WorldWideScience

Sample records for metropolitan washington region

  1. Changing Housing Patterns in Metropolitan Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, George; Grier, Eunice

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, summarizes extensive studies of changing minority residential patterns in metropolitan Washington and less extensive studies of other groups; the prospects for future desegregation and for using the growing economic potential of minority families…

  2. Processes Controlling CH2O Over the Baltimore/Washington DC Metropolitan Region: A Box Model Analysis Using Data from DISCOVER-AQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, J. R.; Crawford, J. H.; Fried, A.; Wisthaler, A.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Barrick, J. D.; Diskin, G. S.; Duncan, B. N.; Mikoviny, T.

    2012-12-01

    The first deployment for NASA's Earth Venture campaign DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) took place over the Baltimore/Washington DC region during July of 2011. Observations of CH2O in the lowest kilometer (pressure-altitude) indicate that median concentrations can vary day to day by as much as 5 ppbv. Further, variability within a single day can correlate with a number of species, including H2O, temperature, isoprene, and/or CO. The NASA Langley photochemical box model is used to examine the dominant budget terms for CH2O during DISCOVER-AQ and to diagnose the drivers of the CH2O variability. Modeling results show that the source of CH2O is largely dominated by isoprene. However, the variability of CH2O within single flight days is rarely directly correlated to isoprene. Rather, most often, CH2O variability is correlated to the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, defined by OH and driven by OH precursors such as H2O, O3 photolysis rates, and NO. Sensitivity model runs where isoprene is held constant to daily medians show excellent ability to predict both the overall CH2O concentration (dominated by isoprene) and the variability of CH2O throughout a day (driven by variations in oxidative capacity).

  3. Partners In Motion And Customer Satisfaction In The Washington Dc Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    PARTNERS IN MOTION IS A PROGRAM AIMED AT IMPROVING THE QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND AVAILABILITY OF TRAVEL INFORMATION TO TRANSPORTATION AGENCIES, THE MEDIA, AND, ULTIMATELY, TO THE TRAVELER IN THE WASHINGTON, D.C. METROPOLITAN AREA. THE PROGRAM WAS INITIA...

  4. Metropolitan region of Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    the boundaries of the city further out. With the opening of the suburban train lines in 1934, the until today known finger structure was consolidated. A regional strategy, the “Fingerplan”, incorporating this structure was elaborated in 1947, but individual motorisation eroded some of the principles. Still...... in Sweden, forming a cross-border region with around 3.5 mio. inhabitants....

  5. Needs Assessment of the Healthcare Sector in the Washington, D.C., Metropolitan Area. Research Report. Business Needs Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern Virginia Community Coll., Annandale. Office of Institutional Research.

    According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the growing population of elderly citizens will result in an increased demand for healthcare services that will rise for a full 50 years. This study assesses the need for healthcare sector workers in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. Information on the skills, education, and experience that…

  6. Urbanisation, urban growth and planning in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    pressure. Growth management strategies are necessary to secure future balanced and sustainable development throughout the whole urban region. The analysis of urbanisation and urban growth in peri-urban areas is at the core of this study, including socio-demographic and functional dynamics, land use impacts...... and options for spatial planning. The main case was the metropolitan region of Copenhagen, Denmark. Other cases from Europe and the USA were used as reference studies. The methods included quantitative analyses of register and land use data as well as general case study work to investigate options for spatial...... planning. The study shows that, while the most visible impacts of land use changes can be found at the close urban fringe, many other dynamics have a much longer reach into the rural-urban region. In the Copenhagen metropolitan region, we can observe migration to peri-urban areas and to the urban core...

  7. State safety oversight program : audit of the tri-state oversight committee and the Washington metropolitan area transit authority, final audit report, March 4, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) conducted an on-site audit of the safety program implemented by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and overseen by the Tri-State Oversight Committee (TOC) between December 14 and 17, 20...

  8. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region consists of the following territorial area (including the territorial... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality...

  9. 40 CFR 81.38 - Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Houston-Galveston... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.38 Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) has been...

  10. 40 CFR 81.63 - Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.63 Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Oklahoma) has been revised to consist...

  11. The effects of water filtration systems on fluoride: Washington, D.C. metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, M D; Grimm, S E; Banks, K; Henley, G

    2000-01-01

    According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), approximately one in eight Americans is exposed to potentially harmful microbes, pesticides, lead, or radioactive radon whenever they drink a glass of tap water or take a shower. One reason for this exposure is that the water plants are aging or ill equipped to process the huge amounts of raw sewage and agricultural pollutants that are still being discharged into our drinking-water sources. Other compounds such as fluoride and chloride have been added to the community water supplies for health benefits. Water filtration systems are becoming more popular as people become concerned with pollutants in the public water supply and questions are being raised as to whether fluoride is affected by these filters. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the efficacy of three types of water filtration systems and to determine their impact on fluoride content of the water in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. One sample of water was collected daily for fourteen days, from one location. The sample was divided to use as a control and the test samples which were processed through various filter systems. With the use of a fluoride ion specific electrode, the fluoride concentration level was tested in all samples in order to determine the percentage of fluoride removed. This study was intended to prove that the water filtration systems did not affect the advantage offered by optimum water fluoride levels. The experimental samples were ascertained and compared to the control group, resulting in three of the four carbon filters showing statistically significant amounts of fluoride removed from the water. Both Reverse Osmosis and Distillation, as expected, removed the fluoride at a high rate.

  12. Regional transportation and land use decision making in metropolitan regions : findings from four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    "Throughout the United States, metropolitan regions face increasingly complex issues related to transportation and : land use. The diffuse nature of decision making creates a need to better coordinate land use and transportation to : address issues s...

  13. 40 CFR 81.43 - Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.43 Section 81.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.43 Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Michigan) consists of the territorial area...

  14. 40 CFR 81.31 - Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.31 Section 81.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.31 Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Rhode Island-Massachusetts) consists of the...

  15. 40 CFR 81.78 - Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.78 Section 81.78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.78 Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maine) consists of the territorial area...

  16. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.45 Section 81.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of the...

  17. 40 CFR 81.16 - Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.16 Section 81.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.16 Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Colorado) consists of the territorial area...

  18. 40 CFR 81.29 - Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Region. 81.29 Section 81.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.29 Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  19. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.20 Section 81.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist of...

  20. 40 CFR 81.101 - Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.101 Section 81.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.101 Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Iowa-Wisconsin) consists of the...

  1. 40 CFR 81.44 - Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.44 Section 81.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.44 Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Mississippi-Tennessee) consists of the...

  2. 40 CFR 81.34 - Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.34 Section 81.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.34 Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  3. 40 CFR 81.19 - Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.19 Section 81.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.19 Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Massachusetts) consists of the territorial area...

  4. 40 CFR 81.28 - Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.28 Section 81.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.28 Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maryland) consists of the territorial area...

  5. 40 CFR 81.41 - Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.41 Section 81.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.41 Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alabama) has been revised to consist of the...

  6. 40 CFR 81.14 - Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.14 Section 81.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.14 Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Indiana) is revised to consist of the...

  7. 40 CFR 81.89 - Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.89 Section 81.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.89 Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wyoming) consists of the territorial area...

  8. 40 CFR 81.87 - Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.87 Section 81.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.87 Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Idaho) consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  9. 40 CFR 81.75 - Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.75 Section 81.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.75 Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina-South Carolina) has been revised...

  10. Washington DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study Household and Non-Household Populations (DC-MADSH-1991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DCMADS) was conducted in 1991, and included special analyses of homeless and transient populations and of women delivering live...

  11. Washington DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study Homeless and Transient Population (DC-MADST-1991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DCMADS) was conducted in 1991, and included special analyses of homeless and transient populations and of women delivering live...

  12. Atmospheric aerosol layers over Bangkok Metropolitan Region from CALIPSO observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridhikitti, Arika

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies suggested that aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Earth Observing System satellite retrievals could be used for inference of ground-level air quality in various locations. This application may be appropriate if pollution in elevated atmospheric layers is insignificant. This study investigated the significance of elevated air pollution layers over the Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR) from all available aerosol layer scenes taken from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) for years 2007 to 2011. The results show that biomass burning smoke layers alone were the most frequently observed. The smoke layers accounted for high AOD variations and increased AOD levels. In the dry seasons, the smoke layers alone with high AOD levels were likely brought to the BMR via northeasterly to easterly prevailing winds and found at altitudes above the typical BMR mixing heights of approximately 0.7 to 1.5 km. The smoke should be attributed to biomass burning emissions outside the BMR.

  13. Metropolitan Washington Area Water Supply Study. Appendix H. Bloomington Lake Reformulation Study. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    tourism . In terms of absolute numbers, manufacturing dominates the economic base of the area. The industries are mainly concentrated in the metropolitan...A A~~0 tq 0 .0 UI 05 C ’.M Mo A U S. C *.Ob 5 . 0 S S a ~ IS 5 N U C U 556 55 6 SMM MS .. 55 -O USO .0 5 MC 0.55 S.S H ~ ~ ~ F s J." I MU~ .,C U05 5US

  14. Water crisis: the metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, regional water supply conflict

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-07-01

    Many large population centres are currently facing considerable difficulties with planning issues to secure future water supplies, as a result of water allocation and environmental issues, litigation, and political dogma. A classic case occurs in the metropolitan Atlanta area, which is a rapidly growing, large population centre that relies solely on surface water for supply. Lake Lanier currently supplies about 70% of the water demand and has been involved in a protracted legal dispute for more than two decades. Drought and environmental management of the reservoir combined to create a water shortage which nearly caused a disaster to the region in 2007 (only about 35 days of water supply was in reserve). While the region has made progress in controlling water demand by implementing a conservation plan, per capita use projections are still very high (at 511 L/day in 2035). Both non-potable reuse and indirect reuse of treated wastewater are contained in the most current water supply plan with up to 380,000 m3/day of wastewater treated using advanced wastewater treatment (nutrient removal) to be discharged into Lake Lanier. The water supply plan, however, includes no additional or new supply sources and has deleted any reference to the use of seawater desalination or other potential water sources which would provide diversification, thereby relying solely on the Coosa and Chattahoochee river reservoirs for the future. © 2014 IWA Publishing.

  15. Indoor radon distribution in metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Talita O.; Oliveira, Arno H. de

    2009-01-01

    Human beings are exposed to ionizing radiation from many natural sources. Radon and its progeny have been recognized as the most important contributors to the natural radioactivity dose, accounting for about half of all human exposure to ionizing radiation. Radon ( 222 Rn) is a α-radioactive noble gas derived from the natural series of uranium (2 38 U), which occurs in a wide concentration range in all geological materials, especially, in rocks, soils and waters. By diffusion and convection, radon migrates from the rocks and soils to atmosphere and through fissures, pipes and holes it may enter the dwellings and other buildings. Another important radon source in dwellings is its emanation from the construction material. The radon progeny concentration in dwellings has been receiving considerable global attention due to its potential effect in causing lung cancer if it deposited in upper respiratory tract when inhaled. This paper presents radon concentration distribution in dwellings in Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte - RMBH. The effective dose estimate is also presented for the RMBH inhabitants. The geological settings of the area are Archean rocks of Granitic Gnaissic Complex and of metasediments sequences of the great Precambrian unit of the Iron Quadrangle of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Radon concentration measurements were carried out with continuous detector AlphaGUARD PQ200PRO (Genitron), in passive mode and with passive detectors E-PERM R Eletret Ion Chamber-EIC. The radon progeny concentration was carried out with a solid state alpha spectroscope, the DOSEman PRO (Sarad). It was found an indoor radon concentration varying in a large range from 18.5 to 2671.4 Bq/m -3 , with an average value of 148.0 Bqm -3 and geometric mean equal to 128.2 Bqm -3 . The variable results are due mainly to region geological factors and building material composition of dwellings. The equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny were determined in dwellings, as 0.3 in

  16. URBANIZATION AND SPATIAL CHANGES IN DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS IN MONTERREY METROPOLITAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Acharya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to explore the process of urbanization and spatial changes in demographic features in the Monterrey Metropolitan Region (MMR, Mexico. This city is the third largest urban sector in Mexico which has around 4 million population. It is also the industrial and economic capital of the country. The present study found that rapid urbanization in the metropolitan region has a close association with process of industrialization. In population distribution and composition, study found that the metropolitan region had its “demographic transition” during the years seventies and currently the region is taking advantages of demographic bonus cohort, i.e. a higher concentration of population in economic active groups compare to children and old age population. However, this paper indentified a higher imbalance in metropolitan demographic scenario. On the one hand, there is di-populization in the city center region and in other there is a steady increment of population in peri-urban region.

  17. Metropolitan Washington Airports Policy Supplement to the August 1980 Environmental Impact Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    along with the recognition of some significant facility and environmental problems that have developed at Washington National Airport. These problems at...large store 53 Window air conditioner 55 Conversational speech 60 Household department of large store 62 Busy restaurant 65 Typing pool (9 typewriters...O 𔃾TONLAIPR 72 nB INL EET OSECNT1R RonNORTH AN SOT ARRIV., A.S V " -’V " - ’ - ’ , "% , . * - 7’ II J . .. ALEXA DRIA ; -" -. "- .". .. -,. - " " J

  18. Metropolization Process for enhancing local and regional planning : an experience of cirebon metropolitan, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyadi Rustidja, E.

    2018-03-01

    Metropolitan develops in line with resource utilization, investment, and transactions of regional activities. Metropolization of an area gives emerge urban economy that changes the situation, form, and pattern of urban space interactions. On the other hand, metropolism concerns the strategy of changing variation of urban space, so that metropolitan invasion not only form of urban space but also the process of interaction among stakeholders in developing metropolitan area. Based on participatory research, this article explores metropolitan invasion process for enhancing local and regional planning, both indigenous and intrusive cataclysmic. The study find that the primeval, rural, and urban as elemental environment must be considered in developing metropolitan, not merely form the structure and pattern of urban space. The metropolization process also requires the strategic of rural urban linkage, context setting and local assessment, strategic community investment, and interculturalist approach. The other findings of the study show that metropolization in Cirebon Metropolitan, West Java emphasizing on promotion of competitiveness strategy, value chain urban activities, and networking of urban areas. Cirebon Metropolitan must promote the realization of growth centers and connect the interregional activities of metropolitan area for providing sustainable economic growth.

  19. Forecasting drug utilization and expenditure in a metropolitan health region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkmaz Seher

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New pharmacological therapies are challenging the healthcare systems, and there is an increasing need to assess their therapeutic value in relation to existing alternatives as well as their potential budget impact. Consequently, new models to introduce drugs in healthcare are urgently needed. In the metropolitan health region of Stockholm, Sweden, a model has been developed including early warning (horizon scanning, forecasting of drug utilization and expenditure, critical drug evaluation as well as structured programs for the introduction and follow-up of new drugs. The aim of this paper is to present the forecasting model and the predicted growth in all therapeutic areas in 2010 and 2011. Methods Linear regression analysis was applied to aggregate sales data on hospital sales and dispensed drugs in ambulatory care, including both reimbursed expenditure and patient co-payment. The linear regression was applied on each pharmacological group based on four observations 2006-2009, and the crude predictions estimated for the coming two years 2010-2011. The crude predictions were then adjusted for factors likely to increase or decrease future utilization and expenditure, such as patent expiries, new drugs to be launched or new guidelines from national bodies or the regional Drug and Therapeutics Committee. The assessment included a close collaboration with clinical, clinical pharmacological and pharmaceutical experts from the regional Drug and Therapeutics Committee. Results The annual increase in total expenditure for prescription and hospital drugs was predicted to be 2.0% in 2010 and 4.0% in 2011. Expenditures will increase in most therapeutic areas, but most predominantly for antineoplastic and immune modulating agents as well as drugs for the nervous system, infectious diseases, and blood and blood-forming organs. Conclusions The utilisation and expenditure of drugs is difficult to forecast due to uncertainties about the rate

  20. Access to destinations : annual accessibility measure for the Twin Cities Metropolitan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes previous phases of the Access to Destinations project and applies the techniques developed : over the course of the project to conduct an evaluation of accessibility in the Twin Cities metropolitan region for : 2010. It describ...

  1. The Challenge of Forecasting Metropolitan Growth: Urban Characteristics Based Models versus Regional Dummy Based Models

    OpenAIRE

    NA

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a study of errors in forecasting the population of Metropolitan Statistical Areas and the Primary MSAs of Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas and New England MAs. The forecasts are for the year 2000 and are based on a semi-structural model estimated by Mills and Lubelle using 1970 to 1990 census data on population, employment and relative real wages. This model allows the testing of regional effects on population and employment growth. The year 2000 forecasts are f...

  2. Mixed waste management in Washington and the Northwest Compact Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The state of Washington's concerns about the management of mixed waste have evolved over the past year. One concern that receives increasing attention is the Northwest Compact Region's need to plan for disposal of its own mixed waste. An informal survey of the region's potential mixed waste generators has indicated that mixed waste volumes are low. However, the opening of a disposal facility may result in increased waste volumes. A preliminary proposal for such a facility has been reviewed by the federal and state agencies that dually regulate mixed waste. Initial conclusions reached by the regulators are presented

  3. Regional differences in commuting activities of inhabitants in the Tokyo metropolitan suburb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kawase

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to elucidate gender differences and regional differences of co-mmuting activities by inhabitants in Japanese metropolitan suburbs. I found the different parts by districts in the metropolitan suburb. Regional factors cause gender differences in commuting activities and result in regional differences: In residential areas, inhabitants who work in metropolitan centers occupy much of the population. In older built-up areas, there are many “local” persons. In rural areas, motorization is progressing because access to rail-roads has been inconvenient. These regional factors influence the behavioral characteristics of commuting by married men, married women, never married men and never married women.

  4. Historical changes to Lake Washington and route of the Lake Washington Ship Canal, King County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzastowski, Michael J.

    1983-01-01

    Lake Washington, in the midst of the greater Seattle metropolitan area of the Puget Sound region (fig. 1), is an exceptional commercial, recreational, and esthetic resource for the region . In the past 130 years, Lake Washington has been changed from a " wild " lake in a wilderness setting to a regulated lake surrounded by a growing metropolis--a transformation that provides an unusual opportunity to study changes to a lake's shoreline and hydrologic characteristics -resulting from urbanization.

  5. Regional Disparities and Social Cohesion Policies. The Case of the Metropolitan Area of Bari (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSALINA GRUMO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of Regions appears reconfigured by the "reshaping" of national States. Besides, under a sub-regional scale, forms of governance have been launched, redefining a new territoriality. In Italy, the role of the Regions and Cities is more and more important in the decision-making processes of the territories and it is also characterized by the recent establishment of the metropolitan cities, but still not geo-politically defined. There is, in fact, a constitutional reform process through the region's reorganization legislative autonomy and strengthening of local governments. In this context, some areas are characterized by social unrest that includes new forms of poverty, urban malaise and marginalization, due also to the financial and economic crisis whose signs of recovery are still very weak. In the European Union, the programming decisions considered the policy of development and cohesion also at the local scale. The 2014-2020 EU programming cycle, in fact, has defined the main role of metropolitan cities, but also of cities and internal areas. The contribution will analyze Puglia, region of southern Italy, and the metropolitan area of Bari, the regional capital, in order to verify policies concerning the social field, both through "strategic planning" and launching the so-called "smart city" experience. In the metropolitan city, indeed, there is already an orientation towards the "social innovation" to address the issues of social cohesion and inclusion, consistent to sustainable development.

  6. A Cluster Analytic Examination of Acculturation and Health Status among Asian Americans in the Washington DC Metropolitan Area, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunmin; Chen, Lu; He, Xin; Miller, Matthew J.; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies reported mixed findings on the relationship between acculturation and health status among Asian Americans due to different types of acculturation measures used or different Asian subgroups involved in various studies. We aim to fill the gap by applying multiple measures of acculturation in a diverse sample of Asian subgroups. A cross sectional study was conducted among Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese Americans in Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area to examine the association between health status and acculturation using multiple measures including the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation (SL-ASIA) scale, clusters based on responses to SL-ASIA, language preference, length of stay, age at arrival in the United Sates and self-identity. Three clusters (Asian (31%); Bicultural (47%); and American (22%)) were created by using a two-step hierarchical method and Bayesian Information Criterion values. Across all the measures, more acculturated individuals were significantly more likely to report good health than those who were less acculturated after adjusting for covariates. Specifically, those in the American cluster were 3.8 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.2, 6.6) more likely and those in the Bicultural cluster were 1.7 times more likely (95% CI: 1.1, 2.4) to report good health as compared to those in the Asian cluster. When the conventional standardized SL-ASIA summary score (range: −1.4 to 1.4) was used, a one point increase was associated with 2.2 times greater odds of reporting good health (95% CI: 1.5, 3.2). However, the interpretation may be challenging due to uncertainty surrounding the meaning of a one point increase in SL-ASIA summary score. Among all the measures used, acculturation clusters better approximated the acculturation process and provided us with a more accurate test of the association in the population. Variables included in this measure were more relevant for our study sample and may have worked together to capture the

  7. Trends and determinants of cycling in the Washington, DC region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This report analyzes cycling trends, policies, and commuting in the Washington, DC area. The analysis is divided into two parts. : Part 1 focuses on cycling trends and policies in Washington (DC), Alexandria (VA), Arlington County (VA), Fairfax Count...

  8. Regional Landscape System Protection in the Urbanising Desert Southwest: Lessons from the Phoenix Metropolitan Region, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Musacchio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the late nineteenth century, landscape protection in the deserts of the Southwest, United States of America, like many places worldwide, has been driven by the conservation of landscape icons, such as unusual geological features in wilderness areas. Yet, in the past two decades, leading conservation scholars worldwide have called for a shift in this paradigm to one that emphasises landscape systems, which is based on holistic landscape ecology. The shift in emphas is to landscape systems opens new opportunities to protect desert landscape systems at the regional scale rather than just remnant patches at the local scale. In this paper, the authors present, for public consideration, a typology of the five major desert landscapes that can be used as the bas is for protecting regional landscape systems in the deserts of the Southwest. As a case study, several representative examples of recent regional open space plans from the Phoenix metropolitan area are analysed and compared with the typology in order to understand how successfully the projects have addressed protection of the regional landscape system in the Sonoran Desert.

  9. Metropolitan Foodsheds as Spatial References for a Landscape-Based Assessment of Regional Food Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wascher, D.M.; Eupen, van M.; Corsi, S.; Sali, G.; Zasada, I.

    2016-01-01

    The Food Planning and Innovation for Sustainable Metropolitan Regions (FOODMETRES) project strives to assess the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of food chains, with regard to the spatial, logistical, and resource dimensions of growing food as well as the questions of food safety and quality

  10. Water crisis: the metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, regional water supply conflict

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.; Danser, Philip Alexander; Amy, Gary L.; Pankratz, Tom M.

    2014-01-01

    decades. Drought and environmental management of the reservoir combined to create a water shortage which nearly caused a disaster to the region in 2007 (only about 35 days of water supply was in reserve). While the region has made progress in controlling

  11. A REGIONAL APPROACH TO THE METROPOLITAN ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Teodor Boldeanu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to contribute to metropolitan economic growth literature by carrying out an analysis for 271 areas located in the EU between 2000 and 2013. For this objective the study uses several panel data estimation techniques, namely the GMM, System GMM and the QML estimation. To check the robustness of the results, the time period is divided in two (post and ante economic crisis and by splitting the sample of metropolitan regions in two components, the Western more developed regions and the Central and South-Eastern (the formal communist states, except for Cyprus areas. The results indicate that the industrial, construction and wholesale and retail trade sectors are positively linked with metropolitan growth. The agricultural, fishery and forestry sector is negatively influencing growth. The manufacturing and ITC sectors and migration are not statistically significant. Furthermore population density and size is more important than population growth and European enlargement did not have a substantial positive impact on metropolitan growth for the Central and South-Eastern regions.

  12. Regional basalt hydrology of the Columbia Plateau in Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Barrett, G.; Wildrick, L.

    1979-10-01

    This study is part of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, operated for the US Department of Energy by Rockwell Hanford Operations. The overall purpose of the study is to assess locations within the Columbia River Basalt Group beneath the Hanford Site in south-central Washington suitable for a geologic repository for radioactive waste. This hydrologic study was made to describe the hydrologic characteristics of the basalt units of the Columbia Plateau. This was done by comprehensive data compilation, data interpretation and analysis. Data are presented in the form of maps and tables suitable as input information about the regional hydrology for possible future analysis by computer models. The report includes: an introduction; basic data; interpretation which covers stratigraphic trend surface, water levels, transmissivity and storage of aquifers, recharge, discharge, flow, subbasins, cross sections, references and appendix of record of wells

  13. Regional Landscape System Protection in the Urbanising Desert Southwest: Lessons from the Phoenix Metropolitan Region, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Musacchio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the lens of holistic landscape ecology, the authors present for public consideration a desert landscape typology and plan assessment criteria. As a case study, historical trends in open space planning and two contrasting examples of recent open space plans from the Phoenix metropolitan area were analysed and compared to the typology in order to understand how successfully the open space planning efforts had addressed protection of the regional landscape system in the Sonoran Desert. We also developed an approach for the analysis of the landscape ecological component of plans that was based on Baer's general plan assessment criteria (1997. Our results indicate the desert landscape typology is a valuable step as part of a plan assessment of two regional, open space plans, but more importantly, the assessment criteria presented in this paper could be used as the foundation for a more thorough assessment method of the landscape ecological component of plans. The desert landscape typology and plan assessment criteria presented in this paper can be used to increase understanding about how the decision making of planners and designers has influenced the temporal and spatial dimensions of landscape legacies, trajectories and transformations, such as connectivity and fragmentation of open space.

  14. Improving Public Health and Environment through Plastic Waste Management in Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay RODE

    2015-01-01

    The Mumbai Metropolitan Region is growing in terms of population, industry, educational and commercial units. The daily requirements of commodities and services by all units have increased fast. Plastic is used extensively for packing, protection and service of various commodities. The use of plastic is much higher by industry and households in region. In Brihan Mumbai Municipal Corporation, the density of population is higher. The concentration of small and large industries is more. Therefor...

  15. Seismic hazard assessment of the Hanford region, Eastern Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngs, R.R.; Coppersmith, K.J.; Power, M.S.; Swan, F.H. III

    1985-01-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard assessment was made for a site within the Hanford region of eastern Washington state, which is characterized as an intraplate region having a relatively low rate of seismic activity. Probabilistic procedures, such as logic trees, were utilized to account for the uncertainties in identifying and characterizing the potential seismic sources in the region. Logic trees provide a convenient, flexible means of assessing the values and relative likelihoods of input parameters to the hazard model that may be dependent upon each other. Uncertainties accounted for in this way include the tectonic model, segmentation, capability, fault geometry, maximum earthquake magnitude, and earthquake recurrence rate. The computed hazard results are expressed as a distribution from which confidence levels are assessed. Analysis of the results show the contributions to the total hazard from various seismic sources and due to various earthquake magnitudes. In addition, the contributions of uncertainties in the various source parameters to the uncertainty in the computed hazard are assessed. For this study, the major contribution to uncertainty in the computed hazard are due to uncertainties in the applicable tectonic model and the earthquake recurrence rate. This analysis serves to illustrate some of the probabilistic tools that are available for conducting seismic hazard assessments and for analyzing the results of these studies. 5 references, 7 figures

  16. Travelers' use of the WSDOT traffic conditions web site : customer satisfaction evaluation -- Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative : Seattle, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-28

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of public use of the Washington State Department of Transportation's (WSDOT) traffic conditions web site. This research was sponsored by the US Department of Transportation to assess customer satisfac...

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic pets from metropolitan regions of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rengifo-Herrera Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease but information regarding domestic animals in Central America is scarce and fragmented. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats and dogs in different metropolitan regions of Panama. A total of 576 samples were collected; sera from 120 cats and 456 dogs were tested using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The overall seroprevalence of IgG antibodies was 30.73%. There is high seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats and dogs in the metropolitan regions around the Panama Canal; however, differences between these species were not significant. Statistical analysis indicated that there are relevant variables, such as the age of animals, with a direct positive relationship with seroprevalence. None of the variables related to animal welfare (veterinary attention provided, type of dwelling, and access to green areas and drinking water were associated with seropositivity.

  18. Atmospheric pollution biomonitoring of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region using epiphytic lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuga, Alessandra

    2006-01-01

    Due to the increasing problems of atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region that affect the environment and human health the application of biomonitoring methodologies using cosmopolite organisms has now become relevant. Biomonitoring is a method to evaluate the response of live organisms to pollution. This method offers advantages such as reduced costs, efficient monitoring of large geographic areas and accumulated pollutants over a large period in which low concentrations of chemicals elements in the environment can be evaluated. In the present study, neutron activation analysis method was applied to determine elements accumulated in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi. Samples were collected in two distinct areas: Carlos Botelho (PECB) and Intervales (PEI) State Parks that are considered as non-polluted areas and that belong to the Atlantic Forest - SP ecosystem; and Sao Paulo city metropolitan region in sites near automatic monitoring stations of the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). The lichens collected from the bark of the trees were properly treated, and irradiated with neutrons from IEA-R1 nuclear reactor along with synthetic standards of elements. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of IAEA-336 LICHEN and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT -MPH-2) certified reference materials. The results obtained for these materials were in accordance with the certified values and presented good precision with variation coefficients ranging from 0.9 to 14.6%. Results obtained for lichens showed that elements As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Mo, Sb, Sc, Se and U are present at ng g -1 levels, Ba, Br, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn at μg g -1 and Ca at mg g -1 . By applying cluster and discriminant analyses to the results for the lichen samples from areas with different levels of pollution, the sampling sites were grouped according to their chemical similarities and their elemental composition. It was

  19. Impact and management of dual relationships in metropolitan, regional and rural mental health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endacott, Ruth; Wood, Anita; Judd, Fiona; Hulbert, Carol; Thomas, Ben; Grigg, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    To explore the extent and impact of professional boundary crossings in metropolitan, regional and rural mental health practice in Victoria and identify strategies mental health clinicians use to manage dual relationships. Nine geographically located focus groups consisting of mental health clinicians: four focus groups in rural settings; three in a regional city and two in a metropolitan mental health service. A total of 52 participants were interviewed. Data revealed that professional boundaries were frequently breached in regional and rural settings and on occasions these breaches had a significantly negative impact. Factors influencing the impact were: longevity of the clinician's relationship with the community, expectations of the community, exposure to community 'gossip' and size of the community. Participants reported greater stress when the boundary crossing affected their partner and/or children. Clinicians used a range of proactive and reactive strategies, such as private telephone number, avoidance of social community activities, when faced with a potential boundary crossing. The feasibility of reactive strategies depended on the service configuration: availability of an alternative case manager, requirement for either patient or clinician to travel. The greater challenges faced by rural and regional clinicians were validated by metropolitan participants with rural experience and rural participants with metropolitan experience. No single strategy is used or appropriate for managing dual relationships in rural settings. Employers and professional bodies should provide clearer guidance for clinicians both in the management of dual relationships and the distinction between boundary crossings and boundary violation. Clinicians are clearly seeking to represent and protect the patients' interests; consideration should be given by consumer groups to steps that can be taken by patients to reciprocate.

  20. Uranium in underground water public supply of the metropolitan region of Recife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.M.; Sousa, G.H.; Vasconcelos, W.E.; Hazin, C.A.; Amaral, R.S.

    2001-01-01

    The geologic formation of the metropolitan region of Recife is of sedimentary origin. In the coast area, where the phosphate deposits are located, it is sufficiently rich in underground hydric features. In the superposed layers of the sedimentary basin exists three underground aquifers and 80% of the underground hydric features of public supplying of the metropolitan region of Recife are located in the phosphate deposits, which are rich in uranium. Physiologically the uranian are in the steady state (6+) with bivalent cations U 2+ 2 . The ingestion of uranium by man occurs through foods and water ingestion. The places of the human body where it has greater clamping of this radionuclides are the bones. The uranium is deposited slowly from surface of the bone, redistributing itself in route to the marrow. An important competition between Ca 2+ 2 and the UO 2+ 2 exists in the kidneys, where the Ca 2+ 2 efficiently is absorbed. This work was carried through aiming to determine the concentrations of uranium in waters of the wells of public supplying of the metropolitan region of Recife, collating them with the limits established for the Health Department, that establishes the level of 0.1 Bq/L referring to the total alpha radioactivity in drinking waters

  1. Municipal Revenue Generation and Development in the Calgary and Edmonton Metropolitan Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Conger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipal reliance on property taxes and the competing priorities of municipalities—in terms of where they plan and approve land development within their boundaries—in order to capture new property taxes, has led to political conflict between adjacent municipalities.1 Nowhere in Alberta is this more evident than in the Edmonton and Calgary metropolitan regions, where sustained high-levels of growth has led to the expansion of the core-cities, rapid residential development rates in peripheral urban centres and the rise urban-scale development in the rural municipal districts – spurring intrametropolitan competition, harsh words and hurt feelings amongst municipalities.2 In response to this ongoing conflict, the province and at times the municipalities themselves have developed successive regional planning frameworks over the past 60 years3 to guide development and encourage—and at times enforce—intermunicipal collaboration. In an exploration of the contemporary relationship between municipal finance and development patterns in the Calgary and Edmonton metropolitan regions, we use municipal property tax and building-permit data for new residential, commercial and industrial development to track the incidence of development since 1983 and the property tax rates for municipalities in both regions from 2001 to 2015. In looking at the tax data there is evidence of increasing competition among municipalities, in particular for non-residential development; however, the trends could also be consistent with collusion. In looking at the building permit data, although there has been a lot of development in the peripheral urban and rural municipalities, proportionately, growth and development has occurred overwhelmingly in the core-cities. Our findings point to a system where local development considerations in both metropolitan regions, and the municipal prerogative to set municipal tax rates to attract development, take precedence over the

  2. Deployment of Low-Cost, Carbon Dioxide Sensors throughout the Washington Metropolitan Area - The Capital Climate Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Kristen M.; Bailey, D. Michelle; Houston Miller, J.

    2016-04-01

    According to the IPCC from 1995 to 2005, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations increased by 19 ppm, the highest average growth rate recorded for any decade since measurements began in the 1950s. Due to its ability to influence global climate change, it is imperative to continually monitor carbon dioxide emission levels, particularly in urban areas where some estimate in excess of 75% of total greenhouse gas emissions occur. Although high-precision sensors are commercially available, these are not cost effective for mapping a large spatial area. A goal of this research is to build out a network of sensors that are accurate and precise enough to provide a valuable data tool for accessing carbon emissions from a large, urban area. This publically available greenhouse gas dataset can be used in numerous environmental assessments and as validation for remote sensing products. It will also be a valuable teaching tool for classes at our university and will promote further engagement of K-12 students and their teachers through education and outreach activities. Each of our sensors (referred to as "PiOxides") utilizes a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) sensor for the detection of carbon dioxide along with a combination pressure/temperature/humidity sensor. The collection of pressure and temperature increases the accuracy and precision of the CO2 measurement. The sensors communicate using a serial interfaces with a Raspberry Pi microcontroller. Each PiOxide is connected to a website that leverages recent developments in open source GIS tools. In this way, data from individual sensors can be followed individually or aggregated to provide real-time, spatially-resolved data of CO2 trends across a broad area. Our goal for the network is to expand across the entire DC/Maryland/Virginia Region through partnerships with private and public schools. We are also designing GHG Bluetooth beacons that may be accessed by mobile phone users in their vicinity. In two additional

  3. Legislation and water management of water source areas of São Paulo Metropolitan Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Gregolin Grisotto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the history of occupation in the water source areas in São Paulo Metropolitan Region (hereinafter SPMR and the evolution of the legislation related to this issue, from the point of view of the environmental and water management. A descriptive methodology was used, with searches into bibliographical and documental materials, in order to present the main laws for the protection of the water supply areas of SPMR and environmental and water management. It was possible to observe some progress in the premises of the both legislation and the format proposed for the management of the water source areas. However, such progress is limited due to the lack of a more effective mechanism for metropolitan management. The construction of the metropolitan management in SPMR would enlarge the capacity of integration between municipalities and sectors. The integration between the management of water and the land use management showed to be fundamental for the protection of the water sources. The new law for protection of the water sources, State Law nº 9.866/97, is decentralized and participative, focusing on non-structural actions and integrated management. However, the effective implementation of the law still depends on the harmonization of sectoral public policies, extensive coordination and cooperation among municipalities and the progress in the degree of the commitment of the governments.

  4. [Network Analyses in Regional Health Care Research: Example of Dermatological Care in the Metropolitan Region of Hamburg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, J; Austermann, J; Erasmi, S

    2016-10-18

    Background: One of the overall objectives of the legislator is to ensure an overall "homogeneous", and easily accessible medical care for the population. The physician-patient ratio can be used to describe the regional health care situation. But this method does not provide information concerning the availability of, for instance, the nearest doctor. Therefore, further parameters such as accessibility must be taken into consideration. For this purpose, network analyses are an appropriate method. The objective of this study is to present methodological tools to evaluate the healthcare situation in the metropolitan region of Hamburg, primarily focusing on accessibility using dermatologists as an example. Methods: Analyzing data of 20 counties, the geographical distribution of N=357 dermatologists and the physician-patient ratio were calculated. In a second step, a network analysis regarding accessibility was performed. In order to calculate accessibility, address data (physicians) were transformed into coordinates, consisting of defined places (N=303) and restrictions (e. g. speed, turn restrictions) of the network. The calculation of population-based accessibility is based on grid cells for the population density. Results: Despite adequacy of the overall medical situation, differences in the availability of the nearest dermatologists in the metropolitan region are remarkable, particularly when use of public transport is taken into consideration. In some counties, over 60% of the population require at least one hour to get to the nearest dermatologist using public transportation. In rural regions within the metropolitan area are particularly affected. Conclusion: The network analysis has shown that the choice and availability of transportation in combination with the location (rural/urban) is essential for health care access. Especially elderly people in rural areas with restricted mobility are at a disadvantage. Therefore, modern health care approaches (e

  5. Improving Public Health and Environment through Plastic Waste Management in Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay RODE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mumbai Metropolitan Region is growing in terms of population, industry, educational and commercial units. The daily requirements of commodities and services by all units have increased fast. Plastic is used extensively for packing, protection and service of various commodities. The use of plastic is much higher by industry and households in region. In Brihan Mumbai Municipal Corporation, the density of population is higher. The concentration of small and large industries is more. Therefore the plastic use is much higher for different purposes. It leads to more waste of plastic. In Ulhasnagar Municipal Corporation, the population and industrial units are less. Therefore plastic waste is less generated. Theaters are generating less plastic waste in metropolitan region. The Brihan Mumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC and municipal corporations in Thane district will continuously generate more plastic waste in future. The Tobit regression model shows that plastic waste is positively co-related and statistically significant with pollution and industry in region. Therefore the comprehensive policies are required to reduce plastic waste. This is because plastic waste is affecting on the health of human being. It also affects negatively on soil, air and water. The entire food supply chain gets affected due to plastic waste. The water logging is common due to plastic waste in region. It chock ups the drainage system and it becomes the ground for mosquitoes. It further leads to dengue, malaria and other diseases in region. Municipal corporations must collect plastic in separate bins and process it. The plastic and e-waste can be utilized for road construction in region. All the policies will certainly help to reduce the plastic waste and maintain the clean environment in region.

  6. Fusion of multisource and multiscale remote sensing data for water availability assessment in a metropolitan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, N. B.; Yang, Y. J.; Daranpob, A.

    2009-09-01

    Recent extreme hydroclimatic events in the United States alone include, but are not limited to, the droughts in Maryland and the Chesapeake Bay area in 2001 through September 2002; Lake Mead in Las Vegas in 2000 through 2004; the Peace River and Lake Okeechobee in South Florida in 2006; and Lake Lanier in Atlanta, Georgia in 2007 that affected the water resources distribution in three states - Alabama, Florida and Georgia. This paper provides evidence from previous work and elaborates on the future perspectives that will collectively employ remote sensing and in-situ observations to support the implementation of the water availability assessment in a metropolitan region. Within the hydrological cycle, precipitation, soil moisture, and evapotranspiration can be monitored by using WSR-88D/NEXRAD data, RADARSAT-1 images, and GEOS images collectively to address the spatiotemporal variations of quantitative availability of waters whereas the MODIS images may be used to track down the qualitative availability of waters in terms of turbidity, Chlorophyll-a and other constitutes of concern. Tampa Bay in Florida was selected as a study site in this analysis, where the water supply infrastructure covers groundwater, desalination plant, and surface water at the same time. Research findings show that through the proper fusion of multi-source and multi-scale remote sensing data for water availability assessment in metropolitan region, a new insight of water infrastructure assessment can be gained to support sustainable planning region wide.

  7. Urbanization signatures in strong versus weak precipitation over the Pearl River Delta metropolitan regions of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Weibiao; Chen Sheng; Wen Zhiping; Wang Baomin; Chen Guixing; Sha Weimin; Luo Cong; Feng Yerong

    2011-01-01

    We assess the issues of urban effects on the precipitation over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) metropolitan regions of China. The spatial and temporal variations of strong versus weak precipitation over the PRD and surrounding nonurban areas are investigated. The results show that the urbanization signatures in strong precipitation are significantly different from those in weak precipitation over the urban areas. The PRD experiences more strong precipitation but less weak precipitation compared to surrounding nonurban regions. In addition, the strong precipitation over the PRD displays a pronounced seasonal variation. The seasonality of weak precipitation, however, is much weaker over the PRD compared to the surrounding nonurban regions. Moreover, a strengthening in the precipitation intensity, a reduction in the rainfall frequency and an increase in the convective precipitation as well as the afternoon precipitation are found over the urban areas, which are probably associated with the abundance in strong precipitation and the deficit in weak precipitation over the PRD.

  8. A Full-Wave Seismic Tomography for the Crustal Structure in the Metropolitan Beijing Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, A.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Q.

    2008-12-01

    The greater Beijing metropolitan region is located in an old cratonic block in northeast China with complex geology and several large historic earthquakes, such as the Sanhe-Pinggu earthquake (~M8.0) in 1679, the Xingtai earthquake (M7.2) in 1966, and the Tangshan earthquake (M7.8) in 1976. To enhance our understanding of the crustal structure and the seismotectonics under this region, we conduct a full-wave three-dimensional (3D) tomographic study of this region using the waveforms recorded by the newly established Beijing metropolitan digital seismic network. Since the Beijing network was put into operation in October 2001, there have been 89 local earthquakes of magnitude 3.0 and above. From these, we selected 23 events of magnitude 3.2 and above and obtained their waveform records at 50 stations within our area of interest. The types of instruments at these stations include broadband, short-period and very broadband. First-motion focal mechanisms were determined for these events. We used a regional 3D model obtained by seismic reflection surveys as the reference model and calculated the synthetic seismograms by the finite-difference method. In this first attempt at finite- frequency tomography for the Beijing region, we focus on the variation of the P-wave speed using the first- arriving P waves. We measure the frequency-dependent traveltime anomalies of the P waves by the cross- correlation between observed and synthetic P waveforms within several discrete frequency bands between 20-sec and 5-sec periods. The sensitivity or Frechet kernels of these measurements for the perturbations in P-wave speed were computed by the same finite-difference method. We will present the preliminary result in our full-wave seismic tomography for the Beijing region.

  9. Biogenic volatile organic compounds from the urban forest of the Metropolitan Region, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Préndez, Margarita; Carvajal, Virginia; Corada, Karina; Morales, Johanna; Alarcón, Francis; Peralta, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a secondary pollutant whose primary sources are volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides. The national standard is exceeded on a third of summer days in some areas of the Chilean Metropolitan Region (MR). This study reports normalized springtime experimental emissions factors (EF) for biogenic volatile organic compounds from tree species corresponding to approximately 31% of urban trees in the MR. A Photochemical Ozone Creation Index (POCI) was calculated using Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential of quantified terpenes. Ten species, natives and exotics, were analysed using static enclosure technique. Terpene quantification was performed using GC-FID, thermal desorption, cryogenic concentration and automatic injection. Observed EF and POCI values for terpenes from exotic species were 78 times greater than native values; within the same family, exotic EF and POCI values were 28 and 26 times greater than natives. These results support reforestation with native species for improved urban pollution management. -- First experimental determination of the emission factors of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the urban forest of the Metropolitan Region, Chile

  10. Evaluation of the air quality in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais: first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Igor Felipe Silva, E-mail: igorfelipedx@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Cruz, Ananda Borjaille; Fonseca, Raquel Luiza M.; Barreto, Alberto Avellar; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: abc@cdtn.br, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: aab@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte presents many industrial activities related to several industries, mainly mining activities, besides the high population concentration, which also contributes to several industrial typologies due to the existence of qualified work and to the vicinity of a future consumer market. This concentration of the population also implies in a great number of vehicles and, consequently, in big traffic jams. The particulate material is one of the pollutants which cause higher environmental risk and it is a mixture of solid and liquid particles in the air which form aerosols. These aerosols, which contain organic and inorganic substances, vary of size, form, composition and origin. In order to characterize the quality of the airborne particulate matter and identify the pollutant sources, a research is being developing in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte. This paper is focused on presenting the methodology of sampling, determination of concentration of particulates, elemental concentration analysis by k{sub 0}-Neutron Activation method and meteorological analysis, related to two sampling points, one at CDTN/CNEN and other at UFMG. (author)

  11. A typology of female sex work in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmar, Julieta; Stuardo, Valeria; Folch, Cinta; Carvajal, Bielka; Clunes, Maria José; Montoliu, Alexandra; Casabona, Jordi

    2018-04-01

    In Chile, sex work takes place covertly in a variety of venues and locations. Formative research using time-location sampling methods is important in order to understand the nature of this diversity. This study used qualitative methods to develop a typology of female sex work in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile, using semi-structured interviews, focus groups and ethnographic fieldwork during visits to sex work venues. The study identified seven types of venue, which reflect the context and regulatory framework of the country and the structural vulnerabilities that affect female sex workers in Chile. These venues and locations include: cafés con piernas (coffee with legs); nightclubs, topless bars and cabarets; brothels; hotels; street and highway soliciting; massage parlours; and private residences. Formative research methods were helpful in identifying and characterising the venues and locations in which sex work occurred. Barriers to accessing and mapping specific locations were also identified. Recommendations for addressing these barriers include working with non-governmental organisations to map venues and initiate contact with the populations of interest. A comprehensive typology of sex work in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile, is an essential element for future time-location sampling and bio-behavioural research in the context of second-generation surveillance for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Chile.

  12. Retrospective study of histological types of esophageal cancer prevalent in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Torrealba Bustos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to determine the statistical relation between the most frequent histological types of oesophageal carcinoma in the Metropolitan region of Santiago, Chile. For it there were obtained clinical samples of different laboratories of Pathological Anatomy of the Metropolitan region corresponding to the south and east sector of Santiago, gathering a total of 348 cases, which were diagnosed by means of endoscopic biopsy, using as parameters the morphologic characteristics of neoplastic tissue evaluated by light microscopy with hematoxylin-eosin dye. The obtained information was submitted to a model of logistic multiple regression, in order to determine the associations between the most frequent histological types of oesophageal cancer (adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma, topographic location compromised to the moment of the diagnosis, age and sex of the patients in study. The proportion between the histological types of cancer of esophagus did not present significant differences, which contrasts with the results of international publications. The analyses demonstrated that the low third is the only parameter that is subject to variation, which relates to the metaplasia of Barrett and the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

  13. Development of in-vehicle noise prediction models for Mumbai Metropolitan Region, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Konbattulwar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise is one of the major sources of noise pollution in metropolitan regions causing various health hazards (e.g., long-term sleep disturbance, increase in blood pressure, physical tension, etc.. In this research, noise prediction models, which can measure the noise level experienced by the commuters while driving or traveling by motorized vehicles in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, India, were developed. These models were developed by conducting a comprehensive study of various factors (e.g., vehicle speed, traffic volume and road characteristics, etc. affecting the levels of concentration of noise. A widespread data collection was done by conducting road trips of total length of 403.80 km via different modes of transport, such as air-conditioned (A/C car, non A/C car, bus and intermediate public transport (i.e., traditional 3-wheeler autos. Multiple regression analyses were performed to develop a functional relation between equivalent noise levels experienced by passengers while traveling (which was considered as a dependent variable and explanatory variables such as traffic characteristics, vehicle class, vehicle speed, various other location characteristics, etc. Noise levels are generally higher in the vicinity of intersections and signalized junctions. Independent data sets (for each mode of transport were used to validate the developed models. It was noted that maximum differences between observed and estimated values from the model were within the range of ±7.8% of the observed value.

  14. [Food satisfaction in Mapuche persons in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Mora, Marcos; Lobos, Germán

    2011-06-01

    Although the study and measurement of satisfaction with life has generated great interest in the last 15 years, there are few works which address satisfaction with food-related life. In order to identify variables which have an influence on satisfaction with food-related life among Mapuche persons, a survey was applied to 400 Mapuche subjects in the Santiago Metropolitan Region, Chile. The scales evaluated in the questionnaire included: SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life), lifestyles, food, and Mapuche acculturation. It was found that 41.0% were extremely satisfied, 40.5% satisfied, 17.2% somewhat satisfied and 1.2% dissatisfied with their food-related life. To identify variables which have an influence on satisfaction with food, an ordinal multinomial logit model was proposed, which was significant (p Mapuche foods, is aged 55 or more, consumes red meat in moderation, consumes foods without additives, try to balance work and private life, does not read the labels of products, and if he/she had Mapuche friends at school. Thus satisfaction with food-related life in Mapuche persons in the Metropolitan Region is related to demographic variables, expenditure on food, consumption of Mapuche foods and life-style.

  15. Evaluation of the air quality in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais: first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Igor Felipe Silva

    2015-01-01

    The Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte presents many industrial activities related to several industries, mainly mining activities, besides the high population concentration, which also contributes to several industrial typologies due to the existence of qualified work and to the vicinity of a future consumer market. This concentration of the population also implies in a great number of vehicles and, consequently, in big traffic jams. The particulate material is one of the pollutants which cause higher environmental risk and it is a mixture of solid and liquid particles in the air which form aerosols. These aerosols, which contain organic and inorganic substances, vary of size, form, composition and origin. In order to characterize the quality of the airborne particulate matter and identify the pollutant sources, a research is being developing in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte. This paper is focused on presenting the methodology of sampling, determination of concentration of particulates, elemental concentration analysis by k 0 -Neutron Activation method and meteorological analysis, related to two sampling points, one at CDTN/CNEN and other at UFMG. (author)

  16. Value system of Chinese youth: the comparative analysis of metropolitan and regional students' priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Li Wuyi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the survey of students in Guangzhou which ranks third among major cities in China in terms of social, economic and demographic indicators are presented in the article. The aim of the research was not only to reveal Chinese youth priorities in the sphere of education, private life, work, social activity and morality, but also to provide characteristics of value system of the students of the major regional centre versus the corresponding answers of the respondents in Beijing. The comparative analysis of the value system of students in metropolitan and regional institutions of higher education was carried out in the framework of the following theme-based modules: the total level of political and social involvement and activity, the choice of achievement criteria, educational and professional strategies, family and marriage relations, etc.

  17. Surface hydrologic investigations of the Columbia Plateau Region, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhart, L.S.

    1979-07-01

    The Washington State portion of the Columbia Plateau is divided into six hydrologic sub-basins on the basis of the principal surface drainage systems present, structural and topographic relationships, and political and other considerations. Baseline descriptions of the surface water systems and resources are presented for the Columbia Plateau with emphasis on the Pasco Sub-basin. A preliminary evaluation of the hydrologic budget for each sub-basin is derived. For each sub-basin, recharge/discharge relationships arising from precipitation/evapotranspiration/runoff, stream losses and gains, and artificial mechanisms are determined on the basis of available data. The net exchange between surface and groundwater systems is evaluated and relative estimates of the net groundwater flow into or out of the sub-basin are obtained. An evaluation is made of hydrologic risk factors arising from: (1) tributary flooding in eastern Washington; and, (2) major flooding of the Columbia River within the Pasco Sub-basin. Scenarios are presented for credible natural and man-generated catastrophic events

  18. Surface hydrologic investigations of the Columbia Plateau region, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhart, L.S.

    1979-01-01

    The Washington State portion of the Columbia Plateau is divided into six hydrologic sub-basins on the basis of the principal surface drainage systems present, structural and topographic relationships, and political and other considerations. Baseline descriptions of the surface water systems and resources are presented for the Columbia Plateau with emphasis on the Pasco Sub-basin. A preliminary evaluation of the hydrologic budget for each sub-basin is derived. For each sub-basin, recharge/discharge relationships arising from precipitation/evapotranspiration/runoff, stream losses and gains, and artificial mechanisms are determined on the basis of available data. The net exchange between surface and ground-water systems is evaluated and relative estimates of the net ground-water flow into or out of the sub-basin are obtained. An evaluation is made of hydrologic risk factors arising from: (1) tributary flooding in eastern Washington; and (2) major flooding of the Columbia River within the Pasco Sub-basin. Scenarios are presented for credible natural and man-generated catastrophic events

  19. Iron, folacin, vitamin B12 and zinc status and immune response in elderly subjects in the Washington D.C. metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry-Christian, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The iron, folacin, vitamin B 12 , and zinc status of a group of economically and socially disadvantaged elderly persons in the Washington Metropolitan Area was evaluated. Factors related to deficiencies of these nutrients, the relationships between the status of these nutrients and cell-mediated immunity, and the relationships of iron, folacin and vitamin B 12 status to hemoglobin levels in the subjects were also examined. It was also determined whether there were any interactions among iron, folacin, vitamin B 12 and zinc status in their relationships to cell-mediated immunity. Socio-demographic and nutritional data on the subjects were obtained using a questionnaire. Dietary data were obtained using a dietary record. A fasting blood sample was drawn and the levels of ferritin, folate and vitamin B 12 , and the erythrocyte levels of folate were determined by radioassay. Plasma and hair zinc levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cell-mediated immune response was determined by transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes after stimulation by mitogens, and by allogenic lymphocytes in the mixed lymphocyte reaction

  20. Mood Sensitivity to Seasonal Changes in African College Students Living in the Greater Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Guzman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the degree of seasonality and prevalence of winter- and summer-type seasonal affective disorder (SAD in African immigrant college students in comparison with African American peers. A convenience sample of 246 African immigrants and 599 African Americans studying in Washington, D.C. completed the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ, which was used to calculate a global seasonality score (GSS and to estimate the prevalence of winter- and summer-type SAD. Degree of seasonality was related to a complex interaction between having general awareness of SAD, ethnicity, and gender. A greater percentage of African students reported experiencing a problem with seasonal changes relative to African American students, and had summer SAD, but the groups did not differ on GSS and winter SAD. African students reported more difficulties with seasonal changes than their African American peers, which could represent a manifestation of incomplete acclimatization to a higher latitude and temperate climate. As Africans also had a greater rate of summer SAD, this argues against acclimatization to heat.

  1. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Seasonality in African Students Living in the Greater Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Guzman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a prospective, longitudinal study of seasonality in a vulnerable population, i.e., African students who migrated to a temperate climate. Consistent with previous cross-sectional studies, we hypothesized lower mood and energy, and higher appetite and weight, in fall/winter than in spring/summer. Four cohorts of African students attending a year-long nursing school program without vacation in Washington, D.C., were assessed monthly for 1 year. Forty-three subjects (mean age = 33.46 ± 6.25, consisting of predominantly females (76.7%, completed the study. The cohorts began their academic program in different seasons (one each in winter, spring, summer, and fall, inherently minimizing confounding influences on seasonality, such as academic and immigration stress, as well as allowing adjustment for an order effect. At each assessment, students completed three 100-mm visual analog scales for mood, energy, and appetite, and were weighed on a digital scale. For each standardized dependent variable, a repeated measure ANOVA was used and, if a significant effect of month was identified, averages for spring/summer and fall/winter were compared using paired ttests. In addition, a mixed model for repeated measures was applied to raw (nonstandardized data. Body weight was significantly higher in fall/winter than in spring/summer (p < 0.01. No seasonal differences in mood, energy, or appetite were found. Benefiting from certain unique features of our cohorts allowing adjustment for order effects, this is the first study to identify a seasonal variation in body weight with a peak in winter using longitudinal monthly measurements.

  2. Characterization of airborne particulate matter in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Fernanda V.F.; Ardisson, Jose Domingos; Rodrigues, Paulo Cesar H.; Brito, Walter de; Macedo, Waldemar Augusto A.; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria F.

    2013-01-01

    In this work soil samples, iron ore and airborne atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are investigated with the aim of identifying if the sources of the particulate matter are of natural origin, such as, resuspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic origins from mining and processing of iron ore. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and 57 Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that soil samples studied are rich in quartz and have low contents of iron mainly iron oxide with low crystallinity. The samples of iron ore and PM have high concentration of iron, predominantly well crystallized hematite. 57 Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of similar iron oxides in samples of PM and in the samples of iron ore, indicating the anthropogenic origin in the material present in atmosphere of the study area. (author)

  3. Suburban landscape assessment applied to urban planning. Case study in Barcelona Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Serrano Giné

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban fringes set complex landscapes, in transition from rural to natural and urban, with fuzzy boundaries in mutual interdependence. The European Landscape Convention gives notorious importance to everyday landscapes, including those of suburban character. Few landscape evaluation researches are done in suburban areas, which is surprising considering its importance and abundance. This paper shows a methodology, yield on geographical information systems (GIS, for landscape assessment of suburban areas, useful in urban planning. Its main interest lies in a double assessment, which considers both landscape quality and landscape fragility, applied systematically. The procedure is applied in Muntanyes d’Ordal in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain, an area with pronounced regional strengths and contrasted landscape values. Results are of important applicability and indicate a predominance of mean values, both for landscape quality and landscape fragility.

  4. The medicinal animal markets in the metropolitan region of Natal City, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Eduardo S; Torres, Denise F; Brooks, Sharon E; Alves, Rômulo R N

    2010-07-06

    This study investigates the trade of animals for medicinal purposes in Natal metropolitan area, northeastern Brazil, to document which animal species are used, how and for what purposes. This study also discusses the implications of the use of zootherapeutics for wildlife conservation. Based on interviews with merchants of medicinal animals in all open fairs of the metropolitan region of Natal City, we calculated the informant consensus factor (ICF) to determine the consensus over which species are effective for particular ailments, as well as the species relative importance to determine the extent of potential utilization of each species. We describe the therapeutic effects of 23 animal species used medicinally. The zootherapeutical products sold commercially are used to treat 34 health problems that were classified into 14 broad categories. We also highlight those species valued for their effectiveness against a range of ailments. The highest ICF value (1.0) was cited for diseases of the circulatory system, which include relief of symptoms such as stroke, hemorrhage, varicose veins and edema. Our study indicated that the local population holds a great deal of ethnomedical knowledge about their local animal resources, and highlights the need for clinical investigations of these traditional remedies to test the safety and efficacy. The animal species identified in this study not only hold high medicinal value for local populations, but could potentially be a source of healing compounds that could aid pharmaceutical research. While the impact of these practices on animal populations is unknown, the high extractive value of these animal populations and the associated medicinal traditional knowledge, needs to be considered in any conservation strategy aimed at the faunistic resources of this area. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Potential of Periurban Areas for the Resilience of Metropolitan Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Colucci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to present as an organic structure the outcomes from various pieces of research and consulting activities developed over the last few years (2011-2015. Shared topics are: urban-rural partnerships, food planning, metropolitan polices and the territorial resilience of periurban areas. In the first part (the core of the paper the paper underlines critical questions and establishes needs so as to move towards a new approach to development processes in periurban areas. The paper uses some key concepts to present the main outcomes: 1. Understanding complexity (multiscales in space and dynamics (multiscales in time; 2. Identifying all the resources and opportunities; 3. Crosscutting and multi-issues. In the second part (in the final part the paper proposes the “Ecotone” metaphor to support innovation in the approach to periurban areas. It is a “zone of transition between adjacent ecological systems, having a set of characteristics uniquely defined by space and time scales and by the strength of the interactions between adjacent ecological systems” (Hansen et al, 1992. In these terms, periurban areas may be assumed to be ecotonal zones of transition between urban and rural or natural systems. Using the concept of “ecotonal buffer of transition” to approach the periurban systems it is possible to connect main needs and critical questions underlined to a homogeneous framework and to emphasise on the strategic role that the peri-urban systems play for the future development of metropolitan regions oriented to a improvement of resilience of socio-ecosystems. In the final part the paper focuses on the governace of urban rural partnerships and research perspectives.

  6. Climate in France during the 21. century - Regionalized scenarios - Reference indices for the metropolitan region - Evolution at sea level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peings, Yannick; Planton, Serge; Deque, Michel; Jamous, Marc; Le Treut, Herve; Gallee, Hubert; Li, Laurent; Jouzel, J.

    2011-01-01

    After some comments on climate modelling (models, scenarios, uncertainties, regional predictions), the first part reports the study of several temperature indices (minimum, average and maximum daily temperature, number of days with abnormally high or low temperature, number of days of heat wave, number of days with negative temperatures, and so on.), precipitation indices (daily and extreme precipitations, dry periods, snow falls). It also discusses soil humidity index, strong wind index, river flow rate, and sea level. The second part reports simulation results for indices in metropolitan France according to the French Aladin-Climat, LMDZ and MAR models. The third volume reports evolutions and predictions of average sea level at the planet scale and along the French coasts, and discusses impacts related to sea level change (coast erosion, submersion, salt intrusion)

  7. Employment Pattern, Skills and Training Issues among Informal Sector Workers in Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay RODE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An informal sector in any economy provides different kinds of employment opportunities to people. In Mumbai Metropolitan Region, the female are more involved in regular jobs as compare to the causal and self-employed workers. The secondary and college studied male and female are found more in regular jobs. The high school studied male and illiterate female are working on causal jobs. The causal jobs do not require more education and skills. In self-employed category, the secondary school studied male and high school studied female are found more. The monthly income of workers involved in regular jobs is much higher than the causal and self-employed workers. The moderate malnourished females are found more as compare to the male in causal and self-employed category. The multi nominal logit regression model shows that the causal workers have positive correlation with illiterate male but it is negatively co-related with high school studied male, illiterate and secondary studied female. The monthly income, source of water, refrigerator and condom use is negatively co-related with causal workers as compare to regular workers. The self-employed workers have negative co-relation with monthly wage, source of water and watch cinema regularly as compare to the regular workers. Therefore government must provide infrastructural facilities in all slums of region. The infrastructural facilities such as water supply, electricity, sewage and solid waste collection must be provided in all slums of region. Causal workers must be provided the vocational training to start their own business. Commercial and co-operative banks must provide loans to poor people of slums. Females must be encouraged to take loan and start small business. Government must provide low cost housing to causal and self-employed workers in region. Such policies will certainly improve standard of living of informal sector workers in region.

  8. Gaseous Criteria Pollutants in Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand: Analysis, Issues and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttamang, P.; Aneja, V. P.; Hanna, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of gaseous criteria pollutants in Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR), Thailand, during 2010 to 2014 reveals that the hourly concentrations of CO, SO2 and NO2 were mostly below the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQs) of Thailand. However, the hourly concentrations of Ozone (O3) exceeded the Thailand NAAQs. The maximum concentrations of O3 were from 120 to 190 ppb. On average, the number of hourly O3 exceedances were from 1 to 60 hours a year depending on monitoring station locations. The exceedances were found during the dry season in both summer and winter. Inter-conversion between O3, NO and NO2 indicates the crossover point between species occur when the concentration of NOx ([NOx = NO + NO2]) is about 60 ppb. When [NOx] 60 ppb. The calculated photochemical reaction rate during photostationary state ranges from 0.12 to 1.22 min-1. Linear regression analysis between the concentrations of Ox ([Ox = O3 + NO2]) and NOx provides the role of local and regional contributions to Ox. Both the local and regional Ox contributions play an important role in the increase of [Ox] and those values were about double during O3 episodes ([O3] > 100 ppb). Ratio analysis suggests that the major contributors of primary pollutants over BMR are mobile sources (CO/NOx = 19.8). However, this region may also be influenced by point sources, but they are not dominant. An analysis of the air quality showed that the air quality index (AQI) for BMR was predominantly between good to moderate; however, during episode conditions in the region, unhealthy O3 categories were also observed. Note the manuscript is under review by a publication

  9. Visceral leishmaniasis in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Eduardo S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years the number of human cases of American visceral leishmaniasis in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH, Minas Gerais, Brazil has increased, indicating an elevation in the transmission rate of the disease. The total number of notified human cases in the MRBH since 1994, when the first case was identified, up to 1999 was 345 of which 223 (65% were from the city itself, indicating an urbanization of the disease in this region of Minas Gerais. The age distribution of visceral leishmaniasis cases in the MRBH shows a higher prevalence in children from 0-4 years old, responsible for 28.9% of the notifications. Clinical and immunological findings from dogs infected with Leishmania chagasi are described. The majority of these animals showed no sign of the disease. Sera from all infected dogs showed detectable Leishmania-induced high titles of antibodies based on the results of an indirect fluorescent antibody test. Samples of isolated Leishmania from human and dogs were characterized as L. (L. chagasi by biochemical and molecular techniques.

  10. The centrifugal and centripetal force influence on spatial competition of agricultural land in Bandung Metropolitan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadewo, E.

    2017-06-01

    Agricultural activity has suffered a massive land functional shift caused by market mechanism in Bandung metropolitan region (BMR). We argue that the existence of agricultural land in urban spatial structure is the result of interaction between centrifugal and centripetal force on spatial competition. This research aims to explore how several recognized centrifugal and centripetal force influence to the existence of agricultural land in BMR land development. The analysis using multivariate regression indicates that there exists spatial competition between population density and degree of urbanization with agricultural land areas. Its extended spatial regression model suggested that neighboring situation plays an important role to preserve agricultural land areas existences in BMR. Meanwhile, the influence of distance between the location of the city center and employment opportunities is found to be insignificant in the spatial competition. It is opposed to the theory of von Thünen and monocentric model in general. One of the possible explanation of such condition is that the assumption of centrality does not met. In addition, the agricultural land density decay in the southern parts of the area was related to its geographical conditions as protected areas or unfavorable for farming activity. It is suggested that BMR was in the early phase of polycentric development. Hence, better policies that lead redirected development to the southern part of the region is needed as well as population control and regulation of land use.

  11. Urbanisation, urban growth and planning in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Region with reference studies from Europe and the USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    pressure. Growth management strategies are necessary to secure future balanced and sustainable development throughout the whole urban region. The analysis of urbanisation and urban growth in peri-urban areas is at the core of this study, including socio-demographic and functional dynamics, land use impacts...... and options for spatial planning. The main case was the metropolitan region of Copenhagen, Denmark. Other cases from Europe and the USA were used as reference studies. The methods included quantitative analyses of register and land use data as well as general case study work to investigate options for spatial...... planning. The study shows that, while the most visible impacts of land use changes can be found at the close urban fringe, many other dynamics have a much longer reach into the rural-urban region. In the Copenhagen metropolitan region, we can observe migration to peri-urban areas and to the urban core...

  12. Metropolitan governance and infrastructure in São Paulo: the challenge of mediating regional interests and local impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Sacenco Asquino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the São Paulo metropolis is related to the historical process of building regional infrastructure as of the late 19th century, in connection with economic motivation and territorial influences. Since that time, São Paulo has played a key role in the network of cities that has been fundamental to its economic development and to its recognition as the most important city in Brazil. This article examines the importance of understanding the regional scale in relation to São Paulo's plans and projects, from Plano de Avenidas (Avenue Plan in the 1930s to the Rodoanel (ring road in the 1990s; the experience of planning and management of the metropolitan system in the 1970s and, in contrast, the environmental licensing process of these large projects after the 1990s. Discussing São Paulo's plans and projects is a complex task, because a project's local impact as well as regional interests must be considered. From different perspectives, the author reviewed the results of environmental licensing of Ampliação da Calha do Rio Tietê (deepening the bed of the Tietê river and Rodoanel Trecho Sul (south section of the ring road projects, and their actual role in the future arrangement and development of the São Paulo metropolis. Based on (a the results of the metropolitan planning experience in the 1970s, (b the updating of the metropolitan discussion in the 1990s from an economic globalization perspective, and (c the current experience of metropolitan systems in the state of São Paulo, it seems necessary to re-establish an effective metropolitan planning and management system in order to guarantee its legitimacy, commitment and governance.

  13. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Umeda, Y.; Iwata, T.; Kasahara, K.

    2003-12-01

    Introduction: After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the Japanese government increased its focus and funding of earthquake hazards evaluation, studies of man-made structures integrity, and emergency response planning in the major urban centers. A new agency, the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture (MEXT) has started a five-year program titled as Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban Areas (abbreviated to Dai-dai-toku in Japanese) since 2002. The project includes four programs: I. Regional characterization of the crust in metropolitan areas for prediction of strong ground motion. II. Significant improvement of seismic performance of structure. III. Advanced disaster management system. IV. Investigation of earthquake disaster mitigation research results. We will present the results from the first program conducted in 2002 and 2003. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion: A long-term goal is to produce map of reliable estimations of strong ground motion. This requires accurate determination of ground motion response, which includes a source process, an effect of propagation path, and near surface response. The new five-year project was aimed to characterize the "source" and "propagation path" in the Kanto (Tokyo) region and Kinki (Osaka) region. The 1923 Kanto Earthquake is one of the important targets to be addressed in the project. The proximity of the Pacific and Philippine Sea subducting plates requires study of the relationship between earthquakes and regional tectonics. This project focuses on identification and geometry of: 1) Source faults, 2) Subducting plates and mega-thrust faults, 3) Crustal structure, 4) Seismogenic zone, 5) Sedimentary basins, 6) 3D velocity properties We have conducted a series of seismic reflection and refraction experiment in the Kanto region. In 2002 we have completed to deploy seismic profiling lines in the Boso peninsula (112 km) and the

  14. Biomonitoring of air quality in the metropolitan region of Recife, PE, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Thiago Oliveira dos

    2016-01-01

    The interest on questions related to environmental conservation has increased in recent decades, being air pollution one of the main public health problems in huge urban centers. Major part of this atmospheric contamination is caused by gaseous pollutants and inhalable particulate matter. One of the main sources is the burning of fossil fuels mainly emitted by motor vehicles. Some organisms, like lichen and atmospheric bromeliad, are able to accumulate chemical elements in their tissues, thereby becoming excellent tools for air quality studies of monitoring. The present work evaluated the air quality in the Metropolitan Region of Recife (RMR) using the lichen Cladonia verticillaris and the bromeliad Tillandsia recurvata, through the quantification of chemical elements associated to vehicles traffic. The biomonitors were transferred to 40 points distributed in the RMR with different intensities of the vehicle traffic. After the exposition period of six months, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Pb, Sb, Sr, Th, V and Zn were quantified by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The organisms were complementary, being appropriated tools for monitoring the air quality. The vehicle traffic was considered one of the major contributor for increasing chemical elements in the RMR urban atmosphere. (author)

  15. Radon in soil gas in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Giane Gariglio; Rocha, Zildete

    2007-01-01

    Radon, the natural radioactive gas is produced by the radioactive decay of uranium and thorium which are ubiquitous, specially in rock and soil. By diffusion and convection. Radon migrate from the rocks and to the groundwater and to the soil and from them the radon migrate through fissures, pipes and hales to the surface. Measurements were carried out in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, whose greatest part of the in habitants occupies the great pre cambrian unit of the Iron Quadrangle of Minas Gerais denominated 'Granitic Gneissic Complex', composed of Archean rocks of age between 3,2 Ga and 2,6 Ga. The part in which occurs in the municipal area of Belo Horizonte was denominated as Complexo Belo Horizonte, whose most characteristics rocks named Gneiss Belo Horizonte. The soil gas radon concentrations were determined by using a samples and a continuos flow through ionization chamber detector AlphaGUARD PQ2000PRO - Genitron Instruments GmbH in a Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis). Most results of radon concentration soil gas were in the range 10 kBq/m 3 to 50 kBq/m 3 . This values, according to the established Swedish Criteria are normal risk values. For soils classified as normal risk require 'radon protective construction', but the necessity of mitigation actions will depend on other factors, for example the soil permeability and rock type. (author)

  16. CHARACTERIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF FLOODPLAIN SOILS IN THE PORTO ALEGRE METROPOLITAN REGION, RS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís de França da Silva Neto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn the Porto Alegre metropolitan region (PAMR there are a significant proportion of floodplain soils, mainly Planosols and Gleysols, in relation to upland soils. This study aimed to evaluate the morphological, chemical and physical characteristics, and to classify floodplain soils in the PAMR. Six soil profiles were evaluated under different sedimentary lithologies and drainage classes, and samples were collected for chemical and physical analyzes. Two orders of mineral soils (Planosols and Gleysols and one order of organic soil (Organosols were identified. The soils were moderately deep to deep and stratified. In mineral soils hue ranged between 7.5YR and 2.5Y, with the occurrence of Bg, Btg or Cg gley horizons, while in organic soil the colors were neutral. Sand and silt were the predominant particle sizes according to the origin sedimentary deposits. The organic carbon content was negatively related to soil density and positively related to soil specific surface area and with soil cation exchange capacity. Soil chemical characterization showed expressive variation in bases, aluminum and sodium saturation. Ki index and Fe(CBD/Fe(H2SO4 ratio indicated a low soil weathering degree. The different sedimentary lithologies and the soil hydromorphism degree were the main factors related to differences in morphological, physical and chemical characteristics of soils in the PAMR.

  17. [Vaginal infections in a Family Health Clinic in the Metropolitan Region, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseca, Rodrigo; Ovalle, Alfredo; Amaya, Fernando; Labra, Bayron; Escalona, Natalia; Lizana, Paola; Montoya, M José; Lillo, Eduardo; Martínez, M Angélica

    2015-02-01

    Vaginal infections are a frequent cause for consultation, but their prevalence and etiology vary in different populations. To determine the prevalence and etiologies of vaginal infection in women attending a family health center in the Metropolitan Region of Chile. The microbiological diagnosis was made by wet mount and Gram stain. Diagnosis of trichomoniasis was performed by wet mount, culture and polymerase chain reaction. 101 women aged 15-54, not selected by signs or symptoms of vaginal infection, 46 of them pregnant were included. In 47 women (46.5%), vaginal infections were diagnosed. An association was observed between age and frequency of vaginal infection. The proportion of infections among pregnant and non-pregnant women was similar. The most frequent infections were bacterial vaginosis (16.8%), vulvovaginal candidiasis (11.9%) and co-infections (6.9%). We found 5.9% of intermediate microbiota cases, 3% of trichomoniasis and 2% of aerobic vaginitis. Symptoms of vaginal infection had poor agreement with microbiological findings. Otherwise physical signs had good agreement with the presence of infection, but low to moderate concordance with a specific etiology. We found a high prevalence of vaginal infections in the study population. It is necessary to improve the definitions and criteria of microbiological diagnosis of co-infections and intermediate microbiota, for them to be diagnosed in the clinical practice. More descriptive questionnaires are recommended to enhance the usefulness of clinical examination.

  18. Water quality in four reservoirs of the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Amazonas Pires

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: This paper describes some limnological variables of four reservoirs with different trophic status (Billings, Guarapiranga, Jundiaí and Paiva Castro of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil, aiming to characterize the water quality in these reservoirs. Methods Water sampling occurred between October 2011 and September 2012, on subsurface, at the pelagic compartment. Physical and chemical characteristics of water were evaluated, and the Trophic State Index (TSI was calculated. Multivariate Principal Components Analysis (PCA was used to ordinate sampling sites and periods in relation to environmental data. Results Two reservoirs were classified as eutrophic (Billings and Guarapiranga, one as mesotrophic (Jundiaí and one as oligotrophic (Paiva Castro. The highest concentrations of total phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll a were recorded in the eutrophic reservoirs. The lowest values of dissolved oxygen concentration were registered at Guarapiranga reservoir. Residence time in Paiva Castro reservoir was very low (one day; on the other hand, the highest value was recorded in Billings reservoir: 428 days.

  19. Six sigma: program characteristics in eleven companies located in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Terezinha Martins Correa Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Six Sigma combines managerial factors with statistical tools and is deployed in many enterprises today. Rio Grande do Sul is a Brazilian state that has a great industrialization, especially in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre. Some of these industries have deployed the Six Sigma program. The aim of this paper is to present characteristics of the Six Sigma program in companies located in this region, through an exploratory study. A literature review subsidized the development of the questionnaire. Eleven companies participated of research in July and August 2008. It used statistical tools and qualitative analysis to analyze the results. Most of the companies that participated is classified as large and uses the DMAIC method to implement Six Sigma. The principal cause of program implementation was process improvement. In only one company the Six Sigma is implemented in all sectors, including administrative areas. Another result is the lack of clearly criteria for defining the career of Belts and the discrepancy of academic formation of these specialists.

  20. POPULATION MOBILITY CHARACTERISTIC: NOTES FROM THE URBAN-URBAN INTERACTION IN SEMARANG METROPOLITAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARDHOTILLAH Santi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of cities is characterized by the "pressure" in the form of increasingly dense urban areas, slums, traffic congestion, unemployment in the cities, and the number of illegal housing in the suburbs. This issue demonstrates the need for a balance between urban and rural areas. The balance is obtained through the interaction, and the interaction there is a process of "transfer" in the form of the human population, natural resources, and other supporting components. This view of the phenomenon makes many researchers conducting various studies in the context of the interaction between rural and urban. Furthermore, the study of the interaction of cities such as Salatiga and Semarang are in fact joined in the same region, KSN Kedungsepur. Semarang and surrounding developments as Semarang Metropolitan Region (SMR are the main attraction for the people who are around Semarang that caused an increase in the spatial interactions between Semarang and surrounding areas. From some areas belonging to KSN Kedungsepur, there are only two areas with the status of the city of Semarang city as a centre of KSN and Salatiga. This becomes interesting, unique conditions for studying the phenomenon under study is the interaction of the cities. The method used in this research was a quantitative method with descriptive analysis. Data was collected through a questionnaire survey technique primary by taking a random sample of migrants from Salatiga City and studied at the city of Semarang. The results of the study there were four mobility characteristics formed between Salatiga and Semarang, namely, commuting-boarding, boarding-commuting, boarding and boarding-permanent.

  1. Characterization of the natural radioactivity of materials used in civil construction or the Curitiba, Parana state, Brazil, metropolitan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perna, Allan F.N.; Martins, Patricia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Claro, Flavia Del; Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O.

    2011-01-01

    This paper performs an analysis of the natural radioactivity of construction materials (mainly the 222 Rn) which are present in human environment. The main objective of the study is to characterize different building materials which come from the metropolitan region of the Curitiba related to the exhalation of 222 Rn. The applied methodology analyse the samples of ceramic brick, plaster mortar, and fine lime from the concentration measurements of radon using CR-39 type detectors, and gamma spectrometry analysis

  2. The impact of heat on mortality and morbidity in the Greater Metropolitan Sydney Region: a case crossover analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Leigh Ann; Gerard Morgan, Geoffrey; Hanigan, Ivan Charles; Johnston, Fay H; Abu-Rayya, Hisham; Broome, Richard; Gaskin, Clive; Jalaludin, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined the association between unusually high temperature and daily mortality (1997?2007) and hospital admissions (1997?2010) in the Sydney Greater Metropolitan Region (GMR) to assist in the development of targeted health programs designed to minimise the public health impact of extreme heat. Methods Sydney GMR was categorized into five climate zones. Heat-events were defined as severe or extreme. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design with a conditional logisti...

  3. REGISTER OF NESTS OF THREE FORMICID SPECIES (HYMENOPTERA) IN RÍO CLARILLO NATIONAL RESERVE, METROPOLITAN REGION, CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    Ipinza-Regla, Joaquín; Jara, Pamela; Araya, Jaime E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The distribution of formicids Brachymyrmex giardii (Emery), Camponotus chilensis (Spinola), and Nothidris bicolor (Snelling) was registered with the minimum area method in two sectors of Río Clarillo National Reserve (33° 41-51' S and 70° 24-29' W), Pirque Commune, Metropolitan Region, Chile. One sector corresponded to an area with human presence, while the other corresponded to an area with less human intervention. The nests presented a group distribution, and the presence of people...

  4. Pent-up demand for surgery in the Manaus metropolitan region: A population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Priscila Gusmão da Silva; Galvao, Tais Freire; Silva, Marcus Tolentino

    2017-08-01

    Waiting lines in healthcare reflect an imbalance between the availability and the demand for medical services. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence and factors associated with the pent-up demand for surgical procedures in the Manaus metropolitan region.We performed a population-based cross-sectional study in 2015. Pent-up demand was based on self-report by the participants; those who reported waiting were contacted by phone to clarify the nature and reasons for the experienced delay.We interviewed 4001 adults in their households. The pent-up demand for surgical procedures in the Manaus metropolitan region was 14% (95% confidence interval: 13-15%). The surgical specialties with the highest demand included orthopedics (18.1%), gynecology (17.0%), ophthalmology (12.4%), neurosurgery (10.8%), and general surgery (10.2%). The main reason for not accessing services was their lack of availability in the public health system, leading some patients to pay for procedures in private facilities. The populations most affected by pent-up demand included elderly individuals, women, and housewives.Pent-up demand for surgical procedures is a common problem in the Manaus metropolitan region and thus requires coordinated actions to optimize access to and capacity of the healthcare system.

  5. Urban vegetation and income segregation in drylands: a synthesis of seven metropolitan regions in the southwestern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenerette, G Darrel; Buyantuev, Alexander; Miller, Greg; Pataki, Diane E; Gillespie, Thomas W; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand how urbanization affects the amount and timing of urban vegetation in drylands we investigated remotely sensed vegetation patterns across seven large metropolitan regions in the southwestern United States. We asked (1) how low density urban land cover differed from adjacent wildland grass, herb, and shrub land covers in both the amount of vegetation and the length of the growing season, (2) how neighborhood income affected patterns of vegetation within low density urban cover, and (3) how cities differed from one another in their vegetation patterns. We found that urbanization generally has a strong influence on vegetation compared to adjacent wildlands. In four of the metropolitan regions the cumulative enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and growing season length in low density developments were higher than grass, herb, and shrub land covers. Within all metropolitan regions, there was a significant socioeconomic effect where higher income areas had a higher cumulative EVI than lower income areas. The large differences in urban vegetation among cities were related to precipitation and total domestic water use. These findings help to identify how urbanization influences vegetation, with implications for the availability of ecosystem services and requirements for irrigation in hot dryland cities. (letter)

  6. Self-reported harassment and bullying in Australian universities: explaining differences between regional, metropolitan and elite institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, Timothy C.; Peetz, David; Strachan, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Association for Tertiary Education Management and the LH Martin Institute for Tertiary Education Leadership and Management. We analyse data from the largest survey of university staff in Australia to determine whether bullying and harassment are more common in regional than metropolitan...... of harassment. This probably reflected the labour market and resource context of regional universities. Binary logistic regression indicated that a perceived lack of support for professional development partially explained the effect of regional status on differences in the rates of harassment/bullying across...... university types. Markers of organisational culture only partially account for differences in the rates of harassment/bullying between university types....

  7. Radon origin in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Talita de O.; Oliveira, H. de; Rocha, Zildete; Dias, Antonio F.; Malta, Ricardo S.V.

    2011-01-01

    The main sources of radon concentration in buildings are the underground surrounding soil and bedrock, construction materials and underground water supply. However, the contribution from these sources to the indoor radon level depends on many factors, such as type of the building, geology and pedology of the site and also the floor level. Focusing on this concern, the present work outlines on the characterization of the radon concentration in two different kinds of buildings - slab-on-grade dwellings and apartments on the second floor and above - in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, which is located in a large part on granite embasement area, the Granitic Gnaissic Complex. The radon concentration in dwellings and apartments, measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, ranged from 18.5 to 1591.0 Bqm -3 (mean value 114.7 ± 5.5 Bqm -3 ) and 3.7 to 185.0 Bqm -3 (mean value 70.3 ± 6.7 Bqm -3 ), respectively. Thus, the highest radon concentration is present in dwellings not in apartments, suggesting that the enhanced radon concentration maybe was originated mainly from local geological settings instead of other sources. In order to confirm this hypothesis, the measurements of the soil gas radon concentration were carried out by using AlphaGUARD PQ2000PRO detector and 226 Ra ( 214 Bi) and 224 Ra ( 212 Pb) specific activity in construction materials were determined by using gamma-ray spectrometry HPGe detector. These results confirmed the local geological setting as the main radon source. Moreover, radon concentration much higher than United States Environmental Protection Agency USEPA action level 148Bq.m -3 occurred only in slab-on-grade dwellings. (author)

  8. Integrated solutions for urban runoff pollution control in Brazilian metropolitan regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morihama, A C D; Amaro, C; Tominaga, E N S; Yazaki, L F O L; Pereira, M C S; Porto, M F A; Mukai, P; Lucci, R M

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important causes for poor water quality in urban rivers in Brazil is the low collection efficiency of the sewer system due to unforeseen interconnections with the stormwater drainage system. Since the beginning of the 20th century, Brazilian cities have adopted separate systems for sanitary sewers and stormwater runoff. Gradually these two systems became interconnected. A major challenge faced today by water managers in Brazil is to find efficient and low cost solutions to deal with this mixed system. The current situation poses an important threat to the improvement of the water quality in urban rivers and lakes. This article presents an evaluation of the water quality parameters and the diffuse pollution loads during rain events in the Pinheiros River, a tributary of the Tietê River in São Paulo. It also presents different types of integrated solutions for reducing the pollution impact of combined systems, based on the European experience in urban water management. An evaluation of their performance and a comparison with the separate system used in most Brazilian cities is also presented. The study is based on an extensive water quality monitoring program that was developed for a special investigation in the Pinheiros River and lasted 2.5 years. Samples were collected on a daily basis and water quality variables were analyzed on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. Two hundred water quality variables were monitored at 53 sampling points. During rain events, additional monitoring was carried out using an automated sampler. Pinheiros River is one of the most important rivers in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region and it is also a heavily polluted one.

  9. Trace elements in particulate matter from metropolitan regions of Northern China: Sources, concentrations and size distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Li, Xingru; Sun, Ying; Li, Yi; Wentworth, Gregory R; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-12-15

    Public concerns over airborne trace elements (TEs) in metropolitan areas are increasing, but long-term and multi-site observations of size-resolved aerosol TEs in China are still lacking. Here, we identify highly elevated levels of atmospheric TEs in megacities and industrial sites in a Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration relative to background areas, with the annual mean values of As, Pb, Ni, Cd and Mn exceeding the acceptable limits of the World Health Organization. Despite the spatial variability in concentrations, the size distribution pattern of each trace element was quite similar across the region. Crustal elements of Al and Fe were mainly found in coarse particles (2.1-9 μm), whereas the main fraction of toxic metals, such as Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb, was found in submicron particles (metals were enriched by over 100-fold relative to the Earth's crust. The size distributions of Na, Mg, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Mo and Ba were bimodal, with two peaks at 0.43-0.65 μm and 4.7-5.8 μm. The combination of the size distribution information, principal component analysis and air mass back trajectory model offered a robust technique for distinguishing the main sources for airborne TEs, e.g., soil dust, fossil fuel combustion and industrial emissions, at different sites. In addition, higher elemental concentrations coincided with westerly flow, indicating that polluted soil and fugitive dust were major sources of TEs on the regional scale. However, the contribution of coal burning, iron industry/oil combustion and non-ferrous smelters to atmospheric metal pollution in Northern China should be given more attention. Considering that the concentrations of heavy metals associated with fine particles in the target region were significantly higher than those in other Asian sites, the implementations of strict environmental standards in China are required to reduce the amounts of these hazardous pollutants released into the atmosphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  10. Accumulation, spatial policies, and the production of regional labour reserves: a study of Washington New Town

    OpenAIRE

    R Hudson

    1982-01-01

    It has recently been argued by Damette that regional labour reserves have come to occupy a central role in the accumulation process as a source of surplus profits. Moreover, the State has increasingly become involved in creating such reserves via its spatial policies, often with unintended results in relation to the stated aims of these policies. These general propositions are explored in this paper via an investigation of some aspects of the development of Washington New Town, considering in...

  11. Spatiotemporal Variation in Composition of Submicron Particles in Santiago Metropolitan Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Tagle

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of submicron particles (aerodynamic diameter Da < 1.0 μm was investigated at three locations in the Santiago Metropolitan Region (SMR, Chile. Measurements campaigns were conducted in winter and spring 2016, at representative sites of a rural, urban, and urban receptor environment. Instrumentation consisted of an optical analyzer to determine Black Carbon (BC and the Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM to measure concentrations of particulate chloride (Cl−, nitrate (NO3-, sulfate (SO42-, ammonium (NH4+, and non-refractory carbonaceous species (organics. Complementary data, such as ozone concentration and meteorological parameters were obtained from the public air quality network. Results showed that in both the winter and spring seasons the organics predominated in the mass of submicron particles. This fraction was followed in decreasing order by NO3-, NH4+, BC, SO42-, and Cl−. The highest average organics concentrations were measured in winter at the urban (32.2 μg m−3 and urban receptor sites (20.1 μg m−3. In winter, average concentrations of both NO3- and NH4+ were higher at the urban receptor site (12.3 and 4.5 μg m−3, respectively when compared to the urban site (6.4 and 3.1 μg m−3, respectively. In general, all the measured species were present in higher concentrations during winter, excepting SO42-, which was the only one that increased during spring. The transition toward spring was also associated with an acidification of the aerosol at the rural and urban receptor site, while at the urban site the aerosol was observed alkaline. The highest average ozone concentration during both the winter and spring seasons were recorded at the urban receptor site (7.2 and 24.0 ppb, respectively. The study reports data showing that the atmosphere in the SMR has a considerable load of particulate organic compounds, NO3- and NH4+, which are in higher concentrations at urban sites during the winter season

  12. Conservation in metropolitan regions: assessing trends and threats of urban development and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, J. H.; Santos, M. J.; Bjorkman, J.

    2011-12-01

    Two global challenges to successful conservation are urban expansion and climate change. Rapid urban growth threatens biodiversity and associated ecosystem services, while climate change may make currently protected areas unsuitable for species that exist within them. We examined three measures of landscape change for 8800 km2 of the San Francisco Bay metropolitan region over 80 years past and future: urban growth, protected area establishment, and natural vegetation type extents. The Bay Area is a good test bed for conservation assessment of the impacts of temporal and spatial of urban growth and land cover change. The region is geographically rather small, with over 40% of its lands already dedicated to protected park and open space lands, they are well-documented, and, the area has had extensive population growth in the past and is projected to continue to grow. The ten-county region within which our study area is a subset has grown from 1.78 million people in 1930, to 6.97 million in 2000 and is estimated to grow to 10.94 million by 2050. With such an influx of people into a small geographic area, it is imperative to both examine the past urban expansion and estimate how the future population will be accommodated into the landscape. We quantify these trends to assess conservation 'success' through time. We used historical and current landcover maps to assess trend, and a GIS-based urban modeling (UPlan) to assess future urban growth impacts in the region, under three policy scenarios- business as usual, smart growth, and urban redevelopment. Impacts are measured by the amount of open space targeted by conservation planners in the region that will be urbanized under each urban growth policy. Impacts are also measured by estimates of the energy consumption projected for each of the scenarios on household and business unit level. The 'business as usual' and 'smart growth' scenarios differed little in their impacts to targeted conservation lands, because so little

  13. Daily Mobility and Residential Migrations in the Montréal Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Sénécal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to simultaneously examine two types of mobility by developing a model of metropolitan organization that emphasizes the axis structure of mobility. The model is based on the realities of daily mobility and long-term residential mobility. Origin−Destination study results validated the axis representation of the metropolitan structure. Furthermore, building on data from a telephone survey, we considered the interactions between the two types of mobility along the Center-North axis of Montréal’s Census Metropolitan Area (CMA. The ensuing discussion on various models of metropolitan structure and their relevance today is framed in terms of the axes of mobility defined as territorial practices that are established within the patterns of daily life and are a significant factor in residential location decisions. The study raises broader issues concerning the relevance of drawing on standard models such as Burgess’s concentric zone model, Hoyt’s sector theory, Adam’s directional bias, or recent findings from the literature to understand urban form dynamics in the CMA.

  14. The Making of the Gdańsk Metropolitan Region. Local Discourses of Identities, Powers, and Hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czepczyński Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of metropolitanisation of the Gdańsk area is facilitated by public discourse involving local and regional politicians, media, and inhabitants. The discussion is based upon historical narrations, but also local ambitions, hopes and emotions, as well as infrastructural projects and investment attractiveness. Foucault suggests that modern power is a dispersed set of micro-practices, many of which operate through the normalising gaze of surveillance regimes. Gdańsk metropolitan cooperation, competition and encounters make the core of the paper; local and regional unifying initiatives and processes are accompanied by examples of separatism, identity conflicts, and political disagreements

  15. Campinas metropolitan region: solid waste management for regional sustainable development; Regiao metropolitana de Campinas: gestao de residuo solido para o desenvolvimento regional sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagle, Elizabeth Camargo; Teixeira, Egle Novaes; Craveiros, Stephanie Grant; London, Pedro; Ferreira, Ronan Goncalves [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Streb, Cleci Schalemberger [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2004-07-01

    Each person generates a lot of residues in their daily activities. The life cycle of residues, production, collection, transportation, treatment and/or end use have negatively impacted the environment. The society has unobserved the limits for the environment and is living with an undesirable pollution level, regarding the capacity of absorbing and recycling residues and materials. Due to these, there is a necessity of rethink the actual model of development adopted by the society. Regarding the global sustainability, the residue management needs to be planned in order to assure the surviving of future generation with life quality. By a theoretic analysis, this article objective is to evaluate the residue management of Campinas Metropolitan Region interference at the regional sustainable development. (author)

  16. Agricultural and green infrastructures: The role of non-urbanised areas for eco-sustainable planning in a metropolitan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Greca, Paolo; La Rosa, Daniele; Martinico, Francesco; Privitera, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    Non-Urbanised Areas (NUAs) are part of agricultural and green infrastructures that provide ecosystem services. Their role is fundamental for the minimization of urban pollution and adaptation to climate change. Like all natural ecosystems, NUAs are endangered by urban sprawl. The regulation of sprawl is a key issue for land-use planning. We propose a land use suitability strategy model to orient Land Uses of NUAs, based on integration of Land Cover Analysis (LCA) and Fragmentation Analysis (FA). With LCA the percentage of evapotranspiring surface is defined for each land use. Dimensions and densities of NUAs patches are assessed in FA. The model has been developed with Geographical Information Systems, using an extensive set of geodatabases, including orthophotos, vectorial cartographies and field surveys. The case of the municipality of Mascalucia in Catania metropolitan area (Italy), characterized by a considerable urban sprawl, is presented. - Highlights: → Non-Urbanised Areas (NUAs) are crucial for land planning and pollution minimization. → NUAs are endangered by urban sprawl in Catania metropolitan areas (Italy). → NUAs can be characterized by Land Cover and Fragmentation analysis. → Results from analysis are used in a Land Use Suitability Strategy Model (LUSSM). → By LUSSM application seven new prospective land uses for NUAs are proposed. - Characterization of non-urbanised areas in metropolitan regions is crucial for land-use planning aimed at environmental pollution minimization.

  17. Agricultural and green infrastructures: The role of non-urbanised areas for eco-sustainable planning in a metropolitan region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Greca, Paolo; La Rosa, Daniele [Dipartimento di Architettura e Urbanistica, Universita di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Martinico, Francesco, E-mail: fmartinico@dau.unict.it [Dipartimento di Architettura e Urbanistica, Universita di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Privitera, Riccardo [Dipartimento di Architettura e Urbanistica, Universita di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    Non-Urbanised Areas (NUAs) are part of agricultural and green infrastructures that provide ecosystem services. Their role is fundamental for the minimization of urban pollution and adaptation to climate change. Like all natural ecosystems, NUAs are endangered by urban sprawl. The regulation of sprawl is a key issue for land-use planning. We propose a land use suitability strategy model to orient Land Uses of NUAs, based on integration of Land Cover Analysis (LCA) and Fragmentation Analysis (FA). With LCA the percentage of evapotranspiring surface is defined for each land use. Dimensions and densities of NUAs patches are assessed in FA. The model has been developed with Geographical Information Systems, using an extensive set of geodatabases, including orthophotos, vectorial cartographies and field surveys. The case of the municipality of Mascalucia in Catania metropolitan area (Italy), characterized by a considerable urban sprawl, is presented. - Highlights: > Non-Urbanised Areas (NUAs) are crucial for land planning and pollution minimization. > NUAs are endangered by urban sprawl in Catania metropolitan areas (Italy). > NUAs can be characterized by Land Cover and Fragmentation analysis. > Results from analysis are used in a Land Use Suitability Strategy Model (LUSSM). > By LUSSM application seven new prospective land uses for NUAs are proposed. - Characterization of non-urbanised areas in metropolitan regions is crucial for land-use planning aimed at environmental pollution minimization.

  18. [Prevalence of congenital and perinatal infection in HIV positive pregnant in Belo Horizonte metropolitan region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Marcelle Marie Martins; Lage, Eura Martins; Moreira, Bárbara Cecília Borges; Deus, Elayne Alayne Braga de; Faria, Joanna Gonçalves; Pinto, Jorge Andrade; Melo, Victor Hugo

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B&C and syphilis (Torchs) in a cohort pregnant women and to identify the sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory factors. A total of 1,573 HIV-infected pregnant women from a Brazilian metropolitan region were studied between 1998 and 2013. The results of serological tests were available for 704 (44.8%) pregnant women. Pregnant women were considered to be Torchs positive (Gtp) when they had positive results for at least one of these infections, and to be Torchs negative (Gtn) when they had negative results for all of them. Maternal covariables were: age, marital status, educational level, time and mode of infection, CD4 lymphocyte count, viral load at delivery, and use of antiretroviral therapy (ARV). Neonatal covariables were: HIV infection, prematurity, low birth weight, neonatal complications, abortion and neonatal death. Odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were used to quantify the association between maternal and neonatal variables and the presence of Torchs. Among 704 pregnant women, 70 (9.9%; 95%CI 7.8-12.4) had positive serological tests for any Torchs factor. The individual prevalence rates were: 1.5% (10/685) for toxoplasmosis; 1.3% (8/618) for rubella; 1.3% (8/597) for cytomegalovirus; 0.9% (6/653) for hepatitis B and 3.7% (20/545) for hepatitis C; and 3.8% (25/664) for syphilis. The HIV Vertical HIV transmission was 4.6% among Gtp pregnant women and 1.2% among Gtn women. Antiretroviral therapy (ARV), vertical transmission, low birth weight and neonatal complications were significantly associated with Torchs positivity in univariate analysis. The Torchs prevalence found in the study was high for some infections. These findings emphasize the need to promote serological Torchs screening for all pregnant women, especially HIV-infected women, so that an early diagnosis can be made and treatment interventions can be implemented to prevent vertical HIV transmission.

  19. Modeling the Impacts of Global Climate and Regional Land Use Change on Regional Climate, Air Quality and Public Health in the New York Metropolitan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, J. E.; Knowlton, K. M.; Kinney, P. L.

    2002-12-01

    There is an imminent need to downscale the global climate models used by international consortiums like the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) to predict the future regional impacts of climate change. To meet this need, a "place-based" climate model that makes specific regional projections about future environmental conditions local inhabitants could face is being created by the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University, in collaboration with other researchers and universities, for New York City and the 31 surrounding counties. This presentation describes the design and initial results of this modeling study, aimed at simulating the effects of global climate change and regional land use change on climate and air quality over the northeastern United States in order to project the associated public health impacts in the region. Heat waves and elevated concentrations of ozone and fine particles are significant current public health stressors in the New York metropolitan area. The New York Climate and Health Project is linking human dimension and natural sciences models to assess the potential for future public health impacts from heat stress and air quality, and yield improved tools for assessing climate change impacts. The model will be applied to the NY metropolitan east coast region. The following questions will be addressed: 1. What changes in the frequency and severity of extreme heat events are likely to occur over the next 80 years due to a range of possible scenarios of land use and land cover (LU/LC) and climate change in the region? 2. How might the frequency and severity of episodic concentrations of ozone (O3) and airborne particulate matter smaller than 2.5 æm in diameter (PM2.5) change over the next 80 years due to a range of possible scenarios of land use and climate change in the metropolitan region? 3. What is the range of possible human health impacts of these changes in the region? 4. How might projected future human

  20. Modeling Metropolitan Detroit transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    "The seven-county Southeast Michigan region, that encompasses the Detroit Metropolitan Area, : ranks fifth in population among top 25 regions in the nation. It also ranks among bottom five in : the transit service provided, measured in miles or hours...

  1. Multilevel Hierarchical Modeling of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Responses to Urbanization in Nine Metropolitan Regions across the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashuba, Roxolana; Cha, YoonKyung; Alameddine, Ibrahim; Lee, Boknam; Cuffney, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Multilevel hierarchical modeling methodology has been developed for use in ecological data analysis. The effect of urbanization on stream macroinvertebrate communities was measured across a gradient of basins in each of nine metropolitan regions across the conterminous United States. The hierarchical nature of this dataset was harnessed in a multi-tiered model structure, predicting both invertebrate response at the basin scale and differences in invertebrate response at the region scale. Ordination site scores, total taxa richness, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera (EPT) taxa richness, and richness-weighted mean tolerance of organisms at a site were used to describe invertebrate responses. Percentage of urban land cover was used as a basin-level predictor variable. Regional mean precipitation, air temperature, and antecedent agriculture were used as region-level predictor variables. Multilevel hierarchical models were fit to both levels of data simultaneously, borrowing statistical strength from the complete dataset to reduce uncertainty in regional coefficient estimates. Additionally, whereas non-hierarchical regressions were only able to show differing relations between invertebrate responses and urban intensity separately for each region, the multilevel hierarchical regressions were able to explain and quantify those differences within a single model. In this way, this modeling approach directly establishes the importance of antecedent agricultural conditions in masking the response of invertebrates to urbanization in metropolitan regions such as Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Denver, Colorado; and Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas. Also, these models show that regions with high precipitation, such as Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; and Portland, Oregon, start out with better regional background conditions of invertebrates prior to urbanization but experience faster negative rates of change with urbanization. Ultimately, this urbanization

  2. Utilization of bromeliad Tillandsia Usneoides L. in biomonitoring of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo - SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Caroline R.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Barbara C. da; Ticianelli, Regina B.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Ribeiro, Andreza P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, it was determined the metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb and Sb in plant Tillandsia Usneoides L., an epiphyte species popularly known as old beard and able to absorb water and nutrients directly from air, aiming to estimate the contribution of human activities in atmospheric metal pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. The samples were collected at five different points, located near the South West and stretches of highway Mario Covas (SP-21). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Optical Emission Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES) were the analytical techniques used in the quantification of metals of interest

  3. Analysis of the relation between socioeconomic variables and truck trips in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro

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    Beatriz Lagnier Gil Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to analyze the relation between socioeconomic variables and freight trip generation, regarding the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro, through the use of linear regression models. A systematic literature review is conducted in order to identify which independent variables could be used in the models. The variables found are mostly related to the establishment, such as number of employees, floor area, number of stores among others; and socioeconomic variables, such as population, households and jobs in the region. The relation between the latter and number of truck trips is verified with linear regression models, and the results show that the models are valid and the variables are able to explain the freight flow in the region studied, contributing to  the region’s transport planning and  to the strategic planning  of companies that operate in the region.

  4. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow in the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, D. Matthew; Burns, Erick R.; Morgan, David S.; Vaccaro, John J.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model of groundwater flow was constructed for the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System (CPRAS), Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, to evaluate and test the conceptual model of the system and to evaluate groundwater availability. The model described in this report can be used as a tool by water-resource managers and other stakeholders to quantitatively evaluate proposed alternative management strategies and assess the long‑term availability of groundwater. The numerical simulation of groundwater flow in the CPRAS was completed with support from the Groundwater Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey Office of Groundwater.

  5. Prevention of hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection in the New York metropolitan region using a collaborative intervention model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koll, Brian S; Ruiz, Rafael E; Calfee, David P; Jalon, Hillary S; Stricof, Rachel L; Adams, Audrey; Smith, Barbara A; Shin, Gina; Gase, Kathleen; Woods, Maria K; Sirtalan, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The incidence, severity, and associated costs of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection (CDI) have dramatically increased in hospitals over the past decade, indicating an urgent need for strategies to prevent transmission of C. difficile. This article describes a multifaceted collaborative approach to reduce hospital-onset CDI rates in 35 acute care hospitals in the New York metropolitan region. Hospitals participated in a comprehensive CDI reduction intervention and formed interdisciplinary teams to coordinate their efforts. Standardized clinical infection prevention and environmental cleaning protocols were implemented and monitored using checklists. Monthly data reports were provided to hospitals for facility-specific performance evaluation and comparison to aggregate data from all participants. Hospitals also participated in monthly teleconferences to review data and highlight successes, challenges, and strategies to reduce CDI. Incidence of hospital-onset CDI per 10,000 patient days was the primary outcome measure. Additionally, the incidence of nonhospital-associated, community-onset, hospital-associated, and recurrent CDIs were measured. The use of a collaborative model to implement a multifaceted infection prevention strategy was temporally associated with a significant reduction in hospital-onset CDI rates in participating New York metropolitan regional hospitals. © 2013 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  6. Oropharyngeal cancer mortality according to the human development index in the Metropolitan Region of Chile, 2002-2014.

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    Vicente Livacic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine mortality rates for oropharyngeal cancer according to the Human Development Index (HDI per district in the Metropolitan Region (RM, Santiago, Chile, between 2002 and 2014. Materials and Methods: An ecological study was carried out. The sample corresponded to individuals over 45 years, from the Metropolitan Region, with oropharyngeal cancer as cause of death, as registered in the Chilean National Institute of Statistics (INE. The HDI was classified into three categories: “medium” (8 districts, “high” (18 districts and “very high” (25 districts. The crude and adjusted mortality rates were calculated for each year and period. Results: The oropharyngeal cancer adjusted mortality rate for the chosen period was 3.98 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants. The specific mortality rate from oropharyngeal cancer in the “medium” HDI category was 4.01; in the “high” DHI category, 4.42; and in the “very high” HDI category, 3.79. Conclusion: Mortality from oropharyngeal cancer was higher in the “medium” HDI category between 2002 and 2014.

  7. Modeling urban expansion policy scenarios using an agent-based approach for Guangzhou Metropolitan Region of China

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    Guangjin Tian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Policy makers and the human decision processes of urban planning have an impact on urban expansion. The behaviors and decision modes of regional authority, real estate developer, resident, and farmer agents and their interactions can be simulated by the analytical hierarchy process (AHP method. The driving factors are regressed with urban dynamics instead of static land-use types. Agents' behaviors and decision modes have an impact on the urban dynamic pattern by adjusting parameter weights. We integrate an agent-based model (ABM with AHP to investigate a complex decision-making process and future urban dynamic processes. Three policy scenarios for baseline development, rapid development, and green land protection have been applied to predict the future development patterns of the Guangzhou metropolitan region. A future policy scenario analysis can help policy makers to understand the possible results. These individuals can adjust their policies and decisions according to their different objectives.

  8. Information manager profile in university libraries from the Metropolitan Region of Recife

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    Anielma Maria Marques Rodrigues

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. It is a literature of descriptive nature in order to define the profile of the manager of information in university libraries of Recife and its metropolitan area. Method. To achieve the proposed objective was based on a literature in the area of information science, in which it was possible to contextualize the attributes skills of information professionals from qualitative and quantitative approaches. Results. Results indicate issues: a activities performed in the routine of professional b skills that have to do their jobs, c professional d workplace e academic. Conclusions. With the responses is possible to discern the different skills of the librarian in accordance with their professional and personal experience.

  9. WATER RESOURCES IN THE CONTEXT OF REGIONAL PLANNING. CASE STUDY: CLUJ-NAPOCA METROPOLITAN AREA

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    PAULA OLIVIA CIMPOIEŞ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue of water resources is controversial because it reveals the complex needs of the population on a certain territory, depending on the analysis scale. Public utilities or water surfaces in the surrounding rural areas of a city are rarely paid much attention to in comparison to the urban centre, though they could provide comfort attributes, aesthetic value and leisure activities. Is it a matter of social fairness, political orientation or funding accessibility for a community to benefit from the water resources in the vicinity? The present study propos ed to analyse the metropolitan area of Cluj and explain why the distribution of resources varies according to physical conditions, distance or localities’ economic statute.

  10. Detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondiiantibodies in carthorses in the metropolitan region of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil

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    Mariane Angélica Finger

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii, the agent for toxoplasmosis, has worldwide distribution. Horses normally play a secondary role in its life cycle, but movement around urban areas, feeding on grass and the increasing use of carthorses for gathering recyclable material in some urban areas of Brazil may increase their exposure to T. gondii infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of anti-T. gondii antibodies in carthorses in the metropolitan region of Curitiba, PR. IgG antibodies against T. gondii were detected using the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT (titers ≥ 64. Seventeen (17.0% of the 100 horses sampled were seropositive. There were no statistical differences in relation to sex (p = 0.28 or age (p = 0.15. Our findings suggest that carthorses are exposed to T. gondii infections and that no associations with age or sex exist.

  11. Morbidity Forecast in Cities: A Study of Urban Air Pollution and Respiratory Diseases in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fabio Teodoro

    2018-05-29

    In the last two decades, urbanization has intensified, and in Brazil, about 90% of the population now lives in urban centers. Atmospheric patterns have changed owing to the high growth rate of cities, with negative consequences for public health. This research aims to elucidate the spatial patterns of air pollution and respiratory diseases. A data-based model to aid local urban management to improve public health policies concerning air pollution is described. An example of data preparation and multivariate analysis with inventories from different cities in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba was studied. A predictive model with outstanding accuracy in prediction of outbreaks was developed. Preliminary results describe relevant relations among morbidity scales, air pollution levels, and atmospheric seasonal patterns. The knowledge gathered here contributes to the debate on social issues and public policies. Moreover, the results of this smaller scale study can be extended to megacities.

  12. [Food-related lifestyles and eating habits inside and outside the home in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Peña, Juan Pablo; Mora, Marcos; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Lobos, Germán

    2013-01-01

    To distinguish consumer typologies on the basis of their food-related lifestyle in the principal municipalities of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile, and to characterize these according to their food consumption habits inside and outside the home, sociodemographic characteristics and their level of satisfaction with food-related life. A structured questionnaire was administered to a sample of 951 people in the principal municipalities of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago (more than 100,000 inhabitants). The instrument for collecting data included an adaptation of the food-related life (FRL) questionnaire and the satisfaction with food-related life (SWFL) scale. The food consumption habits inside and outside the home were asked about as well as sociodemographic classification variables of those surveyed. Using a cluster analysis, five typologies were distinguished with significant differences in the five components obtained from the FRL with a factorial analysis of the principal components. The typologies presented a different gender, age and socioeconomic level profile and differed in the scores obtained on the SWFL. They differed in the frequency with which the person has lunch, tea ("once" in Chile) and dinner at home. With respect to the meals outside the home, the typologies were distinguished according to the frequency of meals in restaurants, fast food outlets and in the purchase of prepared food. A lifestyle where eating is related to low involvement and enjoyment of food is associated with a person's higher socioeconomic level and lower age. Additionally, a greater frequency of meals in restaurants and the purchase of prepared food combined with a lower frequency of meals at home is associated with unhealthy eating habits of little benefit to the person, which might have a bearing on a lower level of food-related life satisfaction. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. [Television publicity and food preferences of school age children of the metropolitan region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, S; Albala, C; García, F; Jofré, I

    1999-07-01

    There is an alarming increase in the prevalence of child obesity in Chile. Lack of exercise and bad feeding habits strongly strongly contribute to the problem. To investigate the influence of television publicity on school age children food preferences. A semi structured interview was applied to a representative sample of 786 school age children aged 6 to 11 years old, living in Metropolitan Santiago. Time watching television during week days and the attitude towards food and beverage commercials was analyzed and related to food preferences. Ninety nine percent of school age children watch television during week days and 20% watches more the three hours daily. Snack commercials such as those about potato chips, chocolates, cookies and ice cream, are preferred by 35% of children. Soda commercials are preferred by 33% and yoghurt commercials by 12%. Eighty five percent of children had money to buy food. Of these, 66% bought snacks, 15% bought sodas and 7% yoghurt. The same tendency was observed in school collations. The high percentage of children, watching television and the influence of commercials in their food preferences, requires an urgent educational strategy to promote healthy feeding habits.

  14. Geologic Setting and Hydrogeologic Units of the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Sue C.; Olsen, Theresa D.; Morgan, David S.

    2009-01-01

    The Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System (CPRAS) covers approximately 44,000 square miles of northeastern Oregon, southeastern Washington, and western Idaho. The area supports a $6 billion per year agricultural industry, leading the Nation in production of apples and nine other commodities (State of Washington Office of Financial Management, 2007; U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2007). Groundwater availability in the aquifers of the area is a critical water-resource management issue because the water demand for agriculture, economic development, and ecological needs is high. The primary aquifers of the CPRAS are basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) and overlying basin-fill sediments. Water-resources issues that have implications for future groundwater availability in the region include (1) widespread water-level declines associated with development of groundwater resources for irrigation and other uses, (2) reduction in base flow to rivers and associated effects on temperature and water quality, and (3) current and anticipated effects of global climate change on recharge, base flow, and ultimately, groundwater availability. As part of a National Groundwater Resources Program, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study of the CPRAS in 2007 with the broad goals of (1) characterizing the hydrologic status of the system, (2) identifying trends in groundwater storage and use, and (3) quantifying groundwater availability. The study approach includes documenting changes in the status of the system, quantifying the hydrologic budget for the system, updating the regional hydrogeologic framework, and developing a groundwater-flow simulation model for the system. The simulation model will be used to evaluate and test the conceptual model of the system and later to evaluate groundwater availability under alternative development and climate scenarios. The objectives of this study were to update the hydrogeologic framework for the CPRAS using the available

  15. Quantifying Changes of Villages in the Urbanizing Beijing Metropolitan Region: Integrating Remote Sensing and GIS Analysis

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    Kun Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization has resulted in great changes in rural landscapes globally. Using remote sensing data to quantify the distribution of rural settlements and their changes has received increasing attention in the past three decades, but remains a challenge. Previous studies mostly focused on the residential changes within a grid or administrative boundary, but not at the individual village level. This paper presents a new change detection approach for rural residential settlements, which can identify different types of rural settlement changes at the individual village level by integrating remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS analyses. Using multi-temporal Landsat TM image data, this approach classifies villages into five types: “no change”, “totally lost”, “shrinking”, “expanding”, and “merged”, in contrast to the commonly used “increase” and “decrease”. This approach was tested in the Beijing metropolitan area from 1984 to 2010. Additionally, the drivers of such changes were investigated using multinomial logistic regression models. The results revealed that: (1 36% of the villages were lost, but the total area of developed lands in existing villages increased by 34%; (2 Changes were dominated by the type of ‘expansion’ in 1984–1990 (accounted for 43.42% and 1990–2000 (56.21%. However, from 2000 to 2010, 49.73% of the villages remained unchanged; (3 Both topographical factors and distance factors had significant effects on whether the villages changed or not, but their impacts changed through time. The topographical driving factors showed decreasing effects on the loss of rural settlements, while distance factors had increasing impacts on settlement expansion and merging. This approach provides a useful tool for better understanding the changes in rural residential settlements and their associations with urbanization.

  16. Lean diesel technology and human health: a case study in six Brazilian metropolitan regions

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    Paulo Afonso de André

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Due to their toxicity, diesel emissions have been submitted to progressively more restrictive regulations in developed countries. However, in Brazil, the implementation of the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy (Euro IV standards for vehicles produced in 2009 and low-sulfur diesel with 50 ppm of sulfur was postponed until 2012 without a comprehensive analysis of the effect of this delay on public health parameters. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the delay in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy on health indicators and monetary health costs in Brazil. METHODS: The primary estimator of exposure to air pollution was the concentration of ambient fine particulate matter (particles with aerodynamic diameters <2.5 μm, [PM2.5]. This parameter was measured daily in six Brazilian metropolitan areas during 2007-2008. We calculated 1 the projected reduction in the PM2.5 that would have been achieved if the Euro IV standards had been implemented in 2009 and 2 the expected reduction after implementation in 2012. The difference between these two time curves was transformed into health outcomes using previous dose-response curves. The economic valuation was performed based on the DALY (disability-adjusted life years method. RESULTS: The delay in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy will result in an estimated excess of 13,984 deaths up to 2040. Health expenditures are projected to be increased by nearly US$ 11.5 billion for the same period. CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicate that a significant health burden will occur because of the postponement in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy. These results also reinforce the concept that health effects must be considered when revising fuel and emission policies.

  17. Impact of stormwater infiltration basins on groundwater quality, Perth metropolitan region, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    1993-08-01

    Twelve bores were sunk adjacent to three stormwater infiltration basins in the Perth metropolitan area to examine the impact of runoff from a light industrial area, a medium-density residential area, and a major arterial road on groundwater quality, and to examine the hydrological response of the aquifer to runoff recharge. Automatic and manual water level monitoring between April and November 1990 indicated that groundwater levels responded within minutes to recharge from the infiltration basins. Peak water levels of up to 2.5 m above rest levels occurred 6 24 h after the commencement of ponding in the infiltration basins. There was a marked reduction in salinity and increase in dissolved oxygen concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer downgradient of the infiltration basins. Concentrations of toxic metals, nutrients, pesticides, and phenolic compounds in groundwater near the infiltration basins were low and generally well within Australian drinking water guidelines. However, sediment in the base of an infiltration basin draining a major road contained in excess of 3500 ppm of lead. Phthalates, which are US EPA priority pollutants, were detected in all but one bore near the infiltration basins. Their detection may be a sampling artifact, but they may also be derived from the plastic litter that accumulates in the infiltration basins. The concentration of iron in groundwater near the infiltration basins appears to be controlled by dissolved oxygen concentrations, with high iron concentrations occurring where dissolved oxygen concentrations are low. Pumping bores located near infiltration basins may suffer from iron encrustation problems caused by the mixing of shallow, oxygenated groundwater with water containing higher concentrations of iron from deeper in the aquifer.

  18. Climate change projections over three metropolitan regions in Southeast Brazil using the non-hydrostatic Eta regional climate model at 5-km resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Andre; Tavares, Priscila; Chou, Sin Chan; Sueiro, Gustavo; Dereczynski, Claudine; Sondermann, Marcely; Silva, Adan; Marengo, José; Giarolla, Angélica

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this work is to assess changes in three metropolitan regions of Southeast Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Santos) based on the projections produced by the Eta Regional Climate Model (RCM) at very high spatial resolution, 5 km. The region, which is densely populated and extremely active economically, is frequently affected by intense rainfall events that trigger floods and landslides during the austral summer. The analyses are carried out for the period between 1961 and 2100. The 5-km simulations are results from a second downscaling nesting in the HadGEM2-ES RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 simulations. Prior to the assessment of the projections, the higher resolution simulations were evaluated for the historical period (1961-1990). The comparison between the 5-km and the coarser driver model simulations shows that the spatial patterns of precipitation and temperature of the 5-km Eta simulations are in good agreement with the observations. The simulated frequency distribution of the precipitation and temperature extremes from the 5-km Eta RCM is consistent with the observed structure and extreme values. Projections of future climate change using the 5-km Eta runs show stronger warming in the region, primarily during the summer season, while precipitation is strongly reduced. Projected temperature extremes show widespread heating with maximum temperatures increasing by approximately 9 °C in the three metropolitan regions by the end of the century in the RCP8.5 scenario. A trend of drier climate is also projected using indices based on daily precipitation, which reaches annual rainfall reductions of more than 50 % in the state of Rio de Janeiro and between 40 and 45 % in São Paulo and Santos. The magnitude of these changes has negative implications to the population health conditions, energy security, and economy.

  19. Subaltern urbanism in India beyond the mega-city slum: The civic politics of occupancy and development in two peripheral cities in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, T.K.

    2014-01-01

    Tara van Dijk leverages concepts from subaltern urbanism, namely political society and occupancy urbanism, to look at how residence and locality development are constituted and governed in practice across three types of settlements in two 'satellite' cities of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region:

  20. A Cross-cultural Analytical Framework for Territorial Development Policies : The Application to Flood Risk Management Policies in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region

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    Rongwinriyaphanich, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a proposed analytical framework that takes cultural dimensions as main parameters to explain territorial development processes. It is illustrated through the analysis of flood risk management in two case study areas in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region. It aims

  1. Didelphis marsupialis (common opossum): a potential reservoir host for zoonotic leishmaniasis in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; da Silva, Eduardo S.; van der Meide, Wendy F.; Schoone, Gerard J.; Gontijo, Celia M. F.

    2007-01-01

    Identification of the zoonotic reservoir is important for leishmaniasis control program. A number of (wild) animal species may serve as reservoir hosts, including the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. A survey carried out in Didelphis specimens (n = 111) from the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte,

  2. Winter Pea: Promising New Crop for Washington's Dryland Wheat-Fallow Region

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    William F. Schillinger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year tillage-based winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.-summer fallow (WW-SF rotation has been practiced by the vast majority of farmers in the low-precipitation (<300 mm annual rainfed cropping region of east-central Washington and north-central Oregon for 140 years. Until recently, alternative crops (i.e., those other than WW so far tested have not been as economically viable or stable as WW-SF. A 6-year field study was conducted near Ritzville, WA (292 mm avg. annual precipitation to determine the yield and rotation benefits of winter pea (Pisum sativum L. (WP. Two 3-year rotations were evaluated: WP-spring wheat (SW-SF vs. WW-SW-SF. Winter pea yields averaged 2,443 vs. 4,878 kg/ha for WW. No fertilizer was applied to WP whereas 56 kg N and 11 kg S/ha were applied to WW. Winter pea used significantly less soil water than WW. Over the winter months, a lesser percentage of precipitation was stored in the soil following WP compared to WW because: (i very little WP residue remained on the soil surface after harvest compared to WW, and (ii the drier the soil, the more precipitation is stored in the soil over winter. However, soil water content in the spring was still greater following WP vs. WW. Soil residual N in the spring (7 months after the harvest of WP and WW was greater in WP plots despite not applying fertilizer to produce WP. Spring wheat grown after both WP and WW received the identical quantity of N, P, and S fertilizer each year. Average yield of SW was 2,298 and 2,011 kg/ha following WP and WW, respectively (P < 0.01. Adjusted gross economic returns for these two rotation systems were similar. Based partially on the results of this study, numerous farmers in the dry WW-SF region have shown keen interest in WP and acreage planted WP in east-central Washington has grown exponentially since 2013. This paper provides the first report of the potential for WP in the typical WW-SF region of the inland Pacific Northwest (PNW.

  3. The mortality effect of ship-related fine particulate matter in the Sydney greater metropolitan region of NSW, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Richard A; Cope, Martin E; Goldsworthy, Brett; Goldsworthy, Laurie; Emmerson, Kathryn; Jegasothy, Edward; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates the mortality effect of primary and secondary PM2.5 related to ship exhaust in the Sydney greater metropolitan region of Australia. A detailed inventory of ship exhaust emissions was used to model a) the 2010/11 concentration of ship-related PM2.5 across the region, and b) the reduction in PM2.5 concentration that would occur if ships used distillate fuel with a 0.1% sulfur content at berth or within 300 km of Sydney. The annual loss of life attributable to 2010/11 levels of ship-related PM2.5 and the improvement in survival associated with use of low-sulfur fuel were estimated from the modelled concentrations. In 2010/11, approximately 1.9% of the region-wide annual average population weighted-mean concentration of all natural and human-made PM2.5 was attributable to ship exhaust, and up to 9.4% at suburbs close to ports. An estimated 220 years of life were lost by people who died in 2010/11 as a result of ship exhaust-related exposure (95% CIβ: 140-290, where CIβ is the uncertainty in the concentration-response coefficient only). Use of 0.1% sulfur fuel at berth would reduce the population weighted-mean concentration of PM2.5 related to ship exhaust by 25% and result in a gain of 390 life-years over a twenty year period (95% CIβ: 260-520). Use of 0.1% sulfur fuel within 300 km of Sydney would reduce the concentration by 56% and result in a gain of 920 life-years over twenty years (95% CIβ: 600-1200). Ship exhaust is an important source of human exposure to PM2.5 in the Sydney greater metropolitan region. This assessment supports intervention to reduce ship emissions in the GMR. Local strategies to limit the sulfur content of fuel would reduce exposure and will become increasingly beneficial as the shipping industry expands. A requirement for use of 0.1% sulfur fuel by ships within 300 km of Sydney would provide more than twice the mortality benefit of a requirement for ships to use 0.1% sulfur fuel at berth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  4. Potentials and Limitations of Regional Organic Food Supply: A Qualitative Analysis of Two Food Chain Types in the Berlin Metropolitan Region

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    Alexandra Doernberg

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Regional food systems and organic agriculture are both considered more sustainable than the conventional, globalized food system they provide an alternative to. The emergence and expansion of alternative forms of food supply are influenced by various factors on different scales. Using the food systems approach we aim to study potentials and limitations of regional organic food supply in the Berlin metropolitan region (BMR. Based on the literature, we developed an analytical framework and identified determinants of regional organic food provision along the three major levels of the supply chain: agricultural production, food chain organization, and consumption. Then, we examined a qualitative case study with two different types of alternative food networks (A organic community supported agriculture (CSA and (B organic retail trade. Factors that hinder or promote the provision of regional organic food were identified through qualitative interviews and assessed by regional stakeholders in a workshop. Our findings show that demand for regional organic food is higher than regional supply, which could offer good possibilities for organic farmers. However, actors in these two food chains need to overcome some obstacles, including limited access to land, increasing renting prices, insufficient processing capacities, and unsupportive political environment for organic farming.

  5. Addressing the Clinical Burden of Child Physical Abuse and Neglect in a Large Metropolitan Region: Improving the Evidence-Base

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    Shanti Raman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Children at risk of abuse are more likely to be hospitalized and utilize health services according to international research. In a large metropolitan health region in New South Wales, Australia, there was little known of the clinical burden of child physical abuse and/or neglect (PAN, or of systems for clinical assessment of children presenting with abuse/neglect. We aimed to identify the number of children presenting with suspected PAN to emergency departments (EDs and paediatric services in this region, to determine enablers and barriers to assessment for children with PAN presenting to frontline services, and to identify best practices to address gaps. We collated available data on children presenting to EDs and paediatric services with suspected PAN in 2007. We interviewed 36 health professionals from nine hospitals and 12 statutory child protection professionals, across the region before undertaking relevant document analysis. Of 64,700 paediatric ED presentations, a quarter were due to injury; 2%–5% of these were due to maltreatment. Clinician estimates and assessments of PAN varied widely; health and welfare workers identified major practice gaps, as well as good local practice. We identified feasible minimum standards for improving clinical assessment and follow-up for children presenting with PAN, given the right organizational support.

  6. Assessment of the Impact of Metropolitan-Scale Urban Planning Scenarios on the Moist Thermal Environment under Global Warming: A Study of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area Using Regional Climate Modeling

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    Asuka Suzuki-Parker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a high-resolution regional climate model coupled with urban canopy model, the present study provides the first attempt in quantifying the impact of metropolitan-scale urban planning scenarios on moist thermal environment under global warming. Tokyo metropolitan area is selected as a test case. Three urban planning scenarios are considered: status quo, dispersed city, and compact city. Their impact on the moist thermal environment is assessed using wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT. Future projections for the 2070s show a 2–4°C increase in daytime mean WBGT relative to the current climate. The urban scenario impacts are shown to be small, with a −0.4 to +0.4°C range. Relative changes in temperature and humidity as the result of a given urban scenario are shown to be critical in determining the sign of the WBGT changes; however, such changes are not necessarily determined by local changes in urban land surface parameters. These findings indicate that urban land surface changes may improve or worsen the local moist thermal environment and that metropolitan-scale urban planning is inefficient in mitigating heat-related health risks for mature cities like Tokyo.

  7. Metropolitan Governance and Strategic Learning in City-Regions. The Ruhr and the Randstad Compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dembski, S.

    2008-01-01

    Synopis The urban transformation and the increasing inter-urban competition pose new challenges for city-regions. Cities have extended far into their hinterlands and the social and economic relations within city-regions are much less concentrated on the urban core than some decades ago. In fact,

  8. Spatiotemporal Patterns, Monitoring Network Design, and Environmental Justice of Air Pollution in the Phoenix Metropolitan Region: A Landscape Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Ronald L.

    Air pollution is a serious problem in most urban areas around the world, which has a number of negative ecological and human health impacts. As a result, it's vitally important to detect and characterize air pollutants to protect the health of the urban environment and our citizens. An important early step in this process is ensuring that the air pollution monitoring network is properly designed to capture the patterns of pollution and that all social demographics in the urban population are represented. An important aspect in characterizing air pollution patterns is scale in space and time which, along with pattern and process relationships, is a key subject in the field of landscape ecology. Thus, using multiple landscape ecological methods, this dissertation research begins by characterizing and quantifying the multi-scalar patterns of ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) in the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan region. Results showed that pollution patterns are scale-dependent, O3 is a regionally-scaled pollutant at longer temporal scales, and PM10 is a locally-scaled pollutant with patterns sensitive to season. Next, this dissertation examines the monitoring network within Maricopa County. Using a novel multiscale indicator-based approach, the adequacy of the network was quantified by integrating inputs from various academic and government stakeholders. Furthermore, deficiencies were spatially defined and recommendations were made on how to strengthen the design of the network. A sustainability ranking system also provided new insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the network. Lastly, the study addresses the question of whether distinct social groups were experiencing inequitable exposure to pollutants - a key issue of distributive environmental injustice. A novel interdisciplinary method using multi-scalar ambient pollution data and hierarchical multiple regression models revealed environmental inequities between air pollutants and race, ethnicity

  9. Ground-water pumpage in the Willamette lowland regional aquifer system, Oregon and Washington, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Charles A.; Broad, Tyson M.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water pumpage for 1990 was estimated for an area of about 5,700 square miles in northwestern Oregon and southwestern Washington as part of the Puget-Willamette Lowland Regional Aquifer System Analysis study. The estimated total ground-water pumpage in 1990 was about 340,000 acre-feet. Ground water in the study area is pumped mainly from Quaternary sediment; lesser amounts are withdrawn from Tertiary volcanic materials. Large parts of the area are used for agriculture, and about two and one-half times as much ground water was pumped for irrigation as for either public- supply or industrial needs. Estimates of ground- water pumpage for irrigation in the central part of the Willamette Valley were generated by using image-processing techniques and Landsat Thematic Mapper data. Field data and published reports were used to estimate pumpage for irrigation in other parts of the study area. Information on public- supply and industrial pumpage was collected from Federal, State, and private organizations and individuals.

  10. Groundwater availability of the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, J.J.; Kahle, S.C.; Ely, D.M.; Burns, E.R.; Snyder, D.T.; Haynes, J.V.; Olsen, T.D.; Welch, W.B.; Morgan, D.S.

    2015-09-22

    The Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System (CPRAS) covers about 44,000 square miles of southeastern Washington, northeastern Oregon, and western Idaho. The area supports a $6-billion per year agricultural industry, leading the Nation in production of apples, hops, and eight other commodities. Groundwater pumpage and surface-water diversions supply water to croplands that account for about 5 percent of the Nation’s irrigated lands. Groundwater also is the primary source of drinking water for the more than 1.3 million people in the study area. Increasing competitive demands for water for municipal, fisheries/ecosystems, agricultural, domestic, hydropower, and recreational uses must be met by additional groundwater withdrawals and (or) by changes in the way water resources are allocated and used throughout the hydrologic system. As of 2014, most surface-water resources in the study area were either over allocated or fully appropriated, especially during the dry summer season. In response to continued competition for water, numerous water-management activities and concerns have gained prominence: water conservation, conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, pumpage effects on streamflow, and effects of climate variability and change. An integrated understanding of the hydrologic system is important in order to implement effective water-resource management strategies that address these concerns.

  11. Early Childhood Safety Education: An Overview of Safety Curriculum in Outer Metropolitan, Regional and Rural NSW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Jennifer; Saltmarsh, Sue; Klopper, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on preliminary findings from a 2008 survey and telephone interviews with 27 directors of early childhood education and care (ECEC) services located in regional and rural districts of the Australian state of New South Wales. Data from the study suggests that some areas of safety education--most notably road/traffic safety and…

  12. Customer Relationship Management: A Case Study from a Metropolitan Campus of a Regional University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pember, Edward R.; Owens, Alison; Yaghi, Shazhi

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the users and uses of a centralised customer relationship management (CRM) system at a regional Australian university to improve the understanding of the staff experience of interacting with this customised technology. How and why the software is used by a cross section of university departments is explored through…

  13. Atmospheric Environment Vulnerability Cause Analysis for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Shen, Jing; Li, Yu

    2018-01-13

    Assessing and quantifying atmospheric vulnerability is a key issue in urban environmental protection and management. This paper integrated the Analytical hierarchy process (AHP), fuzzy synthesis evaluation and Geographic Information System (GIS) spatial analysis into an Exposure-Sensitivity-Adaptive capacity (ESA) framework to quantitatively assess atmospheric environment vulnerability in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region with spatial and temporal comparisons. The elaboration of the relationships between atmospheric environment vulnerability and indices of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity supports enable analysis of the atmospheric environment vulnerability. Our findings indicate that the atmospheric environment vulnerability of 13 cities in the BTH region exhibits obvious spatial heterogeneity, which is caused by regional diversity in exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity indices. The results of atmospheric environment vulnerability assessment and the cause analysis can provide guidance to pick out key control regions and recognize vulnerable indicators for study sites. The framework developed in this paper can also be replicated at different spatial and temporal scales using context-specific datasets to support environmental management.

  14. Value system of Chinese youth: the comparative analysis of metropolitan and regional students' priorities

    OpenAIRE

    - Li Wuyi

    2009-01-01

    The results of the survey of students in Guangzhou which ranks third among major cities in China in terms of social, economic and demographic indicators are presented in the article. The aim of the research was not only to reveal Chinese youth priorities in the sphere of education, private life, work, social activity and morality, but also to provide characteristics of value system of the students of the major regional centre versus the corresponding answers of the respondents in Beijing. The...

  15. Metropolitan Innovation and Sustainability in China—A Double Lens Perspective on Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdong Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes and integrates a double lens investigation framework on sustainability and diversities of innovation at the city level in China. Lens I concerns economic performance with the energy intensiveness of the production mode and Lens II involves a four-dimensional model with the current and potential elements of innovation at the city level. Based on 106Chinese cities data, sample cities grouped in Traditional Regions (TRs, Top Economic Regions (TEs and New Economy Regions (NEs of the 9 groups are clarified via the Investigation Lens I, with respect to production power, market openness and energy intensive use. The further research findings through the Investigation Lens II show that there are clear connections between innovation and sustainability and such connections are diversified due to economic reasons but also importantly, due to potential factors of human resource and knowledge creation. Cities in TEs group and especially NEs group in China are important on innovation and sustainability while southern cities in China are more innovative, with a higher potentiality of economic growth than cities in northern China. Industrial tradition and business culture can be one of the key factors influencing local innovation and sustainability.

  16. Multielement analysis of X-Ray fluorescence of Nerium oleander L. Leaves in metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Ramon S.; Sanches, Francis Anna C.R.A.; Neves, Arthur O.P.; Oliveira, Davi F.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: ramonziosp@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: francissanches@gmail.com, E-mail: arthur.nevess@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: davi.oliveira@uerj.br, E-mail: marcelin@uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Aplicada e Termodinamica

    2015-07-01

    Some plants are used in the detection of the air pollutants due to leaves ability to absorb the pollutants through their stomata and the cuticle, thus, the plants leaves work as a natural sample of the air emissions that are deposited in their self. However, the foliar analysis of these vegetal species can be used to environmental monitoring. The Nerium oleander L. is a specie of plant commonly used as an environmental biomonitor. In this study, Nerium oleander L. leaves were used as biomonitors to evaluate the levels of environmental pollutants in a sub-region in the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro-Brazil through Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence technique - EDXRF. The EDXRF system was developed in the own laboratory and consist of a portable XRF system formed by a mini X-ray tube of low power (anode of Ag and operated in 15 kV/50 μA and 35 kV/50 μA) and a SiPIN detector. Samples of Nerium oleander L. were collected from adult plants drawn randomly so as not favoring one side of the plant. The samples were collected during the year seasons (summer and winter). It was detected the concentration of 13 elements: S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb, and obtain elemental maps of the regions of study. The study shows that the use of EDXRF technique associated to the Nerium oleander L. leaves used as biomonitor is an efficient, precise, fast and low-cost option for air pollutants analysis. (author)

  17. Photochemical smog pollution in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region of Thailand in relation to O 3 precursor concentrations and meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.-N.; Kim Oanh, N. T.

    Analysis of photochemical pollution was done using the available 5-yr monitoring data (1996-2000) from 11 monitoring stations in Bangkok and 5 stations in other surrounding provinces, i.e. the Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR). Status and trend of O 3 as well as the monthly and diurnal variations were analyzed in relation to the local meteorological conditions as well as the regional transport of pollutants associated with the monsoon. The O 3 in Bangkok was found to be typical for the polluted urban areas with a lower concentration in the city center, especially at curbside stations, and higher concentration at the downwind locations. O 3 pollution was highest in 1997 with the maximum hourly average of 370 ppbv and the total hours exceeding the national hourly O 3 standard (100 ppbv) of 314 h, which is most likely related to the strong El Niño and the forest fire in Southeast Asia in this year. Meteorology-unadjusted trend shows a slight increase in O 3 from 1998 to 2000. Local emission and photochemistry are mainly responsible for O 3 episodes in the BMR. Seasonal fluctuations of O 3, however, were found to relate to the regional transport associated with the Asian monsoon. Highest O 3 pollution was found in the period from January to April (winter and local summer) and lowest during mid-rainy season, August. The O 3 increase isopleth diagram was constructed which shows that O 3 production in BMR is effective when the NO x/NMHC ratio is in the range of 0.04-0.15 with optimum ratio of around 0.07. Seasonal variations in NO x/NMHC ratios are consistent with the O 3 variations, i.e., optimum in summer (0.07), followed by winter (0.05), and the lowest in rainy season (0.03).

  18. Multielement analysis of X-Ray fluorescence of Nerium oleander L. Leaves in metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Ramon S.; Sanches, Francis Anna C.R.A.; Neves, Arthur O.P.; Oliveira, Davi F.; Anjos, Marcelino J.

    2015-01-01

    Some plants are used in the detection of the air pollutants due to leaves ability to absorb the pollutants through their stomata and the cuticle, thus, the plants leaves work as a natural sample of the air emissions that are deposited in their self. However, the foliar analysis of these vegetal species can be used to environmental monitoring. The Nerium oleander L. is a specie of plant commonly used as an environmental biomonitor. In this study, Nerium oleander L. leaves were used as biomonitors to evaluate the levels of environmental pollutants in a sub-region in the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro-Brazil through Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence technique - EDXRF. The EDXRF system was developed in the own laboratory and consist of a portable XRF system formed by a mini X-ray tube of low power (anode of Ag and operated in 15 kV/50 μA and 35 kV/50 μA) and a SiPIN detector. Samples of Nerium oleander L. were collected from adult plants drawn randomly so as not favoring one side of the plant. The samples were collected during the year seasons (summer and winter). It was detected the concentration of 13 elements: S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb, and obtain elemental maps of the regions of study. The study shows that the use of EDXRF technique associated to the Nerium oleander L. leaves used as biomonitor is an efficient, precise, fast and low-cost option for air pollutants analysis. (author)

  19. Metropolitan Transportation Commission, San Francisco Bay area : developing regional objectives and performance measures to improve system operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) uses an objectives-driven, performance-based approach in its transportation planning for the San Francisco Bay Area. This approach focuses attention on transportation investments of highest priority. T...

  20. Epidemiological aspects of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a periurban area of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. A. Passos

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL in a periurban area of the municipality of Sabará in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH, an area until then considered free of the disease, a cross sectional survey was undertaken in 1990. The survey of the population consisted of 1119 interviews and 881 clinical examinations using Montenegro's skin test (MST. A low prevalence (3.7% of positive MST was encountered. The disease had been occuring in the area for about 20 years in the form of sporadic cases. The predominant species of sandfly both in domestic areas and nearby areas of secondary vegetation was Lutzomyia whitmani. A canine survey of delayed hypersensitivity to the antigen P10,000 identified only one dog with a positive reaction out of 113 examined. The transmission of ACL in MRBH was confirmed. The occurrence of the disease in women, children and individuals with no contact with forest areas as well as the presence of potential vector species in the domiciliar environment, suggests the transmission of the disease in this environment.

  1. [Descriptive study of homophobia and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS of the transvestites in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Patricia Juliana; Ferreira, Luiz Oscar Cardoso; de Sá, Janilson Barros

    2013-08-01

    This study sought to ascertain the vulnerabilities to HIV/Aids of transvestites of the Metropolitan Region of Recife. The Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) method was selected for data collection. Among the 110 transvestites, high indices of homophobia were found in locations such as: security services, work facilities, family and religious environments, neighborhood, school, stores, leisure spaces, and healthcare services. Among the situations of violence experienced, the predominant cases involved verbal aggression (81.8%) and physical aggression (68.2%). The HIV test carried out at some stage in their lives was reported by 84.4% of the subjects. A high level of knowledge of the forms of HIV prevention and transmission was detected. The majority of the transvestites began their sexual activity before 15 years of age without condom use. It was seen that in the context of the HIV/Aids epidemic, the strategies for health promotion can only be effective if factors for enhancing the understanding of the vulnerability to HIV/Aids, such as homophobia, are considered.

  2. Quantifying the Driving Forces of Informal Urbanization in the Western Part of the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Osman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the driving forces (DFs of informal urbanization (IU in the greater Cairo metropolitan region (GCMR using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. The IU patterns in the GCMR have been extremely influenced by seven DFs: geographical characteristics, availability of life facilities, economic incentives, land demand and supply, population increase, administrative function, and development plans. This research found that these forces vary significantly in how they influence urban growth in the three study sectors, namely, the middle, north, and south areas in the western part of the GCMR. The forces with the highest influence were economic incentives in the middle sector, population increase in the north sector, and the administrative function in the south sector. Due to the lower availability of buildable land in the middle sector, the land demand and supply force had a lesser influence in this sector compared to in the north and south sectors. The development plans force had medium influence in all sectors. The geographical characteristics force had little influence in both the middle and the north sectors, but higher influence than economic incentives, availability of life facilities, and development plans in the south sector. Because of the spatial variances in life facilities organizations in the GCMR, the life facilities availability force had little effect on IU in the south sector.

  3. Epidemiological Characteristics and Space-Time Analysis of the 2015 Dengue Outbreak in the Metropolitan Region of Tainan City, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ting-Wu; Ng, Ka-Chon; Nguyen, Thi Luong; Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2018-02-26

    The metropolitan region of Tainan City in southern Taiwan experienced a dengue outbreak in 2015. This manuscript describes basic epidemiological features of this outbreak and uses spatial and temporal analysis tools to understand the spread of dengue during the outbreak. The analysis found that, independently of gender, dengue incidence rate increased with age, and proportionally affected more males below the age of 40 years but females above the age of 40 years. A spatial scan statistic was applied to detect clusters of disease transmission. The scan statistic found that dengue spread in a north-south diffusion direction, which is across the North, West-Central and South districts of Tainan City. Spatial regression models were used to quantify factors associated with transmission. This analysis indicated that neighborhoods with high proportions of residential area (or low wetland cover) were associated with dengue transmission. However, these association patterns were non-linear. The findings presented here can help Taiwanese public health agencies to understand the fundamental epidemiological characteristics and diffusion patterns of the 2015 dengue outbreak in Tainan City. This type of information is fundamental for policy making to prevent future uncontrolled dengue outbreaks, given that results from this study suggest that control interventions should be emphasized in the North and West-Central districts of Tainan city, in areas with a moderate percentage of residential land cover.

  4. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in beef cattle slaughtered in the metropolitan region of Belém, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediclei Lima do Carmo

    Full Text Available Abstract The relevance of consuming raw or undercooked beef in the transmission of toxoplasmosis is unclear due to the high resistance of cattle to infection. However, this possibility needs to be considered in endemic areas, such as the Amazon, where the consumption of beef is frequent. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in beef cattle slaughtered in the metropolitan region of Belem, Pará state, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 500 animals of both genders in a licensed slaughterhouse in Belém. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected by an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with a cut-off titer of 1:64. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were found in 203 animals (40.6%, with a titer of 64 in 112 animals (55.2%, 128 in 68 animals (33.5%, 256 in 15 animals (7.4%, 512 in 5 animals (2.5%, and 1,024 in 3 animals (1.4%. No significant difference was observed between males and females (p > 0.05. The high frequency of anti-T. gondii antibodies observed in beef cattle slaughtered in Belém indicates that the meat of these animals may be an important source of infection for humans and carnivorous domestic animals when inadequately cooked beef is consumed.

  5. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Nogueira, C.A.; Saiki, M.; Milian, F.M.; Domingos, M.

    2007-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad plant able to absorb water and nutrients directly from the air. For this reason this species was selected to carry out a monitoring study of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Five consecutive transplantation experiments (8 weeks each) were performed in 10 sites of the city, submitted to different sources of air pollution (industrial, vehicular), using plants collected from an unpolluted area. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Traffic-related elements such as Zn and Ba presented high concentrations in exposure sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and may be associated to vehicular sources. For Zn and Co the highest contents were related to industrial zones and can be associated to the presence of anthropogenic emission sources. The rare earth elements, Fe and Rb, probably have soil particles as main source. - This paper is the first work on the use of biomonitors to assess metal pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, the biggest city in Latin America

  6. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br; Nogueira, C.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saiki, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Milian, F.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, M. [Instituto de Botanica, Av. Miguel Stefano No. 3687, CEP 04301-012, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-01-15

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad plant able to absorb water and nutrients directly from the air. For this reason this species was selected to carry out a monitoring study of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Five consecutive transplantation experiments (8 weeks each) were performed in 10 sites of the city, submitted to different sources of air pollution (industrial, vehicular), using plants collected from an unpolluted area. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Traffic-related elements such as Zn and Ba presented high concentrations in exposure sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and may be associated to vehicular sources. For Zn and Co the highest contents were related to industrial zones and can be associated to the presence of anthropogenic emission sources. The rare earth elements, Fe and Rb, probably have soil particles as main source. - This paper is the first work on the use of biomonitors to assess metal pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, the biggest city in Latin America.

  7. [Early child development inequalities and associated factors between public and private providers at metropolitan region in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedregal, Paula; Hernández, Viviana; Mingo, M Verónica; Castañón, Carla; Valenzuela, Patricia; Moore, Rosario; de la Cruz, Rolando; Castro, Daniela

    Early child development is a population determinant of physical, mental and social health. To know the base line situation prior to the implementation of "Chile grows with you" (Chile Crece Contigo) is key to its evaluation. To compare early child development and associated factors at baseline in pre-school children from public and private health sectors. The sample consisted of 1045 children aged 30-58 months, 52% male, and 671 from the public and 380 from the private sector of the metropolitan region in Chile were evaluated using Battelle Developmental Inventory-1 and a household interview of primary carer. Abnormal child development was found in 14.4% of children in the private sector compared to 30.4% in the public sector. There were no differences in adaptive area (26.3% vs 29.2%), but there were statistically significant differents in cognitive (8.8% vs 12.1%), social-personal (13.2% vs 32.5%), motor (19.2% vs 35.3%), and communication (19% vs 36.8%) development. The logistic regression showed that, independent of socioeconomic level, the risk factors are: Apgarsocial policy. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Hot emission model for mobile sources: application to the metropolitan region of the city of Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvalán, Roberto M; Osses, Mauricio; Urrutia, Cristian M

    2002-02-01

    Depending on the final application, several methodologies for traffic emission estimation have been developed. Emission estimation based on total miles traveled or other average factors is a sufficient approach only for extended areas such as national or worldwide areas. For road emission control and strategies design, microscale analysis based on real-world emission estimations is often required. This involves actual driving behavior and emission factors of the local vehicle fleet under study. This paper reports on a microscale model for hot road emissions and its application to the metropolitan region of the city of Santiago, Chile. The methodology considers the street-by-street hot emission estimation with its temporal and spatial distribution. The input data come from experimental emission factors based on local driving patterns and traffic surveys of traffic flows for different vehicle categories. The methodology developed is able to estimate hourly hot road CO, total unburned hydrocarbons (THCs), particulate matter (PM), and NO(x) emissions for predefined day types and vehicle categories.

  9. Transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in a risk area of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G.P. Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Visceral leishmaniasis (VL has spread rapidly across cities in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte. The aim of this study was to investigate VL dynamics in a prospective cohort study of dogs in Juatuba, between 2010 and 2011, to confirm the incidence of Leishmania infantum, and to assess possible risk factors associated with infection. An observational and prospective closed cohort study was performed using serology testing in dogs, randomly selected from the whole municipality. All seronegative dogs, or dogs with inconclusive results were monitored using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF at 6-month intervals. The dog's owners completed a semi-structured questionnaire to assess possible causal factors of seroconversion, and the responses were assessed using logistic regression. The canine incidence coefficient was 206/1,000 dogs per year (CI: 178-238, and a cluster was identified in an area with a high concentration of seropositive dogs, but a low overall canine population. Large dogs were identified as a risk factor and the following variables were identified as protection factors: dogs aged over 4 years, daily peridomicile cleaning, and better socioeconomic conditions. VL is spreading over a large area in Juatuba in a short period of time.

  10. A new tomographic image on the Philippine Sea Slab beneath Tokyo - Implication to seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan region -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Sato, H.; Kasahara, K.; Kimura, H.; Honda, R.

    2012-12-01

    In central Japan, the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo metropolitan region. Devastating M8-class earthquakes occurred on the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate (SPS), examples of which are the Genroku earthquake of 1703 (magnitude M=8.0) and the Kanto earthquake of 1923 (M=7.9), which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions although it is smaller than the megathrust type M8-class earthquakes. This great earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. The M7+ earthquakes may occur either on the upper surface or intra slab of PSP. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates the next great M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (1 trillion US$) economic loss at worst case if it occur beneath northern Tokyo bay with M7.3. However, the estimate is based on a source fault model by conventional studies about the PSP geometry. To evaluate seismic hazard due to the great quake we need to clarify the geometry of PSP and also the Pacific palate (PAP) that subducs beneath PSP. We identify those plates with use of seismic tomography and available deep seismic reflection profiling and borehole data in southern Kanto area. We deployed about 300 seismic stations in the greater Tokyo urban region under the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We obtain clear P- and S- wave velocity (Vp and Vs) tomograms which show a clear image of PSP and PAP. A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 kilometer beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the distribution of seismicity (Ishida, 1992). This shallower plate geometry changes estimations of strong ground motion for seismic hazards analysis within the Tokyo

  11. Multidrug-Resistant Outbreak-Associated Salmonella Strains in Irrigation Water from the Metropolitan Region, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M C; Retamal, P; Rojas-Aedo, J F; Fernández, J; Fernández, A; Lapierre, L

    2017-06-01

    Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) is the main cause of foodborne diseases in the Chilean population. With the aim of characterizing the presence of S. enterica in bodies of water, samples from 40 sources were obtained, including rivers and irrigation canals used by agricultural farms in the most populated regions of Chile. As result, 35 S. enterica isolates belonging to several serotypes were detected, with the highest frequency represented by Typhimurium and Enteritidis. All strains showed phenotypic antimicrobial resistance, and most of them were multiresistant to critically important antimicrobials. In addition, the pulse-field gel electrophoresis analysis using XbaI and BlnI endonucleases showed that seven Salmonella isolates belonging to serotypes Typhimurium, Enteritidis and Infantis had identical pulsotypes to outbreak-associated clinical isolates detected in the Chilean population, suggesting a public health risk of water pollution in this region. Among sampling sites, the higher detection rates were observed in rural than urban and peri-urban areas, suggesting that the animal husbandry might contribute for environmental dispersion of this pathogen. Future efforts should address the characterization of cause-and-effect relationship between water contamination and foodborne disease, including the implementation of surveillance programmes to tackle potential risks for both human and animal populations. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Desperately Seeking Sustainability: Urban Shrinkage, Land Consumption and Regional Planning in a Mediterranean Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation has expanded in the Mediterranean region as a result of a variety of factors, including economic and population growth, land-use changes and climate variations. The level of land vulnerability to degradation and its growth over time are distributed heterogeneously over space, concentrating on landscapes exposed to high human pressure. The present study investigates the level of land vulnerability to degradation in a shrinking urban area (Rome, Italy at four points in time (1960, 1990, 2000 and 2010 and it identifies relevant factors negatively impacting the quality of land and the level of landscape fragmentation. A multi-domain assessment of land vulnerability incorporating indicators of climate quality, soil quality, vegetation quality and land management quality was carried out based on the Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA framework. The highest rate of growth in the level of land vulnerability was observed in low-density suburban areas. The peri-urban mosaic formed by coastal woodlands and traditional cropland preserved high-quality land with a stable degree of vulnerability over time. Evidence suggests that the agro-forest mosaic surrounding Mediterranean cities act as a “buffer zone” mitigating on-site and off-site land degradation. The conservation of relict natural landscapes is a crucial target for multi-scale policies combating land degradation in suburban dry regions.

  13. On the Initiation of an Isolated Convective Storm Near the Central Urban Area of Beijing Metropolitan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, H.; Cui, X.; Zhang, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    An isolated heavy-rain-producing convective storm was unexpectedly initiated in the early afternoon of 9 August 2011 near the central urban area of Beijing metropolitan region (BMR), which occurred at some distance from BMR's northwestern mountains and two pre-existing mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) to the north and west, respectively. An observational analysis shows the presence of large-scale quasi-geostrophic conditions but a favorable regional environment for the convective initiation (CI) of storms, including conditional instability, a low-level southerly flow and high-θe (equivalent potential temperature) area. A nested-grid (4/1.333 km) cloud-resolving model simulation of the case is performed to examine the CI of the storm. Results reveal that the growth of the mixed boundary layer, enhanced by the urban heat island (UHI) effects, accounts for the formation of a thin layer of clouds at the boundary-layer top at the CI site. However, this storm may not take place without sustained low-level convergence of high-θe air between a southerly flow and a northerly flow ahead of a cold outflow boundary associated with the northern MCS. The latter is driven by the latent heating of the shallow layer of clouds during the earlier CI stage and then a cold mesohigh associated with the northern MCS. The results indicate the important roles of the urban effects, mountain morphology, and convectively generated pressure perturbations in determining the CI location and timing of isolated convective storms over the BMR during the summer months.

  14. Risk analysis of the delayed ettringite formation in pile caps foundation in the metropolitan region of Recife - PE - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. F. Torres

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, there is an awareness that is critical to assess the durability characteristics of concrete with as much attention as the mechanical properties. The durability of concrete structures can often be affected by chemical attacks, jeopardizing its performance and security. When concrete is subjected to high temperature at early ages, many physical and chemical changes in hardened concrete may occur. It iswidely accepted that concrete subjected to these conditions of temperature and exposed to moisture is prone to cracking due to Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF. This work aims at providing a DEF risk analysis on foundation pile caps at the Metropolitan Region of Recife - PE. Temperature rise measurement was performed in situ at 5 different caps through datalogger and thermocouples equipments. Furthermore, the Duggan test was performed in order to assess the level of expansion of 3 cements studied: X (CP II E 40, Y (CP II F 32 and Z (CP V ARI RS. Simultaneously, the chemical compositions of these cements and their respective clinkers were quantified by analysis of X-ray fluorescence (XRF. The cement X (CP II E 40 showed the chemical characteristics favoring with more intensity DEF and, as a result, higher level of expansion in the test Duggan. It is noteworthy that incorporation of metakaolin (8% and 16% and silica fume (5% and 10% showed mitigating potential of expansions. It is important to point out that all factors related to thermal properties and chemical composition of the concrete used in the region converge to a condition of ideal susceptibility for triggering DEF. Therefore, it is essential at least minimum and basic requirements in the design specification in order to avoid high temperatures in the massive concrete elements, preventing them from delayed ettringite formation.

  15. Climate Science for Decision-Making in the New York Metropolitan Region. Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Radley; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Solecki, William; Bader, Daniel; Sohl, Linda

    2016-01-01

    New York City is one of the world's most vulnerable cities to coastal flooding, due to a high concentration of population and assets near a coastline exposed to warm-season tropical storms and cold -season Nor'easter storms. Among U.S. cities, New York City is second only to New Orleans in population living less than 4 ft above the local high tide. By the 2050s, average annual losses due to coastal flooding alone could exceed $2 billion for the combined New York City-Newark region. Perhaps the most iconic example of a vulnerable New York City asset is the financial district located at the southern tip of Manhattan, however low-lying coastal assets include the full complement of major highways, subways and tunnels, hospitals, schools, wastewater treatment plants, food distribution centers, and people's homes. Given the magnitude of the assets at risk, a compelling case can be made that long-term adaptation makes economic sense for New York City. Given New York's access to economic, human, and technological resources for resilience measures, the City may be able to achieve this resilience. The city's political environment-New York City is a place where climate science is generally not a partisan issue-and the city's experience with uncertainty and overall risk framing (e.g., financing of bond issues for multi-billion dollar infrastructure with multidecade expected lifetimes), encourage climate risk framing.

  16. Atmospheric pollution biomonitoring of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region using epiphytic lichens; Uso de liquens epifiticos no biomonitoramento da poluicao atmosferica da regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuga, Alessandra

    2006-07-01

    Due to the increasing problems of atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region that affect the environment and human health the application of biomonitoring methodologies using cosmopolite organisms has now become relevant. Biomonitoring is a method to evaluate the response of live organisms to pollution. This method offers advantages such as reduced costs, efficient monitoring of large geographic areas and accumulated pollutants over a large period in which low concentrations of chemicals elements in the environment can be evaluated. In the present study, neutron activation analysis method was applied to determine elements accumulated in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi. Samples were collected in two distinct areas: Carlos Botelho (PECB) and Intervales (PEI) State Parks that are considered as non-polluted areas and that belong to the Atlantic Forest - SP ecosystem; and Sao Paulo city metropolitan region in sites near automatic monitoring stations of the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). The lichens collected from the bark of the trees were properly treated, and irradiated with neutrons from IEA-R1 nuclear reactor along with synthetic standards of elements. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of IAEA-336 LICHEN and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT -MPH-2) certified reference materials. The results obtained for these materials were in accordance with the certified values and presented good precision with variation coefficients ranging from 0.9 to 14.6%. Results obtained for lichens showed that elements As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Mo, Sb, Sc, Se and U are present at ng g{sup -1} levels, Ba, Br, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn at {mu}g g{sup -1} and Ca at mg g{sup -1}. By applying cluster and discriminant analyses to the results for the lichen samples from areas with different levels of pollution, the sampling sites were grouped according to their chemical similarities and their elemental

  17. Relationships between ethical climate, political behavior, ethical leadership, and job satisfaction of operational officers in a wholesale company, Bangkok Metropolitan region

    OpenAIRE

    Patthiya Naiyananont; Thipthinna Smuthranond

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated whether the ethical climate, political behavior, ethical leadership, and job satisfaction in one organization have an impact on each other. The research was conducted using a selected group of 177 operational officers in a wholesale business company in the Bangkok Metropolitan region. The operational officers were recruited from four divisions (commercial, finance, marketing, and administration) using a stratified random sampling approach. The majority was female an...

  18. Anomalous scales of Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. (Bromeliaceae) exposed in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas, SP, Brazil as air pollution markers

    OpenAIRE

    Giampaoli, Patrícia; Capelli, Natalie do Valle; Tavares, Armando Reis; Fernandes, Francine Faia; Domingos, Marisa; Alves, Edenise Segala

    2015-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides is an epiphytic bromeliad that has been used as a universal bioindicator. The species accumulates metals and presents foliar scale variations when exposed to air pollutants. This study aimed to use the variations in foliar scales as microscopic markers of pollutant effects in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas (MRC), São Paulo State, Brazil. T. usneoides plants were exposed for 12 weeks during dry and wet seasons, totaling four exposures, at five sites in the MRC. Sample...

  19. Entrepreneurial motivation factors: : A case study of students at the Universities of Applied Sciences in the Helsinki Metropolitan region with respect to place of origin

    OpenAIRE

    Asfaw, Gezahegn Dawit

    2011-01-01

    According to research conducted in Finland concerning entrepreneurship, the involvement of students is minimal compared to people without educational background, and furthermore the significant number of businesses are only established by certain ethnic groups. Based on this argument, this thesis aims to identify primarily the motivational factors that inspire students to be entrepreneurs, focusing mainly on students studying in the Helsinki metropolitan region at Universities of Applied Scie...

  20. Factors associated with the successful aging of the socially-active elderly in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, João Feliz Duarte; de Azevedo e Souza, Valdemarina Bidone

    2005-12-01

    To identify the factors associated with aging of the socially-active elderly in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving a sample of 400 elderly subjects. Through a conglomerate analysis using the combined results of the Flanagan Scale and the quality of life assessment instrument developed by the World Health Organization (WHOQOL-100), the subjects classified as presenting a higher quality of life were considered to have aged successfully. After having been adjusted for the variables gender, age, level of depression, despair, perceived health status, meaning that personal beliefs give to life, satisfaction with social activities and relations, the following factors maintained their independent and meaningful effect on successful aging: family relations and friendships (OR = 4.93; 95% CI: 2.83-8.60), health and perceived well being (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.07-2.59), functional capacity (OR = 23.70; 95% CI: 10.98-51.06) and psychosocial support (OR = 7.36; 95% CI: 4.00-13.54). Independence in performing daily life activities and autonomy, as well as satisfaction with family relations and friendships, were independent predictive factors of successful aging for both men and women. For women in particular, there were various predictive factors: material comfort; feeling physically well; body image and appearance; self-esteem; positive feelings; interpersonal relationships; social support; participation in recreational activities; sexuality; spirituality; and beliefs. The elderly maintain a relationship with themselves, with others and with their beliefs. Family is the main social support system.

  1. The relationship of lightning activity and short-duration rainfall events during warm seasons over the Beijing metropolitan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Cui, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Da-Lin; Qiao, Lin

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between lightning activity and rainfall associated with 2925 short-duration rainfall (SDR) events over the Beijing metropolitan region (BMR) is examined during the warm seasons of 2006-2007, using the cloud-to-ground (CG) and intracloud (IC) lightning data from Surveillance et Alerte Foudre par Interférometrie Radioélectrique (SAFIR)-3000 and 5-min rainfall data from automatic weather stations (AWSs). An optimal radius of 10 km around selected AWSs is used to determine the lightning-rainfall relationship. The lightning-rainfall correlations vary significantly, depending upon the intensity of SDR events. That is, correlation coefficient (R 0.7) for the short-duration heavy rainfall (SDHR, i.e., ≥ 20 mm h- 1) events is found higher than that (R 0.4) for the weak SDR (i.e., 5-10 mm h- 1) events, and lower percentage of the SDHR events (< 10%) than the weak SDR events (40-50%) are observed with few flashes. Significant time-lagged correlations between lightning and rainfall are also found. About 80% of the SDR events could reach their highest correlation coefficients when the associated lightning flashes shift at time lags of < 25 min before and after rainfall begins. Those events with lightning preceding rainfall account for 50-60% of the total SDR events. Better lightning-rainfall correlations can be attained when time lags are incorporated, with the use of total (CG and IC) lightning data. These results appear to have important implications for improving the nowcast of SDHR events.

  2. Urban and peri-urban agricultural production along railway tracks: a case study from the Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Jose Vazhacharickal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA contributes to food security, serves as an opportunity for income generation, and provides recreational services to urban citizens. With a population of 21 Million people, of which 60 % live in slums, UPA activities can play a crucial role in supporting people’s livelihoods in Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR. This study was conducted to characterize the railway gardens, determine their role in UPA production, and assess potential risks. It comprises a baseline survey among 38 railway gardeners across MMR characterized by different demographic, socio-economic, migratory, and labour characteristics. Soil, irrigation water, and plant samples were analyzed for nutrients, heavy metals, and microbial load. All the railway gardeners practiced agriculture as a primary source of income and cultivated seasonal vegetables such as lady’s finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench, spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., red amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L., and white radish (Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus which were irrigated with waste water. This irrigation water was loaded with 7–28 mg N l^(−1, 0.3–7 mg P l^(−1, and 8–32 mg K l^(−1, but also contained heavy metals such as lead (0.02–0.06 mg Pb l^(−1, cadmium (0.03–0.17 mg Cd l^(−1, mercury (0.001–0.005 mg Hg l^(−1, and pathogens such as Escherichia coli (1,100 most probable number per 100 ml. Levels of heavy metals exceeded the critical thresholds in surface soils (Cr, Ni, and Sr and produce (Pb, Cd, and Sr. The railway garden production systems can substantially foster employment and reduce economic deprivation of urban poor particularly slum dwellers and migrant people. However this production system may also cause possible health risks to producers and consumers.

  3. Assessment of contamination for inorganic elements and phthalate esters in household dust from the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Valdirene de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Household dust has been identified as an important vector of exposure by inorganic and organic substances potentially toxic in children and adults. The dust composition has a strong influence of contaminants provided from internal and external environments. During the natural process of wearing or weather incidents of artifacts and materials variety, the chemical substances are released into the environment in the steam form or by leaching from final products. Once released, they can be accumulated and enriched in the dust; and by continuous exposure (inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact mechanisms), these substances are harmful to human health. In this work, a study to determine the inorganic constituents and phthalate esters concentrations in residential indoor environment dust samples, correlating them with the probable anthropogenic sources was proposed. Dust samples were collected from 69 residences in neighborhoods Pirituba, Freguesia do O, Jaragua and Perus of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region, using a domestic vacuum cleaner, between 2006 and 2008. The samples were sieved in the fractions of 850, 850-300, 300-150, 150-75, 75-63 and <63 μm. The analysis by X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) showed the presence of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb. The presence of phthalate esters (DEHP, DnBP, DEP, DEHA, DMP and BBP) was detected, by GCMS analyses. From the enrichment factor (EF), the elements P, S, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were classified as being significant and extremely enriched in the dust. The natural and anthropogenic contributions by statistical tools as factor analysis (AF) and cluster were identified. The elements Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were present significantly elevated concentrations in relation to the total exposure values (ingestion, inhalation and skin contact) and to risk. (author)

  4. American cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in the metropolitan region of Manaus, Brazil: association with climate variables over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira de Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A temporal series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and other environmental parameters covering the years 2002- 2009 was used for the study of the potential association between the climate and the number of cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Manaus Metropolitan Region (MMR, State of Amazonas, Brazil. The results show that CL has a marked seasonality and a strong linkage with local climate conditions. Dry and warm conditions favor the vector, while the maximum number of CL cases occurs during the following wet season. This has a clear relation to the El Niño/La Niña Southern Oscillation (ENSO and the results presented here show that uncharacteristic dry conditions in the MMR follow El Niño after a lag period of 3 months, while wet conditions follow La Niña, again after a lag period of 3 months. El Niño brings dry conditions with warming of the land surface leading to increased growth of trees and bushes as indicated by rising NDVI values, eventually producing increased numbers of CL cases, with a peak of new cases occurring 4 to 5 months later. La Niña, on the other hand, produces wet and cool weather, which is less favorable for the leishmaniasis vector and therefore results in comparatively lower number of CL cases. Since these seasonal climate changes affect the dynamics of the CL vector, and thus the number of CL cases, a close watch of the ENSO phenomenon and the weather type it brings should be useful for monitoring and control of CL in the MMR.

  5. Time series evaluation of landscape dynamics using annual Landsat imagery and spatial statistical modeling: Evidence from the Phoenix metropolitan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Myint, Soe W.; Rey, Sergio J.; Li, Wenwen

    2017-06-01

    Urbanization is a natural and social process involving simultaneous changes to the Earth's land systems, energy flow, demographics, and the economy. Understanding the spatiotemporal pattern of urbanization is increasingly important for policy formulation, decision making, and natural resource management. A combination of satellite remote sensing and patch-based models has been widely adopted to characterize landscape changes at various spatial and temporal scales. Nevertheless, the validity of this type of framework in identifying long-term changes, especially subtle or gradual land modifications is seriously challenged. In this paper, we integrate annual image time series, continuous spatial indices, and non-parametric trend analysis into a spatiotemporal study of landscape dynamics over the Phoenix metropolitan area from 1991 to 2010. We harness local indicators of spatial dependence and modified Mann-Kendall test to describe the monotonic trends in the quantity and spatial arrangement of two important land use land cover types: vegetation and built-up areas. Results suggest that declines in vegetation and increases in built-up areas are the two prevalent types of changes across the region. Vegetation increases mostly occur at the outskirts where new residential areas are developed from natural desert. A sizable proportion of vegetation declines and built-up increases are seen in the central and southeast part. Extensive land conversion from agricultural fields into urban land use is one important driver of vegetation declines. The xeriscaping practice also contributes to part of vegetation loss and an increasingly heterogeneous landscape. The quantitative framework proposed in this study provides a pathway to effective landscape mapping and change monitoring from a spatial statistical perspective.

  6. Study of the demand for radiopharmaceutical 18F-FDG in the metropolitan regions of Sao Paulo and adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Renato Cesar

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine in Brazil and worldwide has developed distinction with diagnosis techniques that allow metabolic research of the disease, changing in a significant fashion the patient's outcome. This innovative technology leads expectations from specific fields up to society itself. This research studied the use of 18 F-FDG radiopharmaceutical in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo and adjacent areas, as well as the recent trade structure and the difficulties that should be overcome with the increase of the 18 F-FDG demand. This research counted on the analysis of the international radiopharmaceutical trade and the main changes that have been happening in this area in Brazil during the past few years. Interviews were performed with professionals within the area of nuclear medicine and data has been collected through questionnaire sent to the consuming centers of the radiopharmaceutical in the region covered in this research. The interviews expressed the opinions of the interviewees concerning transformations in this field and future tendencies and the information obtained from the survey was the basis of complementation of the use of radiopharmaceutical on equipment such as Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Positron Emission Tomography I Computer Tomography (PET/CT). The major use of 18 F-FDG has been used for oncology diagnosis with equipment such as PET and PEC/CT. This use shall grow in the next years, maybe expanding to other specialties such as neurology and cardiology. Although nowadays restricted to the cities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, there is a possibility of expansion to other diagnosis modalities in other states of the country that are starting to structure the production of the radioisotope. The recent change in the constitution permitting the production and commerce of short half-life radioisotopes also contributes to the increase the interest of private funding of this sector in which

  7. Issue update: a regional settlement proposal to resolve the Washington Nuclear Plant No. 3 lawsuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) announced on August 2, 1985, that a number of substantive changes suggested by public comment on the Washington Nuclear Plant No. 3 settlement had been agreed to in principle by BPA and four private utilities. Since that date the details of these changes have been resolved, and the proposed settlement is now being offered for public review and comment

  8. Climate change vulnerability and adaptation in the North Cascades region, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal L. Raymond; David L. Peterson; Regina M. Rochefort

    2014-01-01

    The North Cascadia Adaptation Partnership (NCAP) is a science-management partnership consisting of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Mount Baker-Snoqualmie and Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forests and Pacific Northwest Research Station; North Cascades National Park Complex; Mount Rainier National Park; and University of Washington Climate Impacts Group....

  9. Urban and community forests of the Pacific region: California, Oregon, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of California, Oregon, and Washington by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends, changes in...

  10. Baseflow characterization of the inter-mountainous regions of northern Idaho and eastern Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Murillo, R.; Brooks, E. S.; Boll, J.; Elliot, W.

    2012-12-01

    Baseflow is one of the most important components of the streamflow regime of any river or creek since it provides continuous habitat to aquatic biota; regulates water temperature and dissolved oxygen during summer; and functions as an essential supply for drinking water and irrigation in most temperate regions. Understanding which factors control how water is released to streams during baseflow periods has become critical for watershed management worldwide, especially, in arid and semiarid areas. This study analyzed storage-discharge relationships of 26 watersheds of northern Idaho and eastern Washington using Brutsaert and Nieber (1977) baseflow recession analysis. Daily streamflow and precipitation records ranged from 7 to 70 years. Mean annual precipitation fluctuated from 536 to 1,312 mm. Drainage basin areas varied from 6.35 to 12,357 km2, with streamgage elevation ranging from 536 to 2,172 m. Mean watershed slope varied from 9.24 to 46.53%. Because of the non-uniqueness watershed shapes, illustrated by the natural spectrum of data points, organic correlation analysis was used to determine the recession coefficients (kb). Numerous climatic attributes and geomorphology characteristics were evaluated as potential predictors of kb rates using a Pearson's correlation matrix. Baseflow coefficients ranged from 0.015 to 0.08 day-1. The mean characteristic timescale for baseflow drainage was found to be 33±15 days with extremes of 12.5 and 66.7 days. Watersheds dominated by basalt features showed the lowest drainage times (12.5-20.0 days). The drainage time increased as the metamorphic and sedimentary rock composition increased (33.3-66.7 days). Watersheds mainly composed by granitic features ranged from 29.1 to 50.0 days. The ratio of mean annual precipitation (MAP) to annual potential evapotranspiration (PET), also known as Aridity Index (AI), was found to explain 67% of kb variability. Mean watershed slope exhibited a moderate negative correlation of -0.57. Other

  11. Understanding Urban Communication in Information Era: Analyzing Development Progress of Coastal Territories in the Context of West Java’s Metropolitan Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutriadi, Ridwan; Indriyani Kurniasari, Meta

    2017-07-01

    This paper explores a consequence of metropolitan and development centers policy to the development progress of coastal territories by analyzing municipal website base on urban communication functions of communicative city concept. In terms of coastal territories as a part of development center, efforts have to be made in enhancing the role and function of municipal website to show their development progress. Perceptual analysis is taken as a method to measure their position, especially kabupaten/kota as coastal territories in regional context (West Java Province). The results indicate that the availability of public information in coastal territories cities lower than other cities in metropolitan area. Innovation in specifying coastal features has to be promoted in illustrating development progress of coastal territories as a part of development centers in West Java Province.

  12. Chemical composition of the major components of PM in different sites at the Metropolitan Region of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, F.; Castillo, M. A.; Rubio, M.; Gramsch, E.; Vasquez, Y.; Oyola, P.

    2013-05-01

    Santiago, Chile's capital is one of most polluted megacity (5.5 million of people) of the world. Currently, PM2.5 annual concentration is over 2.2 times the Chilean standard (20 μg/m3). Continuous measurements of non-refractory PM1.0 (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium and organics aerosols), black carbon, and PM2,5 mass concentration were determined using Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM, Aerodyne Research, Inc), absorption coefficient monitor (SIMCA, Santiago University) and dustrack monitor (TSI Inc) in order to know the temporal variability of the major components of PM. The measurements were carried out at kerbside, urban background, industrial and mixed residential/industrial locations during year 2012 and -2013. Meteorological data (Relative Humidity, temperature, wind speed, wind direction and precipitations) were obtained from the air quality network operated by the environmental authority. The results show strong correlation with the metropolitan region major sources. Multiple regression analysis indicates that precipitations have a strong impact on PM1.0 soluble components; relative humidity has effects only on chloride, sulfate and black carbon. Chloride concentration decrease when temperature is increasing. The perceptual contribution of each component is similar among all sites. All sites shows that OA (Organics Aerosol) as the major constituent of PM1.0 (>50%), followed of nitrates (>13%). Sulfate could be used to differentiate the industrial site; due to there is a strong impact of SO2 emission. Combustion sources direct impact can be seen at BC contribution at industrial and kerbside site. Also, the OA/BC ratio shows slow value at kerbside (3.05) and industrial (3.26) site, and higher at urban background site (4.15). Aged organics aerosols are majority found at all sites (f43/f44 plot), indicating that regional background is strong in all results. These results will be compared with size distribution measurements available from previous

  13. Low-flow characteristics of streams in the Puget Sound region, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, F.T.

    1973-01-01

    Periods of low streamflow are usually the most critical factor in relation to most water uses. The purpose of this report is to present data on low-flow characteristics of streams in the Puget Sound region, Washington, and to briefly explain some of the factors that influence low flow in the various basins. Presented are data on low-flow frequencies of streams in the Puget Sound region, as gathered at 150 gaging stations. Four indexes were computed from the flow-flow-frequency curves and were used as a basis to compare the low-flow characteristics of the streams. The indexes are the (1) low-flow-yield index, expressed in unit runoff per square mile; (2) base-flow index, or the ratio of the median 7-day low flow to the average discharge; (3) slope index, or slope of annual 7-day low-flow-frequency curve; and (4) spacing index, or spread between the 7-day and 183-day low-flow-frequency curves. The indexes showed a wide variation between streams due to the complex interrelation between climate, topography, and geology. The largest low-flow-yield indexes determined--greater than 1.5 cfs (cubic feet per second) per square mile--were for streams that head at high altitudes in the Cascade and Olympic Mountains and have their sources at glaciers. The smallest low-flow-yield indexes--less than 0.5 cfs per square mile--were for the small streams that drain the lowlands adjacent to Puget Sound. Indexes between the two extremes were for nonglacial streams that head at fairly high altitudes in areas of abundant precipitation. The base-flow index has variations that can be attributed to a basin's hydrogeology, with very little influence from climate. The largest base-flow indexes were obtained for streams draining permeable unconsolidated glacial and alluvial sediments in parts of the lowlands adjacent to Puget Sound. Large volume of ground water in these materials sustain flows during late summer. The smallest indexes were computed for streams draining areas underlain by

  14. How Can Improvements Be Made to the United States Metrorail System (With a Focus on the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Metrorail System) to Enhance Safety for Its Riders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    on the rail system, and recommended improvements to improve the safety of the Metrorail system. These three influences show a holistic view of the...due to special events in the area to include Washington Redskins football , Washington National baseball, and other events held in the Washington, D.C...Station in Washington, DC. The accident resulted in nine people including the train operator were killed. Emergency response agencies reported

  15. The relationship of lightning activity and short-duation rainfall events during warm seasons over the Beijing metropolitan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F.; Cui, X.; Zhang, D. L.; Lin, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The relationship between lightning activity and rainfall associated with 2925 short-duration rainfall (SDR) events over the Beijing metropolitan region (BMR) is examined during the warm seasons of 2006-2007, using the cloud-to-ground (CG) and intracloud (IC) lightning data from Surveillance et Alerte Foudre par Interférometrie Radioélectrique (SAFIR)-3000 and 5-min rainfall data from automatic weather stations (AWSs). To facilitate the analysis of the rainfall-lightning correlations, the SDR events are categorized into six different intensity grades according to their hourly rainfall rates (HRRs), and an optimal radius of 10 km from individual AWSs for counting their associated lightning flashes is used. Results show that the lightning-rainfall correlations vary significantly with different intensity grades. Weak correlations (R 0.4) are found in the weak SDR events, and 40-50% of the events are no-flash ones. And moderate correlation (R 0.6) are found in the moderate SDR events, and > 10-20% of the events are no-flash ones. In contrast, high correlations (R 0.7) are obtained in the SDHR events, and < 10% of the events are no-flash ones. The results indicate that lightning activity is observed more frequently and correlated more robust with the rainfall in the SDHR events. Significant time lagged correlations between lightning and rainfall are also found. About 80% of the SDR events could reach their highest correlation coefficients when the associated lightning flashes shift at time lags of < 25 min before and after rainfall begins. The percentages of SDR events with CG or total lightning activity preceding, lagging or coinciding with rainfall shows that (i) in about 55% of the SDR events lightning flashes preceded rainfall; (ii) the SDR events with lightning flashes lagging behind rainfall accounted for about 30%; and (iii) the SDR events without any time shifts accounted for the remaining 15%. Better lightning-rainfall correlations can be attained when time

  16. The impact of heat on mortality and morbidity in the Greater Metropolitan Sydney Region: a case crossover analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Leigh Ann; Morgan, Geoffrey Gerard; Hanigan, Ivan Charles; Johnston, Fay H; Abu-Rayya, Hisham; Broome, Richard; Gaskin, Clive; Jalaludin, Bin

    2013-11-15

    This study examined the association between unusually high temperature and daily mortality (1997-2007) and hospital admissions (1997-2010) in the Sydney Greater Metropolitan Region (GMR) to assist in the development of targeted health programs designed to minimise the public health impact of extreme heat. Sydney GMR was categorized into five climate zones. Heat-events were defined as severe or extreme. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design with a conditional logistic regression model we adjusted for influenza epidemics, public holidays, and climate zone. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for associations between daily mortality and hospital admissions with heat-event days compared to non-heat event days for single and three day heat-events. All-cause mortality overall had similar magnitude associations with single day and three day extreme and severe events as did all cardiovascular mortality. Respiratory mortality was associated with single day and three day severe events (95th percentile, lag0: OR = 1.14; 95%CI: 1.04 to 1.24). Diabetes mortality had similar magnitude associations with single day and three day severe events (95th percentile, lag0: OR = 1.22; 95%CI: 1.03 to 1.46) but was not associated with extreme events. Hospital admissions for heat related injuries, dehydration, and other fluid disorders were associated with single day and three day extreme and severe events. Contrary to our findings for mortality, we found inconsistent and sometimes inverse associations for extreme and severe events with cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease hospital admissions. Controlling for air pollutants did not influence the mortality associations but reduced the magnitude of the associations with hospital admissions particularly for ozone and respiratory disease. Single and three day events of unusually high temperatures in Sydney are associated with similar magnitude increases in mortality and hospital admissions. The trend

  17. Efficient Metropolitan Resource Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Arnott

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years Calgary has doubled in size, from a population of 640,645 in 1985 to 1,230,915 in 2015. During that time the City has had five different mayors, hosted the Winter Olympics, and expanded the C-Train from 25 platforms to 45. Calgary’s Metropolitan Area has grown too, with Airdrie, Chestermere, Okotoks and Cochrane growing into full-fledged cities, ripe with inter-urban commuters.* And with changes to provincial legislation in the mid-’90s, rural Rocky View County and the Municipal District of Foothills are now real competitors for residential, commercial and industrial development that in the past would have been considered urban. In this metropolitan system, where people live, their household structure, and their place of work informs the services they need to conduct their daily lives, and directly impacts the spatial character of the City and the broader region. In sum, Metropolitan Calgary is increasingly complex. Calgary and the broader metropolitan area will continue to grow, even with the current economic slowdown. Frictions within Calgary, between the various municipalities in the metropolitan area, and the priorities of other local authorities (such as the School Boards and Alberta Health Services will continue to impact the agendas of local politicians and their ability to answer to the needs of their residents. How resources – whether it is hard infrastructure, affordable housing, classrooms, or hospital beds – are allocated over space and how these resources are funded, directly impacts these relationships. This technical paper provides my perspective as an urban economist on the efficient allocation of resources within a metropolitan system in general, with reference to Calgary where appropriate, and serves as a companion to the previously released “Reflections on Calgary’s Spatial Structure: An Urban Economists Critique of Municipal Planning in Calgary.” It is hoped that the concepts reviewed

  18. Northwest power gamble: Washington utilities go for broke on nuclear; region's citizens make conservation bid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brummer, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) is asking for a reactor construction moratorium in an effort to get fast relief from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), which is authorized to guarantee power purchases from new power plants. Supporters of nuclear power plants as well as those of the soft energy path are watching to see how BPA will handle its mandate against acquiring new thermal plants until conservation and renewable energy potentials are exhausted. BPA can subvert the Pacific Northwest Power Act with 20-year contracts based on conventional forecasts despite evidence that new plants are unneeded. There is also evidence that the public rejects the idea of a moral obligation to bail out nuclear power cost overruns at taxpayer expense. The negotiations involve not only WPPSS and BPA, but Moody's Investor Service and environmental groups

  19. Regional monitoring of metals in the Munich metropolitan area: Comparison of biomonitoring (standardized grass culture) with deposition and airborne particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietl, C.; Reifenhaeuser, W.; Vierle, O.; Peichl, L.; Faus-Kessler, Th.

    2000-01-01

    In the Munich metropolitan area a close association of lead (Pb) and antimony (Sb) impacts with traffic was observed in 1992 and 1993. The intercorrelation of both metals was found by samples of standardised grass cultures and was reflected by deposition sampling, too. With respect to location-specific variations, however, both methods revealed differing gradients of Pb and Sb concentrations with increasing distance from traffic. It appeared that Sb variations according to traffic implications were particularly well indicated by means of biomonitoring, while Pb variations were not indicated adequately. As a result, a special qualification of grass to selectively collect metals on airborne dust according to particle sizes was suggested. Further investigations on the correlations between metal biomonitoring, metal deposition and airborne metals in 1994 - 1996 corroborated method-specific sampling features. They in turn showed that one interference is the individual prevalence of the metals on different particle sizes. (author)

  20. Health-related quality of life and working conditions on public transport workers in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Sérgio; Assunção, Ada Ávila

    2015-01-01

    Drivers and conductors working in public transport are frequently exposed to inadequate working conditions and consequently to health problems relating to their work activities. This study investigates the relationship between the working conditions of drivers and conductors in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte and their perception of health-related quality of life. Health-related quality of life was measured in a sample of 1,607 public transport workers in the city of Belo Horizonte using the SF-12 (Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form General Health Survey). The presence and magnitude of independent associations between the SF-12 domains and the exposure variables were determined by means of odds ratios obtained through logistic regression. After adjustments, the PCS (Physical Component Score) was found to be negatively associated with the existence of breaks during the working day and positively associated with unavailability of technical resources for meeting needs. The MCS (Mental Component Score) was positively associated with being female, having two or more medical diagnoses of illnesses, absenteeism and recent episodes of aggression or threats, and feeling vibration in the whole body. The MCS was negatively associated with the practice of physical exercise. Both components were negatively associated with older age and positively associated with having a poor self-assessment of health. Exposure to a variety of risk factors while performing work worsened health-related quality of life. The results obtained may provide support for rethinking and guiding public policies directed towards metropolitan populations.

  1. Estimating Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR Regional and Local Suitability: A Case Study in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. Gibson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing aquifers as underground water supply reservoirs is an advantageous approach applicable to meeting water management objectives. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR is a direct injection and subsequent withdrawal technology that is used to increase water supply storage through injection wells. Due to site-specific hydrogeological quantification and evaluation to assess ASR suitability, limited methods have been developed to identify suitability on regional scales that are also applicable at local scales. This paper presents an ASR site scoring system developed to qualitatively assess regional and local suitability of ASR using 9 scored metrics to determine total percent of ASR suitability, partitioned into hydrogeologic properties, operational considerations, and regulatory influences. The development and application of a qualitative water well suitability method was used to assess the potential groundwater response to injection, estimate suitability based on predesignated injection rates, and provide cumulative approximation of statewide and local storage prospects. The two methods allowed for rapid assessment of ASR suitability and its applicability to regional and local water management objectives at over 280 locations within 62 watersheds in Washington, USA. It was determined that over 50% of locations evaluated are suitable for ASR and statewide injection potential equaled 6400 million liters per day. The results also indicate current limitations and/or potential benefits of developing ASR systems at the local level with the intent of assisting local water managers in strategic water supply planning.

  2. Interannual variability of a precipitation gradient along the semi-arid catchment areas for the metropolitan region of Lima- Peru in relation to atmospheric circulation at the mesoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Marco; Seidel, Jochen; Trachte, Katja

    2013-04-01

    The main moisture source for precipitation on the western slopes of the Central Andes is located east of the mountain range known as the Amazon basin. However, the Andean mountains, which reach up to 6000 m a.s.l., strongly influence climatic conditions along the Pacific coastline of South America as a climatic barrier for the low-level tropospheric flow and associated moisture transport from the Amazon basin. Additional, large scale subsidence caused by the South Pacific High inhabits convective rainfall at the Pacific coast where large metropolitan areas such as the Peruvian capital Lima are located. Two contrasts in precipitation can be found while crossing the Andean mountains from West to East. On the Pacific coast, at the location of the metropolitan area of Lima, no more than 10 mm mean annual rainfall occurs. In contrast, up to 1000 mm mean annual rainfall occur only 100 km east of Lima within the upper region (4000 m .a.s.l.) of the Western Cordillera. The transition takes place along the western slopes of the Western Cordillera and is characterised by a strong precipitation gradient. Here, catchment areas are located that provide most of the water resources needed to sustain an urban area of approximately 10 million people. This study investigates the interannual variability of the precipitation gradient between 1998 and 2012. The analysis is based on daily precipitation data of 22 rain gauge station, daily rainfall data of the Tropical Rainfall Mission (TRMM 3B42) at 0.25 degrees and reanalysis data at 36 km spatial resolution at the mesoscale. The reanalysis data was produced using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model. Station data was provided by the Peruvian weather service during the project "Sustainable Water and Wastewater Management in Urban Growth Centres Coping with Climate Change - Concepts for Lima Metropolitana (Peru) (LiWa)", which is financed by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). We are interested in the

  3. Analysis of the natural gas market in Fortaleza metropolitan region (Brazil); Analise do mercado de gas natural na regiao metropolitana de Fortaleza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso, Carlos Andre M.; Rabelo, Clarice A.C.; Santana, Lana L.P.; Sucupira, Marcos L.L. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Natural gas has become one of the most important energy sources, as we can observe in most countries' energy sector, where its presence is very significant. In Brazil, natural gas corresponds to 7,5% of all energy Also available, and the government has plans to increase this number to 12% until 2010. However, in order to reach this goal, it is important to understand how market works, evaluating all the aspects that have some influence on it. This paper goal is to analyze the natural gas market in Fortaleza metropolitan region, emphasizing the industrial sector, the biggest consumer in Ceara State. The main aspects are characterized here, like professionals qualification in the area, service quality, from equipment and maintenance suppliers until gas distributors, legal aspects, and other factors that are also relevant to a possible future expansion of different natural gas market segments (industry, residence, commerce and transport). (author)

  4. GC/FID-based authentication of Baccharis trimera: a quality control study of products commercialized in Curitiba and metropolitan region (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia M. S. de Ferrante

    Full Text Available Baccharis trimera (carqueja is a medicinal plant used for stomach pain, bad digestion, heart bum, kidney problems and constipation. The objective of the present work was a quality study of carqueja commercialized in Curitiba and metropolitan region (Paraná-Brazil using gas chromatography techniques (GC/FID for analyses of the essential oil, which was extracted through hydrodistillation using a Clevenger system. Macro and microscopic analyses were also done. Some samples were contaminated by other species of plants, fungi and small insects, some of them could be identified. Among all samples, 21 showed similar chromatographic profile to the standard oil, and 7 had different profile in relation to the standard. The chromatogram analyses showed that most of the analyzed samples had the similar profile as the standard oil of Baccharis trimera. GC/FID-based authentication of Baccharis trimera may be useful as a rapid tool to ensure quality control and safety monitoring of this kind of herbal pharmaceuticals.

  5. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, A M G; Nogueira, C A; Saiki, M; Milian, F M; Domingos, M

    2007-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad plant able to absorb water and nutrients directly from the air. For this reason this species was selected to carry out a monitoring study of air pollution in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. Five consecutive transplantation experiments (8 weeks each) were performed in 10 sites of the city, submitted to different sources of air pollution (industrial, vehicular), using plants collected from an unpolluted area. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Traffic-related elements such as Zn and Ba presented high concentrations in exposure sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and may be associated to vehicular sources. For Zn and Co the highest contents were related to industrial zones and can be associated to the presence of anthropogenic emission sources. The rare earth elements, Fe and Rb, probably have soil particles as main source.

  6. Development of a regional LiDAR field plot strategy for Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvind Bhuta; Leah Rathbun

    2015-01-01

    The National Forest System (NFS) Pacific Northwest Region (R6) has been flying LiDAR on a per project basis. Additional field data was also collected in situ to many of these LiDAR projects to aid in the development of predictive models and estimate values which are unattainable through LiDAR data alone (e.g. species composition, tree volume, and downed woody material...

  7. Neogene fallout tuffs from the Yellowstone hotspot in the Columbia Plateau region, Oregon, Washington and Idaho, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara P Nash

    Full Text Available Sedimentary sequences in the Columbia Plateau region of the Pacific Northwest ranging in age from 16-4 Ma contain fallout tuffs whose origins lie in volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in northwestern Nevada, eastern Oregon and the Snake River Plain in Idaho. Silicic volcanism began in the region contemporaneously with early eruptions of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG, and the abundance of widespread fallout tuffs provides the opportunity to establish a tephrostratigrahic framework for the region. Sedimentary basins with volcaniclastic deposits also contain diverse assemblages of fauna and flora that were preserved during the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, including Sucker Creek, Mascall, Latah, Virgin Valley and Trout Creek. Correlation of ashfall units establish that the lower Bully Creek Formation in eastern Oregon is contemporaneous with the Virgin Valley Formation, the Sucker Creek Formation, Oregon and Idaho, Trout Creek Formation, Oregon, and the Latah Formation in the Clearwater Embayment in Washington and Idaho. In addition, it can be established that the Trout Creek flora are younger than the Mascall and Latah flora. A tentative correlation of a fallout tuff from the Clarkia fossil beds, Idaho, with a pumice bed in the Bully Creek Formation places the remarkably well preserved Clarkia flora assemblage between the Mascall and Trout Creek flora. Large-volume supereruptions that originated between 11.8 and 10.1 Ma from the Bruneau-Jarbidge and Twin Falls volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in the central Snake River Plain deposited voluminous fallout tuffs in the Ellensberg Formation which forms sedimentary interbeds in the CRBG. These occurrences extend the known distribution of these fallout tuffs 500 km to the northwest of their source in the Snake River Plain. Heretofore, the distal products of these large eruptions had only been recognized to the east of their sources in the High Plains of Nebraska and Kansas.

  8. New tomographic images of P- , S- wave velocity and Q on the Philippine Sea Slab beneath Tokyo: Implication to seismotectonics and seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Naoshi; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Panayotopoulos, Yannis; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Sato, Hiroshi; Kasahara, Keiji; Kimura, Hisanor; Honda, Ryou

    2013-04-01

    The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates the next great M7+ earthquake in the Tokyo metropolitan region will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (1 trillion US) economic loss at worst case if it occur beneath northern Tokyo bay with M7.3. However, the estimate is based on a source fault model by conventional studies about the PSP geometry. To evaluate seismic hazard due to the great quake we need to clarify the geometry of PSP and also the Pacific palate (PAP) that subducs beneath PSP. We identify those plates with use of seismic tomography and available deep seismic reflection profiling and borehole data in southern Kanto area. We deployed about 300 seismic stations in the greater Tokyo urban region under the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We obtain clear P- and S- wave velocity (Vp and Vs) and Q tomograms which show a clear image of PSP and PAP. A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 kilometer beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the distribution of seismicity (Ishida, 1992). This shallower plate geometry changes estimations of strong ground motion for seismic hazards analysis within the Tokyo region. Based on elastic wave velocities of rocks and minerals, we interpreted the tomographic images as petrologic images. Tomographic images revealed the presence of two stepwise velocity increase of the top layer of the subducting PSP slab. Rock velocity data reveals that subducting PSP crust transforms from blueschists to amphibolites at depth of 30km and amphibolites to eclogites at depth of 50km, which suggest that dehydration reactions occurs in subducting crust of basaltic compositions during prograde metamorphism and water is released from the subducting PSP crust. Tomograms show evidence for a low-velocity zone (LVZ) beneath the area just north of Tokyo bay. A Q tomogram show a low Q zone in PSP slab. We interpret the LVZ as a

  9. Influence of urban form on landscape pattern and connectivity in metropolitan regions: a comparative case study of Phoenix, AZ, USA, and Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Hepcan, Çiğdem C; Hepcan, Şerif; Cook, Edward A

    2014-10-01

    Although ecological connectivity conservation in urban areas has recently been recognized as an important issue, less is known about its relationship to urban form and landscape pattern. This study investigates how urban morphology influences regional ecosystem pattern and landscape connectivity. Two metropolitan landscapes, Phoenix, AZ, USA, and Izmir, Turkey, were compared, both of which are fast-growing regions in their national context. A wide range of variables were considered for identifying natural and urban properties. The natural characteristics include typology of urban ecosystems, urban to natural cover ratio, dominant habitat type, urban biodiversity, landscape context, and connectivity conservation efforts. Urban parameters examine urban form, urban extent, urban cover proportion, growth rate, populations, urban gradient, major drivers of urbanization, urban density, and mode/approach of urban development. Twelve landscape metrics were measured and compared across the natural patches. Results show that there is little difference in landscape connectivity in the rural zones of Phoenix and Izmir, although Phoenix has slightly higher connectivity values. The connectivity variance in urbanized areas, however, is significantly dependent on the region. For example, Phoenix urban zones have substantially lower connectivity than either urban or suburban zones in Izmir. Findings demonstrate that small and compact urban settlements with more dense populations are more likely to conserve landscape connectivity compared to multiple-concentric but amalgamated urban form spreading all over the landscape (aka urban sprawl).

  10. Global and regional left ventricular function and tomographic radionuclide perfusion: the Western Washington Intracoronary Streptokinase In Myocardial Infarction Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.L.; Davis, K.B.; Williams, D.L.; Caldwell, J.; Kennedy, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Western Washington Intracoronary Streptokinase In Myocardial Infarction Trial enrolled 250 patients with acute myocardial infarction. After the coronary angiographic diagnosis of thrombosis, patients were randomly assigned to receive either conventional therapy with heparin or intracoronary streptokinase followed by heparin. Of the 232 patients who survived at least 60 days, 207 (89%) underwent radionuclide ventriculographic determination of global and regional ejection fraction at a single institution at 62 +/- 35 days after infarction. In the first 100 patients, infarct size was also determined by quantitative single-photon emission tomographic imaging with thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) and expressed as a percentage of the left ventricle with a perfusion defect. Overall, global ejection fraction did not differ between patients treated with streptokinase (45.9 +/- 13.9%; n . 115) and control patients (46.1 +/- 14.4%; n . 92, p . NS). Similarly, the regional posterolateral, inferior, and anteroseptal ejection fraction did not differ between the two groups. Infarct size as measured by 201 Tl tomography was 19.4 +/- 12.8% (n . 52) of the left ventricle for the streptokinase group and 19.6 +/- 11.8% (n . 48; p . NS) for the control group. When patients were compared within groups by electrocardiographic location of infarction, time to treatment, or the presence or absence of vessel opening, there were no significant differences between streptokinase and control patients. Statistical inclusion of the 18 patients who died early and were unavailable for study also failed to modify the results, except for a possible reduction in inferior infarct size as measured by 201 Tl tomography

  11. Regional contributions to particulate matter concentration in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea: seasonal variation and sensitivity to meteorology and emissions inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Eunhye; Bae, Changhan; Cho, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Byeong-Uk; Kim, Soontae

    2017-09-01

    The impact of regional emissions (e.g., domestic and international) on surface particulate matter (PM) concentrations in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA), South Korea, and its sensitivities to meteorology and emissions inventories are quantitatively estimated for 2014 using regional air quality modeling systems. Located on the downwind side of strong sources of anthropogenic emissions, South Korea bears the full impact of the regional transport of pollutants and their precursors. However, the impact of foreign emissions sources has not yet been fully documented. We utilized two regional air quality simulation systems: (1) a Weather Research and Forecasting and Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) system and (2) a United Kingdom Met Office Unified Model and CMAQ system. The following combinations of emissions inventories are used: the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B, the Inter-comparison Study for Asia 2010, and the National Institute of Environment Research Clean Air Policy Support System. Partial contributions of domestic and foreign emissions are estimated using a brute force approach, adjusting South Korean emissions to 50 %. Results show that foreign emissions contributed ˜ 60 % of SMA surface PM concentration in 2014. Estimated contributions display clear seasonal variation, with foreign emissions having a higher impact during the cold season (fall to spring), reaching ˜ 70 % in March, and making lower contributions in the summer, ˜ 45 % in September. We also found that simulated surface PM concentration is sensitive to meteorology, but estimated contributions are mostly consistent. Regional contributions are also found to be sensitive to the choice of emissions inventories.

  12. Study of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) collected in a Leishmania-endemic area of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo M L; Gontijo, Célia M F; Falcão, Alda L; Andrade Filho, José D

    2010-11-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are distributed across nearly all faunal regions of the world, represented by over 800 species, of which many are important vectors of human pathogens. Brazil is currently faced with the expansion and urbanization of leishmaniases, with an increase in the numbers of human cases and seropositive dogs in various medium-sized to large cities. The objective of the current study was to survey the phlebotomine sand fly species in an area endemic for American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) and American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), i.e., the municipal district of Santa Luzia, lying within the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Sand flies were collected monthly in 2004-2005 using modified Falcão light traps hung in the peridomiciles of houses and surrounding wooded areas in the district of Baronesa. A total of 1,552 sand flies belonging to seven species was collected, and an interesting pattern of the distribution of the most abundant species relative to the sampling locality was revealed. In the wooded areas Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho) predominated, whereas in the urban area Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) was the most abundant species. These results indicate two possible epidemiological patterns of Leishmania transmission in Santa Luzia: one for American cutaneous leishmaniasis associated predominantly with wooded areas, and another for AVL, with transmission principally occurring around human habitations.

  13. Finding your ideal (foreign) non-academic partner: Implications for university-industry collaboration, in peripheral and metropolitan regions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero, David Fernández

    2018-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical framework, and a set of testable propositions, on how collaboration with non-academic partners located abroad might affect businesses’ absorptive capacity, and businesses’ propensity to engage in collaboration with universities, depending on the characteristics...... of the region. The present document also includes a research agenda with the goal of testing the propositions, in a further developed version of the paper. It is hypothesized that businesses in peripheral regions will be able to develop their absorptive capacity to a greater extent, if they are engaged...... in collaboration with foreign non-academic partners, and that these improvements in absorptive capacity will increase the ability of businesses to engage in university-industry collaboration. It is assumed that peripheral regions will provide access to a small variety of potential non-academic partners (such...

  14. Modeling the Impacts of Changes in Freight Demand, Infrastructure Improvements and Policy Measures on a Metropolitan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    In this research, a policy framework was developed and used as a tool to determine the impacts of change in truck traffic on a regional level as a result of policy change. To achieve the objective, three demand models were used in the framework which...

  15. A Decade of Experience: Which Network Structures Maximize Fire Service Capacity for Homeland Security Incidents in Metropolitan Regions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency QHSR Quadrennial Homeland Security Review Report RCP Regional Catastrophic Preparedness SAA State...service has evolved from a single-purpose service focused on controlling fires to a multidimensional response element responsible for pre- hospital ... hospital preparedness program Preparedness Training for all personnel; training and network activities during prior year assist in preparedness

  16. Ambient Monitoring for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2010 Regional Mussel Watch (AMB02)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenberger, Jill M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suslick, Carolynn R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnston, Robert K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-10-20

    The Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS&IMF) and Naval Base Kitsap-Bremerton (Shipyard) located in Bremerton, WA are committed to a culture of continuous process improvement for all aspects of Shipyard operations, including reducing the releases of hazardous materials and waste in discharges from the Shipyard. Under the Project ENVVEST Final Project Agreement, a cooperative project among PSNS&IMF, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and local stakeholders (US Navy, EPA and Ecology 2002) has been helping to improve the environmental quality of the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet Watershed (ENVVEST 2006). An ambient monitoring program for sediment, water, and indigenous mussels began in 2009 to assess the status and trend of ecological resources, assess the effectiveness of cleanup and pollution control measures, and determine if discharges from all sources are protective of beneficial uses including aquatic life. This document presents the 2010 chemical residue data and stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) for the regional mussel watch stations located in Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, Rich Passage, Agate Passage, Liberty Bay, and Keyport Lagoon. Indigenous bivalves were collected from a small boat and/or from along the shoreline, measured, composited, and analyzed for a suite of trace metals and organic contaminants. The trace metals included silver, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, and zinc. The organic contaminants included the list of NOAA Status and Trends 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners and suite of parent and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These chemical residue data provide the first year of the biota ambient monitoring.

  17. Evaluation of potentially inorganic toxic substances in sewage from treatment plants of the metropolitan region of Campinas by SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Broleze, Silvana Turolla

    2013-01-01

    The increased production of sludge is a consequence of the growth of the volume of treated sewage and of the number of Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) in Brazil and, it has demanded the search of alternatives for its final disposal. Amongst the some alternatives of disposal, the agricultural use is viable, a time that the sewage is rich in organic substances, macro and micronutrients necessary to the soil fertility. However, the illegal industrial releases at public sewage may contain the presence of elements that cause harm to human health and the environment as Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr and Se. This work evaluated the potentially inorganic toxic substances in the sewage, previously dried, of the STP Camanducaia in Jaguariuna city; Village Flora in Sumare city; Praia Azul and Carioba in Americana city; Samambaia, Anhumas, Picarrao and Barao Geraldo in Campinas city, SP, employing the Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). The sewage of Treatment Plants of the Metropolitan Region of Campinas take care of CONAMA 375/06 legislation. However, so that it can be commercialized as fertilizing or conditioning of soils, it must take care of to Normative Instruction 27/06, needing to reduce the contents of Ni and Cr. One of the alternatives would be a bigger supervising in the generating sources, in order to improve the quality of the tributary of the stations, being adjusted the sewage to the Brazilian legislations. (author)

  18. Biomonitoring of air quality in the metropolitan region of Recife, PE, Brazil; Biomonitoracao da qualidade do ar na Regiao Metropolitana do Recife, PE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Thiago Oliveira dos

    2016-08-01

    The interest on questions related to environmental conservation has increased in recent decades, being air pollution one of the main public health problems in huge urban centers. Major part of this atmospheric contamination is caused by gaseous pollutants and inhalable particulate matter. One of the main sources is the burning of fossil fuels mainly emitted by motor vehicles. Some organisms, like lichen and atmospheric bromeliad, are able to accumulate chemical elements in their tissues, thereby becoming excellent tools for air quality studies of monitoring. The present work evaluated the air quality in the Metropolitan Region of Recife (RMR) using the lichen Cladonia verticillaris and the bromeliad Tillandsia recurvata, through the quantification of chemical elements associated to vehicles traffic. The biomonitors were transferred to 40 points distributed in the RMR with different intensities of the vehicle traffic. After the exposition period of six months, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Pb, Sb, Sr, Th, V and Zn were quantified by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The organisms were complementary, being appropriated tools for monitoring the air quality. The vehicle traffic was considered one of the major contributor for increasing chemical elements in the RMR urban atmosphere. (author)

  19. SEROPREVALENCE OF NINE LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS SEROVARS IN WILD CARNIVORES, UNGULATES, AND PRIMATES FROM A ZOO POPULATION IN A METROPOLITAN REGION OF CHILE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Beas, Eduardo; Abalos, Pedro; Hidalgo-Hermoso, Ezequiel

    2015-12-01

    Serum samples from 130 individuals representing 42 species of carnivores, ungulates, and primates from a population of captive mammals in Metropolitan Region in Chile were tested for antibodies against nine serovars of Leptospira interrogans using the microscopic agglutination test. Ten percent of the animals were seropositive to one or more serovars. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in ungulates (20.4%) compared to carnivores (3.8%) and primates (3.4%). There were no significant differences in seroprevalence among sex and age ranges. The most frequent serovar detected was Autumnalis, present in 53.4% of antibody-positive animals. Most positive animals had titers of ≤1 : 200, except for a maned wolf ( Chrysocyon brachyurus ) with titers of 1 : 400 against serovar Hardjo. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Leptospira exposure detected in native endangered pudu ( Pudu puda ) and the first confirmation of exposure to L. interrogans in captive wild mammals in Chile. Leptospirosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in future disease presentation for hepatitis or abortions in captive mammals in Chile.

  20. Management tools used by providers of accounting services in small and medium enterprises of João Pessoa Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson de Queiroz Henriques Coutinho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Management Accounting has several tools that can provide administrative support to the entities in the decision-making process. Therefore, this study aimed to make a survey on the use of these tools by the companies providing accounting services responsible for accounting of Small and Medium Enterprises located in the metropolitan area of João Pessoa. The method used was the bibliographical and descriptive. In order to obtain the information needed to perform the study, semi-structured questionnaire was used, with closed and open questions, applied to the leaders of 31 accounting companies from an universe of 135 registered and active in Paraíba Accounting Regional Council in 2013. The knowledge and application of the management tools by the office was verified - the results indicate that accountants know most of the tools, but they do not apply these tools in their clients in the same proportion. This scenario was partially justified when they answered during the survey that the Implantation Phase is considered the most difficult to apply the tools in their clients. Among the management tools, Cash Flow and the Strategic Planning were the most cited about knowledge and applicability, on the other hand, the PROCEM certificate and Downsizing were the least mentioned.

  1. Testing and Contrasting Road Safety Education, Deterrence, and Social Capital Theories: A Sociological Approach to the Understanding of Male Drink-Driving in Chile's Metropolitan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazif, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Three theories offer different explanations to the understanding of male drink-driving. In order to test road safety education, deterrence, and social capital theories, logistic regression analysis was applied to predict respondents' statements of having or not having engaged in actual drink-driving (DD). Variable for road safety education theory was whether a driver had graduated from a professional driving school or not. Deterrence theory was operationalized with a variable of whether a driver had been issued a traffic ticket or not. Social capital theory was operationalized with two variables, having children or not and having religion identification or not. Since both variables 'years of formal education' and 'years of driving experience' have been reported to be correlated to alcohol consumption and DD respectively, these were introduced as controls. In order to assess the significance of each variable statistically, Wald tests were applied in seven models. Results indicate on the one hand that road safety education variable is not statistically significant; and on the other, deterrence theory variable and social capital theory variable 'having children' were both statistically significant at the level of .01. Findings are discussed in reference to Chile's context. Data were taken from the "Road Users Attitudes and Behaviors towards Traffic Safety" survey from the National Commission of Road Safety of the Government of Chile (2005). The sample size was reported to be 2,118 (N of male drivers was 396). This survey was representative of Chile's Metropolitan Region road users' population.

  2. Relationships between ethical climate, political behavior, ethical leadership, and job satisfaction of operational officers in a wholesale company, Bangkok Metropolitan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patthiya Naiyananont

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated whether the ethical climate, political behavior, ethical leadership, and job satisfaction in one organization have an impact on each other. The research was conducted using a selected group of 177 operational officers in a wholesale business company in the Bangkok Metropolitan region. The operational officers were recruited from four divisions (commercial, finance, marketing, and administration using a stratified random sampling approach. The majority was female and the participants' average age was 32 years. The instrument used was a designed questionnaire divided into five sections and consisting of checklists, opened-end questions, and rating scales. The data were analyzed statistically using percentages, means, standard deviations, Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, and multiple regression analyses. The results showed that the operational officers in the wholesale business company had a high level of overall ethical climate, a low level of overall political behavior, and moderate levels of overall ethical leadership and overall job satisfaction. The ethical climate and ethical leadership were positively correlated with job satisfaction. The multiple regression analyses method also confirmed that the ethical climate, political behavior, and ethical leadership constructively had significant predictive ability regarding job satisfaction.

  3. [Do vitamins from foods fortified exceed the allowed limits? Study carried out in population young adolescent and young adult of the metropolitan region of Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freixas Sepúlveda, Alejandra; Díaz Narváez, Víctor Patricio; Durán Agüero, Samuel; Gaete Verdugo, María Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyze the usual consumption of vitamins in an adolescent population and young adult in the Metropolitan Region, were 213 food fortified with vitamins of the Chilean market. A survey of consumption and nutrient intake was calculated. The result added vitamins added to food. The normality of the variables of the intake was assessed and data were subjected to analysis of descriptive statisticians and percentiles are determined. Estimated percentages of subjects whose values exceed those fixed for DDR and UL listed for each vitamin and percentage of excess for each case. Discriminant analysis was performed using the M Box test. The correlation canonical and the Statisticians Wilks were estimated. Finally it was estimated the percentage of correctly classified data. Data were processed by the program SPSS 20.0 with a significance level of α ≤ 0.05. The results indicate that you for all the studied vitamins, the percentage of subjects who more than the DDR is for total folate (96.4%) and the lowest percentage is given for the vitamin E and B12 in young adult women. The percentage of subjects who exceed the UL values is greatest for the vitamin B3 (91.9%). According to the canonical correlation, there are differences in behavior between the groups. It is recommended to monitor the behavior and consumption of food fortified with vitamins, especially of the complex B and A. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Physical-Chemical Characterization of Solid Waste Generated in the Water Industry: Case Study of the Water Treatment Stations of the Metropolitan Region of Recife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Gomes Tavares

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to characterize the solid waste, commonly known as sludge, from the water treatment industry. Six main water treatment plants (Alto do Céu, Botafogo, Caixa d'água, Gurjaú, Suape and Tapacurá were selected from the Metropolitan Region of Recife, managed by Companhia Pernambucana de Saneamento. Nine samples were collected in the eleven month period in the discharge of the sludge from the decanters. These samples were characterized physico-chemically, based on the methodology of the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (2012. The results indicated average humidity of 93%, average COD around 30 g/L and BOD of 4.5 g/L, indicating sludge of low biodegradability. The average values of total solids were 72 g/L, with 75% corresponding to fixed residues and 25% to volatiles. High concentrations of aluminum (1000 mg/L were observed, due to the use of aluminum sulphate as a coagulant, and iron, around 500 mg/L. This study assists the manager in the decision making of the sustainable management of the sludge, mainly in relation to the final disposal.

  5. Modeling Urban Expansion in Bangkok Metropolitan Region Using Demographic–Economic Data through Cellular Automata-Markov Chain and Multi-Layer Perceptron-Markov Chain Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chudech Losiri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban expansion is considered as one of the most important problems in several developing countries. Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR is the urbanized and agglomerated area of Bangkok Metropolis (BM and its vicinity, which confronts the expansion problem from the center of the city. Landsat images of 1988, 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008, and 2011 were used to detect the land use and land cover (LULC changes. The demographic and economic data together with corresponding maps were used to determine the driving factors for land conversions. This study applied Cellular Automata-Markov Chain (CA-MC and Multi-Layer Perceptron-Markov Chain (MLP-MC to model LULC and urban expansions. The performance of the CA-MC and MLP-MC yielded more than 90% overall accuracy to predict the LULC, especially the MLP-MC method. Further, the annual population and economic growth rates were considered to produce the land demand for the LULC in 2014 and 2035 using the statistical extrapolation and system dynamics (SD. It was evident that the simulated map in 2014 resulting from the SD yielded the highest accuracy. Therefore, this study applied the SD method to generate the land demand for simulating LULC in 2035. The outcome showed that urban occupied the land around a half of the BMR.

  6. Evaluation of potentially inorganic toxic substances in sewage from treatment plants of the metropolitan region of Campinas by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Broleze, Silvana Turolla, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEC/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    The increased production of sludge is a consequence of the growth of the volume of treated sewage and of the number of Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) in Brazil and, it has demanded the search of alternatives for its final disposal. Amongst the some alternatives of disposal, the agricultural use is viable, a time that the sewage is rich in organic substances, macro and micronutrients necessary to the soil fertility. However, the illegal industrial releases at public sewage may contain the presence of elements that cause harm to human health and the environment as Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr and Se. This work evaluated the potentially inorganic toxic substances in the sewage, previously dried, of the STP Camanducaia in Jaguariuna city; Village Flora in Sumare city; Praia Azul and Carioba in Americana city; Samambaia, Anhumas, Picarrao and Barao Geraldo in Campinas city, SP, employing the Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). The sewage of Treatment Plants of the Metropolitan Region of Campinas take care of CONAMA 375/06 legislation. However, so that it can be commercialized as fertilizing or conditioning of soils, it must take care of to Normative Instruction 27/06, needing to reduce the contents of Ni and Cr. One of the alternatives would be a bigger supervising in the generating sources, in order to improve the quality of the tributary of the stations, being adjusted the sewage to the Brazilian legislations. (author)

  7. Trace elements in livers of great egret (Ardea alba) from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region: a preliminary assessment of temporal trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Moreira, Edson G.; Oliveira, Paulo T.M.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the variation of trace element concentrations present in great egret livers during six years, from 2006 to 2011. The data were obtained in twenty six livers of great egrets from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR). The elements Br, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Cd and Hg by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Arithmetic means and standard deviations of element concentrations of the results obtained in each year were calculated for the samples collected in each year. Analysis of variance (ANOVA; α = 0.05) followed by Kruskal Wallis test was applied to examine if there are temporal differences in the element mean concentrations over time. In general, significant differences of element concentrations were not obtained. However, an increase in Cd and Mn concentrations in the recent years was observed which may indicate recent increase to these elements in environment. The preliminary data obtained suggests the continuation of this kind of study to better understand the temporal trends of trace elements in the aquatic environment of SPMR. (author)

  8. Trace elements in livers of great egret (Ardea alba) from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region: a preliminary assessment of temporal trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: rcsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: poliver@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Paulo T.M.S., E-mail: poliver@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IME/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the variation of trace element concentrations present in great egret livers during six years, from 2006 to 2011. The data were obtained in twenty six livers of great egrets from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR). The elements Br, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Cd and Hg by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Arithmetic means and standard deviations of element concentrations of the results obtained in each year were calculated for the samples collected in each year. Analysis of variance (ANOVA; α = 0.05) followed by Kruskal Wallis test was applied to examine if there are temporal differences in the element mean concentrations over time. In general, significant differences of element concentrations were not obtained. However, an increase in Cd and Mn concentrations in the recent years was observed which may indicate recent increase to these elements in environment. The preliminary data obtained suggests the continuation of this kind of study to better understand the temporal trends of trace elements in the aquatic environment of SPMR. (author)

  9. Distribution and origin of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from an urban river basin at the Metropolitan region of Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Natalicio Ferreira; Peralta-Zamora, Patricio; Grassi, Marco Tadeu

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in surface sediment samples from nine sites located at the Iguaçu River Basin in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil to evaluate their distribution and sources. The total concentration of the PAHs was greater for sediments from highly urbanized areas, while the sediments from the Iraí Environmental Protection Area (Iraí EPA) showed significantly low concentrations. The sediments from the Iguaçu and Barigui rivers were classified as highly contaminated, while those from the Cercado and Curralinho rivers were classified as moderately contaminated. The predominance of PAHs containing two to four aromatic rings in most of the samples suggested the direct input of raw sewage into the water resources evaluated. Benzo[g,h,i]perylene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene were predominant in sediments from the areas under the greatest urban and industrial development. The correlation between thermodynamic stability and the kinetics of evolution presented by the isomeric pairs indicated that combustion is the predominant source of PAHs in the sediments because the combustion of fossil fuels affected most of the points evaluated, followed by combustion of biomass and eventually combustion of oil product inputs. In general, the results showed that areas under strong urban influence, as well as the Iraí EPA, receive contributions of PAHs from similar sources.

  10. Methodology to evaluate the energy associated to the industrial solid wastes: application in a metropolitan region of Campinas, Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Metodologia para avaliacao da energia associada ao residuo solido industrial: aplicacao a regiao metropolitada de Campinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Tereza Rosana Orrico [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos; Teixeira, Egle Novaes [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico. Lab. de Hidrogenio

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this work is to the application of a methodology to evaluate the energy associated to the industrial solid wastes in the metropolitan region of Campinas. The methodological route proposed is: the characterization of the research area and the production/management of the industrial solid wastes; the energetic classification and the qualitative/quantitative research of the energy associated to the industrial solid wastes; and, the valuation of the applicability of the energetic utilization mechanisms proposed to the region. This methodology when applied at the Campinas metropolitan region proved to be valid and it resulted in a synthetically presentation of the social and environmental reality of the industrial sector and the destination of the wastes, as well as it indicated the potentialities related to the energetic utilization of the industrial solid waste in the region. With the obtained results it was shown the importance of the the production and the destination of the industrial solid wastes in the Campinas metropolitan region , and the meaning, in terms of electric potency, of the values of the energy associated to the wastes with a known factor of energetic conversion shown in the researched sample. (author)

  11. Ambient Monitoring for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2012 Regional Mussel Watch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2012-09-01

    Under the Project ENVVEST Final Project Agreement, the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS&IMF), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and local stakeholders have worked collaboratively to improve the environmental quality of Sinclair and Dyes Inlets. A regional mussel monitoring program began in 2010 to assess the status and trend of ecological resources, assess the effectiveness of cleanup and pollution control measures, and determine if discharges from all sources are protective of beneficial uses including aquatic life. The program collected indigenous mussels to represent a time-integrated measure of bioavailable metals and organic chemicals present in the water column. This document supplements the 2010 indigenous mussel data with 2012 data to provide two years of data on the chemical residue of mussels present in the inter-tidal regions of Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, Rich Passage, Agate Passage, Liberty Bay, and Keyport Lagoon. The 2012 data set added one station at PSNS&IMF and one market samples from Penn Cove. Indigenous mussels were collected from a small boat and/or from along the shoreline, measured, composited, and analyzed for percent lipids, percent moisture, stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, and a suite of trace metals and organic contaminants. The trace metals included silver (Ag), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The organic contaminants included the list of NOAA Status and Trends 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners and suite of parent and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The average lengths between the 2010 and 2012 data were generally less than 30% relative percent difference (RPD). Generally, the metals concentrations were lower in 2012 than 2010 with some notable exceptions in Sinclair Inlet and Rich Passage where increases in Ag, Hg, Pb, Cu, and Zn exceeded

  12. Remote sensing of land use changes in US metropolitan regions: Techniques of analysis and opportunities for application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A graphic description is given of the Census Cities ERTS experiment in urban change detection using remote sensors. The relationship or model between land use data from sensors and socio-demographic data from the census is partly demonstrated. The example suggests how knowledge of land use changes acquired by sensors can be used to make estimates of population, and other attributes. The feasibility of nationwide mapping of land use, and land use changes, by direct computer classification of ERTS-1 multispectral digital data is also demonstrated. Potential applications in state and regional planning are many, and some are named. But the longer-range gains are likely to be improved understanding by legislators, managers and voters as to what it is that makes the country tick. One of the specific tasks could be the allocation of revenues to be shared.

  13. Changes of precipitation and extremes and the possible effect of urbanization in the Beijing metropolitan region during 1960-2012 based on homogenized observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Yan, Zhongwei; Tu, Kai; Wu, Hongyi

    2015-09-01

    Daily precipitation series at 15 stations in the Beijing metropolitan region (BMR) during 1960-2012 were homogenized using the multiple analysis of series for homogenization method, with additional adjustments based on analysis of empirical cumulative density function (ECDF) regarding climate extremes. The cumulative density functions of daily precipitation series, the trends of annual and seasonal precipitation, and summer extreme events during 1960-2012 in the original and final adjusted series at Beijing station were comparatively analyzed to show the necessity and efficiency of the new method. Results indicate that the ECDF adjustments can improve the homogeneity of high-order moments of daily series and the estimation of climate trends in extremes. The linear trends of the regional-mean annual and seasonal (spring, summer, autumn, and winter) precipitation series are -10.16, 4.97, -20.04, 5.02, and -0.11 mm (10 yr)-1, respectively. The trends over the BMR increase consistently for spring/autumn and decrease for the whole year/summer; however, the trends for winter decrease in southern parts and increase in northern parts. Urbanization affects local trends of precipitation amount, frequency, and intensity and their geographical patterns. For the urban-influenced sites, urbanization tends to slow down the magnitude of decrease in the precipitation and extreme amount series by approximately -10.4% and -6.0%, respectively; enhance the magnitude of decrease in precipitation frequency series by approximately 5.7%; reduce that of extremes by approximately -8.9%; and promote the decreasing trends in the summer intensity series of both precipitation and extremes by approximately 6.8% and 51.5%, respectively.

  14. Examining the Influence of a New Light Rail Line on the Health of a Demographically Diverse and Understudied Population within the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area: A Protocol for a Natural Experiment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksvig, Brit Irene; Brachman, Micah L.; Durand, Casey P.

    2018-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of adults and youth in Prince George’s County, Maryland, a suburb of Washington, D.C. are overweight or obese and less than half are achieving daily physical activity recommendations. Active transportation (AT), such as walking, biking or using public transportation (PT), is a strategic pathway to improving physical activity levels and thus reducing excess weight. Utilizing an expansion of the Washington, D.C. area transportation system with a new light rail line, the Purple Line Outcomes on Transportation (PLOT) Study will exam pre- and post-Purple Line PT use, AT behaviors and attitudes and physical activity among Prince George’s County adults and youth. The PLOT Study will take advantage of this natural experiment in an area enduring significant racial/ethnic and gender-based overweight or obesity and physical inactivity disparities. While similar natural experiments on AT have been conducted in other U.S. cities, those studies lacked diverse and representative samples. To effectively evaluate these physical activity outcomes among this population, efforts will be used to recruit African American and Latino populations, the first and second most common racial/ethnic groups in Prince George’s County. Finally, the PLOT Study will also examine how contextual effects (e.g., neighborhood built environment) impact PT, AT and physical activity.

  15. Examining the Influence of a New Light Rail Line on the Health of a Demographically Diverse and Understudied Population within the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area: A Protocol for a Natural Experiment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Roberts

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Approximately two-thirds of adults and youth in Prince George’s County, Maryland, a suburb of Washington, D.C. are overweight or obese and less than half are achieving daily physical activity recommendations. Active transportation (AT, such as walking, biking or using public transportation (PT, is a strategic pathway to improving physical activity levels and thus reducing excess weight. Utilizing an expansion of the Washington, D.C. area transportation system with a new light rail line, the Purple Line Outcomes on Transportation (PLOT Study will exam pre- and post-Purple Line PT use, AT behaviors and attitudes and physical activity among Prince George’s County adults and youth. The PLOT Study will take advantage of this natural experiment in an area enduring significant racial/ethnic and gender-based overweight or obesity and physical inactivity disparities. While similar natural experiments on AT have been conducted in other U.S. cities, those studies lacked diverse and representative samples. To effectively evaluate these physical activity outcomes among this population, efforts will be used to recruit African American and Latino populations, the first and second most common racial/ethnic groups in Prince George’s County. Finally, the PLOT Study will also examine how contextual effects (e.g., neighborhood built environment impact PT, AT and physical activity.

  16. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Claudio Ailton

    2006-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substrates, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment without roots. Due to its morphological and physiological characteristics, this species accumulates the pollutants present in the atmosphere. In the present work, Tillandsia usneoides was used as a bio monitor of metal atmospheric pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which is the biggest city in South America with a population of 18 million inhabitants and a strong industrial activity. The urban area is polluted by industrial emissions but, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), the governmental agency of air quality control, regularly occurring emissions from about 7.8 million motor vehicles provide the principal source of air pollution. The Tillandsia samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed bimonthly in 10 sites of the city with different pollution levels and in a control site. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis and ICP-MS (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb e V). The results of the investigation showed a notable concentration of Co and Ni in the plants exposed in an industrial area where there is a metal processing plant, which produces about 600 tons/year of Co and 16,000 tons/year of Ni. Copper and chromium were equally distributed in industrial regions and in sites near heavy traffic avenues, suggesting that these elements can be associated to both vehicular and industrial sources. A high accumulation of Cd in the plant exposed in industrial areas indicates industrial activities as the main source of this element. For Pb, no evident sources could be identified so far as it was spread evenly along the monitoring sites. Traffic-related elements such as Zn, Ba and Sb presented high concentrations in plants exposed in sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and

  17. The Amsterdam region - A home for creative knowledge workers and graduates? Understanding the attractiveness of the metropolitan region for creative knowledge workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontje, M.A.; Pethe, H.A.A.; Rühmann, P.

    2008-01-01

    The report brings together the results of a survey of creative knowledge workers in the Amsterdam region. How do creative knowledge workers judge the living situation and what activities do they pursue in the different parts of the region? How satisfied are creative knowledge workers with their

  18. Analyzing Three-Decadal Patterns of Land Use/Land Cover Change and Regional Ecosystem Services at the Landscape Level: Case Study of Two Coastal Metropolitan Regions, Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Bin Cai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization, land scarcity, and accompanying ecological deterioration in China have received growing attention. In this paper, two fast-growing metropolitan regions, Greater Shanghai and Greater Hangzhou, were selected as case studies to quantify the impact of land use/land cover (LULC change on regional ecosystem services value (ESV at the landscape scale since the late 1970s. The results show that in both regions, dramatic LULC change, especially recent land development at the urban fringes, led to a steady decline in the available area of productive agricultural land, natural land and semi-natural land. This consequently caused remarkable landscape fragmentation along the urban-rural gradient as measured by five class-level landscape metrics. It was estimated that in Greater Shanghai, regulating, supporting, provisioning, and cultural ESVs decreased by 32.05%, 17.89%, 53.72%, and 17.06%, respectively. In Greater Hangzhou, these values decreased by 27.82%, 23.86%, 28.62%, and 22.85%, respectively. In addition, the relationship is quantified between zonal buffer-based ESV and class-level landscape metrics. Further analysis shows that spatiotemporal patterns of zonal ESVs along the urban-rural gradient in these two regions exhibited unbalanced patterns of ecological services delivery.

  19. Photochemical smog modeling for assessment of potential impacts of different management strategies on air quality of the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim; Zhang, Baoning

    2004-10-01

    A photochemical smog model system, the Variable-Grid Urban Airshed Model/Systems Applications International Mesoscale Model (UAM-V/SAIMM), was used to investigate photochemical pollution in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR). The model system was first applied to simulate a historical photochemical smog episode of two days (January 13-14, 1997) using the 1997 anthropogenic emission database available at the Pollution Control Department and an estimated biogenic emission. The output 1-hr ozone (O3) for BMR, however, did not meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency suggested performance criteria. The simulated minimum and maximum O3 values in the domain were much higher than the observations. Multiple model runs with different precursor emission reduction scenarios showed that the best model performance with the simulated 1-hr O3 meeting all the criteria was obtained when the volatile organic compound (VOC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission from mobile source reduced by 50% and carbon monoxide by 20% from the original database. Various combinations of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions in Bangkok and surrounding provinces were simulated to assess the contribution of different sources to O3 pollution in the city. O3 formation in Bangkok was found to be more VOC-sensitive than NOx-sensitive. To attain the Thailand ambient air quality standard for 1-hr O3 of 100 ppb, VOC emission in BMR should be reduced by 50-60%. Management strategies considered in the scenario study consist of Stage I, Stage II vapor control, replacement of two-stroke by four-stroke motorcycles, 100% compressed natural gas bus, 100% natural gas-fired power plants, and replacement of methyltertiarybutylether by ethanol as an additive for gasoline.

  20. Differences in body dissatisfaction, weight-management practices and food choices of high-school students in the Bangkok metropolitan region by gender and school type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongwatpol, Pitipa; Gates, Gail E

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to compare body dissatisfaction, food choices, physical activity and weight-management practices by gender and school type. A questionnaire was used to obtain height, weight, body image perception using Stunkard's figure rating scale, food choices, physical activity and weight-management practices. Nine single- and mixed-gender schools located in Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand. Students in 10th-12th grade, aged 15-18 years (n 2082). Only 18% of females and 21% of males did not indicate body dissatisfaction. About 66% of females selected a thinner ideal figure than their current figure. Among males, 44% wanted a thinner figure, but 35% wanted a bigger figure. However, univariate analysis found differences by school type but not gender in the degree of body dissatisfaction; students in single-gender schools had more body dissatisfaction. Females reported using more weight-management practices but less physical activity, while males reported healthier food choices. Participants in single-gender schools had healthier food choices compared with those in mixed-gender schools. Adolescents who were at increased risk of a greater degree of body dissatisfaction were females, attended single-gender schools, had lower household income, higher BMI and less physical activity. Most participants reported being dissatisfied with their current body shape, but the type and level of dissatisfaction and use of weight-management practices differed by gender and type of school. These findings suggest that programmes to combat body dissatisfaction should address different risk factors in males and females attending single- and mixed-gender schools.

  1. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C markers among children and adolescents in the south brazilian region: metropolitan area of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Royer Voigt

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B and C are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Brazil, according to the Ministry of Health, about 15% of population is infected by hepatitis B virus (HBV and less than 1% by hepatitis C virus (HCV. Nevertheless, the age-specific prevalence of HBV and HCV markers remains unknown. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV markers of infection and immunity in children and adolescents between 10 to 16 years old who live in the metropolitan area of Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, South of Brazil. Three hundred and eighty four individuals were enrolled in this study. Serological markers for HBV and HCV (HBsAg, total anti-HBc, anti-HBc IgM, anti-HBs and anti-HCV were determined through Microparticle Enzyme Immunosorbant Assay (MEIA - AxSYM System® - by using commercial diagnostic kits (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA. All 384 adolescents (100% were negative for HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM. Only two (0.52% were positive for total anti-HBc. Among the studied individuals, 226 (58.85% presented titers of anti-HBs > 10.0mIU/mL, 121 (31.51% presented anti HBs < 10.0mIU/mL, and 37 (9.64% did not present titers of anti-HBs. Regarding to anti-HCV, all 384 adolescents (100% presented negative results for this marker. In conclusion, this study showed a low prevalence of HBV and HCV infections. In addition, it was verified a great number of children and adolescents (89.84% who were positive for the immunity marker anti-HBs, implying that the National Immunization Program Protocol for hepatitis B has been effective in the studied region.

  2. Public health assessment for Tulalip Landfill, Marysville, Snohomish County, Washington, Region 10. CERCLIS No. WAD980639256. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Tulalip Landfill is in Snohomish County, Washington near the town of Marysville. Almost four million cubic yards of waste were deposited at the site between 1964 and 1979, when the landfill was closed. An estimated 10 to 90 million gallons of leachate are generated each year at the site. In February 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a site inspection. Lead, copper, chromium, and cadmium were found in quantities above EPA's Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) in on-site ground and surface water. Samples of leachate and on-site surface water also contained numerous strains of opportunistic pathogens, or disease causing agents

  3. Filling some black holes: modeling the connection between urbanization, infrastructure, and global service intensity in 112 metropolitan regions across the world

    OpenAIRE

    Van De Vijver, Elien; Derudder, Ben; Bassens, David; Witlox, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This empirical article combines insights from previous research on the level of knowledge-intensive service in metropolitan areas with the aim to develop an understanding of the spatial structure of the global service economy. We use a stepwise regression model with GaWC’s measure of globalized service provisioning as the dependent variable and a range of variables focusing on population, infrastructure, urban primacy, and national regulation as independent variables. The discussion of the re...

  4. Tpm implementation impact in companies´s competitivity in the metropolitan region of aburra’s valley and near east

    OpenAIRE

    Arango Serna, Martin Dario; Zapata Cortes, Julian Andrés; Alzate Lopez, Juan Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Best practices methodologies have been used by different companies as competitive growing tools in a globalized market. In Colombia, particularly at Aburra’s Valley Metropolitan Area (AMVA) and near east can be noticed that TPM (Total Productive Management) had been adopted as a competitive support tool. This article evaluates the TPM implementation impact in different competitiveness variables for the companies that are working on it at the AMVA and near east, finding that there is not a cle...

  5. Multi-hazard Non-regulatory Risk Maps for Resilient Coastal Communities of Washington State in Pacific Northwest Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, R.; Walsh, T. J.; Zou, Y.; Gufler, T.; Norman, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Washington Department of Natural Resources - Division of Geology and Earth Resources (WADNR-DGER) partnered with FEMA through the FEMA Cooperating Technical Partners (CTP) program to assess annualized losses from flood and other hazards and prepare supportive risk related data for FEMA's coastal RiskMAP projects. We used HAZUS-MH analysis to assess losses from earthquake, flood and other potential hazards such as landslide and tsunami in the project areas; on shorelines of the Pacific Ocean and Puget Sound of Washington Grays Harbor, Pacific, Skagit, Whatcom, Island, Mason, Clallam, Jefferson and San Juan counties. The FEMA's Hazus-MH tool was applied to estimate losses and damages for each building due to floods and earthquakes. User-defined facilities (UDF) inventory data were prepared and used for individual building damage estimations and updating general building stocks. Flood depth grids were used to determine which properties are most impacted by flooding. For example, the HAZUS-MH (flood model) run based on the 1% annual chance event (or 100 year flood) for Grays Harbor County, resulted in a total of 161 million in losses to buildings including residential, commercial properties, and other building and occupancy types. A likely M9 megathrust Cascadia earthquake scenario USGS-ShakeMap was used for the HAZUS-MH earthquake model. For example, the HAZUS-MH (earthquake model) run based on the Cascadia M9 earthquake for Grays Harbor County, resulted in a total of 1.15 billion in losses to building inventory. We produced GIS-based overlay maps of properties exposed to tsunami, landslide, and liquefaction hazards within the communities. This multi-hazard approach is an essential component to produce non-regulatory maps for FEMA's RiskMAP project, and they help further improve local and regional mitigation efforts and emergency response plans, and overall resiliency plan of the communities in and around the coastal communities in western Washington.

  6. Metropolitan water management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milliken, J. Gordon; Taylor, Graham C

    1981-01-01

    This monograph is intended to inform interested and capable pesons, who happen not to be specialists in water resources planning, of the issues and alternative strategies related to metropolitan water supply...

  7. Metropolitan Lima: area profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1986-11-01

    This profile of metropolitan Lima, Peru, covers administrative divisions; population growth; age distribution; ethnicity and religion; housing and households; education and health care; economic activity, income, and consumption; transport and communication; and sources of information. Nearly 30% of Peru's entire population and 42% of its urban population live in Lima. The trend continues, yet Lima's urban primacy is waning due to the growth of some regional centers like Trujillo and Chimbote. Lima is still almost 10 times as large as the country's next ranking cities, Trujillo on the northern coast and Arequipa in the south. Peru's main administrative divisions are the 24 departments, of which the Department of Lima is one. These departments are further divided into 156 provinces. Greater Lima consists of 2 such provinces, the province of Lima and the constitutional province of Callao. Although the population of Lima continues to grow, its rate of growth slowed from about 5.5% during the 1960s to about 3.9% in the 1970s. Current projections estimate a metropolitan population of 6.7 million by 1990. On the whole, Lima's age structure is somewhat older than that of the rest of Peru. The median age of the population is 22.3 years, compared to a national figure of 20.4. The proportion of persons over age 65 is only 3.6%, lower than the national average of 4.1%, due to the tendency of in-migration to concentrate people of intermediate ages in the cities. Almost 400,000 inhabitants of greater Lima are bilingual in Spanish and an indigenous language. As elsewhere in Peru, the dominant religion is Roman Catholicism. Lima is a spread out city with few high rise buildings due to the danger of earthquakes. Only 12% of Lima's households are found in apartment buildings. As in other cities of Latin America, the formal housing market is beyond the reach of a major segment of the population. Consequently, much of the urban settlement has occurred through informal self

  8. Utilization of bromeliad Tillandsia Usneoides L. in biomonitoring of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo - SP, Brazil; Utilizacao da bromelia Tillandsia Usneoides L. no biomonitoramento da poluicao atmosferica na Regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo - SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Caroline R.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Barbara C. da; Ticianelli, Regina B., E-mail: calbuuquerque@gmail.com, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Figueira, Rubens C.L., E-mail: aportellar@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico; Nievola, Catarina C.; Alves, Edenise S.; Domingos, Marisa, E-mail: ccnievola@uol.com.br, E-mail: ealves@ibot.sp.gov.br, E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.br [Instituto de Botanica (IBt-SMA/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro, Andreza P., E-mail: andrezp@uninove.br [Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, it was determined the metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb and Sb in plant Tillandsia Usneoides L., an epiphyte species popularly known as old beard and able to absorb water and nutrients directly from air, aiming to estimate the contribution of human activities in atmospheric metal pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. The samples were collected at five different points, located near the South West and stretches of highway Mario Covas (SP-21). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Optical Emission Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES) were the analytical techniques used in the quantification of metals of interest.

  9. Emission Inventory of On-Road Transport in Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR Development during 2007 to 2015 Using the GAINS Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penwadee Cheewaphongphan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR, including the capital city and five adjacent provinces, constitutes one of the top 10 megacities experiencing serious traffic congestion in the world, leading to air quality problems with significant adverse human health risks. Previously, there have been many operations planned to influence the fuel consumption and emissions from the on-road transport sector in the BMR area. It is necessary to estimate emissions using detailed information in order to thoroughly understand the reason for changes in emission levels and their impact on air quality. This paper aims to determine the successful implementation of energy and air pollution control policies in Thailand through an investigation of the emissions inventory of on-road transport in BMR, including ozone precursors (CO, NOX, Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs , greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, acidic substances (SO2 and NH3, and particulate matters (PM2.5, PM10, Black Carbon (BC, Organic Carbon (OC during the period from 2007 to 2015, using the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS model based on the country-specific activity data together with the emission factor from the GAINS-Asia database. This study found that the amount of exhaust emissions over the BMR area in the year 2015 (and the trend during the period from 2007 to 2015 is approximately 139 kt of CO (−7.9%, 103 kt of NOX (−4.1%, 19.9 kt of NMVOC (−6.7%, 15 kt of CO2 (+1.6%, 8.6 kt of CH4 (+6.8%, 0.59 kt of N2O (+1.3%, 0.87 kt of SO2 (−25.8%, 1.1 kt of NH3 (+7.8%, 4.9 kt of PM2.5 (−5.5%, 5.1 kt of PM10 (−7.9%, 3.1 kt of BC (−2.5%, and 1.4 kt of OC (−7.7%. The change in emissions in each pollutant is a result of the more stringent control of fuel and engine standards, the shift in the fuel type used, and the effects of controlling some emissions. Light duty car gasoline fuel is identified as a major contributor of CO, NH3, N2O, and NMVOC, whereas

  10. Metropolitan planning from an international comparative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel; Grønning, Marius

    2016-01-01

    policies, and thus also to the instrumental orientation within planning. A challenge stemming from this comparison is to understand how similar policies are implemented at a strategic and metropolitan level. Within the institutional framework of Copenhagen, the problem with the Finger Plan directive might...... (Faludi & van der Valk, 1994), thus integrating the archetypal land-use character of municipal plans and the strategic and growth-oriented pursuit of regional plans. A number of questions may be deduced: How explicit is the metropolitan scale? How local and how regional is the knowledge basis? Within......Over the last few years new practices of spatial strategy making at different planning scales have emerged. At the metropolitan level, such spatial strategies are reminiscent of national and supranational competitive strategies (e.g. EU policies) as well as ratifications of international...

  11. Spatial variations in US poverty: beyond metropolitan and non-metropolitan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man; Kleit, Rachel Garshick; Cover, Jane; Fowler, Christopher S

    2012-01-01

    Because poverty in rural and urban areas of the US often has different causes, correlates and solutions, effective anti-poverty policies depend on a thorough understanding of the ruralness or urbanness of specific places. This paper compares several widely used classification schemes and the varying magnitudes of poverty that they reveal in the US. The commonly used ‘metropolitan/non-metropolitan’ distinction obscures important socioeconomic differences among metropolitan areas, making our understanding of the geography of poverty imprecise. Given the number and concentration of poor people living in mixed-rural and rural counties in metropolitan regions, researchers and policy-makers need to pay more nuanced attention to the opportunities and constraints such individuals face. A cross-classification of the Office of Management and Budget’s metro system with a nuanced RUDC scheme is the most effective for revealing the geographical complexities of poverty within metropolitan areas.

  12. Metropolitan Washington Area Water Supply Study. Appendix F. Structural Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    particulates (such as S. typhosa and the hepatitus virus) and asbestos fibers pose potential health risks. Particulates also produce indirect health risks due...metals, asbestos fibers , viruses, and other potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Since February 1979, questions were also raised on the suitability of...L Sqg/L ~(%/L (66/1, (66/1, as (g/i a (89/1. (mg/L. (109/L (.6/L attre as 1) as Cl) as 8.) s ) so 110.) 4 ca) a a) COWS) COCO .) an Co) eab) a f) e ft

  13. Determination of the Anthropogenic Carbon Signal to the Total Change in Dissolved Carbon in the Coastal Upwelling Region Along the Washington-Oregon-California Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feely, R. A.

    2016-02-01

    The continental shelf region off the Washington-Oregon-California coast is seasonally exposed to water with a low aragonite saturation state by coastal upwelling of CO2-rich waters. To date, the spatial and temporal distribution of anthropogenic CO2 (Canthro) contribution to the CO2-rich waters is largely unknown. Here we use an adaptation of the linear regression approach described in Feely et al (2008) along with the GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography data sets from the northeast Pacific to establish an annually updated relationship between Canthro and potential density. This relationship was then used with the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program west coast cruise data sets from 2007, 2011, 2012 and 2013 to determine the spatial variations of Canthro in the upwelled water. Our results show large spatial differences in Canthro in surface waters along the coast with the lowest surface values (40-45 µmol kg-1) in strong upwelling regions of off northern California and southern Oregon and higher values (50-70 µmol kg-1) to the north and south. Canthro contributes an average of about 70% of the increased amount of dissolved inorganic carbon in the upwelled waters at the surface. In contrast, at 50 m the Canthro contribution is approximately 31% and at 100 m it averages about 16%. The remaining contributions are primarily due to respiration processes in the water that was upwelled and transported to coastal regions or underwent respiration processes that occurred locally during the course of the upwelling season. The uptake of Canthro has caused the aragonite saturation horizon to shoal by approximately 30-50 m since preindustrial period so that the undersaturated waters are well within the regions that affect the biological communities on the continental shelf.

  14. MPLS for metropolitan area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Nam-Kee

    2004-01-01

    METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS AND MPLSRequirements of Metropolitan Area Network ServicesMetropolitan Area Network OverviewThe Bandwidth DemandThe Metro Service Provider's Business ApproachesThe Emerging Metro Customer Expectations and NeedsSome Prevailing Metro Service OpportunitiesService Aspects and RequirementsRoles of MPLS in Metropolitan Area NetworksMPLS PrimerMPLS ApplicationsTRAFFIC ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKSTraffic Engineering ConceptsNetwork CongestionHyper Aggregation ProblemEasing CongestionNetwork ControlTactical versus Strategic Traffic EngineeringIP/ATM Overl

  15. Analysis of the perception of risk of radiotherapy services in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro using the risk evaluation system in radiotherapy (SEVRRA / FORUM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgos, Adam de Freitas

    2015-01-01

    In this work it was possible to analyze the perception of risks associated with existing processes in the high-dose rate brachytherapy and teletherapy using linear accelerators of radiotherapy services in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, through the combined use of two proposed methods: FMECA and risk matrix, using a general analysis and other more specific ones. The database software (SEVRRA) was used to identify possible existing processes in radiotherapy services (brachytherapy and teletherapy) and to classify the sequence of events in risk levels. The risk levels were analyzed at each stage and sub-stage, present in the treatment of patients undergoing high dose rate gynecological intracavitary brachytherapy and teletherapy treatments with the use of linear accelerators applying electron or photon beams in order to establish recommendations to the risks of highest priority for each case. The results show that although the procedure of high dose rate brachytherapy be automated and less susceptible to errors or failures, daily, one can still find considerable amounts of processes with worrying levels of risk perception. The processes that are more subject to radiological accident risks was associated with procedures, for of which the majority of the failures record and planning step of the treatment. The controls analyzed showed low efficiency, warning of the need to seek and implement new more efficient controls in routine brachytherapy for each participant service. About teletherapy procedure it was found that most of the failures were related to the registration and planning of treatment and equipment stages. The controls analyzed to teletherapy showed a poor result with a first type of analysis performed by suggesting a new type of more appropriate analysis. With a second type of analysis, these controls could be better analyzed and showed an order of importance according to a percentage of efficiency. Controls such as 'Double-check', &apos

  16. Item response theory in the production of indicators of socioeconomic metropolitan region of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i4.10478

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rufino da Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify and produce through models of Item Response Theory (IRT a socio-economic indicator based in the items observed in 2000 Census, following the methodology by Soares (2005. By the IRT Methodology, this indicator, as a latent variable, is obtained through the construction of specific models and scales, making it possible to measure this variable, which according to Andrade et al. (2000, IRT analyzes each item which compose the measuring instrument. This case consists of binary or dichotomous items, which assess the possession of certain assets of domestic comfort. The characteristics of each item were analyzed, as the ability to discrimination and income necessary for the possession of certain property. It was concluded that with 13 items, a trustworthy questionnaire can be done for the construction of a socioeconomic index of Maringa’s metropolitan region.

  17. Analysis of technical feasibility, economic and environmental operation of the lift system Tiete-Billings in the supply of water and electricity in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Luiz

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics of the water from the upper Tiete, as an input in the form of drinking water produced in eight stations, water treatment plant (WTP), an input for hydropower generation and wastewater generated by different anthropogenic activities. The most important problem of this basin is the wastewater that is released in the Pinheiros river and due to the deficit of 32.41 m3/s (2008) in the treatment of sewage in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo ('RMSP') which produces one pollutant load of 920 thousand kilograms of BOD per day. The Pinheiros river's flow during the floods and drought has the same destination, the Billings reservoir. However, the legislation for floods and drought periods are different. The first case - floods occurs by the action of full control of the metropolitan region and is supported by the Joint Resolution of Secretaries of State of Sao Paulo (SEE-SMA-SRHSO on 13/03/96) that allows the pumping of water in the following emergencies: (1) estimates of flow of the Tiete river at the point of its confluence with the river Pinheiros, above 160 m3/ s; (2) raised level above 30 cm water level at the confluence with the river Pinheiros. The second case - drought, the Metropolitan Company for Water and Energy (EMAE) Project proposed flotation of the Secretary of State for the Environment (SMA, 2004) to treat 10 m3/ s water originating channel Pinheiros (set/2007 the set / 2008) by means of flotation technology in flow. Using information based on Environmental Sanitation Great Sao Paulo (SANEGRAN) and data from the operation of the prototype flotation system Pinheiros-Billings (Project QAPB), concluded that the environmental impact of the reservoir Billings for the load of pollutants (mass per second) pumped after the flotation of the Pinheiros river water was always lower than that observed in the flood control operation. The treatment presented by flotation removal of 91% for total phosphorus, 90% for E. coli, 53% for

  18. Washington Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The 1981 Particle Accelerator Conference was held in Washington from 11-13 March. It was the ninth in the series of meetings organized in the USA which differ from the 'International' meetings in their coverage of the full range of accelerator engineering and technology, including applications outside e field of high energy physics. The Conference took place under the cloud of further budget cuts for Fiscal Year 1982 in the USA which the Department of Energy has applied in line with the financial policy of the new administration. Coming on top of many years of budget trimming which have reduced the number of high energy physics Laboratories funded by the DOE to three (Brookhaven, Fermilab, Stanford - Cornell is funded by the National Science Foundation) and reduced the exploitation of these Laboratories to less than half of their potential, the new cuts did not exactly help to boost morale. Nevertheless, the huge amount of tailed work in accelerator physics and technology which was presented at the Conference showed how alive the field is

  19. Report on workshop to incorporate basin response in the design of tall buildings in the Puget Sound region, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Susan; Frankel, Arthur D.; Weaver, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    On March 4, 2013, the City of Seattle and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) convened a workshop of 25 engineers and seismologists to provide recommendations to the City for the incorporation of amplification of earthquake ground shaking by the Seattle sedimentary basin in the design of tall buildings in Seattle. The workshop was initiated and organized by Susan Chang, a geotechnical engineer with the City of Seattle Department of Planning and Development, along with Art Frankel and Craig Weaver of the USGS. C.B. Crouse of URS Corporation, Seattle made key suggestions for the agenda. The USGS provided travel support for most of the out-of-town participants. The agenda and invited attendees are given in the appendix. The attendees included geotechnical and structural engineers working in Seattle, engineers with experience utilizing basin response factors in other regions, and seismologists who have studied basin response in a variety of locations. In this report, we summarize the technical presentations and the recommendations from the workshop.

  20. ‘New urbanism' or metropolitan-level centralization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2011-01-01

    Based on a study in Copenhagen Metropolitan Area, this paper compares the influences of macro-level and micro-level urban form characteristics on the respondents' traveling distance by car on weekdays. The Copenhagen study shows that metropolitan-scale urban structural variables generally exert...... stronger influences than neighborhood-scale built environment characteristics on the amount of car travel. In particular, the location of the residence relative to the main city center of the metropolitan region shows a strong effect. Some local scale variables often mentioned in the literature...

  1. Metropolitanization and Forest Recovery in Southern Brazil: a Multiscale Analysis of the Florianópolis City-Region, Santa Catarina State, 1970 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra R. Baptista

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the contexts of globalization and the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, I present a multiscale analysis of anthropogenic landscape dynamics in the Florianópolis city-region, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Drawing on field research conducted between 2000 and 2004 and a review of the literature, I examined Brazilian demographic and agricultural census data for the period of 1970 to 1995-1996. I hypothesized that economic restructuring, new institutional arrangements, and the valuation of environmental amenities and ecosystem services have contributed to forest recovery trends and thus a forest transition in the city-region. My results indicate that along with rapid urbanization, in-migration, socioeconomic polarization, and segregation, the city-region has experienced the contraction of private agricultural land area, expansion of protected areas, recovery of forests, and conversion of coastal plain ecosystems to built environments. Future analyses of forest transition dynamics should consider the spatial configurations of socioeconomic inequality in city-regions.

  2. non-metropolitan stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Capitals gather constellations of bright and creative people, attracting them from the peripheries. Tchekhov’s sisters were anxious to get to Moscow, d’Artagnan – to Paris. Evtushenko, Shukshin and Gaidai ascended to the climax of their glory, having moved to the capital. Vampilov, Rasputin and Astafiev became internationally famous without leaving their home grounds, but having joined in the metropolitan whirl. In this regard, the architectural profession differs greatly from the literary and cinematographic ones. The destinies of the masters who fulfilled themselves far from the capital are different but equally bright and unique. The Irkutsk “Varangians”of the sixtieth – Voronezhsky, Bukh and Pavlov – built up their relations with geography in a different way:someone came from the capitals just for a few years that became the brightest, the most fruitful and the most interesting years of his creative life. But someone stayed in the non-metropolitan city for a long time and even forever. This subsection contains certain examples of self-fulfillment in the cities distant from the capitals: Khabarovsk, Irkutsk, Bratsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kemerovo and Anzhero-Sudzhensk.

  3. Green Infrastructure Concept for JABODETABEKJUR Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan; Gates Chang, Bill

    2017-07-01

    Sixty “Mega Cities” would emerge by 2015 catering of 600 million populations, and were threatened by the climate change, because of cyclones, flooding, etc. Jakarta became a metro region covering Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok and Cianjur. Jakarta metropolitan faced the very high population growth, urban sprawling, traffic jams, flooding, green open space reduction, environmental degradation, urban slums and illegal street hawkers. Flooding and traffic congestions were the two most important issues to solve. SWOT analysis and urban design solutions were produced to create a sustainable solution. Related to transportation issues, Singapore Mass Rapid Transport (MRT) concept was evaluated. Meanwhile the Netherlands’ polder concept as well as Singapore’s Integrated Water Management were also analyzed. The development of above ground MRT as well as Busway could be developed to connect Jakarta Metropolitan Region. The networks were developed on the main toll road networks. The MRT and Busway would eventually replace the need of automobile use in the future. The Transit - Oriented - Development (TOD) with high density can be suggested to be concentrated nearby the MRT and Busway interchange stations. The Netherlands’ polder and were adopted for urban’ low-lying lands in Jakarta Metropolitan Region, A polder system was defined as the Integrated Man-made Drainage System consisting Dikes, Drains, Retention Ponds, Outfall Structures or Pumping Stations. The polder system was proposed to be extended to Tangerang and Bekasi area.

  4. Classification and categorization of treatment methods for ash generated by municipal solid waste incineration: a case for the 2 greater metropolitan regions of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidis, A; Kontogianni, St; Logothetis, D

    2013-02-01

    The primary goal of managing MSW incineration residues is to avoid any impact on human health or the environment. Incineration residues consist of bottom ash, which is generally considered as rather harmless and fly ash which usually contains compounds which are potentially harmful for public health. Small quantities of ash (both bottom and fly) are produced currently in Greece, mainly from the healthcare waste incineration facility in Attica region. Once incineration plants for MSW (currently under planning) are constructed in Greece, the produced ash quantities will increase highly. Thus, it is necessary to organize, already at this stage, a roadmap towards disposal/recovery methods of these ash quantities expected. Certain methods, related to the treatment of the future generated ash which are more appropriate to be implemented in Greece are highlighted in the present paper. The performed analysis offers a waste management approach, having 2016 as a reference year for two different incineration rates; 30% and 100% of the remaining MSW after recycling process. The results focus on the two greater regions of Greece: Attica and Central Macedonia. The quantity of potential future ash generation ranges from 137 to 459 kt for Attica region and from 62 to 207 kt for central Macedonia region depending on the incineration rate applied. Three alternative scenarios for the treatment of each kind of ash are compiled and analysed. Metal recovery and reuse as an aggregate in concrete construction proved to be the most advantageous -in terms of economy-bottom ash management scenario. Concerning management of the fly ash, chemical treatment with phosphoric solution addition results to be the lowest total treatment cost and is considered as the most profitable solution. The proposed methodology constitutes a safe calculation model for operators of MSW incineration plants regardless of the region or country they are located in. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  5. Synoptic meteorological modes of variability for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality in major metropolitan regions of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Danny M.; Tai, Amos P. K.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Moch, Jonathan M.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Shen, Lu; Martin, Randall V.

    2018-05-01

    In his study, we use a combination of multivariate statistical methods to understand the relationships of PM2.5 with local meteorology and synoptic weather patterns in different regions of China across various timescales. Using June 2014 to May 2017 daily total PM2.5 observations from ˜ 1500 monitors, all deseasonalized and detrended to focus on synoptic-scale variations, we find strong correlations of daily PM2.5 with all selected meteorological variables (e.g., positive correlation with temperature but negative correlation with sea-level pressure throughout China; positive and negative correlation with relative humidity in northern and southern China, respectively). The spatial patterns suggest that the apparent correlations with individual meteorological variables may arise from common association with synoptic systems. Based on a principal component analysis of 1998-2017 meteorological data to diagnose distinct meteorological modes that dominate synoptic weather in four major regions of China, we find strong correlations of PM2.5 with several synoptic modes that explain 10 to 40 % of daily PM2.5 variability. These modes include monsoonal flows and cold frontal passages in northern and central China associated with the Siberian High, onshore flows in eastern China, and frontal rainstorms in southern China. Using the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region as a case study, we further find strong interannual correlations of regionally averaged satellite-derived annual mean PM2.5 with annual mean relative humidity (RH; positive) and springtime fluctuation frequency of the Siberian High (negative). We apply the resulting PM2.5-to-climate sensitivities to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate projections to predict future PM2.5 by the 2050s due to climate change, and find a modest decrease of ˜ 0.5 µg m-3 in annual mean PM2.5 in the BTH region due to more frequent cold frontal ventilation

  6. The impacts of aerosol loading, composition, and water uptake on aerosol extinction variability in the Baltimore–Washington, D.C. region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Beyersdorf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to utilize satellite-based aerosol measurements for the determination of air quality, the relationship between aerosol optical properties (wavelength-dependent, column-integrated extinction measured by satellites and mass measurements of aerosol loading (PM2.5 used for air quality monitoring must be understood. This connection varies with many factors including those specific to the aerosol type – such as composition, size, and hygroscopicity – and to the surrounding atmosphere, such as temperature, relative humidity (RH, and altitude, all of which can vary spatially and temporally. During the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality project, extensive in situ atmospheric profiling in the Baltimore, MD–Washington, D.C. region was performed during 14 flights in July 2011. Identical flight plans and profile locations throughout the project provide meaningful statistics for determining the variability in and correlations between aerosol loading, composition, optical properties, and meteorological conditions. Measured water-soluble aerosol mass was composed primarily of ammonium sulfate (campaign average of 32 % and organics (57 %. A distinct difference in composition was observed, with high-loading days having a proportionally larger percentage of sulfate due to transport from the Ohio River Valley. This composition shift caused a change in the aerosol water-uptake potential (hygroscopicity such that higher relative contributions of inorganics increased the bulk aerosol hygroscopicity. These days also tended to have higher relative humidity, causing an increase in the water content of the aerosol. Conversely, low-aerosol-loading days had lower sulfate and higher black carbon contributions, causing lower single-scattering albedos (SSAs. The average black carbon concentrations were 240 ng m−3 in the lowest 1 km, decreasing to 35

  7. Modeling the formation and aging of secondary organic aerosols in the Los Angeles metropolitan region during the CalNex 2010 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, P. L.; Ma, P. K.; Jimenez, J. L.; Zhao, Y.; Robinson, A. L.; Carlton, A. M. G.; Baker, K. R.; Ahmadov, R.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Alvarez, S. L.; Rappenglück, B.; Gilman, J.; Kuster, W.; De Gouw, J. A.; Prevot, A. S.; Zotter, P.; Szidat, S.; Kleindienst, T. E.; Offenberg, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Several different literature parameterizations for the formation and evolution of urban secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are evaluated using a box model representing the Los Angeles Region during CalNex. The model SOA formed only from the oxidation of VOCs (V-SOA) is insufficient to explain the observed SOA concentrations, even when using SOA parameterizations with multi-generation oxidation that produce much higher yields than have been observed in chamber experiments, or when increasing yields to their upper limit estimates accounting for recently reported losses of vapors to chamber walls. Including SOA from primary semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (P-S/IVOCs) following the parameterizations of Robinson et al. (2007), Grieshop et al. (2009), or Pye and Seinfeld (2010) improves model/measurement agreement for mass concentration at shorter photochemical ages (0.5 days). Our results strongly suggest that other precursors besides VOCs are needed to explain the observed SOA concentrations. In contrast, all of the literature P-S/IVOC parameterizations over-predict urban SOA formation at long photochemical ages (3 days) compared to observations from multiple sites, which can lead to problems in regional and global modeling. Sensitivity studies that reduce the IVOC emissions by one-half in the model improve SOA predictions at these long ages. In addition, when IVOC emissions in the Robinson et al. parameterization are constrained using recently reported measurements of these species model/measurement agreement is achieved. The amounts of SOA mass from diesel vehicles, gasoline vehicles, and cooking emissions are estimated to be 16 - 27%, 35 - 61%, and 19 - 35%, respectively, depending on the parameterization used, which is consistent with the observed fossil fraction of urban SOA, 71(±3)%. The percentage of SOA from diesel vehicle emissions is the same, within the estimated uncertainty, as reported in previous work that analyzed the weekly

  8. Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy has been prepared in close cooperation with the four cities of the metropolitan area (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen), the Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority HSY and other municipal, regional and state level organisations. In the strategy, strategic starting points and policies with which the metropolitan area prepares for the consequences of climate change, are compiled. The Helsinki Metropolitan Area adaptation strategy concentrates on the adaptation of the built and urban environment to the changing climate. The vision of the strategy is climate proof city - the future is built now. The strategy aims to (1) assess the impacts of climate change in the area, (2) prepare for the impacts of climate change and to extreme weather events and (3) to reduce the vulnerabilities of the area to climate variability and change. The target is to secure the well-being of the citizens and the functioning of the cities also in the changing climate conditions. The preparation of the adaptation strategy started in 2009 by producing the background studies. They include the regional climate and sea level scenarios, modelling of river floods in climate change conditions and a survey of climate change impacts in the region. Also, existing programmes, legislation, research and studies concerning adaptation were collected. The background studies are published in a report titled 'The Helsinki metropolitan area climate is changing - Adaptation strategy background studies' (in Finnish) (HSY 2010). HSY coordinated the strategy preparation. The work was carried out is close cooperation with the experts of the metropolitan area cities, regional emergency services, Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki Region Transport Authority and other regional organisations. The strategy work has had a steering group that consists of representatives of the cities and other central cooperation partners. The

  9. Do Latino and non-Latino grocery stores differ in the availability and affordability of healthy food items in a low-income, metropolitan region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Jennifer A; Madanat, Hala N; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2012-02-01

    To compare non-ethnically based supermarkets and Latino grocery stores (tiendas) in a lower-income region with regard to the availability, quality and cost of several healthy v. unhealthy food items. A cross-sectional study conducted by three independent observers to audit twenty-five grocery stores identified as the main source of groceries for 80 % of Latino families enrolled in a childhood obesity study. Stores were classified as supermarkets and tiendas on the basis of key characteristics. South San Diego County. Ten tiendas and fifteen supermarkets. Tiendas were smaller than supermarkets (five v. twelve aisles, P = 0·003). Availability of fresh produce did not differ by store type; quality differed for one fruit item. Price per unit (pound or piece) was lower in tiendas for most fresh produce. The cost of meeting the US Department of Agriculture's recommended weekly servings of produce based on an 8368 kJ (2000 kcal)/d diet was $US 3·00 lower in tiendas compared with supermarkets (P income communities. However, efforts are needed to increase the access and affordability of healthy dairy and meat products.

  10. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  11. Current State of and Needs for Hepatitis B Screening: Results of a Large Screening Study in a Low-Prevalent, Metropolitan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottero, Julie; Boyd, Anders; Lemoine, Maud; Carrat, Fabrice; Gozlan, Joel; Collignon, Anne; Boo, Nicolas; Dhotte, Philippe; Varsat, Brigitte; Muller, Gerard; Cha, Olivier; Valin, Nadia; Nau, Jean; Campa, Pauline; Silbermann, Benjamin; Bary, Marc; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Lacombe, Karine

    2014-01-01

    Background In low hepatitis B virus (HBV)-prevalent countries, most HBV-infected persons are unaware of their status. We aimed to evaluate whether (i) previous HBV-testing, (ii) physicians decision to screen, and (iii) CDC's recommendations identified infected individuals and which risk-factor groups needing testing. Methods During a mass, multi-center HBV-screening study from September 2010-August 2011, 3929 participants were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HBs and anti-Hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBcAb). Questions on HBV risk-factors and testing practices were asked to participants, while participants' eligibility for HBV-testing was asked to study medical professionals. Results 85 (2.2%) participants were HBsAg-positive, while 659 (16.8%) had either resolved HBV infection or isolated anti-HBcAb. When comparing practices, HBV-testing was more likely to occur in HBV-infected participants if Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations were used (Sensitivity = 100%, 95%CI: 95.8–100) than physicians' discretion (Sensitivity = 87.1%, 95%CI: 78.0–93.4) or previous HBV-test (Sensitivity = 36.5%, 95%CI: 26.3–47.6) (p<0.0001). Nevertheless, many non-infected individuals would still have been screened using CDC-recommendations (Specificity = 31.1%, 95%CI: 29.6–32.6). Using multivariable logistic regression, HBsAg-positive status was significantly associated with the following: males, originating from high HBV-endemic region, contact with HBV-infected individual, without national healthcare, and intravenous-drug user (IDU). Of these risk-factors, physician's discretion for testing HBV was not significantly associated with participants' geographical origin or IDU. Conclusions Missed opportunities of HBV-screening are largely due to underestimating country of origin as a risk-factor. Applying CDC-recommendations could improve HBV-screening, but with the disadvantage of many tests. Further development of

  12. Major soil classes of the metropolitan region of Curitiba (PR, Brazil: I - mineralogical characterization of the sand, silt and clay fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Duarte Pires

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the mineralogical and chemical characteristics of most representative soils of the Region of Curitiba, Paraná State. Samples were collected at different depths. The results showed: (a the quartz was the only identified mineral at the silt and sand fractions. The dominant clay mineral was Kaolinite, with contents ranging from 676.7 to 820.8 g kg-1. The gibbsite was also an important constituent of the most weathered horizons and the hematite and goethite contents were low, mainly in the Histosol; (b at the C horizon of the Inceptisol, high intensity of vermiculite/smectite reflections were detected (X-ray diffraction, justifying the high capacity of expansion and contraction, normally showed for this soil horizon; (c was observed a good relation between pedogenetic degree and crystallographic mineral characteristics.Devido a grande importância dos minerais, notadamente aqueles da fração argila, sobre o planejamento de uso e sobre os impactos das atividades antrópicas, estudos detalhados da composição dos solos das regiões metropolitanas são imprescindíveis. Para avaliar as características mineralógicas e químicas de solos mais representativos da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba, estado do Paraná, foram coletadas amostras das classes Organossolo, Latossolo e Cambissolo, em diferentes profundidades. As frações areia, silte e argila foram estudadas por difratometria de Raios-X (DRX e a fração mais fina foi submetida a análise térmica e extrações químicas com oxalato de amônio (OA, ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato (DCB e solução de NaOH 5 mol L-1 fervente. As características cristalográficas da hematita (Hm, goethita (Gt, gibbsita (Gb e caulinita (Ct foram determinadas por DRX. Os resultados permitiram concluir que: (a o quartzo foi o único mineral identificado nas frações areia e silte. Na fração argila, verificou-se o predomínio de Ct, com teores variando de 661,7 a 820,8 g kg-1

  13. PM 2.5-10, PM 2.5 and associated water-soluble inorganic species at a coastal urban site in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Rauda L.; de Mello, William Z.

    The concentrations of PM 2.5-10, PM 2.5 and associated water-soluble inorganic species (WSIS) were determined in a coastal site of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, from October 1998 to September 1999 ( n=50). Samples were dissolved in water and analyzed for major inorganic ions. The mean (± standard deviation; median) concentrations of PM 2.5-10 and PM 2.5 were, respectively, 26 (± 16; 21) μg m -3 and 17 (± 13; 14) μg m -3. Their mean concentrations were 1.7-1.8 times higher in dry season (May-October) than in rainy season (November-April). The WSIS comprised, respectively, 34% and 28% of the PM 2.5-10 and PM 2.5 masses. Chloride, Na + and Mg 2+ were the predominant ions in PM 2.5-10, indicating a significant influence of sea-salt aerosols. In PM 2.5, SO 42- (˜97% nss-SO 42-) and NH 4+ were the most abundant ions and their equivalent concentration ratio (SO 42-/NH 4+ ˜1.0) suggests that they were present as (NH 4) 2SO 4 particles. The mean concentration of (NH 4) 2SO 4 was 3.4 μg m -3. The mean equivalent PM 2.5 NO 3- concentration was eight times smaller than those of SO 42- and NH 4+. The PM 2.5 NO 3- concentration in dry season was three times higher than in rainy season, probably due to reaction of NaCl (sea salt) with HNO 3 as a result of higher levels of NO y during the dry season and/or reduced volatilization of NH 4NO 3 due to lower wintertime temperature. Chloride depletion was observed in both size ranges, although more pronouncely in PM 2.5.

  14. University of Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...

  15. Polycentric Structures in Latin American Metropolitan Areas : Identifying Employment Sub-centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Maldonado, Ana María; Romein, Arie; Verkoren, Otto|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073181773; Parente Paula Pessoa, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Fernández-Maldonado A. M., Romein A., Verkoren O. and Parente Paula Pessoa R. Polycentric structures in Latin American metropolitan areas: identifying employment sub-centres, Regional Studies. The significant spatial transformations that have occurred within Latin American metropolitan areas since

  16. Mapeando Programas de Redução de Danos da Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre / Mapping harm reduction programs in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Quadros Rigoni (Rafaela); H.C. Nardi (Henrique)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis study mapped and described 11 harm reduction interventions/programs in Greater Metropolitan Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 2004-2006. Mapping was based on interviews and analysis of available documents and comparison with a previous study with data from 2003. We

  17. Metropolitan City: the Italian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Franco Ferrari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that the definitions of territorial organization are no longer adequate, the concept of “metropolitan areas” arises as a solution to resolve such deficit. This study shows the beginnings of this figure in Italy and the problems of identification and delimitation caused by the abstraction of the norms, therefore entailing a difficult implementation of the concept of metropolitan cities. By identifying these obstacles, this paper presents an analysis where it is possible to ensure compliance with this new reality in the near future.

  18. Aquisição dos fonemas fricativos coronais por crianças da região metropolitana do recife The acquisition of coronal fricatives by children of Recife's metropolitan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Augusta de Andrade Cordeiro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar a aquisição das fricativas coronais por crianças de creches/escolas públicas da Região Metropolitana do Recife. MÉTODOS: 40 crianças frequentadoras de quatro creches/escolas, com idades entre 2 a 6 anos e 11 meses, sendo 20 do sexo masculino e 20 do sexo feminino. O instrumento utilizado foi constituído por figuras que visavam à nomeação de 83 palavras que possuíam os fonemas-alvos: /s/ (32, /z/ (11, /∫/ (21, /ℑ/ (19, selecionadas a partir das variáveis linguísticas tonicidade e estrutura silábica. As crianças foram divididas em 10 grupos, de acordo com a faixa etária. Considerou-se o percentual de 80% de produção como indicativo de aquisição do fonema-alvo. RESULTADOS: o início da produção das fricativas coronais deu-se na faixa etária de 2:0-2:5 anos. Observou-se que os fonemas /∫/, /ℑ/ e /z/ foram adquiridos aos 3:0-3:5 anos e o fonema /s/ aos 2:6-2:11 anos. Os processos fonológicos mais comumente encontrados foram substituição e omissão. Também foi observado com bastante frequência a troca semântica. CONCLUSÕES: a aquisição das fricativas coronais das crianças frequentadoras de escolas e creches públicas da Região Metropolitana do Recife ocorre mais tardiamente quando comparada à literatura nacional e sofre influência de variáveis linguísticas. É importante salientar que há uma diversidade linguística e sócio-cultural no território brasileiro, de forma que os dados observados em algumas regiões não são necessariamente correspondentes em todas as regiões do Brasil. Esse aspecto deve ser considerado em estudos que pretendem fixar parâmetros de avaliação fonológica, sobretudo se houver fins de diagnóstico de desvios fonológicos.PURPOSE: to investigate the acquisition of coronal fricatives by public county schools' children of Recife's metropolitan region. METHODS: 40 children from four schools with ages between 2 and 6 year and eleven month old, whereas 20

  19. Metropolitan siting: a historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunch, D.F.

    1978-09-01

    The paper discusses the development and implementation of the Reactor Site Criteria and particularly the evolving posture of the agency on the subject of metropolitan siting. The review actions on nine sites are described to illustrate the various issues and positions and to clarify at least some of the bases for current practices of the NRC staff

  20. Evaluation of available data on the geohydrology, soil chemistry, and groundwater chemistry of Gas Works Park and surrounding region, Seattle, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabol, M.A.; Turney, G.L.; Ryals, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    Gas Works Park, in Seattle, Washington, is located at the site of an abandon gasification plant on Lake Union. Soil contaminants include polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides volatile organic compounds, cyanide, and metals PAHs and metals have been detected in Lake Union sediments. Maximum total PAH concentrations exceeded 100 million micrograms/kilogram in some places in the soils of the park at 6-inch depths and in some lake sediments. Other contaminants present are much lower in concentrations. The park is on glacial drift overlain by gasification waste materials and clean fill. Waste materials include sand and gravels, mixed with lampblack, oil, bricks, and other industrial wastes. Groundwater flows through the soils and waste toward Lake Union. Vertical groundwater movement is uncertain, but is assumed to be upward near Lake Union. Concentrations of most soil contaminants are probably low in the groundwater and in Lake Union due to the low solubilities and high sorptive, characteristics of these contaminants. However, no water quality data are available to confirm this premise. 14 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Evaluation of available data on the geohydrology, soil chemistry, and ground-water chemistry of Gas Works Park and surrounding region, Seattle, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabol, M.A.; Turney, G.L.; Ryals, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    Gas Works Park, in Seattle, Washington, is located at the site of an abandon gasification plant on Lake Union. Wastes deposited during 50 years of plant operations (1906-1956) have extended the shore line 100 ft and left the park soil contaminated with a number of hazardous material. Soil contaminants include polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, cyanide, and metals. PAHs and metals have been detected in Lake Union sediments. Maximum total PAH concentrations exceeded 100 million micrograms/kilogram in some places in the soils of the park at 6-inch depths and in some lake sediments. Other contaminants present are much lower in concentrations. The park is on glacial drift overlain by gasification waste materials and clean fill. Waste materials include sand and gravels, mixed with lampblack, oil, bricks, and other industrial wastes. Groundwater flows through the soils and waste toward Lake Union. Vertical groundwater movement is uncertain, but is assumed to be upward near Lake Union. Concentrations of most soil contaminants are probably low in the groundwater and in Lake Union due to the low solubilities and high sorptive characteristics of these contaminants. However, no water quality data are available to confirm this premise. (USGS)

  2. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Ciba-Geigy Site (McIntosh Plant), Washington County, McIntosh, AL. (Third remedial action), July 1992. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 1,500-acre Ciba-Geigy site is an active chemical manufacturer in an industrial area in McIntosh, Washington County, Alabama. A wetlands area borders the site property, and part of the site lies within the floodplain of the Tombigbee River. In 1985, EPA issued a RCRA permit that included a corrective action plan requiring Ciba-Geigy to remove and treat ground water and surface water contamination at the site. Further investigations by EPA revealed 11 former waste management areas of potential contamination onsite. These areas contain a variety of waste, debris, pesticide by-products and residues. The ROD addresses a final remedy for OU4, which includes contaminated soil and sludge in former waste management Area 8 and the upper dilute ditch. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sludge, and debris are VOCs, including benzene, toluene, and xylenes; other organics, including pesticides; metals, including arsenic, chromium, and lead; and inorganics, including cyanide. The selected remedial action for the site are included

  3. LA COLECTIVIZACIÓN DE LA VIVIENDA EN EL SUBURBIO DE BAJA DENSIDAD. APROXIMACIONES A PROPÓSITO DEL PLAN TERRITORIAL METROPOLITANO DE BARCELONA / The collectivization of housing in the low density suburbs. Approaches regarding the regional metropolitan plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Joan Sauquet Llonch

    2011-11-01

    that are of concern, but also the dependence of the inhabitants on the car and the inadequacy of public transport. To minimize commuting, the Regional Metropolitan Plan of Barcelona proposes to insert density pockets within these areas. However, the Plan has no specific architectural proposals, but simply points towards one direction. Beyond the environmental criteria, this article uses this proposal of the Plan to reflect on what sensitivities suburban collective housing should respect, understanding that it is with the inhabitant and their way of life in mind that we must begin to address the “collectivization” of the suburb. The approach is made by reviewing examples of residential architecture that emerged at different times of the twentieth century which resolved, one way or another, the relationship of the house with a private outdoor space, a relationship of particular importance for any suburban dweller. These models fall into three groups: workers’ housing in the first third of the century, the terraced buildings generated during the Modern Movement and the “unfinished” residential designs of the third world. After looking at the resources used in these models we conclude with a series of inspired considerations, while in other recent residential examples we attempt to illuminate the current dilemma between density and suburb.

  4. Modelagem do volume do povoamento para Mimosa scabrella Benth. na regição metropolitana de Curitiba Stand volume modelling of Mimosa scabrella benth. from Curitiba metropolitan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião do Amaral Machado

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi modelar o volume total com casca do povoamento da bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth.. Coletaram-se dados em bracatingais com regeneração induzida pelo fogo, em 14 municípios da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba (RMC, Estado do Paraná - Brasil. Utilizou-se uma base de dados constituída por 229 unidades amostrais de 100 a 400 m². Em cada parcela, mensurou-se o diâmetro à altura do peito, bem como a altura total de todas as árvores, em bracatingais de 3 a 18 anos de idade. Para a estimativa do volume total com casca, testaram-se vários modelos de regressão selecionados da literatura, o que gerou uma matriz com 58 variáveis independentes, visando construir modelos por meio do método Stepwise. As equações de melhor ajuste foram validadas utilizando-se o teste Qui-quadrado, a análise gráfica de resíduos e o erro-padrão da estimativa. Várias equações tiveram bom desempenho, apresentaram valores de coeficiente de determinação ajustados superiores a 0,995, erro-padrão da estimativa inferior a 3% e adequada distribuição de resíduos. As duas equações de melhor desempenho foram validadas, apresentando erro-padrão da estimativa de 2,37% e 2,13%, valor não-significativo para o teste do Qui-quadrado e equilibrada distribuição dos resíduos.The objective of this research was to model the stand volume outside bark of Mimosa scabrella Benth. stands, from the Curitiba Metropolitan Region (CMR, Parana State - Brazil. To reach this aim, a database of 229 permanent and temporary sample plots measuring from 100 to 400 m² each, from 14 municipalities in the CMR, was used. In each sample plot, the diameter at breast height and the total height of all 3- to 18-year-old bracatinga trees were measured. To estimate the total volume, regression models selected from the literature were tested. A set of 58 independent variables was generated also to construct models by the Stepwise method. The equations of best

  5. Comparative Analysis of User-Generated Online Yelp Reviews for Periodontal Practices in Multiple Metropolitan Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzclaw, Dan J

    2017-02-01

    Previously published research for a single metropolitan market (Austin, Texas) found that periodontists fare poorly on the Yelp website for nearly all measured metrics, including average star ratings, number of reviews, review removal rate, and evaluations by "elite" Yelp users. The purpose of the current study is to confirm or refute these findings by expanding datasets to additional metropolitan markets of various sizes and geographic locations. A total of 6,559 Yelp reviews were examined for general dentists, endodontists, pediatric dentists, oral surgeons, orthodontists, and periodontists in small (Austin, Texas), medium (Seattle, Washington), and large (New York City, New York) metropolitan markets. Numerous review characteristics were evaluated, including: 1) total number of reviews; 2) average star rating; 3) review filtering rate; and 4) number of reviews by Yelp members with elite status. Results were compared in multiple ways to determine whether statistically significant differences existed. In all metropolitan markets, periodontists were outperformed by all other dental specialties for all measured Yelp metrics in this study. Intermetropolitan comparisons of periodontal practices showed no statistically significant differences. Periodontists were outperformed consistently by all other dental specialties in every measured metric on the Yelp website. These results were consistent and repeated in all three metropolitan markets evaluated in this study. Poor performance of periodontists on Yelp may be related to the age profile of patients in the typical periodontal practice. This may result in inadvertently biased filtering of periodontal reviews and subsequently poor performance in multiple other categories.

  6. Regional cooperation in transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    As Floridas urbanized areas grow and merge, : neighboring jurisdictions experience interrelated : problems and opportunities, and regional : cooperation becomes an imperative. In the : transportation sector, Floridas metropolitan : planning org...

  7. Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2013-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments

  8. Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Urban structure influences directly or indirectly the majority of all green house gas (GHG) emissions in cities. The prevailing belief is that dense metropolitan areas produce less carbon emissions on a per capita basis than less dense surrounding rural areas. Consequently, density targets have a major role in low-carbon urban developments. However, based on the results of this study, the connection seems unclear or even nonexistent when comprehensive evaluation is made. In this letter, we propose a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) method for calculating the consumption-based carbon footprints in metropolitan areas, i.e. carbon consumption, with the emphasis on urban structures. The method is input-output-based hybrid LCA, which operates with the existing data from the region. The study is conducted by performing an analysis of the carbon consumption in two metropolitan areas in Finland, including 11 cities. Both areas consist of a dense city core and a less dense surrounding suburban area. The paper will illustrate that the influence of urban density on carbon emissions is insignificant in the selected metropolitan areas. In addition, the utilized consumption-based method links the climate effects of city-level development to the global production of emissions.

  9. Subduction zone and crustal dynamics of western Washington; a tectonic model for earthquake hazards evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Dal; Villaseñor, Antonio; Benz, Harley

    1999-01-01

    The Cascadia subduction zone is extremely complex in the western Washington region, involving local deformation of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate and complicated block structures in the crust. It has been postulated that the Cascadia subduction zone could be the source for a large thrust earthquake, possibly as large as M9.0. Large intraplate earthquakes from within the subducting Juan de Fuca plate beneath the Puget Sound region have accounted for most of the energy release in this century and future such large earthquakes are expected. Added to these possible hazards is clear evidence for strong crustal deformation events in the Puget Sound region near faults such as the Seattle fault, which passes through the southern Seattle metropolitan area. In order to understand the nature of these individual earthquake sources and their possible interrelationship, we have conducted an extensive seismotectonic study of the region. We have employed P-wave velocity models developed using local earthquake tomography as a key tool in this research. Other information utilized includes geological, paleoseismic, gravity, magnetic, magnetotelluric, deformation, seismicity, focal mechanism and geodetic data. Neotectonic concepts were tested and augmented through use of anelastic (creep) deformation models based on thin-plate, finite-element techniques developed by Peter Bird, UCLA. These programs model anelastic strain rate, stress, and velocity fields for given rheological parameters, variable crust and lithosphere thicknesses, heat flow, and elevation. Known faults in western Washington and the main Cascadia subduction thrust were incorporated in the modeling process. Significant results from the velocity models include delineation of a previously studied arch in the subducting Juan de Fuca plate. The axis of the arch is oriented in the direction of current subduction and asymmetrically deformed due to the effects of a northern buttress mapped in the velocity models. This

  10. Violência, etnia e cor: um estudo dos diferenciais na região metropolitana de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Violence, ethnic group, and skin color: a study of disparities in the metropolitan region of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceci Vilar Noronha

    1999-04-01

    para a manutenção da ordem pública se os altos níveis de descontentamento com as instituições de prevenção e repressão dos crimes persistirem juntamente com a predisposição dos indivíduos para apoiar a utilização da violência como solução para os conflitos.The objective of this study was to analyze the distribution of various forms of violence-structural, institutional, interpersonal, and crime-related-in the three most common color groups of Bahian society: mulattos, whites, and blacks. The study compared the levels of victimization of mulatto, white, and black individuals with their assessments of the efficiency of crime-control institutions, in order to ascertain how that relates to those same citizens’ acceptance of authoritarian attitudes and norms. The data analyzed came from the multicenter project on Attitudes and Cultural Standards about Violence (ACTIVA project, from a sample of 1384 residents of the Salvador metropolitan region. The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey, with interviews done in the people’s homes between September and December of 1996. The sample selection was done in three stages: first, residential areas were chosen at random; then, a systematic selection was made from the homes in each of the selected areas; finally, the persons to be interviewed were chosen at random. To collect the data the researchers used a pretested questionnaire that had been designed for the ACTIVA study. The results showed an unequal distribution of structural violence that mainly affected blacks. There were no differences by color group for interpersonal and institutional violence. Criminal violence impacted whites and blacks to the same degree. Distrust in the efficiency of the civil and military police and in the justice and penal systems was very high among all three color groups. Moreover, few differences were found among the groups with regard to authoritarian attitudes and norms. Based on the results, it is possible to conclude

  11. Factors associated with the successful aging of the socially-active elderly in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre Fatores associados ao envelhecimento bem-sucedido de idosos socialmente ativos da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Feliz Duarte de Moraes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the factors associated with aging of the socially-active elderly in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving a sample of 400 elderly subjects. Through a conglomerate analysis using the combined results of the Flanagan Scale and the quality of life assessment instrument developed by the World Health Organization (WHOQOL-100, the subjects classified as presenting a higher quality of life were considered to have aged successfully. RESULTS: After having been adjusted for the variables gender, age, level of depression, despair, perceived health status, meaning that personal beliefs give to life, satisfaction with social activities and relations, the following factors maintained their independent and meaningful effect on successful aging: family relations and friendships (OR = 4.93; 95% CI: 2.83-8.60, health and perceived well being (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.07-2.59, functional capacity (OR = 23.70; 95% CI: 10.98-51.06 and psychosocial support (OR = 7.36; 95% CI: 4.00-13.54. CONCLUSIONS: Independence in performing daily life activities and autonomy, as well as satisfaction with family relations and friendships, were independent predictive factors of successful aging for both men and women. For women in particular, there were various predictive factors: material comfort; feeling physically well; body image and appearance; self-esteem; positive feelings; interpersonal relationships; social support; participation in recreational activities; sexuality; spirituality; and beliefs. The elderly maintain a relationship with themselves, with others and with their beliefs. Family is the main social support system.OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores associados ao envelhecimento bem-sucedido de idosos socialmente ativos da Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 400 idosos. Pela análise de conglomerados, utilizando os resultados simultâneos da escala de Flanagan

  12. Final Report: Feasibility Study of Biomass in Snohomish County, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daryl Williams (Tulalip Tribes); Ray Clark (Clark Group)

    2005-01-31

    This report and its attachments summarizes the results of a unique tribal-farmer cooperative study to evaluate the feasibility of building one or more regional anaerobic digestion systems in Snohomish County, Washington.

  13. Quality of life of head and neck cancer patients in urban and regional areas: An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateman, Kelsey A; Cockburn, Nicole L; Batstone, Martin D; Ford, Pauline J

    2018-06-01

    Head and neck cancer treatment affects quality of life. There are differences in quality of life outcomes and perceived supportive care needs between cancer patients living in metropolitan and regional-remote areas. This study investigated quality of life over the first 6 months following head and neck cancer diagnosis and observed differences in quality of life by geographical location. Prospective observational study. Tertiary hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Newly diagnosed patients who were referred for the diagnosis, and/or treatment of head and neck cancer. Quality of life was measured by the University of Washington Quality of Life Survey, version 4 (UW-QoL). Participants completed the UW-QoL questionnaire prior to starting treatment, 1 month and 6 months post treatment. Metropolitan and regional or remote status was classified according to the Australian Standard Geographic Classification-Remoteness Area system. Ninety-five participants were included at baseline; 49 and 41 participants completed the 1-month and 6-month follow-ups, respectively. Scores in most UW-QoL domains decreased between baseline and 1 month post treatment and increased towards pre-treatment scores at the 6-month follow-up (except for anxiety and saliva). Pain at baseline was significantly worse in the regional-remote participants compared with metropolitan participants. No other statistically significant differences in UW-QoL score by geographical location were observed. The findings generally did not support significant differences in quality of life outcome between metropolitan and regional-remote head and neck cancer patients. The difference in pain experience between metropolitan and regional-remote groups requires further investigation. © 2018 National Rural Health Alliance Ltd.

  14. Premises for Shaping Metropolitan Areas in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAULARIAN RUSU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The setting up of metropolitan areas is a process which is still in progress in Romania. The legislative framework for the creation of these areas has been built up only since 2001, and there are still a number of juridical inconsistencies concerning the association of administrative units to form metropolitan areas. On the other hand, political reasons and the fear of losing a certain degree of authority and to become subordinates of the large cities (in the case of rural municipalities also hindered the development of metropolitan areas in Romania. Nevertheless, the metropolitan areas already in existence are running a number of projects that are beneficial for most members of the association. Such positive examples may trigger the creation of the other metropolitan areas. Although the existing metropolitan areas did not yield spectacular results, the time passed since their foundation is yet too short to correctly assess their usefulness and territorial meaning. For the moment, the following metropolitan areas exist in Romania: Iaşi, Oradea, Braşov, Constanţa, Bacău, Cluj-Napoca, Târgu Mureş and Craiova. Bucharest, Timişoara, Ploieşti and Galaţi-Brăila metropolitan areas are still in process of setting up.

  15. Recent developments: Washington focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    November was a quiet month in Washington. Although Congress has recessed until 1991, the Senate filled vacancies in party leadership positions created by November's elections. The House is expected to proceed with its changes in early December. The Nuclear Energy Forum was held in Washington, DC on November 11-14 to discuss the status of the nuclear industry in the USA. The Forum, held in conjunction with the American Nuclear Society's annual meeting, assembled a large number of CEO's from US, European, and Far Eastern utilities and vendors. The meeting concluded with an announcement by Philip Bayne, President of NYPA and chairman of the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (NPOC), of the results of a year-long NPOC study entitled a open-quotes Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Power Plants.close quotes

  16. Healthcare Antibiotic Resistance Prevalence - DC (HARP-DC): A Regional Prevalence Assessment of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in Healthcare Facilities in Washington, District of Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Jacqueline; Donegan, Nancy; Wortmann, Glenn; DeBiasi, Roberta; Song, Xiaoyan; Kumar, Princy; McFadden, Mary; Clagon, Sylvia; Mirdamadi, Janet; White, Diane; Harris, Jo Ellen; Browne, Angella; Hooker, Jane; Yochelson, Michael; Walker, Milena; Little, Gary; Jernigan, Gail; Hansen, Kathleen; Dockery, Brenda; Sinatro, Brendan; Blaylock, Morris; Harmon, Kimary; Iyengar, Preetha; Wagner, Trevor; Nelson, Jo Anne

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a significant clinical and public health concern. Understanding the distribution of CRE colonization and developing a coordinated approach are key components of control efforts. The prevalence of CRE in the District of Columbia is unknown. We sought to determine the CRE colonization prevalence within healthcare facilities (HCFs) in the District of Columbia using a collaborative, regional approach. DESIGN Point-prevalence study. SETTING This study included 16 HCFs in the District of Columbia: all 8 acute-care hospitals (ACHs), 5 of 19 skilled nursing facilities, 2 (both) long-term acute-care facilities, and 1 (the sole) inpatient rehabilitation facility. PATIENTS Inpatients on all units excluding psychiatry and obstetrics-gynecology. METHODS CRE identification was performed on perianal swab samples using real-time polymerase chain reaction, culture, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). Prevalence was calculated by facility and unit type as the number of patients with a positive result divided by the total number tested. Prevalence ratios were compared using the Poisson distribution. RESULTS Of 1,022 completed tests, 53 samples tested positive for CRE, yielding a prevalence of 5.2% (95% CI, 3.9%-6.8%). Of 726 tests from ACHs, 36 (5.0%; 95% CI, 3.5%-6.9%) were positive. Of 244 tests from long-term-care facilities, 17 (7.0%; 95% CI, 4.1%-11.2%) were positive. The relative prevalence ratios by facility type were 0.9 (95% CI, 0.5-1.5) and 1.5 (95% CI, 0.9-2.6), respectively. No CRE were identified from the inpatient rehabilitation facility. CONCLUSION A baseline CRE prevalence was established, revealing endemicity across healthcare settings in the District of Columbia. Our study establishes a framework for interfacility collaboration to reduce CRE transmission and infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:921-929.

  17. ELECTRICITY DEMAND IN A NORTHERN MEXICO METROPOLITAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Fullerton

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Using an error correction framework, this study analyzes the long- and short-run dynamics of electricity demand in Ciudad Juarez, a large metropolitan economy on Mexico’s northern border. Demand is decomposed into the total number of electricity accounts and electricity usage per customer, each of which is modeled separately. A two-stage least squares approach is used to estimate the per customer electricity demand equations due to the endogeneity of the average price variable. The results indicate sustained growth in population, employment, and income can be expected to exert substantial upward pressure on regional electric power demand. Furthermore, demand is found to be price-inelastic in this metropolitan area, suggesting that rate increases can help raise the revenues necessary to fund expansion of the electrical grid.

  18. Urban index modelling for forecasting of channeled natural gas market: an example in Sao Paulo metropolitan region; Modelagem de indicadores urbanos para previsao do mercado de gas natural canalizado: um exemplo na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massara, Vanessa Meloni; Faga, Murilo Tadeu Werneck; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales [Universidade Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: vmassara@iee.usp.br; murfaga@iee.usp.br; udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper aims to present a systemic model for analysis of the expansion and grow up of the natural gas distribution pipeline in a city. This methodology integrates the understanding of the urban dynamics to the strategies of expansion in the natural gas distribution network, through the grouping of information such as family income, demographic density and construction area, percentage of land use, number of households as well as commercial, service and industrial establishments, number of real state as well as indicative information released by the Urban Plan of the city regarding the increments in the peripheral districts. Relating the gas consumption esteemed by each type of land occupation and the cost for expanding the gas distribution network, the model will indicate, for each neighborhood, the viability of implementing a gas network as well as the places with potential for growing density in the existing gas distribution system. The aim is to propose an integration of aspects of city dynamics and new energy source development, taking the advance of natural gas in Sao Paulo Metropolitan area as a specific case study. Through the analysis of highly industrialized, residential and commercial suburbs of the City of Sao Caetano do Sul, the importance of urban parameters in the decision making process for network expansion is identified. (author)

  19. Water resources of King County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Donald; Bingham, J.W.; Madison, R.J.; Williams, R.

    1968-01-01

    Although the total supply of water in King County is large, water problems are inevitable because of the large and rapidly expanding population. The county contains a third of the 3 million people in Washington, most of the population being concentrated in the Seattle metropolitan area. King County includes parts of two major physiographic features: the western area is part of the Puget Sound Lowland, and the eastern area is part of the Cascade Range. In these two areas, the terrain, weather, and natural resources (including water) contrast markedly. Average annual precipitation in the county is about 80 inches, ranging from about 30 inches near Puget Sound to more than 150 inches in parts of the Cascades. Annual evapotranspiration is estimated to range from 15 to 24 inches. Average annual runoff ranges from about 15 inches in the lowlands to more than 100 inches in the mountains. Most of the streamflow is in the major basins of the county--the Green-Duwamish, Lake Washington, and Snoqualmie basins. The largest of these is the Snoqualmie River basin (693 square miles), where average annual runoff during the period 1931-60 was about 79 inches. During the same period, annual runoff in the Lake Washington basin ( 607 square miles) averaged about 32 inches, and in the Green-Duwamish River basin (483 square miles), about 46 inches. Seasonal runoff is generally characterized by several high-flow periods in the winter, medium flows in the spring, and sustained low flows in the summer and fall. When floods occur in the county they come almost exclusively between October and March. The threat of flood damage is greatest on the flood plaits of the larger rivers, but in the Green-Duwamish Valley the threat was greatly reduced with the completion of Howard A. Hanson Dam in 1962. In the Snoqualmie River basin, where no such dam exists, the potential damage from a major flood increases each year as additional land is developed in the Snoqualmie Valley. 0nly moderate amounts of

  20. Analysis of technical feasibility, economic and environmental operation of the lift system Tiete-Billings in the supply of water and electricity in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo; Analise da viabilidade tecnico-economico-ambiental da operacao do sistema elevatorio Tiete-Billings no suprimento de agua e eletricidade na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Luiz

    2010-07-01

    This study examines the characteristics of the water from the upper Tiete, as an input in the form of drinking water produced in eight stations, water treatment plant (WTP), an input for hydropower generation and wastewater generated by different anthropogenic activities. The most important problem of this basin is the wastewater that is released in the Pinheiros river and due to the deficit of 32.41 m3/s (2008) in the treatment of sewage in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo ('RMSP') which produces one pollutant load of 920 thousand kilograms of BOD per day. The Pinheiros river's flow during the floods and drought has the same destination, the Billings reservoir. However, the legislation for floods and drought periods are different. The first case - floods occurs by the action of full control of the metropolitan region and is supported by the Joint Resolution of Secretaries of State of Sao Paulo (SEE-SMA-SRHSO on 13/03/96) that allows the pumping of water in the following emergencies: (1) estimates of flow of the Tiete river at the point of its confluence with the river Pinheiros, above 160 m3/ s; (2) raised level above 30 cm water level at the confluence with the river Pinheiros. The second case - drought, the Metropolitan Company for Water and Energy (EMAE) Project proposed flotation of the Secretary of State for the Environment (SMA, 2004) to treat 10 m3/ s water originating channel Pinheiros (set/2007 the set / 2008) by means of flotation technology in flow. Using information based on Environmental Sanitation Great Sao Paulo (SANEGRAN) and data from the operation of the prototype flotation system Pinheiros-Billings (Project QAPB), concluded that the environmental impact of the reservoir Billings for the load of pollutants (mass per second) pumped after the flotation of the Pinheiros river water was always lower than that observed in the flood control operation. The treatment presented by flotation removal of 91% for total phosphorus, 90% for E

  1. Metro de Washington EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weese, Harry

    1979-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the works involved in the first stage of the Washington Underground (Subway system which was begun in 1969 and scheduled for completion in 1983 and is the most modern metropolitan railway in North America. Lines have double track and will carry three million passengers daily. Different construction methods have been used throughout: tunnel formed try digging a trench then roofed and covered, excavated tunnel and elevated structures. Stations features answer to the strictest demands, provided with closed circuit television, air conditioning, noise dampening Systems, special access ways, fire protection Systems and automatic traffic control. Special attention is given to the two bridges over the Pentagon and over the Anacostia, pointing out their differences and the elevated structure at the National Airport.

    Se describen en este articulo los trabajos de la primera fase del Metro de Washington que, iniciado en el año 1969 será, a su terminación en el año 1983, el más moderno sistema de ferrocarril metropolitano de Norte América. Es de doble carril y servirá para tres millones de usuarios. Se han empleado distintos sistemas de obra en su realización: túnel artificial realizado mediante una zanja que después se cubre; túnel perforado, y estructuras aéreas. Las características de las estaciones responden a las mayores exigencias, pues tienen circuito cerrado de televisión, aire acondicionado, sistemas para atenuar el ruido, accesos especiales, sistema de protección contra el fuego y control automático del Metro. Se estudian de un modo particular: los dos puentes sobre el Pentágono y el Anacostia, señalando sus diferencias y la estructura aérea del Aeropuerto Nacional.

  2. Broadband availability in metropolitan and non-metropolitan Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E. Wood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years having a broadband connection has become essential for many Internet activities. As broadband increases in importance, it becomes imperative to assess how its use and availability may vary, especially in relation to issues such as geographic location. For rural areas in particular, the availability of broadband service is especially important. This research assesses broadband service availability in rural areas of Pennsylvania, USA. In particular, it examines the extent to which Digital Subscriber Line (DSL and broadband cable modem services are being deployed throughout rural Pennsylvania. It compares this deployment with the availability of such services in the state’s urban and metropolitan areas. The results of this research suggest that there is a “digital divide” in terms of broadband availability between rural and urban areas of Pennsylvania. However, this “divide” is perhaps not as wide as might be expected. Thus, as broadband is becoming increasingly available in rural areas of the U.S. and throughout much of the rest of the world, this research concludes that while research must remain vigilant in terms of assessing advanced telecommunications availability in rural areas, future research should also be sure to focus on how such technologies can be used to promote economic and social concerns, including in relation to building online networks and diminishing social and professional isolation in rural areas.

  3. Tokyo Metropolitan Earthquake Preparedness Project - A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, H.

    2010-12-01

    Munich Re once ranked that Tokyo metropolitan region, the capital of Japan, is the most vulnerable area for earthquake disasters, followed by San Francisco Bay Area, US and Osaka, Japan. Seismologists also predict that Tokyo metropolitan region may have at least one near-field earthquake with a probability of 70% for the next 30 years. Given this prediction, Japanese Government took it seriously to conduct damage estimations and revealed that, as the worst case scenario, if a7.3 magnitude earthquake under heavy winds as shown in the fig. 1, it would kill a total of 11,000 people and a total of direct and indirect losses would amount to 112,000,000,000,000 yen(1,300,000,000,000, 1=85yen) . In addition to mortality and financial losses, a total of 25 million people would be severely impacted by this earthquake in four prefectures. If this earthquake occurs, 300,000 elevators will be stopped suddenly, and 12,500 persons would be confined in them for a long time. Seven million people will come to use over 20,000 public shelters spread over the impacted area. Over one millions temporary housing units should be built to accommodate 4.6 million people who lost their dwellings. 2.5 million people will relocate to outside of the damaged area. In short, an unprecedented scale of earthquake disaster is expected and we must prepare for it. Even though disaster mitigation is undoubtedly the best solution, it is more realistic that the expected earthquake would hit before we complete this business. In other words, we must take into account another solution to make the people and the assets in this region more resilient for the Tokyo metropolitan earthquake. This is the question we have been tackling with for the last four years. To increase societal resilience for Tokyo metropolitan earthquake, we adopted a holistic approach to integrate both emergency response and long-term recovery. There are three goals for long-term recovery, which consists of Physical recovery, Economic

  4. Is Urban Planning in Australia Hindered by Poor Metropolitan Governance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Burton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There are many calls for urban planning in Australia to be reformed, although often in contradictory ways. For example, some argue it should be capable of delivering greater certainty to developers while others call for more flexibility in processes of urban development regulation; some would like to roll back its regulatory impact while others argue for a renewal of planning’s commitment to promoting social and spatial justice. The Australian planning system is also held to be hindered by a comparative lack of planning at and for the metropolitan scale. This is connected to the absence of well-developed structures of metropolitan governance in what is a three-tier federal system, with most power over planning concentrated at the State and Territory government scale. The paper explores this putative hindrance by considering three important issues in Australian urban policy debates about the efficacy of contemporary multi-level governance arrangements: spatial scale; identity and legitimacy; and efficiency and effectiveness. It includes some analysis of the case made for a more explicit and rigorous national urban policy and how this might relate to lower level planning regimes. The paper focuses on recent urban policy and planning initiatives in South East Queensland, one of Australia’s fastest growing metropolitan regions, and concludes that while incremental but nonetheless significant improvements in planning policy and practice are possible, these are unlikely to satisfy those calling for more radical changes to improve the Australian planning system.

  5. Metropolitan Optical Networks 1995 Annual Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin; Jouanno, Jean-Marc; Malone, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    The annual report describes the research carried out in the ACTS-project METON (Metropolitan Optical Networks) in 1995. L.M. Ericsson is prime contractor and 12 partners including DTU is involved in the project.......The annual report describes the research carried out in the ACTS-project METON (Metropolitan Optical Networks) in 1995. L.M. Ericsson is prime contractor and 12 partners including DTU is involved in the project....

  6. Metropolitan Optical Networks 1996 Annual Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin; Jouanno, Jean-Marc; Malone, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    The report desribes the reasearch carried out in the ACTS-project METON (Metropolitan Optical Networks) in 1996. L.M. Ericsson is prime contractor and 12 partners are involved in the project including DTU, i.e. EMI and MIC.......The report desribes the reasearch carried out in the ACTS-project METON (Metropolitan Optical Networks) in 1996. L.M. Ericsson is prime contractor and 12 partners are involved in the project including DTU, i.e. EMI and MIC....

  7. The Hydro-Economic Interdependency of Cities: Virtual Water Connections of the Phoenix, Arizona Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Rushforth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water footprinting has revealed hydro-economic interdependencies between distant global geographies via trade, especially of agricultural and manufactured goods. However, for metropolitan areas, trade not only entails commodity flows at many scales from intra-municipal to global, but also substantial intra-metropolitan flows of the skilled labor that is essential to a city’s high-value economy. Virtual water flows between municipalities are directly relevant for municipal water supply policy and infrastructure investment because they quantify the hydro-economic dependency between neighboring municipalities. These municipalities share a physical water supply and also place demands on their neighbors’ water supplies by outsourcing labor and commodity production outside the municipal and water supply system boundary to the metropolitan area. Metropolitan area communities span dense urban cores to fringe agricultural towns, spanning a wide range of the US hydro-economy. This study quantifies water footprints and virtual water flows of the complete economy of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area’s municipalities. A novel approach utilized journey to work data to estimate virtual water flows embedded in labor. Commodities dominate virtual water flows at all scales of analysis, however labor is shown to be important for intra-metropolitan virtual water flows. This is the first detailed water footprint analysis of Phoenix, an important city in a water-scarce region. This study establishes a hydro-economic typology for communities to define several niche roles and decision making points of view. This study’s findings can be used to classify communities with respect to their relative roles, and to benchmark future improvements in water sustainability for all types of communities. More importantly, these findings motivate cooperative approaches to intra-metropolitan water supply policy that recognize the hydro-economic interdependence of these

  8. Regionally Significant Ecological Areas - MLCCS derived 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  9. Washington State Biofuels Industry Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Richard [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-04-09

    The funding from this research grant enabled us to design, renovate, and equip laboratories to support University of Washington biofuels research program. The research that is being done with the equipment from this grant will facilitate the establishment of a biofuels industry in the Pacific Northwest and enable the University of Washington to launch a substantial biofuels and bio-based product research program.

  10. Família, pobreza e acesso a programas de transferência de renda nas regiões metropolitanas brasileiras Familia, pobreza y acceso a programas de transferencia de renta en las regiones metropolitanas brasileñas Family, poverty and access to income transfer programs in the metropolitan regions of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Montali

    2008-12-01

    ingresos entre los asentamientos familiares más vulnerables y los demás tipos, aunque aún permanezcan las diferencias del ingreso per cápita.The objective of this article is to describe the family arrangements most vulnerable to impoverishment in the metropolitan regions of Brazil and to investigate the access of very poor families to such programs, as well as some of their effects on the earnings of these families. The household arrangements most vulnerable to impoverishment are those with the lowest per capita family income and those in the lowest income deciles. They show varying family structures and compositions and go through different moments in their family life cycles, but they are the hardest hit in terms of changes in employment patterns, since their family compositions are unfavorable for their members to enter the labor market. The impoverishment of households in the Brazilian metropolitan regions during the 1990s and the first years of the 21st century reflects the fall in income from work, due to the unstable job market that resulted from the restructuring of production and the country's low economic growth until 2004. Even by 2006, with economic improvements, these earnings failed to return to the levels of the mid-1990s. Among the policies set up in the government's "fight against poverty," one resource was the income transfer program, which was quite limited in the first years of the new century. It was intensified during the decade, enabling easier access to low-income households. By presenting a comparative analysis between the data from the PNADs of 2004 and 2006, we seek in this article to identify the access to such programs by households characterized by different types of family arrangements, considering their structures and the stage in the families' life cycle. One of the impacts to be investigated is the fall in the number of households with zero income. The lower inequality in income among the most vulnerable family arrangements, as well as

  11. Segregação social como externalização de conflitos ambientais: a elitização do meio ambiente na APA-Sul, Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte Social segregation like externalizing environmental problems: the elitization of the environment in the APA-Sul, Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemens Laschefski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata das relações de poder no conselho consultivo da APA-Sul, uma unidade de conservação localizada na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte. Observa-se uma sub-representação dos setores populares, e os representantes de renda média-alta temem a favelização da região. Conseqüentemente, o conflito ambiental surge em torno da perda da qualidade ambiental nas referidas áreas, em parte associada às alternativas de habitação popular, abrindo oportunidade para discursos que justifiquem a segregação social no espaço e a elitização da paisagem em questão.This paper talks about the power relations within the consultative council of the APA-Sul, a conservation area situated in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte. There the lower-class sectors are apparently underrepresented and higher middle class representatives are concerned about the slumisation of the region. Consequently an environmental conflict arises about the loss of "environmental quality" of the area, partly associated with lower class housing, providing opportunities of discourses to justify social segregation in space and the elitization of the landscape at stake.

  12. Congress in Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Over 1200 accelerator physicists and engineers gathered in Washington mid-May for the 15th in the series of biennial Particle Accelerator Conferences (PAC) - the major US forum for accelerator physics and technology. For the first time since their inception, actual attendance declined, however the number of contributed papers stayed around 1500. CERN Director General designate Chris Llewellyn Smith spelled out the challenges with an opening talk underlining the deficiencies in today's Standard Model. From many directions comes the message that collision in the 1 TeV range must tell us something new - wherefore art thou SSC and LHC? The secondary shock waves of last year's (fortunately overturned) bid to cancel the SSC Superconducting Supercollider project still ripple around the USA, while progress towards authorization of CERN's LHC Large Hadron Collider has been slower than initially hoped. The new US administration has indicated a constant rate of SSC funding over the next four years; the figure is higher than the present budget but considerably below the originally proposed budget profile, implying that completion will be retarded by some three years beyond the end of the decade. The SSC Laboratory will clearly have problems to fight increased overall cost and sustain enthusiasm. CERN hopes for LHC blessing in time to allow machine completion by the year 2000. Pride of place at Washington went to DESY's HERA electron-proton collider - the major new facility since the previous PAC. Commissioning has been impressive and physics is well underway, with luminosity climbing towards the design figure. The varied user community of the ubiquitous synchrotron radiation facilities is now considerably larger than that of particle physics and has extensive industrial involvement. Three such machines have come into operation since the previous PAC - the 6 GeV European Synchrotron Radiation Facility at Grenoble, the 1.5 GeV Advanced Light Source

  13. Washington Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Highlights of the 1993 Particle Accelerator Conference, held in Washington in May, were picked out in the previous issue (page 18). Talks on the big hadron colliders reflected the sea-change in the accelerator world where the scale, complexity and cost of the front-line projects has slowed the pace of developments (not unlike the scene in particle physics itself). Speaking before the anti-SSC vote in the House of Representatives in June, Dick Briggs reviewed the situation at the SSC Superconducting Supercollider in Ellis County, Texas. The linac building is near completion and the Low Energy Booster will be ready to receive components early next year. Tunnelling for the Main Ring is advancing rapidly with four boring machines in action. Five miles of tunnel have been completed since January and the pace has now stepped up to nearly a mile each week. The superconducting magnet news is good. Following the successful initial string test of a half cell of the magnet lattice, a two-ring full cell with all associated services is being assembled. The mechanical robustness of the magnet design was confirmed when a dipole was taken to 9.7 T when cooled to 1.8 K. In the Magnet Test Lab itself, ten test stands are installed and equipped

  14. Recent developments: Washington focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Congress reconvened on January 23, but most of Washington's January new involves the Administration. DOE sent two letters to USEC customers, awarded a contract for the independent financial review of the enrichment program, and released a plan for demonstrating AVLIS by 1992. A General Accounting Office (GAO) report investigating the impact of imports of Soviet EUP into the US was made public. Both Congress and the administration are reportedly considering a full-scope US-Soviet Agreement for Nuclear Cooperation. Finally, published reports indicate Congress may consider ending the customs user fee which levies a charge of 0.17% on the value of all imported goods. The fee is felt to violate the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and is not based on recovering actual Customs costs for processing a good. The fee brings the Treasury over $700 million per year, but the business community plans to lobby hard for its outright elimination or a change in authority to collect the fee based on actual costs

  15. Washington Accelerator Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-09-15

    Highlights of the 1993 Particle Accelerator Conference, held in Washington in May, were picked out in the previous issue (page 18). Talks on the big hadron colliders reflected the sea-change in the accelerator world where the scale, complexity and cost of the front-line projects has slowed the pace of developments (not unlike the scene in particle physics itself). Speaking before the anti-SSC vote in the House of Representatives in June, Dick Briggs reviewed the situation at the SSC Superconducting Supercollider in Ellis County, Texas. The linac building is near completion and the Low Energy Booster will be ready to receive components early next year. Tunnelling for the Main Ring is advancing rapidly with four boring machines in action. Five miles of tunnel have been completed since January and the pace has now stepped up to nearly a mile each week. The superconducting magnet news is good. Following the successful initial string test of a half cell of the magnet lattice, a two-ring full cell with all associated services is being assembled. The mechanical robustness of the magnet design was confirmed when a dipole was taken to 9.7 T when cooled to 1.8 K. In the Magnet Test Lab itself, ten test stands are installed and equipped.

  16. Metropolitan Washington Area Water Supply Study. Appendix A. Background Information & Problem Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    fritlenreptorit oient ()n Tame sectdy of tfuue ar is emhourizneds of entlr Wingto lo meirpltearn rea ntswt the p io alec for hei ofeatent of ater fromthetn...squirrel, eastern chipmonk, white-footed mouse, pine vole, and short-tailed shrew . Since colonial days, the timber wolf, panther, elk, and American bison...tion; demand reduction; Cooperative Operations on the Potomac; flowby; SI4 ATITRACTY dvree oft fW d md tEwtiIfp by blck nmmbr) In response to the Water

  17. Evidence for ongoing introduction of non-native earthworms in the Washington, DC metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac A. Callaham; Bruce A. Snyder; Samuel W. James; Erik T. Oberg

    2016-01-01

    Earthworm introductions and invasions are ongoing, with significant consequences for ecological characteristics and function where populations of invasive species reach high densities. In North America the influx of people, goods and materials to coastal cities has long been recognized to be related to introduction and establishment of...

  18. New Metropolitan Spaces and Metropolitan Strategies in the Face of Modernisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Salet

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Au début du xxie siècle, les espaces urbains traversent une période de croissance et de transformation radicale. Les villes s’étendent de plus en plus. Leur configuration spatiale devient de plus en plus décentralisée et fragmentée. La dichotomie traditionnelle entre hiérarchie urbaine et périphérie est en train de disparaître. Les nouveaux espaces métropolitains sont caractérisés par des processus de segmentation et de spécialisation à distance ainsi que par des polarisations sociales qui structurent l’espace. Les tentatives de planification des villes-régions essaient de rééquilibrer ces processus qui font éclater la ville. Cet article explore brièvement les transformations métropolitaines actuelles en utilisant une approche générique. Il se focalise également sur les stratégies des métropoles pour affronter ces défis dans le cadre de situations institutionnelles variées, un peu partout en Europe. En troisième lieu, cet article interroge les effets potentiels des projets urbains sur un rééquilibrage des transformations urbaines. Comment les grands projets urbains sont-ils conceptuellement élaborés ? Comment les alliances d’acteurs qui les soutiennent se forgent-elles ? Comment les citoyens et les groupes sociaux sont-ils impliqués de manière à produire de nouveaux espaces plus intégrés ?At the beginning of the 21st century, urban spaces can be said to be in a stage of growth and radical transformation. Cities are highly expansive, both in scale and scope. The spatial configuration of urban spaces is, however, becoming more and more decentralised and fragmentary. The traditional dichotomy between urban hierarchy and periphery is disappearing. New metropolitan spaces are characterised by distance related processes of social and economic specialisation and segmentation, and often also by splitting social polarisation. The planning agendas in city regions are trying to make add more balance to the

  19. 12 CFR 4.4 - Washington office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washington office. 4.4 Section 4.4 Banks and... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.4 Washington office. The Washington office of the OCC is the main office and headquarters of the OCC. The Washington office directs OCC policy, oversees OCC operations...

  20. The metropolitan park: searching for a new typology for intermediate green areas in urban fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhuijsen, M.; Velde, van der R.; Graaf, de E.; Kruit, E.; Lodder, A.

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing urbanization in metropolitan regions creates a wish for large green areas in the urban peripheries for recreational purposes. Agricultural landscapes are being replaced with woods, nature and water to provide citizens with space for outdoor recreation and other activities. Park-like settings

  1. Analysing contemporary metropolitan spatial plans in Europe through their institutional context, instrumental content and planning process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elinbaum, Pablo; Galland, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article sets out to propose and apply a qualitative framework for thinking about how to analyze and compare metropolitan spatial plans in a milieu of divergent spatial planning traditions and discretionary planning practices. In doing so, the article reviews and develops an understanding...... concerning the institutional context, instrumental content and planning processes associated with four contemporary metropolitan spatial plans in Europe, namely London, Copenhagen, Paris and Barcelona. Through the results of a multiple case study and a subsequent cross comparative analysis, the article...... stresses that contemporary metropolitan spatial plans tend to merge characteristics associated with project-based and strategy-based spatial plans, thus contrasting with the typical land-use character of municipal plans and the often strategic, growth-oriented pursuit of regional plans in Europe...

  2. Engaging with sustainability issues in metropolitan Chennai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, L.; Varrel, A.; Denis, E.; Dupont, V.; Dhanalakshmi, R.; Roumeau, S.; Baud, I.; Pfeffer, K.; Sridharan, N.; Vijayabaskar, M.; Suresh Babu, M.; Seifelislam, A.; Rouanet, H.; Saharan, T.

    2014-01-01

    Chennai is the largest metropolitan city in South India (8.7 million in 2011) and the provincial capital of the large state of Tamil Nadu (population 72 million in 2011). Before that, under British rule, the city was the capital of the Madras Presidency, and was known as Madras until 1996, when the

  3. Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges. Audit Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Office of the State Auditor, Jefferson City.

    This audit report reviews the employment contracts, related compensation, and other benefits provided for the chancellor and other officers of the Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges (KCMCC) in Missouri. The chancellor is allowed to either solicit bids or negotiate for contracted services such as architects, construction managers,…

  4. Reconceptualization Sexuality and Rethinking Homophobia in Metropolitan Campus Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Caglar

    2017-01-01

    The Metropolitan city gives non-metropolitan students an opportunity to meet new social groups. In this article, the perceptions of sexuality of those students who come from provincial areas to a metropolitan city for university education are examined within a framework of semi-structured interviews. The study on which this article is based used a…

  5. Small-town migration to metropolitan centres: a case in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Boon Thong

    1979-12-01

    In Malaysia small towns are an important source of population gowth in metropolitan areas. To provide empirical evidence of the magnitude and roles of small urban centers as complementary sources of population growth in metropolitan areas, a small survey was conducted in 10 small towns in the State of Selangor. Criteria for the selection of these towns include a fair geographical spread over the State, and each area must characteristically possess a dominant urban center. The questionnaires were directed to the heads of 300 households with the intention of investigating the socioeconomic background of the households and the magnitude and characteristics of those members of the households who have migrated elsewhere. The total number of outmigrants from each area varied from 27-57, giving an overall average figure of 1.53 outmigrants/household. About 77% of the outmigrants had moved to the metropolitan centers. As the majority of the metropolitan migrants were more attracted to Kuala Lumpur, Klang, and Petaling Jaya, it may be assumed that the total outmigrants from small towns as derived would have consitituted about 39% of the population in the Klang Valley region. Based on this estimate, the role of small towns in metropolitan population growth is important. In the survey conducted, 2 broad categories of movements were involved: "economic movers," i.e., those who migrated to work or to establish businesses in the metropolitan areas; and "noneconomic movers," i.e., those who moved to continue their studies or to follow their spouses, and so forth. The economic mover stream made up 71% of the total metropolitan migrants. 2 variables--marital status and sex--were significantly related to the economic or noneconomic nature of the metropolitan migrants. The movement of males tended to be associated with economic motives whereas noneconomic reasons for movement tended to be the case among females migrants. The most important occupational group of the economically

  6. Recognition of management structure and spatial planning in Tehran metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Lalehpour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metropolitan areas are concentrated and dense areas filled settlements and include a central urban region with its surrounding residences. Severity and complexity of issues in metropolitan areas along with intricacy and quantity of influential factors in these areas necessitate novel approaches and innovative solutions for comprehensive strategies and management coordination of land use in these regions. The present study has taken this approach to investigate management structure and spatial planning in Tehran metropolitan area. The study takes parameters like political and management decentralization, elements affecting urban management based on the sources of power and province and finally spatial domain of urban management into account. Findings revealed that decentralization in national management and political structure has limited tasks and authority of urban management. In this regard, a closer look at management structure and spatial planning of Tehran metropolitan are demonstrates that the government and its element dominate policy making, planning and spatial management of the city and inherent position of municipality and city council suffer weaknesses in their role as urban management. Results from investigating official tasks in urban management elements and their spatial domain reveals lack of coordination and Fragmentation in management structure and spatial planning in the region. The paper attempts to discuss these Fragmentation in the fields of management, function, politics and domains.

  7. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Ávila Assunção

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers.

  8. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor; Avaliacao da poluicao atmosferica por metais na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo, Brasil, utilizando a bromelia Tillandsia usneoides L. como biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Claudio Ailton

    2006-07-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substrates, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment without roots. Due to its morphological and physiological characteristics, this species accumulates the pollutants present in the atmosphere. In the present work, Tillandsia usneoides was used as a bio monitor of metal atmospheric pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which is the biggest city in South America with a population of 18 million inhabitants and a strong industrial activity. The urban area is polluted by industrial emissions but, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), the governmental agency of air quality control, regularly occurring emissions from about 7.8 million motor vehicles provide the principal source of air pollution. The Tillandsia samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed bimonthly in 10 sites of the city with different pollution levels and in a control site. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis and ICP-MS (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb e V). The results of the investigation showed a notable concentration of Co and Ni in the plants exposed in an industrial area where there is a metal processing plant, which produces about 600 tons/year of Co and 16,000 tons/year of Ni. Copper and chromium were equally distributed in industrial regions and in sites near heavy traffic avenues, suggesting that these elements can be associated to both vehicular and industrial sources. A high accumulation of Cd in the plant exposed in industrial areas indicates industrial activities as the main source of this element. For Pb, no evident sources could be identified so far as it was spread evenly along the monitoring sites. Traffic-related elements such as Zn, Ba and Sb presented high concentrations in plants exposed in sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and

  9. Oil spill response issues in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempriere, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Washington State statutes and regulations applicable to oil transport and oil spills were described. Specific provisions of the statutes and regulations and other relevant matters were also discussed. Among these were: (1) Washington State oil spill prevention plans, (2) Washington State oil spill contingency plans, (3) best achievable protection, (4) Intertanko's lawsuit against Washington State, (5) oil spill removal organizations, (6) certificates of financial responsibility in Washington State, (7) extent of potential liability under Washington Law, (8) disposal of cleanup materials, and (9) definition of 'qualified individuals' on marine vessels having the authority to implement removal actions

  10. Human albumin use at hospitals in the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Uso de albumina humana nos hospitais da Região Metropolitana do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guacira Corrêa de Matos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the use of human albumin in hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using inpatient data from the information system of Brazil's health system between 1999 and 2001. Death was the main outcome as patients died in 32% of admissions in which human albumin was used as compared with 4% of all admissions in the same period and region. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was included for risk adjustment. Human albumin was used in 10,111 in-patients more than 1 year old. 87,774 50-ml bottles of 20% human albumin were consumed at a cost of US$ 1,755. The main diagnoses were neoplasms (29.1%, diseases of the digestive system (17.5% and circulatory system (16%. Death rate increased with age, public ownership of the hospital, clinical services (as opposed to surgical services, length of stay and use of intensive care. Death was associated with use of more than four bottles of human albumin (PR: 1.30; 99%CI: 1.23-1.37, adjusted for severity and speciality. The results are cause for concern as they may be related to poor compliance with guidelines, excess of risk to patients and unnecessary expenses for the public health system.O estudo analisou o uso da albumina humana em hospitais do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, utilizando os registros do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do Sistema Único de Saúde (SIH/SUS, 1999 e 2001. Como 32% das internações resultaram em óbito, em comparação com 4% de óbito para todas as internações no mesmo período e região, este foi o desfecho principal do estudo. A albumina humana foi usada em 10.111 internações de maiores de um ano, que consumiram 87.774 frascos - 50mL a 20%, com gasto de US$ 1.755,00. Os principais diagnósticos foram neoplasias (29,1%, doenças do aparelho digestivo (17,5% e do aparelho circulatório (16%. Houve maior proporção de óbitos de pacientes mais idosos, que receberam mais doses de albumina humana, internados por mais tempo, em especialidades clínicas, em UTI, em hospitais p

  11. Metropolitan Quantum Key Distribution with Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Bunandar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Photonic integrated circuits provide a compact and stable platform for quantum photonics. Here we demonstrate a silicon photonics quantum key distribution (QKD encoder in the first high-speed polarization-based QKD field tests. The systems reach composable secret key rates of 1.039 Mbps in a local test (on a 103.6-m fiber with a total emulated loss of 9.2 dB and 157 kbps in an intercity metropolitan test (on a 43-km fiber with 16.4 dB loss. Our results represent the highest secret key generation rate for polarization-based QKD experiments at a standard telecom wavelength and demonstrate photonic integrated circuits as a promising, scalable resource for future formation of metropolitan quantum-secure communications networks.

  12. Metropolitan Quantum Key Distribution with Silicon Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunandar, Darius; Lentine, Anthony; Lee, Catherine; Cai, Hong; Long, Christopher M.; Boynton, Nicholas; Martinez, Nicholas; DeRose, Christopher; Chen, Changchen; Grein, Matthew; Trotter, Douglas; Starbuck, Andrew; Pomerene, Andrew; Hamilton, Scott; Wong, Franco N. C.; Camacho, Ryan; Davids, Paul; Urayama, Junji; Englund, Dirk

    2018-04-01

    Photonic integrated circuits provide a compact and stable platform for quantum photonics. Here we demonstrate a silicon photonics quantum key distribution (QKD) encoder in the first high-speed polarization-based QKD field tests. The systems reach composable secret key rates of 1.039 Mbps in a local test (on a 103.6-m fiber with a total emulated loss of 9.2 dB) and 157 kbps in an intercity metropolitan test (on a 43-km fiber with 16.4 dB loss). Our results represent the highest secret key generation rate for polarization-based QKD experiments at a standard telecom wavelength and demonstrate photonic integrated circuits as a promising, scalable resource for future formation of metropolitan quantum-secure communications networks.

  13. Desigualdades no acesso e utilização dos serviços de saúde na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo Health care services utilization and access inequalities in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Catarino Pessoto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo relata achados dos estudos de casos realizados em cinco municípios da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo (RMSP: São Paulo, Guarulhos, Santo André, Osasco e Franco da Rocha. As desigualdades no acesso aos serviços e sua utilização foram descritas a partir de tabulações avançadas da Pesquisa de Condições de Vida-PCV de 1998 do Seade. Analisamos informações a partir das variáveis posse ou não de planos de saúde, quintil de renda e faixa etária. Os atributos estudados foram: utilização dos serviços, tipo de cobertura do plano, procura pelos serviços e tempo médio de espera no atendimento. A comparação com estudos de outras regiões metropolitanas do Brasil, a partir da PNAD 98 do IBGE, permite afirmar que existem disparidades intra-regionais somente detectadas em estudos de menor escala espacial - os municípios. Apesar da RMSP possuir a maior cobertura de planos de saúde no Brasil, nota-se grande heterogeneidade interna. As desigualdades na posse de planos, no acesso, tempo de espera, tipo de cobertura se manifestam claramente na análise segundo quintil de renda e faixa etária. Conforme os resultados, sugerimos o aumento da capacidade de regulação do Estado, permitindo que os princípios da universalidade e eqüidade se estabeleçam no SUS, efetivando o direito à saúde.This paper presents case study findings in five municipalities in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region. Inequalities in access to health care services and their utilization were described through advanced tabulation data from the 1998 SEADE Life Conditions Survey. The variables analyzed were: owning or not owning private health care insurance, income and age brackets. The health care service attributes studied were: health care services coverage by a health insurance plan, health services demands and average waiting time to receive health care. Compared with other studies, using the 1998 IBGE PNAD, the results allowed us to confirm

  14. Air pollution holiday effect in metropolitan Kaohsiung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P.; Chen, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Different from Taipei, the metropolitan Kaohsiung which is a coastal and industrial city has the major pollution sources from stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants, petrochemical facilities and steel plants, rather than mobile sources. This study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, over the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where concentrations of NOx, CO, NMHC, SO2 and PM10 were significantly different between holidays and non-holidays, in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area from daily surface measurements of seven air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2010. Concentrations of the five pollutants were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, however, that of O3 was higher in the CNY than in the NCNY period and had no holiday effect. The exclusion of the bad air quality day (PSI > 100) and the Lantern Festival Day showed no significant effects on the holiday effects of air pollutants. Ship transportation data of Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau showed a statistically significant difference in the CNY and NCNY period. This difference was consistent with those found in air pollutant concentrations of some industrial and general stations in coastal areas, implying the possible impact of traffic activity on the air quality of coastal areas. Holiday effects of air pollutants over the Taipei metropolitan area by Tan et al. (2009) are also compared.

  15. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Energy used by Washington single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  16. Best practices in developing regional transportation plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) Regional Transportation Plans (RTP) and planning processes in California with selected regions. A total of 17 MPOs were included to provide a balance of geographic locat...

  17. Washington Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, T. J.; Schelling, J.

    2012-12-01

    Washington State has participated in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) since its inception in 1995. We have participated in the tsunami inundation hazard mapping, evacuation planning, education, and outreach efforts that generally characterize the NTHMP efforts. We have also investigated hazards of significant interest to the Pacific Northwest. The hazard from locally generated earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, which threatens tsunami inundation in less than hour following a magnitude 9 earthquake, creates special problems for low-lying accretionary shoreforms in Washington, such as the spits of Long Beach and Ocean Shores, where high ground is not accessible within the limited time available for evacuation. To ameliorate this problem, we convened a panel of the Applied Technology Council to develop guidelines for construction of facilities for vertical evacuation from tsunamis, published as FEMA 646, now incorporated in the International Building Code as Appendix M. We followed this with a program called Project Safe Haven (http://www.facebook.com/ProjectSafeHaven) to site such facilities along the Washington coast in appropriate locations and appropriate designs to blend with the local communities, as chosen by the citizens. This has now been completed for the entire outer coast of Washington. In conjunction with this effort, we have evaluated the potential for earthquake-induced ground failures in and near tsunami hazard zones to help develop cost estimates for these structures and to establish appropriate tsunami evacuation routes and evacuation assembly areas that are likely to to be available after a major subduction zone earthquake. We intend to continue these geotechnical evaluations for all tsunami hazard zones in Washington.

  18. Circular food chains and cascading of biomass in metropolitan regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.; Gogh, J.B.; Groot, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Expectations are that 80 percent of the global population will reside in urban areas by the year 2050. As urbanisation levels increase so do ecological footprint sizes in these areas, as it is in the cities that income levels are higher, and where higher levels of disposable incomes exist. Whereas

  19. Metropolitan Spokane Region Water Resources Study. Appendix G. Planning Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    head or more of dairy cattle c. 2500 swine over 55 pounds d. 10,000 head of sheep e. 55,000 turkeys f. 100,000 laying hens or broilers g. 30,000 laying...hens or broilers with liquid manure handling systems h. 5000 ducks i. combinations of animals per schedule 317-20 IM 2. Fish production facilities. a...69). *70.93 Litter Control Model Act, 1971. *70.94 Clean Air Act. (AMD-73). *70.95 Solid Waste Management, 1969. (AMD-71). 78.52 Oil-Gas Conservation

  20. 78 FR 15053 - Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Shelton, Washington; Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Tacoma, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ...,372B] Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Shelton, Washington; Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Tacoma, Washington; Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Longview, Washington; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration On... Reconsideration for the workers and former workers of Simpson Lumber Company, LLC, Shelton, Washington (TA-W-81...

  1. Impact of the 2001 Tohoku-oki earthquake to Tokyo Metropolitan area observed by the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Hayashi, H.; Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kasahara, K.; Obara, K.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.; Sato, H.; Okaya, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    tomography of P- and S- wave structure, seismic interferometry for shallow structure and using the dense MeSO-net data. We observed the 2011 Tohoku-oki event and its aftershocks including M7.7 event off Ibaraki prefecture, which is the largest aftershock so far. We imaged source radiation energy using the MeSO-net data by the back-projection method (Honda et al., 2011). We found seismic activity in the Kanto region has been activated after the event, suggesting increased seismic hazard in Kanto region even for plate boundary events. We use a new image of PSP and Pacific plate. We evaluate potential zones of the M7+ earthquake on the plate boundary and within the PSP slab which will be used for risk mitigation study by a socio-science group. We will also discuss a future plan to continue our effort in seismic risk mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan area, stress regime of which is seriously changed by the Tohoku-oki event. This is supported by the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area

  2. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  3. African urbanization in metropolitan South Africa--differential urbanization perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, H S

    1993-07-01

    "As a potentially important urban development policy consideration, attention is focused in this paper on differential urbanization trends in South Africa at the metropolitan level. Recent informal urban settlement patterns of the African population within the major metropolitan areas are contrasted against these differential urbanization trends to determine the implications of both for residential development in the metropolitan areas during the post-apartheid era." excerpt

  4. Labor Force Activity of Women in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan America. Rural Development Research Report No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David L.; O'Leary, Jeanne M.

    Between 1960 and 1970 economic opportunity and progress for women in American non-metropolitan areas was mixed. While women in metropolitan areas were more likely to be labor force members than were non-metropolitan women, the difference in metropolitan and non-metropolitan labor force participation rates narrowed during the period. For women…

  5. Model LPA Terpadu untuk Wilayah Surabaya Metropolitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimien Bt. M. Al Muhdhar a Henie Irawati

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to establish the integrated LPA model for Surabaya Metropolitan Area. The methods used are literature overviews, comparative studies to well-established areas, and expert assistantships through national seminars. The result shows that the integrated LPA has opportunity to combine some activities such as sorting and classifying, producing, wrapping and containing, selling the compost and decayed materials, and filling residual waste by landfill system. In 25 Ha land area, 14.10 Ha is allocated for waste management, and 10.90 Ha for sanitary landfill.

  6. Metropolitan vision making - using backcasting as a strategic learning process to shape metropolitan futures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuvonen, A.; Ache, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: The need for new forward looking tools in urban planning is immense: The new functional relations and structures are stretching beyond our capacity to 'rationally' capture modern metropolitan spaces Neuman & Hull 2009). At the same time cities struggle to find tools to help manage a

  7. Father Secchi Goes to Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M. F.

    1994-12-01

    In 1848 a small group of Jesuit refugees arrived at Georgetown College near Washington, D.C. Among them was a young priest, Angelo Secchi, who had finished theology studies in Rome, but had not been able to complete his final examinations. This done successfully, Secchi turned to astronomy and the new facilities of the Georgetown College Observatory, directed by its founder, Fr. James Curley. During his two years in Washington, Secchi studied physics, wrote an article on Electrical Rheometry for the Smithsonian Institution, and formed a friendship with Matthew Fontaine Maury of the U.S. Navy, who headed the Chart Service and in 1844 was named superintendent of the National Observatory. This was later named the U.S. Naval Observatory. Secchi's friendships formed during the Washington visit proved most helpful for relations between European astronomers and U.S. colleagues. Secchi, after his return to Rome constructed the Observatory of the Collegio Romano atop the baroque Church of St. Ignatius in Rome and began his work in spectral classification of stars.

  8. Statistical analysis of lake levels and field study of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015: Chapter A of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; White, Eric A.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Morel, Daniel L.; Heck, Jessica M.

    2016-10-19

    Water levels declined from 2003 to 2011 in many lakes in Ramsey and Washington Counties in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota; however, water levels in other northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes increased during the same period. Groundwater and surface-water exchanges can be important in determining lake levels where these exchanges are an important component of the water budget of a lake. An understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area has been limited by the lack of hydrologic data. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and Minnesota Department of Health, completed a field and statistical study assessing lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. This report documents the analysis of collected hydrologic, water-quality, and geophysical data; and existing hydrologic and geologic data to (1) assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes, (2) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (3) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (4) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake. Statistical analyses of lake levels during short-term (2002–10) and long-term (1925–2014) periods were completed to help understand lake-level changes across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. Comparison of 2002–10 lake levels to several landscape and geologic characteristics explained variability in lake-level changes for 96 northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. Application of several statistical methods determined that (1) closed-basin lakes (without an active outlet) had larger lake-level declines than flow-through lakes with an outlet; (2

  9. Land suitability for waste disposal in metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocchi, Valerio; Lelo, Keti; Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella

    2014-08-01

    Site selection for waste disposal is a complex task that should meet the requirements of communities and stakeholders. In this article, three decision support methods (Boolean logic, index overlay and fuzzy gamma) are used to perform land suitability analysis for landfill siting. The study was carried out in one of the biggest metropolitan regions of Italy, with the objective of locating suitable areas for waste disposal. Physical and socio-economic information criteria for site selection were decided by a multidisciplinary group of experts, according to state-of-the-art guidelines, national legislation and local normative on waste management. The geographic information systems (GIS) based models used in this study are easy to apply but require adequate selection of criteria and weights and a careful evaluation of the results. The methodology is arranged in three steps, reflecting the criteria defined by national legislation on waste management: definition of factors that exclude location of landfills or waste treatment plants; classification of the remaining areas in terms of suitability for landfilling; and evaluation of suitable sites in relation to preferential siting factors (such as the presence of quarries or dismissed plants). The results showed that more than 80% of the provincial territory falls within constraint areas and the remaining territory is suitable for waste disposal for 0.72% or 1.93%, according to the model. The larger and most suitable sites are located in peripheral areas of the metropolitan system. The proposed approach represents a low-cost and expeditious alternative to support the spatial decision-making process. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Space Radar Image of Wenatchee, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Columbia River as it passes through the area of Wenatchee, Washington, about 220 kilometers (136 miles) east of Seattle. The Wenatchee Mountains, part of the Cascade Range, are shown in green at the lower left of the image. The Cascades create a 'rain shadow' for the region, limiting rainfall east of the range to less than 26 centimeters (10 inches) per year. The radar's ability to see different types of vegetation is highlighted in the contrast between the pine forests, that appear in green and the dry valley plain that shows up as dark purple. The cities of Wenatchee and East Wenatchee are the grid-like areas straddling the Columbia River in the left center of the image. With a population of about 60,000, the region produces about half of Washington state's lucrative apple crop. Several orchard areas appear as green rectangular patches to the right of the river in the lower right center. Radar images such as these can be used to monitor land use patterns in areas such as Wenatchee, that have diverse and rapidly changing urban, agricultural and wild land pressures. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 10, 1994. The image is 38 kilometers by 45 kilometers (24 miles by 30 miles) and is centered at 47.3 degrees North latitude, 120.1 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  11. Affluence and objective environmental conditions: Evidence of differences in environmental concern in metropolitan Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Guedes, Gilvan; do Carmo, Roberto Luiz

    2014-01-01

    In an age of climate change, researchers need to form a deepened understanding of the determinants of environmental concern, particularly in countries of emerging economies. This paper provides a region-specific investigation of the impact of socio-economic status (SES) and objective environmental conditions on environmental concern in urban Brazil. We make use of data that were collected from personal interviews of individuals living in the metropolitan areas of Baixada Santista and Campinas...

  12. Retrospective study (1991-2005, of canine babesiosis cases in Salvador city and Metropolitan Region, Bahia. Estudo retrospectivo dos casos de babesiose canina na cidade de Salvador e região metropolitana, Bahia, no período de 1991-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Maria Paraná da Silva Souza

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the frequencies of dogs infected by Babesia spp, based on suspicious clinical cases of hemoparasitosis recorded by veterinary doctors in the city of Salvador and Metropolitan Region, Bahia, from September 1991 to February 2005. 7243 record files from suspicious cases were analyzed for hemoparasites on Giemsa-stained blood smears, 33.95% of that showed positive result for the presence of Babesia spp. Higher frequencies of infection were detected in Akita Inu 48.61%, Pitbull 46.91%, Rottweiler 42.23%, Cocker Spaniel 41.93%, not defined breed 41.60% and Boxer 40.47% breeds. The frequencies of Babesia spp. infected dogs by age groups were high for those under twelve months old (42.87%, followed by twelve to forty eight months old dogs (34,63% and over forty eight month old dogs (34.38%. The result confirmed that Canine Babesiosis is endemic in this area and more studies are necessary to understand the epidemiology and furthermore to optimize control strategies.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a freqüência de raça, sexo e idade de cães infectados por Babesia spp., baseado na casuística clínica (casos suspeitos de hemoparasitoses registrada por médicos veterinários, no período de setembro de 1991 a fevereiro de 2005, na cidade de Salvador e Região Metropolitana, Bahia. Foram analisadas 7.243 fichas de requisição para exame laboratorial de cães suspeitos de infecção por hemoparasitos, destas 33,95% possuíam o registro de resultado positivo quanto à presença de Babesia spp. em esfregaço sangüíneo e coloração pela técnica de Giemsa. Cães com idade de até 12 meses e da raça Poodle se destacam por apresentarem uma maior freqüência de positividade.

  13. Characterizing Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Thermal Environment and Air Quality in Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, J. Y.; Sun, C. H.; Jiang, J. A.; Wen, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    The urban heat island effect (UHI) caused by the regional-to-global environmental changes, dramatic urbanization, and shifting in land-use compositions has becoming an important environmental issue in recent years. In the past century, the coverage of urban area in Taipei Basin has dramatically increasing by ten folds. The strengthen of UHI effect significantly enhances the frequency of warm-night effect, and strongly influences the thermal environment of the residents in the Greater Taipei Metropolitan. In addition, the urban expansions due to dramatic increasing in urban populations and traffic loading significantly impacts the air quality and causes health issue in Taipei. In this study, the main objective is to quantify and characterize the temporal and spatial distributions of thermal environmental and air quality in the Greater Taipei Metropolitan Area by using monitoring data from Central Weather Bureau, Environmental Protection Administration. In addition, in this study, we conduct the analysis on the distribution of physiological equivalent temperature in the micro scale in the metropolitan area by using the observation data and quantitative simulation to investigate how the thermal environment is influenced under different conditions. Furthermore, we establish a real-time mobile monitoring system by using wireless sensor network to investigate the correlation between the thermal environment, air quality and other environmental factors, and propose to develop the early warning system for heat stress and air quality in the metropolitan area. The results from this study can be integrated into the management and planning system, and provide sufficient and important background information for the development of smart city in the metropolitan area in the future.

  14. Business profile of metropolitan Las Vegas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, M.R.

    1988-06-01

    This first report describes the present makeup of the Las Vegas metropolitan statistical area (MSA) economy and analyzes the climate for business expansion. The second report contains an assessment of the competitiveness of the area as a location for new or expanded facilities investment by companies in approximately 600 business groups. The third report projects Las Vegas' competitiveness at the start of the next century in the absence of a nuclear waste storage facility and then evaluates the potential impacts of siting that facility near Las Vegas on its ability to attract and retain business investment. The primary purpose of these reports is to contribute to the overall assessment of the environmental impact of the US Department of Energy's proposed action to build and operate an underground nuclear waste storage facility at Yucca Mountain. The first two reports also serve a second purpose -- they can be used by economic development organizations in the Las Vegas metropolitan area in their ongoing efforts to attract new business investment. Information contained in the business climate analysis found in this first report can be incorporated into marketing materials. The competitiveness assessment contained in the second report can be used by these organizations in identifying targets they wish to pursue

  15. Youthification in the Metropolitan Area of Cluj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Cocheci

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This research exercise aims to identify all areas affected by what is now known as ‘youthification’ in the Metropolitan Area of Cluj. Broadly speaking, an area touched by youthification witnesses a massive arrival of young adults, who invest in housing, but only remain there until they age. Youthification is usually the second phase within an encompassing process of gentrification. To gain a clearer picture of this phenomenon, we employed a snapshot of the situation recorded by the Population and Housing Census of 2011. Using this image as a starting point, we then applied statistical thresholds aimed at measuring the presence and intensity of youthification within different areas. Thereafter, we looked at areas exhibiting the same level of youthification, in order to find those common traits of their young adult inhabitants that might prove relevant for their choices in matters of housing. Once completed, our efforts resulted in the first map showing the areas affected by youthification within the Metropolitan Area of Cluj. In addition, we reached the following conclusion: Young adults who live in the city are more likely to still be enrolled in a form of education and less likely to be married or to have children than those who live in the suburbs or in rural areas. This observation implies that there might be some hidden dependency relations, which are at work in shaping the choice of housing.

  16. [Urban and population development of the city of Puebla and its metropolitan area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Prieto, A

    1991-12-01

    Metropolitanization has been considered an important problem of regional development in developing countries. Attitudes toward the metropolis have been ambivalent in Latin America. On the 1 hand the metropolis is viewed as an obstacle to development that absorbs resources from the zone of influence and incurs high social costs of urbanization, but on the hand it is also viewed as a form of achieving levels of economic efficiency comparable to those of developed countries. Metropolitan areas should not be viewed as isolated, but rather as important points of demographic and manpower attraction, poles of economic growth and technological and cultural innovation. "Urban areas" and "metropolitan zones" are distinct ways of defining and delimiting urban phenomena. Although there is no consensus as to the exact definitions of these 2 urban units, it is generally accepted that the urban area is the city itself as well as the contiguous built up area reaching in all directions to the onset of nonurban land uses such as forests territorial extension that includes the politico-administrative units with urban characteristics such as work places and residences for nonagricultural workers, and that maintain constant and intense socioeconomic interrelations with the central city. The process of urban planning in the metropolitan zone of Puebla, Mexico, began in institutional form in 1980 with master plans for the population centers of Puebla, Amozoc, San Andres and San Pedro Cholula, and Zacatelco in the state of Tlaxcala. In 1987., an attempt was made by the governments of the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala to develop a plan for the metropolitan zone as a single unit. Population growth was greater within the city of Puebla than in the metropolitan zone from 1960-80, but after 1980 growth in the outlying areas exceeded that in the center city. The population density of the city of Puebla declined from 160/hectare in 1950 to 76/hectare in 1990, the result of progressive dispersion

  17. 78 FR 53270 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District... to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD or District) portion of the..., Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, Rule 214 (Federal New Source Review), Rule 203...

  18. 40 CFR 81.51 - Portland Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.51 Portland Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Portland Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Oregon-Washington) has been revised to consist of the territorial area... Portland Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Oregon-Washington) will be referred to by Washington...

  19. 49 CFR 613.100 - Metropolitan transportation planning and programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... programming. 613.100 Section 613.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 613.100 Metropolitan transportation planning and programming. The regulations in 23 CFR 450, subpart C, shall be followed in complying with the requirements of...

  20. Envisioning a metropolitan foodshed: potential environmental consequences of increasing food-crop production around Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, E. E.; Martin, P. A.; Schuble, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    Nationwide, cities are increasingly developing policies aimed at greater sustainability, particularly focusing on reducing environmental impact. Such policies commonly emphasize more efficiently using energy to decrease the greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of the city. However, most plans ignore the food system as a factor in regional energy use and GHG emissions. Yet, the food system in the United States accounts for ~20% of per capita greenhouse gas emissions. Local, sustainable food production is cited as one strategy for mitigating GHG emissions of large metropolitan areas. “Sustainable” for regional agriculture is often identified as small-scale, diversified food crop production using best practices management. Localized food production (termed “foodshed”) using sustainable agriculture could mitigate climate change in multiple ways: (1) energy and therefore CO2-intensive portions of the conventional food system might be replaced by local, lower-input food production resulting in carbon offsets; (2) increased regional carbon storage might result from well-managed food crop production vs. commodity crop production; and (3) averted N2O emissions might result from closing nutrient cycles on agricultural lands following changes in management practices. The broader implications for environmental impact of widespread conversion to sustainable food crop agriculture, however, remain largely unknown. We examine the Chicago metropolitan region to quantify the impact of increased local food production on regional energy efficiency and GHG emissions. Geospatial analysis is used to quantify the resource potential for establishing a Chicago metropolitan foodshed. A regional foodshed is defined by minimizing cost through transportation mode (road, rail, or water) and maximizing the production potential of different soil types. Simple biogeochemical modeling is used to predict changes in N2O emissions and nutrient flows following changes in land management practices

  1. Metropolitan food supply : case study Cairo : a quick scan study to enhance fresh food supply and minimize postharvest losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den W.H.A.M.; Boerrigter, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate options for “Metropolitan food production systems” in Egypt and specifically in the Cairo region, a ‘cold chain quick scan’ is conducted by Wageningen UR post-harvest specialists. The study comprehends a quick scan for market demand, market willingness and a search for trend

  2. A green roof grant program for Washington DC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Foundation (CBF) began its green roof demonstration project with $300,000 in funding provided by the DC Water and Sewer Authority. This paper reviewed the history of the project, its goals and early findings. The main objective was to demonstrate the technical, policy and economic feasibility of installing green roofs on commercial buildings in Washington DC and to promote green roofs as a means to manage storm water and improve water quality through the reduction of excessive runoff. The CBF has issued grants for the installation of 7 green roofs varying in size, design, location, and use. The projects included both new and existing structures designed to improve storm-water management in an urban area with significant pollution stress on the adjacent rivers. This paper provided technical, cost, and performance evaluations of each roof. A public outreach segment provided information to decision-makers to encourage more widespread replication of green roof technology throughout the metropolitan area. Much of the District of Columbia is served by a combined sewer system that becomes overloaded and discharges raw sewage into adjacent rivers during even moderately heavy rains. An average of 75 overflow events each year result in 1.5 billion gallons discharged into the Anacostia River. The installation of green roofs on buildings in the combined sewer area would retain storm water during these heavy rains and reduce the amount of overflow discharges. Apartments, as well as commercial and government buildings with mostly flat roofs are the most likely candidates for green roofs. The demonstration roofs are intended to become models, which all building owners could use as a guide for future plans for construction or re-construction to expand green roof coverage in Washington DC. It was emphasized that although such large-scale replication will take time and financial investments, it is achievable given enough political will and commercial awareness of

  3. Education for Earthquake Disaster Prevention in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, S.; Tsuji, H.; Koketsu, K.; Yazaki, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Japan frequently suffers from all types of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. In the first half of this year, we already had three big earthquakes and heavy rainfall, which killed more than 30 people. This is not just for Japan but Asia is the most disaster-afflicted region in the world, accounting for about 90% of all those affected by disasters, and more than 50% of the total fatalities and economic losses. One of the most essential ways to reduce the damage of natural disasters is to educate the general public to let them understand what is going on during those desasters. This leads individual to make the sound decision on what to do to prevent or reduce the damage. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), therefore, offered for public subscription to choose several model areas to adopt scientific education to the local elementary schools, and ERI, the Earthquake Research Institute, is qualified to develop education for earthquake disaster prevention in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The tectonic setting of this area is very complicated; there are the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates subducting beneath the North America and the Eurasia plates. The subduction of the Philippine Sea plate causes mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M 8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M 7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A magnitude 7 or greater earthquake beneath this area is recently evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years. This is of immediate concern for the devastating loss of life and property because the Tokyo urban region now has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's activities, which may cause great global economic repercussion. To better understand earthquakes in this region, "Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area" has been conducted mainly by ERI. It is a 4-year

  4. Influence of Intimate Partner Violence on Domestic Relocation in Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan Young Australian Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillon, Gina; Hussain, Rafat; Kibele, Eva; Rahman, Saifur; Loxton, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Data from a national, population-based longitudinal study of Australian women (26-34 years) were analyzed to investigate the association between domestic relocation and multiple explanatory factors, namely intimate partner violence (IPV), metropolitan versus non-metropolitan residence, education,

  5. Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    Washington's geothermal potential is discussed. The following topics are covered: exploration, drilling, utilization, legal and institutional setting, and economic factors of direct use projects. (MHR)

  6. Radon survey in Metropolitan Toronto schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, E.; Moridi, R.

    1992-01-01

    The radon testing survey in Metropolitan Toronto public schools was the most intensive project of its kind ever undertaken in Canadian schools. It also included an extensive public education program on radiation and radon-in-schools. The radon levels at 632 schools were measured using the CAIRS Radon Monitors. Ninety percent of the locations measured were found to have a radon level equal to or less than 2 mWL. Two locations in two different schools were found to have a radon level at or above the Action Level (20 mWL). The remaining results were between the two extremes. Follow-up testing in those schools where more than 10 mWL of radon was found is in progress. (author)

  7. Suburbanization and sustainability in metropolitan Moscow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Robert J; Nigmatullina, Liliya

    2011-01-01

    Although Soviet-era urban-growth controls produced relatively sustainable metropolitan development patterns, low-density suburban sprawl has accelerated markedly in modern Russia. Distinctive features of Moscow's development history are its greenbelt, which dates from 1935 and is becoming increasingly fragmented, proliferation of satellite cities at the urban fringe, conversion of seasonal dachas into full-time residences, the very exclusive Rublevo Uspenskoe Highway development, and today's crippling traffic congestion. The recent economic crisis has slowed development and actually increased the supply of “economy-class” single-family homes, for which there is much pent-up desire but insufficient credit availability to meet the demand. A renewed commitment to sustainability's triple bottom line—environmental quality, equity, and economic prosperity—will require greater government transparency and fairness, stronger planning controls, and an expanded public transportation system.

  8. Ecological aspects of phlebotomine fauna (Diptera, Psychodidae of Serra da Cantareira, Greater São Paulo Metropolitan region, state of São Paulo, Brazil Aspectos ecológicos da fauna flebotomínea (Diptera, Psychodidae da Serra da Cantareira, Região metropolitana da Grande São Paulo, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Moschin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL have been recorded in Serra da Cantareira, in the Greater São Paulo Metropolitan Region, where two conservation units are situated, the Parque Estadual da Cantareira and the Parque Estadual Alberto Löfgren. The present study aimed to identify the sandfly fauna and some of its ecological aspects in these two parks and their surrounding area to investigate Leishmania sp. vectors. The captures were undertaken monthly from January to December 2009, from 6:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m., with automatic light traps installed in forests and peridomicile areas and with modified black/white Shannon traps in the peridomicile. A total of 12 species and 5,436 sandflies were captured: with automatic light traps (141, Shannon traps (5,219 and attempting to bite the researchers while they were conducting the collection in Shannon traps (76. Pintomyia fischeri and Migonemyia migonei were the most abundant species. Pi. fischeri predominated in all three kinds of captures (49%, 88.8% and 65.8%, respectively. Mg. migonei was the second most prevalent in Shannon traps (10.0% and attempting to bite the researchers (22.4%. Pi. fischeri females were significantly more attracted to black and those of Mg. migonei to white Shannon traps. A positive and significant correlation was observed between the numbers of Pi. fischeri and the mean of minimum relative humidity values on the fifteen days prior to capture, while there was a negative and significant correlation between the relative humidity on the capture day and the two most abundant species. The anthropophilia and high frequencies of Pi. fischeri and Mg. migonei suggest that both species may be transmitting ACL agents in this region.Casos humanos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA têm sido registrados na Serra da Cantareira, região da Grande São Paulo, onde se situam o Parque Estadual da Cantareira e o Parque Estadual Alberto Löfgren. O estudo teve como objetivo

  9. Shifting balances in U.S. metropolitan and nonmetropolitan area growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnick, D H

    1984-12-01

    "This paper assesses some of the recent attempts to explain the perceived growth reversal between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas in the United States during the 1970s. The paper argues that the reversal in population trends was not a one-time, radical shift in settlement trends, but rather the result of more continuous underlying industrial trends. Indeed, since 1979, population growth has again become faster in metropolitan than nonmetropolitan areas." The paper includes three sections. Regional and area population and industrial earnings growth patterns are first summarized for the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Theories of polarization and polar reversal are then evaluated and found to be inadequate. Finally, a reconstruction of the neoclassical model is proposed. excerpt

  10. Going Up? Canada's metropolitan areas and their role as escalators or elevators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Newbold

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Canada’s major metropolitan areas offer multiple opportunities for economic and social advancement for in-migrants. As such, young adults may be attracted to these locations. In-migrants to Toronto have been observed to receive a substantial income benefit associated with migration into Toronto that is consistent with a productivity effect. This income effect is greater than the income benefit received by migrants elsewhere in the system or those who did not migrate. However, migration into Toronto did not lead to an acceleration in income gains consistent with the more rapid career progression expected to result from the migration into an escalator region.Consequently, this paper explores the income benefits for young adult migrants by considering the role of other major metropolitan areas within Canada, and whether they function similar to Toronto as escalators, or serve other roles that are unique to employment sector and type.

  11. The metropolitan area as a knee-jerk response to the multilevel governance and its derived national public decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Daniel DUMITRICĂ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper objectifies the first part of a larger projects aiming at establishing a public decision-making map pertaining to the negative externalities in the framework of the economic approach of subsidiarity in the multilevel governance (the case of Romania. The first part of the larger research project refers to testing whether the economic theory of the European Union multilevel governance, with its core consisting in the subsidiarity principle, puts more pressure on the national public decisions (more specifically those related to specific market failures, though it interferes with all state’s functions and their specific decisions.Our research thesis begins by establishing whether the relationship between the local political elites and public governance at the level of towns and communes is considered a very straight forward, even obvious relationship. The political parties, by means of the publicly and democratically-elected officials (mayors and local council-members, make the most important decisions concerning public affairs (i.e. pertaining to a market failure examined by a second stage of the project.In an attempt to modernize the Romanian administrative system, to make public administration more dynamic, flexible and pro-active, the local political leaders decided the development of a new type of structure, the metropolitan area. The metropolitan areas, due to the constraints of the law, were established as associative organizations, composed of several administrative-territorial units.The paper at hand presents the establishment of the metropolitan areas in Romania as a political decision to associate towns and communes, in view of gaining access to better-performance instruments for local economic development. The emergence of the metropolitan areas in our country is strongly connected with the local political elites, the local political actors representing, in fact, the engine of the metropolitan structures and regional

  12. Death with dignity in Washington patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leo H; Elliott, Michael A; Jung Henson, Lily; Gerena-Maldonado, Elba; Strom, Susan; Downing, Sharon; Vetrovs, Jennifer; Kayihan, Paige; Paul, Piper; Kennedy, Kate; Benditt, Joshua O; Weiss, Michael D

    2016-11-15

    To describe the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients who sought medication under the Washington State Death with Dignity (DWD) Act since its inception in 2009. Chart review at 3 tertiary medical centers in the Seattle/Puget Sound region and comparison to publicly available data of ALS and all-cause DWD cohorts from Washington and Oregon. In Washington State, 39 patients with ALS requested DWD from the University of Washington, Virginia Mason, and Swedish Medical Centers beginning in 2009. The median age at death was 65 years (range 46-86). Seventy-seven percent of the patients used the prescriptions. All of the patients who used the medications passed away without complications. The major reasons for patients to request DWD as reported by participating physicians were loss of autonomy and dignity and decrease in enjoyable activities. Inadequate pain control, financial cost, and loss of bodily control were less commonly indicated. These findings were similar to those of the 92 patients who sought DWD in Oregon. In Washington and Oregon, the percentage of patients with ALS seeking DWD is higher compared to the cancer DWD cohort. Furthermore, compared to the all-cause DWD cohort, patients with ALS are more likely to be non-Hispanic white, married, educated, enrolled in hospice, and to have died at home. Although a small number, ALS represents the disease with the highest proportion of patients seeking to participate in DWD. Patients with ALS who choose DWD are well-educated and have access to palliative or life-prolonging care. The use of the medications appears to be able to achieve the patients' goals without complications. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 1, which is comprised of Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and H...

  14. Metropolitan migration and population growth in selected developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to estimate the components of metropolitan population growth in selected developing countries during 1960-1970 period. The study examines population growth in 26 cities: 5 are in Africa, 8 in Asia, and 13 in Latin America, using data from national census publications. These cities in general are the political capitals of their countries, but some additional large cities were selected in Brazil, Mexico, and South Africa. All cities, at the beginning of the 1960-1970 decade had over 500,000 population; Accra, the only exception, reached this population level during the 1960s. Some cities had over 4 million residents in 1970. Net migration contributed about 37% to total metropolitan population growth; the remainder of the growth is attributable to natural increase. Migration has a much stronger impact on metropolitan growth than suggested by the above figure: 1) Several metropolitan areas, for various reasons, are unlikely to receive many migrants; without those cities, the share of metropolitan growth from net migration is 44%. 2) Estimates of the natural increase of migrants after their arrival in the metropolitan areas, when added to migration itself, changes the total contribution of migration to 49% in some metropolitan areas. 3) Even where net migration contributes a smaller proportion to metropolitan growth than natural increase, the rates of net migration are generally high and should be viewed in the context of rapid metropolitan population growth from natural increase alone. Finally, the paper also compares the components of metropolitan growth with the components of growth in the remaining urban areas. The results show that the metropolitan areas, in general, grow faster than the remaining urban areas, and that this more rapid growth is mostly due to a higher rate of net migration. Given the significance of migration for metropolitan growth, further investigations of the effects of these migration streams, particularly with

  15. Dynamics of Metropolitan Landscapes and Daily Mobility Flows in the Italian Context. An Analysis Based on the Theory of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo Ganciu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of services across a territory generates daily commuting flows, which have a significant influence on the development of the territory and often causes congestion in large areas. This negatively affects the environmental, economic and social components of the metropolitan landscape. Using the graph theory, we constructed and analyzed various (in typologies of transportation and moving time flow networks in the two main Italian metropolitan areas: Rome (MCR and Milan (MCM. The analysis of these networks provided us with strategic information on the dynamics of the two urban macro-systems. In particular, the aim of our study was to: (i identify the characteristics, distribution and direction of the main attractive forces within the regional systems under study; (ii identify the main differences in size and structure of commuter networks between the two metropolitan areas and between the two regional systems that include the two mother cities; and, (iii identify the main differences in the size and structure of the two commuting networks by transport modes (private, public, non-motorized mobility and the travel time. The results highlighted significant differences between the two case studies regarding volume flows, complexity and structure networks, and the spatial extension of the territories that are governed by the two metropolitan areas. MCR is a strongly monocentric urban system with a regional influence centred on the mother city of Rome, while MCM is a diffused polycentric regional metropolitan system centred on multiple mother cities. The findings many have a role in urban planning choices and in the evaluation of policies aimed to favor sustainable mobility.

  16. Perfil de saúde cardiovascular de uma população adulta da região metropolitana de São Paulo Cardiovascular health profile of an adult population from the metropolitan region of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Furlan Viebig

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil de saúde cardiovascular de uma população adulta da região metropolitana de São Paulo, segundo critérios da Sociedade Européia de Cardiologia (SEC. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 200 indivíduos, homens e mulheres, voluntários, participantes do projeto "Avaliação Cardiológica" de um ambulatório geral. Foram coletadas informações sobre nível socioeconômico, tabagismo, consumo de álcool, medidas antropométricas, dieta, atividade física, lipídeos séricos, glicemia e pressão arterial. A ingestão média de colesterol dietético e de lipídeos totais foi estimada a partir de recordatórios de 24 horas. Avaliou-se o nível de atividade física por meio da aplicação do Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física (IPAQ-8 e de testes de esforço. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi composta por 61,5% de indivíduos do sexo feminino e 38,5%, do sexo masculino, com idades médias de 41,7 anos (mediana = 42,6 e 41,0 anos (mediana = 43,0. A prevalência de tabagismo (22% e de consumo diário de álcool (14% dos homens; nenhuma mulher foi baixa. A prevalência de sobrepeso foi de 47% (12% de obesos, além de níveis séricos elevados de colesterol total (> 190 mg/dl em 56% dos indivíduos e de LDL-colesterol (> 115 mg/dl em 61% dos participantes. Os resultados da aplicação do IPAQ-8 mostraram 6% de sedentários. CONCLUSÃO: A população de estudo apresentou maior risco de doenças cardiovasculares, segundo critérios da SEC, especialmente devido à elevada prevalência de indivíduos com sobrepeso e hipercolesterolemia.OBJECTIVE: To describe the cardiovascular health profile of an adult population from the metropolitan region of São Paulo, according to the European Society of Cardiology (ESC criteria. METHODS: Two hundred volunteers of both sexes enrolled in the "Cardiac Evaluation" project of a general outpatient clinic were studied. Data collected included socioeconomic status, cigarette smoking, alcohol

  17. Adiamento do ingresso no mercado de trabalho sob o enfoque demográfico: uma análise das regiões metropolitanas brasileiras Aplazamiento del ingreso al mercado laboral bajo el enfoque demográfico: un análisis de las regiones metropolitanas brasileñas Demographic perspectives on delayed labor market entry in metropolitan areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Tomás

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho analisa o adiamento do ingresso no mercado de trabalho entre jovens, através de duas técnicas demográficas: o método singulate mean age; e tabelas de sobrevivência. A base de dados utilizada foi a Pesquisa Mensal de Emprego (PME, considerando-se as seis regiões metropolitanas estudadas (São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre e Recife conjuntamente. Os períodos analisados foram 1983 e 2001. Ao final, contatou-se um adiamento maior entre os homens, o que os aproxima do padrão de transição feminino, embora eles continuem entrando mais cedo no mercado de trabalho. Ademais, está ocorrendo uma alteração no padrão etário de inserção, já que houve diminuição no contingente de jovens entrando no mercado de trabalho até os 17 anos.El trabajo analiza el aplazamiento del ingreso al mercado laboral entre jóvenes, a través de dos técnicas demográficas: El método singulate mean age; y tablas de sobrevivencia. La base de datos utilizada fue la Encuesta Mensual de Empleo (PME, considerándose las seis regiones metropolitanas estudiadas (San Pablo, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, Río de Janeiro, Porto Alegre y Recife conjuntamente. Los períodos analizados fueron 1983 y 2001. Al final, se constató un aplazamiento mayor entre los hombres, lo que los aproxima al padrón de transición femenino, aunque éstos continúen entrando más temprano al mercado laboral. Además, está ocurriendo una modificación en el padrón etario de inserción, ya que hubo una disminución en el contingente de jóvenes entrando al mercado laboral hasta los 17 años.The article analyzes late entry into the labor market among Brazilian youth, using two demographic techniques: the singulate mean age, and survival tables. The data basis used is the Monthly Employment Survey (PME carried out and published by the Brazilian Census Office (IBGE. The analysis considers six metropolitan areas (São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, Rio

  18. Risco de transmissão do vírus da raiva oriundo de sagui (Callithrix jacchus, domiciliado e semidomiciliado, para o homem na região metropolitana de Fortaleza, estado do Ceará Risks of transmitting rabies virus from captive domiciliary common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus to human beings, in the metropolitan region of Fortaleza, state of Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza D'ávila de Freitas Aguiar

    2011-06-01

    antigenic proximity or genetic relationship to variants of the virus isolated from bats and terrestrial mammals from the American continent. The present study aimed to evaluate the risk factors of rabies virus transmission from common marmosets (C. jacchus maintained as pets in the metropolitan region of Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil, to human beings. METHODS: A questionnaire focusing on animal management and interaction between humans and primates was applied to individuals who had marmosets in the municipalities of Aquiraz and Maranguape. In order to evaluate the presence of rabies antigens by direct immunofluorescence test (DIF, samples of saliva were collected from domiciliary captive marmosets. Based on the detection of rabies antigens, biopsy samples of central nervous system (CNS were analyzed. RESULTS: Analysis of questionnaire data verified that a close relation exists between humans and their pet marmosets, especially during management practices. Additionally, these people showed minimal knowledge regarding rabies, which represents a greater risk of infection. Of the 29 saliva samples evaluated, one (3.4% was positive for DIF reaction and of the 11 CNS samples, three (27.3% were positive. CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory data are in agreement with the questionnaire findings, which confirm an increased risk of rabies virus transmission due to the close relation between humans and marmosets.

  19. Ocorrência de resíduos de ionóforos poliéteres em leite UHT comercializado na região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro | Occurrence of polyether ionophore residues in UHT milk marketed in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mararlene Ulberg Pereira

    2015-08-01

    implemented by the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency and the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply. The present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of 6 polyether ionophores in UHT milk using an analytical method developed and validated by the National Institute for Quality Control in Health. The method was applied to 102 samples of whole UHT milk marketed in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro. In the analyzed samples, only residues of the antibiotic monensin were found. The residues were detected in 14% of the samples; however, the estimated concentrations were well below the maximum residue limit of 2 µg/kg recommended by the Codex Alimentarius and the European Community.

  20. A esterilização de mulheres de baixa renda em região metropolitana do sudeste do Brasil e fatores ligados à sua prevalência Female sterilization among low income women in a metropolitan region of southeastern Brazil and factors related to its prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Meloni Vieira

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo realizado na região metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil, entre março e julho de 1992, entre 3.149 mulheres de baixa renda com idade entre 15 e 49 anos, mostrou que 21,8% estavam esterilizadas. Entre as mulheres unidas, 29,2% estavam esterilizadas e 34,4% usavam a pílula. Quatrocentos e sete mulheres esterilizadas abaixo dos 40 anos, que haviam se submetido à cirurgia há pelo menos um ano antes da data da entrevista, foram perguntadas sobre sua história reprodutiva, uso prévio de métodos anticoncepcionais, o processo de decisão para esterilizar-se, o acesso à esterilização e à adaptação após o procedimento. Os resultados mostraram que mesmo para as mulheres de baixa renda o acesso à esterilização é regulado pelo pagamento ao médico. A baixa qualidade e cobertura das atividades de planejamento familiar do Programa de Assistência Integral à Saúde da Mulher, assim como a ausência de regulamentação, está provavelmente contribuindo para a escolha da esterilização feminina por mulheres jovens. A forma que a esterilização tem sido realizada fere preceitos éticos. O estudo mostra que a irreversibilidade do procedimento não foi adequadamente entendida por quase 40% das mulheres esterilizadas. Discute-se a aceitabilidade da esterilização como resultado de uma estratégia social complexa com o envolvimento de vários setores da sociedade brasileira aliada à necessidade de regulação da fertilidade das mulheres. A necessidade de regular e controlar o procedimento também é discutida. A regulamentação criaria condições mais justas de acesso à esterilização para as mulheres de baixa renda e poderia salvaguardar aspectos éticos na sua escolha.A survey carried out in the metropolitan region of S. Paulo between March and July, 1992, shows that of 3,149 low income women aged from 15 to 49, 21.8% had been sterilized. Of those women living in marital union 29.2% had been sterilized and 34.4% were on the pill

  1. Concordância na determinação da causa básica de óbito em menores de um ano na região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, 1986 Agreement as to the determination of the basic cause of death among children of under one year of age in Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Lázaro de Carvalho

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available No âmbito de um estudo sobre a qualidade do preenchimento da Declaração de Óbito, avaliou-se a concordância na determinação da causa básica da morte entre o médico que atestou o óbito e a equipe de médicos que avaliou informações do prontuário hospitalar. Estudou-se uma amostra de óbitos de menores de um ano ocorridos na Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brasil, de maio de 1986 a abril de 1987. Para os óbitos neonatais, as causas perinatais concentraram a maior parte dos óbitos e apesar das mudanças observadas, a composição entre os principais grupos não se alterou de modo importante. No interior do grupo de causas perinatais, conseguimos reduzir as causas classificadas de maneira genérica ou mal definidas em cerca de 50% com o preenchimento do novo atestado. Para os óbitos pós-neonatais, foram encontradas alterações significativas, em especial para os óbitos causados por pneumonia e desnutrição. Dado o grande inter-relacionamento observado entre as principais causas de morte neste grupo (pneumonia, diarréia, desnutrição, considerou-se que a apuração das causas múltiplas de morte daria uma idéia mais ampla e correta do processo que resultou na morte, permitindo uma visão mais globalizante da questão.An evaluation was undertaken, during the assessment of the quality of the filling up of death certificates, with the purpose of evaluating the agreement, in the determination of the basic cause of death, between the physician who certified the death and a medical team which examined the information provided by hospital records. This survey included the analysis of a sample of deaths among children under one year of age which occurred in the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil in the period from May 1986 to April 1987. As regards neonatal deaths, the greatest concentration of causes of death is perinatal and, despite the changes that have been observed, the composition of the main groups of

  2. Salmonella sp. bacteriology monitoring in laying hens at different growing and laying periods from poultry farms in Metropolitan Region of Fortaleza Monitoramento bacteriológico para Salmonella sp. em poedeira comercial em diferentes fases de recria e produção de empresas avícolas da Região Metropolitana de Fortaleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuella Evangelista da Silva

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    This work aimed to verify Salmonella occurrence in laying hen flocks from eight poultry farms in Metropolitan Region of Fortaleza city. Swab collections were performed in transport boxes of day-old-chicks, totaling 40 feces samples (5 samples/flock, which presented no Salmonella contamination. Bacterial analyses from a pool of feces were performed in the same flocks at 10, 20, 30 and 40 weeks of age. Salmonella enterica rough strain and Salmonella Newport were found in two flocks at 20 and 40 weeks of age, respectively. These results suggest that the birds were infected with Salmonella after their arrival in the poultry farms. It was verified that 25% of the poultry farms presented positive feces samples for Salmonella contamination, indicating the need for a more efficacious preventive program in the poultry farms for egg production. This work suggests that day old birds were of Salmonella contamination which indicates no vertical Salmonella transmission, however the rearing phase present failures regarding bacterial control.

     

    KEY WORDS: Bacteriology, chickens, eggs, feces, Salmonella.

    O presente trabalho objetivou investigar a presença de Salmonella em lotes de poedeiras comerciais de oito empresas da região metropolitana de Fortaleza,CE, Brasil. Realizaram-se suabes em cinco caixas de transporte por lote das oito empresas analisadas, totalizando quarenta amostras de mecônio, sendo todas negativas para Salmonella. Os mesmos lotes (oito foram monitorados na décima, vigésima, trigésima e quadragésima semanas de idade com exame bacteriológico de pool de cem fezes frescas. Foram isoladas Salmonella enterica subsepécie enterica cepa rugosa e Salmonella Newport das amostras de fezes nas empresas 2 e 6 na

  3. Corrections Education. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Corrections contracts with community colleges to provide basic education and job training at each of the state's 12 adult prisons so upon release, individuals are more likely to get jobs and less likely to return. Washington State community colleges build a bridge for offenders to successfully re-enter…

  4. Aerospace Training. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Aerospace is an economic powerhouse that generates jobs and fuels our economy. Washington's community and technical colleges produce the world-class employees needed to keep it that way. With about 1,250 aerospace-related firms employing more than 94,000 workers, Washington has the largest concentration of aerospace expertise in the nation. To…

  5. Washington biofuel feedstock crop supply under output price and quantity uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Qiujie; Shumway, C. Richard

    2012-01-01

    Subsidized development of an in-state biofuels industry has received some political support in the state of Washington, USA. Utilizing in-state feedstock supplies could be an efficient way to stimulate biofuel industries and the local economy. In this paper we estimate supply under output price and quantity uncertainty for major biofuel feedstock crops in Washington. Farmers are expected to be risk averse and maximize the utility of profit and uncertainty. We estimate very large Washington price elasticities for corn and sugar beets but a small price elasticity for a third potential feedstock, canola. Even with the large price elasticities for two potential feedstocks, their current and historical production levels in the state are so low that unrealistically large incentives would likely be needed to obtain sufficient feedstock supply for a Washington biofuel industry. Based on our examination of state and regional data, we find low likelihood that a Washington biofuels industry will develop in the near future primarily using within-state biofuel feedstock crops. - Highlights: ► Within-state feedstock crop supplies insufficient for Washington biofuel industry. ► Potential Washington corn and sugar beet supplies very responsive to price changes. ► Feedstock supplies more responsive to higher expected profit than lower risk. ► R and D for conversion of waste cellulosic feedstocks is potentially important policy.

  6. Washington State biomass data book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    This is the first edition of the Washington State Biomass Databook. It assess sources and approximate costs of biomass fuels, presents a view of current users, identifies potential users in the public and private sectors, and lists prices of competing energy resources. The summary describes key from data from the categories listed above. Part 1, Biomass Supply, presents data increasing levels of detail on agricultural residues, biogas, municipal solid waste, and wood waste. Part 2, Current Industrial and Commercial Use, demonstrates how biomass is successfully being used in existing facilities as an alternative fuel source. Part 3, Potential Demand, describes potential energy-intensive public and private sector facilities. Part 4, Prices of Competing Energy Resources, shows current suppliers of electricity and natural gas and compares utility company rates. 49 refs., 43 figs., 72 tabs

  7. Intestinal Parasites among Waste-Handlers in Jos Metropolitan Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal Parasites among Waste-Handlers in Jos Metropolitan Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. ... Solid waste management is associated with health hazards. ... Waste disposal workers are at high risk of infection with different species of ...

  8. Statewide and Metropolitan Transportation Planning Processes : a TPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    This report highlights key recommendations and noteworthy practices identified at Statewide and Metropolitan Transportation Planning Processes Peer Exchange held on September 9-10, 2015 in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. This event was sponsored ...

  9. Aspects of Land Take in the Metropolitan Area of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Land take is a phenomenon of great concern nowadays because of the large number of its negative impacts regarding biological, economic and social balance. In Italy, the development of urban and other artificial land has been irreversibly transforming a non-renewable resource such as soil, regardless the almost constant population rate, with different speed depending of the region considered. The aim of this paper is to analyze the phenomenon in the metropolitan area of Naples, which is an area highly affected by territorial aggression of human matrix. The data used are both by the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA Report 2015 on the usage of the land and by ISTAT relating to the resident population up to the 1st of January 2015 and the extension of land for agricultural use (Census 2010. The mathematical combination of this data creates a new indicator that can be referred to as “residual land”; this residual area is of great extension with many different characteristics and it could represent the area where the phenomenon of land take most occurs. The identification, measurement and analysis of “residual land” provide new insights on the evolution of land take and this new indicator can represent a critical element to work on to prevent future land transformation and protect natural and agricultural areas within the Italian context.

  10. Evaluation of sludge management alternatives in Istanbul metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmakci, M; Erdim, E; Kinaci, C; Akca, L

    2005-01-01

    The main concern of this paper was to predict the sludge quantities generated from 18 wastewater treatment plants, which were stated to be established in the "Istanbul Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage, Sewage Treatment and Disposal Master Plan", 10 of which are in operation at present. Besides this, obtaining the required data to compare various treatment schemes was another goal of the study. Especially, the estimation of the sludge quantity in the case of enhanced primary sedimentation was of importance. Wastewater sludge management strategies were discussed in order to develop suggestions for Istanbul Metropolitan city. Within this context, the wastewater treatment facilities, mentioned in the Master Plan that had been completed by 2000, were evaluated in terms of sludge production rates, locations and technical and management aspects. Disposal alternatives of the wastewater treatment sludge were also evaluated in this study. Using of the dewatered sludge as a landfill cover material seems the best alternative usage. Up to the year of 2040, the requirement of cover material for landfills in Istanbul will be met by the dewatered sludge originated from wastewater treatment plants in the region.

  11. Coronary heart disease prevalence and occupational structure in U.S. metropolitan areas: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Ellis-Griffith, Gregory; Nagy, Christine; Peterson, Tina

    2013-05-01

    This research explored the link between coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence and metropolitan-area level occupational structure among 137 metropolitan/micropolitan statistical areas (MMSA) in the United States. Using data from the 2006-2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and 2007 County Business Patterns, logistic mixed models were developed to estimate CHD prevalence between MMSAs controlling for individual-level socioeconomic characteristics and various types of occupational structure. Results showed that CHD prevalence was lower in MMSAs where their economy was dominated by 'tourism and resort' and 'the quaternary sector' and higher in MMSAs dominated by 'manufacturing', 'transportation and warehousing', and 'mining'. MMSA-level effects on CHD were found in 'tourism and resort' and 'the quaternary sector' having lower risk and 'mining' having higher risk of CHD. Although these effects prevailed in many MMSAs, some MMSAs did not fit into these effects. Additional analysis indicated a possible link between metropolitan population loss and higher CHD prevalence especially in the coal mining region of the Appalachian Mountains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploitation of geospatial techniques for monitoring metropolitan population growth and classification of landcover features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almas, A.S.; Rahim, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    The present research relates to the exploitation of Remote Sensing and GIS techniques for studying the metropolitan expansion and land use/ landcover classification of Lahore, the second largest city of Pakistan where urbanization is taking place at a striking rate with inadequate development of the requisite infrastructure. Such sprawl gives rise to the congestion, pollution and commuting time issues. The metropolitan expansion, based on growth direction and distance from the city centre, was observed for a period of about thirty years. The classification of the complex spatial assemblage of urban environment and its expanding precincts was done using the temporally spaced satellite images geo-referenced to a common coordinate system and census data. Spatial categorization of urban landscape involving densely populated residential areas, sparsely inhibited regions, bare soil patches, water bodies, vegetation, Parks, and mixed features was done with the help of satellite images. Resultantly, remote sensing and GIS techniques were found very efficient and effective for studying the metropolitan growth patterns along with the classification of urban features into prominent categories. In addition, census data augments the usefulness of spatial techniques for carrying out such studies. (author)

  13. CITTÀ METROPOLITANE E PROVINCE IN ITALIA: ORGANI, FUNZIONI FONDAMENTALI ED ESIGENZE DI RIDUZIONE DELLA SPESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cocozza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the problems derived from the metropolitan cities entities in Italy and the simultaneous reform of the provinces. These two issues are part of a broader and current Italian political debate related to targets for reduction of public spending and have to do with the achievement of a new order of local government different from that established in the Title V of the Italian Constitution after its 2001 reform. After an examination of previous attempts to regulate metropolitan cities entities, the article examines the aspects contained in decree law on spending review (d.l. n. 95/2012. In this way, the article aims to highlight both the difficulties and incoherencies of the identification of administrative functions and of the general structure to be assigned to the new level of government (the metropolitan city, provided in the Italian Constitution in 2001 but not yet established. Consequently, the article considers the effects that this new model has upon the other and already existing levels of government (such as municipalities, as provinces and as regions.

  14. Radon and lung cancer in Bangalore Metropolitan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathish, L.A.; Nethravathi, K.S.; Ramachandran, T.V.

    2012-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas released from the normal decay of 238 U in rocks and soil. It is an invisible, odorless, tasteless gas that seeps up through the ground and diffuses into the air. In a few areas, depending on local geology, radon dissolves into ground water and can be released into the air when the water is used. Radon gas usually exists at very low levels outdoors. However, in areas without adequate ventilation, such as underground mines, radon can accumulate to levels that substantially increase the risk of lung cancer. Radon decays quickly, giving off tiny radioactive particles. When inhaled, these radioactive particles can damage the cells that line the lung. Long-term exposure to radon can lead to lung cancer, the only cancer proven to be associated with inhaling radon. Public interest in radon has been occasionally piqued by articles in the general press. Considerable attention has been given to the high radon levels that were uncovered in the Reading Prong region of Pennsylvania, following the discovery in late 1984 of extremely high levels in one home. Several epidemiological study programmes in different countries are in progress to estimate the population exposures due to natural radiation with a view to obtain the radiation risk coefficients at low dose rate levels. In this regard, radiation surveys in high background areas (HBRAs) can provide excellent settings for epidemiological studies relating to the effects of low doses of radiation. In view of these, a comprehensive estimate of the natural inhalation dose requires both 222 Rn and 220 Rn levels in the indoor atmosphere. In this outlook an attempt is made to investigate the 222 Rn and 220 Rn levels in dwellings of Bangalore Metropolitan, India. Three year results shows that the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, radon in ground water, the concentrations 222 Rn and 220 Rn and the dose rate (mSvy -1 ) are at alarming levels for the environment of Bangalore Metropolitan, India. The

  15. Elaboração multidisciplinar e participativa de jogos de papéis: uma experiência de modelagem de acompanhamento em torno da gestão dos mananciais da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo Multidisciplinary elaboration of and participation in role-playing games: an experiment in companion modeling about catchment management in the metropolitan region of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaèle Ducrot

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de ferramentas de simulação, como os jogos de papéis, pressupõe a integração das várias representações e conhecimentos, o que garante a sua legitimidade e a possibilidade de os utilizar como plataforma de mediação na discussão dos conflitos socioambientais. Este artigo discute a utilização da abordagem de modelagem de acompanhamento no desenvolvimento de dois jogos de papéis sobre a gestão da água e do solo em mananciais periurbanos da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo (RMSP.The development of simulation tools like role-playing games require the integration of some knowledge and several representations which guarantee its legitimacy and the possibility to be used as a mediation platform in collective discussions about environmental conflicts. The paper presents and discusses the use of the companion modeling approach in the development of two role-playing games dealing with water and land management in the periurban catchment of the metropolitan region of São Paulo.

  16. Towards a Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram Using Travel Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Using travel diary data from 2000–2001 and 2010–2012 this research examines fundamental traffic relationships at the metropolitan level. The results of this paper can help to explain the causes of some traffic phenomena. Network average speed by time of day can be explained by trip length and cumulative number of vehicles on the road. A clockwise hysteresis loop is found in the Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram in the morning period and a reverse process happens in the afternoon. PMID:26866913

  17. Subsurface information for risk-sensitive urban spatial planning in Dhaka Metropolitan City, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Andreas; Aziz Patwary, Mohammad Abdul; Bahls, Rebecca; Asaduzzaman, Atm; Ludwig, Rüdiger; Ashraful Kamal, Mohammad; Nahar Faruqa, Nurun; Jabeen, Sarwat

    2016-04-01

    Dhaka Metropolitan City (including Dhaka and five adjacent municipal areas) is one of the fastest developing urban regions in the world. Densely build-up areas in the developed metropolitan area of Dhaka City are subject to extensive restructuring as common six- or lower storied buildings are replaced by higher and heavier constructions. Additional stories are built on existing houses, frequently exceeding the allowable bearing pressure on the subsoil as supported by the foundations. In turn, newly developing city areas are projected in marshy terrains modified by extensive, largely unengineered landfills. In most areas, these terrains bear unfavorable building ground conditions within 30 meters. Within a collaborative technical cooperation project between Bangladesh and Germany, BGR supports GSB in the provision of geo-information for the Capital Development Authority (RAJUK). For general urban planning, RAJUK successively develops a detailed area plan (DAP) at scale 1 : 50000 for the whole Dhaka Metropolitan City area (approx. 1700 km2). Geo-information have not been considered in the present DAP. Within the project, geospatial information in form of a geomorphic map, a digital terrain model and a 3-D subsurface model covering the whole city area have been generated at a scale of 1 : 50000. An extensive engineering geological data base consisting of more than 2200 borehole data with associated Standard Penetration Testing (SPT) and lab data has been compiled. With the field testing (SPT) and engineering geological lab data, the 3-D subsurface model can be parameterized to derive important spatial subsurface information for urban planning like bearing capacity evaluations for different foundation designs or soil liquefaction potential assessments for specific earthquake scenarios. In conjunction with inundation potential evaluations for different flooding scenarios, comprehensive building ground suitability information can be derived to support risk

  18. Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng

    2013-08-20

    Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes.

  19. Relationships between environmental governance and water quality in a growing metropolitan area of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H.; Thiers, P.; Netusil, N. R.; Yeakley, J. A.; Rollwagen-Bollens, G.; Bollens, S. M.; Singh, S.

    2014-04-01

    We investigate relationships between environmental governance and water quality in two adjacent growing metropolitan areas in the western US. While the Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington metro areas share many common biophysical characteristics, they have different land development histories and water governance structures, providing a unique opportunity for examining how differences in governance might affect environmental quality. We conceptualize possible linkages in which water quality influences governance directly, using monitoring efforts as a metric, and indirectly by using the change in the sale price of single-family residential properties. Governance may then influence water quality directly through riparian restoration resulting from monitoring results and indirectly through land use policy. We investigate evidence to substantiate these linkages. Our results showed that changes in monitoring regimes and land development patterns differed in response to differences in growth management policy and environmental governance systems. Our results also showed similarities in environmental quality responses to varying governance systems. For example, we found that sales prices responded positively to improved water quality (e.g., increases in DO and reductions in bacteria counts) in both cities. Furthermore, riparian restoration efforts improved over time for both cities, indicating the positive effect of governance on this land-based resource that may result in improved water quality. However, as of yet, there were no substantial differences across study areas in water temperature over time, despite an expansion of these urban areas of more than 20 % over 24 years. The mechanisms by which water quality was maintained was similar in the sense that both cities benefited from riparian restoration, but different in the sense that Portland benefited indirectly from land use policy. A combination of long-term legacy effects of land development, and a

  20. Urban Agglomeration and Extension in Northern Coast of West Java: A Transformation into Mega Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octifanny, Y.; Hudalah, D.

    2017-07-01

    In the past decade, at least three neighbouring metropolitan areas in the northwestern part of the island have been merging with each other: Jakarta Metropolitan Area (Jabodetabek), Bandung Metropolitan Area (Bandung Raya), and Cirebon Metropolitan Area (Ciayumajakuning). It is expected to be the first island-based mega-conurbation. This paper explores the potential emergence of mega region as a ground study, where mega region can be used for economic, logistic, transportation development. Authors use scoring analysis from economic and demographic indicators. The outcomes found a new and larger formation of city-region in the northern coast road networks (Pantura) - specifically western part of Java Island.

  1. Planning Assignments of the Italian Metropolitan Cities. Early Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The last stage of the process of establishment of the Italian Metropolitan Cities, which took place in 2014, follows of a few decades the start of this institutional reform. In 1990, in fact, the Act 142 (Local Autonomies Reform had planned metropolitan areas as the administrative organization more suitable to provide these territories of structures for the management and the strategic development alike the best international models. The paper proposes to analyse the first activities taken by the Italian Metropolitan Cities in the sector of territorial government, three years after the enactment in 2014 of Act nr. 56.  Focal point of the analysis is the jurisdiction in the formation of two plans (the Strategic Plan and the Metropolitan Territorial Plan and the following relationships among them, in the logical assumption that between them a necessary and strict consistency there should be. In the first part, the paper analyses some factors characterizing the metropolitan areas and the functions that the law assigns to the new institution in the territorial government sector. The second part outlines the updated situation with regard to the formation of the sectoral tools (Strategic Plan, Territorial Plan and homogeneous zones. The third part analyses the progresses in three Metropolitan Cities taken as sample (Milan, Genoa and Bologna and, in general, to those of Southern Italy. In the last part, the paper exposes some considerations regarding the issues raised in the article, particularly about the innovativeness of the tools and the timeline for the implementation of the act.

  2. Initiatives towards Carbon Neutrality in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

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    Karna Dahal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon neutrality represents one climate strategy adopted by many cities, including the city of Helsinki and the Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland. This study examines initiatives adopted by the Helsinki metropolitan area aimed at reducing energy-related carbon emissions and achieving carbon neutrality through future actions. Various sectorial energy consumption rates per year and carbon emissions from various sectors within the city of Helsinki and the metropolitan area were extracted from an online database and re-calculated (in GWh, MWh/inhabitant and MtCO2e, KtCO2e/inhabitant. We employed a backcasting scenario method to explore the various carbon reduction measures in the Helsinki metropolitan area. About 96% of the emissions produced in the Helsinki metropolitan area are energy-based. District heating represents the primary source of emissions, followed by transportation and electricity consumption, respectively. We also found that accomplishing the carbon reduction strategies of the Helsinki metropolitan area by 2050 remains challenging. Technological advancement for clean and renewable energy sources, smart policies and raising awareness resulting in behavioral changes greatly affect carbon reduction actions. Thus, strong political commitments are also required to formulate and implement stringent climate actions.

  3. Internal audit risk management in metropolitan municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Ackermann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Internal audit functions (IAFs of organisations are regarded as crucial components of the combined assurance model, alongside the audit committee, management and external auditors. The combined assurance model aims at having integrated and aligned assurance in organisations with the overall aim of maximising risk and governance oversight and control efficiencies. In this regard, internal audit plays a crucial role, insofar as it consists of experts in risk, governance and control consultancy who provide assurance to senior management and the audit committee. Audit committees are dependent on internal audit for information and their effectiveness revolves around a strong and well-resourced internal audit function which is able to aid audit committees to meet their oversight responsibilities. There is thus a growing demand for managing risk through the process of risk management and internal audit is in a perfect position to assist with the improvement of such processes. If internal auditors wish to continue being an important aspect of the combined assurance model, they need to address the critical area, amongst others, of risk management as part of their work. If not, it follows that the board, audit committees and other levels of management will remain uninformed on the status of these matters which, in turn, will negatively impact the ability of these stakeholders to discharge their responsibilities. This study therefore focuses on analysing the functioning of IAFs, with specific reference to their risk management mandate. The study followed a mixed method approach to describe internal audits risk management functioning in the big eight metropolitan municipalities in South Africa. The results show that internal audit provide a broad scope of risk management work which assist senior management in the discharge of their responsibilities. However, in the public eye, internal audits risk management functioning is scant

  4. A systematic review of professional supervision experiences and effects for allied health practitioners working in non-metropolitan health care settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducat WH

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wendy H Ducat,1,3 Saravana Kumar2 1Cunningham Centre, Darling Downs Hospital and Health Service, Australia; 2School of Health Sciences, International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, Sansom Institute, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 3Rural Clinical School, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Introduction: In regional, rural, and remote settings, allied health professional supervision is one organizational mechanism designed to support and retain the workforce, provide clinical governance, and enhance service delivery. A systematic approach to evaluating the evidence of the experience and effects of professional supervision for non-metropolitan allied health practitioners and their service delivery is needed. Methods: Studies investigating the experience and effects of professional supervision across 17 allied health disciplines in non-metropolitan health services were systematically searched for using standardized keywords across seven databases. The initial search identified 1,574 references. Of these studies, five met inclusion criteria and were subject to full methodological appraisal by both reviewers. Two studies were primarily qualitative with three studies primarily quantitative in their approach. Studies were appraised using McMaster critical appraisal tools and data were extracted and synthesized. Results: Studies reported the context specific benefits and challenges of supervision in non-metropolitan areas and the importance of supervision in enhancing satisfaction and support in these areas. Comparison of findings between metropolitan and non-metropolitan settings within one study suggested that allied health in non-metropolitan settings were more satisfied with supervision though less likely to access it and preferred supervision with other non-metropolitan practitioners over access to more experienced supervisors. One study in a regional health service identified the lack

  5. Nonproliferation Education at the University of Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Chris D.; Leek, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    The nonproliferation curriculum at the University of Washington (UW) is the product of collaboration between Pacific Northwest Center for Global Security (PNWCGS) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Jackson School of International Studies (JSIS) and Department of Political Science at the University of Washington. This collaboration began in 2001 with the establishment the Institute for Global and Regional Security Studies (IGRSS). IGRSS is housed in the Jackson School, which will celebrate its centenary in 2008 as a center for the study of world regions. PNNL also engages in a number of collaborative relationships with UW units in the natural and applied sciences. The principal goal of IGRSS has been to develop courses that draw graduates and undergraduates into careers in the field of nonproliferation. Since offering its first courses in 2002, IGRSS has assisted a substantial number of UW graduate students in submitting successful applications for nonproliferation positions in U.S. government agencies, including the Nonproliferation Graduate Program at the National Nuclear Security Administration. Since 2001, several UW undergraduates have begun careers in the field of nonproliferation, either by working at national laboratories or enrolling in non-UW graduate programs. The UW brought to its nonproliferation partnership with PNNL long-established programs in a wide range of professional programs and academic disciplines, including the 14 interdisciplinary regional and topical programs of the Jackson School of International Studies. The JSIS is an interdisciplinary and interdepartmental enterprise that brings together faculty and students from across the UW. Since the late 1940s the UW has trained experts for the nation's foreign policy community in programs focused in the languages, cultures, and histories of regions deemed critical to U.S. national security. However, since the termination of its program in nuclear engineering several

  6. Report : public transportation in Washington State, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    This report is an update of the Public Transportation in Washington State publication, dated December 1981. In order to reflect the changes that have occurred since that time, this report contains the most current data obtainable. Chapter One of this...

  7. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  8. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  9. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  10. Southwestern Washington 6 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 6-second Southwest Washington Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 6-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  11. Timber resource statistics for southwest Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1978 timber-resource inventory of six counties in southwest Washington: Clark, Cowlitz, Lewis, Pacific, Skamania, and Wahkiakum. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  12. Timber resource statistics for eastern Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald

    1983-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1980 timber resource inventory of the 16 forested counties in Washington east of the crest of the Cascade Range. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  13. NSA Diana Wueger Published in Washington Quarterly

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Catherine L.

    2016-01-01

    National Security Affairs (NSA) News NSA Faculty Associate for Research Diana Wueger has recently had an article titled “India’s Nuclear-Armed Submarines: Deterrence or Danger?” published in the Washington Quarterly.

  14. Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeons’ Perception of the Concentration of Cardiovascular Operations in Seoul Metropolitan Area’s Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Seon Jeong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the concentration of cardiovascular surgical procedures in a metropolitan area and investigate the perception of specialists regarding governmental policies to resolve this imbalance. Methods: From March to May 2015, surveys were distributed to members of the Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Association. The final pool of research subjects consisted of 75 respondents. Subjects were queried regarding the concentration of cardiovascular operations in metropolitan areas, alternatives to the imbalance, and governmental policies to resolve the inequalities. Results: Survey participants responded that South Korea needs governmental policies to alleviate the concentration of cardiovascular surgery patients in large metropolitan hospitals. Participants agreed that the freedom to choose medical institutions and improved accessibility to metropolitan hospitals due to advanced transportation systems were some of the causes for the concentration. A majority (98.7% of respondents thought establishing thoracic and cardiovascular surgery centers in provinces was an appropriate solution to alleviate the concentration. Thoracic and cardiovascular surgery specialists were ranked as the number one group on which to focus development. Conclusion: Developing and carrying out policies to establish thoracic and cardiovascular surgery centers in provinces will alleviate the regional imbalance in available heart surgery services and an overall improvement in cardiovascular disease treatment in South Korea.

  15. Qualidade nutricional das refeições servidas em uma unidade de alimentação e nutrição de uma indústria da região metropolitana de São Paulo Nutritional quality of meals served by the cafeteria of a company located in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartira Mendes Gorgulho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade nutricional das refeições servidas em uma Unidade de Alimentação e Nutrição de uma fábrica da região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Dentre os cardápios praticados no período de um ano (242 dias na unidade mencionada, foram selecionados 30% por sorteio sistemático, e avaliados utilizando-se o Índice de Qualidade da Refeição, com base nas recomendações da Organização Mundial da Saúde e do Ministério da Saúde brasileiro. Esse índice compõe-se de cinco itens que variam entre zero e 20 pontos cada um: adequação na oferta de hortaliças e frutas; oferta de carboidratos; oferta de gordura total; oferta de gordura saturada e variabilidade do cardápio. No período analisado, foram servidas 367 preparações, agrupadas em 30 categorias, segundo composição e forma de preparo. A correlação de Spearman foi utilizada para investigar a correlação do índice com os nutrientes da refeição. As análises foram realizadas no pacote estatístico STATA, considerando-se o nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: O valor médio do Índice de Qualidade da Refeição foi de 64,60 (DP=21,18 pontos, sendo 44% das refeições classificadas como "refeição que necessita de melhora" e apenas 25% como "adequadas". Além do arroz e do feijão, servidos diariamente, as preparações mais frequentes foram: legumes e frutas (30%, massas e cremes (12%, frituras (9% e sobremesas com creme (8%. Encontrou-se correlação positiva entre o Índice de Qualidade da Refeição e a vitamina C (r=0,32. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar da presença constante de frutas, legumes e verduras, há a necessidade de adequar a oferta das preparações às recomendações para uma alimentação saudável, que efetivamente colaborem na promoção da saúde.OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the nutritional quality of meals served by the cafeteria of a company located in the metropolitan region of São Paulo city, Brazil. METHODS

  16. Características biológicas y sociales de los menores de un año muertos por neumonía en la Región Metropolitana de Chile, 1995 Biological and social characteristics of infants who died from pneumonia in the Santiago Metropolitan Region of Chile, 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Millán

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar las características biológicas, socioculturales y de la atención de salud asociadas con las muertes por neumonía en menores de un año, se realizó un estudio de casos y controles para obtener información cuantitativa mediante un cuestionario semiestructurado a las madres y a 28 médicos jefes de servicios hospitalarios (n = 15 o ambulatorios (n = 13. Los casos se definieron como los menores de un año fallecidos por neumonía en 1995 en la Región Metropolitana de Chile (Santiago. Como controles se seleccionaron 118 niños que sobrevivieron a un ingreso por neumonía en el mismo período y en la misma región, apareados con los casos por edad, mes de hospitalización y comuna de residencia. Además se realizó un estudio cualitativo, consistente en entrevistas en profundidad con las madres de 20 casos y de 5 controles y con 12 informantes clave de los equipos de salud ligados a la atención primaria. De los 149 casos identificados, se estudiaron 113 (75,8% que fueron divididos en dos grandes grupos: fallecidos en el hospital (69% y fallecidos en el domicilio (31%. Cerca de dos tercios de las muertes (63,7% ocurrieron en el primer trimestre. Tanto los casos como los controles tuvieron más riesgo biológico y social que la población chilena en general, aunque hubo diferencias significativas entre ellos. La incidencia de bajo (In order to determine the biological, sociocultural, and health-care characteristics associated with deaths from pneumonia among infants, this study used cases and controls to obtain quantitative information from a semistructured questionnaire given to those infants’ mothers and to 28 doctors (15 who headed inpatient services and 13 who directed outpatient services. The cases were defined as children under 1 year of age who had died from pneumonia in 1995 in the Metropolitan Region of Chile (Greater Santiago. The controls were 118 children who survived after being hospitalized with pneumonia during

  17. Uranium concentrations in groundwater, northeastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Sue C.; Welch, Wendy B.; Tecca, Alison E.; Eliason, Devin M.

    2018-04-18

    A study of uranium in groundwater in northeastern Washington was conducted to make a preliminary assessment of naturally occurring uranium in groundwater relying on existing information and limited reconnaissance sampling. Naturally occurring uranium is associated with granitic and metasedimentary rocks, as well as younger sedimentary deposits, that occur in this region. The occurrence and distribution of uranium in groundwater is poorly understood. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates uranium in Group A community water systems at a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 30 μg/L in order to reduce uranium exposure, protect from toxic kidney effects of uranium, and reduce the risk of cancer. However, most existing private wells in the study area, generally for single family use, have not been sampled for uranium. This document presents available uranium concentration data from throughout a multi-county region, identifies data gaps, and suggests further study aimed at understanding the occurrence of uranium in groundwater.The study encompasses about 13,000 square miles (mi2) in the northeastern part of Washington with a 2010 population of about 563,000. Other than the City of Spokane, most of the study area is rural with small towns interspersed throughout the region. The study area also includes three Indian Reservations with small towns and scattered population. The area has a history of uranium exploration and mining, with two inactive uranium mines on the Spokane Indian Reservation and one smaller inactive mine on the outskirts of Spokane. Historical (1977–2016) uranium in groundwater concentration data were used to describe and illustrate the general occurrence and distribution of uranium in groundwater, as well as to identify data deficiencies. Uranium concentrations were detected at greater than 1 microgram per liter (μg/L) in 60 percent of the 2,382 historical samples (from wells and springs). Uranium concentrations ranged from less than 1 to

  18. A Research Design for Library Cooperative Planning and Action in the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booz Allen and Hamilton, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The development of interlibrary cooperation in the National Capitol Area is not a simple task. The multiple, complex relations of governments on varying levels and the existence and independent sponsorship of important private association, industrial, academic and other libraries impose severe problems for any cooperative movement. A far-reaching…

  19. 78 FR 9044 - Adequacy Status of the Motor Vehicle Emission Budgets for Metropolitan Washington DC Area (DC-MD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE) and June 12, 2007 by both the Virginia Department of...-3335 or by email at: [email protected] . The finding is available at EPA's conformity Web site...-Hour Ozone Nonattainment Area submitted to EPA as a SIP revision on June 4, 2007 by MDE and June 12...

  20. Prostate Cancer in the Metropolitan Washington DC Latino/Hispanic Community; Cultural, Linguistic and Economic Barriers to Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    AGVILAR ALARY ALBURQUERQUE ALDAVE ANEWO ALAS ALCADE ALDAYA AMIN ALATORRE ALCAIDA ALDAZ AHUERO ALATRISTE ALCAIDE ALDAZABAL ANUMADA ALA VA ALCALA...ALDEBOT AIBAR ALAVARADO ALCALAN ALDECOA A [NSA ALA VARDO ALCALDE ALDECOCEA AINZ ALAYA ALCAHIZ ALDEIS AIKZA ALAYETO ALCANTA ALDEREGUIA AIRA ALAYO ALCANTAR...ARMADO ARQUELLES ARRIAZOLA ARTEGO ARKAIZ ARQUELLO ARRIBA ARTELLAI( ARKANDARIZ ARQUER ARRIBAS ARTERO ARJ4ARIO ARQUERO ARRIERA ARTESOKA ARMAS ARQUES ARRIERO

  1. Spatiotemporal Simulation of Future Land Use/Cover Change Scenarios in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruci Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Simulating future land use/cover changes is of great importance for urban planners and decision-makers, especially in metropolitan areas, to maintain a sustainable environment. This study examines the changes in land use/cover in the Tokyo metropolitan area (TMA from 2007 to 2017 as a first step in using supervised classification. Second, based on the map results, we predicted the expected patterns of change in 2027 and 2037 by employing a hybrid model composed of cellular automata and the Markov model. The next step was to decide the model inputs consisting of the modeling variables affecting the distribution of land use/cover in the study area, for instance distance to central business district (CBD and distance to railways, in addition to the classified maps of 2007 and 2017. Finally, we considered three scenarios for simulating land use/cover changes: spontaneous, sub-region development, and green space improvement. Simulation results show varied patterns of change according to the different scenarios. The sub-region development scenario is the most promising because it balances between urban areas, resources, and green spaces. This study provides significant insight for planners about change trends in the TMA and future challenges that might be encountered to maintain a sustainable region.

  2. Alternative Intake Station in Saguling Reservoir for The Needs of Raw Water in Bandung Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marselina Mariana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bandung Metropolitan Area (BMA region is the upper watershed of Citarum with an area of ± 2338 km2. The status carried by BMA as a National Strategic Area from the perspective of economic encourage the increasing migration flows to BMA. These circumstances lead to an imbalance between supply and demand, in which on the one hand, demand for clean water is increasing. The potency of Saguling Reservoir as an alternative of raw water of BMA region in terms of quantity in this research was determined based on the determination of mainstay discharge. In this study, the intake site selection 11 monitoring posts will be carried out by reviewing the concentration of all parameters in Government Regulation No. 82 Year 2001 on any division of discharge grade using 5-grade Makov Discrete method (very dry, dry, normal, wet and very wet. In addition, the calculation of the value of Water Quality Index (WQI was done at each monitoring station for each division of discharge grade that has been done. The series of data flow and concentration parameters used in this study start from the year 1999 to 2014. The allocation of raw water discharge calculation for Saguling Reservoir in order to fulfill the needs of raw water in Bandung Metropolitan Area is 46,92m3/second (R5 dry for irrigation raw water supply and 29,53 92 m3/second (R10 dry for drinking water supply. Based on the assessment of the concentration of measured parameters and determination of Water Quality Index, it can be found that around Muara Ciminyak location is the most qualified location to be used as drinking raw water intake for Bandung Metropolitan Area. Based on this study, it also notes that the determination of the concentration of pollutant parameters needs to be done on the each division of discharge grade occurred.

  3. First epidemiological report of feline heartworm infection in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Carretón, Elena; García-Guasch, Laín; Expósito, Jordi; Armario, Belén; Morchón, Rodrigo; Simón, Fernando

    2014-11-12

    The metropolitan area of Barcelona is the most densely populated metropolitan area on the Mediterranean coast. Several studies have reported the presence of canine heartworm disease in this region; however, there are no published epidemiological data regarding feline heartworm in this region and the prevalence in this species remains unknown. Serum samples from 758 cats living in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain) were collected between 2012 and 2013. To establish the seroprevalence of heartworm infection in cats, serological techniques for anti-D.immitis and anti-Wolbachia antibody detection were used while a commercial ELISA test kit was used to detect circulating D.immitis antigens. Of these samples, 11.47% were positive to D.immitis and Wolbachia surface protein antibodies and 0.26% were positive to D.immitis antigens. The higher antibody seroprevalences were found in the areas that follow the courses of the rivers Llobregat and Anoia (Baix Llobregat 11.5%, Vallés Occidental 13.2%; Barcelonés 11.7%) where humidity and vegetation favour the development of the mosquito vectors. High antibody seroprevalences were also found in the urban areas (Barcelona city 13.1%; Sabadell 15.5%), which demonstrates that city cats are also at risk from D.immitis infection. Generally, in Spain cats do not receive prophylactic treatment and therefore the risk of infection is higher in this species than in dogs. Adequate prophylactic plans should be implemented in the feline population. This is the first epidemiologic study on feline heartworm infection to be carried out in continental Spain.

  4. Management of groundwater in urban centers: A case study; Greater Dammam Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahman, Walid A.; Elamin, Abdalla S.; Al-Harazin, Ibrahim M.; Eqnaibi, Badie S.

    2007-01-01

    Effective management of groundwater resources in urban centers of arid regions is vital for sustainable development and groundwater protection especially with rapid growth of water demands under water stress conditions. Greater Dammam Metropolitan Area is a good example of rapid growing urban center due to comprehensive development and population growth. The water demand has increased by many times during the last three decades. Groundwater from local aquifers namely Dammam and Umm Er Radhuma, supplies more than 85% of the total water demands. The aquifers have been subjected to extensive and increasing groundwater pumping especially during last three decades. Negative impacts such as significant decline in water levels have been experienced in the area. A new groundwater management scheme in terms of improving the long-term water pumping policies is required for protection of the aquifers groundwater productivity. A special numerical simulation model of the multi-aquifer system including Dammam and Umm Er Radhuma aquifers has been developed to assess the behavior of the aquifer system under long term water stresses in Dammam Metropolitan Area. The developed numerical simulation model has been utilized to predict the responses of the aquifer system in terms of decline in terms of water level under different pumping schemes from the two aquifers during the next 30 years. The model results have postulated the importance of Umm Er Radhuma (UER) aquifer as a major water supply source to Dammam Metropolitan Area, as well as potential recharge source of more than 30% of the total water pumped from Dammam aquifer. These findings have been utilized in improving present and future groundwater management and conservation for the study area. Similar techniques can be used to improve the groundwater management in other parts of the country as well as other arid regions. (author)

  5. Recreating of rurality around the totoro forest in the outer fringe of tokyo metropolitan area : the spirituality of rurality

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Toshio; Obara, Norihiro

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we made a point of rural land use and its conservation as the reflection of rurality in outer fringes, and discussed about recreating of rurality with utilising its conservation activities and the spirituality. In Sayama hill region of Tokyo metropolitan area, restructuring of rural land use and recreating rurality have been practised with conservation and maintenance activities in the Totoro forest. Although rural and urban residents think about those activities and their parti...

  6. Overview of the metropolitan France photovoltaic park connected to the grid at the end of June 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In this newsletter, Enerplan, the French association of solar energy professionals, analyses the recently published data from RTE, the French transmission system operator, and ERDF/Enedis, the French power grid manager, and makes a monthly review of the French photovoltaic park situation: evolution of the connected power, of the pending power and of new demands. Data are presented for metropolitan France only, both globally and at the regional scale

  7. Better Jobs, Brighter Futures, a Stronger Washington. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The world is changing rapidly. With changes in technology, demographics, and workforce trends, Washington needs colleges to not only keep pace, but lead the way. Washington's 34 community and technical colleges answer that call. The community and technical colleges have proven uniquely positioned to adapt to, embrace, and ignite change. Community…

  8. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-11-26

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  9. Printing activity of the Metropolitan Gavriil Banulescu Bodoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Fustei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study is dedicated to the printing activity of the Metropolitan Gavriil Bănulescu-Bodoni’s activity. The religious and secular prints made from Chisinau’s Diocesan typography by Metropolitan Gavriil promote the idea of national unity of people from Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania. Due to the new documents from archives, more evidences and „more light” are being spread over the activity of famous hierarch, whose life is linked with the history of culture of three nations – Romanians, Ukrainians and Russians.

  10. Analysis of the Return on Investment and Economic Impact of Education: The Economic Value of Washington's Community and Technical Colleges. Main Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Washington's Community and Technical Colleges (the colleges) serve 305,087 credit and 95,890 non-credit students. The colleges' service region, for the purpose of this report, consists of Washington State. This report assesses the impact of the colleges as a whole on the state economy and the benefits generated by the colleges for students,…

  11. Analysis of the perception of risk of radiotherapy services in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro using the risk evaluation system in radiotherapy (SEVRRA / FORUM); Analise da percepcao de risco de servicos de radioterapia da regiao metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro usando o sistema de avaliacao de risco em radioterapia (SEVRRA/FORO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Adam de Freitas

    2015-07-01

    In this work it was possible to analyze the perception of risks associated with existing processes in the high-dose rate brachytherapy and teletherapy using linear accelerators of radiotherapy services in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, through the combined use of two proposed methods: FMECA and risk matrix, using a general analysis and other more specific ones. The database software (SEVRRA) was used to identify possible existing processes in radiotherapy services (brachytherapy and teletherapy) and to classify the sequence of events in risk levels. The risk levels were analyzed at each stage and sub-stage, present in the treatment of patients undergoing high dose rate gynecological intracavitary brachytherapy and teletherapy treatments with the use of linear accelerators applying electron or photon beams in order to establish recommendations to the risks of highest priority for each case. The results show that although the procedure of high dose rate brachytherapy be automated and less susceptible to errors or failures, daily, one can still find considerable amounts of processes with worrying levels of risk perception. The processes that are more subject to radiological accident risks was associated with procedures, for of which the majority of the failures record and planning step of the treatment. The controls analyzed showed low efficiency, warning of the need to seek and implement new more efficient controls in routine brachytherapy for each participant service. About teletherapy procedure it was found that most of the failures were related to the registration and planning of treatment and equipment stages. The controls analyzed to teletherapy showed a poor result with a first type of analysis performed by suggesting a new type of more appropriate analysis. With a second type of analysis, these controls could be better analyzed and showed an order of importance according to a percentage of efficiency. Controls such as 'Double-check', &apos

  12. Tracking the deployment of the integrated metropolitan ITS infrastructure in Orlando : FY99 results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In January 1996, Secretary Pea set a goal of deploying the integrated metropolitan Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) infrastructure in 75 of the nations largest metropolitan areas by 2006. In 1997, the U.S. Department of Transportation ini...

  13. 75 FR 40726 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD...

  14. 75 FR 40762 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  15. Urban mobility, socioeconomic and urban transport variables in metropolitan areas in three continents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho da Costa, F.B. de; Nassi, C.D.

    2016-07-01

    Transportation is the soul of urban cities. Find sustainable ways to keep people moving in our cities is more important than ever. Historically, cities have developed in different ways. Each has its own personality and complexity. But in all cases, transport and mobility have played a key role in city life. Due to the relevance of mobility this article tries to establish the relationship between some variables. The method was developed by collecting, analyzing and comparing data on metropolitan regions in North America, South America, Europe and Oceania through a mathematical model. From each selected location the following data were gathered: population, area (km²), demographic density (inhab/km²), socio-economic aspects (annual GDP per capita), transport system (subway extension), number of trips per person per day and modal split (% non-motorized, % public transport and % private transport). In this study we analyze some variables that influence the number of trips per person per day. Understanding the associations between all the variables that influence the number of trips per person per day contributes the planners to determine whether changes are needed to improve in the transport system in the metropolitan region. (Author)

  16. A tale of two scales: Evaluating the relationship among life satisfaction, social capital, income, and the natural environment at individual and neighborhood levels in metropolitan Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda W. Vemuri; J. Morgan Grove; Matthew A. Wilson; William R. Jr. Burch

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid growth of cities worldwide, there is a need to better understand factors contributing to life satisfaction in urban environments. Using data from a long-term study of the Baltimore metropolitan region, we build on existing social scientific literature to examine a suite of theoretical factors that have been proposed to explain higher life satisfaction....

  17. MODELO DE LOCALIZACIÓN ÓPTIMA DE ACTIVIDADES NO DESEADAS APLICADO A LOS RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS EN LA REGIÓN METROPOLITANA AN OPTIMAL LOCATION MODEL OF UNDESIRABLE FACILITIES APPLIED TO THE SOLID WASTES IN THE METROPOLITAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Medina Tapia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo analiza los principios y estructuras de modelación de localización óptima de actividades indeseables (obnoxious location models, revisando criterios de "eficiencia espacial" en la localización, y "justicia espacial" en la distribución de externalidades. La eficiencia se logra con modelos de localización-asignación optimizando el costo total (plant location. Para la justicia se calibran curvas de rechazo con métodos econométricos. Finalmente todo se optimiza en una estructura multiobjetivo ponderada. Este modelo mixto se aplica a la localización de estaciones de transferencia y rellenos sanitarios en la Región Metropolitana, obteniendo localizaciones óptimas (económica y socialmente, y asignaciones óptimas de residuos sólidos comunales.This work analyses the principles and structures of optimal location models of obnoxious activities, by studying criterion of spatial efficiency in the location, and spatial justice in the distribution of externalities. The efficiency is obtained through the Plant Location model (a location-allocation model. For the justice, opposition curves are fitted using econometrics models. Finally, everything is optimised in a weighted multi-objective structure. This mixed model is applied to the location of transfer stations and landfill operations in the Metropolitan Area in Santiago-Chile. The results give optimal locations (economic and social, and optimal allocation of municipal solid waste.

  18. Travel costs associated with flood closures of state highways near Centralia/Chehalis, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report discusses the travel costs associated with the closure of roads in the greater : Centralia/Chehalis, Washington region due to 100-year flood conditions starting on the Chehalis River. The costs : were computed for roadway closures on I-5,...

  19. 78 FR 14951 - State of Washington; Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... EPA Docket Center homepage at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/dockets.htm or the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... Agency, Region 10, Library, 10th Floor, 1200 Sixth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101. The Library is open from 9... telephone number for the Library is (206) 553-1289. (2) Washington Department of Ecology, Water Quality...

  20. From groundwater baselines to numerical groundwater flow modelling for the Milan metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Peretti, Lidia; Villa, Federica; Gorla, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    Contamination of major aquifers in highly densely populated areas is a major concern for stakeholders involved in the use and protection of groundwater resources. Sustainable groundwater withdrawal and management, and the identification of trends in groundwater contamination require a careful hydrochemical baseline characterization. This characterization is fundamental to investigate the presence and evolutionary trend of contaminants. In fact, it allows recovering and understanding: the spatial-temporal trend of contamination; the relative age of the contamination episodes; the reasons for anomalous behavior of some compounds during migration to and in the groundwater; the associations with which some contaminants can be found; the different behaviors in phreatic and semi-confined and confined aquifers. To attain such a characterization for the Milan metropolitan area (about 2,500 km2, ca 4.000.000 inhabitants, Lombardy, Italy), we carried out three main activities. (1) Collection of complete and reliable datasets concerning the geological, hydrogeological and hydrochemical (over 60,000 chemical analysis since 2003 to 2013) characteristics of the area and of the involved aquifers. This activity was very demanding because the available data are provided by different authorities (Lombardy Region, Provinces, Lombardy Environmental Agency - ARPA Lombardia, public own companies in charge of water system managements) in raw format and with different database standard, which required a large effort of manual verification and harmonization. (2) Completion of a hydrochemical characterization of the metropolitan area aquifers by classical statistical and multivariate statistical analyses, in order to define a baseline both for some major physical chemical characteristics and for the most relevant contaminants. (3) Development of a three dimensional hydrogeological model for the metropolitan area starting from the above listed datasets and existing models. This model will

  1. Governing metropolitan green infrastructure in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Young; E. Gregory McPherson

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore whether the enhancement of urban ecosystem services through largescale metropolitan treeplanting initiatives is being planned and executed as a component of traditional municipal government or represents new transdisciplinary strategies in environmental governance Drawing on qualitative interviews with...

  2. Disparities in Salaries: Metropolitan versus Nonmetropolitan Community College Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Louis C.; Simpson, Lynn A.; Waller, Lee Rusty

    2009-01-01

    This article explores disparities in faculty salaries between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan Texas community colleges. The analysis reveals a significant difference in faculty salaries for the 2000 and 2005 academic years respectively. The study found no significant difference in the rate of change in faculty salaries from 2000 to 2005.…

  3. Is There a Global Role for Metropolitan City Libraries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the potential for linking large metropolitan public libraries to international interlibrary loan networks. Issues involved in international networking, including funding, standards, network connectivity, and protectionism, are discussed. Examples of libraries capable of participating and brief descriptions of their collections are given.…

  4. Designing metropolitan landscapes for biodiversity: deriving guidelines from metapopulation ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, P.F.M.; Steingröver, E.G.

    2008-01-01

    The decentralization of planning is giving local planning groups more power in decision making on the spatial development of metropolitan landscapes. However, because scientific knowledge is rarely used in these decision-making processes, there is a risk of discrepancies between the conservation

  5. The Tshwane metropolitan municipality and strategic partnerships in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality commissioned research to investigate the potential of strategic partnerships for the optimal facilitation and co-operative governance of sport and recreation. The aim of this project was to identify the possible structure and nature of partnerships in order to facilitate effective management, ...

  6. Residential fencing in a metropolitan area and three small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin Kallio; Jerry A. Sesco

    1967-01-01

    Many types of fences were found on residential lots in the metropolitan-suburban area of St. Louis County, Missouri, and three small towns in southern Illinois. Wire fences predominated. More wooden fences were found on village lots than on city lots. In general, the more expensive homes had the most wooden fencing. Homes over 5 years old had more fencing of all...

  7. OXYGEN TRANSFER STUDIES AT THE MADISON METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE DISTRICT FACILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field studies at the Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District facilities were conducted over a 3-year period to obtain long-term data on the performance of fine pore aeration equipment in municipal wastewater. The studies were conducted on several basins in the East Plant containi...

  8. 23 CFR 450.336 - Applicability of NEPA to metropolitan transportation plans and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Secretary concerning a metropolitan transportation plan or TIP developed through the processes... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of NEPA to metropolitan transportation... TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and...

  9. Hawaii Regional Sediment Management (RSM): Regional Sediment Budget for the West Maui Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 6- 5 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Hawaii Regional Sediment Management (RSM): Regional Sediment Budget...acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program ERDC/CHL TR-16-5 June 2016 Hawaii Regional Sediment Management...distribution is unlimited. Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Project 454632, “ Hawaii Regional Sediment Management

  10. Effects of a power shortage in the Tokyo metropolitan area on awareness of nuclear power generation and power savings behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Atsuko

    2004-01-01

    The shutdown of a number of nuclear power stations of the Tokyo Electric Power Company in the summer of 2003 caused a power shortage problem in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. To examine the effects of the power shortage, in September 2003 a survey was conducted in the service areas of the Kansai Electric Power Company (Kansai region) and the Tokyo Electric Power Company (Kanto region). This survey was part of a wider opinion survey begun in 1993 concerning nuclear power generation. The results of the September 2003 survey are as follows: The degree of recognition of the power shortage problem in the Metropolitan area was high, with 40% of respondents in the Kansai region and nearly 70% in the Kanto region understanding that the shortage was caused by the shutdown of several nuclear power station. The overall awareness of nuclear power generation was little affected in both the Kansai and Kanto regions, though the sense of a shortage of the generating capacity had been raised slightly. Once respondents knew about the power shortage problem, they estimated the likelihood of an occurrence of large-scale service interruption to be low, nearly at an even chance, and they had been only slightly worried about it, essentially viewing the problem optimistically. In the Kanto region, where public relations activities for power savings had been actively pursued, the frequency of experiencing exposure to such public relations activities was remarkably higher than in the Kansai region. The relation between exposure to public relations activities for power savings and power savings behavior was analyzed using quantification method II. Analysis results suggest that public relations activities for power savings in the Kanto region had the effect of urging power savings behavior. However, the difference in the rate of putting power savings behavior into practice was small between the Kanto and Kansai regions, indicating that public relation activities for power savings in the Kanto

  11. Geologic map of the Washington West 30’ × 60’ quadrangle, Maryland, Virginia, and Washington D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttle, Peter T.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Burton, William C.; Crider, E. Allen; Drake, Avery A.; Froelich, Albert J.; Horton, J. Wright; Kasselas, Gregorios; Mixon, Robert B.; McCartan, Lucy; Nelson, Arthur E.; Newell, Wayne L.; Pavlides, Louis; Powars, David S.; Southworth, C. Scott; Weems, Robert E.

    2018-01-02

    The Washington West 30’ × 60’ quadrangle covers an area of approximately 4,884 square kilometers (1,343 square miles) in and west of the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area. The eastern part of the area is highly urbanized, and more rural areas to the west are rapidly being developed. The area lies entirely within the Chesapeake Bay drainage basin and mostly within the Potomac River watershed. It contains part of the Nation's main north-south transportation corridor east of the Blue Ridge Mountains, consisting of Interstate Highway 95, U.S. Highway 1, and railroads, as well as parts of the Capital Beltway and Interstate Highway 66. Extensive Federal land holdings in addition to those in Washington, D.C., include the Marine Corps Development and Education Command at Quantico, Fort Belvoir, Vint Hill Farms Station, the Naval Ordnance Station at Indian Head, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historic Park, Great Falls Park, and Manassas National Battlefield Park. The quadrangle contains most of Washington, D.C.; part or all of Arlington, Culpeper, Fairfax, Fauquier, Loudoun, Prince William, Rappahannock, and Stafford Counties in northern Virginia; and parts of Charles, Montgomery, and Prince Georges Counties in Maryland.The Washington West quadrangle spans four geologic provinces. From west to east these provinces are the Blue Ridge province, the early Mesozoic Culpeper basin, the Piedmont province, and the Coastal Plain province. There is some overlap in ages of rocks in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces. The Blue Ridge province, which occupies the western part of the quadrangle, contains metamorphic and igneous rocks of Mesoproterozoic to Early Cambrian age. Mesoproterozoic (Grenville-age) rocks are mostly granitic gneisses, although older metaigneous rocks are found as xenoliths. Small areas of Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks nonconformably overlie Mesoproterozoic rocks. Neoproterozoic granitic rocks of the Robertson River Igneous Suite intruded

  12. Revenues for Education in Metropolitan Areas. Chapter VI, Metropolitanism: Its Challenge to Education, 1968. Sixty-seventh Yearbook, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkin, Marvin C.

    For local school districts to provide equal educational opportunities throughout a metropolitan area, a school organization plan should distribute populations among districts in such a manner as to maximize the aggregate expressed demand for educational services and to provide relatively equal financial support. Consolidation of contiguous…

  13. Washington Schools Learn from Value Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doleae, Michael L.; Childs, Harvey C.

    1983-01-01

    Results of two value engineering studies have shown that a review early in the design process can help save costs in school construction, maintenance, operation, and replacement. The value engineering concepts and technical manual are being presented throughout the state of Washington. (MLF)

  14. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity

  15. 40 CFR 81.348 - Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 5/14/01 Attainment The City of Kent and a portion of the Green River valley bounded on the east and... Type Seattle-Tacoma Area: Seattle-Tacoma Urban Area (as defined by the Washington Department of Transportation urban area maps) King County (part) Attainment Pierce County (part) Attainment Snohomish County...

  16. Washington Irving and the American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Daniel F., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Some modern scholars feel that Washington Irving vacillated between romanticism and realism in his literary treatment of the American Indian. However, a study of all his works dealing with Indians, placed in context with his non-Indian works, reveals that his attitude towards Indians was intelligent and enlightened for his time. (CM)

  17. Doctors of Osteopathy Licensed in Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senters, Jo

    Based on information gathered by the Health Manpower Project through a survey cosponsored with the Washington Osteopathic Medical Association, this report begins with a statement of philosophy of osteopathic medicine and proceeds to comment on where such professional education is available. Remarks on the type of educational background of the…

  18. Washington Public Libraries Online: Collaborating in Cyberspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildin, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of public libraries, the Internet, and the World Wide Web focuses on development of a Web site in Washington. Highlights include access to the Internet through online public access catalogs; partnerships between various types of libraries; hardware and software; HTML training; content design; graphics design; marketing; evaluation; and…

  19. Recidivism of Supermax Prisoners in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, David; Johnson, L. Clark; Cain, Kevin C.

    2007-01-01

    This study of recidivism among Washington supermax prisoners used a retrospective matched control design, matching supermax prisoners one-to-one with nonsupermax prisoners on mental illness status and up to eight recidivism predictors. Supermax prisoners committed new felonies at a higher rate than nonsupermax controls, but the difference was not…

  20. Timber resource statistics for eastern Washington, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil McKay; Patricia M. Bassett; Colin D. MacLean

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1990-91 timber resource inventory of Washington east of the crest of the Cascade Range. The inventory was conducted on all private and public lands except National Forests. Timber resource statistics from National Forest inventories also are presented. Detailed tables provide estimates of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and...

  1. Timber resource statistics for western Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin D. MacLean; Patricia M. Bassett; Glenn. Yeary

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1988-90 timber resource inventory of 19 counties in western Washington: Clallam, Clark, Cowlitz, Grays Harbor, Island, Jefferson, King, Kitsap, Lewis, Mason, Pacific, Pierce, San Juan, Skagit, Skamania, Snohomish, Thurston, Wahkiakum, and Whatcom. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  2. Washington (Wash) C. Winn: In Memoriam

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-08

    Dr. Mike Miller and Dr. David Walker dicuss the career and life of noted clinical biologist, Dr. Washington C. Winn Jr.  Created: 3/8/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/12/2012.

  3. Drivers' use of marijuana in Washington state : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In July 2014, Washington State allowed legal sales of : recreational marijuana. Working with the Washington : Traffic Safety Commission, NHTSA assisted the State in : conducting a roadside study to examine the prevalence : of marijuana use before and...

  4. An assessment of interstate safety investment properties in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) commissioned the current study, targeting the entire interstate : mainline network in Washington State, to provide strategic direction to multi-biennial investment interstate locations that of...

  5. The Impact of Urbanization to Forest Degradation in Metropolitan Semarang: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejati, A. W.; Buchori, I.; Rudiarto, I.

    2018-02-01

    This paper aims to examine the relationship of urbanization and the consequences of environmental impacts, especially the availability of forests. The analysis used remote sensing data ie Landsat 7 ETM (1990), Landsat 7 ETM (2000), and Landsat 8 OLI (2015). Analysis of forest availability used green vegetation cover parameters with NDVI techniques, while urbanization was measured by looking at the built-up area growth with NDBI techniques. The detection result in 1990 area of urban area was 74.85 km2, in 2000 was 130.83 km2, and in 2015 was 292.74 km2. Given the overall size of the metropolitan area of Semarang (932.14 km2), the proportion of the built up area in 2015 was 31% with an average of 6% per year change in 1990-2000 and 8.2% per year in 2000-2015. Urbanization in this region is characterized by forest conversion into residential and industrial buildings. With increasing area and built-up density, NDBI is found to be proportionately increasing, while NDVI decrease is significant. The results show that NDBI-NDVI correlation is negative (-0.99). It is very important for policy makers to formulate land use control policies in Metropolitan Semarang particularly in responding to the issue of forest conversion.

  6. History of ancient megathrust earthquakes beneath metropolitan Tokyo inferred from coastal lowland deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannen, Kazutaka; Yoong, Kim Haeng; Suzuki, Shigeru; Matsushima, Yoshiaki; Ota, Yuki; Kain, Claire L.; Goff, James

    2018-02-01

    Metropolitan Tokyo is located directly above a subduction zone that has generated two megathrust earthquakes in the past 300 years. However, the timing of older megathrusts on this margin is poorly understood. In this study, we aim to constrain the timings of past megathrust earthquakes, using coastal stratigraphy, paleoecology, radiocarbon dating and archaeological records from coastal lowlands. An investigation of 13 boreholes in the southern coastal area of metropolitan Tokyo found evidence for 4 m of uplift in a 6000-year period. However, we found that net vertical displacement in the last 1000 years is approximately zero. Results suggest that preservation of usually ephemeral lagoon sediments occurred on three occasions in the past 1000 years, and radiocarbon dating results show that the timings of these preservation episodes are close to that of major historical earthquakes. We thus attribute the intermittent preservation of the ephemeral lagoon deposits to coseismic uplift caused by the megathrust earthquakes. The candidates of the megathrust earthquakes are events that took place in 1703 CE, the 13th century, and 878 CE. Since these events produced no net vertical displacement due to inter-seismic subsidence, we propose that earthquakes responsible for long-term uplift of this region took place prior to the 9th century. This research also demonstrates the value of preserved intertidal sediments as paleoseismological archives where net tectonic displacement is neutral.

  7. 76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ...; FV11-946-1 CR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural... conducted among eligible Washington potato growers to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington. DATES: The referendum will be...

  8. 76 FR 377 - Land Acquisitions; Cowlitz Indian Tribe of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... State of Washington by Auditor's File Nos. G 450664 and G 147358. Parcel II That portion of the... thereof acquired by the State of Washington by deed recorded under Auditor's File Nos. G 140380 and D... recorded under Auditor's File No. F 38759, records of Clark County, Washington, described as follows...

  9. 75 FR 52023 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service... of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum), University of Washington...

  10. 75 FR 36672 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service... of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum), University of Washington...

  11. Thatcher Bay, Washington, Nearshore Restoration Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breems, Joel; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Grossman, Eric E.; Elliott, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The San Juan Archipelago, located at the confluence of the Puget Sound, the Straits of Juan de Fuca in Washington State, and the Straits of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada, provides essential nearshore habitat for diverse salmonid, forage fish, and bird populations. With 408 miles of coastline, the San Juan Islands provide a significant portion of the available nearshore habitat for the greater Puget Sound and are an essential part of the regional efforts to restore Puget Sound (Puget Sound Shared Strategy 2005). The nearshore areas of the San Juan Islands provide a critical link between the terrestrial and marine environments. For this reason the focus on restoration and conservation of nearshore habitat in the San Juan Islands is of paramount importance. Wood-waste was a common by-product of historical lumber-milling operations. To date, relatively little attention has been given to the impact of historical lumber-milling operations in the San Juan Archipelago. Thatcher Bay, on Blakely Island, located near the east edge of the archipelago, is presented here as a case study on the restoration potential for a wood-waste contaminated nearshore area. Case study components include (1) a brief discussion of the history of milling operations. (2) an estimate of the location and amount of the current distribution of wood-waste at the site, (3) a preliminary examination of the impacts of wood-waste on benthic flora and fauna at the site, and (4) the presentation of several restoration alternatives for the site. The history of milling activity in Thatcher Bay began in 1879 with the construction of a mill in the southeastern part of the bay. Milling activity continued for more than 60 years, until the mill closed in 1942. Currently, the primary evidence of the historical milling operations is the presence of approximately 5,000 yd3 of wood-waste contaminated sediments. The distribution and thickness of residual wood-waste at the site was determined by using sediment

  12. High resolution of anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of 12 heavy metals in the three biggest metropolitan areas, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Zhu, C.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions of typical toxic heavy metals from anthropogenic sources have received worldwide concerns due to their adverse effects on human health and the ecosystem. An integrated inventory of anthropogenic emissions of twelve HMs (Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn) in the three biggest metropolitan areas, including Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region and Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, are developed for 1980-2012 by combining with detailed activity data and inter-annual dynamic emission factors which are determined by S-shaped curves on account of technology progress, economic development, and emission control. The results indicate total emissions of twelve HMs in the three metropolitan regions have increased from 5448.8 tons in 1980 to 19054.9 tons in 2012, with an annual average growth rate of about 4.0%. Due to significant difference in industrial structures and energy consumption compositions, remarkable distinctions can be observed with respect to source contributions of total HM emissions from above three metropolitan areas. Specifically, the ferrous metal smelting sector, coal combustion by industrial boilers and coal combustion by power plants are found to be the primary source of total HM emissions in the BTH region (about 34.2%), YRD region (about 28.2%) and PRD region (about 24.3%), respectively. Furthermore, we allocate the annual emissions of these heavy metals in 2012 at a high spatial resolution of 9 km × 9 km grid with ArcGIS methodology and surrogate indexes, such as regional population and gross domestic product (GDP). The peak of HM emissions are mainly distributed over the grid cells of Beijing, Tianjin, Tangshan, Shijiazhuang, Handan and Baoding in the BTH region; Shanghai, Suzhou, Wuxi, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Ningbo in the YRD region; Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Dongguan, Foshan in the PYD region, respectively. Additionally, monthly emission profiles are established in order to further identify

  13. Avaliação da qualidade microbiológica de águas minerais consumidas na região metropolitana de Recife, Estado de Pernambuco = Evaluation of the microbiological quality of mineral water consumed in the metropolitan region of Recife, Pernambuco State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Iran Souza Coelho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Águas minerais comercializadas em garrafões de 20 L na região metropolitana de Recife, Estado de Pernambuco foram analisadas microbiologicamente, no período de junho de 2002 a maio de 2003. As dez marcas escolhidas de água mineral foram avaliadas no tocante às bactérias heterotróficas, coliformes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Aeromonas spp. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente por meio de Modelos Lineares Generalizados (GLM. As águas minerais apresentaram contaminação por E. coli, P. aeruginosa, A. hydrophila e A. caviae. Concluiu-se que, de todas as dez marcas analisadas, pelo menos uma amostra de cada marca apresentou-se imprópria para o consumo, por não atender aos parâmetros estabelecidos pela legislação em vigor em, no mínimo, duas análises; o Número Mais Provável (NMP de Pseudomonas spp. e de P. aeruginosa foi influenciado pela sazonalidade e a contagem de bactérias heterotróficas; o Número Mais Provável (NMP de coliformes totais e termotolerantes e a pesquisa de Aeromonas spp. não sofreram influência significativa da sazonalidade.Mineral water sold in 20 L bottles in the metropolitan area of Recife, Pernambuco State were microbiologically analyzed between June 2002 and May 2003. The ten selected brands of mineral water were evaluated with regard to heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas spp. Data were statistically analyzed using Generalized Linear Models (GLM. Mineral waters showed contamination by the following: E. coli, P. aeruginosa, A. hydrophila and A. caviae. It was concluded that of all ten tested brands, at least one sample of each brand was improper for consumption, for not meeting the parameters established by legislation in at least two tests; the Most Probable Number (MPN for Pseudomonas spp. and P. aeruginosa was influenced by seasonality and the count of heterotrophic bacteria; the Most

  14. Analysis of Solid Waste Management and Strategies for Bangkok Metropolitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palika Wannawilai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine and analyze strategic gaps and the environment of waste management of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA in order to suggest suitable waste management strategies for Bangkok Metropolitan. The study was conducted by interviewing BMA and districts’ administrators and officers, local leaders and people, and private sectors, conducting a focus group, as well as reviewing relevant documents. The data was analyzed by applying Gap analysis and SWOT analysis. The proposed five strategies are: 1 enhancement of efficiency in solid waste and hazardous waste management; 2 discipline, participation and responsibility of citizens and all sectors related to waste management; 3 appropriate and integrated waste management; 4 capacity building for BMA’s staff and improvement of solid waste management system; and 5 research and development of knowledge and technology in waste management. The study also suggested driving approaches for effective implementation of the strategies.

  15. Use of renewable energy in the greater metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Garcia, Rocio; Castro Gomez, Gustavo; Fallas Cordero, Kenneth; Grant Chaves, Samuel; Mendez Parrales, Tony; Parajeles Fernandez, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    A study is conducted on different renewable energy within the larger metropolitan area, selecting the most suitable for the area and the implementation for distributed generation. A research methodology is practiced type pretending gather the necessary information to make proposals selected of different type of energy. The geography of the greater metropolitan area is studied along with the different existing renewable energy: distributed generation, remote measurement of energy which is one of the elements of the concept of intelligent networks (Smart Grid) in the electricity sector, legislation of Costa Rica regarding the generation of renewable energy and environmental impact. An analysis of economic feasibility is covered for each of the proposals estimating current rates for leading distributors of a future value, concluding with the viability of projects for possible execution of the same. (author) [es

  16. Causes and consequences of rural-urban migration: The case of Juba Metropolitan, Republic of South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babi Moses, Lomoro Alfred; Guogping, Xiong; Celestino Ladu John, Leju

    2017-08-01

    Migration is the movement of people from one ecological region to another; it may be on temporary or permanent basis. This research studies focused on the causes and consequences of rural-urban migration in Juba Metropolitan, Republic of South Sudan as a case study. The stratified random sampling method on the basis of existing payam (districts) was used to divide the study area into three zones of Juba, Kator and Munuku. Data were generated through primary and secondary sources. The data generated were analyzed using SPSS. The findings of the study show that Munuki payam covers most of the migrants. The study also reveals that males migrate more than the females in Juba and migration is high within the age cohorts of 30-39 years and 40-49 years old. Furthermore, the study revealed that the propensity to migrate is directly related to educational attainment. It can be inferred from the findings of the study that the majority of migrants in Juba Metropolitan migrated in search of employment while others migrated to continue their education while others migrated in search for basic amenities, to join relatives and get married. This means, until the imbalance or disparity in socio-economic development between the rural and urban areas are removed, no amount of persuasion or force can put a stop to rural-urban migration and its’ multiplying effects in Juba Metropolitan, Republic of South Sudan.

  17. AC Transmission Emulation Control Strategies for the BTB VSC HVDC System in the Metropolitan Area of Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyoon Song

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Korean power system, growing power loads have recently created the problems of voltage instability and fault current in the Seoul Capital Area (SCA. Accordingly, the back-to-back (BTB voltage source converter (VSC high-voltage direct-current (HVDC system is emerging to resolve such problems with grid segmentation. However, non-convergence problems occur in this metropolitan area, due to the large change of power flow in some contingencies. Therefore, this paper proposes two kinds of AC transmission emulation control (ATEC strategies to improve the metropolitan transient stability, and to resolve the non-convergence problem. The proposed ATEC strategies are able to mitigate possible overloading of adjacent AC transmission, and maintain power balance between metropolitan regions. The first ATEC strategy uses a monitoring system that permits the reverse power flow of AC transmission, and thus effectively improves the grid stability based on the power transfer equation. The second ATEC strategy emulates AC transmission with DC link capacitors in a permissible DC-link voltage range according to angle difference, and securely improves the gird stability, without requiring grid operator schedule decisions. This paper compares two kinds of ATEC schemes: it demonstrates the first ATEC strategy with specific fault scenario with PSS/E (Power Transmission System Planning Software, and evaluates the second ATEC strategy with internal controller performance with PSCAD/EMTDC (Power System Electromagnetic Transients Simulation Software.

  18. FINANCING FARMLAND PRESERVATION: THE TWIN CITIES METROPOLITAN AREA EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Greden, Leah R.; Taff, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Two farmland protection programs in the Twin Cities (Minnesota) Metropolitan Area--Green Acres and Agricultural Preserves-- together enrolled 608,331 acres in 1992. The principal financing tool was a provision common to both programs under which participating landowners paid reduced property taxes in exchange for certain non- development assurances. The resulting shift in property tax obligations to other taxpayers amounted to $7.6 million for the 1993 tax year, an average shift of $12.50 per...

  19. Skinner boxes for psychotics: Operant conditioning at Metropolitan state hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Between 1953 and 1965, Ogden Lindsley and his associates conducted free-operant research with psychiatric inpatients and normal volunteers at Metropolitan State Hospital in Waltham, Massachusetts. Their project, originally named “Studies in Behavior Therapy,” was renamed “Harvard Medical School Behavior Research Laboratory” in 1955. This name change and its implications were significant. The role of the laboratory in the history of the relationship between the experimental analysis of behavio...

  20. SPATIAL SEGMENTATION WITHIN METROPOLITAN LABOUR MARKET: MAPPING THE GENDER DIMENSION

    OpenAIRE

    DEBNATH, TANIA

    2017-01-01

    Spatial segmentation of the labour market of informal workers within the metropolitan is observed globally. InIndia it is not only compartmentalised on gender, caste, ethnic lines but also geographically segmented by thecreation of spatially disjoined markets. The differential impact of this limited mobility on female and malelabour remains largely unexplored. The present paper argues that the labour market for informal workers issegmented into smaller labour markets separated by commuting (h...

  1. Factors Influencing Patronage Of Medical Tourism In Metropolitan Lagos Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Omisore; E.O.; Agbabiaka; H. I.

    2015-01-01

    Since medical tourism attract patient from various origin to seek medical services at different destinations it is paramount to consider the factors that motivate patrons decision on medical tourism. Hence this study assesses the factors influencing patronage of medical tourism in Lagos metropolis Nigeria. Lagos State is situated in the southwestern corner of Nigeria it lies within Latitudes 62N to 64N of the Equator and Longitudes 245E to 420E of the Greenwich meridian. Metropolitan Lagos is...

  2. The determinants of part-time work in Metropolitan Lima

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Enrique Saavedra Martinez

    2011-01-01

    The following paper examines the part-time work in Metropolitan Lima in 2008. The overall objective is to identify the determinants of the incidence of part-time work in Lima. We worked with one Probit econometric model, measured by the National Survey of Households (NSH), which explores the job characteristics of people. This will determine the presence of part-time workers in the areas of trade, health, education and communication; also realized that this group has completed university stud...

  3. The determinants of part-time work in Metropolitan Lima

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra Martinez, Manuel Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The following paper examines the part-time work in Metropolitan Lima in 2008. The overall objective is to identify the determinants of the incidence of part-time work in Lima. We worked with one Probit econometric model, measured by the National Survey of Households (NSH), which explores the job characteristics of people. This will determine the presence of part-time workers in the areas of trade, health, education and communication; also realized that this group has completed university stud...

  4. The 1987 Whittier Narrows, California, earthquake: A Metropolitan shock

    OpenAIRE

    Hauksson, Egill; Stein, Ross S.

    1989-01-01

    Just 3 hours after the Whittier Narrows earthquake struck, it became clear that a heretofore unseen geological structure was seismically active beneath metropolitan Los Angeles. Contrary to initial expectations of strike-slip or oblique-slip motion on the Whittier fault, whose north end abuts the aftershock zone, the focal mechanism of the mainshock showed pure thrust faulting on a deep gently inclined surface [Hauksson et al., 1988]. This collection of nine research reports spans the spectru...

  5. Desigualdade social e exposição a campos magnéticos na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo Desigualdad social y exposición a campos magnéticos en la región metropolitana de Sao Paulo Social inequality and exposure to magnetic fields in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Habermann

    2010-08-01

    medio del área de corredores de exposición a lo largo de las LT. El ancho de los corredores de exposición se basó en dos abordajes: uno consistió en anchos pre-definidos por la tensión de la LT y la otra por medio del cálculo del campo magnético. Las informaciones socioeconómicas entre expuestos y no expuestos fueron comparadas por la aplicación de la prueba de dos proporciones (α=5%. RESULTADOS: En los corredores con anchos pre-definidos la prevalencia de exposición fue de 2,4% y en los corredores calculados, fue de 1,4%. Ambos métodos indicaron mayor prevalencia de exposición en la población más joven, con menores niveles de renta y escolaridad (pOBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of exposure to magnetic fields generated by transmission lines (TL and characterize the exposed population. METHODS: Information about TL in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, was provided by the electricity companies and mapped out using geographic information system (GIS. Demographic and socioeconomic data were obtained from the 2000 Census and added to the GIS in another layer. Households and their inhabitants that were located at a distance from the TL that was sufficient to generate a magnetic field 0.3 µT (microteslas were deemed to be exposed. The prevalence was estimated according to the area of the corridors of exposure along the TL. Two approaches were used to delimit the corridor width: one consisted of widths that were predefined by the TL voltage, and the other consisted of calculation of the magnetic field. The socioeconomic information on the exposed and non-exposed populations were compared by applying the two-proportion test (α= 5%. RESULTS: In the corridors with predefined widths, the prevalence of exposure was 2.4%, and in the calculated corridors, the prevalence was 1.4%. Both methods indicated higher prevalence of exposure among the younger population, and among individuals with lower education and income levels (p < 0

  6. Green Urbanism for the Greener Future of Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaręba, Anna; Krzemińska, Alicja; Widawski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    Intensive urbanization is swallowing municipal green areas which causes intensification of erosion, decrease in biodiversity and permanent fragmentation of habitats. In the face of these changes, a risk of irreversible damages to urban ecosystems is growing. That is why planning of solutions within the framework of Green Urbanism in metropolitan areas inhabited by over 55% of the global population is of extraordinary importance. The task of the paper is to present patterns of the Green Urbanism using selected examples of metropolitan areas as case studies. The main goal of the research is to make comparison between GU practices in different countries, in various spatial settings. The principles of triple zero framework: zero fossil-fuel energy use, zero waste, zero emissions (from low-to-no-carbon emissions) introduce not only the contemporary trends in theoretical urban planning but are dictated by practical considerations to create a healthy environment for a healthy society with a minimized environmental footprint. The research results help to identify Green Urbanism techniques used for multiple functions, including ecological, recreational, cultural, aesthetic and other uses and present opportunities for implementation of Green Urbanism solutions in metropolitan areas. To achieve healthier society and environment, highly congested and polluted cities have to be recreated through working with the existing landscape, topography and natural resources particular to the site.

  7. Uber and Metropolitan Traffic Fatalities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, Noli; Kirk, David S

    2016-08-01

    Uber and similar rideshare services are rapidly dispersing in cities across the United States and beyond. Given the convenience and low cost, Uber has been characterized as a potential countermeasure for reducing the estimated 121 million episodes of drunk driving and the 10,000 resulting traffic fatalities that occur annually in the United States. We exploited differences in the timing of the deployment of Uber in US metropolitan counties from 2005 to 2014 to test the association between the availability of Uber's rideshare services and total, drunk driving-related, and weekend- and holiday-specific traffic fatalities in the 100 most populated metropolitan areas in the United States using negative binomial and Poisson regression models. We found that the deployment of Uber services in a given metropolitan county had no association with the number of subsequent traffic fatalities, whether measured in aggregate or specific to drunk-driving fatalities or fatalities during weekends and holidays. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints. A preliminary comparative global assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Brown, Marilyn A.

    2010-01-01

    A dearth of available data on carbon emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the carbon footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related to vehicles, energy used in buildings, industry, agriculture, and waste. The carbon emissions from these sources - discussed here as the metro area's partial carbon footprint - provide a foundation for identifying the pricing, land use, help metropolitan areas throughout the world respond to climate change. The article begins by exploring a sample of the existing literature on urban morphology and climate change and explaining the methodology used to calculate each area's carbon footprint. The article then depicts the specific carbon footprints for Beijing, Jakarta, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, New Delhi, New York, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo and compares these to respective national averages. It concludes by offering suggestions for how city planners and policymakers can reduce the carbon footprint of these and possibly other large urban areas. (author)

  9. Low-temperature geothermal resources of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, J.E. [Washington State Dept. of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA (United States). Div. of Geology and Earth Resources; Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington State Energy Office, Olympia, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents information on the location, physical characteristics, and water chemistry of low-temperature geothermal resources in Washington. The database includes 941 thermal (>20C or 68F) wells, 34 thermal springs, lakes, and fumaroles, and 238 chemical analyses. Most thermal springs occur in the Cascade Range, and many are associated with stratovolcanoes. In contrast, 97 percent of thermal wells are located in the Columbia Basin of southeastern Washington. Some 83.5 percent are located in Adams, Benton, Franklin, Grant, Walla Walla, and Yakima Counties. Yakima County, with 259 thermal wells, has the most. Thermal wells do not seem to owe their origin to local sources of heat, such as cooling magma in the Earth`s upper crust, but to moderate to deep circulation of ground water in extensive aquifers of the Columbia River Basalt Group and interflow sedimentary deposits, under the influence of a moderately elevated (41C/km) average geothermal gradient.

  10. Fuel management at Washington State Ferries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodeur, P.; Olds, J.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discussed Washington State Ferry (WSF) operations and provided details of a biodiesel research and demonstration project. Washington has the largest ferry system in the United States, with a total of 28 vessels that operate on 10 routes through 20 terminals. Routes vary by transit times, navigational challenges, and the proximity to population centres. WSF fuel and emissions management initiatives include exhaust emission studies, clean fuel initiatives, machinery upgrades, fuel conservation initiatives, and biodiesel testing. The organization is also using waste heat recovery and a positive restraint system. The WSF biodiesel pilot program was conducted using soy-derived fuels with a purifier disk stack. The program is in agreement with recent legislation requiring that 2 per cent of annual diesel fuel sales are from biodiesel fuels, and state legislation requiring that state agencies use a minimum of 20 per cent biodiesel blends in diesel-powered vessels and vehicles. Details of project partnerships were included. tabs., figs

  11. Snag Dynamics in Western Oregon and Washington

    OpenAIRE

    Ohmann, Janet L

    2002-01-01

    To achieve desired amounts and characteristics of snags and down wood, managers require analytical tools for projecting changes in dead wood over time, and for comparing those changes to management objectives such as providing dead wood for wildlife and ecosystem processes. The following information on rates of snag recruitment, decay, and fall across forests of western Oregon and Washington may be useful in planning for future levels of dead wood. Eventually the information will be incorpora...

  12. AKSESIBILITAS HOTEL HORISON BEKASI DENGAN MAL METROPOLITAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Nursintia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Development of accommodation services is growing very fast, the construction of hotels ranging from low to star property confirms that the business is very profitable and promising. Growing hotel development as the presence and development of tourism in a region. Concept of mix used and are now growing in demand by developers. In addition to shorten the land, its facilities are increasingly in demand, because the concept of developing the land into two business buildings comprising the hotel and mall, can provide ease of access for service users to carry out all the activities that support their activities. Accessibility is a very important thing to be considered for the service users to choose the hotel accommodation that will be flown them. Distance, transportation, facilities, road conditions, and ease of location had been the benchmark and consideration to get a suitable hotel for their activities.   Keyword : Accessibility, Hotel   Abstrak - Perkembangan jasa akomodasi saat ini berkembang sangat cepat, dibangunnya hotel mulai dari hotel rendah hingga bintang menegaskan bahwa bisnis properti ini sangat menguntungkan dan menjanjikan. Pembangunan hotel berkembang seiring hadirnya dan berkembangnya pariwisata di suatu daerah. Konsep mix used pun kini semakin berkembang dan diminati oleh para pengembang. Selain karena mempersingkat lahan, fasilitas nya pun semakin diminati, karena konsep mengembangkan satu lahan menjadi dua bangunan usaha yang terdiri dari hotel dan mal, dapat memberikan kemudahan akses untuk para pengguna jasa untuk melakukan segala aktifitas yang mendukung kegiatannya. Aksesbilitas merupakan hal yang sangat penting yang menjadi pertimbangan bagi para pengguna jasa akomodasi untuk memilih hotel yang akan mereka singgahi. Jarak, transportasi, fasilitas, kondisi jalan, dan kemudahan lokasi lah yang menjadi tolak ukur dan pertimbangan untuk mendapatkan hotel yang cocok bagi kegiatan mereka.   Kata Kunci

  13. Economic and environmental impact analysis of new road network project, connecting the inland metropolitan cities with port city of Karachi in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brohi, K.M.; Uqaili, M.A.; Harijan, K.

    2005-01-01

    Most of the developing countries face a lack of infrastructure facilities, where the road transport network is one of them. In this paper, firstly impacts of new road network project connecting with port city and inland metropolitan cities or northwest part of Pakistan are analyzed by using Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. Secondly, for the estimation of economic and environmental impacts of this project, a multi-regional CGE model is proposed. It is found that construction of this project is going to change the industrial structure, especially in production of manufacturing sector, and it will also change the Equivalent Variation (EV). It is also observed that remarkable economic and environmental impacts appeared in the inland metropolitan cities or northwest region than the rest of Pakistan. After analysis of these impacts, it is easy for government to make proper policy for maintaining economic impacts and reducing environmental impacts on national and regional level. (author)

  14. Earthquake Risk Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Kasahara, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Nanjo, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Tsuruoka, H.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic disaster risk mitigation in urban areas constitutes a challenge through collaboration of scientific, engineering, and social-science fields. Examples of collaborative efforts include research on detailed plate structure with identification of all significant faults, developing dense seismic networks; strong ground motion prediction, which uses information on near-surface seismic site effects and fault models; earthquake resistant and proof structures; and cross-discipline infrastructure for effective risk mitigation just after catastrophic events. Risk mitigation strategy for the next greater earthquake caused by the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducting beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area is of major concern because it caused past mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (magnitude M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that the M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. This earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70% in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. In order to mitigate disaster for greater Tokyo, the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (2007-2011) was launched in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions. The results that are obtained in the respective fields will be integrated until project termination to improve information on the strategy assessment for seismic risk mitigation in the Tokyo metropolitan area. In this talk, we give an outline of our project as an example of collaborative research on earthquake risk mitigation. Discussion is extended to our effort in progress and

  15. Coliformes em água de abastecimento de lojas fast-food da Região Metropolitana de Recife (PE, Brasil Coliforms in the water supply of fast-food chains in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, in the state of Pernambuco (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anunciada Leal Porto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A garantia do fornecimento de água potável nos serviços de alimentação é uma questão relevante para a saúde pública. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica da água destinada ao abastecimento de uma rede de lojas fast-food da cidade de Recife (PE e Região Metropolitana e comparar os resultados aos padrões estabelecidos pela Portaria nº 518/2004 do Ministério da Saúde. Mensalmente, foi analisada uma amostra proveniente de uma das torneiras da área de manipulação das oito lojas investigadas, perfazendo 96 amostras ao longo de um ano, todas coletadas em duplicata. As análises seguiram a metodologia estabelecida na American Public Health Association (APHA para realização do ensaio presuntivo utilizando o Teste Presença-Ausência, considerando-se o padrão de potabilidade determinado na legislação pertinente. Os resultados revelaram que 11,46% de todas as amostras apresentaram água contaminada por coliformes totais e 1,04% contaminação por coliformes termotolerantes. Conclui-se, portanto, que a qualidade da água disponível nos estabelecimentos produtores de alimentos estudados encontra-se em estado de alerta, uma vez que o percentual significativo das amostras analisadas mostrava-se impróprio para o consumo humano de acordo com a legislação vigente, a qual preconiza ausência de coliformes totais e termotolerantes.A guaranteed supply of clean drinking water in food outlets is a relevant subject for public health. The scope of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of 96 water samples of a network of fast-food stores in the city of Recife (state of Pernambuco, Brazil and Metropolitan Area and to compare the results to the standards established by Brazilian Health Ministry decree nº 518/2004. Every month, a double sample from one of the faucets in the food preparation area of the eight stores investigated was analyzed, totaling 96 samples over one year. The analyses followed

  16. Prevalência de sobrepeso e fatores associados em crianças ingressantes no ensino fundamental em um município da região metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil Overweight, obesity and associated factors in first grade schoolchildren in a city of the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenise Mondini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo verificou a prevalência de sobrepeso e sua associação com fatores sócio-ambientais em crianças ingressantes na primeira série do ensino público fundamental do Município de Cajamar, São Paulo, Brasil, em 2005. Sobrepeso foi definido pelo índice de massa corporal, segundo sexo e idade. As variáveis sócio-ambientais foram obtidas por meio de questionário aplicado junto às mães das crianças (58,6%. Associação entre sobrepeso e variáveis independentes foi verificada mediante técnica de regressão de Poisson. A prevalência de sobrepeso foi de 17%. Obesidade materna (RP = 3,54; IC: 2,16-5,80, freqüência elevada de consumo de alimentos "não saudáveis" (RP = 2,12; IC: 1,30-3,45, assistir à televisão por mais de quatro horas/dia (RP = 2,08; IC: 1,03-4,20 e disponibilidade domiciliar per capita de óleo (cerca de três colheres sopa/dia (RP = 1,52; IC: 1,01-2,31 apresentaram-se como fatores independentes associados ao excesso de peso infantil. O ambiente familiar apresentou forte influência sobre a condição de sobrepeso em escolares ingressantes no ensino fundamental. Ações de prevenção e controle do sobrepeso deveriam envolver a instituição escolar e também os pais ou responsáveis pelas crianças.This study assessed the prevalence of overweight in public school first graders and the association between overweight and socio-environmental factors in a city in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil. Children enrolling in public school first grade in Cajamar in 2005 were assessed. Overweight was defined according to body mass index, by gender and age. Socio-environmental information was obtained using a questionnaire applied to 58.6% of the children's mothers. Poisson regression models were used to evaluate associations between overweight in schoolchildren and socio-environmental variables. Seventeen percent of the children were overweight. Factors associated with overweight were: mother's obesity (PR = 3

  17. The perils of healthcare workforce forecasting: a case study of the Philadelphia metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Barton; Aaronson, William

    2003-01-01

    In 1996, a widely circulated and influential forecast for the Philadelphia Metropolitan Area stated that a decline in hospital and healthcare employment in the region would occur over the next five years. It also suggested that this decline would exacerbate the problem of an oversupply of nurses seeking hospital employment. The forecast reflected a regional leadership and expert consensus on the impact of the managed care transformation on workforce needs and was supported by short-term statistical trends in regional utilization and employment. Confounding these predictions was the fact that hospital and healthcare employment actually grew. By the end of 2001, hospitals in the region were experiencing problems in recruiting sufficient numbers of nurses, pharmacists, and technicians. The forecast failed to anticipate the impact of a strong regional economy on supply and underestimated the resilience of underlying forces that have driven the long-term growth in healthcare workforce demand. More effective ongoing monitoring can help moderate the fluctuation of workforce shortages and surpluses.

  18. The 16th International Geological Congress, Washington, 1933

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    In 1933, the International Geological Congress (IGC) returned to the United States of America (USA) for its sixteenth meeting, forty-two years after the 5th IGC convened in Washington. The Geological Society of America and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) supplied the major part of the required extra-registration funding after the effects of the Great Depression influenced the 72th U.S. Congress not to do so. A reported 1, 182 persons or organizations, representing fifty-four countries, registered for the 16 th IGC and thirty-four countries sent 141 official delegates. Of the total number of registrants, 665 actually attended the meeting; 500 came from the USA; and fifteen had participated in the 5th IGC. The 16 th Meeting convened in the U.S. Chamber of Commerce Building from 22 to 29 July. The eighteen half-day scientific sections-orogenesis (four), major divisions of the Paleozoic (three), miscellaneous (three), batholiths and related intrusives (two), arid-region geomorphic processes and products (one), fossil man and contemporary faunas (one), geology of copper and other ore deposits (one), geology of petroleum (one), measuring geologic time (one), and zonal relations of metalliferous deposits (one)-included 166 papers, of which fifty (including several of the key contributions) appeared only by title. The Geological Society of Washington, the National Academy of Sciences, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines hosted or contributed to evening presentations or receptions. Twenty-eight of the 16th IGC's thirty new guidebooks and one new USGS Bulletin aided eight pre-meeting, seven during-meeting, and four post-meeting field trips of local, regional, or national scope. The remaining two new guidebooks outlined the USA's structural geology and its stratigraphic nomenclature. The 16th IGC published a two-volume monograph on the world's copper resources (1935) and a two-volume report of its proceedings (1936).

  19. Study of the temporal and spatial variation of climate and solar radiation in th metropolitan Phoenix area. Final technical progress report, July 1, 1977-June 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrenberger, R.W.

    1978-09-29

    The research performed was designed to identify spatial or temporal variation of any atmospheric parameters that might affect the operation of devices utilizing solar energy in the metropolitan Phoenix area. The first part of the research involved the analysis of all available solar and climatic data to determine their validity and comparability. For the standard climatic parameters, few difficulties were encountered, but the task of determining comparability of solar radiation data involved many pitfalls. It was concluded that most of the solar data acquired before January 1977 could not be used for purposes of identifying spatial variability. And, a year and a half of data does not represent a long enough period of time upon which to base sound conclusions about spatial and temporal variability of solar radiation in the metropolitan Phoenix region. The data currently available to us do not indicate any great variation of solar radiation in the metropolitan Phoenix area. However, any meaningful statements about spatial and temporal variability of solar radiation in the metropolitan Phoenix area must await the acquisition of additional data from well-calibrated equipment.

  20. New aerosol particles formation in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Angel; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita

    2016-04-01

    The Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), in the southeast region of Brazil, is considered a megalopolis comprised of Sao Paulo city and more 38 municipalities. The air pollutant emissions in the SPMA are related to the burning of the fuels: etanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% ethanol) and diesel. According to CETESB (2013), the road vehicles contributed up to about 97, 87, and 80% of CO, VOCs and NOx emissions in 2012, respectively, being most of NOx associated to diesel combustion and most of CO and VOCs from gasohol and ethanol combustion. Studies conducted on ambient air pollution in the SPMA have shown that black carbon (BC) explains 21% of mass concentration of PM2.5 compared with 40% of organic carbon (OC), 20% of sulfates, and 12% of soil dust (Andrade et al., 2012). Most of the observed ambient PM2.5 mass concentration usually originates from precursors gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs as well as through the physico-chemical processes such as the oxidation of low volatile hydrocarbons transferring to the condensed phase (McMurry et al., 2004). The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem; Grell et al. 2005), configured with three nested grid cells: 75, 15, and 3 km, is used as photochemical modeling to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to evolution of particles number and mass size distribution from a vehicular emission model developed by the IAG-USP laboratory of Atmospheric Processes and based on statistical information of vehicular activity. The spatial and temporal distributions of emissions in the finest grid cell are based on road density products compiled by the OpenStreetMap project and measurements performed inside tunnels in the SPMA, respectively. WRF-Chem simulation with coupled primary aerosol (dust and sea-salt) and biogenic emission modules and aerosol radiative effects turned on is conducted as the baseline simulation (Case_0) to evaluate the model