NiMn2O4/NiCo2O4 compound. The superlattice structure can improve ionic conductivity to enhance charge transport kinetics of the bulk material, while the hollow multi-porous architecture can provide enough void spaces to alleviate the architectural change during cycling, and shorten the lithium ions diffusion and electron-transportation distances.

  10. A novel facility for 3D micro-irradiation of living cells in a controlled environment by MeV ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäckel, V; Meissl, W; Ikeda, T; Clever, M; Meissl, E; Kobayashi, T; Kojima, T M; Imamoto, N; Ogiwara, K; Yamazaki, Y

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel facility for micro-irradiation of living targets with ions from a 1.7 MV tandem accelerator. We show results using 1 MeV protons and 2 MeV He(2+). In contrast to common micro-irradiation facilities, which use electromagnetic or electrostatic focusing and specially designed vacuum windows, we employ a tapered glass capillary with a thin end window, made from polystyrene with a thickness of 1-2 μm, for ion focusing and extraction. The capillary is connected to a beamline tilted vertically by 45°, which allows for easy immersion of the extracted ions into liquid environment within a standard cell culture dish. An inverted microscope is used for simultaneously observing the samples as well as the capillary tip, while a stage-top incubator provides an appropriate environment for the samples. Furthermore, our setup allows to target volumes in cells within a μm(3) resolution, while monitoring the target in real time during and after irradiation.

  11. Elastic and inelastic scattering of {sup 15}N ions by {sup 9}Be at 84 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudchik, A.T., E-mail: rudchik@kinr.kiev.ua [Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Prospect Nauki 47, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Chercas, K.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Prospect Nauki 47, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kemper, K.W. [Physics Department, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4350 (United States); Rusek, K. [Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University, ul. L. Pasteura 5A, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Rudchik, A.A.; Herashchenko, O.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Prospect Nauki 47, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Koshchy, E.I. [Kharkiv National University, pl. Svobody 4, 61077 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Pirnak, Val.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Prospect Nauki 47, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Piasecki, E.; Trzcińska, A. [Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University, ul. L. Pasteura 5A, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Sakuta, S.B. [Russian Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Kurchatov Sq. 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Siudak, R. [H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31-342 Cracow (Poland); Strojek, I. [National Center for Nuclear Researches, ul. Hoża 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Stolarz, A. [Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University, ul. L. Pasteura 5A, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Ilyin, A.P.; Ponkratenko, O.A.; Stepanenko, Yu.M.; Shyrma, Yu.O. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Prospect Nauki 47, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Szczurek, A. [H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31-342 Cracow (Poland); Uleshchenko, V.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Prospect Nauki 47, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2016-03-15

    Angular distributions of the {sup 9}Be + {sup 15}N elastic and inelastic scattering were measured at E{sub lab}({sup 15}N) = 84 MeV (E{sub c.m.} = 31.5 MeV) for the 0–6.76 MeV states of {sup 9}Be and 0–6.32 MeV states of {sup 15}N. The data were analyzed within the optical model and coupled-reaction-channels method. The elastic and inelastic scattering, spin reorientations of {sup 9}Be in ground and excited states and {sup 15}N in excited states as well as the most important one- and two-step transfer reactions were included in the channels-coupling scheme. The parameters of the {sup 9}Be + {sup 15}N optical potential of Woods–Saxon form as well as deformation parameters of these nuclei were deduced. The analysis showed that the {sup 9}Be + {sup 15}N pure potential elastic scattering dominates at the forward angles whereas the ground state spin reorientation of {sup 9}Be gives a major contribution to the elastic scattering cross sections at the large angles. Contributions from particle transfers are found to be negligible for the present scattering system.

  12. Anisotropic expansion and amorphization of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} irradiated with 946 MeV Au ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracy, Cameron L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Department of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Lang, Maik [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Severin, Daniel; Bender, Markus [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Trautmann, Christina [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Ewing, Rodney C. [Department of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The structural response of β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} to irradiation-induced electronic excitation was investigated. A polycrystalline pellet of this material was irradiated with 946 MeV Au ions and the resulting structural modifications were characterized using in situ X-ray diffraction analysis at various ion fluences, up to 1 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2}. Amorphization was induced, with the accumulation of the amorphous phase following a single-impact mechanism in which each ion produces an amorphous ion track along its path. Concurrent with this phase transformation, an increase in the unit cell volume of the material was observed and quantified using Rietveld refinement. This unit cell expansion increased as a function of ion fluence before saturating at 1.8%. This effect is attributed to the generation of defects in an ion track shell region surrounding the amorphous track cores. The unit cell parameter increase was highly anisotropic, with no observed expansion in the [0 1 0] direction. This may be due to the structure of β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which exhibits empty channels of connected interstitial sites oriented in this direction.

  13. Gamma-ray spectroscopy of the neutron-rich Ni region through heavy-ion deep-inelastic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, T.; Asai, M.; Matsuda, M.; Ichikawa, S.; Makishima, A.; Hossain, I.; Kleinheinz, P.; Ogawa, M.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclei in the neutron-rich Ni region have been studied by γ-ray spectroscopy. Gamma-rays emitted from isomers, with T 1/2 >1 ns, produced in heavy-ion deep-inelastic collisions were measured with an isomer-scope. The nuclear structure of the doubly magic 68 Ni and its neighbor 69,71 Cu is discussed on the basis of the shell model. Future experiments for more neutron-rich Ni nuclei are also viewed. (orig.)

  14. Gamma-ray spectroscopy of the neutron-rich Ni region through heavy-ion deep-inelastic collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, T.; Asai, M.; Makishima, A.; Hossain, I.; Kleinheinz, P.; Ogawa, M.; Matsuda, M.; Ichikawa, S.

    Nuclei in the neutron-rich Ni region have been studied by γ-ray spectroscopy. Gamma-rays emitted from isomers, with T1/2 > 1 ns, produced in heavy-ion deep-inelastic collisions were measured with an isomer-scope. The nuclear structure of the doubly magic 68Ni and its neighbor 69,71Cu is discussed on the basis of the shell model. Future experiments for more neutron-rich Ni nuclei are also viewed.

  15. Violence of heavy-ion reactions from neutron multiplicity: 11 to 20A MeV /sup 20/Ne+ /sup 238/U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, U.; Ingold, G.; Hilscher, D.; Lehmann, M.; Schwinn, E.; Zank, P.

    1986-01-01

    The suitability of the neutron multiplicity as a gauge for the violence of medium-energy heavy-ion reactions is investigated for the first time. For this purpose the number of neutrons emitted from fission reactions induced by 220-, 290-, and 400-MeV /sup 20/Ne on /sup 238/U is registered event-by-event with a large 4π scintillator tank. It is shown that the neutron multiplicity is indeed closely related to the two quantities characterizing the violence: the induced total intrinsic excitation and the linear momentum transfer

  16. Interaction of Cr (III), Ni (II), Pb (II) with DTPA complexes of essential metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulzar, S.; Zahida; Maqsood, T.; Naqvi, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    With the increase of anthropogenic activities in the environment, heavy metal toxicity (Chromium, Nickel and Lead) is more common now. DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) a polyamino carboxylic acid is widely used to form hydrophilic and stable complexes with most of the metal ions. In this spectrophotometric study, concentration of Cr(III), Ni(II) and Pb(II) (toxic metal ions) exchanged with Fe(III), Zn(II) and Ca(II) from their DTPA complexes were estimated at pH 4,7 and 9. Concentration of added metal was varied from 1-4 times to that of complexed metal. (author)

  17. Mechanical response of nitrogen ion implanted NiTi shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucharski, S.; Levintant-Zayonts, N.; Luckner, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of ion implantation process on shape memory alloy was investigated. • In the implantation process both surface layer and bulk material are modified. • The microstructure is modified and superelastic effect is destroyed in surface layer. • The parameters of superelastic phenomena are changed in bulk material. - Abstract: In the paper a change of material (mechanical) parameters of NiTi shape memory alloy subjected to ion implantation treatment is investigated. The spherical indentation tests in micro- and nano-scale and tension test have been performed to study an evolution of local superelastic effect in different volumes of nonimplanted and nitrogen ion implanted NiTi alloy. The differential scanning calorimetry has been applied to measure the change of characteristic temperatures due to ion implantation treatment. The structure of implanted material has been investigated using electron microscopy technique. It has been found that the ion implantation process changes the properties not only in a thin surface layer but also in bulk material. In the layer the pseudoelastic effect is destroyed, and in the substrate is preserved, however its parameters are changed. The characteristic phase transformation temperatures in substrate are also modified

  18. Particle size effect of Ni-rich cathode materials on lithium ion battery performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ilkyu; Lee, Chul Wee; Kim, Jae Chang; Yoon, Songhun

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The preparation condition of Ni-rich cathode materials was investigated. When the retention time was short, a poor cathode performance was observed. For long retention time condition, cathode performance displayed a best result at pH 12. Highlights: ► Ni-rich cathode materials (LiNi 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 ) were prepared by co-precipitation method using separate addition of Al salt. ► Particle size of Ni-rich cathode materials became larger with increase of retention time and solution pH. ► Cathode performance was poor for low retention time. ► Optimal pH for co-precipitation was 12. -- Abstract: Herein, Ni-rich cathode materials (LiNi 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 ) in lithium ion batteries are prepared by a separate addition of Ni/Co salt and Al sol solution using a continuously stirred tank reactor. Retention time and solution pH were controlled in order to obtain high performance cathode material. Particle size increase was observed with a higher retention time of the reactants. Also, primary and secondary particles became smaller according to an increase of solution pH, which was probably due to a decrease of growth rate. From the cathode application, a high discharge capacity (175 mAh g −1 ), a high initial efficiency (90%) and a good cycleability were observed in the cathode material prepared under pH 12 condition, which was attributed to its well-developed layered property and the optimal particle size. However, rate capability was inversely proportional to the particle size, which was clarified by a decrease of charge-transfer resistance measured in the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  19. Nuclear fragmentation in central collisions: Ni + Au from 32 to 90 A*MeV; Fragmentation dans les collisions centrales du systeme Ni + Au de 32 a 90 A MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellaize, N

    2000-11-03

    Heavy ion collisions are one of tools for studying nuclear system far away from its equilibrium state. This work concerns the most violent collisions in the Ni + Au system for incident energies ranging from 32 up to 90 AMeV. These events were detected with the multidetector INDRA and selected by the Principal Component Analysis (multidimensional analysis). This method classifies the events according their detection features and their degree of dissipation. We observed two deexcitation mechanisms: a fusion/fission - evaporation process and a multifragmentation process. Those two coexist from 32 to 52 AMeV whereas only one subsists at 90 AMeV. For those two mechanisms, an component was observed which seems to be linked to the initial phase of the reaction. The energy fluctuations of this component leads to variations in the energy deposit which determines the deexcitation of the system. The experimental multifragmentation data of the Ni + Au system (52 and 90 AMeV) were compared to the predictions of a statistical model and to the experimental data of the system Xe + Sn at 50 AMeV (also detected with INDRA). These comparisons show the lack of collective radial energy for fragments (Z{>=}10) in the Ni + Au system, and show that the degree of multifragmentation depends of the thermal excitation energy. Mean kinetic energies of particles and lights fragments (Z{>=}10) are larger in the Ni + Au system than the Xe + Sn system. This observation shows that these particles are more sensitive to the entrance channel for an asymmetric system than for a symmetric system (for the same number of nucleons). (author)

  20. Comparison of comprehensive properties of Ni-MH (nickel-metal hydride) and Li-ion (lithium-ion) batteries in terms of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jianqiang; Yan, Fuwu; Zhang, Pei; Du, Changqing

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we successfully proposed a method to compare the comprehensive properties of different battery systems in terms of a parameter, energy efficiency. The quantitative relationship of OCV (open circuit voltage) and SOC (state of charge) for Ni-MH batteries is firstly established to calculate the energy efficiency. Then a comprehensive comparison of the energy efficiency for Ni-MH and Li-ion batteries is systemically analyzed under different operating conditions. The results suggest that the energy efficiency is larger for Li-ion batteries than for Ni-MH batteries under charge and charge–discharge cycles, but lesser under a large current rate discharge. The outcome indicates that Ni-MH batteries are more favorable in the case of large current rates discharge than Li-ion batteries. Under plus current rates, two factors, SOC and current rates are analyzed with respect to energy efficiency. For both the batteries, the energy efficiency is varied slightly with SOC, but declines greatly with increased current rates. - Highlights: • A method to compare the comprehensive property for different battery systems. • The relationship of OCV and SOC for Ni-MH batteries established. • An analysis of energy efficiency for Ni-MH and Li-ion batteries. • Ni-MH batteries are more favorable under large current rates discharge

  1. Selective solid-phase extraction of Ni(II) by an ion-imprinted polymer from water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraji, Mohammad; Yousefi, Hamideh

    2009-01-01

    A new ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) material was synthesized by copolymerization of 4-vinylpyridine as monomer, ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate as crosslinking agent and 2,2'-azobis-sobutyronitrile as initiator in the presence of Ni-dithizone complex. The IIP was used as sorbent in a solid-phase extraction column. The effects of sampling volume, elution conditions, sample pH and sample flow rate on the extraction of Ni ions form water samples were studied. The maximum adsorption capacity and the relative selectivity coefficients of imprinted polymer for Ni(II)/Co(II), Ni(II)/Cu(II) and Ni(II)/Cd(II) were calculated. Compared with non-imprinted polymer particles, the IIP had higher selectivity for Ni(II). The relative selectivity factor (α r ) values of Ni(II)/Co(II), Ni(II)/Cu(II) and Ni(II)/Cd(II) were 21.6, 54.3, and 22.7, respectively, which are greater than 1. The relative standard deviation of the five replicate determinations of Ni(II) was 3.4%. The detection limit for 150 mL of sample was 1.6 μg L -1 using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of trace nickel in water samples with satisfactory results.

  2. Selective peptide bond hydrolysis of cysteine peptides in the presence of Ni(II) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protas, Anna Maria; Bonna, Arkadiusz; Kopera, Edyta; Bal, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    Recently, we described a sequence-specific R1-(Ser/Thr) peptide bond hydrolysis reaction in peptides of a general sequence R1-(Ser/Thr)-Xaa-His-Zaa-R, which occurs in the presence of Ni(II) ions [A. Krężel, E. Kopera, A. M. Protas, A. Wysłouch-Cieszyńska, J. Poznański, W. Bal, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 (2010) 3355-3366]. In this study we explored the possibility of substituting the Ser/Thr and the His residues, necessary for the reaction to occur according to the Ni(II)-assisted acyl shift reaction mechanism, with Cys residues. We tested this concept by synthesizing three homologous peptides: R1-Ser-Arg-Cys-Trp-R2, R1-Cys-Arg-His-Trp-R2, and R1-Cys-Arg-Cys-Trp-R2, and the R1-Ser-Arg-His-Trp-R2 peptide as comparator (R1 and R2 were CH3CO-Gly-Ala and Lys-Phe-Leu-NH2, respectively). We studied their hydrolysis in the presence of Ni(II) ions, under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of TCEP as a thiol group antioxidant. We measured hydrolysis rates using HPLC and identified products of reaction using electrospray mass spectrometry. Potentiometry and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to assess Ni(II) complexation. We demonstrated that Ni(II) is not compatible with the Cys substitution of the Ser/Thr acyl acceptor residue, but the substitution of the Ni(II) binding His residue with a Cys yields a peptide susceptible to Ni(II)-related hydrolysis. The relatively high activity of the R1-Ser-Arg-Cys-Trp-R2 peptide at pH 7.0 suggests that this peptide and its Cys-containing analogs might be useful in practical applications of Ni(II)-dependent peptide bond hydrolysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Improvement of the magnetic moment of NiZn ferrites induced by substitution of Nd3+ ions for Fe3+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuehang; Chen, Wen; Wu, Wenwei; Wu, Juan; Wang, Qing

    2018-05-01

    Four types of Ni-Zn based ferrites materials having the general formula Ni0.5Zn0.5NdxFe2-xO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.12) have been successfully synthesized by calcining oxalates in air and the influence of Nd content on the structure and magnetic properties of Ni0.5Zn0.5NdxFe2-xO4 is studied. X-ray diffraction examination confirms that a high-crystallized Ni0.5Zn0.5NdxFe2-xO4 with cubic spinel structure is obtained when the precursor is calcined at 1000 °C in air for 2 h. The substitutions of Nd3+ ions for partial Fe3+ ions do not change the spinel crystalline structure of MFe2O4. The incorporation of Nd3+ ions in place of Fe3+ ions in Ni-Zn ferrites increases the average crystallite size. Specific saturation magnetization decreases with increase in Nd content. This is because Nd3+ ions with smaller magnetic moment preferentially fill the octahedral sites. In addition, antiferromagnetic FeNdO3 increases with increase in Nd content. In this study, Ni0.5Zn0.5Nd0.08Fe1.92O4, calcined at 1000 °C, exhibits the highest magnetic moment (4.2954 μB) and the lowest coercivity (28.82 Oe).

  4. Fabrication of planar optical waveguides by 6.0 MeV silicon ion implantation in Nd-doped phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Liang; Dai, Han-Qing; Zhang, Liao-Lin; Wang, Yue; Zhu, Qi-Feng; Guo, Hai-Tao; Li, Wei-Nan; Liu, Chun-Xiao

    2018-04-01

    We report the fabrication of a planar optical waveguide by silicon ion implantation into Nd-doped phosphate glass at an energy of 6.0 MeV and a dose of 5.0 × 1014 ions/cm2. The change in the surface morphology of the glass after the implantation can be clearly observed by scanning electron microscopy. The measurement of the dark mode spectrum of the waveguide is conducted using a prism coupler at 632.8 nm. The refractive index distribution of the waveguide is reconstructed by the reflectivity calculation method. The near-field optical intensity profile of the waveguide is measured using an end-face coupling system. The waveguide with good optical properties on the glass matrix may be valuable for the application of the Nd-doped phosphate glass in integrated optical devices.

  5. Effect of 520 MeV Kr{sup 20+} ion irradiation on the critical current density of Bi-2212 single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terai, Takayuki; Ito, Yasuyuki [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kishio, Kouji

    1996-10-01

    Change in magnetic properties of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+y} (Bi-2212) single crystals due to Kr{sup 20+} ion irradiation is reported, focused on critical current density and irreversibility magnetic field. The Bi-2212 single crystal specimens (3x3x0.3 mm{sup 3}) were prepared by the floating zone method. Each specimen was irradiated with 520 MeV Kr{sup 20+} ions of 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} in the fluence. Magnetic hysteresis was measured at 4.2K-60K with a vibrating sample magnetometer before and after irradiation. Very large enhancement was observed in critical current density and irreversibility magnetic field above 20K. (author)

  6. Quantitative approach to relate dielectric constant studies with TSDC studies of 50 MeV Si ion irradiated kapton-H polymide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quamara, J.K.; Garg, Maneesha; Sridharbabu, Y.; Prabhavathi, T.

    2003-01-01

    Temperature and frequency dependent dielectric behaviour has been investigated for pristine and swift heavy ion irradiated (Si ion, 50 MeV energy) kapton-H polyimide in the temperature range of 30 to 250 deg C at frequencies 120 Hz, 1 kHz, 10 kHz and 100 kHz respectively. The dielectric relaxation behaviour of the same samples was also studied using thermally stimulated discharge current (TSDC) technique. A quantitative approach is developed using a well-known Clausius Mossotti equation to relate the TSDC findings to the dielectric constant studies. An overall increase in the dielectric constant of the irradiated samples are also in conformity to the TSDC findings. (author)

  7. Cross sections for pion, proton, and heavy-ion production from 800 MeV protons incident upon aluminum and silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicello, J.F. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (USA)); Schillaci, M.E.; Liu Lonchang (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    When high-energy cosmic rays interact with electronics or other materials in a spacecraft, including the occupants themselves, pions are produced as secondary particles. These secondary pions interact further in the materials producing nuclear secondaries, including nuclear recoils and heavy-ion tertiaries. The secondary pions and the the tertiary particles are capable of producing single-event upsets and other damage in integrated circuits and damage in biological systems. Negative pions stopping in materials are particularly effective because of their unique ability to produce short-range heavy particles from pion stars. With the Los Alamos National Laboratory's version of the intranuclear cascade evaporation code, VEGAS, we have calculated the number of pions produced per energy interval per incident proton from 800 MeV protons on aluminum-27 and silicon-28 along with corresponding results for neutrons, protons, and heavier ions. (orig.).

  8. Ion beam assisted deposition of nano-structured C:Ni films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrasonis, G.; Muecklich, A.; Heller, R.; Heinig, K.H.; Gemming, S.; Moeller, W. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Krause, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Institute of Physics, TU Dresden (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Nanostructures influence material properties dramatically due to size, shape and interface effects. Thus the control of the structure at the nanoscale is a key issue in nanomaterials science. The interaction of hyperthermal ions with solids is confined to the nanometer scale. Thus, it can be used to control the morphology evolution during multiphase film deposition. Ion-induced displacements occur in a thin surface layer of the growing film where they increase the atomic mobility for the phase separation. Here the growth-structure relationship of C:Ni (15 at.%) nanocomposite films grown by oblique incidence (45 ) ion beam assisted deposition is reported. The influences of the flux of an assisting Ar+ ion beam (0-140 eV) as well as of an elevated substrate temperature have been studied. The formation of elongated nickel nanoparticles is strongly promoted by the ion beam assistance. Moreover, the metal nanocolumns no longer align with the advancing surface, but with the incoming ions. A window of conditions is established within which the ion assistance leads to the formation of regular composition modulations with a well defined periodicity and tilt. As the dominating driving force for the pattern formation is of physical origin, this approach might be applicable to other immiscible systems.

  9. Radiation-induced segregation in light-ion bombarded Ni-8% Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packan, N.H.; Heatherly, L.; Kesternich, W.; Schroeder, H.

    1986-01-01

    Tensile specimens 60 μm thick of Ni-8 at. % Si have been bombarded at 475 0 C to doses of 0.1 to 0.3 dpa with either 7 MeV proton or 28 MeV alpha particle beams. Deliberate embrittlement by high temperature (700 0 C) preimplantation of helium was required to produce intergranular fracture. Depth profile sputtering and analysis in a Scanning Auger Microprobe was then used to study radiation-induced segregation of silicon both at the external surfaces and at internal interfaces. The external surfaces exhibited a strongly silicon-enriched zone for the first 10 to 20 nm followed by a broad (approx.200 nm), shallow silicon-depleted region. Segregation of silicon to grain boundaries varied from interface to interface and possibly from region to region on a given interface. In general, however, depth profiles of silicon content with distance from internal boundaries showed no noticeable depletion zone and a more gradual fall-off compared to the profiles from external surfaces. The variations of RIS among boundaries and with type of interface probably reflect, at least in part, intrinsic differences in sink efficiency

  10. Improvement in beam quality of the JAEA AVF cyclotron for focusing heavy-ion beams with energies of hundreds of MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurashima, Satoshi; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Okumura, Susumu; Oikawa, Masakazu; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Satoh, Takahiro; Nara, Takayuki; Agematsu, Takashi; Ishibori, Ikuo; Yokota, Watalu; Nakamura, Yoshiteru

    2007-01-01

    In order to achieve a heavy-ion microbeam with an energy of hundreds of MeV applied to the research fields of biotechnology and materials science, the JAEA AVF cyclotron (K = 110) has been upgraded to provide a high quality beam with a smaller energy spread and a higher current stability. A flat-top (FT) acceleration system of the cyclotron, designed to produce ion beams with an energy spread of ΔE/E ≤ 0.02%, has been developed to reduce chromatic aberrations in the lenses of the focusing microbeam system. The FT acceleration system provides uniform energy gain of the beam by superimposing a fifth-harmonic voltage on the fundamental one. In addition, stabilization of the acceleration rf voltage and the phase were achieved to accelerate the high quality beam and to provide it stably to the microbeam system connected to a cyclotron beam line. In the latest experiment, we have succeeded to accelerate 260 MeV 20 Ne 7+ with an energy spread of 0.05% in FWHM using the FT acceleration system

  11. Strain evolution in Si substrate due to implantation of MeV ion observed by extremely asymmetric x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, T.; Ghatak, J.; Satyam, P. V.; Akimoto, K.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the strain introduced in a Si(111) substrate due to MeV ion implantation using extremely asymmetric x-ray diffraction and measured the rocking curves of asymmetrical 113 diffraction for the Si substrates implanted with a 1.5 MeV Au 2+ ion at fluence values of 1x10 13 , 5x10 13 , and 1x10 14 /cm 2 . The measured curves consisted of a bulk peak and accompanying subpeak with an interference fringe. The positional relationship of the bulk peak to the subpeak and the intensity variation of those peaks with respect to the wavelengths of the x rays indicated that crystal lattices near the surface were strained; the lattice spacing of surface normal (111) planes near the surface was larger than that of the bulk. Detailed strain profiles along the depth direction were successfully estimated using a curve-fitting method based on Darwin's dynamical diffraction theory. Comparing the shapes of resultant strain profiles, we found that a strain evolution rapidly occurred within a depth of ∼300 nm at fluence values between 1x10 13 and 5x10 13 /cm 2 . This indicates that formation of the complex defects progressed near the surface when the fluence value went beyond a critical value between 1x10 13 and 5x10 13 /cm 2 and the defects brought a large strain to the substrate.

  12. The fabrication and high temperature stability of biaxially textured Ni tape by ion beam structure modification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.; Wang, S.S.; Meng, J.; Han, Z.

    2004-01-01

    For the conventional rolling assisted biaxially textured metallic substrate (RABiTS) process, a large degree of cold rolling deformation and a subsequent high temperature annealing procedure are required to obtain adequately biaxially textured Ni tape. Recently, we have reported a newly developed process, named as ion beam structure modification (ISM), for fabricating biaxially textured Ni tape by use of low energy argon ion beam bombardment. In this paper, the biaxial texture of ISM processed Ni tape and its thermal stability at high temperatures are investigated. Results show that Ni tape processed under optimum ISM conditions, the (2 0 0) rocking curve FWHM is less than 5.7 deg. , and the (1 1 1) phi-scan FWHM is less than 7.5 deg. . High temperature annealing does not impair the biaxial-texture already developed in ISM processed Ni foils, although ISMs should not be regarded as a complete equilibrium process

  13. Surface modification of NiTi by plasma based ion implantation for application in harsh environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.M., E-mail: rogerio@plasma.inpe.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), S. J. Campos, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, B.B.; Carreri, F.C.; Goncalves, J.A.N.; Ueda, M.; Silva, M.M.N.F. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), S. J. Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, M.M. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), S. J. Campos, SP (Brazil); Pichon, L. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique, University of Poitiers, Poitiers (France); Camargo, E.N.; Otubo, J. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), S. J. Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New nitrogen PBII set up was used to treat samples of NiTi in moderate temperature of 450 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A very rich nitrogen atomic concentration was achieved on the top surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen diffused at least for 11 {mu}m depth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved tribological and corrosion properties were achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A concentration dependent diffusion coefficient was calculated. - Abstract: The substitution of conventional components for NiTi in distinct devices such as actuators, valves, connectors, stents, orthodontic arc-wires, e.g., usually demands some kind of treatment to be performed on the surface of the alloy. A typical case is of biomaterials made of NiTi, in which the main drawback is the Ni out-diffusion, an issue that has been satisfactorily addressed by plasma based ion implantation (PBII). Even though PBII can tailor selective surface properties of diverse materials, usually, only thin modified layers are attained. When NiTi alloys are to be used in the harsh space environment, as is the case of devices designed to remotely release the solar panels and antenna arrays of satellites, e.g., superior mechanical and tribological properties are demanded. For this case the thickness of the modified layer must be larger than the one commonly achieved by conventional PBII. In this paper, new nitrogen PBII set up was used to treat samples of NiTi in moderate temperature of 450 Degree-Sign C, with negative voltage pulses of 7 kV/250 Hz/20 {mu}s, in a process lasting 1 h. A rich nitrogen atomic concentration of 85 at.% was achieved on the near surface and nitrogen diffused at least for 11 {mu}m depth. Tribological properties as well as corrosion resistance were evaluated.

  14. Comparison of electron and ion irradiation effects on order-disorder transition in Ni4Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Sundararaman, M.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of radiation damage in metals and alloys caused by electron and heavy ion beams are quite distinct from the consideration of cascade formation. Microstructural changes occurring with progressive dose of irradiation under cascade forming heavy ion irradiation and under electron irradiation have been systematically studied in Ni 4 Mo in the temperature range of 300 to 1050 K. The ordering transformation in this alloy can be used in understanding the fundamental processes of radiation damage. Conversely, radiation experiments provide an insight into the ordering mechanisms. The ordering in this alloy is governed by a competition between a second order and a first order ordering process. Steady state structures developed at different temperatures have been characterised by electron diffraction and imaging. The steady state diagrams are constructed and compared for both electron and ion irradiation. The essential difference between the nature of cascade forming and non-cascade forming irradiation on the order-disorder transformation has been discussed. (orig.)

  15. An in-beam PET system for monitoring ion-beam therapy: test on phantoms using clinical 62 MeV protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarlinghi, N.; Sportelli, G.; Battistoni, G.; Belcari, N.; Cecchetti, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Ferretti, S.; Kraan, A.; Retico, A.; Romano, F.; Sala, P.; Straub, K.; Tramontana, A.; Del Guerra, A.; Rosso, V.

    2014-04-01

    Ion therapy allows the delivery of highly conformal dose taking advantage of the sharp depth-dose distribution at the Bragg-peak. However, patient positioning errors and anatomical uncertainties can cause dose distortions. To exploit the full potential of ion therapy, an accurate monitoring system of the ion range is needed. Among the proposed methods to monitor the ion range, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has proven to be the most mature technique, allowing to reconstruct the β+ activity generated in the patient by the nuclear interaction of the ions, that can be acquired during or after the treatment. Taking advantages of the spatial correlation between positron emitters created along the ions path and the dose distribution, it is possible to reconstruct the ion range. Due to the high single rates generated during the beam extraction, the acquisition of the β+ activity is typically performed after the irradiation (cyclotron) or in between the synchrotron spills. Indeed the single photon rate can be one or more orders of magnitude higher than normal for cyclotron. Therefore, acquiring the activity during the beam irradiation requires a detector with a very short dead time. In this work, the DoPET detector, capable of sustaining the high event rate generated during the cyclotron irradiation, is presented. The capability of the system to acquire data during and after the irradiation will be demonstrated by showing the reconstructed activity for different PMMA irradiations performed using clinical dose rates and the 62 MeV proton beam at the CATANA-LNS-INFN. The reconstructed activity widths will be compared with the results obtained by simulating the proton beam interaction with the FLUKA Monte Carlo. The presented data are in good agreement with the FLUKA Monte Carlo.

  16. An in-beam PET system for monitoring ion-beam therapy: test on phantoms using clinical 62 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarlinghi, N; Sportelli, G; Belcari, N; Cecchetti, M; Ferretti, S; Kraan, A; Retico, A; Straub, K; Guerra, A Del; Rosso, V; Battistoni, G; Sala, P; Cirrone, G A P; Cuttone, G; Romano, F; Tramontana, A

    2014-01-01

    Ion therapy allows the delivery of highly conformal dose taking advantage of the sharp depth-dose distribution at the Bragg-peak. However, patient positioning errors and anatomical uncertainties can cause dose distortions. To exploit the full potential of ion therapy, an accurate monitoring system of the ion range is needed. Among the proposed methods to monitor the ion range, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has proven to be the most mature technique, allowing to reconstruct the β + activity generated in the patient by the nuclear interaction of the ions, that can be acquired during or after the treatment. Taking advantages of the spatial correlation between positron emitters created along the ions path and the dose distribution, it is possible to reconstruct the ion range. Due to the high single rates generated during the beam extraction, the acquisition of the β + activity is typically performed after the irradiation (cyclotron) or in between the synchrotron spills. Indeed the single photon rate can be one or more orders of magnitude higher than normal for cyclotron. Therefore, acquiring the activity during the beam irradiation requires a detector with a very short dead time. In this work, the DoPET detector, capable of sustaining the high event rate generated during the cyclotron irradiation, is presented. The capability of the system to acquire data during and after the irradiation will be demonstrated by showing the reconstructed activity for different PMMA irradiations performed using clinical dose rates and the 62 MeV proton beam at the CATANA-LNS-INFN. The reconstructed activity widths will be compared with the results obtained by simulating the proton beam interaction with the FLUKA Monte Carlo. The presented data are in good agreement with the FLUKA Monte Carlo

  17. Biased Target Ion Beam Deposition and Nanoskiving for Fabricating NiTi Alloy Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huilong; Horn, Mark W.; Hamilton, Reginald F.

    2016-12-01

    Nanoskiving is a novel nanofabrication technique to produce shape memory alloy nanowires. Our previous work was the first to successfully fabricate NiTi alloy nanowires using the top-down approach, which leverages thin film technology and ultramicrotomy for ultra-thin sectioning. For this work, we utilized biased target ion beam deposition technology to fabricate nanoscale (i.e., sub-micrometer) NiTi alloy thin films. In contrast to our previous work, rapid thermal annealing was employed for heat treatment, and the B2 austenite to R-phase martensitic transformation was confirmed using stress-temperature and diffraction measurements. The ultramicrotome was programmable and facilitated sectioning the films to produce nanowires with thickness-to-width ratios ranging from 4:1 to 16:1. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis confirmed the elemental Ni and Ti make-up of the wires. The findings exposed the nanowires exhibited a natural ribbon-like curvature, which depended on the thickness-to-width ratio. The results demonstrate nanoskiving is a potential nanofabrication technique for producing NiTi alloy nanowires that are continuous with an unprecedented length on the order of hundreds of micrometers.

  18. Observation of the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of MeV ions accelerated by the hydrodynamic ambipolar expansion of clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanasaki, Masato; Jinno, Satoshi; Sakaki, Hironao; Faenov, Anatoly Ya.; Pikuz, Tatiana A.; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Kando, Masaki; Sugiyama, Akira; Kondo, Kiminori; Matsui, Ryutaro; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Morishima, Kunihiro; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Scullion, Clare; Smyth, Ashley G.; Alejo, Aaron; Doria, Domenico; Kar, Satyabrata; Borghesi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    An inhomogeneous spatial distribution of laser accelerated carbon/oxygen ions produced via the hydrodynamic ambipolar expansion of CO_2 clusters has been measured by using CR-39 detectors. An inhomogeneous etch pits spatial distribution has appeared on the etched CR-39 detector installed on the laser propagation direction, while homogeneous ones are appeared on those installed at 45° and 90° from the laser propagation direction. From the range of ions in CR-39 obtained by using the multi-step etching technique, the averaged energies of carbon/oxygen ions for all directions are determined as 0.78 ± 0.09 MeV/n. The number of ions in the laser propagation direction is about 1.5 times larger than those in other directions. The inhomogeneous etch pits spatial distribution in the laser propagation direction could originate from an ion beam collimation and modulation by the effect of electromagnetic structures created in the laser plasma. - Highlights: • A spatial distribution of ions due to hydrodynamic ambipolar expansion is measured. • The homogeneous ion energy distribution of 0.78 ± 0.09 MeV/n is measured by CR-39. • The number of ions in the laser axis is about 1.5 times larger than other directions.

  19. Ion emission in solids bombarded with Aun+ (n = 1 - 9) clusters accelerated within the 0.15 - 1.25 MeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehbe, Nimer

    2006-06-01

    This experimental work is devoted to the study of the ion emission in solids at the impact of gold clusters of energies within 0.15 to 1.25 MeV range. The physics of ion-solid collisions and the theoretical models of sputtering of solids under ion bombardment are presented in the first chapter. The chapter no. 2 deals with the description of the experimental setup. The study of a gold target allowed to evidence the role of the size and energy of the clusters in determining the emission intensity and the mass distribution of the ions. The 4. chapter gives results from the study of cesium iodide in which the intense emission of CsI clusters could be investigated quantitatively due to multiplicity measurements. Finally, the chapter no. 5 was devoted to the study of a biologic molecule, the phenylalanine, and of a pesticide molecule, chlorosulfuron. This work evidenced the importance of clusters for surface analyses by mass spectrometry

  20. Effects of Mev Si Ions and Thermal Annealing on Thermoelectric and Optical Properties of SiO2/SiO2+Ge Multi-nanolayer thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, S.; Alim, M. A.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Muntele, C.

    Thermoelectric generator devices have been prepared from 200 alternating layers of SiO2/SiO2+Ge superlattice films using DC/RF magnetron sputtering. The 5 MeV Si ionsbombardmenthasbeen performed using the AAMU Pelletron ion beam accelerator to formquantum dots and / or quantum clusters in the multi-layer superlattice thin films to decrease the cross-plane thermal conductivity, increase the cross-plane Seebeck coefficient and increase the cross-plane electrical conductivity to increase the figure of merit, ZT. The fabricated devices have been annealed at the different temperatures to tailor the thermoelectric and optical properties of the superlattice thin film systems. While the temperature increased, the Seebeck coefficient continued to increase and reached the maximum value of -25 μV/K at the fluenceof 5x1013 ions/cm2. The decrease in resistivity has been seen between the fluence of 1x1013 ions/cm2 and 5x1013 ions/cm2. Transport properties like Hall coefficient, density and mobility did not change at all fluences. Impedance spectroscopy has been used to characterize the multi-junction thermoelectric devices. The loci obtained in the C*-plane for these data indicate non-Debye type relaxation displaying the presence of the depression parameter.

  1. One-pot synthesis of NiO/C composite nanoparticles as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lipeng, E-mail: lipeng.zhang@jcu.edu.au [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); College of Science, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, Douglas, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Mu, Jiechen; Wang, Zhao; Li, Guomin; Zhang, Yanling [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); He, Yinghe, E-mail: yinghe.he@jcu.edu.au [College of Science, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, Douglas, Queensland 4811 (Australia)

    2016-06-25

    Nanostructured NiO/C composite particles with controlled carbon content for lithium-ion battery anode were prepared via a one-pot hydrothermal approach and subsequent calcination in a high purity nitrogen atmosphere. The composites were composed of amorphous carbon and nanocrystalline NiO. The structure of the NiO crystals was determined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and the content of carbon was calculated from the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed a relatively narrow distribution of particle size for both the neat NiO and NiO/C nanoparticles. Electrochemical performance measurements demonstrated that, after 50 cycles, NiO/C nanocomposites maintained a high reversible capacity of 585.9 mAh g{sup −1}, much higher than that of 356.1 mAh g{sup −1} of the neat NiO nanoparticles without carbon. The NiO/C nanoparticles also exhibited a remarkable discharge capacity, a high charge/discharge rate and an excellent cycle stability. The improvements can be attributed to the even carbon coating on the NiO particles, which significantly enhances the conductivity and improves the structural stability of the electrode. - Highlights: • NiO/C nanocomposite material is prepared via a one-pot hydrothermal approach. • Both NiO and NiO/C composite have a narrow particle size distribution. • Carbon in the NiO/C enhanced the conductivity and suppressed particle aggregation. • NiO/C composites maintained a reversible capacity of 585.9 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles.

  2. Growth and surface morphology of ion-beam sputtered Ti-Ni thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Ambati Pulla; Sunandana, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    Titanium-nickel thin films have been deposited on float glass substrates by ion beam sputtering in 100% pure argon atmosphere. Sputtering is predominant at energy region of incident ions, 1000 eV to 100 keV. The as-deposited films were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscope (AFM). In this paper we attempted to study the surface morphology and elemental composition through AFM and XPS, respectively. Core level as well as valence band spectra of ion-beam sputtered Ti-Ni thin films at various Ar gas rates (5, 7 and 12 sccm) show that the thin film deposited at 3 sccm possess two distinct peaks at binding energies 458.55 eV and 464.36 eV mainly due to TiO 2 . Upon increasing Ar rate oxidation of Ti-Ni is reduced and the Ti-2p peaks begin approaching those of pure elemental Ti. Here Ti-2p peaks are observed at binding energy positions of 454.7 eV and 460.5 eV. AFM results show that the average grain size and roughness decrease, upon increasing Ar gas rate, from 2.90 μm to 0.096 μm and from 16.285 nm to 1.169 nm, respectively

  3. Study of the /sup 58/Ni, /sup 90/Zr and /sup 208/Pb(p,d) reactions at 121 MeV. [DWBA, angular distributions, spectroscopic factors, finite range calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R E; Kraushaar, J J; Shepard, J R [Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Nuclear Physics Lab.; Comfort, J R [Indiana Univ., Bloomington (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1978-01-01

    The (p,d) reaction has been studied on /sup 58/Ni, /sup 90/Zr and /sup 208/Pb at 121 MeV in order to test the applicability of the usual DWBA methods to higher energy data. The calculations describe the angular distribution for the strongly excited low-lying states reasonably well when adiabatic-deuteron optical potentials are used. Some discrepancies in shape persist, however, and some values of the spectroscopic factors differ from lower energy data in spite of many variations in the calculations. By use of exact finite-range calculations a value of D/sup 2//sub 0/ = 1.23 x 10/sup 4/ MeV/sup 2/.fm/sup 3/ was found for use at 121 MeV. Deuteron D-state contributions were negligible at forward angles and two-step contributions do not appear more significant than for data at lower energy.

  4. Elastic and Inelastic α-scatterings from {sup 58}Ni, {sup 116}Sn, and {sup 20}'8Pb targets at 288, 340, 480, and 699 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behairy, Kassem O., E-mail: drkasemomar@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Aswan University (Egypt); Mahmoud, Zakaria M.M.; Hassanain, M.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University (Egypt)

    2015-12-15

    Real double-folding optical potentials are calculated using the S1Y effective nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction and the tρρ approximation in order to analyze elastic and inelastic scattering of α-particles from {sup 58}Ni, {sup 116}Sn, and {sup 208}Pb targets at 288, 340, 480, and 699 MeV. The relativistic corrections for momenta and reduced masses are performed to investigate the data at the energies 480 and 699 MeV. The second-order (double-scattering) correction to the tρρ potential is also considered. The inelastic scattering to low-lying excited states (2{sup +}) is investigated using the distorted wave born approximation (DWBA) and the coupled-channel (CC) techniques. (author)

  5. Secondary ion emission from cleaned surfaces bombarded by 100 MeV accelerator beams at the GSI Darmstadt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wien, K.; Becker, O.; Guthier, W.; Knippelberg, W.; Koczon, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1.4 MeV/n beam facility for the UNILAC/GSI has been used to study secondary ion emission from surfaces cleaned under UHV conditions by ion etching or cleaving of crystals. The desorption phenomena observed by means of TOF mass spectrometry can be classified as follows: (1) Clean metal surfaces emit metal ions being ejected by atomic collisions cascades. Electronic excitation of surface states seems to support ionization. (2) The desorption of contaminants adsorbed at the metal surface is strongly correlated with the electronic energy loss of the projectiles - even, if the content of impurities is very low. (3) Ion formation at the epitaxial surface of fluoride crystals as CaF 2 , MgF 2 and NaF is initiated by the electronic excitation of the crystal. At high beam energies the mass spectrum is dominated by a series of cluster ions. These cluster ions disappear below a certain energy deposit threshold, whereas small atomic ions are observed over the whole energy range

  6. Exfoliation of GaAs caused by MeV 1H and 4He ion implantation at left angle 100 right angle , left angle 110 right angle axial and random orientations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauhala, E.; Raeisaenen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The exfoliation procedure of the ion range determination of gaseous implants in single crystal GaAs is investigated. The correlation of the observed crater depth with the ion range is studied for random, left angle 100 right angle and left angle 110 right angle axial orientation high dose implantations of 1.5-2.5 MeV 1 H and 4 He ions. Depending on the experimental conditions, the crater depths corresponded to range values between the modal range and the range maximum. The observed crater depths could be related to the actual He concentration depth distributions by determining the profiles of the 4 He implants by 2.7 MeV proton backscattering. The implantation parameters affecting the exfoliation process, and especially the increase rate of the sample temperature, are investigated. The range distribution parameters for the 1.5 MeV 4 He implants are presented. ((orig.))

  7. Determination of Ni{sup 2+} using an equilibrium ion exchange technique: Important chemical factors and applicability to environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worms, Isabelle A.M. [CABE - Analytical and Biophysical Environmental Chemistry, University of Geneva, 30 quai Ernest Ansermet 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Wilkinson, Kevin J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Montreal C.P. 6128, succursale Centre-ville Montreal, H3C 3J7 (Canada)], E-mail: KJ.Wilkinson@umontreal.ca

    2008-05-26

    In natural waters, the determination of free metal concentrations is a key parameter for studying bioavailability. Unfortunately, few analytical tools are available for determining Ni speciation at the low concentrations found in natural waters. In this paper, an ion exchange technique (IET) that employs a Dowex resin is evaluated for its applicability to measure [Ni{sup 2+}] in freshwaters. The presence of major cations (e.g. Na, Ca and Mg) reduced both the times that were required for equilibration and the partition coefficient to the resin ({lambda}{sup '}{sub Ni}). IET measurements of [Ni{sup 2+}] in the presence of known ligands (citrate, diglycolate, sulfoxine, oxine and diethyldithiocarbamate) were verified by thermodynamic speciation models (MINEQL{sup +} and VisualMINTEQ). Results indicated that the presence of hydrophobic complexes (e.g. Ni(DDC){sub 2}{sup 0}) lead to an overestimation of the Ni{sup 2+} fraction. On the other hand, [Ni{sup 2+}] measurements that were made in the presence of amphiphilic complexes formed with humic substances (standard aquatic humic acid (SRHA) and standard aquatic fulvic acid (SRFA)) were well correlated to free ion concentrations that were calculated using a NICA-DONNAN model. An analytical method is also presented here to reduce the complexity of the calibration (due to the presence of many other cations) for the use of Dowex equilibrium ion exchange technique in natural waters.

  8. Ion desorption from solid surfaces under slow (KeV) and fast (MeV) ion sputtering. Influence of the charge state and of the incidence angle on the input channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joret, H.

    1990-06-01

    Solid surfaces of organic and inorganic materials have been bombarded by fast heavy ions (several MeV). It is shown that the charge state of the projectile has a strong influence on the atomic and molecular ion desorption yield. Experimental studies proved that molecular ions can be emitted intact from deep layers underneath the surface (volume emission) with the existence of a crater emission. On the other hand light ions like H(+), H(+)-2, H(+)-3 are emitted from the surface of the solid in a time around 10 -16 second. The H(+) depends on the incident charge state g-i. When using slow ions (keV) the same dependence was observed for the first time and compared to the fast ion results. The equilibrum charge state of fast ions passing through solids was measured. The influence of the angle of incidence was investigated. Langmuir-Blodgett films of fatty acid were used. A geometrical model is developed for the 50 angstroms layer [fr

  9. Spectroscopic features of Ni(2+) ion in PbO-Bi2O3-SiO2 glass system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, B; Srinivasa Reddy, M; Siva Sesha Reddy, A; Gandhi, Y; Ravi Kumar, V; Veeraiah, N

    2015-04-15

    Glasses of the composition (30-x)PbO-5Bi2O3-65SiO2: xNiO (with x ranging from 0 to 1.0 mol%) were synthesized. A variety of spectroscopic studies, viz., IR, Raman optical absorption and luminescence properties of these glasses have been carried out as a function of NiO concentration. The analysis of results of all these studies has indicated that the nickel ions occupy both octahedral and tetrahedral positions. However, with the increase of NiO concentration the octahedral occupancy of Ni(2+) ions prevailed over the tetrahedral ions. The luminescence spectra of these glasses have exhibited a broad NIR emission band in region 1100-1500 nm. This band is identified as being due to (3)T2(3F)→(3)A2(3F) octahedral transition of Ni(2+) ions. The luminescence efficiency and cross section have been found to be the highest for the glass containing the highest concentration of NiO. The reasons for such high luminescence efficiency have been discussed in the light of structural variations taking place in the host glass network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Simulation of the channelling of ions from MeV C{sub 60} in crystalline solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterman, A [Basic and Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Sinclair, L [Basic and Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Tanushev, N [Basic and Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Tombrello, T [Basic and Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Nardi, E [Department of Particle Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science Rehovot, 76100 (Israel)

    2007-06-14

    Simulations were performed describing the motion and breakup of energetic C{sub 60} ions interacting with crystalline targets. A hybrid algorithm was used that employs a binary collision model for the scattering of the carbon ions by the atoms of the solid, and molecular dynamics for the Coulomb interactions of the 60 carbon ions with one another. For the case of yttrium iron garnet (YIG), directions such as [1 1 0], [1 0 0], [0 1 0] and [0 0 1] demonstrate channelling for a large fraction of the C ions. For directions such as [1 1 1], [2 1 1] and [7 5 3] the trajectories show no more channelling than for random directions. The effects of tilt, shielding and wake-field interactions were investigated for YIG and {alpha}-quartz.

  11. Electron impact excitation of complex atoms and ions. Pt. 2: forbidden transitions in Ni+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, M.S.T.; Berrington, K.A.; Burke, P.G.

    1996-01-01

    This letter reports the first application of the new R-matrix program package RMATRX II to electron impact excitation of a near neutral open d-shell ion. In this calculation for Ni + , all states corresponding to the configuration 3d 9 , 3d 8 4s and 3d 8 4p have been included in the expansion of the total wavefunction. Thermally averaged collision strengths for forbidden transitions involving the even parity states are presented in tabular form for temperatures between 5000 K and 20 000 K. The importance of including accurate C1 expansions for both the target and the (N + 1)-electron terms is demonstrated. (Author)

  12. Fabrication of a negative PMMA master mold for soft-lithography by MeV ion beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttaraksa, Nitipon; Unai, Somrit; Rhodes, Michael W.; Singkarat, Kanda; Whitlow, Harry J.; Singkarat, Somsorn

    2012-02-01

    In this study, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was investigated as a negative resist by irradiation with a high-fluence 2 MeV proton beam. The beam from a 1.7 MV Tandetron accelerator at the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility (PBP) of Chiang Mai University is shaped by a pair of computer-controlled L-shaped apertures which are used to expose rectangular pattern elements with 1-1000 μm side length. Repeated exposure of rectangular pattern elements allows a complex pattern to be built up. After subsequent development, the negative PMMA microstructure was used as a master mold for casting poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) following a standard soft-lithography process. The PDMS chip fabricated by this technique was demonstrated to be a microfluidic device.

  13. Fabrication of a negative PMMA master mold for soft-lithography by MeV ion beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puttaraksa, Nitipon; Unai, Somrit; Rhodes, Michael W.; Singkarat, Kanda; Whitlow, Harry J.; Singkarat, Somsorn

    2012-01-01

    In this study, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was investigated as a negative resist by irradiation with a high-fluence 2 MeV proton beam. The beam from a 1.7 MV Tandetron accelerator at the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility (PBP) of Chiang Mai University is shaped by a pair of computer-controlled L-shaped apertures which are used to expose rectangular pattern elements with 1–1000 μm side length. Repeated exposure of rectangular pattern elements allows a complex pattern to be built up. After subsequent development, the negative PMMA microstructure was used as a master mold for casting poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) following a standard soft-lithography process. The PDMS chip fabricated by this technique was demonstrated to be a microfluidic device.

  14. Juno/JEDI observations of 0.01 to >10 MeV energetic ions in the Jovian auroral regions: Anticipating a source for polar X-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, D. K.; Mauk, B. H.; Paranicas, C. P.; Clark, G.; Kollmann, P.; Rymer, A. M.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Levin, S. M.

    2017-07-01

    After a successful orbit insertion, the Juno spacecraft completed its first 53.5 day orbit and entered a very low altitude perijove with the full scientific payload operational for the first time on 27 August 2016. The Jupiter Energetic particle Detector Instrument measured ions and electrons over the auroral regions and through closest approach, with ions measured from 0.01 to >10 MeV, depending on species. This report focuses on the composition of the energetic ions observed during the first perijove of the Juno mission. Of particular interest are the ions that precipitate from the magnetosphere onto the polar atmosphere and ions that are accelerated locally by Jupiter's powerful auroral processes. We report preliminary findings on the spatial variations, species, including energy and pitch angle distributions throughout the prime science region during the first orbit of the Juno mission. The prime motivation for this work was to examine the heavy ions that are thought to be responsible for the observed polar X-rays. Jupiter Energetic particle Detector Instrument (JEDI) did observe precipitating heavy ions with energies >10 MeV, but for this perijove the intensities were far below those needed to account for previously observed polar X-ray emissions. During this survey we also found an unusual signal of ions between oxygen and sulfur. We include here a report on what appears to be a transitory observation of magnesium, or possibly sodium, at MeV energies through closest approach.

  15. Aspects of the historical development of targetry for heavy ions of 0.05-2000 A centre dot MeV at GSI

    CERN Document Server

    Folger, H

    1999-01-01

    The progressively improved GSI accelerators provide beams of heavy ions from energies of 0.05-2000 A centre dot MeV at high particle intensities now. Therefore, a wide variety of common and new heavy-ion target techniques had to be installed and developed during the past 25 years to prepare and characterize self-supported or backed heavy-ion-targets of chemical elements and compounds from hydrogen (as polyethylene) to uranium. The thickness ranged from 2x10 sup - sup 6 to 20 g/cm sup 2 for beam spots of about 5 mm in diameter. Homogeneity, surface structure or individual shape had to be adapted to the needs of each experiment. Special setups were required for targets of poisonous materials, of highly enriched stable isotopes or those of radioactive species in minute amounts. The capability of thin-layer technologies was as well applied to prepare and measure stripper foils or various high-vacuum deposits for experimental or accelerator purposes. The development of different rotating target wheels and control ...

  16. Effects of 60 MeV C5+ ion irradiation on PmT-PVC and p-TSA doped PoT-PVC blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmi, G.B.V.S.; Siddiqui, Azher M.; Ali, Vazid; Kulriya, Pawan K.; Zulfequar, M.

    2008-01-01

    Poly(m-toluidine) (PmT) and Poly(o-toluidine) (PoT) have been synthesized from derivatives of aniline (m-toluidine), (o-toluidine) monomers by chemical oxidative polymerization method. After polymerization, PoT powder was doped with p-toluene sulphonic acid (p-TSA) and the polymer powders were blended with poly vinyl chloride (PVC) to achieve PmT and p-TSA doped PoT dispersed films. XRD, FTIR and UV-visible studies were carried out to get their structural changes and optical information. These blends were irradiated by 60 MeV C 5+ ions with different fluences. Post Irradiation XRD, FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy were also performed on all films. On p-TSA doped PoT-PVC blends dc-conductivity measurements are also carried out before and after irradiation. The results show structural modifications which lead to changes in optical and electrical properties

  17. Interplanetary ions during an energetic storm particle event - The distribution function from solar wind thermal energies to 1.6 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, J. T.; Asbridge, J. R.; Bame, S. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Zwickl, R. D.; Paschmann, G.; Sckopke, N.; Hynds, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    An ion velocity distribution function of the postshock phase of an energetic storm particle (ESP) event is obtained from data from the ISEE 2 and ISEE 3 experiments. The distribution function is roughly isotropic in the solar wind frame from solar wind thermal energies to 1.6 MeV. The ESP event studied (8/27/78) is superposed upon a more energetic particle event which was predominantly field-aligned and which was probably of solar origin. The observations suggest that the ESP population is accelerated directly out of the solar wind thermal population or its quiescent suprathermal tail by a stochastic process associated with shock wave disturbance. The acceleration mechanism is sufficiently efficient so that approximately 1% of the solar wind population is accelerated to suprathermal energies. These suprathermal particles have an energy density of approximately 290 eV cubic centimeters.

  18. Radial dose distribution around an energetic heavy ion and an ion track structure model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Katsutoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ohno, Shin-ichi; Namba, Hideki; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Watanabe, Ritsuko

    1997-03-01

    Ionization currents produced in a small wall-less ionization chamber located at varying distance from the 200 MeV Ni{sup 12+} ion`path traversing Ar gas were measured and utilized to construct a track structure model. Using the LET value of 200 MeV Ni{sup 12+} and G(Fe{sup 3+}) in Fricke solutions (= 15.4) for fast electrons, we estimate G(Fe{sup 3+}) for this ion to be 5.0. (author)

  19. Prototype tests on the ion source power supplies of the TEXTOR NI-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goll, O.; Braunsberger, U.; Schwarz, U.

    1987-01-01

    The PINI ion source for the TEXTOR neutral injector is fed by a new modular transistorized power supply. All modules are located in a high voltage cage on 55 kV dc against ground. The normal operation of the injectors includes frequent grid breakdowns causing transient high voltage stresses on the ion source power supplies. These stresses must not disturb the safe operation of the power supplies. The paper describes the set up for extensive testing of a supply prototype module under the expected operating conditions. The main features of this test program are reviewed and the measures taken for a safe operation are discussed. As a result of the investigations, recommendations for the installation of the power supplies at the TEXTOR NI system are given

  20. Measurement of stopping powers of gases for heavy ions of 3 to 13 MeV by nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orliange, I.

    1985-09-01

    The stopping powers of gases have been measured for incident 10 Ne, 18 Ar, 29 Cu, 36 Kr and 47 Ag ions of 3 to 13 MeV/u. These measurements have confirmed the existence of a gas-solid difference for the stopping powers (the stopping power of solids being larger than that of gazes). Such a difference was theoretically postulated by Bohr and Lindhard in 1954, and experimentally observed for the first time by Geissel in 1982. This effect can be qualitatively interpreted by a difference in the ion's effective charge in stopping power. However, the determination of charge state distribution for Ar and Fe ions in two particular cases (Ar + Nsub(2s)or Nsub(2g) and (Fe + Csub(s) or Csub(g)) from a theoric model and experimental cross sections for atomic collisions don't quantitatively account for observed differences [fr

  1. K vacancy production in collisions of 63 MeV Cu ions with Ge and Ag atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, W.; Jaracz, R.; Kaun, K.-H.; Rudiger, J.; Stachura, Z.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism of K-shell vacancy production is studied in t in an X-ray-scattered ion coincidence experiment with 1 MeV/a.m.u. 63 Cu 4+ ion incident onto natural Ge and Ag targets. The impact parameter dependent K-shell vacancy production probability measured in the experiment is interpreted in terms of the rotational coupling and the statistical models. The dependence of the vacancy sharing process in the Cu-Ge collision system on the impact parameter is obtained and compared with the predictions of the Briggs-Myerhof-Demkov model

  2. Ion backscattering, channeling and nuclear reaction analysis study of passive films formed on FeCrNi and FeCrNiMo (100) single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, C; Schmaus, D [Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France). Groupe de Physique des Solides de l' ENS; Elbiache, A; Marcus, P [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1990-01-01

    The compositions of passive films formed on Fe-17Fr-13Ni (at. %) and Fe-18.5Cr-14Ni-1.5Mo (100) single crystals have been determined and the structure of the alloy under the film has been investigated. The alloys were passivated in 0.05M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 250 mV/SHE for 30 min. The oxygen content was measured by nuclear microanalysis using the {sup 16}O(d,p) {sup 17}O* reaction. The oxygen content in the passive film is similar for the two alloys and equal to (12{plus minus}2) 10{sup 15} O/cm{sup 2}. The cationic compositions of the passive films have been determined by {sup 4}He channeling at two incident beam energies: 0.8 and 2.0 MeV. For the two alloys studied, a total cation content of (5{plus minus}2)10{sup 15} at/cm{sup 2} is found in the passive films. The corresponding thickness is about 12 A. There is an excess of oxygen, which can be attributed to the presence of hydroxyls and sulfate. A strong chromium enrichment is found in the passive film formed on both alloys: chromium represents about 50% of the cations. There is no evidence of molybdenum enrichment in the passive film formed on the Mo-alloyed stainless steel. The comparison of the results obtained at the two different incident beam energies (0.8MeV and 2MeV) reveals the existence of defects at the alloy/passive film interface. (author).

  3. Synthesis of sponge-like hydrophobic NiBi_3 surface by 200 keV Ar ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siva, Vantari; Datta, D.P.; Chatterjee, S.; Varma, S.; Kanjilal, D.; Sahoo, Pratap K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A sponge-like hydrophobic NiBi_3 surface has been synthesized using 200 keV Ar ion implantation. • A competition between amorphization and re-crystallization was observed in the existing phases owing to comparable magnitudes of nuclear and electronic energy depositions. • The relation between hydrophobic nature and sponge-like NiBi_3 phase seems interesting, which is attributed to ion beam induced sputtering and mixing of the layers. - Abstract: Sponge-like nanostructures develop under Ar-ion implantation of a Ni–Bi bilayer with increasing ion fluence at room temperature. The surface morphology features different stages of evolution as a function of ion fluence, finally resulting in a planar surface at the highest fluence. Our investigations on the chemical composition reveal a spontaneous formation of NiBi_3 phase on the surface of the as deposited bilayer film. Interestingly, we observe a competition between crystallization and amorphization of the existing poly-crystalline phases as a function of the implanted fluence. Measurements of contact angle by sessile drop method clearly show the ion-fluence dependent hydrophobic nature of the nano-structured surfaces. The wettability has been correlated with the variation in roughness and composition of the implanted surface. In fact, our experimental results confirm dominant effect of ion-sputtering as well as ion-induced mixing at the bilayer interface in the evolution of the sponge-like surface.

  4. Synthesis of sponge-like hydrophobic NiBi{sub 3} surface by 200 keV Ar ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siva, Vantari; Datta, D.P. [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, HBNI, Jatni 752050 (India); Chatterjee, S. [Colloids and Materials Chemistry Department, CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Acharya Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751 013 (India); Varma, S. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sahoo, Pratap K., E-mail: pratap.sahoo@niser.ac.in [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, HBNI, Jatni 752050 (India)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • A sponge-like hydrophobic NiBi{sub 3} surface has been synthesized using 200 keV Ar ion implantation. • A competition between amorphization and re-crystallization was observed in the existing phases owing to comparable magnitudes of nuclear and electronic energy depositions. • The relation between hydrophobic nature and sponge-like NiBi{sub 3} phase seems interesting, which is attributed to ion beam induced sputtering and mixing of the layers. - Abstract: Sponge-like nanostructures develop under Ar-ion implantation of a Ni–Bi bilayer with increasing ion fluence at room temperature. The surface morphology features different stages of evolution as a function of ion fluence, finally resulting in a planar surface at the highest fluence. Our investigations on the chemical composition reveal a spontaneous formation of NiBi{sub 3} phase on the surface of the as deposited bilayer film. Interestingly, we observe a competition between crystallization and amorphization of the existing poly-crystalline phases as a function of the implanted fluence. Measurements of contact angle by sessile drop method clearly show the ion-fluence dependent hydrophobic nature of the nano-structured surfaces. The wettability has been correlated with the variation in roughness and composition of the implanted surface. In fact, our experimental results confirm dominant effect of ion-sputtering as well as ion-induced mixing at the bilayer interface in the evolution of the sponge-like surface.

  5. Catalytic upgrading of oleic acid into biofuel using Mo modified zeolite supported Ni oxalate catalyst functionalized with fluoride ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayodele, O.B.; Abbas, Hazzim F.; Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri Wan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Modification of zeolite with freshly prepared molybdenum oxalate. • Functionalization of Ni oxalate with HF and incorporation into Mo modified zeolite. • Characterization of synthesized Mo modified zeolite supported Ni oxalate catalyst. • Deoxygenation of oleic acid with the synthesized zeolite supported catalyst. • Reusability study on the synthesized zeolite supported catalyst. - Abstract: In this study, fluoride ion functionalized nickel oxalate supported on molybdenum modified zeolite (NiMoFOx/Zeol) catalyst was synthesized, characterized and tested on the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of oleic acid (OA) into paraffinic fuel. The NiMoFOx/Zeol characterization results confirmed the presence of both Ni and Mo as well as the formation of NiMoO 4 which is a highly HDO reactive specie at 2θ value of 43.6° according to the XRD result. NiMoFOx/Zeol also showed loss in crystallinity and reduction in the average particle size leading to increase in the pore volume and specific surface area due to the combined effects of fluoride ion presence, oxalic acid functionalization and calcination. The effect of temperature, pressure and NiMoFOx/Zeol loading studied showed that initial increase in their values increased the yield of the target fractions until some points where reduction was observed. The best observed experimental conditions to hydrodeoxygenate 40 g (∼45 mL) of OA into 75% n-C 18 and 23% i-C 18 were 360 °C, 30 mg NiMoFOx/Zeol loading and 20 bar using 100 mL H 2 /min. The presence of i-C 18 was due to the functionalization of the catalyst with fluoride ion. The catalyst reusability result displayed excellent qualities with marginal loss of only 2% in activity after third reuse due to the improved synthesis protocol that employed organometallic precursor. The results are strongly encouraging for further studies toward industrialization of HDO process

  6. A study on the cementation of Cu, Ni and Co ions with Mn powders in chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jae-Woo [Daejin University, Pochun-gun(Korea); Ahn, Jong-Gwan [Korea Univ., Seoul(Korea); Park, Kyung-Ho [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-06-30

    A study on the cementation for the recovery of Cu, Ni and Co with Mn metallic powders in leaching solution from the manganese nodule that have removed Fe ions was studied. The results showed that the recovery efficiencies of metal ions with Mn powders increased when the temperature, pH and the concentration of chloride ions were increased in mixed solution. And the recovery efficiencies of Cu was 98% and not changed with the addition amounts of Mn powders but, in case of Co and Ni, the recovery efficiencies were increased with the addition amounts. The particle size of precipitate was about 5 {mu}m. From the results of experiment we proposed the two-step cementation process for the recovery of Cu, Ni and Co with Mn powders. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs., 14 figs.

  7. Microstructure of Au-ion irradiated 316L and FeNiCr austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jublot-Leclerc, S., E-mail: stephanie.jublot-leclerc@csnsm.in2p3.fr [CSNSM, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS, Université Paris Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Li, X. [CSNSM, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS, Université Paris Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Legras, L.; Lescoat, M.-L. [EDF R& D, Groupe Métallurgie, Les Renardières, 77818 Moret sur Loing (France); Fortuna, F.; Gentils, A. [CSNSM, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS, Université Paris Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2016-11-15

    Thin foils of 316L were irradiated in situ in a Transmission Electron Microscope with 4 MeV Au ions at 450 °C and 550 °C. Similar irradiations were performed at 450 °C in FeNiCr. The void and dislocation microstructure of 316L is found to depend strongly on temperature. At 450 °C, a dense network of dislocation lines is observed in situ to grow from black dot defects by absorption of other black dots and interstitial clusters whilst no Frank loops are detected. At 550 °C, no such network is observed but large Frank loops and perfect loops whose sudden appearance is concomitant with a strong increase in void density as a result of a strong coupling between voids and dislocations. Moreover, differences in both alloys microstructure show the major role played by the minor constituents of 316L, increasing the stacking fault formation energy, and possibly leading to significant differences in swelling behaviour. - Highlights: • 316L and FeNiCr were ion irradiated in situ in a TEM at elevated temperature. • The minor constituents of 316L play a major role in the resulting microstructure. • A dense network of dislocations develops in both alloys from black dot defects. • The nucleation and growth of voids and dislocations are strongly correlated. • The Frank loop mean size saturates at similar dpa values as in neutron irradiation.

  8. Defect production and annihilation in metals through electronic excitation by energetic heavy ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwase, Akihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Defect production, radiation annealing and defect recovery are studied in Ni and Cu irradiated with low-energy ({approx}1-MeV) and high-energy ({approx}100-MeV) ions. Irradiation of Ni with {approx}100-MeV ions causes an anomalous reduction, or even a complete disappearance of the stage-I recovery. This result shows that the energy transferred from excited electrons to lattice atoms through the electron-lattice interaction contributes to the annihilation of the stage-I interstitials. This effect is also observed in Ni as a large radiation annealing during 100-MeV heavy ion irradiation. On the other hand, in Cu thin foils, we find the defect production process strongly associated with electron excitation, where the defect production cross section is nearly proportional to S{sub e}{sup 2}. (author)

  9. Synthesis of Ni(OH)2 Nanoflakes Through a Novel Ion Diffusion Method Controlled by Ion Exchange Membrane and Electrochemical Supercapacitive Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jiangshan; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We synthesized β-Ni(OH) 2 nanoflakes through a novel ion diffusion method. • The possible formation mechanism of the Ni(OH) 2 nanoflakes was discussed. • The temperature influence on growth of Ni(OH) 2 nanocrystals and its subsequent effect on electrochemical supercapacitive properties were examined. • The β-Ni(OH) 2 nanoflakes prepared at 50 °C for 12 h exhibits the highest specific capacitance of 2102 F g −1 . - Abstract: A novel method, ion diffusion method controlled by ion exchange membrane was reported for the synthesis of Ni(OH) 2 nanomaterials in the absence of any template or organic surfactant. The structure and morphology of as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), BET specific surface area and pore size distribution analyzer. It can be observed that β-Ni(OH) 2 nanoflake-like structure was obtained, and the sheet size, thickness and pore size of as-prepared samples can be controlled by altering reaction time and reaction temperature. The BET specific surface area of Ni(OH) 2 nanomaterials obtained by this method can be up to 280.5 m 2 /g at 30 °C. The electrochemical supercapacitive properties of Ni(OH) 2 nanostructures have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. All these Ni(OH) 2 samples exhibit good capacity for electrochemical supercapacitor in KOH electrolyte. The flake nanostructures synthesized at 50 °C for 12 h exhibit a highest specific capacitance of 2102 F g −1 at a current density of 20 mA cm −2 within the potential range of 0.5 V and the Ni(OH) 2 sample retains 85.1% of the initial capacitance even after 1000 continuous charge–discharge cycles. The results indicate that ion diffusion method controlled by ion exchange membrane is a useful method for synthesizing inorganic nanomaterials.

  10. Silver effect of Co–Ni composite material on energy storage and structural behavior for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanamuthu, RM.; Prasanna, K.; Subburaj, T.; Jo, Yong Nam; Lee, Chang Woo

    2013-01-01

    Ag powder has been comparatively applied to the Co–Ni materials preparing by mixing method and the prepared electrodes were used as negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries applications. The prepared Co–Ni and Ag–Co–Ni with 10 wt.% of Ag composite electrodes are characterized by XRD, FE-SEM with EDX, impedance and electrochemical charge-discharge studies. These electrochemical studies are demonstrated at current rates of 0.1 C and 0.5 C between 0.01 and 2.0 V vs. Li/Li + . The porous Co–Ni and Ag–Co–Ni composite materials are electrochemically tested in lithium half cells. The porous Ag–Co–Ni composite material demonstrates that the initial and end of discharge capacity up to 20th cycles is, respectively, 860 and 715 mAh g −1 at 0.1 C rate maintaining at approximately 83%. The porous Ag–Co–Ni composite electrode may be a good candidate for high power lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Nuclear fusion experimental study on 16 O + 60 Ni system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.P. da.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear fusion cross section measurements were performed in the energy range near The Coulomb Barrier (E Lab -> 40-72 MeV), for the system 16 O + 60 Ni, aiming the study of Fusion Process involving heavy ions. (L.C.J.A.)

  12. Double excitation of helium by ion impact. 2: Experiment and theory for 2-3 MeV proton impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Gleizes, A. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France); Andriamonje, S. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Gradignan (France). Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires]|[Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et Physique des Particules, 33 - Gradignan (France); Martin, F. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Quimica; Salin, A. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 -Talence (France). Lab. des Collisions Atomiques

    1995-02-28

    Experimental and theoretical studies of the double excitation of helium by 2-3 MeV proton impact are presented. A detailed angular dependence of the lineshapes and intensities of the first 2l2l` resonances is discussed. The resonances are characterized by the Shore parameters A and B and the Fano parameter Q. Calculations within Born-I approximation describe approximately the excitation of the 2s{sup 2} {sup 1}S and 2s2p {sup 1}P resonances whereas they fail to reproduce the experimental findings for the 2p{sup 2} {sup 1}D one. On the other hand, close-coupling calculations improve the description of the excitation of the 2s2p{sup 1}P and explains very nicely the 2p{sup 2} {sup 1}D one. Weak discrepancies in the description of the 2s{sup 2} {sup 1}S and 2s2p {sup 1}P excitation in the forward direction are thought to be the signature of a residual post-collisional effect. It is shown that it does not affect the observed lineshapes in our collision velocity range. The integration of the resonance parameters over the emission angle of the electron allows us to deduce total electron yields and to connect the resulting profile with photoionization data. (author).

  13. Investigation of morphological, structural, and mechanical characteristics of Zircaloy-4 irradiated with 3.5 MeV hydrogen ions beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Mohsin; Butt, M. Z.; Ahmad, Sajjad

    2017-09-01

    Zircaloy-4 specimens were irradiated with 3.5 MeV hydrogen ions (dose range: 1  ×  1013 H+1 cm-2 to 1  ×  1015 H+1 cm-2) using a Pelletron accelerator. FESEM studies reveal formation of hydrogen micro-bubbles, bubbles induced blisters of irregular shapes, and development of cracks on the specimen surface, as in the case of pure zirconium. However, for the highest irradiation dose of 1  ×  1015 H+1 cm-2, agglomeration of flower-shape blisters is observed. XRD analysis shows that the most preferentially oriented crystallographic plane is (0 0 4) with texture coefficient values 1.832-2.308 depending on the ions dose. Its diffraction peak intensity first decreases with the increase in ions dose up to 5  ×  1013 H+1 cm-2 and later increases up to 1  ×  1015 H+1 cm-2. Opposite is found in case of diffraction peak width. Crystallite size and lattice strain determined by Williamson-Hall analysis display a linear relationship between the two with positive slope. Mechanical strength, namely yield stress (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and fracture stress (FS), increases sharply with ions dose up to 5  ×  1013 H+1 cm-2. For 1  ×  1014 H+1 cm-2 dose there is a sudden drop of stress to a lowest value and then a slow steady increase in stress up to the highest dose 1  ×  1015 H+1 cm-2. Same pattern is followed by uniform elongation and total elongation. All three stress parameters YS, UTS, and FS follow Inverse Hall-Petch relation.

  14. The amorphous phase transition in irradiated NiTi alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brimhall, J.L.; Kissinger, H.E.; Pelton, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    Observed supralinear dose dependence for the amorphous transformation during irradiation of NiTi is compatible with a cascade overlap model for heavy ion (2.5 MeV Ni + , 6 MeV Ta +++ ) irradiations. A model based on total defect build-up, however, is necessary to explain the amorphous transition induced by electron irradiation and can also be applied to heavy ion irradiation. The cascade effects in this latter model are manifested by non-uniform defect distribution in the lattice. The defect build-up model requires a high activation energy for interstitial migration which is not incompatible with recent findings. The form of the temperature dependence can also be rationalized using a defect build-up model (amorphous phase transition, heavy-ion irradiation, electron irradiation, NiTi, defect build-up, cascade overlap). (author)

  15. A study of the degradation of polymers irradiated by Cn+ and On+ 9.6 MeV heavy ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšová, Romana; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Slepička, P.; Švorčík, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 122, DEC (2015), s. 110-121 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2011019; GA ČR GA15-01602S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : energy loss * heavy ions * polymers * RBS/ERDA methods * AFM method Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.120, year: 2015

  16. Energy dependence of the stopping power of MeV 16O ions in a laser-produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakumi, A.; Shibata, K.; Sato, R.; Tsubuku, K.; Nishimoto, T.; Hasegawa, J.; Ogawa, M.; Oguri, Y.; Katayama, T.

    2001-01-01

    The energy dependence of the stopping power of 16 O ions in a laser-produced plasma target was experimentally investigated in the projectile energy range of 150-350 keV/u. In order to produce the target plasma a Q-Switched Nd-glass laser was focused onto a small lithium hydride (LiH) pellet. The plasma electron temperature and the electron line density were 15 eV and 2x10 17 cm -2 , respectively. The energy loss of 16 O ions in the plasma was measured by a time-of-flight (TOF) method. We found that the stopping power in the plasma agreed with the theoretical estimation based on a modified Bohr equation with correction at low velocities. In this evaluation, the effective charge of the projectile was calculated by means of rate equations on the loss and capture of electrons. It has been also found that in this projectile energy range the stopping power of the 16 O ions in the plasma still increases with decreasing projectile energy, while it decreases in cold equivalent

  17. Dewetting at the edge of a thin NiO-film on Si by swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautel, Knut; Ferhati, Redi; Bolse, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated dewetting along a straight edge of a thin NiO-film on a Si-wafer induced by irradiation with 4.8 MeV/u Au-ions at room temperature. Both, the retreat of the edge as well as the opening and growth of circular holes in the film were monitored using our in-situ high resolution scanning electron microscope at the UNILAC accelerator at the Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt. The “dewetting kinetics” (dependence of the retreated length and the hole radius on the ion fluence) are compared to previously published results on dewetting of poly-crystalline (Au) and glassy (polymer) films. In the present case the dewetting kinetics compare well with those observed for isothermal dewetting of the highly viscous polymer films, presumed that the role of time in thermally induced dewetting is taken over by the ion fluence in ion induced dewetting. Both, from the dewetting kinetics and the shape of the remaining NiO-traces in the dewetted area in front of the retreating edge, we conclude that the presently observed swift heavy ion induced dewetting occurs by interfacial slipping. It occurs in spatially and timely separated steps in the transiently molten single ion tracks, where the required reduction of the viscosity of NiO is achieved

  18. Dewetting at the edge of a thin NiO-film on Si by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dautel, Knut; Ferhati, Redi; Bolse, Wolfgang, E-mail: w.bolse@ihfg.uni-stuttgart.de

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated dewetting along a straight edge of a thin NiO-film on a Si-wafer induced by irradiation with 4.8 MeV/u Au-ions at room temperature. Both, the retreat of the edge as well as the opening and growth of circular holes in the film were monitored using our in-situ high resolution scanning electron microscope at the UNILAC accelerator at the Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt. The “dewetting kinetics” (dependence of the retreated length and the hole radius on the ion fluence) are compared to previously published results on dewetting of poly-crystalline (Au) and glassy (polymer) films. In the present case the dewetting kinetics compare well with those observed for isothermal dewetting of the highly viscous polymer films, presumed that the role of time in thermally induced dewetting is taken over by the ion fluence in ion induced dewetting. Both, from the dewetting kinetics and the shape of the remaining NiO-traces in the dewetted area in front of the retreating edge, we conclude that the presently observed swift heavy ion induced dewetting occurs by interfacial slipping. It occurs in spatially and timely separated steps in the transiently molten single ion tracks, where the required reduction of the viscosity of NiO is achieved.

  19. Release of metal ions from round and rectangular NiTi wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Azizi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of nickel and titanium ions released from two wires with different shapes and a similar surface area. Methods Forty round nickel-titanium (NiTi arch wires with the diameter of 0.020 in. and 40 rectangular NiTi arch wires with the diameter of 0.016 × 0.016 in. were immersed in artificial saliva during a 21-day period. The surface area of both wires was 0.44 in.2. Wires were separately dipped into polypropylene tubes containing 50 ml of buffer solution and were incubated and maintained at 37 °C. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES was used to measure the amount of ions released after exposure lengths of 1 h, 24 h, 1 week, and 3 weeks. Repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey tests were used to evaluate the data. Results The results indicated that the amount of nickel and titanium concentrations was significantly higher in the rectangular wire group. The most significant release of all metals was measured after the first hour of immersion. In the rectangular wire group, 243 ± 4.2 ng/ml of nickel was released after 1 h, while 221.4 ± 1.7 ng/ml of nickel was released in the round wire group. Similarly, 243.3 ± 2.8 ng/ml of titanium was released in the rectangular wire group and a significantly lower amount of 211.9 ± 2.3 ng/ml of titanium was released in the round wire group. Conclusions Release of metal ions was influenced by the shape of the wire and increase of time.

  20. Development of high performance negative ion sources and accelerators for MeV class neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, M.; Hanada, M.; Iga, T.

    2003-01-01

    Operation of accelerator at low pressure is an essential requirement to reduce stripping loss of the negative ions, which in turn results in high efficiency of the NB systems. For this purpose, a vacuum insulated beam source (VIBS) has been developed at JAERI, which reduces the gas pressure in the accelerator by enhanced gas conductance through the accelerator. The VIBS achieves the high voltage insulation of 1 MV by immersing the whole structure of accelerator in vacuum with long (∼ 1.8 m) insulation distance. Results of the voltage holding test using a long vacuum gap of 1.8 m indicate that a transition from vacuum discharge to gas discharge occurs at around 0.2 Pa m in the long vacuum gap. So far, the VIBS succeeded in acceleration of 20 mA (H - ) beam up to 970 keV for 1 s. The high voltage holding capability of the VIBS was drastically improved by installing a new large stress ring, which reduces electric field concentration at the triple junction of the accelerator column. At present the VIBS sustains 1 MV stably for more than 1200 s. Acceleration of ampere class H- beams at high current density is to be started soon to demonstrate ITER relevant beam optics. Operation of negative ion source at low pressure is also essential to reduce the stripping loss. However, it was not so easy to attain high current density H - ions at low pressure, since destruction cross section of the negative ions becomes large if the electron temperature is > 1 eV, in low pressure discharge. Using strong magnetic filter to lower the electron temperature, and putting higher arc discharge power to compensate reduction of plasma density through the filter, an H - ion beam of 310 A/m 2 was extracted at very low pressure of 0.1Pa. This satisfies the ITER requirement of current density at 1/3 of the ITER design pressure (0.3 Pa). (author)

  1. Comparison of physics model for 600 MeV protons 290 MeV·{sup n-}1 oxygen ions on carbon in MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Arim; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jung, Nam Suk; Oh, Joo Hee [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Oranj, Leila Mokhtari [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    With the increase in the number of particle accelerator facilities under either operation or construction, the accurate calculation using Monte Carlo codes become more important in the shielding design and radiation safety evaluation of accelerator facilities. The calculations with different physics models were applied in both of cases: using only physics model and using the mix and match method of MCNPX code. The issued conditions were the interactions of 600 MeV proton and 290 MeV·{sup n-}1 oxygen with a carbon target. Both of cross-section libraries, JENDL High Energy File 2007 (JENDL/HE-2007) and LA150, were tested in this calculation. In the case of oxygen ion interactions, the calculation results using LAQGSM physics model and JENDL/HE-2007 library were compared with D. Satoh's experimental data. Other Monte Carlo calculations using PHITS and FLUKA codes were also carried out for further benchmarking study. It was clearly found that the physics models, especially intra-nuclear cascade model, gave a great effect to determine proton-induced secondary neutron spectrum in MCNPX code. The variety of physics models related to heavy ion interactions did not make big difference on the secondary particle productions. The variations of secondary neutron spectra and particle transports depending on various physics models in MCNPX code were studied and the result of this study can be used for the shielding design and radiation safety evaluation.

  2. Modification of structural and magnetic properties of soft magnetic multi-component metallic glass by 80 MeV {sup 16}O{sup 6+} ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, S.N., E-mail: kane_sn@yahoo.com [School of Physics, D.A. University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore 452001 (India); Shah, M.; Satalkar, M.; Gehlot, K. [School of Physics, D.A. University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore 452001 (India); Kulriya, P.K.; Avasthi, D.K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, P.O. Box No. 10502, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sinha, A.K. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, P.O. CAT, Indore 452013 (India); Modak, S.S. [Physics Department, Jaypee University of Eng. & Tech., A-B Road, Raghogarh, Guna 473226 (India); Ghodke, N.L.; Reddy, V.R. [UGC-DAE CSR, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Varga, L.K. [RISSPO, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-07-15

    Effect of 80 MeV {sup 16}O{sup 6+} ion irradiation in amorphous Fe{sub 77}P{sub 8}Si{sub 3}C{sub 5}Al{sub 2}Ga{sub 1}B{sub 4} alloy is reported. Electronic energy loss induced modifications in the structural and, magnetic properties were monitored by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD), Mössbauer and, magnetic measurements. Broad amorphous hump seen in SXRD patterns reveals the amorphous nature of the studied specimens. Mössbauer measurements suggest that: (a) alignment of atomic spins within ribbon plane, (b) changes in average hyperfine field suggests radiation-induced decrease in the inter atomic distance around Mössbauer (Fe) atom, (c) hyperfine field distribution confirms the presence of non-magnetic elements (e.g. – B, P, C) in the first near-neighbor shell of the Fe atom, thus reducing its magnetic moment, and (d) changes in isomer shift suggests variation in average number of the metalloid near neighbors and their distances. Minor changes in soft magnetic behavior – watt loss and, coercivity after an irradiation dose of 2 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} suggests prospective application of Fe{sub 77}P{sub 8}Si{sub 3}C{sub 5}Al{sub 2}Ga{sub 1}B{sub 4} alloy as core material in accelerators (radio frequency cavities).

  3. An analytically-based method for rapid evaluation of MeV ion loss in tokamaks with low-n perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Recent work has developed an analytic theory for the stochastic transport of passing MeV ions due to low-n magnetic perturbations, valid for frequencies from ω = 0 to ω ∼ ω TAE ∼ 100 kHz, and for modes with multiple harmonics and nontrivial radial structure, which predicts stochastic thresholds in agreement with guiding-center (GC) results. Obtaining GC results is time consuming, typically requiring hours of computer time to obtain loss results for a single point in parameter space. Along with earlier theory developed for the stochastic transport of trapped particles in such perturbations, this theory gives the basis for a far more rapid means of numerically assessing energetic ion loss in a given configuration, somewhat akin to the RIPLOS code for rapid evaluation of loss due to TF ripple. The authors present the details of implementing such a code, now being developed. The implementation also raises some further theoretical issues. The currently available stochastic thresholds for passing and trapped particles are not the same, and an analytic understanding of the transition between them awaits development

  4. Explosives vapour identification in ion mobility spectrometry using a tunable laser ionization source: a comparison with conventional 63Ni ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.; Deas, R.M.; Kosmidis, C.; Ledingham, K.W.D.; Marshall, A.; Singhal, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    Laser multiphoton ionization (MPI) is used to produce ions from explosive vapours at atmospheric pressure in air for analysis by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). In the positive ion mode of detection, NO + ions, generated directly by multiphoton dissociation/ionization of the explosive compounds, show strong variation with laser wavelength. This provides a means of identifying the presence of nitro-containing compounds. Moreover, electrons formed in the MPI of gaseous components in the air carrier stream, primarily O 2 , are transferred via neutral molecular oxygen (O 2 ) to trace explosive vapour, forming negative ions which give rise to characteristic and identifiable ion mobility spectra. Further, negative ion mobility spectra of several explosive vapours are presented using conventional 63 Ni ionization and are compared qualitatively with the laser ionization approach. (author)

  5. Study of the multi-fragment production in asymmetric heavy ion reactions at E/A = 600 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubele, J.C.

    1992-03-01

    In this thesis the fragmentation of Au projectiles in collisions with light target nuclei ( 12 C, 27 Al, 64 Cu) is studied at a projectile energy of 600 MeV per nucleon. For the description of an event three observables are used: the multiplicity M lp of the light particles, the largest observed charge Z max of the projectile fragments, as well as a newly introduced obsevable Z bound , which is defined as the sum of all charge contained in complex projectile fragments (Z ≥ 2). By means of this observable different exit channels can be identified: the formation of a heavy residual nucleus by evaporation of light particles, the binary fission, the decay into IMF's (3 ≤ Z ≤ 30) and the complete decay into light particles. At the applied incident energy in the case of Au+Cu reactions each of these decay channels can be realized. The observables Z bound and M lpp are proved as suited quantities for the reconstruction of the impact parameter. Furthermore independently on the target a universal relation between Z bound and the multiplicity distribution of medium-heavy fragments is found. By simple model assumptions it is made plausible that Z bound is correlated both with the size of the projectile residue and in the mean with its excitation energy. For the characterization of the decay into IMF's the multiplicity M imf of these fragments is applied. For all three targets with increasing centrality first an increasing of the mean fragment multiplicities to maximal values of 3-4 is observed. In the case of the Cu target and suggestively also at the Al target in the most central collisions again a decreasing of the multiplicity is found. The universal Z bound behaviour is a hint to a - at least partial - equilibration of the primary projectile residue before the decay. (HSI) [de

  6. Rust Layer Formed on Low Carbon Weathering Steels with Different Mn, Ni Contents in Environment Containing Chloride Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-qin FU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rusting evolution of low carbon weathering steels with different Mn, Ni contents under a simulated environment containing chloride ions has been investigated to clarify the correlation between Mn, Ni and the rust formed on steels. The results show that Mn contents have little impact on corrosion kinetics of experimental steels. Content increase of Ni both enhances the anti-corrosion performance of steel substrate and the rust. Increasing Ni content is beneficial to forming compact rust. Semi-quantitative XRD phase analysis shows that the quantity ratio of α/γ*(α-FeOOH/(γ-FeOOH+Fe3O4 decreases as Mn content increases but it increases as Ni content increases. Ni enhances rust layer stability but Mn content exceeding 1.06 wt.% is disadvantageous for rust layer stability. The content increase of Mn does not significantly alter the parameters of the polarization curve. However, as Ni contents increases, Ecorr has shifted to the positive along with decreased icorr values indicating smaller corrosion rate especially as Ni content increases from 0.42 wt.% to 1.50 wt.%.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.12844

  7. The effect of ion implantation on the oxidation resistance of vacuum plasma sprayed CoNiCrAlY coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Jie [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramic, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhao Huayu; Zhou Xiaming [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramic, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Tao Shunyan, E-mail: shunyantao@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramic, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Ding Chuanxian [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramic, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We used ion implantation to improve the oxidation resistance of CoNiCrAlY coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oxidation process of CoNiCrAlY coating at 1100 Degree-Sign C for 1000 h was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Nb ion implanted coating exhibited better oxidation resistance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The influences of Nb and Al ion implantation into CoNiCrAlY coatings were evaluated. - Abstract: CoNiCrAlY coatings prepared by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) were implanted with Nb and Al ions at a fluence of 10{sup 17} atoms/cm{sup 2}. The effects of ion implantation on the oxidation resistance of CoNiCrAlY coatings were investigated. The thermally grown oxide (TGO) formed on each specimen was characterized by XRD, SEM and EDS, respectively. The results showed that the oxidation process of CoNiCrAlY coatings could be divided into four stages and the key to obtaining good oxidation resistance was to remain high enough amount of Al and promote the lateral growth of TGO. The implantation of Nb resulted in the formation of continuous and dense Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale to improve the oxidation resistance. The Al implanted coating could form Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale at the initial stage, however, the scale was soon broken and TGO transformed to non-protective spinel.

  8. Measurement of neutron activation cross-sections for elements Co, Ni, Y, Nb, Tm and Au between 12 and 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, S.; Matsuyama, S.; Ohkubo, T.; Fukuda, H.; Sakuma, M.; Kitamura, M.; Odano, N.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron activation cross-sections for cobalt, nickel, yttrium, niobium, thulium and gold have been measured in the neutron energies from 12 to 20 MeV with the reference cross section of NEA 93 Nb(n,2n) 92m Nb at Tohoku Dynamitron Facility. (author)

  9. High performance SiC detectors for MeV ion beamsgenerated by intense pulsed laser plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cutroneo, M.; Musumeci, P.; Zimbone, M.; Torrisi, L.; La Via, F.; Margarone, Daniele; Velyhan, Andriy; Ullschmied, Jiří; Calcagno, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2013), s. 87-93 ISSN 0884-2914 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0087 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; OP VK 2 LaserGen(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0087 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : silicon carbide * ion detectors * high power laser Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.815, year: 2013

  10. Collisions of highly stripped ions at MeV energies in gas targets: charge transfer and ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Cross sections have been measured for charge transfer and ionization in H 2 and rare-gas targets by fast, highly ionized carbon, iron, niobium, and lead ions in charge states +3 to +59, with energies in the range 0.1 to 4.8 MeV/amu. Experimental results are compared with classical-trajectory calculations; agreement is generally good. For a given target, the cross sections for net ionization reduce to a common curve when plotted as cross section divided by charge state versus energy per nucleon divided by charge state

  11. Interplanetary ions during an energetic storm particle event: The distribution function from solar wind thermal energies to 1.6 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Zwickl, R.D.; Paschmann, G.; Sckopke, N.; Hynds, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Data from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory/Max-Planck-Institut fast plasma experiment on Isee 2 have been combined with data from the European Space Agency/Imperial College/Space Research Laboratory low-energy proton experiment on Isee 3 to obtain for the first time an ion velocity distribution function f(v) extending from solar wind energies (-1 keV) to 1.6 MeV during the postshock phase of an energetic storm particle (ESP) event. This study reveals that f(v) of the ESP population is roughly isotropic in the solar wind frame from solar wind thermal energies out to 1.6 MeV. Emerging smoothly out of the solar wind thermal distribution, the ESP f(v) initially falls with increasing energy as E/sup -2.4/ in the solar wind frame. Above about 40 keV no single power law exponent adequately describes the energy dependence of f(v) in the solar wind frame. Above approx.200 keV in both the spacecraft frame and the solar wind frame, f(v) can be described by an exponential in speed (f(v)proportionale/sup -v/v//sub o/) with v/sub o/ = 1.05 x 10 8 cm s -1 . The ESP event studied (August 27, 1978) was superposed upon a more energetic particle event which was predominantly field-aligned and which was probably of solar origin. Our observations suggest that the ESP population is accelerated directly out of the solar wind thermal population or its quiescent suprathermal tail by a stochastic process associated with the shock wave disturbance. The acceleration mechanism is sufficiently efficient that approx.1% of the solar wind population is accelerated to suprathermal energies. These suprathermal particles have an energy density of approx.290 eV cm -3

  12. Understanding lattice defects to influence ferromagnetic order of ZnO nanoparticles by Ni, Cu, Ce ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Kuldeep Chand, E-mail: dkuldeep.physics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Kotnala, R.K., E-mail: rkkotnala@gmail.com [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2017-02-15

    Future spintronics technologies based on diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) will rely heavily on a sound understanding of the microscopic origins of ferromagnetism in such materials. It remains unclear, however, whether the ferromagnetism in DMS is intrinsic - a precondition for spintronics - or due to dopant clustering. For this, we include a simultaneous doping from transition metal (Ni, Cu) and rare earth (Ce) ions in ZnO nanoparticles that increase the antiferromagnetic ordering to achieve high-T{sub c} ferromagnetism. Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns indicate that the dopant ions in ZnO had a wurtzite structure and the dopants, Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ce{sup 3+} ions, are highly influenced the lattice constants to induce lattice defects. The Ni, Cu, Ce ions in ZnO have nanoparticles formation than nanorods was observed in pure sample. FTIR involve some organic groups to induce lattice defects and the metal-oxygen bonding of Zn, Ni, Cu, Ce and O atoms to confirm wurtzite structure. Raman analysis evaluates the crystalline quality, structural disorder and defects in ZnO lattice with doping. Photoluminescence spectra have strong near-band-edge emission and visible emission bands responsible for defects due to oxygen vacancies. The energy band gap is calculated using Tauc relation. Room temperature ferromagnetism has been described due to bound magnetic polarons formation with Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ce{sup 3+} ions in ZnO via oxygen vacancies. The zero field and field cooling SQUID measurement confirm the strength of antiferromagnetism in ZnO. The field cooling magnetization is studied by Curie-Weiss law that include antiferromagnetic interactions up to low temperature. The XPS spectra have involve +3/+4 oxidation states of Ce ions to influence the observed ferromagnetism. - Graphical abstract: The lattice defects/vacancies attributed by Ni and Ce ions in the wurtzite ZnO structure are responsible in high T{sub c} -ferromagnetism due to long-range magnetic

  13. Backscattering analysis of AuGe-Ni ohmic contacts of n-GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassibian, A.G.; Kalkur, T.S.; Sutherland, G.J.; Cohen, D.

    1985-01-01

    AuGe-Ni is widely used for the fabrication of ohmic contacts to n-GaAs. The alloying behaviour of evaporated AuGe-Ni alloyed by furnace and Scanning Electron Beam, is characterised by Rutherford backscattering with 2MeV 4 He ions. Since the formation of alloyed AuGe-Ni contacts involves redistribution and diffusion of Ga, As, Ni, Ge and Au, it is difficult to separate the corresponding yields due to gold, Ga As, Ni and Ge in the spectrum. The technique used in the investigation involves assumption of depth distribution of elements and computing the resultant spectrum

  14. Secondary ion emission from ultra-thin oxide layers bombarded by energetic (MeV) heavy ions: depth of origin and layer homogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allali, H.; Nsouli, B.; Thomas, J.P.; Cabaud, B.; Fuchs, G.; Hoareau, A.; Treilleux, M.; Danel, J.S.

    1993-09-01

    The escape depth of the secondary ions resulting from electronic sputtering of fast heavy ions in inorganic thin films has been investigated. Chromium layers deposited onto SiO 2 substrate as well as SiO x layers deposited onto chromium substrate have been characterized by secondary ion emission mass spectrometry (SIMS) in combination with time-of-flight (TOF) mass analysis (also referred as HSF-SIMS). These crossed experiments lead to a value around 1 nm for SiO x layers and 0.5 nm for Cr layers. On the other hand, HSF-SIMS can be used to correlate the intensity of the secondary ion emission to the film coverage rate and (or) the morphology of particular films like those produced by Low Energy Cluster Beam Deposition (LECBD). Using Sb deposits, the non-linear relationship between ion emission and coverage is interpreted in terms of sputtering enhancement in the individual supported clusters. (author) 22 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  15. Incorporation of metals (Pt-Ni-Ru) in the zeolite ZSM-5 through ion exchange competitive: synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, A.S.; Rodrigues, M.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Zeolites are very important materials due to their high specific surface area. Moreover, they are suitable for use as catalyst support. Noble metals supported on zeolites have been widely used as catalysts in the petrochemical industry. This paper was prepared and characterized, a powder aiming its use in heterogeneous catalysis. Support was used as ZSM-5 and the method of incorporation of the metals (Ru-PtNi) was competitive ion exchange. The materials (ZSM-5 and Pt-Ni-Ru/ZSM-5) were characterized by spectrophotometry Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen physisorption (BET method). Based on the results of X-ray diffraction, it is possible to demonstrate the preservation of the structure of zeolite ZSM-5 after the competitive ion Exchange with metals (Ru-Pt-Ni) and calcination. The dispersion of metals on ZSM-5 did not change the textural characteristics of the zeolite. (author)

  16. Protein immobilization on Ni(II) ion patterns prepared by microcontact printing and dip-pen nanolithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Chien-Ching; Reinhoudt, David N; Otto, Cees; Velders, Aldrik H; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2010-01-01

    An indirect method of protein patterning by using Ni(II) ion templates for immobilization via a specific metal-protein interaction is described. A nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)-terminated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) allows oriented binding of histidine-tagged proteins via complexation with late

  17. Effects of electronic excitation in 150 keV Ni ion irradiation of metallic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Samolyuk, German; Weber, William J.

    2018-01-01

    We use the two-temperature model in molecular dynamic simulations of 150 keV Ni ion cascades in nickel and nickel-based alloys to investigate the effect of the energy exchange between the atomic and the electronic systems during the primary stages of radiation damage. We find that the electron-phonon interactions result in a smaller amount of defects and affect the cluster formation, resulting in smaller clusters. These results indicate that ignoring the local heating due to the electrons results in the overestimation of the amount of damage and the size of the defect clusters. A comparison of the average defect production to the Norgett-Robinson-Torrens (NRT) prediction over a range of energies is provided.

  18. Discontinuous precipitation in a Ni-In alloy studied by analytical field ion microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geber, G.P.; Kirchheim, R.

    1997-01-01

    Discontinuous precipitation (DP) in a Ni-7.5 at.% In alloy has been studied by means of atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM). The morphology of the lamellar microstructure and the growth kinetics of the decomposition reaction have been investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy (LM, SEM). A back polishing method has been developed to prepare APFIM specimens in a systematic manner for transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in order to obtain a definite inclination of different interfaces in the tip apex for subsequent analysis of their chemical composition. APFIM results of the Ni- and In-concentration across the interfaces are presented. Based on the APFIM results it is possible to distinguish between the theoretical description of the concentration profiles given by the models of Cahn and Hillert. It is shown by both FIM images and concentration depth profiles that the α/β-interface has a thickness of about 0.5 nm. In addition it is shown for the first time that the concentration across a β-lamella is not constant. This experimental finding was used to develop a generalization of Cahn's model on discontinuous precipitation including the solute flux within the interface between β and the parent phase α 0

  19. Synthesis and electrochemical characteristics of Sn-Sb-Ni alloy composite anode for Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hong; Zhao Hailei; Jia Xidi; Qiu Weihua; Cui Fenge

    2007-01-01

    Micro-scaled Sn-Sb-Ni alloy composite was synthesized from oxides of Sn, Sb and Ni via carbothermal reduction. The phase composition and electrochemical properties of the Sn-Sb-Ni alloy composite anode material were studied. The prepared alloy composite electrode exhibits a high specific capacity and a good cycling stability. The lithiation capacity was 530 mAh g -1 in the first cycle and maintained at 370-380 mAh g -1 in the following cycles. The good electrochemical performance may be attributed to its relatively large particle size and multi-phase characteristics. The former reason leads to the lower surface impurity and thus the lower initial capacity loss, while the latter results in a stepwise lithiation/delithiation behavior and a smooth volume change of electrode in cycles. The Sn-Sb-Ni alloy composite material shows a good candidate anode material for the rechargeable lithium ion batteries

  20. Neutron Elastic Scattering Cross Sections of the Elements Ni, Co, and Cu between 1.5 and 8.0 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmqvist, B; Wiedling, T

    1967-12-15

    Angular distributions of elastically scattered neutrons have been measured for natural nickel at seven energies between 3.0 and 8.1 MeV and for cobalt and copper at ten energies between 1.5 and 8.1 MeV, by using time-of-flight technique. The observed angular distributions were corrected for neutron flux attenuation, multiple elastic scattering, and the finite geometry of the source-sample-detector system by using a Monte Carlo computer program. Theoretical angular distributions have been fitted to the experimental angular distributions by using an optical model potential with Saxon-Woods form factors. A computer program was used to find parameter values of the potential giving the best fittings to the experimental angular distributions.

  1. Concentration of ions Co(II), Ni(II) at the Tokem-250 carboxylic cation exchange for catalysts development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkova, Valentina; Bobkova, Ludmila; Brichkov, Anton; Kozik, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    Sorption and catalytic properties of the cation exchanger are investigated. It was found that the Tokem-250 has a wide operating range of pH. The value of the effective ionization constant of the functional groups of the cation exchanger (pKa) is 6.59. The Tokem-250 cation exchanger exhibits selectivity to Ni2+ ions to Co2+ (D˜103). This is probably due to the stability of ion-exchange complexes detected by the method of diffuse reflectance electron spectroscopy (ESDD). According to these data, for Co2+ ions, in contrast to Ni2+, tetragonal distortion of octahedral coordination is characteristic, which has a positive effect on the stability of complexes with Co2+. To obtain spherical catalysts on the basis of Tokem-250, cobalt-containing samples of cation exchanger were used. The developed spherical materials have catalytic activity in the reactions of deep and partial oxidation of n-heptane.

  2. Improve the corrosion and cytotoxic behavior of NiTi implants with use of the ion beam technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisner, L. L., E-mail: llm@isps.tsc.ru; Meisner, S. N. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, 2/4 Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk, 634021 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenina Avenue, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Matveeva, V. A.; Matveev, A. L. [Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, Siberian Branch,Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    The corrosion resistance behavior and cytotoxicity of binary NiTi-base alloy specimens subjected to surface modification by silicon ion beams and the proliferative ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) of rat marrow on an ion-implanted surface of the alloy have been studied. The silicon ion beam processing of specimen surfaces is shown to bring about a nearly two-fold improvement in the corrosion resistance of the material to attack by acqueous solutions of NaCl and human plasma and a drastic decrease in the nickel concentration after immersion of the specimens into the solutions for ∼3400 and ∼6000 h, respectively. It is found that MSC proliferation strongly depends on the surface structure, roughness and chemical condition of NiTi implants.

  3. Ion scattering studies of ordered alloy surfaces: CuAu(1 0 0) and NiAl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beikler, R.; Taglauer, E.

    2000-01-01

    The composition and structure of alloy surfaces can differ from the corresponding bulk properties due to segregation and relaxation effects. We studied the (1 0 0) surface of the ordered alloy CuAu and amorphous Ni and Al by low-energy Ne + and Na + ion scattering. The interpretation of the experimental results is supported by numerical simulations using the MARLOWE code. In the CuAu system a certain geometry was found to be very sensitive to Au presence in the 2nd layer. Comparison with MARLOWE results also allows to study variations in the ion yields arising from neutralization effects. By trajectory analysis ion survival probabilities are estimated for Ni and Al

  4. Preparation of neptunium and plutonium tracers in nuclear reactions of sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 U with (21-60)MeV sup 3 He ions

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, J; Trzaska, V; Gromova, E A; Yakovlev, V A

    2001-01-01

    Preparation of sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 Pu, sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Pu and sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 Np by reactions sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 U( sup 3 He, t beta sup -) sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 Pu, sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 U( sup 3 He, 2n) sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Pu and sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 U( sup 3 He, p3n) sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 Np in sup 3 He ion beams, their energy 43 and 60 MeV, in the K-130 cyclotron at Yuvyaskyul University (Finland) was studied. Cross sections of the reactions were determined. Yield curves for thick targets were calculated. The results are discussed and compared with previously obtained data on other reactions giving rise to formation of the same products. Methods of radiochemical separation of the products and sample preparation for alpha- and gamma-spectrometry are described

  5. Inclusive measurements of the break-up of 156 MeV 6Li-ions at extreme forward angles and the quasi free break-up model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jellito, H.; Buschmann, J.; Gils, H.J.; Heide, N.; Kiener, J.; Rebel, H.; Zagromski, S.; Samanta, C.

    1988-11-01

    Inclusive alpha particle and deuteron spectra from collisions of 156 MeV 6 Li-ions with 12 C and 208 Pb were measured at extreme forward emission angles including zero degree. The measurements were performed with the Karlsruhe magnetic spectrograph 'Little John' and required an efficient reduction of the background from small-angle scattering. The observed double differential cross sections and angular distributions have been analysed on the basis of Serber's spectator break-up model. When going to angles smaller than grazing, where Coulomb effects are expected to the dominating, transitional features may appear. Corresponding effects probably associated with Coulomb break-up are observed with the 208 Pb-target and require a slight extension of the Serber approach. In the case of the 12 C-target the break-up cross sections in forward direction seem to reflect the shape of the internal momentum distribution of the alpha particle and deuteron cluster in the 6 Li-projectile and are in agreement with a 2S-type wave function. However, at larger angles the shape appears to be distorted, possibly by final state interactions. (orig.) [de

  6. Experimental studies of the break-up of 156 MeV 6Li-ions at extreme forward angles using the Karlsruhe magnetic spectrograph 'Little John'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelitto, H.

    1987-05-01

    6 Li-induced break-up reactions have been investigated at reaction angles in extreme forward direction including O 0 with the Karlsruhe Magnetic Spectrograph 'Little John'. The experiments were characterized by the minimization of the high experimental background that dominates at small emission angles. Inclusive alpha-particle and deuteron spectra from the bombardement of 12 C- and 208 Pb-targets with 156 MeV 6 Li-ions have been measured. Below the grazing angle the Coulomb interaction shows a distinct influence on the angular distributions of the fragments. A simple spectator-model and a more realistic description within the DWBA-formalism largely allows a reproduction of the data. In the light of the reverse reaction α + d → 6 Li + γ at small α-d-relative energies, which is of considerable interest for astrophysics, a particle-particle-coincidence measurement with θ α = 5 0 and θ d = -2 0 has been performed. The result could be reproduced reasonably well by a simple Monte-Carlo-simulation. Beside the treatment of a physical problem this work deals with the start-up of the magnetic spectrograph and the clarification of spectrograph specific questions concerning the data reduction. (orig.) [de

  7. Infrared and visible laser spectroscopy for highly-charged Ni-like ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralchenko, Yuri

    2017-10-01

    Application of visible or infrared (IR) lasers for spectroscopy of highly-charged ions (HCI) has not been particularly extensive so far due to a mismatch in typical energies. We show here that the energy difference between the two lowest levels within the first excited configuration 3d9 4 s in Ni-like ions of heavy elements from ZN = 60 to ZN = 92 is within the range of visible or near-IR lasers. The wavelengths of these transitions are calculated within the relativistic model potential formalism and compared with other theoretical and limited experimental data. Detailed collisional-radiative simulations of non-Maxwellian and thermal plasmas are performed showing that photopumping between these levels using relatively moderate lasers is sufficient to provide a two-order of magnitude increase of the pumped level population. This accordingly results in a similar rise of the X-ray line intensity thereby allowing control of X-ray emission with visible/IR lasers.

  8. Experimental study of the light charged particles emitted in coincidence with the main fragments from D.I.C. in the 40Ar (280 MeV) + 58Ni system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.; Babinet, R.; Cauvin, B.; Girard, J.; Auger, P.; Chiang, T.; Galin, J.; Gatty, B.; Guerreau, D.; Tarrago, X.

    1979-01-01

    The light charged particles emitted in coincidence with the main fragments from deep inelastic collisions in the 40 Ar (280 MeV) + 58 Ni have been studied. Both radial (in the reaction plane) and azimuthal angular distributions have been measured. For very asymmetric splitting, the radial angular distribution of the α particles shows two components one of which could be attributed to statistical evaporation by the heavy partner of the detected light fragment. The azimuthal distribution of that component clearly indicates a strong alignment of the spin of the emitting fragment with the orbital angular momentum and a preference for the 'sticking' limit. For symmetric splitting, some α particle energy spectra could not be explained in terms of statistical evaporation by either of the two main fragments. (orig.)

  9. Elastic and inelastic {alpha}-scattering cross-sections obtained with the 44 MeV fixed energy Saclay cyclotron on separated targets of {sup 24}Mg, {sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 46}Ti, {sup 48}Ti, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 54}Fe, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 58}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 62}Ni, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 65}Cu, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 112}Sn, {sup 114}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, {sup 120}Sn, {sup 122}Sn, {sup 124}Sn and {sup 208}Pb using the Saclay fixed-energy cyclotron; Sections efficaces differentielles elastiques et inelastiques obtenues par diffusion de particules {alpha} de 44 MeV sur des cibles de {sup 24}Mg, {sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 46}Ti, {sup 48}Ti, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 54}Fe, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 58}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 62}Ni, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 65}Cu, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 112}Sn, {sup 114}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, {sup 120}Sn, {sup 122}Sn, {sup 124}Sn et {sup 208}Pb au cyclotron a energie fixe de saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruge, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Departement de physique nucleaire, service de physique nucleaire a moyenne energie

    1967-01-01

    This report contains elastic and inelastic {alpha}-scattering cross-sections obtained with the 44 MeV fixed energy Saclay cyclotron on Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Co, Zn, Sn and Pb enriched targets. (author) [French] Ce rapport contient les tableaux des sections efficaces differentielles obtenues par diffusion elastique et inelastique des particules {alpha} de 44 MeV, fournies par le cyclotron a energie fixe de Saclay, sur des cibles d'isotopes separes de Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Co, Zn, Sn et Pb. (auteur)

  10. Synchrotron radiation-based {sup 61}Ni Mössbauer spectroscopic study of Li(Ni{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3})O{sub 2} cathode materials of lithium ion rechargeable battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segi, Takashi, E-mail: segi.takashi@kki.kobelco.com [Kobelco Research Institute, Inc. (Japan); Masuda, Ryo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute (Japan); Tsubota, Takayuki [Kobelco Research Institute, Inc. (Japan); Yoda, Yoshitaka [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Research and Utilization Division (Japan); Seto, Makoto [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Layered rocksalt type oxides, such as Li(Ni{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3})O{sub 2}, are widely used as the cathode active materials of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. Because the nickel ions are associated with the role of the charge compensation at discharge and charge, the {sup 61}Ni Mössbauer measurements at 6 K using synchrotron radiation were performed to reveal the role of Ni. The Ni ions of the active materials play two roles for the redox process between the charge and discharge states of lithium-ion batteries. Half of the total Ni ions change to the low-spin Ni {sup 3+} with Jahn-Teller distortion from the Ni {sup 2+} ions of the discharge state. The remainder exhibit low-spin state divalent Ni ions.

  11. Double differential cross sections for (p,n) reactions of 18 and 25 MeV protons with isotopes of Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Y, Zr, Mo, Pd and Tb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scobel, W.; Blann, M.; Komoto, T.; Trabandt, M.; Grimes, S.M.; Hansen, L.F.; Pohl, B.A.; Wong, C.

    1984-06-01

    Cross sections for the inclusive production of neutrons from reactions of 25 MeV protons with 50 52 53 Cr, 54 56 58 Fe, 59 Co, 60 Ni, 63 Cu, 89 Y, 90 91 92 94 Zr, 92 94 95 96 97 98 100 Mo, 110 Pd and 159 Tb and of 18 MeV protons with 90 91 92 94 Zr have been measured with time-of-flight techniques for 16 angles between 3.5 0 less than or equal to theta/sub lab/ less than or equal to 159.0 0 . After a short presentation of the motivations for these measurements, the experimental set up is discussed with emphasis on the systematic and statistical error sources pertinent to this work, in particular the question of background correction in the continuous parts of the spectra. The main purpose of this report is to make the experimental results of this work (angle integrated spectra, angular distributions) available for distribution, reducing thereby the data required in publication of the results of these experiments. 20 references

  12. Secondary electron emission of thin carbon foils under the impact of hydrogen atoms, ions and molecular ions, under energies within the MeV range; Multiplicite des electrons secondaires emis par des cibles minces de carbone sous l'impact de projectiles H0, H2+, H3+ d'energie de l'ordre du MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidovic, Z

    1997-06-15

    This work focuses on the study of the emission statistics of secondary electrons from thin carbon foils bombarded with H{sup 0}, H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} projectiles in the 0.25-2.2 MeV energy range. The phenomenon of secondary electron emission from solids under the impact of swift ions is mainly due to inelastic interactions with target electrons. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions, as well as a summary of the main theoretical models are the subject of the first chapter. The experimental set-up used to measure event by event the electron emission of the two faces of a thin carbon foil traversed by an energetic projectile is described in the chapter two. In this chapter are also presented the method and algorithms used to process experimental spectra in order to obtain the statistical distribution of the emitted electrons. Chapter three presents the measurements of secondary electron emission induced by H atoms passing through thin carbon foils. The secondary electron yields are studied in correlation with the emergent projectile charge state. We show the peculiar role of the projectile electron, whether it remains or not bound to the incident proton. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the secondary electron emission induced by H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} polyatomic ions. The results are interpreted in terms of collective effects in the interactions of these ions with solids. The role of the proximity of the protons, molecular ion fragments, upon the amplitude of these collective effects is evidenced from the study of the statistics of forward emission. These experiences allowed us to shed light on various aspects of atom and polyatomic ion inter-actions with solid surfaces. (author)

  13. Secondary electron emission of thin carbon foils under the impact of hydrogen atoms, ions and molecular ions, under energies within the MeV range; Multiplicite des electrons secondaires emis par des cibles minces de carbone sous l'impact de projectiles H0, H2+, H3+ d'energie de l'ordre du MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidovic, Z

    1997-06-15

    This work focuses on the study of the emission statistics of secondary electrons from thin carbon foils bombarded with H{sup 0}, H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} projectiles in the 0.25-2.2 MeV energy range. The phenomenon of secondary electron emission from solids under the impact of swift ions is mainly due to inelastic interactions with target electrons. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions, as well as a summary of the main theoretical models are the subject of the first chapter. The experimental set-up used to measure event by event the electron emission of the two faces of a thin carbon foil traversed by an energetic projectile is described in the chapter two. In this chapter are also presented the method and algorithms used to process experimental spectra in order to obtain the statistical distribution of the emitted electrons. Chapter three presents the measurements of secondary electron emission induced by H atoms passing through thin carbon foils. The secondary electron yields are studied in correlation with the emergent projectile charge state. We show the peculiar role of the projectile electron, whether it remains or not bound to the incident proton. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the secondary electron emission induced by H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} polyatomic ions. The results are interpreted in terms of collective effects in the interactions of these ions with solids. The role of the proximity of the protons, molecular ion fragments, upon the amplitude of these collective effects is evidenced from the study of the statistics of forward emission. These experiences allowed us to shed light on various aspects of atom and polyatomic ion inter-actions with solid surfaces. (author)

  14. Analysis of hydrogen distribution on Mg-Ni alloy surface by scanning electron-stimulated desorption ion microscope (SESDIM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaga, Atsushi; Hibino, Kiyohide; Suzuki, Masanori; Yamada, Masaaki; Tanaka, Kazuhide; Ueda, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen distribution and behavior on a Mg-Ni alloy surface are studied by using a time-of-flight electron-stimulated desorption (TOF-ESD) microscopy and a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). The desorbed hydrogen ions are energy-discriminated and distinguished into two characters in the adsorbed states, which belong to Mg 2 Ni grains and the other to oxygen-contaminated Mg phase at the grain boundaries. Adsorbed hydrogen is found to be stable up to 150 deg. C, but becomes thermally unstable around at 200 deg. C

  15. Compatibility evaluation between La 2Mo 2O 9 fast oxide-ion conductor and Ni-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbel, Gwenaël; Lacorre, Philippe

    2006-05-01

    The chemical reactivity of La 2NiO 4+δ and nickel metal or nickel oxide with fast oxide-ion conductor La 2Mo 2O 9 is investigated in the annealing temperature range between 600 and 1000 °C, using room temperature X-ray powder diffraction. Within the La 2NiO 4+δ/La 2Mo 2O 9 system, subsequent reaction is evidenced at relatively low annealing temperature (600 °C), with formation of La 2MoO 6 and NiO. The reaction is complete at 1000 °C. At reverse, no reaction occurs between Ni or NiO and La 2Mo 2O 9 up to 1000 °C. Together with a previous work [G. Corbel, S. Mestiri, P. Lacorre, Solid State Sci. 7 (2005) 1216], the current study shows that Ni-CGO cermets might be chemically and mechanically compatible anode materials to work with LAMOX electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells.

  16. L-shell X-ray production cross sections of Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, and Dy by impact of {sup 14}N{sup 2+} ions with energies between 7.0 MeV and 10.5 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo, G.; Méndez, B.; López-Monroy, J. [Departamento de Aceleradores, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carr. México-Toluca S/N, Ocoyoacac, Edo. Méx. 52750 (Mexico); Miranda, J., E-mail: miranda@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 20-364, México, Cd. Mx. 01000 (Mexico); Villaseñor, P. [Departamento de Aceleradores, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carr. México-Toluca S/N, Ocoyoacac, Edo. Méx. 52750 (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • A new data set of L X-ray production cross sections by nitrogen ion impact is given. • The target elements have atomic numbers in the range 58–66 (lanthanoids). • A universal scaling as function of a reduced velocity variable is applied. • The eCPSSR model with EC and MI corrections gives very good results. - Abstract: L-shell X-ray production cross sections from the lanthanoid elements Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, and Dy, induced by the impact of {sup 14}N{sup 2+} ions with energies in the interval 7.0 MeV to 10.5 MeV (0.50 MeV/μ to 0.75 MeV/μ), were measured and then compared with theoretical calculations obtained with the ECPSSR model with exact limits of integration (eCPSSR) and related corrections. These include the electron capture by the incoming ion and multiple ionizations of higher shells. Data from this work were contrasted with previously published L X-ray production cross sections for {sup 14}N{sup 2+} ion impact. As with other ions, a universal behavior is found when L{sub α} and L{sub γ} X-ray production cross sections are plotted as a function of reduced velocity parameters. The agreement with theoretical predictions was very good when the corrections were applied to the eCPSSR model.

  17. Study of surface activation of PET by low energy (keV) Ni+ and N+ ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathawat, Rashi; Kumar, Anil; Kulshrestha, V.; Vijay, Y.K.; Kobayashi, T.; Kanjilal, D.

    2008-01-01

    Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) has been modified by 100 keV Ni + and N + ions using metal ion from volatile compound (MIVOC) ion source to fluence ranging from 1 x 10 14 to 1 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 . The increasing application of polymeric material in technological and scientific field has motivated the use of surface treatment to modify the physical and chemical properties of polymer surfaces. When a material is exposed to ionization radiation, it suffers damage leading to surface activation depending on the type. The surface morphology was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). That show the roughness increases with fluence in both the cases. The Ni particles as precipitation in PET were observed by cross-section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). The optical band gap (E g ) deduced from absorption spectra; was calculated by Tau'c relation. Raman spectroscopy shows quantitatively the chemical nature at the damage caused by the Ni + and N + bombardment. The ration of I D /I G shows graphite-like structure is formed on the surface. A layer of hydrogenated amorphous carbon is formed on the surface, which has confirmed by XPS results also.

  18. Origin and Properties of Quiet-time 0.11–1.28 MeV Nucleon{sup −1} Heavy-ion Population Near 1 au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayeh, M. A.; Desai, M. I.; Ebert, R. W. [Space Science and Engineering Division, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); Mason, G. M. [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Farahat, A., E-mail: maldayeh@swri.edu [Department of Physics, College of Applied and Supporting Studies, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-02-01

    Using measurements from the Advanced Composition Explorer /Ultra-Low Energy Isotope Spectrometer near 1 au, we surveyed the composition and spectra of heavy ions (He-through-Fe) during quiet times from 1998 January 1 to 2015 December 31 at suprathermal energies between ∼0.11 and ∼1.28 MeV nucleon{sup −1}. The selected time period covers the maxima of solar cycles 23 and 24 and the extended solar minimum in between. We find the following. (1) The number of quiet hours in each year correlates well with the sunspot number, year 2009 was the quietest for about 82% of the time. (2) The composition of the quiet-time suprathermal heavy-ion population ({sup 3}He, C-through-Fe) correlates well with the level of solar activity, exhibiting SEP-like composition signatures during solar maximum, and CIR- or solar wind-like composition during solar minimum. (3) The heavy-ion (C–Fe) spectra exhibit suprathermal tails at energies of 0.11–0.32 MeV nucleon{sup −1} with power-law spectral indices ranging from 1.40 to 2.97. Fe spectra soften (steepen, i.e., spectral index increases) smoothly with increasing energies compared with Fe, indicating a rollover behavior of Fe at higher energies (0.45–1.28 MeV nucleon{sup −1}). (4) Spectral indices of Fe and O do not appear to exhibit clear solar cycle dependence. (2) and (3) imply that during IP quiet times and at energies above ∼0.1 MeV nucleon{sup −1}, the IP medium is dominated by material from prior solar and interplanetary events. We discuss the implications of these extended observations in the context of the current understanding of the suprathermal ion population near 1 au.

  19. Influence of chloride ions on the stability of PtNi alloys for PEMFC cathode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasayee, K.; Veen, van J.A.R.; Hensen, E.J.M.; Bruijn, de F.A.

    2011-01-01

    The dependence of the rate of Ni dissolution from PtNi alloys on the chloride concentration was studied electrochemically in 0.5 M HClO4 at room temperature. Electrodeposited PtNi catalysts were subjected to extensive potential cycling between 20 mV and 1.3 V at various Cl- concentrations and the

  20. Hydrogen loss and its improved retention in hydrogen plasma treated a-SiNx:H films: ERDA study with 100 MeV Ag7+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommali, R. K.; Ghosh, S.; Khan, S. A.; Srivastava, P.

    2018-05-01

    Hydrogen loss from a-SiNx:H films under irradiation with 100 MeV Ag7+ ions using elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) experiment is reported. The results are explained under the basic assumptions of the molecular recombination model. The ERDA hydrogen concentration profiles are composed of two distinct hydrogen desorption processes, limited by rapid molecular diffusion in the initial stages of irradiation, and as the fluence progresses a slow process limited by diffusion of atomic hydrogen takes over. Which of the aforesaid processes dominates, is determined by the continuously evolving Hydrogen concentration within the films. The first process dominates when the H content is high, and as the H concentration falls below a certain threshold (Hcritical) the irradiation generated H radicals have to diffuse through larger distances before recombining to form H2, thereby significantly bringing down the hydrogen evolution rate. The ERDA measurements were also carried out for films treated with low temperature (300 °C) hydrogen plasma annealing (HPA). The HPA treated films show a clear increase in Hcritical value, thus indicating an improved diffusion of atomic hydrogen, resulting from healing of weak bonds and passivation of dangling bonds. Further, upon HPA films show a significantly higher H concentration relative to the as-deposited films, at advanced fluences. These results indicate the potential of HPA towards improved H retention in a-SiNx:H films. The study distinguishes clearly the presence of two diffusion processes in a-SiNx:H whose diffusion rates differ by an order of magnitude, with atomic hydrogen not being able to diffuse further beyond ∼ 1 nm from the point of its creation.

  1. Isotherm studies for determination of removal capacity of bi-metal (Ni and Cr) ions by aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, K.; Yusuf, M.; Hameed, A.; Noreen, Z.; Hafeez, F.Y.; Faryal, R.

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan is among the developing countries where there is a need to establish new industries to meet the demands of a growing population. This has led to industrial setup in various sectors, without proper planning and consideration for treatment of contamination, leading to disposal of untreated wastewater into nearby land and water bodies. This study was planned to investigate an indigenous Aspergillus niger for development of biosorbent for the removal of metal ions. The Aspergillus isolate's Ni and Cr removal efficiency was determined in batch mode over various pH (4.0-10.0) and temperature (25-40 deg. C) as single as well as bimetal ions. Using a single metal ion, maximum biosorption potential was obtained at pH 5.0-6.0 and 30-35 deg. C for both ions. On the other hand, Ni removal was reduced in the presence of Cr, while Ni removal influenced Cr removal with an increase showing maximum removal at an initial adsorbate concentration of 50mg/L, pH 6.0 and 35 deg. C. Effect of presence of bimetal in a solution on biosorption potential of Aspergillus niger was predicted by using equilibrium modeling. Adsorption trends for both nickel (R2 0.9916) and chromium (R2 0.8548) followed Langmuir isotherm in single metal removal system, but under bimetal condition chromium adsorption fitted better to Freundlich model and that of nickel followed Temkin isotherm, suggesting considerable change in behavior and interaction between biosorbent and metal ions. Therefore, we concluded that Aspergillus niger a viable strain for development of a biosorbent for removal of a mixture of metal ions. (author)

  2. SEPARATION OF Fe (III, Cr(III, Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II, AND Pb(II METAL IONS USING POLY(EUGENYL OXYACETIC ACID AS AN ION CARRIER BY A LIQUID MEMBRANE TRANSPORT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Harimu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fe (III, Cr(III, Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II, and Pb(II  metal ions had been separated using poly(eugenyl oxyacetic acid as an ion carrier by bulk liquid membrane transport method. The effect of pH, polyeugenyl oxyacetic acid ion carrier concentration, nitric acid concentration in the stripping solution, transport time, and metal concentration were optimized. The result showed that the optimum condition for transport of metal ions was at pH 4 for ion Fe(III and at pH 5 for Cr(III, Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II, and Pb(II ions. The carrier volumes were optimum with concentration of 1 x 10-3 M at 7.5 mL for Cr(III, Cu (II,  Ni(II, Co(II ions and at 8.5 mL for Fe(III and Pb(II ions. The concentration of HNO3 in stripping phase was optimum at 2 M for Fe(III and Cu(II ions, 1 M for Cr(III, Ni(II and Co(II ions, and 0.5 M for Pb(II ion. The optimum transport times were 36 h for Fe(III and Co(II ions, and 48 h for Cr(III, Cu (II, Ni(II, and Pb(II ions. The concentration of metal ions accurately transported were 2.5 x 10-4 M for Fe(III and Cr(III ions, and 1 M for Cu (II, Ni(II, Co(II, and Pb(II ions. Compared to other metal ions the transport of Fe(III was the highest with selectivity order of Fe(III > Cr(III > Pb(II > Cu(II > Ni(II > Co(II. At optimum condition, Fe(III ion was transported through the membrane at 46.46%.   Keywords: poly(eugenyl oxyacetic acid, transport, liquid membrane, Fe (III, Cr(III, Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II, and Pb(II ions

  3. Sensitive detection of hydrogen in a-Si:H by coincidence measurement of elastically scattered 100 MeV /sup 3/He/sup 2 +/ ions and recoil protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukada, Noboru; Imura, Takeshi; Hiraki, Akio [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Itahashi, Takahisa; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Tanaka, Masayoshi

    1982-09-01

    We have drastically improved the sensitivity of the nuclear elastic scattering (NES) method for determining hydrogen concentrations in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films. A beam of 100 MeV /sup 3/He/sup 2 +/ ions was used in the experiment. By taking the coincidence of detection of the scattered /sup 3/He ion with that of the recoil proton, we could achieve a sensitivity of 0.1 atomic percent with a precision of about 1 percent for 1 ..mu..m films.

  4. Effect of chelating agents and metal ions on nickel bioavailability and chlorophyll fluorescence response in wheat- An approach for attenuation of Ni stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilima Patnaik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study are to analyze the physiological changes, biochemical alterations and attenuation of nickel toxicity effects in wheat seedlings under combined applications of Ni ions, metal chelators (EDTA/Citric Acid and metal ions (Zn2+ /Mg2+. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L cv UP262 seedlings were grown hydroponically using different concentrations of Ni up to 7 days along with chelators and metal ions for study. The seedling growth was maximum with NiCl2–Zn2+ (100μM and minimum with NiCl2–EDTA (100μM treatments. Total chlorophyll content was maximum in the seedlings treated with NiCl2-Zn2+ (100μM and minimum in NiCl2-EDTA (100μM treatments. NiCl2–EDTA (100μM showed less Fo and Fm values and therefore, a trend in the decrease in OJIP transient indicates the maximum alteration of photochemical activity of PS-II in presence of NiCl2–EDTA (100μM treatment. Similar observation was found by NiCl2 –EDTA (200μM treatment where Fo and Fm values were noted to decline. High nickel content in roots of the seedlings was noted as compared to shoots.

  5. Modulation of the conductance of a 2,2′-bipyridine-functionalized peptidic ion channel by Ni2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Claudia S.

    2008-01-01

    An α-helical amphipathic peptide with the sequence H2N-(LSSLLSL)3-CONH2 was obtained by solid phase synthesis and a 2,2′-bipyridine was coupled to its N-terminus, which allows complexation of Ni2+. Complexation of the 2,2′-bipyridine residues was proven by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The peptide helices were inserted into lipid bilayers (nano black lipid membranes, nano-BLMs) that suspend the pores of porous alumina substrates with a pore diameter of 60 nm by applying a potential difference. From single channel recordings, we were able to distinguish four distinct conductance states, which we attribute to an increasing number of peptide helices participating in the conducting helix bundle. Addition of Ni2+ in micromolar concentrations altered the conductance behaviour of the formed ion channels in nano-BLMs considerably. The first two conductance states appear much more prominent demonstrating that the complexation of bipyridine by Ni2+ results in a considerable confinement of the observed multiple conductance states. However, the conductance levels were independent of the presence of Ni2+. Moreover, from a detailed analysis of the open lifetimes of the channels, we conclude that the complexation of Ni2+ diminishes the frequency of channel events with larger open times. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00249-008-0298-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18347789

  6. Sn buffered by shape memory effect of NiTi alloys as high-performance anodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Renzong; Zhu Min; Wang Hui; Liu Jiangwen; Liuzhang Ouyang; Zou Jin

    2012-01-01

    By applying the shape memory effect of the NiTi alloys to buffer the Sn anodes, we demonstrate a simple approach to overcome a long-standing challenge of Sn anode in the applications of Li-ion batteries – the capacity decay. By supporting the Sn anodes with NiTi shape memory alloys, the large volume change of Sn anodes due to lithiation and delithiation can be effectively accommodated, based on the stress-induced martensitic transformation and superelastic recovery of the NiTi matrix respectively, which leads to a decrease in the internal stress and closing of cracks in Sn anodes. Accordingly, stable cycleability (630 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles at 0.7C) and excellent high-rate capabilities (478 mA h g −1 at 6.7C) were attained with the NiTi/Sn/NiTi film electrode. These shape memory alloys can also combine with other high-capacity metallic anodes, such as Si, Sb, Al, and improve their cycle performance.

  7. Intercalation of Molybdate Ions into Ni/Zn Layered Double Hydroxide Salts: Synthesis, Characterization, and Preliminary Catalytic Activity in Methyl Transesterification of Soybean Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, Kamila; Maruyama, Swami A.; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; Wypych, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    This study reports the synthesis and characterization of a Ni/Zn layered double hydroxide salt intercalated with acetate ions and the subsequent replacement of the acetate ions with molybdate ions via an ion exchange reaction, conducted at two different pH values. Regardless of the pH employed during the synthesis, the basal spacing in the Ni/Zn layered double hydroxide salt decreased from 13.08 Å to approximately 9.5 Å, which agreed with intercalation of hydrated molybdate anions. The non-ca...

  8. Optimization of NiFe2O4/rGO composite electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Wang, Xia; Li, Shandong; Li, Qiang; Xu, Jie; Liu, Xiaomin; Liu, Changkun; Xu, Yuanhong; Liu, Jingquan; Li, Hongliang; Guo, Peizhi; Zhao, Xiu Song

    2017-09-01

    The combination of carbon compositing and the proper choice of binders in one system offer an effective strategy for improving electrode performance for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Here, we focus on the optimization of reduced graphene oxide content in NiFe2O4/reduced graphene oxide (abbreviated to NiFe2O4/rGO) composites and the proper choice of binders to enhance the cycling stability of the NiFe2O4 electrode. The NiFe2O4/rGO composites were fabricated by a hydrothermal-annealing method, in which the mean size of spinel NiFe2O4 nanoparticles was approximately 20 nm. When tested as anode materials for LIBs, the NiFe2O4/rGO electrodes with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) binder exhibited excellent lithium-storage performance including high reversible capacity, good cycling durability and high-rate capability. The capacity could be retained as high as 1105 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 for over 50 cycles, even cycled at higher current density of 1000 mA g-1, a capacity of 800 mAh g-1can be obtained, whereas the electrode with the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder suffered from rapid capacity decay under the same test conditions. As a result, the NiFe2O4/rGO composites with CMC binder electrode in this work are promising as anodes for high-performance LIBs, resulting from the synergistic effect of optimal graphene content and proper choice of binder.

  9. HREEL study of c(53x9)rect-N structure on Ni(111) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagno, M.; Pacile, D.; Giallombardo, C.; Cupolillo, A.; Papagno, L.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we have prepared and characterized by low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) the Ni(111)-c(53x9)rect-N surface structure formed by saturating the Ni(111) surface with nitrogen atoms. This structure was obtained by the ion-gauge assisted N 2 exposure method. The loss spectra show features at 50 and 25meV assigned to the N-Ni vibration and to a phonon of the reconstructed surface, respectively. We also investigated the case in which the Ni(111) surface was covered with a low coverage of N atoms

  10. Study of electrostatic acceleration of H and D negative ion beams. Application to the 1 MeV SINGAP accelerator; Etude de l`acceleration electrostatique de faisceaux d`ions negatifs H / D de haute puissance. Application a l`accelerateur SINGAP de 1MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucalossi, J [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France)

    1998-04-01

    In the framework of the development of a neutral beam injection system for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), the electrostatic acceleration of negative ion H/D beams up to an energy of 1 MeV has been studied. With the support of 3-D beam trajectory calculations, the limitations of the multi-aperture multi-grid acceleration concept, ITER reference concept, ar shown and the relevance of a new concept, called SINGAP, is demonstrated. In a SINGAP accelerator, beamlets are pre-accelerated with a classical triode multi-apertures system up to {approx} 50 keV. The pre-accelerated beamlets are then merged into a single beam and post-accelerated at high energy through a large SINGle APerture using one SINgle GAP. The optics of one pre-accelerated beamlet has been studied on the INCA triode accelerator at the Ecole Polytechnique. A diagnostic has been developed to measure the emittance of the pre-accelerated beamlet. A diagnostic has been developed to measure the emittance of the pre-accelerated beamlet. Values of {approx} 0.03{pi}.mrad.cm for the effective normalized emittance and {approx} 12 mrad for the minimal beam divergence have been found (Hbeams). Besides, the effects of co-extracted electrons and pressure in the transport region on the beam optics are shown and experiment is compared to beam numerical simulation. On the Cadarache 1 MeV, 100 mA, D- SINGAP accelerator, beams of 1 s pulse were produced at a level of 900 keV (without observing breakdowns between electrodes). SINGAP optics has been investigated using an infrared calorimetric beam profile diagnostic (2-D) and a neutral beam profile diagnostic (1-D). The control of the beam optics is very satisfying: a divergence of {approx} 10 mrad has been measured, and 3-D simulations and experimentation are in good agreement. (author) 117 refs.

  11. Three-dimensional graphene sheets with NiO nanobelt outgrowths for enhanced capacity and long term high rate cycling Li-ion battery anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Waipeng; Zhang, Yingmeng; Key, Julian; Shen, Pei Kang

    2018-03-01

    An efficient synthesis method to grow well attached NiO nanobelts from 3D graphene sheets (3DGS) is reported herein. Ni-ion exchanged resin provides the initial Ni reactant portion, which serves both as a catalyst to form 3DGS and then as a seeding agent to grow the NiO nanobelts. The macroporous structure of 3DGS provides NiO containment to achieve a high cycling stability of up to 445 mAh g-1 after 360 cycles (and >112% capacity retention after 515 cycles) at a high current density of 2 A g-1. With a 26.8 wt.% content of NiO on 3DGS, increases in specific and volumetric capacity were 41.6 and 75.7% respectively over that of 3DGS at matching current densities. Therefore, the seeded growth of NiO nanobelts from 3DGS significantly boosts volumetric capacity, while 3DGS enables high rate long term cycling of the NiO. The high rate cycling stability of NiO on 3DGS can be attributed to (i) good attachment and contact to the large surface of 3DGS, (ii) high electron conductivity and rapid Li-ion transfer (via the interconnected, highly conductive graphitized walls of 3DGS) and (iii) buffering void space in 3DGS to contain volume expansion of NiO during charge/discharge.

  12. Influence of excess sodium ions on the specific surface area formation in a NiO-Al2O3 catalyst prepared by different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sodium ions on the specific surface area of a NiO-Al2O3 catalyst in dependence of nickel loading (5, 10, and 20 wt% Ni, temperature of heat treatment (400, 700 and 1100oC and the method of sample preparation was investigated. Low temperature nitrogen adsorption (LTNA, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were applied for sample characterization. Dramatic differences in the specific surface area were registered between non-rinsed and rinsed Al2O3 and NiO-Al2O3 samples. The lagged sodium ions promote sintering of non-rinsed catalyst samples.

  13. Leaky mode suppression in planar optical waveguides written in Er:TeO{sub 2}–WO{sub 3} glass and CaF{sub 2} crystal via double energy implantation with MeV N{sup +} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bányász, I., E-mail: banyasz@sunserv.kfki.hu [Department of Crystal Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Zolnai, Z.; Fried, M. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, Budapest H-1525 (Hungary); Berneschi, S. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); “Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy); Pelli, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    Ion implantation proved to be an universal technique for producing waveguides in most optical materials. Tellurite glasses are good hosts of rare-earth elements for the development of fibre and integrated optical amplifiers and lasers covering all the main telecommunication bands. Er{sup 3+}-doped tellurite glasses are good candidates for the fabrication of broadband amplifiers in wavelength division multiplexing around 1.55 μm, as they exhibit large stimulated cross sections and broad emission bandwidth. Calcium fluoride is an excellent optical material, due to its perfect optical characteristics from UV wavelengths up to near IR. It has become a promising laser host material (doped with rare earth elements). Ion implantation was also applied to optical waveguide fabrication in CaF{sub 2} and other halide crystals. In the present work first single-energy implantations at 3.5 MeV at various fluences were applied. Waveguide operation up to 1.5 μm was observed in Er:Te glass, and up to 980 nm in CaF{sub 2}. Then double-energy implantations at a fixed upper energy of 3.5 MeV and lower energies between 2.5 and 3.2 MeV were performed to suppress leaky modes by increasing barrier width.

  14. Effects of MeV Si ions bombardment on the thermoelectric generator from SiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} + Cu and SiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} + Au nanolayered multilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budak, S., E-mail: satilmis.budak@aamu.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL (United States); Chacha, J., E-mail: chacha_john79@hotmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL (United States); Smith, C., E-mail: cydale@cim.aamu.edu [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL (United States); Department of Physics, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL (United States); Pugh, M., E-mail: marcuspughp@yahoo.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL (United States); Colon, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL (United States); Heidary, K., E-mail: kaveh.heidary@aamu.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL (United States); Johnson, R.B., E-mail: barry@w4wb.com [Department of Physics, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL (United States); Ila, D., E-mail: ila@cim.aamu.edu [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL (United States); Department of Physics, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The defects and disorder in the thin films caused by MeV ions bombardment and the grain boundaries of these nanoscale clusters increase phonon scattering and increase the chance of an inelastic interaction and phonon annihilation. We prepared the thermoelectric generator devices from 100 alternating layers of SiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} + Cu multi-nano layered superlattice films at the total thickness of 382 nm and 50 alternating layers of SiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} + Au multi-nano layered superlattice films at the total thickness of 147 nm using the physical vapor deposition (PVD). Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and RUMP simulation have been used to determine the stoichiometry of the elements of SiO{sub 2}, Cu and Au in the multilayer films and the thickness of the grown multi-layer films. The 5 MeV Si ions bombardments have been performed using the AAMU-Center for Irradiation of Materials (CIM) Pelletron ion beam accelerator to make quantum (nano) dots and/or quantum (quantum) clusters in the multilayered superlattice thin films to decrease the cross plane thermal conductivity, increase the cross plane Seebeck coefficient and cross plane electrical conductivity. To characterize the thermoelectric generator devices before and after Si ion bombardments we have measured Seebeck coefficient, cross-plane electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity in the cross-plane geometry for different fluences.

  15. Thermoluminescence of sol–gel derived Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Nd{sup 3+} nanophosphor exposed to 100 MeV Si{sup 8+} ions and gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shivaramu, N.J. [Department of Physics, Jnanabharathi Campus, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560 056 (India); Lakshminarasappa, B.N., E-mail: bnlnarassappa@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Jnanabharathi Campus, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560 056 (India); Nagabhushana, K.R., E-mail: bhushankr@gmail.com [Department of Physics (S and H), PES Institute of Technology, 100 Feet Ring Road, BSK III stage, Bangalore 560085 (India); Singh, Fouran [Inter University Accelerator Centre, P.O. Box No. 10502, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Nanocrystalline Nd{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} was synthesized by sol–gel technique. • Pellets of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Nd{sup 3+} were irradiated with 100 MeV swift Si{sup 8+} ions and γ-rays. • The relative TL efficiency of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Nd{sup 3+} of 100 MeV Si ion to γ-rays of {sup 60}Co and is found to be 0.059. • Gamma irradiated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Nd{sup 3+} was observed, it is suitable for space dosimetry application. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline Nd{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} was synthesized by sol–gel technique. Crystallite size calculated by Scherrer relation was found to be in the range 28–30 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed Y−O, −OH stretching and C−O bending bonds. Pellets of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Nd{sup 3+} were irradiated with 100 MeV swift Si{sup 8+} ions and γ-rays for the fluence/dose in the range 3 × 10{sup 11}–3 × 10{sup 13} ions cm{sup −2} and 1.0{sup -}14 kGy respectively. A prominent thermoluminescence (TL) glow with peak at 527 K and a weak one with peak at 600 K were observed in Si{sup 8+} ion irradiated samples while, a prominent TL glow with peak at 393 K besides a shoulder at 434 K and a weak one with peak at 581 K were observed in γ-irradiated phosphors. The relative TL efficiency of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Nd{sup 3+} of 100 MeV Si ion beam to γ-rays of {sup 60}Co and is found to be 0.059. The TL kinetic parameters were calculated using Chen’s peak shape method and the results obtained are discussed. Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Nd{sup 3+} was observed for its use in space dosimetry application.

  16. Physico-Chemical and Electrochemical Properties of Nanoparticulate NiO/C Composites for High Performance Lithium and Sodium Ion Battery Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Iturrondobeitia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticulate NiO and NiO/C composites with different carbon proportions have been prepared for anode application in lithium and sodium ion batteries. Structural characterization demonstrated the presence of metallic Ni in the composites. Morphological study revealed that the NiO and Ni nanoparticles were well dispersed in the matrix of amorphous carbon. The electrochemical study showed that the lithium ion batteries (LIBs, containing composites with carbon, have promising electrochemical performances, delivering specific discharge capacities of 550 mAh/g after operating for 100 cycles at 1C. These excellent results could be explained by the homogeneity of particle size and structure, as well as the uniform distribution of NiO/Ni nanoparticles in the in situ generated amorphous carbon matrix. On the other hand, the sodium ion battery (NIB with the NiO/C composite revealed a poor cycling stability. Post-mortem analyses revealed that this fact could be ascribed to the absence of a stable Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI or passivation layer upon cycling.

  17. Regression model, artificial neural network, and cost estimation for biosorption of Ni(II)-ions from aqueous solutions by Potamogeton pectinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Manal; Nasr, Mahmoud; Adel, Samar; Helmi, Shacker

    2018-03-21

    This study investigated the application of Potamogeton pectinatus for Ni(II)-ions biosorption from aqueous solutions. FTIR spectra showed that the functional groups of -OH, C-H, -C = O, and -COO- could form an organometallic complex with Ni(II)-ions on the biomaterial surface. SEM/EDX analysis indicated that the voids on the biosorbent surface were blocked due to Ni(II)-ions uptake via an ion exchange mechanism. For Ni(II)-ions of 50 mg/L, the adsorption efficiency recorded 63.4% at pH: 5, biosorbent dosage: 10 g/L, and particle-diameter: 0.125-0.25 mm within 180 minutes. A quadratic model depicted that the plot of removal efficiency against pH or contact time caused quadratic-linear concave up curves, whereas the curve of initial Ni(II)-ions was quadratic-linear convex down. Artificial neural network with a structure of 5 - 6 - 1 was able to predict the adsorption efficiency (R 2 : 0.967). The relative importance of inputs was: initial Ni(II)-ions > pH > contact time > biosorbent dosage > particle-size. Freundlich isotherm described well the adsorption mechanism (R 2 : 0.974), which indicated a multilayer adsorption onto energetically heterogeneous surfaces. The net cost of using P. pectinatus for the removal of Ni(II)-ions (4.25 ± 1.26 mg/L) from real industrial effluents within 30 minutes was 3.4 $USD/m 3 .

  18. Investigation of optical properties of Cu/Ni multilayer nanowires embedded in etched ion-track template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Lu [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yao, Huijun, E-mail: Yaohuijun@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Duan, Jinglai; Chen, Yonghui [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lyu, Shuangbao [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Maaz, Khan [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Nanomaterials Research Group, Physics Division, PINSTECH, Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mo, Dan [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Jie, E-mail: J.Liu@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Sun, Youmei; Hou, Mingdong [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: The schematic diagram of measurement of extinction spectra of Cu/Ni multilayer nanowire arrays embedded in the template after removing the gold/copper substrate. - Highlights: • The optical properties of Cu/Ni multilayer nanowire arrays were first investigated by UV/Vis/NIR spectrometer and it was confirmed that the extinction peaks strongly related to the periodicity of the multilayer nanowire. • The Ni segment was thought as a kind of impurity which can change the surface electron distribution and thereby the extinction peaks of nanowire. • Current work supplied the clear layer thickness information of Cu and Ni in Cu/Ni multilayer nanowire with TEM and EDS line-scan profile analysis. - Abstract: For understanding the interaction between light and noble/magnetism multilayer nanowires, Cu/Ni multilayer nanowires are fabricated by a multi-potential step deposition technique in etched ion-track polycarbonate template. The component and the corresponding layer thickness of multilayer nanowire are confirmed by TEM and EDS line-scan analysis. By tailoring the nanowire diameter, the Cu layer thickness and the periodicity of the nanowire, the extinction spectral of nanowire arrays exhibit an extra sensitivity to the change of structural parameters. The resonance wavelength caused by surface plasmon resonance increases obviously with increasing the nanowire diameter, the Cu layer thickness and the periodicity. The observations in our work can be explained by the “impurity effect” and coupled effect and can also be optimized for developing optical devices based on multilayer nanowires.

  19. Electrochemical properties of rapidly solidified Si-Ti-Ni(-Cu) base anode for Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hye Jin; Sohn, Keun Yong; Park, Won-Wook

    2013-11-01

    In this study, rapidly solidified Si-Ti-Ni-Cu alloys have been investigated as high capacity anodes for Li-ion secondary batteries. To obtain nano-sized Si particles dispersed in the inactive matrix, the alloy ribbons were fabricated using the melt spinning process. The thin ribbons were pulverized using ball-milling to make a fine powder of ˜ 4 µm average size. Coin-cell assembly was carried out under an argon gas in a glove box, in which pure lithium was used as a counter-electrode. The cells were cycled using the galvanostatic method in the potential range of 0.01 V and 1.5 V vs. Li/Li+. The microstructure and morphology were examined using an x-ray diffractometer, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. Among the anode alloys, the Si70Ti15Ni15 electrodes had the highest discharge capacity (974.1 mAh/g) after the 50th cycle, and the Si60Ti16Ni16Cu8 electrode showed the best coulombic efficiency of ˜95.9% in cyclic behavior. It was revealed that the Si7Ni4Ti4 crystal phase coexisting with an amorphous phase, could more efficiently act as a buffer layer than the fully crystallized Si7Ni4Ti4 phase. Consequently, the electrochemical properties of the anode materials pronouncedly improved when the nano-sized primary Si particle was dispersed in the inactive Si7Ni4Ti4-based matrix mixed with an amorphous structure.

  20. Molecules based on M(v) (M=Mo, W) and Ni(II) ions: a new class of trigonal bipyramidal cluster and confirmation of SMM behavior for the pentadecanuclear molecule {NiII[NiII(tmphen)(MeOH)]6[Ni(H2O)3]2[micro-CN]30[WV(CN)3]6}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfiger, Matthew G; Zhao, Hanhua; Prosvirin, Andrey; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Dunbar, Kim R

    2009-07-14

    The preparation, single crystal X-ray crystallography, and magnetic properties are reported for four new clusters based on [M'V(CN)8]3- octacyanometallates (M'=Mo, W). Reactions of [M'V(CN)8]3- with mononuclear NiII ions in the presence of the tmphen blocking ligand (tmphen=3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) in a 2:3:6 ratio, respectively, lead to the formation of the trigonal bipyramidal clusters [NiII(tmphen)2]3[M'V(CN)8]2. Analogous reactions with the same starting materials performed in a 2:3:2 ratio, respectively, produce pentadecanuclear clusters of the type {NiII[NiII(tmphen)(MeOH)]6[Ni(H2O)3]2[micro-CN]30[WV(CN)3]6}. The W2Ni3 (1) and Mo2Ni3(2) pentanuclear clusters and the W6Ni9 (3) and Mo6Ni9 (4) pentadecanuclear molecules are isostructural to each other and crystallize in the space groups P2(1)/c and R3 respectively. Magnetic measurements indicate that the ground states for the trigonal bipyamidal clusters are S=4 as a consequence of ferromagnetic coupling with JW-Ni=9.5 cm(-1), JMo-Ni=10 cm(-1). The pentadecanuclear clusters exhibit ferromagnetic coupling as well, which leads to S=12 ground states (JW-Ni=12 cm(-1), JMo-Ni=12.2 cm(-1)). Reduced magnetization studies on the W-Ni analogues support the conclusion that they exhibit a negative axial anisotropy term; the fits give D values of -0.24 cm(-1) for the W2Ni3 cluster and D=-0.04 cm(-1)for the W6Ni9 cluster. AC susceptibility measurements indicate the beginning of an out-of-phase signal for the W2Ni3 and the W6Ni9 compounds, but detailed low temperature studies on small crystals by the microSQUID technique indicate that only the pentadecanuclear cluster exhibits hysteresis in accord with SMM behavior. Neither Mo cluster reveals any evidence for slow paramagnetic relaxation at low temperatures.

  1. Engineering three-dimensionally electrodeposited Si-on-Ni inverse opal structure for high volumetric capacity Li-ion microbattery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Cho, Hyung-Man; Meng, Ying Shirley; Li, Quan

    2014-06-25

    Aiming at improving the volumetric capacity of nanostructured Li-ion battery anode, an electrodeposited Si-on-Ni inverse opal structure has been proposed in the present work. This type of electrode provides three-dimensional bi-continuous pathways for ion/electron transport and high surface area-to-volume ratios, and thus exhibits lower interfacial resistance, but higher effective Li ions diffusion coefficients, when compared to the Si-on-Ni nanocable array electrode of the same active material mass. As a result, improved volumetric capacities and rate capabilities have been demonstrated in the Si-on-Ni inverse opal anode. We also show that optimization of the volumetric capacities and the rate performance of the inverse opal electrode can be realized by manipulating the pore size of the Ni scaffold and the thickness of the Si deposit.

  2. Unravelling the origin of irreversible capacity loss in NaNiO 2 for high voltage sodium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liguang; Wang, Jiajun; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Ren, Yang; Zuo, Pengjian; Yin, Geping; Wang, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Layered transition metal compounds have attracted much attention due to their high theoretical capacity and energy density for sodium ion batteries. However, this kind of material suffers from serious irreversible capacity decay during the charge and discharge process. Here, using synchrotron-based operando transmission X-ray microscopy and high-energy X-ray diffraction combined with electrochemical measurements, the visualization of the dissymmetric phase transformation and structure evolution mechanism of layered NaNiO2 material during initial charge and discharge cycles are clarified. Phase transformation and deformation of NaNiO2 during the voltage range of below 3.0 V and over 4.0 V are responsible for the irreversible capacity loss during the first cycling, which is also confirmed by the evolution of reaction kinetics behavior obtained by the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique. These findings reveal the origin of the irreversibility of NaNiO2 and offer valuable insight into the phase transformation mechanism, which will provide underlying guidance for further development of high-performance sodium ion batteries.

  3. Targeted synthesis of novel hierarchical sandwiched NiO/C arrays as high-efficiency lithium ion batteries anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yangyang; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Wenxiang; Fang, Ling; Wang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution, the novel 2D sandwich-like NiO/C arrays on Ti foil are successfully designed and fabricated for the first time via simple and controllable hydrothermal process. In this strategy, we use green glucose as carbon source and ultrathin Ni(OH)2 nanosheet arrays as precursor for NiO nanoparticles and sacrificial templates for coupled graphitized carbon layers. This advanced sandwiched composite can not only provide large surface area for numerous active sites and continuous contact between active materials and electrolyte, but also protect the active nanoparticles from aggregation, pulverization and peeling off from conductive substrates. Furthermore, the porous structure derived from lots of substances loss under high-temperature calcinations can effectively buffer possible volume expansion and facilitate ion transfer. In this article, sandwiched NiO/C arrays, utilized as anode for LIBs, demonstrated high specific capacity (∼1458 mAh g-1 at 500 mA g-1) and excellent rate performance and cyclablity (∼95.7% retention after 300 cycles).

  4. Mitigating Voltage Decay of Li-Rich Cathode Material via Increasing Ni Content for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ji-Lei; Zhang, Jie-Nan; He, Min; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Yin, Ya-Xia; Li, Hong; Guo, Yu-Guo; Gu, Lin; Wan, Li-Jun

    2016-08-10

    Li-rich layered materials have been considered as the most promising cathode materials for future high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. However, they suffer from severe voltage decay upon cycling, which hinders their further commercialization. Here, we report a Li-rich layered material 0.5Li2MnO3·0.5LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 with high nickel content, which exhibits much slower voltage decay during long-term cycling compared to conventional Li-rich materials. The voltage decay after 200 cycles is 201 mV. Combining in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), ex situ XRD, ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that nickel ions act as stabilizing ions to inhibit the Jahn-Teller effect of active Mn(3+) ions, improving d-p hybridization and supporting the layered structure as a pillar. In addition, nickel ions can migrate between the transition-metal layer and the interlayer, thus avoiding the formation of spinel-like structures and consequently mitigating the voltage decay. Our results provide a simple and effective avenue for developing Li-rich layered materials with mitigated voltage decay and a long lifespan, thereby promoting their further application in lithium-ion batteries with high energy density.

  5. Liquid crystal based optical platform for the detection of Pb2+ ions using NiFe2O4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehra, Saman; Gul, Iftikhar Hussain; Hussain, Zakir

    2018-06-01

    A simple, sensitive, selective and real time detection protocol was developed for Pb2+ ions in water using liquid crystals (LCs). In this method, NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized using chemical co-precipitation method. Crystallite size, morphological, functional groups and magnetization studies were confirmed using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques, respectively. The nanoparticles were mono dispersed with average particle size of 20 ± 2 nm. The surfactant stabilized magnetic nanoparticles were incubated in liquid crystal based sensor system for the detection of Pb+2 ions. The bright to dark transition of LC was observed through optical microscope. When this system was further immersed with a solution containing Pb2+ ions, it caused homeotropic to planar orientation of LC. This interaction is attributed to the presence of abundant hydroxyl groups in such as M-OH, Fe-OH on the surface of spinel ferrites nanoparticles. These groups interact with metal ions at aqueous interface, causing disruption in LCs orientation giving bright texture. This sensor showed higher selectivity towards Pb2+ ions. The detection limit was estimated to be 100 ppb. The cheap and effective protocol reported here should make promising development of LC based sensor for lead ion detection.

  6. Liquid crystal based optical platform for the detection of Pb2+ ions using NiFe2O4 nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Zehra

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive, selective and real time detection protocol was developed for Pb2+ ions in water using liquid crystals (LCs. In this method, NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized using chemical co-precipitation method. Crystallite size, morphological, functional groups and magnetization studies were confirmed using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques, respectively. The nanoparticles were mono dispersed with average particle size of 20 ± 2 nm. The surfactant stabilized magnetic nanoparticles were incubated in liquid crystal based sensor system for the detection of Pb+2 ions. The bright to dark transition of LC was observed through optical microscope. When this system was further immersed with a solution containing Pb2+ ions, it caused homeotropic to planar orientation of LC. This interaction is attributed to the presence of abundant hydroxyl groups in such as M-OH, Fe-OH on the surface of spinel ferrites nanoparticles. These groups interact with metal ions at aqueous interface, causing disruption in LCs orientation giving bright texture. This sensor showed higher selectivity towards Pb2+ ions. The detection limit was estimated to be 100 ppb. The cheap and effective protocol reported here should make promising development of LC based sensor for lead ion detection. Keywords: Chemical co-precipitation method, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Liquid crystals, Nanoparticles, Sensor, X-ray diffraction

  7. Role of Ni2+(d8) ions in electrical, optical and magnetic properties of CdS nanowires for optoelectronic and spintronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad Kamran, Muhammad

    2018-06-01

    For the first time, 1D Ni ion doped CdS nanowires (NWs) were synthesized via chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The synthesized Cd0.886Ni0.114S NWs were single crystalline. We have reported here the investigation of optical, electrical and magnetic properties of prepared NWs for optoelectronic and spintronic applications. Successful incorporation of Ni ions in an individual CdS NW has been confirmed through several characterization tools: significantly higher angle and phonon mode shift were observed in the XRD and Raman spectra. SEM-EDX and XPS analysis also confirmed the presence of Ni2+ ions. Room temperature photoluminescence (RT-PL) showed multiple peaks: two emission peaks in the visible region centered at 517.1 nm (green), 579.2 nm (orange), and a broad-band near infra-red (NIR) emission centered at 759.9 nm. The first peak showed 5 nm red shift upon Ni2+ doping, hinting at the formation of exciton magnetic polarons (EMPs), and broad NIR emission was observed in both chlorides and bromides, which was assigned to d‑d transition of Ni ions whose energy levels lying at 749.51 nm (13 342 cm–1) and 750.98 nm (13 316 cm–1) are very close to NIR emission. Orange emission not only remained at same peak position—its PL intensity was also significantly enhanced at 78 K; this was assigned to d‑d transition (3A2g → 1Eg) of Ni2+ ions. It was observed that 11.4% Ni2+ ion doping enhanced the conductivity of our sample around 20 times, and saturation magnetization (Ms) increased from 7.2 × 10‑5 Am2/Kg to 1.17 × 10‑4 Am2/Kg, which shows promise for optoelectronic and spintronic applications.

  8. Spherical NiO-C composite for anode material of lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.H.; Tu, J.P.; Zhang, C.Q.; Chen, X.T.; Yuan, Y.F.; Wu, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Spherical NiO-C composite was prepared by dispersing spherical NiO in glucose solution and subsequent carbonization under hydrothermal conditions at 180 o C. The microstructure and morphology of the NiO-C and NiO powders were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical properties of the electrodes were measured by galvanostatic charge-discharge tests, cyclic voltammetric analysis (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). SEM images showed that the amorphous carbon not only coated on the surface but also filled the inner pores of the NiO spheres. Electrochemical tests showed that the NiO-C composite exhibited higher initial coulombic efficiency (66.6%) than NiO (56.4%), and better cycling performances. The improvement of these properties is attributed to the carbon, as it can reduce the specific surface area of porous sphere, and enhance the conductivity of porous NiO

  9. Atomic mixing of metallic bilayers Ni/Ti irradiated with high energy heavy ions; Etude du melange ionique de bicouches metalliques Ni/Ti irradiees avec des ions lourds de haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leguay, R

    1994-09-26

    We have studied the ionic mixing of Nl(105 angstrom) bilayers irradiated, at 80 and 300 K. with GeV heavy ions. In this energy range, the energy transfer from the incident ions to the target occurs mainly through electronic excitations. We have shown that this energy transfer induces a strong ionic mixing at the Nl/Ti interface. The thickness of the mixed interlayer increases with the fluence. At low fluences (10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}), the Nl/Ti interface is rough ; at higher fluences (10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}) a homogeneous mixed interlayer appears ; and at even higher fluences (some 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}) a preferential diffusion of Ni into Ti is clearly seen. The characterization techniques used are: (1) electrical resistivity measurements which allow to follow in situ the damage kinetic. (II) neutron and X-ray reflectometry. (III) elaboration of transverse cuts on which was performed energy loss spectroscopy. (II) and (III) allow the determination of the concentration profiles of the different species present in the sample. (IV) transmission electron microscopy on the transverse cuts which gives a direct image of the different layers. (author). 11 refs., 103 figs., 23 tabs., 2 appends.

  10. Effect of electron-excitation on radiation damage in ion-irradiated FCC metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwase, Akihiro

    1989-06-01

    FCC metals (Al, Cu, Ag, Ni) were irradiated with 0.5-1.8 MeV H, He, N and Ar ions, and 84-126 MeV C, F, Si, Cl, Br and I ions at liquid helium temperatures. After the irradiations, thermal annealing experiments were performed up to 300 K. Anomalous reduction of Stage-I recovery was observed in Al and Ni irradiated with high-energy (∼100 MeV) heavy ions. Radiation annealing by 100 MeV I ions was studied in predoped Ni and Cu. The experimental results were analyzed by using a new model which describes the production and radiation annealing of two or more types of defects. The extraordinarily large cross sections for subthreshold recombination of Stage-I defects were obtained in Ni. These results show that in Al and Ni, the energies transferred from the excited electrons to lattice through the electron-lattice interaction contribute to the annihilations of defects during irradiation. (author)

  11. Effect of Temperature on the Kinetics of Sorption of Co2+ and Ni2+ Ions by a Sorbent Based on an Inositol Hexaphosphoric Acid Derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarusova, S. B.; Makarenko, N. V.; Gordienko, P. S.; Karpenko, M. A.; Novikova, E. S.

    2018-03-01

    Data on the effect temperature has on the kinetics of the removal of Co2+ and Ni2+ ions under static conditions by a sorbent based on a derivative of phytic acid fabricated from rice production waste are presented. It is shown that when the temperature is raised from 20 to 60°C, the sorption capacity of the sorbent based on phytic acid increases over the period of sorption and within 180 min reaches values of 1.4 mmol g-1 for Co2+ ions and 1.3 mmol g-1 for Ni2+ ions. It is established that for the investigated range of temperatures, order n of the sorption of Co2+ and Ni2+ ions is frame is best described by a kinetic model of a pseudo-second order, as is indicated by respective correlation coefficients.

  12. Flexible free-standing porous graphene/Ni film electrode with enhanced rate capability for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Hailiang; Zhou, Xufeng; Shi, Junli; Liu, Zhaoping

    2016-01-01

    Flexible, lightweight and reliable lithium-ion batteries have attracted tremendous attention and research interest to meet the requirements of portable and bendable devices. Here, flexible, free-standing and porous graphene/Ni film with vertical nano-channels inside is prepared by metal etching of graphene film. Compared with dense graphene film, the porous graphene/Ni film employed as a binder-free anode in lithium-ion batteries exhibits higher capacity and much better rate capability, due to its unique interior channel architecture which is favorable for fast ion transport. At a high current density of 2 A g"−"1, it can reach a specific capacity of 117 mAh g"−"1. The porous film also shows low charge transfer resistance and good cycling stability. After 300 cycles at 1 A g"−"1, its specific capacity still remains at 147 mAh g"−"1, with high Coulombic efficiency of nearly 100%. Furthermore, the strategy developed here is very simple and of great importance to rational design of porous graphene film or graphene-based hybrids with various applications.

  13. Flexible free-standing porous graphene/Ni film electrode with enhanced rate capability for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Hailiang; Zhou, Xufeng, E-mail: zhouxf@nimte.ac.cn; Shi, Junli; Liu, Zhaoping, E-mail: liuzp@nimte.ac.cn

    2016-11-15

    Flexible, lightweight and reliable lithium-ion batteries have attracted tremendous attention and research interest to meet the requirements of portable and bendable devices. Here, flexible, free-standing and porous graphene/Ni film with vertical nano-channels inside is prepared by metal etching of graphene film. Compared with dense graphene film, the porous graphene/Ni film employed as a binder-free anode in lithium-ion batteries exhibits higher capacity and much better rate capability, due to its unique interior channel architecture which is favorable for fast ion transport. At a high current density of 2 A g{sup −1}, it can reach a specific capacity of 117 mAh g{sup −1}. The porous film also shows low charge transfer resistance and good cycling stability. After 300 cycles at 1 A g{sup −1}, its specific capacity still remains at 147 mAh g{sup −1}, with high Coulombic efficiency of nearly 100%. Furthermore, the strategy developed here is very simple and of great importance to rational design of porous graphene film or graphene-based hybrids with various applications.

  14. Synergistic effect of graphene nanosheets and zinc oxide nanoparticles for effective adsorption of Ni (II) ions from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadadian, Mahboubeh; Goharshadi, Elaheh K.; Fard, Mina Matin; Ahmadzadeh, Hossein

    2018-03-01

    The threat of toxic substances such as heavy metals to public health and wildlife has led to an increasing public awareness. Different techniques for neutralizing the toxic effects of heavy metals in wastewater have been used. Here, we prepared a new and efficient type of adsorbent, zinc oxide-graphene nanocomposite (ZnO-Gr), via a green method to remove Ni (II) ions from aqueous solutions. A facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique in the presence of an ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide [C6mim] [NTf2], was used to prepare ZnO-Gr. The synergistic effect between graphene nanosheets and ZnO nanoparticles in this new adsorbent for Ni (II) ions caused a maximum adsorption capacity of 66.7 mg g-1 at room temperature which is much higher than that of graphene nanosheets (3.8 mg g-1) and other carbonaceous nanomaterials used as an adsorbent in the literature. The maximum desorption percentage (90.32%) was achieved at pH 3.6. By thermodynamic study, we found that the adsorption of this heavy metal ion on ZnO-Gr was spontaneous (Δ G° = -6.14 kJ mol-1) and endothermic (Δ H° = 53.31 kJ mol-1) with entropy change of Δ S° = 199.45 J K-1 mol- 1.

  15. Formation of dislocations and hardening of LiF under high-dose irradiation with 5-21 MeV {sup 12}C ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabels, R.; Manika, I.; Maniks, J.; Grants, R. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga (Latvia); Schwartz, K. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Dauletbekova, A.; Baizhumanov, M. [L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Astana (Kazakhstan); Zdorovets, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2017-05-15

    The emergence of dislocations and hardening of LiF crystals irradiated to high doses with {sup 12}C ions have been investigated using chemical etching, AFM, nanoindentation, and thermal annealing. At fluences ensuring the overlapping of tracks (Φ ≥6 x 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2}), the formation of dislocation-rich structure and ion-induced hardening is observed. High-fluence (10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}) irradiation with {sup 12}C ions causes accumulation of extended defects and induces hardening comparable to that reached by heavy ions despite of large differences in ion mass, energy, energy loss, and track morphology. The depth profiles of hardness indicate on a notable contribution of elastic collision mechanism (nuclear loss) in the damage production and hardening. The effect manifests at the end part of the ion range and becomes significant at high fluences (≥10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}). (orig.)

  16. Modeling the adsorption of metal ions (Cu 2+, Ni 2+, Pb 2+) onto ACCs using surface complexation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faur-Brasquet, Catherine; Reddad, Zacaria; Kadirvelu, Krishna; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2002-08-01

    Activated carbon cloths (ACCs), whose efficiency has been demonstrated for microorganics adsorption from water, were here studied in the removal of metal ions from aqueous solution. Two ACCs are investigated, they are characterized in terms of porosity parameters (BET specific surface area, percentage of microporosity) and chemical characteristics (acidic surface groups, acidity constants, point of zero charge). A first part consists in the experimental study of three metal ions removal (Cu 2+, Ni 2+ and Pb 2+) in a batch reactor. Isotherms modeling by Freundlich and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) equations enables the following adsorption order: Cu 2+>Ni 2+>Pb 2+ to be determined for adsorption capacities on a molar basis. It may be related to adsorbates characteristics in terms of electronegativity and ionic radius. The influence of adsorbent's microporosity is also shown. Adsorption experiments carried out for pH values ranging from 2 to 10 demonstrate: (i) an adsorption occurring below the precipitation pH; (ii) the strong influence of pH, with a decrease of electrostatic repulsion due to the formation of less charged hydrolyzed species coupled with a decrease of activated carbon surface charge as pH increases. The second part focuses on the modeling of adsorption versus the pH experimental data by the diffuse layer model (DLM) using Fiteql software. The model is efficient to describe the system behavior in the pH range considered. Regarding complexation constants, they show the following affinity for ACC: Pb 2+>Cu 2+>Ni 2+. They are related to initial concentrations used for the three metal ions.

  17. Characterisation of fragments emission by azimuthal correlations using 4{pi} AMPHORA detector: study of {sup 32}S + {sup 58}Ni and {sup nat}Ag at 38 MeV per nucleon; Caracterisation de l`emission de fragments par correlations azimutales avec le detecteur 4{pi} AMPHORA: etude des systemes {sup 32}S+{sup 58}Ni et {sup nat}Ag a 38 MeV par nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benchekroun, D

    1994-05-01

    The first part of this work reports on designing and testing a detector made of a gas proportional counter coupled to a CsI(TI) crystal. It is shown that a good identification of fragments of charge ranging from 3 to 20 is achieved. The energy threshold is lower than in the case of a conventional plastic - CsI(TI) phoswich detector. The second part is devoted to the study of complex fragment production in the {sup 32}S + {sup nat}Ag and {sup 32}S + {sup 58}Ni reactions using the multidetector array AMPHORA. The total multiplicity of charged particles has been used as a criterion of centrally of the collision. The evaluation of the characteristics of fragment emission has thus been studied from peripheral to central collisions. In the case of the most violet collisions the data infer that a rotating hot source has been formed (excitation energy of the order of 500 MeV). It is demonstrated that this sources de-excites through emission of a long chain of fragments and particles. The analysis of the azimuthal correlations of fragments with the evaporation code MODGAN confirmed the hypothesis of such a source. That hot source should rotate with an angular momentum up to 120 h and the emission times would be of the order of 10{sup -21} s. (author). 80 refs.

  18. Study of heavy ion fusion reaction of 58Ni + 24Mg at 11 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, J.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This thesis presents a study of the heavy ion fusion reaction in which a 58 Ni projectile bombards a 24 Mg target at 11 MeV/nucleon. The incident projectile energy was purposefully chosen so as the system studied to be at the onset of the more complex and interesting phenomenon of incomplete fusion. The physics motivation is to probe the central collision of a heavy, energetic, and asymmetric system by means of both inclusive and exclusive experimental measurements. The experiment was performed at HHIRF (Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility) by using the coupled accelerators at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The reaction products were measured by the new open-quotes HILI-Ringclose quotes large solid angle detector system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The thesis discusses the physics motivation and the systematics of heavy ion fusion reactions. Details of the design and construction of a new CsI(T1) Ring detector is given. Since this is the first such study performed on the Heavy Ion Light Ion (HILI) detector, an extensive discussion of the calibration procedures and the data reduction methods are given. The fusion reaction data were analyzed in both inclusive and exclusive modes with the result that a valuable new perspective on the deconvolution of the reaction mechanism has been achieved

  19. Facile synthesis of single-crystal mesoporous CoNiO2 nanosheets assembled flowers as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanguo; Zhao, Yanyan; Yu, Yanlong; Ahmad, Mashkoor; Sun, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mesoporous CoNiO 2 microflowers have been synthesized. • Li-ion batteries performance of CoNiO 2 has been investigated. • CoNiO 2 structure delivers high capacity, good cycling stability and high rate capability. • The electrochemical performance is attributed to the mesoporous nature and the 3D structure. • CoNiO 2 can be considered to be an attractive candidate as an electrode material for LIBs. - Abstract: Mesoporous CoNiO 2 microflowers assembled with single-crystal nanosheets were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method and subsequent annealing process and their lithium storage capacity were investigated. The structural and compositional analysis of the mesoporous CoNiO 2 microflowers has been studied by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The Bruauer–Emmett–Teller specific surface area of CoNiO 2 microflowers has been calculated by the nitrogen isotherm curve and pore size distribution has been determined by the Barret–Joyner–Halenda method. It has been found that the as-prepared CoNiO 2 electrodes delivered satisfied capacity, good cycling stability and rate capability. The improved electrochemical performance is attributed to the mesoporous nature and the 3D assembled structure. Therefore, such a structure can be considered to be an attractive candidate as an electrode material for lithium-ion batteries

  20. Pb3O4 type antimony oxides MSb2O4 (M = Co, Ni) as anode for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jibin, A.K.; Reddy, M.V.; Subba Rao, G.V.; Varadaraju, U.V.; Chowdari, B.V.R.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Isostructural Pb 3 O 4 type MSb 2 O 4 (M = Co, Ni) compounds were investigated as possible anodes for lithium ion batteries. The reversible capacity is due to electrochemically active Sb and the transition metal and Li 2 O form an inactive matrix which buffers volume variations associated with alloying-de-alloying of antimony. Highlights: ► Isostructural MSb 2 O 4 (M = Co, Ni) were studied as anode for LIBs for first time. ► Li/MSb 2 O 4 (M = Co, Ni) cells displayed reversibility due to electrochemically active Sb. ► CoSb 2 O 4 showed good reversibility compared to NiSb 2 O 4 . - Abstract: Polycrystalline samples of isostructural MSb 2 O 4 (M = Co, Ni) have been prepared by solid state synthesis and lithium-storage is investigated as possible anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The reaction mechanism of lithium with MSb 2 O 4 (M = Co, Ni) is explored by galvanostatic cycling, cyclic voltammogram and ex situ studies. Both CoSb 2 O 4 and NiSb 2 O 4 exhibit similar electrochemical behavior and show reversible capacity of 490 and 412 mAh g −1 respectively in the first cycle. Reversible alloying de-alloying of Li x Sb takes place in an amorphous matrix of M (Co, Ni) and Li 2 O during electrochemical cycling.

  1. Adsorption of Cu(II), Hg(II), and Ni(II) ions by modified natural wool chelating fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monier, M., E-mail: monierchem@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Ayad, D.M.; Sarhan, A.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt)

    2010-04-15

    The graft copolymerization of ethyl acrylate (EA) onto natural wool fibers initiated by potassium persulphate and Mohr's salt redox initiator system in limited aqueous medium was carried out in heterogeneous media. Ester groups of the grafted copolymers were partially converted into hydrazide function groups followed by hydrazone formation through reaction with isatin. Also the application of the modified fibers for metal ion uptake was studied using Cu(II), Hg(II) and Ni(II). The modified chelating fibers were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction.

  2. Adsorption of Cu(II), Hg(II), and Ni(II) ions by modified natural wool chelating fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, M; Ayad, D M; Sarhan, A A

    2010-04-15

    The graft copolymerization of ethyl acrylate (EA) onto natural wool fibers initiated by potassium persulphate and Mohr's salt redox initiator system in limited aqueous medium was carried out in heterogeneous media. Ester groups of the grafted copolymers were partially converted into hydrazide function groups followed by hydrazone formation through reaction with isatin. Also the application of the modified fibers for metal ion uptake was studied using Cu(II), Hg(II) and Ni(II). The modified chelating fibers were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Adsorption of Cu(II), Hg(II), and Ni(II) ions by modified natural wool chelating fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monier, M.; Ayad, D.M.; Sarhan, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The graft copolymerization of ethyl acrylate (EA) onto natural wool fibers initiated by potassium persulphate and Mohr's salt redox initiator system in limited aqueous medium was carried out in heterogeneous media. Ester groups of the grafted copolymers were partially converted into hydrazide function groups followed by hydrazone formation through reaction with isatin. Also the application of the modified fibers for metal ion uptake was studied using Cu(II), Hg(II) and Ni(II). The modified chelating fibers were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction.

  4. Nickel oxide films by thermal annealing of ion-beam-sputtered Ni: Structure and electro-optical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Pavel; Remeš, Zdeněk; Bejšovec, Václav; Vacík, Jiří; Daniš, S.; Kormunda, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 640, č. 10 (2017), s. 52-59 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05053S; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : NiO * ion beam sputtering * thermal annealing * nuclear analytical methods * optical properties Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Coating and films; Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.879, year: 2016

  5. Evolution of the properties of polycrystalline metals (examplified by Fe, Ni films and permalloy foils) at ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuril'chik, E.V.; Pavlov, P.V.; Pavlov, A.P.; Tetel'baum, D.I.

    1992-01-01

    It has been found that a change in microdistorsions and in a number of properties (coercive force, microhardness, friction coefficient) in Fe, Ni films as well as in rolled permalloy foils nonmonotonically depends on the ion irradiation dose. Such a behaviour of the dose dependence is explained by the competition of three mechanisms of the change in the spatial inhomogeneity (relief) of elastic stresses: formation of complexes impurity - intrinsic interstitial atom in the atmosphere of extended defects; separation of vacancies and interstitial atoms by the fields of elastic stresses; formation of precipitates of chemical compounds. The long-range action effect was revealed at irradiation of foils

  6. Mean charge states of MeV/u Fe, Co, Ni and Cu ions in Au and Bi solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciortea, C.; Dumitriu, D.E.; Enescu, S.E.; Enulescu, A.; Fluerasu, D.; Piticu, I.; Szilagyi, Z.S.

    2001-01-01

    The average charge states of 0.1 - 1.5 MeV/u Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu ions in solid Au and Bi targets have been determined by estimating the mean numbers of outer-shell spectator vacancies during the K-vacancy decay. The latter quantities were obtained from the yield and energy shifts of the K α , β X-rays, by comparing with calculations in the independent electron approximation. The reported equilibrium charges, mostly characteristic for the inside of the target, are in fairly agreement with Nikolaev and Dmitriev semi-empirical formula. (authors)

  7. Control of domain wall pinning by localised focused Ga + ion irradiation on Au capped NiFe nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, D. M.; Atkinson, D.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding domain wall pinning and propagation in nanowires are important for future spintronics and nanoparticle manipulation technologies. Here, the effects of microscopic local modification of the magnetic properties, induced by focused-ion-beam intermixing, in NiFe/Au bilayer nanowires on the pinning behavior of domain walls was investigated. The effects of irradiation dose and the length of the irradiated features were investigated experimentally. The results are considered in the context of detailed quasi-static micromagnetic simulations, where the ion-induced modification was represented as a local reduction of the saturation magnetization. Simulations show that domain wall pinning behavior depends on the magnitude of the magnetization change, the length of the modified region, and the domain wall structure. Comparative analysis indicates that reduced saturation magnetisation is not solely responsible for the experimentally observed pinning behavior.

  8. Radiation hardening of metals irradiated by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didyk, A.Yu.; Skuratov, V.A.; Mikhajlova, N.Yu.; Regel', V.R.

    1988-01-01

    The damage dose dependence in the 10 -4 -10 -2 dpa region of radiation hardening of Al, V, Ni, Cu irradiated by xenon ions with 124 MeV energy is investigated using the microhardness technique and transmission electron microscope. It is shown that the pure metals radiation hardening is stimulated for defects clusters with the typical size less than 5 nm, as in the case of neutron and the light charge ion irradiation

  9. Excitations of the isobaric analog states T=0, 1, 2 and 2 in isobars 60Zn (Tz=0), 60Cu (Tz=1) and 60Ni (Tz=2) by the two-nucleon (2p, pn, 2n) stripping transfer reactions of 16O ions on 58Ni nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuma, Yasuhiko

    1992-01-01

    The isobaric analog states (IAS's) T=0, 1, 2 and 2 in isobars 60 Zn (Tz=0), 60 Cu (Tz=1) and 60 Ni (Tz=2) were studied by the three types of two-nucleon (2p, pn, 2n) stripping transfer reactions induced by the same beams 16 O and targets 58 Ni at an incident energy 80 MeV. The excitation energies of observed IAS's are in good fits with those calculated theoretically. The g'nd state 2 + , T=1 in 60 Cu may not be populated vy the ( 16 O, 14 N) reaction. The mutual excitation ( 16 O, 14 N * ) may be considered in the present population in 50 Cu. The isospin aspects of these reactions are quite prominent. All angular distributions of these IAS's have a forward peaked shape. Those of the O + states show a strongly oscillated pattern. Those of the 2 + states have no evidences of the clear oscillations. The similarities are observed between the angular distributions of IAS's. The EFR-DWBA calculations, in which the direct one-step cluster transferrs of two nucleons are assumed, reproduce reasonably the data points. The similarities between the heavy and the light ion induced two-nucleon stripping transfer reactions appear in both the reaction mechanisms and the spectroscopies of residual nuclei. The excitations of these IAS's will be an appearances of the single particle properties of transferred two-nucleons. (author)

  10. Influence of Ni substitution at B-site for Fe{sup 3+} ions on morphological, optical, and magnetic properties of HoFeO{sub 3} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Zubida; Majid, Kowsar [National Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Srinagar (India); Ikram, Mohd; Sultan, Khalid; Mir, Sajad Ahmad [National Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Srinagar (India); Asokan, K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi (India)

    2016-05-15

    Present study reports the effect of Ni substitution at B-site in HoFeO{sub 3} on the morphological, optical and magnetic properties. These compounds were prepared by solid-state reaction method. Scanning electron microscope reveals an increase in average grain sizes with Ni concentration. Absorption and emission spectra show redshift in band gap with increase in Ni ion concentrations. The Tauc plots show direct allowed transitions. Temperature-dependent magnetization studies on these compounds revealed the transition from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism. There is separation between temperature at which zero-field-cooled and field-cooled occurs at varied temperature with Ni substitution. The separation effect is related to the impact of the paramagnetic Ho{sup 3+} ions, whose magnitude becomes more prominent at higher temperature. The value of squareness ratio in these materials is below 0.5 indicating presence of multidomain structures. (orig.)

  11. Microwave hydrothermal synthesis of urchin-like NiO nanospheres as electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors with enhanced electrochemical performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Anjon Kumar, E-mail: Anjon.K.Mondal@student.uts.edu.au [Centre for Clean Energy Technology, School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Su, Dawei; Wang, Ying; Chen, Shuangqiang [Centre for Clean Energy Technology, School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Liu, Qi [School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Wang, Guoxiu, E-mail: Guoxiu.wang@uts.edu.au [Centre for Clean Energy Technology, School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • Urchin-like NiO nanospheres were synthesised by a microwave hydrothermal method. • The NiO nanospheres consist of nanocrystals and porous structure. • NiO nanospheres exhibited a high reversible specific capacity of 1027 mA h g{sup −1}. • The NiO nanospheres also delivered a high supercapacitance of 736 F g{sup −1}. -- Abstract: Urchin-like NiO nanospheres were synthesised by a microwave hydrothermal method. The as-synthesised NiO nanospheres were characterised by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that NiO nanosphere consists of a nanoporous structure and nanosize crystals. When applied as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, NiO nanospheres exhibited a high reversible specific capacity of 1027 mA h g{sup −1}, an excellent cycling performance and a good high rate capability. NiO nanospheres also showed a high specific capacitance as electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  12. Attainable high capacity in Li-excess Li-Ni-Ru-O rock-salt cathode for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingbo; Huang, Weifeng; Tao, Shi; Xie, Hui; Wu, Chuanqiang; Yu, Zhen; Su, Xiaozhi; Qi, Jiaxin; Rehman, Zia ur; Song, Li; Zhang, Guobin; Chu, Wangsheng; Wei, Shiqiang

    2017-08-01

    Peroxide structure O2n- has proven to appear after electrochemical process in many lithium-excess precious metal oxides, representing extra reversible capacity. We hereby report construction of a Li-excess rock-salt oxide Li1+xNi1/2-3x/2Ru1/2+x/2O2 electrode, with cost effective and eco-friendly 3d transition metal Ni partially substituting precious 4d transition metal Ru. It can be seen that O2n- is formed in pristine Li1.23Ni0.155Ru0.615O2, and stably exists in subsequent cycles, enabling discharge capacities to 295.3 and 198 mAh g-1 at the 1st/50th cycle, respectively. Combing ex-situ X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and electrochemical characterization, we demonstrate that the excellent electrochemical performance comes from both percolation network with disordered structure and cation/anion redox couples occurring in charge-discharge process. Li-excess and substitution of common element have been demonstrated to be a breakthrough for designing novel high performance commercial cathodes in rechargeable lithium ion battery field.

  13. Autoionization spectra of He excited by fast (MeV) H+, He+, and Li/sup n+/ (n = 1,2,3) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.; Arcuni, P.; Bruch, P.; Stoeffler, W.

    1983-01-01

    Autoionization spectra of He following excitation by 1 to 3 MeV H + , He + , and Li/sup n+/ (n = 1,2,3) have been measured as a function of observation angle. The (2p 2 ) 1 D and (2s2p) 1 P resonances have been examined and a strong dependence on projectile velocities, charge state and observation angle was found

  14. Autoionization spectra of He excited by fast (MeV) H/sup +/, He/sup +/, and Li/sup n+/ (n = 1,2,3) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, D.; Arcuni, P.; Bruch, P.; Stoeffler, W.

    1983-01-01

    Autoionization spectra of He following excitation by 1 to 3 MeV H/sup +/, He/sup +/, and Li/sup n+/ (n = 1,2,3) have been measured as a function of observation angle. The (2p/sup 2/)/sup 1/D and (2s2p)/sup 1/P resonances have been examined and a strong dependence on projectile velocities, charge state and observation angle was found.

  15. Effect of surface modification by nitrogen ion implantation on the electrochemical and cellular behaviors of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki-Ghaleh, H; Khalil-Allafi, J; Sadeghpour-Motlagh, M; Shakeri, M S; Masoudfar, S; Farrokhi, A; Beygi Khosrowshahi, Y; Nadernezhad, A; Siadati, M H; Javidi, M; Shakiba, M; Aghaie, E

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to enhance the biological behavior of NiTi shape memory alloy while preserving its super-elastic behavior in order to facilitate its compatibility for application in human body. The surfaces of NiTi samples were bombarded by three different nitrogen doses. Small-angle X-ray diffraction was employed for evaluating the generated phases on the bombarded surfaces. The electrochemical behaviors of the bare and surface-modified NiTi samples were studied in simulated body fluid (SBF) using electrochemical impedance and potentio-dynamic polarization tests. Ni ion release during a 2-month period of service in the SBF environment was evaluated using atomic absorption spectrometry. The cellular behavior of nitrogen-modified samples was studied using fibroblast cells. Furthermore, the effect of surface modification on super-elasticity was investigated by tensile test. The results showed the improvement of both corrosion and biological behaviors of the modified NiTi samples. However, no significant change in the super-elasticity was observed. Samples modified at 1.4E18 ion cm(-2) showed the highest corrosion resistance and the lowest Ni ion release.

  16. Critical current densities and flux creep rate in Co-doped BaFe2As2 with columnar defects introduced by heavy-Ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Y.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Taen, T.; Yagyuda, H.; Tamegai, T.; Okayasu, S.; Sasase, M.; Kitamura, H.; Murakami, T.

    2010-01-01

    We report the formation of columnar defects in Co-doped BaFe 2 As 2 single crystals with different heavy-ion irradiations. The formation of columnar defects by 200 MeV Au ion irradiation is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and their density is about 40% of the irradiation dose. Magneto-optical imaging and bulk magnetization measurements reveal that the critical current density J c is enhanced in the 200 MeV Au and 800 MeV Xe ion irradiated samples while J c is unchanged in the 200 MeV Ni ion irradiated sample. We also find that vortex creep rates are strongly suppressed by the columnar defects. We compare the effect of heavy-ion irradiation into Co-doped BaFe 2 As 2 and cuprate superconductors.

  17. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Ni doped spinel LiNi (subx)Mn (sub2-x)O(sub)4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) cathode materials for Li-Ion battery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, MA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spherical pristine LiMn(sub2)O(sub 4) and Ni doped LiNixMn(sub2-x)O(sub)4 (x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) cathode materials for lithium ion battery with high first cycle discharge capacity and excellent cycle performance were synthesized using...

  18. Tools for magnetostructural correlations for the 3d{sup 8}({sup 3}A{sub 2} state) ions at orthorhombic sites: Comparative study with applications to Ni{sup 2+} ions in Y{sub 2}BaNiO{sub 5} and Nd{sub 2}BaNiO{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnutek, P. [Modeling in Spectroscopy Group, Institute of Physics, West Pomeranian University of Technology Szczecin, Al. Piastów 17, 70-310 Szczecin (Poland); Açıkgöz, M., E-mail: macikgoz@bahcesehir.edu.tr [Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Bahcesehir University, Beşiktaş, 34353 Istanbul (Turkey); Rudowicz, C. [Modeling in Spectroscopy Group, Institute of Physics, West Pomeranian University of Technology Szczecin, Al. Piastów 17, 70-310 Szczecin (Poland)

    2015-01-15

    Three approaches are employed to study magnetostructural correlations for the 3d{sup 8}({sup 3}A{sub 2} state) ions at orthorhombic sites in crystals: (i) the higher-order perturbation theory (PT) of the microscopic spin Hamiltonian (MSH) parameters, (ii) the crystal field (CF) analysis (CFA) within all 3d{sup 8} states combined with the superposition model (SPM) calculations of CF parameters, and (iii) the second-order PT of MSH parameters. A comparative study is carried out to assess the merit of each modeling approach. These approaches enable predictions of the orthorhombic zero-field splitting parameters (ZFSPs) for the 3d{sup 8} ions at orthorhombic sites. Hence, correlation of the magnetic and spectroscopic properties with the structural ones may be considered. The approach (i) and (iii) take into account only the spin–orbit coupling (SOC) and a limited set of low lying states. Analysis of the expressions used in the approach (i) reveals discrepancies concerning: the sign of the SOC parameter, the cubic crystal field parameter Dq, the energy levels sequence, and numerical errors, which diminish its reliability. The distinction between the first- and second-kind orthorhombic symmetry is also elucidated. The approaches (i)–(iii) are applied for Ni{sup 2+} (S=1) ions in the Haldane gap systems Y{sub 2}BaNiO{sub 5} and Nd{sub 2}BaNiO{sub 5}. The contributions to the ZFSPs due to the spin–spin and spin–other–orbit interactions considered using the approach (ii) are found nearly insignificant as compared with the dominant SOC ones. The results indicate that the approach (i)—corrected and (iii) may be employed only as an approximation. The approach (ii) together with the SPM/CFP modeling appear to be preferable and more reliable tools to study magnetostructural correlations and thus spectroscopic and magnetic properties of the 3d{sup 8}({sup 3}A{sub 2} state) ions at orthorhombic sites in crystals. - Highlights: • Magnetostructural correlations for 3d

  19. Magnetostatics and dynamics of ion irradiatied NiFe/Ta multilayer films studied by vector network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, the implications of ion irradiation on the magnetostatic and dynamic properties of soft magnetic Py/Ta (Py=Permalloy: Ni 80 Fe 20 ) single and multilayer films have been investigated with the main objective of finding a way to determine their saturation magnetization. Both polar magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and vector network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance (VNA-FMR) measurements have proven to be suitable methods to determine μ 0 M S , circumventing the problem of the unknown effective magnetic volume that causes conventional techniques such as SQUID or VSM to fail. Provided there is no perpendicular anisotropy contribution in the samples, the saturation magnetization can be determined even in the case of strong interfacial mixing due to an inherently high number of Py/Ta interfaces and/or ion irradiation with high fluences. Another integral part of this work has been to construct a VNA-FMR spectrometer capable of performing both azimuthal and polar angle-dependent measurements using a magnet strong enough to saturate samples containing iron. Starting from scratch, this comprised numerous steps such as developing a suitable coplanar waveguide design, and writing the control, evaluation, and fitting software. With both increasing ion fluence and number of Py/Ta interfaces, a decrease of saturation magnetization has been observed. In the case of the 10 x Py samples, an immediate decrease of μ 0 M S already sets in at small ion fluences. However, for the 1 x Py and 5 x Py samples, the saturation magnetization remains constant up to a certain ion fluence, but then starts to rapidly decrease. Ne ion irradiation causes a mixing and broadening of the interfaces. Thus, the Py/Ta stacks undergo a transition from being polycrystalline to amorphous at a critical fluence depending on the number of interfaces. The saturation magnetization is found to vanish at a Ta concentration of about 10-15 at.% in the Py layers. The samples possess a small

  20. Magnetostatics and dynamics of ion irradiatied NiFe/Ta multilayer films studied by vector network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marko, Daniel

    2010-11-25

    In the present work, the implications of ion irradiation on the magnetostatic and dynamic properties of soft magnetic Py/Ta (Py=Permalloy: Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) single and multilayer films have been investigated with the main objective of finding a way to determine their saturation magnetization. Both polar magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and vector network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance (VNA-FMR) measurements have proven to be suitable methods to determine {mu}{sub 0}M{sub S}, circumventing the problem of the unknown effective magnetic volume that causes conventional techniques such as SQUID or VSM to fail. Provided there is no perpendicular anisotropy contribution in the samples, the saturation magnetization can be determined even in the case of strong interfacial mixing due to an inherently high number of Py/Ta interfaces and/or ion irradiation with high fluences. Another integral part of this work has been to construct a VNA-FMR spectrometer capable of performing both azimuthal and polar angle-dependent measurements using a magnet strong enough to saturate samples containing iron. Starting from scratch, this comprised numerous steps such as developing a suitable coplanar waveguide design, and writing the control, evaluation, and fitting software. With both increasing ion fluence and number of Py/Ta interfaces, a decrease of saturation magnetization has been observed. In the case of the 10 x Py samples, an immediate decrease of {mu}{sub 0}M{sub S} already sets in at small ion fluences. However, for the 1 x Py and 5 x Py samples, the saturation magnetization remains constant up to a certain ion fluence, but then starts to rapidly decrease. Ne ion irradiation causes a mixing and broadening of the interfaces. Thus, the Py/Ta stacks undergo a transition from being polycrystalline to amorphous at a critical fluence depending on the number of interfaces. The saturation magnetization is found to vanish at a Ta concentration of about 10-15 at.% in the Py layers

  1. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) supported cobalt- nickel sulfide (CoNi2S4) nanoparticles hybrid anode for high performance lithium ion capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadale, Ajay; Zhou, Xuan; Blaisdell, Douglas; Yang, Sen

    2018-01-25

    Lithium ion capacitors possess an ability to bridge the gap between lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. The main concern of fabricating lithium ion capacitors is poor rate capability and cyclic stability of the anode material which uses sluggish faradaic reactions to store an electric charge. Herein, we have fabricated high performance hybrid anode material based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and cobalt-nickel sulfide (CoNi 2 S 4 ) nanoparticles via simple electrospinning and electrodeposition methods. Porous and high conducting CNF@CoNi 2 S 4 electrode acts as an expressway network for electronic and ionic diffusion during charging-discharging processes. The effect of anode to cathode mass ratio on the performance has been studied by fabricating lithium ion capacitors with different mass ratios. The surface controlled contribution of CNF@CoNi 2 S 4 electrode was 73% which demonstrates its excellent rate capability. Lithium ion capacitor fabricated with CNF@CoNi 2 S 4 to AC mass ratio of 1:2.6 showed excellent energy density of 85.4 Wh kg -1 with the power density of 150 W kg -1 . Also, even at the high power density of 15 kW kg -1 , the cell provided the energy density of 35 Wh kg -1 . This work offers a new strategy for designing high-performance hybrid anode with the combination of simple and cost effective approaches.

  2. Radioactive ion beams in the region of 100Sn and 78Ni at the NSCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolz, A.; Estrade, A.; Davies, A.D.; Ginter, T.N.; Hosmer, P.T.; Kwan, E.; Liddick, S.N.; Mantica, P.F.; Mertzimekis, T.J.; Montes, F.A.; Morrissey, D.J.; Morton, A.C.; Ouellette, M.; Pellegrini, E.; Santi, P.; Schatz, H.; Steiner, M.; Stuchberry, A.E.; Tomlin, B.E.; Walters, W.B.; Woehr, A.; Arndt, O.; Kratz, K.-L.; Pfeiffer, B.; Reeder, P.

    2004-01-01

    The regions around the doubly magic nuclei 100 Sn and 78 Ni are of great interest from a nuclear structure standpoint. These nuclei also play a key role in the astrophysical rp- and r-processes, respectively. Recently, nuclei in these regions were studied at the Coupled Cyclotron Facility at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University

  3. Carbonized polydopamine coated single-crystalline NiFe2O4 nanooctahedrons with enhanced electrochemical performance as anode materials in a lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xinxin; Zhang, Tong; Qu, Yue; Tian, Ge; Yue, Huijuan; Zhang, Dong; Feng, Shouhua

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: NiFe 2 O 4 @ NCweresuccessfullyfabricatedviaasubsequentcarbonizationofpolydopamine.(*) A nanocomposite containing 20% mass fraction of dopamine exhibited enhanced lithium ion battery performance with high reversible cycle capacity and good rate retention performance. - Highlights: • NiFe 2 O 4 nanooctahedrons were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal process. • A phase formation mechanism was studied by time-dependent experiments. • NiFe 2 O 4 with N-doped carbon shell was fabricated via carbonization of polydopamine. • NiFe 2 O 4 @NC 20 showed the best rate capability and cycle stability. - Abstract: Combining nanostructure engineering with conductive carbonaceous material is a promising strategy to obtain high-performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, spinel NiFe 2 O 4 nanooctahedrons were initially synthesized at a low temperature without further annealing. We investigated the phase formation mechanism by time-dependent experiments. Next, octahedral NiFe 2 O 4 with a nitrogen-doped carbon shell (NiFe 2 O 4 @NC) were successfully fabricated via a subsequent carbonization of polydopamine (PDA). We systematically varied the dopamine content in the NiFe 2 O 4 /carbon nanocomposites and found that a nanocomposite containing 20% mass fraction of dopamine exhibited enhanced lithium ion battery performance with high reversible cycle capacity and good rate retention performance compared with the pure material. Remarkably, the hybrid nanocomposite delivered a high reversible capacity of 1297 mAh g −1 even after 50 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g −1 . Additionally, a high capacity of 1204 mAh g −1 was retained at a high current density of 500 mA g −1 after 300 cycles. This improvement in electrochemical performance is attributed to the enhanced structural stability and electrical conductivity caused by the carbon layer, and is supported by TEM and EIS measurements.

  4. Electrodeposited binder-free NiCo2O4@carbon nanofiber as a high performance anode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Chu, Ruixia; Chen, Yanli; Jiang, Heng; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Nay Ming; Guo, Hang

    2018-03-01

    Binder-free nickel cobaltite on a carbon nanofiber (NiCo2O4@CNF) anode for lithium ion batteries was prepared via a two-step procedure of electrospinning and electrodeposition. The CNF was obtained by annealing electrospun poly-acrylonitrile (PAN) in nitrogen (N2). The NiCo2O4 nanostructures were then grown on the CNF by electrodeposition, followed by annealing in air. Experimental results showed that vertically aligned NiCo2O4 nanosheets had uniformly grown on the surface of the CNF, forming an interconnected network. The NiCo2O4@CNF possessed considerable lithium storage capacity and cycling stability. It exhibited a high reversible capacity of 778 mAhg-1 after 300 cycles at a current density of 0.25 C (1 C = 890 mAg-1) with an average capacity loss rate of 0.05% per cycle. The NiCo2O4@CNF had considerable rate capacities, delivering a capacity of 350 mAhg-1 at a current density of 2.0 C. The outstanding electrochemical performance can be mainly attributed to the following: (1) The nanoscale structure of NiCo2O4 could not only shorten the diffusion path of lithium ions and electrons but also increase the specific surface area, providing more active sites for electrochemical reactions. (2) The CNF with considerable mechanical strength and electrical conductivity could function as an anchor for the NiCo2O4 nanostructure and ensure an efficient electron transfer. (3) The porous structure resulted in a high specific surface area and an effective buffer for the volume changes during the repeated charge-discharge processes. Compared with a conventional hydrothermal method, electrodeposition could significantly simplify the preparation of NiCo2O4, with a shorter preparation period and lower energy consumption. This work provides an alternative strategy to obtain a high performance anode for lithium ion batteries.

  5. Effect of phase instabilities on the correlation of nickel ion and neutron irradiation swelling in solution annealed 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Lee, E.H.; Sklad, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    Annealed 316 stainless steel specimens were neutron irradiated to establish steady-state microstructures and then subjected to further high temperature irradiations with 4 MeV Ni ions. It is shown that void growth under neutron irradiation is simulated in ion irradiations carried out at approx. 180 0 C above reactor temperature. However, the precipitate microstructure developed during neutron irradiation is unstable during subsequent ion irradiation. As a result, the relative swelling rates at various reactor temperatures are not simulated correctly

  6. Light output response of EJ-309 liquid organic scintillator to 2.86-3.95 MeV carbon recoil ions due to neutron elastic and inelastic scatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsworthy, Mark A.; Ruch, Marc L.; Hamel, Michael C.; Clarke, Shaun D.; Hausladen, Paul A.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2018-03-01

    We present the first measurements of energy-dependent light output from carbon recoils in the liquid organic scintillator EJ-309. For this measurement, neutrons were produced by an associated particle deuterium-tritium generator and scattered by a volume of EJ-309 scintillator into stop detectors positioned at four fixed angles. Carbon recoils in the scintillator were isolated using triple coincidence among the associated particle detector, scatter detector, and stop detectors. The kinematics of elastic and inelastic scatter allowed data collection at eight specific carbon recoil energies between 2.86 and 3.95 MeV. We found the light output caused by carbon recoils in this energy range to be approximately 1.14% of that caused by electrons of the same energy, which is comparable to the values reported for other liquid organic scintillators. A comparison of the number of scattered neutrons at each angle to a Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended simulation indicates that the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation of differential cross sections for 14.1 MeV neutrons on carbon has discrepancies with the experiment as large as 55%, whereas those reported in the JENDL-4.0u evaluation agree with experiment.

  7. Orbital-Specific observation of O2p and Ni3d electrons in LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2, a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Satou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries containing Ni2+ have attracted much interest because of their high theoretical capacity. However, the precise electronic structures of these cathode materials have not yet been clearly observed, especially the energy positions of the O2p and Ni3d orbitals and the shape of the density of states. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative energy positions and shape of the density of states of O2p and Ni3d for LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 experimentally. We cleaved a LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 pellet in an Ar-filled glove box and performed synchrotron ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy for different photon energies, which enabled us to investigate the relative cross-section intensity of O2p and Ni3d. As a result, the valence-band structure was determined. We found that O2p electrons are itinerant and exist in the vicinity of the Fermi energy more than Ni3d electrons. Ni3d electrons are more localized and spread mainly from 1.2–1.5 eV below the Fermi energy. To validate the electronic structure, we measured the synchrotron O K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure of electrochemically lithium-extracted LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2. The electronic structure demonstrated that ligand holes in the oxygen atoms form below the Fermi level during the initial stage of Li extraction and that the formation rate of the holes decreases with Li extraction.

  8. Orbital-Specific observation of O2p and Ni3d electrons in LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2, a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Yoshinori; Komine, Shigeki; Shimizu, Sumera

    2017-09-01

    Cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries containing Ni2+ have attracted much interest because of their high theoretical capacity. However, the precise electronic structures of these cathode materials have not yet been clearly observed, especially the energy positions of the O2p and Ni3d orbitals and the shape of the density of states. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative energy positions and shape of the density of states of O2p and Ni3d for LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 experimentally. We cleaved a LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 pellet in an Ar-filled glove box and performed synchrotron ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy for different photon energies, which enabled us to investigate the relative cross-section intensity of O2p and Ni3d. As a result, the valence-band structure was determined. We found that O2p electrons are itinerant and exist in the vicinity of the Fermi energy more than Ni3d electrons. Ni3d electrons are more localized and spread mainly from 1.2-1.5 eV below the Fermi energy. To validate the electronic structure, we measured the synchrotron O K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure of electrochemically lithium-extracted LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2. The electronic structure demonstrated that ligand holes in the oxygen atoms form below the Fermi level during the initial stage of Li extraction and that the formation rate of the holes decreases with Li extraction.

  9. Improvements of anti-corrosion and mechanical properties of NiTi orthopedic materials by acetylene, nitrogen and oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, Ray W.Y.; Ho, Joan P.Y.; Liu Xuanyong; Chung, C.Y.; Chu, Paul K.; Yeung, Kelvin W.K.; Lu, William W.; Cheung, Kenneth M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Nickel-titanium shape memory alloys (NiTi) are useful materials in orthopedics and orthodontics due to their unique super-elasticity and shape memory effects. However, the problem associated with the release of harmful Ni ions to human tissues and fluids has been raising safety concern. Hence, it is necessary to produce a surface barrier to impede the out-diffusion of Ni ions from the materials. We have conducted acetylene, nitrogen and oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) into NiTi alloys in an attempt to improve the surface properties. All the implanted and annealed samples surfaces exhibit outstanding corrosion and Ni out-diffusion resistance. Besides, the implanted layers are mechanically stronger than the substrate underneath. XPS analyses disclose that the layer formed by C 2 H 2 PIII is composed of mainly TiC x with increasing Ti to C concentration ratios towards the bulk. The nitrogen PIII layer is observed to be TiN, whereas the oxygen PIII layer is composed of oxides of Ti 4+ , Ti 3+ and Ti 2+

  10. Transfer vs. Breakup in the interaction of the 7Be Radioactive Ion Beam with a 58Ni target at Coulomb barrier energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzocco M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We measured for the first time 7Be elastically scattered nuclei as well as 3,4He reaction products from a 58Ni target at 22.3 MeV beam energy. The data were analyzed within the optical model formalism to extract the total reaction cross section. Extensive kinematical, Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBAand Continuum Discretized Coupled Channel (CDCC calculations were performed to investigate the 3,4He originating mechanisms and the interplay between different reaction channels.

  11. Three-dimensional sandwich-structured NiMn2O4@reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for highly reversible Li-ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiarui; Wang, Wei; Lin, Xirong; Gu, Cuiping; Liu, Jinyun

    2018-02-01

    A sandwich-structured NiMn2O4@reduced graphene oxide (NiMn2O4@rGO) nanocomposite consisting of ultrathin NiMn2O4 sheets uniformly anchored on both sides of a three-dimensional (3D) porous rGO is presented. The NiMn2O4@rGO nanocomposites prepared through a dipping process combining with a hydrothermal method show a good electrochemical performance including a high reversible capability of 1384 mAh g-1 at 1000 mA g-1 over 1620 cycles, and an superior rate performance. Thus, a full cell consisting of a commercial LiCoO2 cathode and the NiMn2O4@rGO anode delivers a stable capacity of about 1046 mAh g-1 (anode basis) after cycling at 50 mA g-1 for 60 times. It is demonstrated that the 3D porous composite structure accommodates the volume change during the Li+ insertion/extraction process and facilitates the rapid transport of ions and electrons. The high performance would enable the presented NiMn2O4@rGO nanocomposite a promising anode candidate for practical applications in Li-ion batteries.

  12. Hierarchical Core/Shell NiCo2O4@NiCo2O4 Nanocactus Arrays with Dual-functionalities for High Performance Supercapacitors and Li-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jinbing; Lu, Yang; Qiu, Kangwen; Yan, Hailong; Xu, Jinyou; Han, Lei; Liu, Xianming; Luo, Jingshan; Kim, Jang-Kyo; Luo, Yongsong

    2015-07-01

    We report the synthesis of three dimensional (3D) NiCo2O4@NiCo2O4 nanocactus arrays grown directly on a Ni current collector using a facile solution method followed by electrodeposition. They possess a unique 3D hierarchical core-shell structure with large surface area and dual-functionalities that can serve as electrodes for both supercapacitors (SCs) and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). As the SC electrode, they deliver a remarkable specific capacitance of 1264 F g-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1 and ~93.4% of capacitance retention after 5000 cycles at 2 A g-1. When used as the anode for LIBs, a high reversible capacity of 925 mA h g-1 is achieved at a rate of 120 mA g-1 with excellent cyclic stability and rate capability. The ameliorating features of the NiCo2O4 core/shell structure grown directly on highly conductive Ni foam, such as hierarchical mesopores, numerous hairy needles and a large surface area, are responsible for the fast electron/ion transfer and large active sites which commonly contribute to the excellent electrochemical performance of both the SC and LIB electrodes.

  13. NiCo2O4 surface coating Li[Ni0.03Mn1.97]O4 micro-/nano- spheres as cathode material for high-performance lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Pan; Dong, Hui; Xu, Yunlong; Zhao, Chongjun; Liu, Dong

    2018-01-01

    Here we report a novel transitional metal oxide (NiCo2O4) coated Li[Ni0.03Mn1.97]O4 micro-/nano- spheres as high-performance Li-ion battery cathode material. A thin layer of ∼10 nm NiCo2O4 was formed by simple wet-chemistry approach adjacent to the surface of Li[Ni0.03Mn1.97]O4 micro-/nano- spheres, leading to significantly enhanced battery electrochemical performance. The optimized sample(1 wt%) not only delivers excellent discharge capacity and cycling stability improvement at both room temperature and elevated temperatures, but also effectively prevents Mn dissolution while retaining its coating structure intact according to XRF and TEM results. The CV and EIS break-down analysis indicated a much faster electrochemical reaction kinetics, more reversible electrode process and greatly reduced charge transfer and Warburg resistance, clearly illustrating the dual role of NiCo2O4 coating to boost electron transport and Li+ diffusion, and alleviation of manganese dissolving. This approach may render as an efficient technique to realize high-performance lithium ion battery cathode material.

  14. Neutron and proton transmutation-activation cross section libraries to 150 MeV for application in accelerator-driven systems and radioactive ion beam target-design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Chadwick, M.B.; MacFarlane, R.E.; Mashnik, S.; Wilson, W.B.

    1998-05-01

    New transmutation-activation nuclear data libraries for neutrons and protons up to 150 MeV have been created. These data are important for simulation calculations of radioactivity, and transmutation, in accelerator-driven systems such as the production of tritium (APT) and the transmutation of waste (ATW). They can also be used to obtain cross section predictions for the production of proton-rich isotopes in (p,xn) reactions, for radioactive ion beam (RIB) target-design studies. The nuclear data in these libraries stem from two sources: for neutrons below 20 MeV, we use data from the European activation and transmutation file, EAF97; For neutrons above 20 MeV and for protons at all energies we have isotope production cross sections with the nuclear model code HMS-ALICE. This code applies the Monte Carlo Hybrid Simulation theory, and the Weisskopf-Ewing theory, to calculate cross sections. In a few cases, the HMS-ALICE results were replaced by those calculated using the GNASH code for the Los Alamos LA150 transport library. The resulting two libraries, AF150.N and AF150.P, consist of 766 nuclides each and are represented in the ENDF6-format. An outline is given of the new representation of the data. The libraries have been checked with ENDF6 preprocessing tools and have been processed with NJOY into libraries for the Los Alamos transmutation/radioactivity code CINDER. Numerous benchmark figures are presented for proton-induced excitation functions of various isotopes compared with measurements. Such comparisons are useful for validation purposes, and for assessing the accuracy of the evaluated data. These evaluated libraries are available on the WWW at: http://t2.lanl.gov/. 21 refs

  15. Marker experiments in growth studies of Ni2Si, Pd2Si, and CrSi2 formed both by thermal annealing and by ion mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, L.S.; Mayer, J.W.; Pai, C.S.; Lau, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    Inert markers (evaporated tungsten and silver) were used in growth studies of silicides formed both by thermal annealing and by ion mixing in the Ni/Si, Pd/Si, and Cr/Si systems. The markers were initially imbedded inside silicides and backscattering spectrometry was used to determine the marker displacement after different processing conditions. The results obtained in thermal annealing are quite consistent with that found in previous investigations. Ni is the dominant diffusing species in Ni 2 Si, while Si is the diffusing species in CrSi 2 . In Pd 2 Si, both Pd and Si are moving species with Pd the faster of the two. In contrast, in growth of silicides by ion irradiation Si is the faster diffusing species in all three systems

  16. MeV and GeV prospects for producing a large ion layer configuration for fusion power generation and breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, J.R. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Injection of multi-MeV molecular hydrogen ions into a magnetic mirror or magnetic mirror well can lead to the production of an ion (or proton-E) Layer with prospects for fusion power generation. This involves: (1) slow (exponential or Lorentz) trapping of protons from dissociation and/or ionization of H 2 + ions; (2) electron cyclotron drive of the electronic temperature to reduce the electron stopping power; (3) production of an Ion-Layer, E-Core plasma configuration having prospects for cold fuel feed with in situ axial acceleration of say D 2 + ions into the negative E-Core; (4) ignited advanced fuel burns in the resulting high beta plasma with excess (free) neutrons available for energy multiplication of fissile fuel breeding; (5) development of a nuclear dynamo with fuel feed, plasma energy, and Ion-Layer current maintenance by fusion products; and (6) a natural divertor end loss of ashes with charge separation permitting a natural direct electrical conversion prospect

  17. The electrochemical behaviour study of La3+ ion in fused chlorides bath. The LaNi5 formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Cristiane

    2002-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of La 3+ ion was studied in fused chlorides bath, with purpose to obtain LaNi 5 formation parameters. The lanthanum reduction/reoxidation mechanism and intermetallic compound formation were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiommetry and galvanostatic electrodeposition. The electrolyte employed was eutectic mixture NaCl-KCl (1:1) with anhydrous LaCl 3 as solute, since 0,25 mol. L -1 up to 2 mol. L -1 , between 700 deg C and 800 deg C. The anhydrous LaCl 3 was prepared by lanthanum chloride slow dehydration with HCl flow and heating until 300 deg C. Over molybdenum, results depicted that lanthanum electrochemical behaviour was quasi-reversible and electrodeposition occurred in a charge transfer step with three electrons. In nickel, intermetallic compound formation was observed by interdiffusion. The scanning electronic microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X ray diffraction analysis indicated that layers composition depend on temperature and solute concentration in fused bath. Mainly LaNi 5 intermetallic compound was formed with LaCl 3 anhydrous concentration of 2 mol. L -1 at 750 deg C, with cathodic current density until 100 mA.cm -2 . (author)

  18. Metal-ion exchange induced structural transformation as a way of forming novel Ni(II)− and Cu(II)−salicylaldimine structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jing-Yun, E-mail: jyunwu@ncnu.edu.tw; Tsai, Chi-Jou; Chang, Ching-Yun; Wu, Yung-Yuan

    2017-02-15

    A Zn(II)−salicylaldimine complex [Zn(L{sup salpyca})(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (1, where H{sub 2}L{sup salpyca}=4-hydroxy-3-(((pyridin-2-yl)methylimino)methyl)benzoic acid), with a one-dimensional (1D) chain structure, has been successfully converted to a discrete Ni(II)−salicylaldimine complex [Ni(L{sup salpyca})(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}] (2) and an infinite Cu(II)−salicylaldimine complex ([Cu(L{sup salpyca})]·3H{sub 2}O){sub n} (3) through a metal-ion exchange induced structural transformation process. However, such processes do not worked by Mn(II) and Co(II) ions. Solid-state structure analyses reveal that complexes 1–3 form comparable coordinative or supramolecular zigzag chains running along the crystallographic [201] direction. In addition, replacing Zn(II) ion by Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions caused changes in coordination environment and sphere of metal centers, from a 5-coordinate intermediate geometry of square pyramidal and trigonal bipyramidal in 1 to a 6-coordinate octahedral geometry in 2, and to a 4-coordiante square planar geometry in 3. This study shows that metal-ion exchange serves as a very efficient way of forming new coordination complexes that may not be obtained through direct synthesis. - Graphical abstract: A Zn(II)−salicylaldimine zigzag chain has been successfully converted to a Ni(II)−salicylaldimine supramolecular zigzag chain and a Cu(II)−salicylaldimine coordinative zigzag chain through metal-ion exchange induced structural transformations, which is not achieved by Mn(II) and Co(II) ions.

  19. Sorption of Ni(II) on GMZ bentonite: effects of pH, ionic strength, foreign ions, humic acid and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shitong; Li, Jiaxing; Lu, Yi; Chen, Yixue; Wang, Xiangke

    2009-09-01

    Bentonite has been widely studied in nuclear waste management because of its special physicochemical properties. In this work, the sorption of Ni(II) from aqueous solution onto GMZ bentonite as a function of contact time, pH, ionic strength, foreign ions, humic acid (HA) and temperature was investigated under ambient conditions. The results indicated that the pseudo-second-order rate equation simulated the kinetic sorption process well. The sorption of Ni(II) on GMZ bentonite was strongly dependent on pH and on ionic strength. At low pH, the sorption of Ni(II) was dominated by outer-sphere surface complexation and ion exchange with Na(+)/H(+) on GMZ bentonite surfaces, whereas inner-sphere surface complexation was the main sorption mechanism at high pH. A positive effect of HA on Ni(II) sorption was found at pH8. The Langmuir, Freundlich, and D-R models were used to simulate the sorption isotherms of Ni(II) at three different temperatures: 303.15, 318.15 and 333.15K. The thermodynamic parameters (DeltaH(0), DeltaS(0) and DeltaG(0)) of Ni(II) sorption on GMZ bentonite at the three different temperatures were calculated from the temperature-dependent sorption isotherms. The results indicated that the sorption process of Ni(II) on GMZ bentonite was endothermic and spontaneous. Experimental results indicate that GMZ bentonite is a suitable sorbent for pre-concentration and solidification of Ni(II) from large volume solutions.

  20. Sorption of Ni(II) on GMZ bentonite: Effects of pH, ionic strength, foreign ions, humic acid and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shitong; Li Jiaxing; Lu Yi; Chen Yixue; Wang Xiangke

    2009-01-01

    Bentonite has been widely studied in nuclear waste management because of its special physicochemical properties. In this work, the sorption of Ni(II) from aqueous solution onto GMZ bentonite as a function of contact time, pH, ionic strength, foreign ions, humic acid (HA) and temperature was investigated under ambient conditions. The results indicated that the pseudo-second-order rate equation simulated the kinetic sorption process well. The sorption of Ni(II) on GMZ bentonite was strongly dependent on pH and on ionic strength. At low pH, the sorption of Ni(II) was dominated by outer-sphere surface complexation and ion exchange with Na + /H + on GMZ bentonite surfaces, whereas inner-sphere surface complexation was the main sorption mechanism at high pH. A positive effect of HA on Ni(II) sorption was found at pH 8. The Langmuir, Freundlich, and D-R models were used to simulate the sorption isotherms of Ni(II) at three different temperatures: 303.15, 318.15 and 333.15 K. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH 0 , ΔS 0 and ΔG 0 ) of Ni(II) sorption on GMZ bentonite at the three different temperatures were calculated from the temperature-dependent sorption isotherms. The results indicated that the sorption process of Ni(II) on GMZ bentonite was endothermic and spontaneous. Experimental results indicate that GMZ bentonite is a suitable sorbent for pre-concentration and solidification of Ni(II) from large volume solutions.

  1. Determination of '14 MeV' cross sections for (n,p)-, (n,α)-, (n,2n)-, and (n,np + pn + d)-reactions on the elements Sc, Ni, Ge, Pd, Cd, Sm, Dy, Gd, and Yb in consideration of the 'effective' n-energy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigel, H.; Michel, R.; Herr, W.

    1975-01-01

    A total of 24 cross sections was determined for (n,p)-, (n,α)-, (n,2n)-, and (n,np + pn + d)-reactions of fast (so called '14 MeV') neutrons on the elements Sc, Ni, Ge, Pd, Cd, Sm, Dy, Gd, and Yb. 58 Ni(n,p) 58 Co served as monitor reaction. It is a special feature of this work that calculated neutron energy spectra for the '14 MeV' n-tube (Type Philips 18602) were considered, thus enabling us to supply each individual sigma-value with the respective n-energy distribution. On the basis of an extensive literature search (up to the beginning of 1973) the sigma-data were compared with experimental results of other authors and with those deduced from the statistical model. For some nuclides (e.g. 58 Ni, 154 Gd, 168 Yb, 176 Yb) it was possible to show the limits of applicability of the latter model. Summarizing, 12 cross sections and 3 isomeric ratios, nearly all of which belong to reaction products with rather long half-lifes, were determined for the first time. (orig.) [de

  2. Determination of '14 MeV' cross sections for (n,p), (n,. cap alpha. ), (n,2n), and (n,np + pn + d) reactions on the elements Sc, Ni, Ge, Pd, Cd, Sm, Dy, Gd, and Yb in consideration of the 'effective' n-energy spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigel, H; Michel, R; Herr, W [Koeln Univ. (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Kernchemie

    1975-01-01

    A total of 24 cross sections was determined for (n,p), (n,..cap alpha..), (n,2n), and (n,np + pn + d) reactions of fast (so called '14-MeV') neutrons on the elements Sc, Ni, Ge, Pd, Cd, Sm, Dy, Gd, and Yb. /sup 58/Ni(n,p)/sup 58/Co served as monitor reaction. It is a special feature of this work that calculated neutron energy spectra for the '14 MeV' n-tube (Type Philips 18602) were considered; each individual sigma value could thus be supplied with the respective n-energy distribution. On the basis of an extensive literature search (up to the beginning of 1973), the sigma data were compared with experimental results of other authors and with those deduced from the statistical model. For some nuclides (e.g. /sup 58/Ni, /sup 154/Gd, /sup 168/Yb, /sup 176/Yb) it was possible to show the limits of applicability of the latter model. Summarizing, 12 cross sections and 3 isomeric ratios, nearly all of which belong to reaction products with rather long half-lifes, were determined for the first time.

  3. PVC Based Selective Sensors for Ni2+ Ions Using Carboxylated and Methylated Porphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Bhatnagar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Poly vinylchloride (PVC based membranes of 4,4',4'',4'''-21H,23H-porphine–5,10,15,20 –tetrayl tetrakis (benzoic acid (TBAP and 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octamethyl - 21H, 23H-porphine (OMP were prepared using dibutyl phthalate (DBP, dioctylphthalate (DOP, dibutyl(butylphosphonate (DBBP and 1-chloronaphthalene (CN as plastcizing solvent mediators and sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB as an anion excluder for Ni2+ selective sensors. TBAP based membrane exhibits linearity over a wide concentration range 2.0x10-6–1.0x10-1M (0.12 – 5.8x103ppm with a slope of 29.6 mV/decade of activity while OMP based membrane showed linear potential response in the concentration range 1.0x10-5 –1.0x 10-1M (0.60 – 5.8x103ppm with a Nernstian slope of 29.0 mV/decade of activity. The electrode assembly works between pH 2.0 – 7.0, exhibits a fast response time of 10-15s and performed satisfactorily over a period of six months with good reproducibility. Excellent selectivity of the order of 10-3 over a number of cations and quantitative determination of Ni2+ in effluents discharged from electroplating industry demonstrates the utility of the proposed sensor. The electrode assembly was also used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Ni2+ with EDTA.

  4. The observation of the Ne-like ion resonance line satellites for CrXV ... Ni XIX CO2-laser produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakhalin, S.Ya.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Pikuz, S.A.; Nilsen, J.; Osterheld, A.

    1994-01-01

    We present an analysis of dielectronic satellite spectra of Ne-like ion resonance lines for elements from Cr to Ni. For these low-Z elements, we use spectra from strongly underionized CO 2 -laser produced plasma to minimize the emission from open L-shell ions. This simplifies the spectra and allows the identification of satellite lines caused by radiative transitions from autoionizing states of sodium like ions. Good agreement between the satellite structure calculations and the experimental emission spectra is obtained. (orig.)

  5. The observation of the Ne-like ion resonance line satellites for CrXV. Ni XIX CO[sub 2]-laser produced plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khakhalin, S.Ya. (MISDC, NPO ' ' VNIIFTRI' ' , Mendeleevo (Russian Federation)); Faenov, A.Ya. (MISDC, NPO ' ' VNIIFTRI' ' , Mendeleevo (Russian Federation)); Skobelev, I.Yu. (MISDC, NPO ' ' VNIIFTRI' ' , Mendeleevo (Russian Federation)); Pikuz, S.A. (P. N. Lebedev Physical Inst., Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation)); Nilsen, J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)); Osterheld, A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States))

    1994-08-01

    We present an analysis of dielectronic satellite spectra of Ne-like ion resonance lines for elements from Cr to Ni. For these low-Z elements, we use spectra from strongly underionized CO[sub 2]-laser produced plasma to minimize the emission from open L-shell ions. This simplifies the spectra and allows the identification of satellite lines caused by radiative transitions from autoionizing states of sodium like ions. Good agreement between the satellite structure calculations and the experimental emission spectra is obtained. (orig.).

  6. Heavy ion irradiation effects of polymer film on absorption of light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Noboru; Seguchi, Tadao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Arakawa, Tetsuhito

    1997-03-01

    Ion irradiation effects on the absorption of light for three types of polymer films; polyethylene-terephthalate (PET), polyethylene-naphthalate (PEN), and polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) were investigated by irradiation of heavy ions with Ni{sup 4+}(15MeV), O{sup 6+}(160MeV), and Ar{sup 8+}(175MeV), and compared with electron beams(EB) irradiation. The change of absorption at 400nm by a photometer was almost proportional to total dose for ions and EB. The absorption per absorbed dose was much high in Ni{sup 4+}, but rather small in O{sup 6+} and Ar{sup 8+} irradiation, and the absorption by EB irradiation was accelerated by the temperature of polymer film during irradiation. The beam heating of materials during ion irradiation was assumed, especially for Ni ion irradiation. The heavy ion irradiation effect of polymers was thought to be much affected by the ion beam heating than the linear energy transfer(LET) of radiation source. (author)

  7. Measurements of the Energy Deposition Profile for 238U Ions with Energy 500 and 950 MEV/U in Stainless Steel and Copper Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafin, Edil; Gnutov, A; Golubev, Alexander; Hofmann, Ingo; Kantsyrev, Alexei; Kunin, Andrey; Latysheva, Ludmila N; Luckjashin, Victor; Panova, Yulia; Schardt, Dieter; Sobolevskiy, Nikolai; Vatulin, Vladimir; Weyrich, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Sub-millimeter wall thickness is foreseen for the vacuum tubes in the magnets of the superconducting dipoles of the SIS100 and SIS300 of the FAIR Project. The Bragg peak of the energy deposition by the U ions in these walls may lie dangerously close to the superconducting cables. Thus the precise knowledge of the dE/dx profile is essential for estimating the heat load by the lost ions in the vicinity of the superconducting wires. Here we present the results of the measurement of the U ion beam energy deposition profile in Cu and stainless steel targets and compare the measured data with the Monte-Carlo simulation using the SHIELD code.

  8. Adsorción de iones Ni(II sobre una arcilla bentonítica peletizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mejía Miranda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de iones metálicos en aguas residuales genera un efecto tóxico para ecosistemas marinos y la salud pública. Las arcillas son materiales naturales con alta capacidad de adsorción y de bajo costo, viables para su implementación a nivel a industrial para la remoción de iones metálicos. Su implementación está limitada al desarrollo de alternativas para la utilización de estas arcillas a gran escala y en procesos continuos. La peletización de las arcillas permite su utilización en columnas de lecho fi jo. En este trabajo se evaluó la cinética de adsorción de iones níquel sobre una arcilla bentónica peletizada. Los extrudados se prepararon por humectación de la arcilla con una solución acidifi cada con ácido nítrico al 2%v. La proporción en volumen arcilla/solución acuosa fue 2:1. Se evaluó la remoción de iones níquel a 20, 40, 100 y 160 minutos y temperaturas de 25, 40 y 60°C. La cinética de adsorción de Ni(II se ajustó a un modelo de pseudo segundo orden. Las constantes cinéticas del modelo fueron 2,792x10-3, 8,085x10-4y 6,292x10-4g/mg.min para las temperaturas de reacción 25, 45 y 60°C, respectivamente. A partir de la lineación de la ecuación de Arrhenius se determinó la energía de activación y el factor de frecuencia para la reacción de adsorción de iones níquel sobre arcilla bentonítica, siendo 29,58kJ/moly 507,15g/mg.min, respectivamente. La magnitud de la energía de activación indica que la etapa controlante en la adsorción es la quimisorción de los iones níquel sobre la superfi cie de la arcilla.

  9. Comparison of nickel and chromium ions released from stainless steel and NiTi wires after immersion in Oral B®, Orthokin® and artificial saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilian, Abdolreza; Moghaddas, Omid; Toopchi, Shabnam; Perillo, Letizia

    2014-07-01

    Oral environment of the mouth is a suitable place for biodegradation of alloys used in orthodontic wires. The toxicity of these alloys namely nickel and chromium has concerned the researchers about the release of these ions from orthodontic wires and brackets. The aim of this study was to measure the levels of nickel and chromium ions released from 0.018" stainless steel (SS) and NiTi wires after immersion in three solutions. One hundred and forty-four round NiTi and 144 round SS archwires with the diameters of 0.018" were immersed in Oral B®, Orthokin® and artificial saliva. The amounts of nickel and chromium ions released were measured after 1, 6, 24 hours and 7 days. Two way repeated ANOVA showed that the amount of chromium and nickel significantly increased in all solutions during all time intervals (p nickel ions were released more in NiTi wire in all solutions compared with SS wire. The lowest increase rate was also seen in artificial saliva. There is general consensus in literature that even very little amounts of nickel and chromium are dangerous for human body specially when absorbed orally; therefore, knowing the precise amount of these ions released from different wires when immersed in different mouthwashes is of high priority.

  10. Removal of Mn, Fe, Ni and Cu Ions from Wastewater Using Cow Bone Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow bone charcoal (CBC was synthesized and used for the removal of metals ions (manganese, iron, nickel and copper from aqueous solutions. Two different adsorption models were used for analyzing the data. Adsorption capacities were determined: copper ions exhibit the greatest adsorption on cow bone charcoal because of their size and pH conditions. Adsorption capacity varies as a function of pH. Adsorption isotherms from aqueous solution of heavy metals on CBC were determined. Adsorption isotherms are consistent with Langmuir´s adsorption model. Adsorbent quantity and immersion enthalpy were studied.

  11. The influence of nickel content on microstructures of Fe-Cr-Ni austenitic alloys irradiated with nickel ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muroga, T.; Yoshida, N.; Garner, F.A.

    1990-11-01

    The objectives of this effort is to identify the mechanisms involved in the radiation-induced evolution of microstructure in materials intended for fusion applications. The results of this study are useful in interpreting the results of several other ongoing experiments involving either spectral or isotopic tailoring to study the effects of helium on microstructure evolution. Ion-irradiated Fe-15Cr-XNi (X = 20, 35, 45, 60, 75) ternary alloys and a 15Cr-85Ni binary alloy were examined after bombardment at 675 degree C and compared to earlier observations made on these same alloys after irradiation in EBR-II at 510 or 538 degree C. The response of the ion-irradiated microstructures to nickel content appears to be very consistent with that of neutron irradiation even though there are four orders of magnitude difference in displacement rate and over 200 degree C difference in temperature. It appears that the transition to higher rates of swelling during both types of irradiation is related to the operation of some mechanisms that is not directly associated with void nucleation. 6 refs., 8 figs

  12. Degradation of PET, PEEK and PI induced by irradiation with 150 keV Ar+ and 1.76 MeV He+ ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macková, Anna; Havránek, Vladimír; Švorčík, V.; Suzuki, T.; Djourelov, N.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 240, 1/2 (2005), s. 245-249 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC 527.100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : irradiated polymers * ion beam modification * ERDA Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2005

  13. Modeling of fuel retention in the pre-damaged tungsten with MeV W ions after exposure to D plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhou Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of high-Z ion irradiated-induced damages on fuel retention inside tungsten (W material has been performed in this work. The upgraded Hydrogen Isotope Inventory Processes Code (HIIPC is applied to model the deuterium (D retention inside pre-damaged W during exposed to low-energy D flux, and the W is pre-irradiated by 20 MeV W-ion before exposed to D flux. Three types of trap, i.e. mono-vacancies, dislocations and grain boundary vacancies, are considered in the present model. The mono-vacancy defects induced by energetic W ions are calculated by SRIM code. First, the model is validated against the available experimental data under the same D flux exposure conditions, showing the reasonable agreement. Then, the effect of radiation-induced defects produced by pre-exposed energetic W-ion with different energy and fluence on the fuel retention are studied, confirming that the irradiation-induced traps play a dominated role on the fuel retention in the surface of the material (∼ micrometer. Finally, the effects of different type of defect, D fluence, and wall temperature on the fuel retention are discussed systemically, and these modeling results are in well agreement with the previous studies.

  14. Light particle probes of expansion and temperature evolution: Coalescence model analyses of heavy ion collisions at 47A MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagel, K.; Wada, R.; Cibor, J.; Lunardon, M.; Marie, N.; Alfaro, R.; Shen, W.; Xiao, B.; Zhao, Y.; Majka, Z.

    2000-01-01

    The reactions 12 C+ 116 Sn, 22 Ne+Ag, 40 Ar+ 100 Mo, and 64 Zn+ 89 Y have been studied at 47A MeV projectile energy. For these reactions the most violent collisions lead to increasing amounts of fragment and light particle emission as the projectile mass increases. This is consistent with quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) model simulations of the collisions. Moving source fits to the light charged particle data have been used to gain a global view of the evolution of the particle emission. Comparisons of the multiplicities and spectra of light charged particles emitted in the reactions with the four different projectiles indicate a common emission mechanism for early emitted ejectiles even though the deposited excitation energies differ greatly. The spectra for such ejectiles can be characterized as emission in the nucleon-nucleon frame. Evidence that the 3 He yield is dominated by this type of emission and the role of the collision dynamics in determining the 3 H/ 3 He yield ratio are discussed. Self-consistent coalescence model analyses are applied to the light cluster yields, in an attempt to probe emitter source sizes and to follow the evolution of the temperatures and densities from the time of first particle emission to equilibration. These analyses exploit correlations between ejectile energy and emission time, suggested by the QMD calculations. In this analysis the degree of expansion of the emitting system is found to increase with increasing projectile mass. The double isotope yield ratio temperature drops as the system expands. Average densities as low as 0.36ρ 0 are reached at a time near 100 fm/c after contact. Calorimetric methods were used to derive the mass and excitation energy of the excited nuclei which are present after preequilibrium emission. The derived masses range from 102 to 116 u and the derived excitation energies increase from 2.6 to 6.9 MeV/nucleon with increasing projectile mass. A caloric curve is derived for these expanded A∼110

  15. Structural, surface potential and optical studies of AlGaN based double heterostructures irradiated by 120 MeV Si{sup 9+} swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arivazhagan, P., E-mail: arivazhaganau2008@gmail.com [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai, 600 025 (India); Ramesh, R.; Balaji, M. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai, 600 025 (India); Asokan, K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi (India); Baskar, K. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai, 600 025 (India)

    2016-09-15

    The Al{sub 0.33}Ga{sub 0.77}N/Al{sub 0.14}Ga{sub 0.86}N based double heterostructure was irradiated using Si{sup 9+} ion at room temperature (RT) and liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) with four dissimilar ion fluence. The effect of Si{sup 9+} ion irradiation in dislocation densities and in-plane strain of GaN layer were discussed. The in-plane strain values of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N layers were calculated from asymmetric reciprocal space mapping (RSM). The surface modification and the variation in phase shift on Al{sub 0.33}Ga{sub 0.77}N surfaces due to the irradiation were measured by Electrostatic Force Microscopy (EFM). The capacitance of the tip-sample system was determined from EFM. The band edge emissions of heterostructures were measured by the room temperature phototluminescence (PL) and the shift in the Al{sub 0.14}Ga{sub 0.86}N active layer emission peaks towards the low energy side at low fluence ion irradiation has been noted. - Highlights: • Effects of Si{sup 9+} ion irradiation on AlGaN double heterostructures were investigated. • Dislocation densities of GaN reduced at liquid nitrogen temperature irradiation. • Variation in phase shift on Al{sub 0.33}Ga{sub 0.77}N surfaces was measured by EFM. • Capacitance per unit area values of AFM tip-sample