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Sample records for metropolitan life insurance

  1. Marketing in life insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njegomir Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance industry has traditionally been oriented on sale of its products i.e. at the stage which from the aspect of marketing theory can be characterized as sales phase, phase which proceeds the marketing orientation. However, faced with numerous challenges of modern business environment such as globalization, deregulation and sophisticated information technology insurance companies must change their way of doing business. Competition is becoming fierce as insurance companies are faced with competition not only from insurance industry but also from other competitors, such as banks, that are in position to offer product substitutes for life insurance products. In this new environment information about customers and their education are becoming critical factors. Insurance companies must know their customers what influences their demand for life insurance, what is the amount of their income, what is inflation rate, their expenditures on other goods i.e. opportunity costs, etc. Those are factors that force insurance companies to concentrate more on present and potential buyers and their needs and force them to give their best to satisfy those needs in a way that will produce delighted customers.

  2. Group life insurance

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Administration wishes to inform staff members and fellows having taken out optional life insurance under the group contract signed by CERN that the following changes to the rules and regulations entered into force on 1 January 2013:   The maximum age for an active member has been extended from 65 to 67 years. The beneficiary clause now allows insured persons to designate one or more persons of their choice to be their beneficiary(-ies), either at the time of taking out the insurance or at a later date, in which case the membership/modification form must be updated accordingly. Beneficiaries must be clearly identified (name, first name, date of birth, address).   The membership/modification form is available on the FP website: http://fp.web.cern.ch/helvetia-life-insurance For further information, please contact: Valentina Clavel (Tel. 73904) Peggy Pithioud (Tel. 72736)

  3. Life insurance mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gerber, Hans U

    1997-01-01

    This concise introduction to life contingencies, the theory behind the actuarial work around life insurance and pension funds, will appeal to the reader who likes applied mathematics. In addition to model of life contingencies, the theory of compound interest is explained and it is shown how mortality and other rates can be estimated from observations. The probabilistic model is used consistently throughout the book. Numerous exercises (with answers and solutions) have been added, and for this third edition several misprints have been corrected.

  4. Group Life Insurance

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Administration would like to remind you that staff members and fellows have the possibility to take out a life insurance contract on favourable terms through a Group Life Insurance.   This insurance is provided by the company Helvetia and is available to you on a voluntary basis. The premium, which varies depending on the age and gender of the person insured, is calculated on the basis of the amount of the death benefit chosen by the staff member/fellow and can be purchased in slices of 10,000 CHF.    The contract normally ends at the retirement age (65/67 years) or when the staff member/fellow leaves the Organization. The premium is deducted monthly from the payroll.   Upon retirement, the staff member can opt to maintain his membership under certain conditions.   More information about Group Life Insurance can be found at: Regulations (in French) Table of premiums The Pension Fund Benefit Service &...

  5. ENDOWMENT LIFE INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljko Sain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper that treats the actuarial model of insurance in case of survival or early death is to show the actuarial methods and methodology for creating a model and an appropriate number of sub-models of the most popular form of life insurance in the world. The paper applies the scientific methodology of the deductive character based on scientific, theoretical knowledge and practical realities. Following the basic theoretical model’s determinants, which are at the beginning of the paper, the basic difference between models further in this paper was carried out according to the character of the premium to be paid. Finally, the financial repercussions of some models are presented at examples in insurance companies. The result of this paper is to show the spectrum of possible forms of capital endowment insurance which can be, without major problems, depending on the financial policy of the company, applied in actual practice. The conclusion of this paper shows the theoretical and the practical reality of this model, life insurance, and its quantitative and qualitative guidelines.

  6. PREMIUMS CALCULATION FOR LIFE INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA PREDA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the techniques and the formulas used on international practice for establishing the premiums for a life policy. The formulas are generally based on a series of indicators named mortality indicators which mainly point out the insured survival probability, the death probability and life expectancy at certain age. I determined, using a case study, the unique net premium, the annual net premium for a survival insurance, whole life insurance and mixed life insurance.

  7. Optimum amount of an insurance sum in life insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Balkovec

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal insurance represents one of the sources of personal social security as a category of personal property. How to get a proper life insurance is a frequently asked question. When insuring material objects (car, house..., the problem is usually not in the amount of the taken insurance. With life insurance (abstract goods, problems as such occur. In this paper, we wish to present a model that, according to the financial situation and the anticipated future, makes it possible to calculate the optimum insurance sum in life insurance.

  8. Life insurance theory actuarial perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Vylder, F Etienne

    1997-01-01

    This book is different from all other books on Life Insurance by at least one of the following characteristics 1-4. 1. The treatment of life insurances at three different levels: time-capital, present value and price level. We call time-capital any distribution of a capital over time: (*) is the time-capital with amounts Cl, ~, ... , C at moments Tl, T , ..• , T resp. N 2 N For instance, let (x) be a life at instant 0 with future lifetime X. Then the whole oO oO life insurance A is the time-capital (I,X). The whole life annuity ä is the x x time-capital (1,0) + (1,1) + (1,2) + ... + (I,'X), where 'X is the integer part ofX. The present value at 0 of time-capital (*) is the random variable T1 T TN Cl V + ~ v , + ... + CNV . (**) In particular, the present value ofA 00 and ä 00 is x x 0 0 2 A = ~ and ä = 1 + v + v + ... + v'X resp. x x The price (or premium) of a time-capital is the expectation of its present value. In particular, the price ofA 00 and äx 00 is x 2 A = E(~) and ä = E(I + v + v + ... + v'X...

  9. Life Insurance Basics: A Self-Help Workbook for Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina.

    This booklet provides consumers with an overview of information about life insurance. Chapter 1, "Why Life Insurance?" outlines the primary purposes of life insurance coverage and presents basic facts about the Canadian life insurance industry. Chapter 2, "Do I Need Life Insurance?" discusses life insurance coverage at specific…

  10. Modelling in life insurance a management perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Norberg, Ragnar; Planchet, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Focussing on life insurance and pensions, this book addresses various aspects of modelling in modern insurance: insurance liabilities; asset-liability management; securitization, hedging, and investment strategies. With contributions from internationally renowned academics in actuarial science, finance, and management science and key people in major life insurance and reinsurance companies, there is expert coverage of a wide range of topics, for example: models in life insurance and their roles in decision making; an account of the contemporary history of insurance and life insurance mathematics; choice, calibration, and evaluation of models; documentation and quality checks of data; new insurance regulations and accounting rules; cash flow projection models; economic scenario generators; model uncertainty and model risk; model-based decision-making at line management level; models and behaviour of stakeholders. With author profiles ranging from highly specialized model builders to decision makers at chief ex...

  11. Life Insurance Contribution, Insurance Development and Economic Growth in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ying

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Under L-type economy, remodelling the growth power in the medium and long term is essential. The insurance industry during the 13th Five-year Plan period has been given a heavy expectation on promoting economic quality and upgrading economic efficiency, so it will try to accelerate its innovation and development process which serves national needs, market demand and people's requirements. Referring to the previous researches of Solow and Zhang and measuring Capital Stock and Total Factor Productivity independently, the paper analyses the inherent correlation between insurance (including life insurance and non-life insurance and economic growth, reveals the contribution law of the insurance development in economic growth in the short and long term from both economic scale and quality respectively. It also shows enlightenments on policy decision for insurance industry, thus helps economic stability under the downturn periods.

  12. Considerations on Albanian Life Insurance Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentiana Sharku

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The life insurance sector is an important sector of the economy all over the world. Life insurance provides the economy and the individuals as well, a variety of fundamental financial services.Regardless the importance it has all around the world, life insurance market in Albania is still underdeveloped comparing not only to the Western European countries, but to the region countries as well. The comparative analysis of insurance market is carried out by means of two indexes: insurance density and penetration index. The life insurance market in Albania is facing several problems which will be further explained in the paper, together with some recommendations to be taken in account by Albanian insurance companies and the Albanian government as well.

  13. Financial Planning and the Life Insurance Agency

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Puelz

    1992-01-01

    In this article, the effects of fee-for-service personal financial planning on the decision making of a profit-maximizing life insurance general agent are examined. Three refutable propositions are developed which implicate the movements of the general agent who must adjust to a new optimal profit-maximizing allocation of financial planning, personal insurance sales, and agent insurance sales when there is a change in one of the fee or commission rate parameters. It is demonstrated that insur...

  14. 76 FR 77455 - Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance and Veterans' Group Life Insurance-Slayer's Rule Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... and Veterans' Group Life Insurance--Slayer's Rule Exclusion AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs... Veterans' Group Life Insurance--Slayer's Rule Exclusion.'' Copies of comments received will be available...) (slayer's rule ``is undoubtedly an implicit provision of the Servicemen's Group Life Insurance Act of 1965...

  15. Diabetes diagnosis and management among insured adults across metropolitan areas in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya Yang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study provides diabetes-related metrics for the 50 largest metropolitan areas in the U.S. in 2012—including prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, insurance status of the population with diabetes, diabetes medication use, and prevalence of poorly controlled diabetes.Diabetes prevalence estimates were calculated using cross-sectional data combining the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, American Community Survey, National Nursing Home Survey, Census population files, and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Analysis of medical claims files (2012 de-identified Normative Health Information database, 2011 Medicare Standard Analytical Files, and 2008 Medicaid Analytic eXtract produced information on treatment and poorly controlled diabetes by geographic location, insurance type, sex, and age group.Among insured adults with diagnosed type 2 diabetes in 2012, the proportion receiving diabetes medications ranged from 83% in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, to 65% in West Palm Beach, Florida. The proportion of treated patients with medical claims indicating poorly controlled diabetes was lowest in Minneapolis, Minnesota (36% and highest in Texas metropolitan areas of Austin (51%, San Antonio (51%, and Houston (50%.Estimates of diabetes detection and management across metropolitan areas often differ from state and national estimates. Local metrics of diabetes management can be helpful for tracking improvements in communities over time. Keywords: Diabetes, Management

  16. Insuring Life : Value, Security and Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobo-Guerrero, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This book is a contribution to the scholarly engagement with the wider problem of governing through risk and the politics of uncertainty. It takes life insurance as an empirical site from which to ask: what is the kind of governance created through insurance an instance of, and how does it

  17. 41 CFR 60-741.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. 60-741.25 Section 60-741.25 Public Contracts and Property Management... Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service...

  18. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual... companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance... insurance companies and mutual fire insurance companies exclusively issuing either perpetual policies, or...

  19. 78 FR 58264 - Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance and Veterans' Group Life Insurance Information Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 9 RIN 2900-AO42 Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance and Veterans' Group Life Insurance Information Access AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) proposes to amend its regulations governing...

  20. 77 FR 60304 - Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance and Veterans' Group Life Insurance-Slayer's Rule Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 9 RIN 2900-AN40 Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance and Veterans' Group Life Insurance--Slayer's Rule Exclusion AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is amending its regulations...

  1. Deflation Risk and Implications for Life Insurers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Bégin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Life insurers are exposed to deflation risk: falling prices could lead to insufficient investment returns, and inflation-indexed protections could make insurers vulnerable to deflation. In this spirit, this paper proposes a market-based methodology for measuring deflation risk based on a discrete framework: the latter accounts for the real interest rate, the inflation index level, its conditional variance, and the expected inflation rate. US inflation data are then used to estimate the model and show the importance of deflation risk. Specifically, the distribution of a fictitious life insurer’s future payments is investigated. We find that the proposed inflation model yields higher risk measures than the ones obtained using competing models, stressing the need for dynamic and market-consistent inflation modelling in the life insurance industry.

  2. 41 CFR 60-300.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life... VETERANS, AND ARMED FORCES SERVICE MEDAL VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.25 Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company, health...

  3. 41 CFR 60-250.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life... SEPARATED VETERANS, AND OTHER PROTECTED VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.25 Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company, health...

  4. Life Insurance and Individual Pension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim PAÇACI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no explanation in the source about the insurance and the private pension system, which are not known at the time of the formation of the fiqh and the period of the support. Upon the spread of the insurance, The provision of insurance in the geography of Islam has also begun to be discussed. There are contracts that have the elements and conditions that must be found in itself and that are not contradictory to the basic principles of Islam. In this respect, without accumulating life insurance that protects the person against sudden risks is permissible. The provision of cumulative life insurance and the individual pension system depends on the area where the premiums are deposited and the type of payment. Provided that the premiums are assessed in halal areas; a at the end of the period premiums and interests are paid back in full or on a specific plan, or b all or part of the premiums and interests are left in the company and the income share is paid as salary, these are permissible. However, it is not permissible if all or part of the premiums and duties are left in the company and a fixed salary is attached. It is permissible for the State to contribute to the entry into the private pension system in order to incentivize the savings, and it is permissible for them to receive this contribution.

  5. Long Dated Life Insurance and Pension Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Aase, Knut K.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the "life cycle model" by first introducing a credit market with only biometric risk, and then market risk is introduced via risky securities. This framework enables us to find optimal pension plans and life insurance contracts where the benefits are state dependent. We compare these solutions both to the ones of standard actuarial theory, and to policies offered in practice. Two related portfolio choice puzzles are discussed in the light of recent research, one is the horizon prob...

  6. Life Insurance In Russia: Features Of Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Leonidovna Prokopjeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Life insurance is the economic tool allowing to accumulate large monetary funds at the level of the country, regions and certain insurers, and also providing growth of a standard of living of citizens and social stability in society. Subject matter of the research is the economic aspects of development of life insurance in regions of Russia. The purpose of the work — to carry out the comparative analysis of functioning of the markets for life insurance in territorial subjects of the Russian Federation, to reveal regularities and distinctive features of development of the markets and to define further prospects of branch. Methods of research: analysis, comparison, induction, analogy, mathematical modeling were used. The main results of research: life insurance — a demanded financial product in Moscow, but in regions of Russia demand for it is extremely limited; economic indicators of the market have low values and vary on territorial subjects of the Russian Federation; statistics of a variation confirm heterogeneity of functioning of the life insurance marketin comparison with the insurance market in general; life insurance volumes in regions of Russia significantly depend on activity of real sector of economy, thus have practically no close interrelation with the income of the population. Collaboration of authorities of all levels and insurance community is necessary for effective development of the life insurance marketin regions. The special attention has to be paid to price policy of insurers, increase of transparency of the movement of their financial streams and guarantees of recoverability of means of insurers.

  7. Life and health insurance industry investments in fast food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Arun V; McCormick, Danny; Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U; Boyd, J Wesley

    2010-06-01

    Previous research on health and life insurers' financial investments has highlighted the tension between profit maximization and the public good. We ascertained health and life insurance firms' holdings in the fast food industry, an industry that is increasingly understood to negatively impact public health. Insurers own $1.88 billion of stock in the 5 leading fast food companies. We argue that insurers ought to be held to a higher standard of corporate responsibility, and we offer potential solutions.

  8. The Intra-Industry Effects of Life Insurance Company Demutualizaton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W. Meador

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the impact of demutualization announcements by 13 life insurance companies during 1996-2000 on the value of existing stock-owned life insurance companies and companies in other segments of the insurance industry. Demutualization announcements are associated with negative stock price reactions in the days around the announcement, and with larger and positive stock price reactions in the days following announcement. Overall, the results support the contention that life insurance company demutualizations signal favorable future industry conditions and/or increased likelihood of future acquisitions for all segments of the insurance industry. Active-minded investors may use these results to develop alpha-generating investment strategies.

  9. Good Faith in Life Insurance Contract by Indonesian Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhamad Khoirul Huda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews both the interpretation of good faith and its implementation by the Court in terms of life insurance contracts. The principle of good faith in life insurance contracts was under the provision of the Article 251 Wet Boek van Kophandel which assigned the obligation of good faith on the insured. Based on the context of its historical and systematical interpretation, the obligation of good faith should be on both sides, the insurer and the insured. The insured had an obligation to inform any material facts and the insurer had to investigate those all facts. Until recent days, however, judges in all levels of Court did not have any shared and full understanding on the interpretation of good faith in life insurance contracts. As the result, many Courts were frequently inconsistent with each other. Hence, the sense of fairness the people perceived from the court verdict was not achieved.

  10. Interdependence of life insurance service quality and premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Benazić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Insurance companies in Croatia feel the need to find new sources of competitive advantage on the Croatian life insurance market amid increasing competition and a poorly profiled offer of life insurance services. Lately, both marketing literature and practice seem to point to the shaping of a relationship between service quality and price as a possible solution to improving the position of insurance companies on the Croatian market. In providing life insurance services, the insurance companies should focus on the quality elements that offer certain benefits a client is willing to pay for. Changes in individual quality features have been evaluated differently by clients. Such differences in their evaluation of changes in the individual elements of service quality also reflect the willingness of clients to pay a suitable increase on their insurance premium. Improvements in the service quality features that are subjectively evaluated as important should lead to the client’s acceptance of a higher life insurance premium. The paper considers the interdependence between the quality of life insurance services and the premium from the aspect of the client’s willingness to pay a higher life insurance premium for a higher service quality.

  11. Life insurance investment and stock market participation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavapozzi, Danilo; Trevisan, Elisabetta; Weber, Guglielmo

    2013-03-01

    In most European countries life insurance has played a key role in household portfolios, to the extent that it has often been the first asset ever purchased. In this paper we use life history data from a host of European countries to investigate the role of life insurance investment in shaping individuals' attitudes towards participation in stocks and mutual funds. We show that individuals who purchased a life insurance policy are more likely to invest in stocks and mutual funds later. On the one hand, these findings support the notion that life insurance policies play an educational role in financial investment. On the other hand, they are also consistent with behavioural models where economic agents are first concerned with avoiding unacceptable adverse scenarios by purchasing low risk investments, such as life insurance policies, and then invest in riskier assets, such as stocks and mutual funds, to obtain higher economic returns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Statistical tools for non-life insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonio, K.

    2008-01-01

    Within the actuarial profession a major challenge can be found in the construction of a fair tariff structure. In light of the heterogeneity within, for instance, a car insurance portfolio, an insurance company should not apply the same premium for all insured risks. Otherwise the so-called concept

  13. Influencers of Life Insurance Investments: Empirical Evidence from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Mitra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the impact of economic, demographic and cultural factors on life insurance consumption in 28 European countries. The period of study is post financial crisis from 2009-2014, and the study considers many of the emerging Eastern European economies where there have been significant insurance sector reforms recently. Europe is the world’s largest insurance market with 35% of the overall insurance premium contribution, but ranks third in insurance per capita, hence Europe is an interesting region in which to study insurance demand. The study observed four economic parameters: GDP per capita, gross savings, competitiveness of the nation, and inflation, as significant impacts on the insurance consumption in the region. Two demographic factors, population and education, and two cultural factors, individualism and long term orientation, appear to impact insurance consumption in the selected countries.

  14. Investment Guarantees in the South African Life Insurance Industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the risks faced by South African life insurance companies arising from the provision of investment guarantees in products sold. The current thinking and practice of the larger South African life insurance companies regarding investment guarantees is set out following their responses to a survey.

  15. 26 CFR 1.801-4 - Life insurance reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... is claimed. However, reserves held by the company with respect to the net value of risks reinsured in..., life insurance reserves, as in the case of level premium life insurance, are held to supplement the... amount (if any) by which: (i) The present value of the future net premiums required for such contract...

  16. An application of Fuzzy DEMATEL electronic life-insurance development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Vali Tabatabaei

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available For years, e-commerce has generated competitive advantage for many industries especially in insurance industry where people could apply for any sort of insurance, very easily. In fact, insurance industry has become one of the most important sectors in the world. E-commerce, on the other hand, has absorbed various people in insurance industry to develop economic growth. However, applying e-commerce for insurance firms may encounter serious obstacles and it is important to know them properly and setup appropriate actions to remove them. In this paper, we present a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM technique based on DEMATEL with an adaptation of fuzzy logic to find important factors impacting implementation of e-commerce for life insurance industry. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some insurance experts and then we analyze them using fuzzy DEMATEL technique. Findings indicate that “lack of designing death table based on the existing statistics of population death in Iran”, “lack of variety in protections of life insurance in proportionate to society individual’s requirements by means of low level income of society individuals” and “lack of extensive advertisements for developing the culture of life insurance in country” are the most important factors influencing insurance industry for enhancing e-business.

  17. 26 CFR 20.2042-1 - Proceeds of life insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proceeds of life insurance. 20.2042-1 Section 20.2042-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE... speaking, the term has reference to the right of the insured or his estate to the economic benefits of the...

  18. The Added Value of Medical Testing in Underwriting Life Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronsema, J.; Brouwer, S.; de Boer, M.R.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Background In present-day life-insurance medical underwriting practice the risk assessment starts with a standard health declaration (SHD). Indication for additional medical screening depends predominantly on age and amount of insured capital. From a medical perspective it is questionable whether

  19. Non-Life Insurance Pricing: Multi Agents Model

    OpenAIRE

    Amir H. Darooneh

    2004-01-01

    We use the maximum entropy principle for pricing the non-life insurance and recover the B\\"{u}hlmann results for the economic premium principle. The concept of economic equilibrium is revised in this respect.

  20. DEVELOPMENTS AND TRENDS IN THE LIFE INSURANCE MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Virlanuta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An essential aspect in the life and evolution of man since ancient times was the concern for the future, fear combined with care and wisdom certainly accomplished something. The events of our lives fast moving and often they occur unpredictably. We need to make sure that our family is safe and receiving all the financial support it needs. Evolving from simple function of protection in case of death, life insurance became more complex, and at the moment we can choose one of the following forms of insurance. Life insurance is a form of financial protection of human in case of an accident, illness, disability or death. In this regard we propose an analysis of the life insurance market in Romania.

  1. Life insurance density and penetration: panel data analysis across countries

    OpenAIRE

    Urbanavičiūtė, Greta

    2016-01-01

    Life Insurance Density and Penetration: Panel Data Analysis Across Countries This bachelor thesis examines two key indicators in the life insurance market: density and penetration. The main purpose is to analyse which factors have the biggest impact on these two indicators in 39 countries around the world. Panel data models, which represent the collected data best, were created. This paper examines the latest public data available in 39 countries, including the Baltic States, and new signific...

  2. Market valuation in the framework of modern life insurance mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Petrač, Maja

    2013-01-01

    In the traditional actuarial life insurance mathematics, liabilities to beneficiaries (technical reserves) are calculated based on conservative assumptions of mortality and interest rates. However, this approach was found to be incomplete since it does not contain the market component which has become essential due to the development of the financial market. Since about 80% of total liabilities of life insurance companies are made up of technical reserves, this issue has a major i...

  3. How life insurance can benefit the business owner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byles, B.

    1993-01-01

    There are many situations when life insurance can fill the financial needs of business owners. Three of the most common needs are business continuation/value conservation (buy-sell agreement), asset conservation upon death or disability of a key employee (replace the value of a key employee upon death or disability), and the reward and retention of selected employees (bonus or deferred compensation). Let's take a closer look to see why life insurance makes sense in these three areas

  4. Interest rate risk of life insurers: Evidence from accounting data

    OpenAIRE

    Möhlmann, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Life insurers are exposed to interest rate risk, and their liability side is typically more sensitive to interest rate changes than their asset side. This paper develops an accounting-based measure of interest rate sensitivity. My approach uses the coexistence of historical cost and market value accounting, which permits the observation of valuations for different discount rates. Using microdata, I show that German life insurers have a significant exposure to interest rate risk. However, ther...

  5. Some Aspects Regarding the Analysis of the Life Insurance Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Anghelache

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to draw-up an analysis of the life insurance market in Romania. This survey is drawn up for the period 2003-2006 and the data used for this analysis were taken over from the Annual Reports published by the Insurance Supervision Commission. Life insurance market in Romania is a steady growing market as a result of the economic growth and the purchase power but is still far away from the development stage of the European markets.

  6. 26 CFR 1.821-4 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life insurance companies and other than fire, flood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... life insurance companies and other than fire, flood, or marine insurance companies, subject to tax... Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which... other than life insurance companies and other than fire, flood, or marine insurance companies, subject...

  7. The Housing Domain of Quality of Life and Life Satisfaction in the Spontaneous Settlements on the Tehran Metropolitan Fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebardast, Esfandiar

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to survey the spontaneous settlements on the Tehran Metropolitan Fringe (TMF), to determine the different housing sub-domains of quality of life (QOL), to survey overall life satisfaction and to determine the extent to which overall life satisfaction is explained by the components of the housing domain of QOL in these…

  8. Life insurance, financial development and economic growth in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athenia Bongani Sibindi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The life insurance sector may contribute to economic growth by its very mechanism of savings mobilisation and thereby performing an intermediation role in the economy. This ensures that capital is provided to deficient units who are in need of capital to finance their working capital requirements and invest in technology thereby resulting in an increase in output. In this way, it could be argued that life insurance development spurs financial development. In this article we investigate the causal relationship between the life insurance sector, financial development and economic growth in South Africa for the period 1990 to 2012. We make use of life insurance density as the proxy for life insurance development, real per capita growth domestic product as the proxy for economic growth and real broad money per capita as the proxy for financial development. We test for cointegration amongst the variables by applying the Johansen procedure and then proceed to test for Granger causality based on the vector error correction model (VECM. Our results confirm the existence of at least one cointegrating relationship amongst the variables. The results indicate that the direction of causality runs from the economy to the life insurance sector which is consistent with the “demand-following” insurance-growth hypothesis. There is also evidence of causality running from the economy to financial development which is consistent with the “demand following” finance-growth hypothesis. The results also reveal that life insurance complements economic growth in bringing about financial development further lending credence to the “complementarity” hypothesis

  9. What new policies should South Africa's life insurance industry adopt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, G

    1996-12-01

    By February 1996, the South African life insurance industry had paid out more than R75 million in AIDS-related claims. This situation requires imposition of controls that will make economic sense while reflecting the social responsibility of the insurance companies. AIDS mortality rates suggest that for each 10% of the infected insured population, the risk premium rates should increase 400%. Thus, without controls, the life insurance sector may collapse. While it has been charged that HIV testing associated with the provision of life insurance discriminates against infected individuals, failure to test compromises the rights of uninfected individuals in the individual assurance market. HIV test protocols can be used that protect applicants from false positive results, prevent fraud, and preserve confidentiality. Proposals to require five-year retesting have also been criticized but would protect the interests of uninfected individuals who want life insurance to remain affordable. In an innovative move, South Africa now includes "full-blown AIDS" among the list of "dreaded diseases" that trigger an immediate pay-out. While purchasing life insurance may fall low on the list of priorities of an infected person, demand continues, and two companies offer expensive products to those with Stage I and II disease. Medical insurance is also threatened by the increased costs associated with HIV/AIDS, and treatment protocols may be the only way to control medical expenses and assure the future of medical insurance. At this stage of the epidemic, no one seems prepared to meet their share of the costs associated with HIV/AIDS.

  10. 26 CFR 1.802(b)-1 - Tax on life insurance companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... For the definition of the term “1954 life insurance company taxable income”, see § 1.805-1. (b) The... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on life insurance companies. 1.802(b)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Life Insurance Companies § 1.802(b)-1 Tax on life insurance companies...

  11. [Compatibility of Work and Family Life: Survey of Physicians in the Munich Metropolitan Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauchart, Meike; Ascher, Philipp; Kesel, Karin; Weber, Sabine; Grabein, Beatrice; Schneeweiss, Bertram; Fischer-Truestedt, Cordula; Schoenberg, Michael; Rogler, Gudrun; Borelli, Claudia

    2017-05-15

    Aim Investigation of the compatibility of work and family life for physicians in the Munich metropolitan area. Methods Survey of a representative sample of 1,800 physicians using a questionnaire. Results Men were less satisfied (7% very satisfied vs. 21%) with compatibility between work and family life than women. The group least satisfied overall was hospital-based physicians (p=0.000, chi-square=122.75). Women rather than men cut back their career due to children, perceived their professional advancement as impaired, desisted from establishing private practice or quit hospital employment altogether. Respondents strove for flexible childcare and makeshift solution if the established service failed. Most did not have that at their disposal. Hospital-based physicians wished for predictable working hours, and would like to have a say in the structure of their schedule. For the majority this was not the case. While for 80% it would be important to participate in the definition of their working hours, this was only possible in 17%. 86% found the opportunity to work part-time important, but many doctors (more than 30%) did not have that option. The biggest help for office-based physicians would be an expedited procedure by the Bavarian Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (KVB) when applying for a proxy. The second most important would be the ability to hand over on-call duties. 36% of respondents felt that compatibility of work and family life was best achieved outside of patient care, during residency 42% believed this to be the case. Only 6% of physicians felt the best compatibility to be achieved in a hospital. Among the physician owners of practices, 34% considered their model to be the best way to reconcile both aspects of life. Conclusion More flexible options for childcare and more influence on the definition of working hours are necessary in order to better reconcile work and family life. For office-based physicians it must be made easier to

  12. Statistical methods with applications to demography and life insurance

    CERN Document Server

    Khmaladze, Estáte V

    2013-01-01

    Suitable for statisticians, mathematicians, actuaries, and students interested in the problems of insurance and analysis of lifetimes, Statistical Methods with Applications to Demography and Life Insurance presents contemporary statistical techniques for analyzing life distributions and life insurance problems. It not only contains traditional material but also incorporates new problems and techniques not discussed in existing actuarial literature. The book mainly focuses on the analysis of an individual life and describes statistical methods based on empirical and related processes. Coverage ranges from analyzing the tails of distributions of lifetimes to modeling population dynamics with migrations. To help readers understand the technical points, the text covers topics such as the Stieltjes, Wiener, and Itô integrals. It also introduces other themes of interest in demography, including mixtures of distributions, analysis of longevity and extreme value theory, and the age structure of a population. In addi...

  13. Life Insurance and Annuity Demand under Hyperbolic Discounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqi Tang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyse and construct a lifetime utility maximisation model with hyperbolic discounting. Within the model, a number of assumptions are made: complete markets, actuarially fair life insurance/annuity is available, and investors have time-dependent preferences. Time dependent preferences are in contrast to the usual case of constant preferences (exponential discounting. We find: (1 investors (realistically demand more life insurance after retirement (in contrast to the standard model, which showed strong demand for life annuities, and annuities are rarely purchased; (2 optimal consumption paths exhibit a humped shape (which is usually only found in incomplete markets under the assumptions of the standard model.

  14. The Capitalisation of ‘Excess Life’ through Life Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobo-Guerrero, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The role of life insurance, as portrayed by the industry, is to get individuals and heirs back in financial circulation after accidents and catastrophic events. This role, however, is not innocent. It involves a complex problematisation of what it means to render life as valuable, commodifiable and

  15. 26 CFR 1.803-1 - Life insurance reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reserves” is defined in section 803(b). Generally, such reserves, as in the case of level premium life... covered by the premiums are not included in life insurance reserves. Unpaid loss reserves for... do they include the net value of risks reinsured in other solvent companies; liability for premiums...

  16. COMPARING OF DEPOSIT MODEL AND LIFE INSURANCE MODEL IN MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATJANA ATANASOVA-PACHEMSKA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of the continuous decline of the interest rates for bank deposits, and at a time when uncertainty about the future is increasing, physical and legal persons have doubts how to secure their future or how and where to invest their funds and thus to “fertilize” and increase their savings. Individuals usually choose to put their savings in the bank for a certain period, and for that period to receive certain interest, or decide to invest their savings in different types of life insurance and thus to "take care" of their life, their future and the future of their families. In mathematics are developed many models that relate to the compounding and the insurance. This paper is a comparison of the deposit model and the model of life insurance

  17. Market valuation in the framework of modern life insurance mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Petrač

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional actuarial life insurance mathematics, liabilities to beneficiaries (technical reserves are calculated based on conservative assumptions of mortality and interest rates. However, this approach was found to be incomplete since it does not contain the market component which has become essential due to the development of the financial market. Since about 80% of total liabilities of life insurance companies are made up of technical reserves, this issue has a major impact on the overall performance of insuran - ce companies. The introduction of financial components into the actuarial valuation resulted in actuarial mathematics using more and more the elements of financial mathematics thus creating new, modern life insurance mathematics. Using a simple example, this paper compares the traditional and market approaches to valuation. For this purpose, one of the principles of modern life insurance mathematics, the principle of equivalence, was observed. The above market approach to valuation, together with operational risk management, forms the basis of Solvency II Directive, the new legislative and regulatory framework for insurance and reinsurance companies in the European Union.

  18. Life insurance, living benefits, and physician-assisted death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Frederick R; Rubin, Harvey W; Winslade, William J

    2004-01-01

    One of the most significant concerns about the legalization of physician-assisted death in the United States relates to the possibility that a chronically or terminally ill person would choose to end her or his life for financial reasons. Because we believe that the life insurance industry is uniquely poised to help minimize any such incentive, we submit that it has a moral obligation to do so. In particular, we propose that the industry encourage greater flexibility in the payout of policy benefits in the event an insured should be diagnosed with a terminal illness or suffer from intractable pain.

  19. Geographically varying associations between personality and life satisfaction in the London metropolitan area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokela, M.; Bleidorn, W.; Lamb, M.E.; Gosling, S.D.; Rentfrow, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Residential location is thought to influence people’s well-being, but different individuals may value residential areas differently. We examined how life satisfaction and personality traits are geographically distributed within the UK London metropolitan area, and how the strength of associations

  20. 26 CFR 1.264-4 - Other life insurance, endowment, or annuity contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.264-4 Other life insurance... insurer, insured, or any other person (other than by gift, bequest, or inheritance, or in a transaction to...

  1. Employee Satisfaction Survey on the Life Insurance Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benţe Corneliu Cristian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper has proposed to explore the satisfaction of employees that sell insurance policies. Several authors had examined customer satisfaction, service quality and its implications on customer attitude towards different fields, but our concern was to address this relatively unexplored field which is employees` satisfaction. By using an exploratory approach, we collected data from a sample of 332 employees that sell insurance policies within north-Western Romanian. By analyzing data it was possible to determine the GAP between the expectations of employees that sell insurance policies and their perceptions regarding the service quality in life insurance industry. In addition it was tested whether there is relationship between the frequency of contact with the back office employees and level of income earned from this activity. It was revealed that from the analyzed population the most of those surveyed were employees of insurance intermediaries and not employees of a single company insurance. Considering that the number of researches that analyze the front office employees` satisfaction is rather low we consider that this paper brings a significant contribution to the literature review.

  2. 78 FR 38413 - American Family Life Insurance Company, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... conditions. 9. The Contracts are flexible premium variable annuity and variable life insurance contracts. The..., the Company reserves the right to substitute shares of one fund for shares of another, or of another... December 31, 2012, expressed as an annual percentage of average daily net assets, of the Replaced Portfolio...

  3. Life Insurance Liabilities with Policyholder Behaviour and Stochastic Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Kristian

    rate, disability rate, and other transition rates are assumed to be deterministic. Broadly speaking this PhD thesis consists of various extensions of this model to address the modern needs of life insurance companies. These extensions can be categorised into two types: the inclusion of policyholder...

  4. 75 FR 18908 - Jackson National Life Insurance Company, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. IC-29205; File No. 812-13703] Jackson National Life Insurance Company, et al. April 7, 2010. AGENCY: The Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of application for an order under Section 6(c) of the Investment Company Act of...

  5. 75 FR 60833 - Jackson National Life Insurance Company, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Investment Company Act Release No. 29442; File No. 812-13765] Jackson National Life Insurance Company, et al.; Notice of Application September 27, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of application for an order under section...

  6. 76 FR 19150 - Jackson National Life Insurance Company, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. IC-29621; File No. 812-13841] Jackson National Life Insurance Company, et al. March 31, 2011. AGENCY: The Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') ACTION: Notice of application for an order under Section 6(c) of the Investment Company Act of...

  7. 77 FR 54621 - Pruco Life Insurance Company, et al;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. IC-30186; File No. 812-13990] Pruco Life Insurance Company, et al; Notice of Application August 29, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``SEC'' or ``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of application for an order approving the substitution of certain...

  8. 78 FR 54691 - American General Life Insurance Company, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. IC-30681; File No. 812-13973] American General Life Insurance Company, et al. August 29, 2013, AGENCY: The Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of application for an order under Section 6(c) of the Investment Company Act of...

  9. The Investment Strategy of With-Profits Life Insurance Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Karim Chawki

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Within the context of an increasingly fragile life insurance industry, this paper conducts a quantitative investigation on the determinants of investment strategy within with profit life assurers in the UK, a dominant segment within the global industry. Examining a range of possible defining characteristics on investment strategy of such firms including size, financial strength (solvency), proprietary/mutual status, open/closed status and the level of guaranteed liabilities, th...

  10. The Added Value of Medical Testing in Underwriting Life Insurance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bronsema

    Full Text Available In present-day life-insurance medical underwriting practice the risk assessment starts with a standard health declaration (SHD. Indication for additional medical screening depends predominantly on age and amount of insured capital. From a medical perspective it is questionable whether there is an association between the level of insured capital and medical risk in terms of mortality. The aim of the study is to examine the prognostic value of parameters from the health declaration and application form on extra mortality based on results from additional medical testing.A history register-based cohort study was conducted including about 15.000 application files accepted between 2007 and 2010. Blood pressure, lipids, cotinine and glucose levels were used as dependent variables in logistic regression models. Resampling validation was applied using 250 bootstrap samples to calculate area under the curves (AUC's. The AUC was used to discriminate between persons with and without at least 25% extra mortality.BMI and the overall assessment of the health declaration by an insurance physician or medical underwriter showed the strongest discrimination in multivariable analysis. Including all variables at minimum cut-off levels resulted in an AUC of 0.710 while by using a model with BMI, the assessment of the health declaration and gender, the AUC was 0.708. Including all variables at maximum cut-off levels lead to an AUC of 0.743 while a model with BMI, the assessment of the health declaration and age resulted in an AUC of 0.741.The outcome of this study shows that BMI and the overall assessment of the health declaration were the dominant variables to discriminate between applicants for life-insurance with and without at least 25 percent extra mortality. The variable insured capital set by insurers as factor for additional medical testing could not be established in this study population. The indication for additional medical testing at underwriting life-insurance

  11. A Two-Account Life Insurance Model for Scenario-Based Valuation Including Event Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ninna Reitzel; Schomacker, Kristian Juul

    2015-01-01

    Using a two-account model with event risk, we model life insurance contracts taking into account both guaranteed and non-guaranteed payments in participating life insurance as well as in unit-linked insurance. Here, event risk is used as a generic term for life insurance events, such as death......, disability, etc. In our treatment of participating life insurance, we have special focus on the bonus schemes “consolidation” and “additional benefits”, and one goal is to formalize how these work and interact. Another goal is to describe similarities and differences between participating life insurance...... product types. This enables comparison of participating life insurance products and unit-linked insurance products, thus building a bridge between the two different ways of formalizing life insurance products. Finally, our model distinguishes itself from the existing literature by taking into account...

  12. Industry Wage Surveys: Banking and Life Insurance, December 1976. Part I--Banking. Part II--Life Insurance. Bulletin 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Carl

    This report presents the results of a survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to determine wages and related benefits in (1) the banking industry and (2) for employees in home offices and regional head offices of life insurance carriers. Part 1 discusses banking industry characteristics and presents data for tellers and selected…

  13. An Exploratory Study of Advancing Mobilization in the Life Insurance Industry: The Case of Taiwan's Nan Shan Life Insurance Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luarn, Pin; Lin, Tom M. Y.; Lo, Peter K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Employs a case study method, using in-depth interviews of 29 corporate managers and experts, to understand the current state of mobilization in the life insurance industry. Suggests a conceptual framework and formulates possible research propositions incorporating several variables. Suggests 10 key success factors for implementing mobilization in…

  14. Experience Studies on Determining Life Premium Insurance Ratings: Practical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela CRISTEA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is to present the modelling tehcniques used on international practice in the evaluation of right life premiums based. The knowledge and models obtained have a common element of mortality risk indicators but these are varied in different parts of the world. The common elements of these studies and models are generally based on a series of indicators which mainly point out their probability of survival and they are named the mortality indicators. These indicators represent the basis for the calculation of the premiums quotes and for the elaboration by the insurers of premium tables. The benefit for the policyholder is to obtain insurance at a fair and competitive price and for the insurer, to maintain the experience of its portfolio in line with mortality assumptions.

  15. FY11_EOM_August_Number of Life Insurance Policies by Program by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Number of life insurance policies for each administered life insurance program listed by state. Data is current as of 08/31/11. All programs are closed to new issues...

  16. 5 CFR 352.309 - Retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Organizations § 352.309 Retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance. (a) Agency action. An employee... entitled to retain coverage for retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance purposes if he or she... he or she wishes to retain coverage under the retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-18 - Split-dollar life insurance arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... life insurance arrangements. See §§ 1.61-22 and 1.7872-15 for rules relating to the treatment of split-dollar life insurance arrangements. [T.D. 9092, 68 FR 54352, Sept. 17, 2003] ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Split-dollar life insurance arrangements. 1...

  18. 26 CFR 1.72-16 - Life insurance contracts purchased under qualified employee plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pension, annuity, or profit-sharing plans for the purchase of life insurance contracts and rules for the... income, an endowment, or other contract providing life insurance protection. The rules of this section.... (b) Treatment of cost of life insurance protection. (1) The rules of this paragraph are applicable to...

  19. 26 CFR 1.61-22 - Taxation of split-dollar life insurance arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of split-dollar life insurance..., and Taxable Income § 1.61-22 Taxation of split-dollar life insurance arrangements. (a) Scope—(1) In general. This section provides rules for the taxation of a split-dollar life insurance arrangement for...

  20. Dependent interest and transition rates in life insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    For market consistent life insurance liabilities modelled with a multi-state Markov chain, it is of importance to consider the interest and transition rates as stochastic processes, for example in order to consider hedging possibilities of the risks, and for risk measurement. In the literature......, this is usually done with an assumption of independence between the interest and transition rates. In this paper, it is shown how to valuate life insurance liabilities using affine processes for modelling dependent interest and transition rates. This approach leads to the introduction of so-called dependent...... forward rates. We propose a specific model for surrender modelling, and within this model the dependent forward rates are calculated, and the market value and the Solvency II capital requirement are examined for a simple savings contract....

  1. Analysis of the life insurance market in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeski Cvetko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Life insurance in the Republic of Macedonia has a short history, if we do not count the experience of ZOIL Makedonija before the independence of Republic of Macedonia. The recent history of life insurance covers the last seven years and the segment of life insurance comprises about 6% of the total insurance market in the Republic of Macedonia. In this paper we analyse the development of life insurance in the Republic of Macedonia in recent history, taking the gross premiums of two of the best companies that are working in the segment of life insurance. Besides analysing the influence of the basic determinants of the development of life insurance (GDP, monetary stability, social insurance, etc. we analyse the model of time series, with the purpose of making a model and forecasting future values of the series.

  2. 26 CFR 1.821-3 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... life or marine or fire insurance companies subject to the tax imposed by section 831. 1.821-3 Section 1... and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1.821-3 Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance...

  3. 26 CFR 1.821-1 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... life or marine or fire insurance companies subject to the tax imposed by section 831. 1.821-1 Section 1... and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1.821-1 Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance...

  4. Aspects of Valuation and Optimization in Life Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Frederik Brandt

    liabilities or decrease assets. The increase of liabilities could be used in the modelling of non-for-prot mutual funds or pension funds. On the other hand, the decrease in assets could be used for modelling of for-prot companies. We impose a simple solvency constraint and prove optimality of barrier......-case scenarios and reserves in a life insurance model in the case where the interest rate and the various transition intensities are mutually dependent. The calculations are based on deterministic optimal control theory. The results of a single insurance contract are extended to inhomogeneous portfolios......, multistate Markov chains. The ane setup makes the calculations computationally tractable because we only need to solve systems of ordinary dierential equations and not partial dierential equations. The setup allows for mutual dependence between interest rate and transition intensities which makes it possible...

  5. Performance of the life insurance industry under pressure: efficiency, competition and consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    A well-performing life insurance industry benefits consumers, producers and insurance firm stockholders alike. Unfavourable market conditions stress the need for life insurers to perform well in order to remain solvent. Using a unique supervisory data set, this paper investigates competition and

  6. 76 FR 24572 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... insurance. Modified Life insurance coverage is reduced automatically by one-half from its present face value... (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA...

  7. EOM July FY2011 - Face Amount of Life Insurance Coverage by Program by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Face value of insurance for each administered life insurance program listed by state. Data is current as of 7-31-11. All programs are closed to new issues except for...

  8. FY11_EOM_Oct_Face Amount of Life Insurance Coverage by Program by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Face value of insurance for each administered life insurance program listed by state. Data is current as of 10-31-11. All programs are closed to new issues except...

  9. FY11_EOM_August_Face Amount of Life Insurance Coverage by Program by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Face value of insurance for each administered life insurance program listed by state. Data is current as of 8-31-11. All programs are closed to new issues except for...

  10. Aggravation of Risk and Precautionary Measures in Non-Life Insurance: A Tricky Scope for the Insurer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavi-Jüri Luik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aggravation of risk and failure to take precautionary measures are focal issues in non-life insurance in terms of potential partial or full release of the insurer from the duty to perform. Not infrequently, it is difficult to draw a line between the aggravation of risk on the one hand, and non-compliance with precautionary measures on the other, since a particular action by a policyholder may present both situations. At the same time, the legal remedies available to the insurer regarding these two situations are different in scope. The aggravation of risk and non-compliance with precautionary measures are precisely the bases on which insurers actually reduce indemnity or refuse to compensate for damages. This article explores the differences between insurance laws in the Baltic states—specifically, the Estonian Law of Obligations Act, the Latvian Insurance Contract Law and Lithuanian rules contained in the Civil Code and Insurance Law. The article explores the differences between the Baltic states’ insurance laws and the Principles of European Insurance Contract Law (PEICL with regard to a policyholder’s duty in relation to aggravation of risk and precautionary measures, as the rights and obligations of policyholders do change where the optional instrument is applied. The article also includes comparisons to German, Finnish and Russian insurance law.

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE LIFE INSURANCE IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA AND REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORDANA VITANOVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The insurance companies are important participants in the capital market. They have significant contributions in providing financial stability and encouraging competitiveness on the financial market. The insurance companies mobilize huge financial resources, investing them into different financial instruments, and so it is real to expect that they will take a role of leading institutional mediators in future. The insurance companies offer life and common insurance. Policies for life insurance offer possibility to invest into own safety and easier tackling with life challenges and uncertainties. They are especially important for the individual , because he/she is constantly exposed to risks during his/her life and work, that are manifested into decreasing of working ability and lack of resources for life in some defined period. In the developed countries, there is a tradition for possessing policies for life insurance, but it is not a case in R.Macedonia. Therefore, in this study, we shall carry out comparative analysis of life insurance in R. Macedonia and R. Serbia, the politics of insurance companies and supervision of the insurance sector, and we shall give proposals for encouraging development of insurance market in these two countries, and for increasing individual’s awareness of the benefits of having policies for life insurance.

  12. Improvement of life insurance-related accounting opera-tions within the New Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinică DOBRIN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the life insurance-related accounting operations, in consideration to the harmonization of the Romanian legislation with the International Financial Reporting Standards. The main accounting operations specific to the life insurance sector include: accounting of revenues and expenses derived from life insurance operations (recording the premiums written, recording the payment of insurance premiums, termination of insurance policy, recording the compensation expenses, accounting of operations related to the setting up and using the technical reserves for life insurance (general principles, accounting of premium reserves, accounting of loss reserve, accounting of the reserve for benefits and discounts, accounting of mathematical reserve, accounting of other life insurance-related technical reserves.

  13. Modelling home equity conversion loans with life insurance models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baškot Bojan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Home equity represents a reserve that can be used for providing additional money for its owners during their retirement. Life insurance models can be successfully applied to model home equity conversion loans. The home equity conversion loan is a financial product that provides a certain flexibility by using home equity as a resource for a quality life during retirement. Home equity conversion loans do not have a predetermined maturity date, as do conventional loans. But, like every loan, it must be repaid. One potential advantage of using a home equity conversion loan during tough financial times instead of some types of need-based assistance is that eligibility is straightforward. Home equity conversion loans can be useful tools in the process of pension system reform.

  14. Should Australia Ban the Use of Genetic Test Results in Life Insurance?

    OpenAIRE

    Tiller, Jane; Otlowski, Margaret; Lacaze, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Under current Australian regulation, life insurance companies can require applicants to disclose all genetic test results, including results from research or direct-to-consumer tests. Life insurers can then use this genetic information in underwriting and policy decisions for mutually rated products, including life, permanent disability, and total income protection insurance. Over the past decade, many countries have implemented moratoria or legislative bans on the use of genetic information ...

  15. Hierarchical Markov Model in Life Insurance and Social Benefit Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwook Jang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We explored the effect of the jump-diffusion process on a social benefit scheme consisting of life insurance, unemployment/disability benefits, and retirement benefits. To do so, we used a four-state Markov chain with multiple decrements. Assuming independent state-wise intensities taking the form of a jump-diffusion process and deterministic interest rates, we evaluated the prospective reserves for this scheme in which the individual is employed at inception. We then numerically demonstrated the state of the reserves for the scheme under jump-diffusion and non-jump-diffusion settings. By decomposing the reserve equation into five components, our numerical illustration indicated that an extension of the retirement age has a spillover effect that would increase government expenses for other social insurance programs. We also conducted sensitivity analyses and examined the total-reserves components by changing the relevant parameters of the transition intensities, which are the average jump-size parameter, average jump frequency, and diffusion parameters of the chosen states, with figures provided. Our computation revealed that the total reserve is most sensitive to changes in average jump frequency.

  16. Return Smoothing Mechanisms in Life and Pension Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montserrat, Guillén; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte; Nielsen, Jens Perch

    2006-01-01

    pricing theory. We explore the properties of this pension scheme in detail and find that in terms of market value, smoothing is an illusion, but also that the return smoothing mechanism implies a dynamic asset allocation strategy which corresponds with traditional pension saving advice......Traditional with-profits pension saving schemes have been criticized for their opacity, plagued by embedded options and guarantees, and have recently created enormous problems for the solvency of the life insurance and pension industry. This has fueled creativity in the industry's product...... development departments, and this paper analyzes a representative member of a family of new pension schemes that have been introduced in the new millennium to alleviate these problems. The complete transparency of the new scheme's smoothing mechanism means that it can be analyzed using contingent claims...

  17. 77 FR 4734 - Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance-Stillborn Child Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 9 RIN 2900-AO30 Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance--Stillborn Child Coverage AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) proposes to amend its Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (SGLI...

  18. 77 FR 37839 - Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) No-Health Period Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 9 RIN 2900-AO24 Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) No-Health Period Extension AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) to extend to 240 days the current 120-day ``no-health'' period during...

  19. Performance of the Life Insurance Industry Under Pressure : Efficiency, Competition, and Consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, Jacob A.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates efficiency and competition in the Dutch life insurance market by estimating unused scale economies and measuring efficiency-market share dynamics during 1995-2010. Large unused scale economies exist for small- and medium-sized life insurers, indicating that further

  20. 77 FR 20886 - Agency Information Collection (Conversion From Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance to Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... (Conversion From Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance to Veterans' Group Life Insurance); Activity Under OMB... No. 2900-0731.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Independent Evaluation of the Conversion Privilege... collection. Abstract: The data collected will be used to determine the appropriate target rate to convert...

  1. Default risk, bankruptcy procedures and the market value of life insurance liabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, A.; Suchanecki, M.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of insolvency risk in connection with life insurance companies has recently attracted a great deal of attention. In this paper, the question is investigated of how the values of the equity and of the liability of a life insurance company are affected by the default risk and the choice of

  2. Should Australia Ban the Use of Genetic Test Results in Life Insurance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiller, Jane; Otlowski, Margaret; Lacaze, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Under current Australian regulation, life insurance companies can require applicants to disclose all genetic test results, including results from research or direct-to-consumer tests. Life insurers can then use this genetic information in underwriting and policy decisions for mutually rated products, including life, permanent disability, and total income protection insurance. Over the past decade, many countries have implemented moratoria or legislative bans on the use of genetic information by life insurers. The Australian government, by contrast, has not reviewed regulation since 2005 when it failed to ensure implementation of recommendations made by the Australian Law Reform Commission. In that time, the Australian life insurance industry has been left to self-regulate its use of genetic information. As a result, insurance fears in Australia now are leading to deterred uptake of genetic testing by at-risk individuals and deterred participation in medical research, both of which have been documented. As the potential for genomic medicine grows, public trust and engagement are critical for successful implementation. Concerns around life insurance may become a barrier to the development of genomic health care, research, and public health initiatives in Australia, and the issue should be publicly addressed. We argue a moratorium on the use of genetic information by life insurers should be enacted while appropriate longer term policy is determined and implemented.

  3. Should Australia Ban the Use of Genetic Test Results in Life Insurance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Tiller

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Under current Australian regulation, life insurance companies can require applicants to disclose all genetic test results, including results from research or direct-to-consumer tests. Life insurers can then use this genetic information in underwriting and policy decisions for mutually rated products, including life, permanent disability, and total income protection insurance. Over the past decade, many countries have implemented moratoria or legislative bans on the use of genetic information by life insurers. The Australian government, by contrast, has not reviewed regulation since 2005 when it failed to ensure implementation of recommendations made by the Australian Law Reform Commission. In that time, the Australian life insurance industry has been left to self-regulate its use of genetic information. As a result, insurance fears in Australia now are leading to deterred uptake of genetic testing by at-risk individuals and deterred participation in medical research, both of which have been documented. As the potential for genomic medicine grows, public trust and engagement are critical for successful implementation. Concerns around life insurance may become a barrier to the development of genomic health care, research, and public health initiatives in Australia, and the issue should be publicly addressed. We argue a moratorium on the use of genetic information by life insurers should be enacted while appropriate longer term policy is determined and implemented.

  4. A Two-Account Life Insurance Model for Scenario-Based Valuation Including Event Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninna Reitzel Jensen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a two-account model with event risk, we model life insurance contracts taking into account both guaranteed and non-guaranteed payments in participating life insurance as well as in unit-linked insurance. Here, event risk is used as a generic term for life insurance events, such as death, disability, etc. In our treatment of participating life insurance, we have special focus on the bonus schemes “consolidation” and “additional benefits”, and one goal is to formalize how these work and interact. Another goal is to describe similarities and differences between participating life insurance and unit-linked insurance. By use of a two-account model, we are able to illustrate general concepts without making the model too abstract. To allow for complicated financial markets without dramatically increasing the mathematical complexity, we focus on economic scenarios. We illustrate the use of our model by conducting scenario analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation, but the model applies to scenarios in general and to worst-case and best-estimate scenarios in particular. In addition to easy computations, our model offers a common framework for the valuation of life insurance payments across product types. This enables comparison of participating life insurance products and unit-linked insurance products, thus building a bridge between the two different ways of formalizing life insurance products. Finally, our model distinguishes itself from the existing literature by taking into account the Markov model for the state of the policyholder and, hereby, facilitating event risk.

  5. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN UNIT-LINKED LIFE INSURANCE AND OTHER ALTERNATIVE INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA CIUMAS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The unit-linked life insurance has two important components: protection and investment. The protection component refers to the insured sum in case of the occurrence of insured risks and the investment component refers to the policyholder’s account that represents the present value of the units from the chosen investment funds.These financial products invest most of the premium paid by the insured person in the funds managed by the insurance company or an external administrator and the lower part of the premium is intended to cover the insured risk (death, disability, etc. An important component of the activity carried out by the insurance companies is the investment of the premiums paid by policyholders in various types of assets, in order to obtain higher yields than those guaranteed by the insurance contracts, while providing the necessary liquidity for the payment of insurance claims in case of occurrence of the assumed risks. This research contributes to the existing literature regarding the study of investment alternatives, with an exclusive focus on the investment in unit-linked life insurance. A special place in this study is the presentation of investments in unit-linked insurance versus other types of financial investments: deposits, treasury bills, shares (BET, currency (EURO and gold.

  6. 27 CFR 70.164 - Surrender of property subject to levy in the case of life insurance and endowment contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the case of life insurance and endowment contracts. (a) In general. This section provides special rules relating to the surrender of property subject to levy in the case of life insurance and endowment... subject to levy in the case of life insurance and endowment contracts. 70.164 Section 70.164 Alcohol...

  7. CJEU rules on use of standards in imposing information duties on life insurance companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.

    2015-01-01

    The EU Directive applicable to life insurance sets out what kind of information insurance companies must give to policyholders. It also allows Member States to impose broader information duties, provided that the information is necessary for the policyholder to understand the contract. In its ruling

  8. Performance of the Dutch non-life insurance industry: competition, efficiency and focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.; Gorter, J.

    This paper investigates competition in the Dutch non-life insurance industry indirectly by measuring scale economies and X-inefficiency, assuming that strong competition would force insurance firms to exploit unused scale economies and to push down inefficiencies. We observe substantial economies of

  9. NEWS : A model for the evaluation of non-life insurance companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a model which can be used by the Dutch insurance supervisor to determine the priority a nan-life insurer should have for further examination. This model combines a traditional statistical technique (an ordered legit model) with artificial intelligence techniques (a neural

  10. Individual Savings Accounts and the Life-Cycle Approach to Social Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch; Hansen, Martin Ino; Bovenberg, A. Lans

    Using Danish data, we find that about three fourths of the taxes levied to finance public transfers actually finance benefits that do not redistribute between people but redistribute income over the life cycle of individual taxpayers. This provides a rationale for financing part of social insurance...... via mandatory individual savings accounts. An account system that offers liquidity insurance and a lifetime income guarantee helps to alleviate the dilemma between insurance and incentives. To illustrate this, we analyse a specific proposal for reform of the Danish system of social insurance......, involving the use of individual accounts. We estimate how the reform would affect the distribution of lifetime incomes, the public budget, and economic efficiency...

  11. Applications of Decisions under Uncertainty in the Case of Omniasig-Life Insurance S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian STANCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty is given because we don’t know the nature state event. The company can only estimate the demand of policies in order to estimate the received premiums. If the insurance company doesn’t choose correctly the alternative and the number and the damages will be greater then what it was estimated, then it will come to the point of not being able to pay all the damages. Because of the adverse selection, the insurer meets uncertainty in every day life. It is well known the fact that persons who have a higher risk of producing the insured event, they also have a higher inclination towards contracting insurance.

  12. 76 FR 40451 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... reduced automatically by one-half from its present face value on the day before a policyholder's 65th and... (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration...) of 1995 [[Page 40452

  13. ECONOMIC & DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERICTICS, SOCIAL CAPITAL AND DEMAND FOR LIFE INSURANCE: EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL REGION OF SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisira Kumara NARADDA GAMAGE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents findings of the determinants of demand for life insurance in the central region of Sri Lanka.  It is a novel study in the sense that it incorporated social capital as a determinant of demand for life insurance. Primary data has been collected through random sampling and the logistic model was used to examine the determinants of the demand for life insurance. Results confirmed that gender, income, trust and social capital has significant effect on demand for life insurance in the study area. Income and trust came out positive contributors of life insurance demand. However, it is worthy to note that although income has a positive effect on life insurance demand but its odds ratio makes it less important factor to influence demand for life insurance. Gender has deteriorated effect on demand for life insurance indicating that male household head less likely to purchase life insurance. Similarly, social capital also has a negative impact on demand for life insurance. Other determinants like age, religious status, working status, and education, has not significant effect on life insurance demand. Policies are recommended on research findings.

  14. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(14)-1 - Group-term life insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3401(a)(14)-1 Group-term life insurance. (a) The cost of... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Group-term life insurance. 31.3401(a)(14)-1...

  15. Life Insurance Take-Up Rate Influencing Factors Comparison between Malaysia and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Kardinar Wijayanti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study will investigate the factors that influence take-up rates within the Malaysian Life Insurance industry to discover potential opportunities and limitations. For comparative purposes, the study is modelled on Power (2013 who examined four factors affecting customer satisfaction in life insurance in Japan (product, price, customer services and procedures and documentation. This study is exploratory in nature using both secondary research and primary data from questionnaires. The main finding was “Product offerings” being the most significant variation, both an opportunity and limitation, due to the relative maturity, experience and changing trends within the insurance market of Japan, conversely growth, infancy and different dynamics in Malaysia.

  16. Efficiency and competition in the Dutch non-life insurance industry: Effects of the 2006 health care reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, Jaap; Popescu, Adelina

    This paper investigates the cost efficiency and competitive behaviour of the non-life – or property and casualty – insurance market in the Netherlands over the period 1995-2012. We focus on the 2006 health care reform, where public health care insurance has been included in the non-life insurance

  17. POLICY, PROTECTION OF POLICYHOLDER, AND LIFE INSURANCE EDUCATION TO THE SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Sri Juni Kartika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes towards betterment of policyholder protection is not proportional to the growth of life insurance company. Policyholders encounter difficulties in asserting their rights when their life insurance companyis in financial straits and served with bankruptcy petition. Life insurance company and regulator have tore-regulate in detail every possible provision contained in a life insurance and ensure that each clausehas been incorporated in the policy, to protect policyholder. The society must be educated to the rightsand responsibility of the policyholder and the insurer, including the protection accorded to policyholders when the life insurance company is on the edge of financial distress or bankruptcy. Peningkatan perlindungan bagi pemegang polis belumlah memadai jika dibandingkan dengan pertumbuhan industri perasuransian. Pemegang polis menghadapi kesulitan untuk mendapatkan haknya ketika perusahaan asuransi menghadapi kondisi keuangan yang tidak sehat dan kebangkrutan. Perusahaan asuransi dan pembuat undang-undang harus mengatur kembali secara rinci semua klausul yang diperlukan dan memastikan bahwa klausul tersebut sudah termuat dalam polis asuransi, khususnyahal-hal yang mengatur mengenai perlindungan bagi pemegang polis asuransi jiwa. Masyarakat perlu diedukasi tentang hak dan tanggungjawab dari pemegang polis dan perusahaan asuransi selaku penjamin, termasuk mengenai perlindungan pemegang polis ketika perusahaan asuransi jiwa menghadapi masalah keuangan atau kebangkrutan.

  18. Modeling Flood Insurance Penetration in the European Non-Life Market: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, P.; Thomson, M.-K.; Das, A.

    2012-04-01

    Non-life property insurance plays a significant role in assessing and managing economic risk. Understanding the exposure, or property at risk, helps insurers and reinsurers to better categorize and manage their portfolios. However, the nature of the flood peril, in particular adverse selection, has led to a complex system of different insurance covers and policies across Europe owing to its public and private distinctions based on premiums provided as ex ante or ex post, socio-economic characterization and various compensation schemes. To model this significant level of complexity within the European flood insurance market requires not only extensive data research, close understanding of insurance companies and associations as well as historic flood events, but also careful evaluation of the flood hazard in terms of return periods and flood extents, and the economic/ financial background of the geographies involved. This abstract explores different approaches for modeling the flood insurance penetration rates in Europe depending on the information available and complexity involved. For countries which have either a regulated market with mandatory or high penetration rate, as for example found in the UK, France and Switzerland, or indeed countries with negligible insurance cover such as Luxembourg, assumptions about the penetration rates can be made at country level. However, in countries with a private insurance market, the picture becomes inherently more complex. For example in both Austria and Germany, flood insurance is generally restricted, associated with high costs to the insured or not available at all in high risk areas. In order to better manage flood risk, the Austria and German government agencies produced the risk classification systems HORA and ZÜRS, respectively, which categorize risk into four risk zones based on the exceedance probability of a flood occurrence. Except for regions that have preserved mandatory flood inclusion from past policies

  19. 76 FR 20727 - National Life Insurance Company, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... of choosing investments for the Replacement Portfolio. In addition, Fidelity Research & Analysis... of the Money Market Portfolio (the ``Replacement Portfolio'') of the Variable Insurance Products Fund V (``VIPFV'') for shares of the Money Market Fund (the ``Substituted Portfolio'') of the Sentinel...

  20. The Antecedents of Customer Loyalty: An Empirical Investigation in Life Insurance Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Medha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper seeks to offer the most decipherable and widely applicable antecedents of customer loyalty. It explores the extant literature on customer loyalty and brings out seven variableswhich are responsible for formation of customer loyalty. Further, the relative importance of these variables has been ascertained through Multiple Regression Analysis which revealed that service quality and commitment are the strongest predictors of customer loyalty in theIndian life insurance industry. The paper also attempts to assess the loyalty status of life insurance customers in India and draw a comparison between public and private sector life insurancecompanies in order to provide significant insights to the life insurance companies that may assist them in devising better loyalty practices. The findings suggest that Indian customers do care about the public sector status of a financial service provider as it entails a sense of security and stability and thus creates a difference between customer loyalty of public sector life insurerand that of private sector life insurer. The paper holds significant implications for academicians interested in dynamics of customer loyalty as well as the marketers of life insurance services whoare concerned with customer relationships.

  1. 26 CFR 1.79-3 - Determination of amount equal to cost of group-term life insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section prescribes the rules for determining the amount equal to the cost of group-term life insurance on an employee's life which is to be included in his gross income pursuant to the rule of inclusion set..., of group-term life insurance on such employee's life to which the rule of inclusion set forth in...

  2. Risk adjustment model of credit life insurance using a genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, A.; Sukono; Rusyaman, E.

    2018-03-01

    In managing the risk of credit life insurance, insurance company should acknowledge the character of the risks to predict future losses. Risk characteristics can be learned in a claim distribution model. There are two standard approaches in designing the distribution model of claims over the insurance period i.e, collective risk model and individual risk model. In the collective risk model, the claim arises when risk occurs is called individual claim, accumulation of individual claim during a period of insurance is called an aggregate claim. The aggregate claim model may be formed by large model and a number of individual claims. How the measurement of insurance risk with the premium model approach and whether this approach is appropriate for estimating the potential losses occur in the future. In order to solve the problem Genetic Algorithm with Roulette Wheel Selection is used.

  3. A diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis is associated with increased life insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiman, D A; Kochar, B; Posner, S; Fan, C; Patel, A; Shaheen, O; Keller, C Y; Koutlas, N T; Eluri, S; Dellon, E S

    2018-05-24

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic disease that can be diagnosed at any age, but is not associated with malignancy and does not shorten lifespan. It remains unknown whether an EoE diagnosis affects insurability or insurance premium costs. We therefore aimed to determine whether a diagnosis of EoE affects the costs of life insurance. Our investigation was a secret shopper audit study whereby we contacted national insurance companies in the United States to evaluate the effect of a diagnosis of EoE on life insurance premiums. We constructed standardized case scenarios for males and females, including a 25-year-old and a 48-year-old without other comorbid conditions, who either had or did not have a diagnosis of EoE. Companies were asked for their best estimate for a $100,000 whole life insurance policy. Comparisons between median premiums were made using the Mann-Whitney U test. There were 20 national life insurance companies contacted and a total of 73 quotes were obtained. The median premium rate was similar for EoE and non-EoE cases at the younger age ($828 [IQR $576-1,020] vs. $756 [IQR $504-$804]; P = 0.10). However, the premium for the older case without EoE was 19% less expensive compared to a case with EoE ($1990 [IQR $1,248-2,350] vs. $2,375 [IQR $2,100-2568; P = 0.02]. This finding was not explained by sex or state of residence. Based on these findings, we conclude that life insurance premiums are significantly more expensive in the older patient case with EoE when compared to the same case without EoE. Patients with EoE and their providers should be aware of the additional cost associated with this diagnosis.

  4. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood insurance companies operating on the basis of premium deposits; taxable years... fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood insurance companies...

  5. Analysis of the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (SGLI) program: history, current issues and future implications

    OpenAIRE

    Callan, Patrick M.; Voogd, Michael; Schmid, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    MBA Professional Report The SGLI program is the military life insurance program overseen by the Veterans' Affairs (VA) but managed and administered by The Prudential Insurance Company of America. Recently, a series of news stories by Bloomberg News reported that the program might not be following the law, and that Prudential was profiting from the deaths of servicemen and women. The primary purpose of this paper was to analyze the news articles for factual content and determine whethe...

  6. Benefits to a life insurance company from providing radon tests for clients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    If a life insurance company provided free radon tests to clients, clients' life expectancies would be extended and profits would thereby be increased. This effect is quantified and it is found that the direct monetary benefits to the company could be substantial. Several subsidiary advantages are also discussed

  7. 26 CFR 1.804-3 - Gross investment income of a life insurance company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross investment income of a life insurance company. 1.804-3 Section 1.804-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Investment Income § 1.804-3 Gross investment income of a life...

  8. 17 CFR 270.6e-3(T) - Temporary exemptions for flexible premium variable life insurance separate accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for issuance, increases in or additions of insurance benefits, transfer and redemption of flexible... deducted from amounts transferred to a flexible contract from another plan of insurance; (iii) Sections 27... guaranteed death benefit risks assumed by the life insurer under the flexible contracts (collectively, a...

  9. Determinants of Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty in Vietnamese Life-Insurance Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Thu Nguyen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable services are often regarded as sustainable strategies and operations producing goods and services that satisfy customer needs and significantly improve social and environmental performance. To be sustainable, service providers must satisfy consumers’ needs or otherwise they will become redundant and economically irrelevant. This paper presents the results of an empirical study on the determinants of customer satisfaction and loyalty in life-insurance services in Vietnam based on a database collected through a questionnaire survey of 1476 customers during 2017. A path analysis technique is applied to test the proposed framework on the direct and indirect relationship between variables. The results of statistical analysis indicate that customer satisfaction in life-insurance services is significantly explained by such factors as corporate image, service quality and perceived value. Our findings suggest that a life-insurance service provider should focus on enhancing service quality and corporate image in order to obtain customer satisfaction that leads to customer loyalty.

  10. Pricing of premiums for equity-linked life insurance based on joint mortality models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaman; Parmikanti, K.; Irianingsih, I.; Supian, S.

    2018-03-01

    Life insurance equity - linked is a financial product that not only offers protection, but also investment. The calculation of equity-linked life insurance premiums generally uses mortality tables. Because of advances in medical technology and reduced birth rates, it appears that the use of mortality tables is less relevant in the calculation of premiums. To overcome this problem, we use a combination mortality model which in this study is determined based on Indonesian Mortality table 2011 to determine the chances of death and survival. In this research, we use the Combined Mortality Model of the Weibull, Inverse-Weibull, and Gompertz Mortality Model. After determining the Combined Mortality Model, simulators calculate the value of the claim to be given and the premium price numerically. By calculating equity-linked life insurance premiums well, it is expected that no party will be disadvantaged due to the inaccuracy of the calculation result

  11. A tale of two scales: Evaluating the relationship among life satisfaction, social capital, income, and the natural environment at individual and neighborhood levels in metropolitan Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda W. Vemuri; J. Morgan Grove; Matthew A. Wilson; William R. Jr. Burch

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid growth of cities worldwide, there is a need to better understand factors contributing to life satisfaction in urban environments. Using data from a long-term study of the Baltimore metropolitan region, we build on existing social scientific literature to examine a suite of theoretical factors that have been proposed to explain higher life satisfaction....

  12. Movement Technologies, Scale Structure and Metropolitan Life – an Empirical Research on the Effects of the Transportation System on the Metropolitan Process in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Sheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a morphological study on Beijing’s metropolitanisation process based on the development of its transportation networks. By extracting the ‘scale structure’ embedded in them, we construct a movement network model for Beijing and use it to analyse changing metropolitan centralities as shopping areas and market places in 1924, 1987 and 2006. Following Taylor’s proposal of Central Flow as a complementary model to Central Place, our study focuses on how the spatial distribution of metropolitan centralities has been affected by the rapid modernisation of transportation networks.

  13. Personality Traits and Sales Effectiveness: The Life Insurance Market in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Janowski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Within organizatons in industrialized countries, the quality of human resources tends to become a major issue on the path to achieving a compettve advantage. According to the author’s research, the implementaton of the fve-factor model of Costa and McCrae provides the soluton for the abovementoned problem. This artcle demonstrates the crucial utlity of the fve-factor model of Costa and McCrae in the context of life insurance industry effectveness from both the theoretcal and practcal perspectves based on a case study of the four largest life insurance companies 796 most effectve agents. Results imply the existence of a positve correlaton between the level of the selected personality traits intensites and the life insurance agent’s sales efciency. Moreover, as levels of the personality traits of “openness to experience,” “consciousness,” “agreeableness” and “neurotcism” are the predictors of life insurance company effectveness, there are fundamentals for inducton to be appropriate for the whole retail fnancial sector human resources management system.

  14. 17 CFR 270.6e-2 - Exemptions for certain variable life insurance separate accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) solely with respect to variable life insurance contracts, means the gross premium payment made less any portion of such gross premium charged for or attributable to the items specified in paragraphs (c)(4)(vi... that portion of its assets having a value equal to, or approximately equal to, the reserves and other...

  15. Sources of New Life Insurance Product Ideas in LIC of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furquan Uddin

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The present complex nature of market has created sturdy challenges before the business world in the form of designing right product, right price, right placement and right promotion. In order to survive and thrive, a marketer has to focus on these challenges. Amongst, right product is most crucial which requires good and feasible ideas in all industries including life insurance. In fact, life insurance is perceived as an unsought and complicated financial product in India. The present paper is a humble attempt to examine the sources of new life insurance product ideas in LIC of India. The findings of the present study include the sources into six groups such as key stakeholders, workforce, organizational documents and other sources, research unit, competitors, and national and international source. It may be noticed the key stakeholders like Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India, actuary, top management, and policyholders play vital role in providing ideas in the new product development process of LIC of India.

  16. Mechanisms of Protection from Interest Rate Risk with Reference to the Life Insurance Market in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burić Milijana Novović

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance companies are facing major challenges that point to the need for control process and risk management. Risk management in insurance has a direct impact on solvency, economic security, and overall financial stability of insurance companies. It is very important for insurance companies to adequately calculate risks to which they are exposed. Asset liability management (ALM, as an integrated approach to financial management, requires simultaneous decision-making about categories and values of assets and liabilities in order to establish the optimum volume and the ratio of assets and liabilities, with the understanding of complexity of the financial market in which financial institutions operate. ALM focuses on a significant number of risks, whereby the emphasis in this paper will be on interest rate risk which indicates potential losses that may reflect in a lower interest margin, a lower value of assets or both, in terms of changes in interest rates. In the above context, the aim of this paper is to show how to protect from interest rate changes and how these changes influence the insurance market in Montenegro, both from the theoretical and the practical point of view. The authors consider this to be an interesting and very important topic, especially because the life insurance market in Montenegro is underdeveloped and subject to fluctuations. Also, taking into account the fact that Montenegro is a country that has been making serious efforts to join the EU, it is expected that insurance companies in Montenegro will strengthen their financial position in the market even using the ALM traditional techniques, which is shown in this paper.

  17. The Social Life of Health Insurance in Low- to Middle-income Countries: An Anthropological Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Amy; Nichter, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The following article identifies new areas for engaged medical anthropological research on health insurance in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Based on a review of the literature and pilot research, we identify gaps in how insurance is understood, administered, used, and abused. We provide a historical overview of insurance as an emerging global health panacea and then offer brief assessments of three high-profile attempts to provide universal health coverage. Considerable research on health insurance in LMICs has been quantitative and focused on a limited set of outcomes. To advance the field, we identify eight productive areas for future ethnographic research that will add depth to our understanding of the social life and impact of health insurance in LMICs. Anthropologists can provide unique insights into shifting health and financial practices that accompany insurance coverage, while documenting insurance programs as they evolve and respond to contingencies. © 2015 by the American Anthropological Association.

  18. 26 CFR 1.101-4 - Payment of life insurance proceeds at a date later than death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... those to which section 101(c) applies) received under a life insurance contract and paid by reason of... separated, but not under a decree of absolute divorce (section 101(d)(3)). To the extent that the total... the insured's death) of amounts which may be paid by reason of the guarantee, in accordance with the...

  19. Choice--Chance--Control. That's Life. Learning about Insurance through Secondary School Courses. Insurance Basics for Everyone; Social Sciences; Mathematics; Consumer Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insurance Education Foundation, Indianapolis, IN.

    This guide, which is designed for use with secondary school students, contains four units of activities that teach the fundamentals of insurance within the context of a broad range of subjects, including social sciences, history, civics, government, mathematics, consumer economics, business, economics, life skills, family management, home…

  20. Optimal Hedging and Pricing of Equity-Linked Life Insurance Contracts in a Discrete-Time Incomplete Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Josephy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a method of optimal hedging and pricing of equity-linked life insurance products in an incomplete discrete-time financial market. A pure endowment life insurance contract with guarantee is used as an example. The financial market incompleteness is caused by the assumption that the underlying risky asset price ratios are distributed in a compact interval, generalizing the assumptions of multinomial incomplete market models. For a range of initial hedging capitals for the embedded financial option, we numerically solve an optimal hedging problem and determine a risk-return profile of each optimal non-self-financing hedging strategy. The fair price of the insurance contract is determined according to the insurer's risk-return preferences. Illustrative numerical results of testing our algorithm on hypothetical insurance contracts are documented. A discussion and a test of a hedging strategy recalibration technique for long-term contracts are presented.

  1. The Effects of Firm-Specific Factors on the Profitability of Non-Life Insurance Companies in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Emine Öner

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the firm-specific factors affecting the profitability of non-life insurance companies operating in Turkey. For this purpose, data of 24 non-life insurance companies operating in Turkey from the period 2006–2013 were brought together to obtain 192 observed panel data sets. In this study, profitability is measured by two different variables: technical profitability ratio and sales profitability ratio. According to the empirical results, the firm-specific factors affecti...

  2. How Do Board Characteristics Influence Business Performance? Evidence from Non-life Insurance Firms in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Sandada

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to contribute to the corporate governance literature by establishing the relationship between board characteristics and corporate performance within the nonlife insurance firms in Zimbabwe. The study sought to provide some insights on corporate governance since the phenomenon is relatively an emerging discipline in Zimbabwe. The paper sought to complement other corporate governance studies that were conducted in other environments by producing evidence on the phenomenon from a developing country context. A quantitative research approach was adopted and respondents were selected through a stratified random sampling. The results of the study confirm that board characteristics (board composition, diversity, and size exhibit a statistically significant positive predictive relationship with the performance of non-life insurance firms measured by gross premium written and customer retention. However, CEO/Chairman duality showed a negative relationship with business performance. Non-life insurance companies need to be cognizant of board characteristics in order to improve their performance. Moreover , the findings in this research has practical relevance for the selection process of directors as it highlights the importance of having a sizeable number of board members as well as an appropriate mix of competences and qualifications on the board. Although corporate governance is has been extensively researched, there is limited study in this area from a developing country like Zimbabwe with relatively less developed capital markets. It would be wrong to assume that the findings found in other countries can apply here because the conditions are different.

  3. A current life table and causes of death for insured dogs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Mai; Hasegawa, A; Hosoi, Y; Sugiura, K

    2015-06-15

    The life expectancies and causes of death were evaluated in 299,555 dogs insured in Japan between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2011, of which 4169 dogs died during this period. The overall life expectancy of dogs was 13.7 years. The probability of death was high in the first year of life, lowest in the second and third years, and increased exponentially after 3 years of age. The life expectancy was 13.8 years in the death increased as dogs got older for most potential causes of death. Neoplasia resulted in the highest probability of death, especially in the large and giant breed groups. Cardiovascular system disorders were the second major cause of death and the toy group had a probability of death significantly higher than the other breed groups at age 12+. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Lexis plot for run-off non-life insurance companies in United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Humaida Banu

    2014-06-01

    This study is intended to look at the company's age to be one of the predictor for financially distressed non-life insurance companies in United Kingdom. Financial distress is a condition where a company has difficulty paying off its obligations to its creditors. For this study, Lexis plot is used to identify either younger companies or older companies are in run-off. Run-off is a process where many insurance companies stop underwriting policies long before they reach financial crisis or financial distress. The study utilises financial data of 22 years from year 1985 to year 2006 for 397 companies. From the study, it is identified that younger companies are more in financial distress than older companies.

  5. PARAMETRIC DISTRIBUTION FAMILIES USEFUL FOR MODELLING NON - LIFE INSURANCE PAYMENTS DATA. TAIL BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Teodorescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes a series of parametric distributions used for modeling non-life insurance payments data.Of those listed, special attention is paid to the transformed Beta distribution family.This distribution as well as those which are obtained from it(special cases of four-parameter transformed Beta distribution are used in the modeling of high costs, or even extreme ones.In the literature it follows the tail behaviour of distributions depending on the parameters, because the insurance payments data are tipically highly positively skewed and distributed with large upper tails.In the paper is described the tail behavior of the distribution in the left and right side respectively, and deduced from it, a general case.There are also some graphs of probability density function for one of the transformed Beta family members, which comes to reinforce the comments made.

  6. Life insurance, financial development and economic growth in South Africa: An application of the autoregressive distributed lag model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athenia Bongani Sibindi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The life insurance sector may contribute to economic growth by its very mechanism of savings mobilisation and thereby performing an intermediation role in the economy. This ensures that capital is provided to deficient units who are in need of capital to finance their working capital requirements and invest in technology thereby resulting in an increase in output. In this way, it could be argued that life insurance development spurs financial development. In this article we investigate the causal relationship between the life insurance sector, financial development and economic growth in South Africa for the period 1990 to 2012 by applying the ARDL bounds testing procedure. We make use of life insurance density as the proxy for life insurance development, real per capita growth domestic product as the proxy for economic growth and real broad money per capita as the proxy for financial development. We test for cointegration amongst the variables by applying the bounds test and then proceed to test for Granger causality based on the error correction model. Our results confirm that the variables are cointegrated and move in tandem to each other in the long-run. The results also indicate that the direction of causality runs from the economy to the life insurance sector in the short-run which is consistent with the “demand-following” insurance-growth hypothesis. There is also evidence of bidirectional Granger causality running from the economy to financial development and vice versa, both in the long-run and short-run. The results also reveal that life insurance complements financial development in bringing about economic growth further lending credence to the “complementarity” hypothesis

  7. Life insurance securitisation in Europe : An overview on the effects of alternative capital resources and its relation to regulator and IFRS guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhof, P.; Dorsman, A.B.; Thibeault, A.

    2005-01-01

    Recently Life Insurance Securitisation practices have been probed in dedicated areas to access the wider capital markets. These developments have shown a rising interest among leading insurers and reinsurers to start building experience with securitisation practices, either for risk transfer,

  8. Multi-Objective Stochastic Optimization Programs for a Non-Life Insurance Company under Solvency Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Kaucic

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we introduce a multi-objective scenario-based optimization approach for chance-constrained portfolio selection problems. More specifically, a modified version of the normal constraint method is implemented with a global solver in order to generate a dotted approximation of the Pareto frontier for bi- and tri-objective programming problems. Numerical experiments are carried out on a set of portfolios to be optimized for an EU-based non-life insurance company. Both performance indicators and risk measures are managed as objectives. Results show that this procedure is effective and readily applicable to achieve suitable risk-reward tradeoff analysis.

  9. Asset and Liability Composition in Participating Life Insurance: The Impact on Shortfall Risk and Shareholder Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gatzert, Nadine; Bohnert, Alexander; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    surplus appropriation schemes on the company’s shortfall risk and the shareholders’ fair risk charge. The range of products comprises temporary life annuities and endowment insurance contracts with varying surplus appropriation schemes that are modeled actuarially. We thereby also account for mortality...... risk and ensure a fair situation for shareholders. Our findings emphasize that management decisions can have a substantial impact on the company’s shortfall risk, and that their effectiveness in risk reduction varies substantially depending on the surplus appropriation scheme offered to the customer...

  10. Optimal dynamic premium control in non-life insurance. Maximizing dividend pay-outs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Bjarne

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of finding optimal dynamic premium policies in non-life insurance. The reserve of a company is modeled using the classical Cramér-Lundberg model with premium rates calculated via the expected value principle. The company controls dynamically the relative safety...... loading with the possibility of gaining or loosing customers. It distributes dividends according to a 'barrier strategy' and the objective of the company is to find an optimal premium policy and dividend barrier maximizing the expected total, discounted pay-out of dividends. In the case of exponential...

  11. All-Cause Mortality for Life Insurance Applicants with a History of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Stephen A; MacKenzie, Ross; Wylde, David N; Roudebush, Bradley T; Bergstrom, Richard L; Holowaty, J Carl; Beckman, Margaret; Rigatti, Steven J; Gill, Stacy

    2017-01-01

    - To determine the all-cause mortality of life insurance applicants diagnosed with prostate cancer currently or at some time in the past. - Prostate cancer is common and a frequent cause of cancer death. Both the frequency of prostate cancer in men and its propensity for causing premature mortality require insurance company medical directors and underwriters to have a good understanding of prostate cancer-related mortality trends, patterns, and outcomes in the insured population. - Life insurance applicants with reported prostate cancer were extracted from data covering United States residents between November 2007 and November 2014. Information about these applicants was matched to the Social Security Death Master (SSDMF) file for deaths occurring from 2007 to 2011 and to another commercially available death source file (Other Death Source, ODS) for deaths occurring from 2007 to 2014 to determine vital status. Actual to Expected (A/E) mortality ratios were calculated using the Society of Actuaries 2015 Valuation Basic Table (2015VBT), select and ultimate table (age last birthday) and the 2013 US population as expected mortality ratios. All expected bases were not smoker distinct. - The study covered applicants between the ages of 45 and 75 and had approximately 405,000 person-years of exposure. Older aged applicants had a lower mortality ratio than those who were younger. Applicants 45 to 54 had the highest mortality ratios in the first year after diagnosis which steadily decreased in years 6 to 10 with an increase in the mortality ratio for those over 10 years from diagnosis. Relative mortality rate was close to unity for those with localized cancer across all age groups. The mortality ratio was 2 to 4 times greater for those with cancer in 1 positive node, and much greater with 3 positive nodes. For each time-from-diagnosis category, the relative mortality ratios compared to age were highest in the 45-54 age group. The A/E mortality ratios based on the 2015VBT

  12. Analysis of Life Insurance Premium in Regard to Net Income as an Influencing Factor– the Case of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olja Munitlak Ivanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In current business conditions, insurance market in the Republic of Serbia notes positive but relatively slow growing trend. During the last few years, life insurance market in Serbia has an upward trend, however, it still significantly falls back in comparison to developed European countries. Insufficient development of life insurance sector is in direct relation to insufficient economic development, weak financial market, high unemployment rate and poor implementation of economic reforms. Additionally there is a problem due to the lack of both quality and quantity of education with insufficient basic knowledge of potentials that this type of insurance offers. The aim of this paper is to present the projection of life insurance premium on the basis of linear trend parameters and correlation degree between average net income and the amount of life insurance premium and to emphasize the necessity of intense development of life insurance market. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  13. Green infrastructure practices – strategies how to sustain life in metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaręba Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Green Infrastructure is ‘an interconnected network of green space that conserves natural ecosystem values and functions and provides associated benefits to human populations’ [1, p. 12]. It contributes to long term strategic development goals for data and information management. The research paper was introduced with the aim to protect green areas in urban environment by improving biodiversity, leisure and recreation, tidal and fluvial flood risk management, grey water treatment and quality of life. Planning and design of green system should provide appropriate responses to the distinctive local circumstances. Green spaces encourage social interactions, form new places to practise sport and contribute to public health and fitness, as well as have indirect benefits for a range of environmental services. The research hypothesis is that Green Infrastructure is a framework for conservation and development and we need to design Green Infrastructure systems strategically to connect across urban, suburban, rural and wilderness landscapes and incorporate green space elements and functions at the state, regional, community, neighbourhood and site scales [2]. Analysis and design of emerging Green Infrastructure system take a holistic view which links related physical, environmental, economic, social and cultural aspects of local communities.

  14. The Impact of Corporate Governance on the Efficiency Performance of the Thai Non-Life Insurance Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Yen Hsu; Pongpitch Petchsakulwong

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between corporate governance and efficiency performance of public non-life insurance companies in Thailand over the period 2000–2007. Data envelopment analysis is used to compute an insurer's efficiency performance including technical, allocative, cost, and revenue efficiency. We then employ truncated bootstrapped regression to test the relation between efficiency performance and corporate governance. The results show that the characteristics of corporate gove...

  15. Reinsurance and the Cost of Equity in the United Kingdom’s Non-Life Insurance Market

    OpenAIRE

    Upreti, Vineet

    2014-01-01

    The link between the cost of equity and reinsurance purchased by insurers is examined in this study. This work extends the research on the economic value implications of corporate risk management practices. Utilising a framework based on the theory of optimal capital structure, this study puts forward two hypotheses to test empirically the cost of equity – reinsurance relation in the United Kingdom’s non-life insurance market. The first hypothesis tests the effect of the decision to reinsure ...

  16. Longevity Risk and Natural Hedge Potential in Portfolios Of Life Insurance Products : The Effect of Investment Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, R.S.P.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Melenberg, B.

    2011-01-01

    Payments of life insurance products depend on the uncertain future evolution of survival probabilities. This uncertainty is referred to as longevity risk. Existing literature shows that the effect of longevity risk on single life annuities can be substantial, and that there exists a (natural) hedge

  17. Resolving the Strategy Paradox Applying the Strategic Flexibility: A Case Study of PT BNI Life Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Widati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Over decades, the business environment has changed dramatically as it has been affected by the changing of environmental needs and demand. The difference level of environmental turbulence characteristics will create new business competitive landscape for all companies in any industries. Environmental turbulence is also marked by dynamics, complexity and unpredictability business environment. In such a situation, a company will be difficult to adapt the environmental changes. In a turbulent environment, a company is demanded to be able to adapt. Many researchers argue that in a turbulent environment, a company is not only demanded for having adaptive ability but also flexible ability either structural, operational or strategic. The fast pace of environmental changes provide managers unpredictable outcomes of their strategic alternative or strategic commitment. This collision of strategic commitment and strategic uncertainty is causing what Raynor (2007 named as the strategy paradox. Every company can be a victim of the strategy paradox if they cannot align their strategy with the environmental changes. Raynor (2007 pointed out that one of the ways to resolve strategy paradox is implementing strategic flexibility in term of ex ante action (proactive actions. One of the industries in Indonesia that also experiences the turbulent environment is insurance industry. This study examines and investigates the strategic flexibility as a way to resolve strategy paradox at PT BNI Life Insurance.

  18. Nonparametric Fine Tuning of Mixtures: Application to Non-Life Insurance Claims Distribution Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardet, Laure; Patilea, Valentin

    When pricing a specific insurance premium, actuary needs to evaluate the claims cost distribution for the warranty. Traditional actuarial methods use parametric specifications to model claims distribution, like lognormal, Weibull and Pareto laws. Mixtures of such distributions allow to improve the flexibility of the parametric approach and seem to be quite well-adapted to capture the skewness, the long tails as well as the unobserved heterogeneity among the claims. In this paper, instead of looking for a finely tuned mixture with many components, we choose a parsimonious mixture modeling, typically a two or three-component mixture. Next, we use the mixture cumulative distribution function (CDF) to transform data into the unit interval where we apply a beta-kernel smoothing procedure. A bandwidth rule adapted to our methodology is proposed. Finally, the beta-kernel density estimate is back-transformed to recover an estimate of the original claims density. The beta-kernel smoothing provides an automatic fine-tuning of the parsimonious mixture and thus avoids inference in more complex mixture models with many parameters. We investigate the empirical performance of the new method in the estimation of the quantiles with simulated nonnegative data and the quantiles of the individual claims distribution in a non-life insurance application.

  19. On the management of life insurance company risk by strategic choice of product mix, investment strategy and surplus appropriation schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnert, Alexander; Gatzert, Nadine; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of management’s strategic choice of asset and liability composition in life insurance on shortfall risk and the shareholders’ fair risk charge. In contrast to previous work, we focus on the effectiveness of management decisions regarding the product...... mix and the riskiness of the asset side under different surplus appropriation schemes. We propose a model setting that comprises temporary life annuities and endowment insurance contracts. Our numerical results show that the effectiveness of management decisions in regard to risk reduction strongly...

  20. The efficiency of life insurance and family Takaful in Malaysia: Relative efficiency using the stochastic cost frontier analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharin, Roziana; Isa, Zaidi

    2013-04-01

    This paper focuses on the Stochastic cost Frontier Analysis (SFA) approach, in an attempt to measure the relationship between efficiency and organizational structure for Takaful and insurance operators in Malaysia's dual financial system. This study applied a flexible cost functional form i.e., Fourier Flexible Functional Form, for a sample consisting of 19 firms, chosen between 2002 and 2010, by employing the Battese and Coelli invariant efficiency model. The findings show that on average, there is a significant difference in cost efficiency between the Takaful industry and the insurance industry. It was found that Takaful has lower cost efficiency than conventional insurance, which shows that the organization form has an influence on efficiency. Overall, it was observed that the level of efficiency scores for both life insurance and family Takaful do not vary across time.

  1. Personal finance and life insurance under separation of risk aversion and elasticity of substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ninna Reitzel; Steffensen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    aversion from elasticity of inter-temporal substitution, we introduce certainty equivalents. We propose a time-inconsistent global optimization problem, and we present a verification theorem for an equilibrium control. In the special case without mortality risk, we discover that our optimization approach...... is equivalent to recursive utility optimization with Epstein–Zin preferences in the sense that the two approaches lead to the same result. We find this interesting since our optimization problem has an intuitive interpretation as a global maximization of certainty equivalents and since recursive utility......, in contrast to our approach, gives rise to severe differentiability problems. Also, our optimization approach can there be seen as a generalization of recursive utility optimization with Epstein–Zin preferences to include mortality risk and life insurance....

  2. All-Cause Mortality for Diabetics or Individuals with Hyperglycemia Applying for Life Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Stephen A; MacKenzie, Ross; Wylde, David N; Roudebush, Bradley T; Bergstrom, Richard L; Holowaty, J Carl; Hart, Anna; Rigatti, Steven J; Gill, Stacy J

    2016-01-01

    Diabetics and individuals with lab results consistent with a diagnosis of diabetes or hyperglycemia were extracted from data covering US residents who applied for life insurance between January 2007 and January 2014. Information about these applicants was matched to the Social Security Death Master File (SSDMF) and another commercially available death source file to determine vital status. Due to the inconsistencies of reporting within the death files, there were two cohorts of death cases, one including the imputed year of birth (full cohort of deaths), and the second where the date of birth was known (reduced cohort of deaths). The study had approximately 8.5 million person-years of exposure. Actual to expected (A/E) mortality ratios were calculated using the Society of Actuaries 2008 Valuation Basic Table (2008VBT) select table, age last birthday and the 2010 US population as expected mortality rates. With the 2008VBT as an expected basis, the overall A/E mortality ratio was 3.15 for the full cohort of deaths and 2.56 for the reduced cohort of deaths. Using the US population as the expected basis, the overall A/E mortality ratio was 0.98 for the full cohort of deaths and 0.79 for the reduced cohort. Since there was no smoking status information in this study, all expected bases were not smoker distinct. A/E mortality ratios varied by disease treatment category and were considerably higher in individuals using insulin. A/E mortality ratios decreased with increasing age and took on a J-shaped distribution with increasing BMI (Body Mass Index). The lowest mortality ratios were observed for overweight and obese individuals. The A/E mortality ratio based on the 2008VBT decreased with the increase in applicant duration, which was defined as the time since initial life insurance application.

  3. 17 CFR 274.303 - Form N-27I-2, notice of withdrawal right and statement of charges for variable life insurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form N-27I-2, notice of withdrawal right and statement of charges for variable life insurance contractholders required pursuant to... variable life insurance contractholders required pursuant to Rule 6e-2 (§ 270.6e-2 of this chapter). [41 FR...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1008 - Agent-driver or commission-driver, full-time life insurance salesman, home worker, or traveling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... commission-driver, full-time life insurance salesman, home worker, or traveling or city salesman. (a) General... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agent-driver or commission-driver, full-time life insurance salesman, home worker, or traveling or city salesman. 404.1008 Section 404.1008...

  5. Health-related quality of life and working conditions on public transport workers in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Sérgio; Assunção, Ada Ávila

    2015-01-01

    Drivers and conductors working in public transport are frequently exposed to inadequate working conditions and consequently to health problems relating to their work activities. This study investigates the relationship between the working conditions of drivers and conductors in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte and their perception of health-related quality of life. Health-related quality of life was measured in a sample of 1,607 public transport workers in the city of Belo Horizonte using the SF-12 (Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form General Health Survey). The presence and magnitude of independent associations between the SF-12 domains and the exposure variables were determined by means of odds ratios obtained through logistic regression. After adjustments, the PCS (Physical Component Score) was found to be negatively associated with the existence of breaks during the working day and positively associated with unavailability of technical resources for meeting needs. The MCS (Mental Component Score) was positively associated with being female, having two or more medical diagnoses of illnesses, absenteeism and recent episodes of aggression or threats, and feeling vibration in the whole body. The MCS was negatively associated with the practice of physical exercise. Both components were negatively associated with older age and positively associated with having a poor self-assessment of health. Exposure to a variety of risk factors while performing work worsened health-related quality of life. The results obtained may provide support for rethinking and guiding public policies directed towards metropolitan populations.

  6. The Application Law of Large Numbers That Predicts The Amount of Actual Loss in Insurance of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinungki, Georgina Maria

    2018-03-01

    The law of large numbers is a statistical concept that calculates the average number of events or risks in a sample or population to predict something. The larger the population is calculated, the more accurate predictions. In the field of insurance, the Law of Large Numbers is used to predict the risk of loss or claims of some participants so that the premium can be calculated appropriately. For example there is an average that of every 100 insurance participants, there is one participant who filed an accident claim, then the premium of 100 participants should be able to provide Sum Assured to at least 1 accident claim. The larger the insurance participant is calculated, the more precise the prediction of the calendar and the calculation of the premium. Life insurance, as a tool for risk spread, can only work if a life insurance company is able to bear the same risk in large numbers. Here apply what is called the law of large number. The law of large numbers states that if the amount of exposure to losses increases, then the predicted loss will be closer to the actual loss. The use of the law of large numbers allows the number of losses to be predicted better.

  7. Trajectory of intimate partner violence and healthcare seeking over the life course: study of Japanese women in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, A; Yoshihama, M; Bybee, D

    2013-10-01

    To describe the trajectory of, and examine factors affecting, intimate partner violence (IPV) and IPV-specific healthcare seeking among Japanese women over the life course. Life course study. One hundred and one women, aged 24-80 years, who had a lifetime history of IPV were interviewed in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan in 2005 and 2006. Life course data were collected according to the life history calendar method. Hierarchical linear modelling was used to examine IPV-specific healthcare seeking over the life course. Injury, formal or informal help seeking, public assistance, worse self-rated health status and smoking significantly increased the likelihood of IPV-specific healthcare seeking over the life course. There are significant cohort effects on healthcare seeking. The results suggest that women who experience IPV may seek healthcare services not only immediately after the first occurrence of IPV, but also later in life. IPV is not always associated with immediate healthcare seeking. In particular, sexual IPV is not significantly associated with healthcare seeking. Pursuing formal and informal help is associated with healthcare seeking. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Culture, state and varieties of capitalism: a comparative study of life insurance markets in Hong Kong and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cheris Shun-Ching

    2012-03-01

    This article examines the interplay between local culture, the state, and economic actors' agency in producing variation across markets. I adopt a political-cultural approach to examining why life insurance has been far more popular in Taiwan than Hong Kong, despite the presence of a cultural taboo on the topic of premature death in both societies. Based on interview data and documentary references, the findings reveal that as an independent state, the Taiwanese government heavily protected domestic insurance firms during their emergence. These domestic firms adopted a market-share approach by re-defining the concept of life insurance to accommodate the local cultural taboo. The colonial Hong Kong government, on the other hand, adopted laissez-faire policies that essentially favoured foreign insurance firms. When faced with the tension between local adaptation and the profitability of the business, these foreign firms chose the latter. Their reluctance to accommodate local cultures, however, resulted in a smaller market. I argue that state actions mediate who the dominant economic players are and that the nature of the dominant players affects the extent of localization. Specifically, the presence of competitive domestic players alongside transnational corporations is more likely to produce varieties of capitalism. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  9. Racial differences in quality of life and employment outcomes in insured women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Cathy J; Wilk, Amber

    2014-03-01

    Prior studies indicate that racial disparities are not only present in cancer survival, but also in the quality of cancer survivorship. We estimated the effect of cancer and its treatment on two measures of survivorship quality as follows: health-related quality of life and employment and hours worked for initially employed and insured women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. We collected employment data from 548 women from 2007 to 2011; 22 % were African-American. The outcomes were responses to the SF-36, CES-D, employment, and change in weekly hours worked from pre-diagnosis to 2 and 9 months following treatment initiation. African-American women reported a 2.77 (0.94) and 1.96 (0.92) higher score on the mental component summary score at the 2 and 9 month interviews, respectively. They also report fewer depression symptoms at the 2-month interview, but were over half as likely to be employed as non-Hispanic white women (OR = 0.43; 95 % CI = 0.26 to 0.71). At the 9-month interview, African-American women had 2.33 (1.06) lower scores on the physical component summary score. Differences in health-related quality of life were small and, although statistically significant, were most likely clinically insignificant between African-American and non-Hispanic white women. Differences in employment were substantial, suggesting the need for future research to identify reasons for disparities and interventions to reduce the employment effects of breast cancer and its treatment on African-American women. African-American breast cancer survivors are more likely to stop working during the early phases of their treatment. These women and their treating physicians need to be aware of options to reduce work loss and take steps to minimize long-term employment consequences.

  10. 77 FR 70374 - Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance-Stillborn Child Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... is the biological mother of a stillborn and if both the surrogate and the stillborn's biological... the coverage of the child's SGLI-insured biological mother. This final rule will provide consistency... proceeds would be paid to the child's SGLI- insured mother. We provided a 60-day public-comment period...

  11. Markov chain modeling of policyholder behavior in life insurance and pension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Frederik Brandt; Nielsen, Jeppe Woetmann; Steffensen, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    We calculate reserves regarding expected policyholder behavior. The behavior is modeled to occur incidentally similarly to insurance risk. The focus is on multi-state modelling of insurance risk and behavioral risk in terms of free policy risk and surrender risk. We discuss valuation techniques i...

  12. Insurance--a dental viewpoint. Part III: Life assurance, pensions and annuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A G

    1994-09-10

    The insurance market is complex and there can be serious taxation implications in many decisions. The tax aspect may be beneficial to the dentist or it can have serious consequences. The advice of independent experts in accountancy and insurance is often vital if catastrophic pitfalls are to be avoided.

  13. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 50 - Life Insurance Products and Securities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... personnel can easily understand, and fully disclose the fundamental nature of the policy. Companies must be... shall not be marketed or sold disguised as investments. If there is a savings component to an insurance...

  14. [Quantified self movement--the new mantra of life insurance companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, St

    2016-06-01

    Wearables are small personal minicomputers that register biometric data. In such a way, the insurance industry hopes to create new sales opportunities and products, and simplify underwriting. Lower premiums will promote the use of wearables. The related possibilities and unanswered questions are discussed in this article. Utilisation of big data offers the insurance industry a range of new opportunities. The benefit must be proven in the future, however.

  15. Disposition of Insurance Allotment Payments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    2001-01-01

    .... The request was prompted by action taken by the Florida Department of Insurance against two life insurance companies that had received large numbers of insurance allotments from Service members...

  16. All-Cause Mortality for Life Insurance Applicants with a History of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Stephen A; MacKenzie, Ross; Wylde, David N; Roudebush, Bradley T; Bergstrom, Richard L; Holowaty, J Carl; Hart, Anna; Rigatti, Steven J; Gill, Stacy

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. Breast cancer is also the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States after lung cancer with over 40,000 breast cancer deaths occurring each year. The purpose of this research was to determine the all-cause mortality of applicants diagnosed with breast cancer currently or at some time in the past. Life insurance applicants with reported breast cancer were extracted from data covering United States residents between November 2007 and November 2014. Information about these applicants was matched to the Social Security Death Master (SSDMF) file for deaths occurring from 2007 to 2011 and to another commercially available death source file (Other Death Source, ODS) for deaths occurring from 2007 to 2014 to determine vital status. If there was a death from the other death source, then the SSDMF was searched to verify the death. The study had approximately 561,000 person-years of exposure. Actual-to-expected (A/E) mortality ratios were calculated using the Society of Actuaries 2008 Valuation Basic Table (2008VBT), select and ultimate table (age last birthday) and the 2010 US population as expected mortality ratios. Since the A/Es presented in this paper were known to be an underestimate due to the exclusion of the recent SSDMF deaths, comparative analysis of the mortality ratios was done. Since there was no smoking status information in this study, all expected bases were not smoker distinct. Overall, the 35-44 age group had 6.3 times the relative mortality ratio than those in the 65-75 age group. The relative mortality ratio for the 35-44 age group applicants, when cancer severity was accounted for in combination with 3 or more nodes of cancer involvement, was 29.3 times that when compared to those in the 65-75 age group having localized cancer, where no nodes are involved. The 35-44 age group applicants who were diagnosed with cancer within the last year had over 10-fold increase in

  17. 78 FR 77366 - Federal Employee Dental and Vision Insurance Program; Qualifying Life Event Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program. DATES: Comment date: Comments are due on or... enrollment status under the Federal Employee Dental and Vision Insurance Program. OPM is proposing these... for FEDVIP enrollment changes and therefore better align FEDVIP with the Federal Employees Health...

  18. 78 FR 65393 - Ameritas Life Insurance Corp., et al; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... benefit Contract owners by reducing the overall level of Portfolio expenses. Legal Analysis and Conditions... Portfolio, Initial Class (the ``Replacement Portfolio'') of the Variable Insurance Products Fund V (``VIPFV'') for shares of the Calvert VP Money Market Portfolio (the ``Current Portfolio'') of the Calvert...

  19. 26 CFR 1.804-4 - Investment yield of a life insurance company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... threat or imminence thereof) of property used in the trade or business (as so defined). (iii) Any item..., depreciation, depletion, and trade or business (other than an insurance business) expenses. However, such... refers to mortgages, and other similar liens, on real property which are held by the company as security...

  20. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Overseas Life Insurance Registration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the laws of the State where the company's headquarters are located. d. A statement that the company... President, Vice President, or designated official of the insurance company shall be forwarded to the... Command, U.S. Pacific Command, U.S. Central Command, U.S. Southern Command) where the company presently...

  1. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(22)-1 - Successor life insurance company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... take into account as income its remaining policyholders surplus account to the extent the fair market.... If the transferor is an old target within the meaning of § 1.338(h)(10)-1(d)(2), any transfer by the...: Example 1. P buys the stock of insurance company target, T, from S for $16, and P and S make a section 338...

  2. Conditions and life experiences of indigent pregnant women living in the northwest metropolitan of San José

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Granados Hernández

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of an investigation into the conditions and life experiences ofindigent women. Involved four indigent pregnant women. The investigation was prompted by aphenomenological, qualitative design. The data collection was carried out by applying depth interviews, usingrecording for repeated observations, then the data were analyzed and contrasted with the framework. Among themost important characteristics that form a profile of a indigent pregnant woman found common factors:alcoholism, drug addiction, prostitution, physical violence, sexual and psychological and crime. We conclude thatthe conditions of life are intertwined with the life experiences of homeless pregnant women, from the conditionwhich determines their profile.

  3. Sub-Ethnic and Geographic Variations in Out-of-Pocket Private Health Insurance Premiums Among Mid-Life Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunha

    2017-03-01

    This study examined out-of-pocket premium burden of mid-life Asian Americans by comparing six sub-groups of Asians after controlling for geographic clustering at the county and state levels. The 2007-2011 National Health Interview Survey was linked to community-level data and analyzed for 4,628 Asians (ages 50-64), including 697 Asian Indians, 1,125 Chinese, 1,393 Filipinos, 434 Japanese, 524 Koreans, and 455 Vietnamese. Non-Hispanic Whites were included as a comparison group ( n = 48,135). Three-level multilevel modeling (state > county > individual) was conducted. Koreans and Vietnamese were found as vulnerable sub-groups considering their lower private health insurance rates and higher uninsured rates. Among those with private insurance, Asians, specifically Filipinos, paid significantly less than non-Hispanic Whites. Moderate but significant variations in the county- and state-level variance in out-of-pocket premiums were found, especially among mid-life Asians. This study demonstrates the importance of examining within-group heterogeneity and geographic variations in understanding premium burden among mid-life Asians.

  4. Leadership and change commitment in the life insurance service context in Taiwan: the mediating-moderating role of job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Feng

    2011-06-01

    The effects of transformational leadership and satisfaction were studied along with their interconnected effects (mediation and moderation) on commitment to change in the life insurance industry in two samples, sales managers and salespersons. A multiple mediated-moderated regression approach showed mediation and moderation to have statistically significant main effects on change commitment. Transformational leadership and satisfaction made a more important contribution to change commitment while job satisfaction had a mediating and moderating role that could enhance the relationships between leadership and change commitment. This information is of importance in building successful change commitment associations with customers.

  5. The Efficiency of the European Non-Life Insurance: CEO Power, Macroeconomic, and Market Characteristics Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Bahloul

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A numbers of studies focusing on the determinant of the insurance market efficiency have increased in the last decade. In fact, many factors, like the CEO’s power, can influence the efficiency in the insurance firm. The purpose of this research is to analyze the relationship between efficiency, measured by the cost function using the stochastic frontier approach (SFA methodologies, and the market structure, as well as the macroeconomic variables. In addition, it focuses on identifying the impact of the integration of the CEO power variable in the cost function on this relation. The result shows that after the consideration of the CEO power score in the cost efficiency, the relation between insurance efficiency and the determinant of market development, as well as the domestic economy, has changed and become more significant. The result also shows that the firms become more efficient and more profitable with a higher concentration ratio and this is in accordance with the structure-conduct-performance (SCP theory.

  6. Insurance: Accounting, Regulation, Actuarial Science

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Tosetti; Thomas Behar; Michel Fromenteau; Stéphane Ménart

    2001-01-01

    We shall be examining the following topics: (i) basic frameworks for accounting and for statutory insurance rules; and (ii) actuarial principles of insurance; for both life and nonlife (i.e. casualty and property) insurance.Section 1 introduces insurance terminology, regarding what an operation must include in order to be an insurance operation (the legal, statistical, financial or economic aspects), and introduces the accounting and regulation frameworks and the two actuarial models of insur...

  7. non-metropolitan stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Capitals gather constellations of bright and creative people, attracting them from the peripheries. Tchekhov’s sisters were anxious to get to Moscow, d’Artagnan – to Paris. Evtushenko, Shukshin and Gaidai ascended to the climax of their glory, having moved to the capital. Vampilov, Rasputin and Astafiev became internationally famous without leaving their home grounds, but having joined in the metropolitan whirl. In this regard, the architectural profession differs greatly from the literary and cinematographic ones. The destinies of the masters who fulfilled themselves far from the capital are different but equally bright and unique. The Irkutsk “Varangians”of the sixtieth – Voronezhsky, Bukh and Pavlov – built up their relations with geography in a different way:someone came from the capitals just for a few years that became the brightest, the most fruitful and the most interesting years of his creative life. But someone stayed in the non-metropolitan city for a long time and even forever. This subsection contains certain examples of self-fulfillment in the cities distant from the capitals: Khabarovsk, Irkutsk, Bratsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kemerovo and Anzhero-Sudzhensk.

  8. Social isolation and loneliness in later life: A parallel convergent mixed-methods case study of older adults and their residential contexts in the Minneapolis metropolitan area, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Jessica M; Kobayashi, Lindsay C

    2018-07-01

    Social isolation and loneliness are increasingly prevalent among older adults in the United States, with implications for morbidity and mortality risk. Little research to date has examined the complex person-place transactions that contribute to social well-being in later life. This study aimed to characterize personal and neighborhood contextual influences on social isolation and loneliness among older adults. Interviews were conducted with independent-dwelling men and women (n = 124; mean age 71 years) in the Minneapolis metropolitan area (USA) from June to October, 2015. A convergent mixed-methods design was applied, whereby quantitative and qualitative approaches were used in parallel to gain simultaneous insights into statistical associations and in-depth individual perspectives. Logistic regression models predicted self-reported social isolation and loneliness, adjusted for age, gender, past occupation, race/ethnicity, living alone, street type, residential location, and residential density. Qualitative thematic analyses of interview transcripts probed individual experiences with social isolation and loneliness. The quantitative results suggested that African American adults, those with a higher socioeconomic status, those who did not live alone, and those who lived closer to the city center were less likely to report feeling socially isolated or lonely. The qualitative results identified and explained variation in outcomes within each of these factors. They provided insight on those who lived alone but did not report feeling lonely, finding that solitude was sought after and enjoyed by a portion of participants. Poor physical and mental health often resulted in reporting social isolation, particularly when coupled with poor weather or low-density neighborhoods. At the same time, poor health sometimes provided opportunities for valued social engagement with caregivers, family, and friends. The combination of group-level risk factors and in-depth personal

  9. Factors Affecting Consumer Purchase Decision on Insurance Product in PT. Prudential Life Assurance Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Esau, Eko Yiswa Rasti

    2015-01-01

    Marketing Mix is the main factor that could affect the whole marketing system. The absence of marketing mix analysis will affecting negatively on a marketing performance. The research aims to analyze the influence of Product, Price, Promotion, People and Process of the Prudential Life Assurance Manado Area on the Consumer Purchase Decision. Data collected through distribution of questionnaires to 100 consumer of Prudential Life Assurance Manado Area. The research used Classic Assumption test ...

  10. 26 CFR 25.2512-6 - Valuation of certain life insurance and annuity contracts; valuation of shares in an open-end...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... annuity. The value of the gift is the cost of the contract. Example (2). An annuitant purchased from a... Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Transfers § 25.2512-6 Valuation of certain life insurance and annuity...

  11. Health insurance basic actuarial models

    CERN Document Server

    Pitacco, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    Health Insurance aims at filling a gap in actuarial literature, attempting to solve the frequent misunderstanding in regards to both the purpose and the contents of health insurance products (and ‘protection products’, more generally) on the one hand, and the relevant actuarial structures on the other. In order to cover the basic principles regarding health insurance techniques, the first few chapters in this book are mainly devoted to the need for health insurance and a description of insurance products in this area (sickness insurance, accident insurance, critical illness covers, income protection, long-term care insurance, health-related benefits as riders to life insurance policies). An introduction to general actuarial and risk-management issues follows. Basic actuarial models are presented for sickness insurance and income protection (i.e. disability annuities). Several numerical examples help the reader understand the main features of pricing and reserving in the health insurance area. A short int...

  12. 76 FR 17166 - TIAA-CREF Life Insurance Company, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... a negative effect on portfolio management or performance. Market Risk. The market value of a... Commodity Return Strategy Portfolio of the Credit Suisse Trust (the ``Substituted Portfolio'') for Class II... transfers permitted per year, although TC LIFE does have in place market timing policies and procedures that...

  13. 76 FR 33003 - TIAA-CREF Life Insurance Company, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... opportunity. Any of these could have a negative effect on portfolio management or performance. Market Risk... Commodity Return Strategy Portfolio of the Credit Suisse Trust (the ``Substituted Portfolio'') for Class II... market timing policies and procedures that may operate to limit transfers. 4. TC LIFE established...

  14. The influence of exercise intervention upon quality of life and activity of daily living in elderly people who use nursing care insurance services

    OpenAIRE

    竹内, 亮

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to confirm the importance of enhancing quality of life (QOL) and activity of daily living (ADL) in elderly people, and to examine methods of exercise intervention for QOL and ADL outcomes in elderly people who use nursing care insurance services. Chapter 2 clarifies the relationship between QOL, ADL, and changes in the level of independence in elderly residents. Higher QOL outcomes (sense of well-being, satisfaction with social support, independence, and beh...

  15. Modeling Metropolitan Detroit transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    "The seven-county Southeast Michigan region, that encompasses the Detroit Metropolitan Area, : ranks fifth in population among top 25 regions in the nation. It also ranks among bottom five in : the transit service provided, measured in miles or hours...

  16. Metropolitan water management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milliken, J. Gordon; Taylor, Graham C

    1981-01-01

    This monograph is intended to inform interested and capable pesons, who happen not to be specialists in water resources planning, of the issues and alternative strategies related to metropolitan water supply...

  17. 26 CFR 1.264-1 - Premiums on life insurance taken out in a trade or business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the policy paid by reason of the death of the insured may be excluded from gross income whether the... to income of an estate or trust in case of divorce, etc.). (See section 101(e).) For further...

  18. CURRENT CHANGES ON INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Giorgiana MANGRA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The offer of insurance products is about the requirements and needs of the consumer who must always have information regarding: the type of insurance risk covered and the excluded risks, the sum insured, the payment of premiums and their duration. The accurate information of customer requires, from the commencement of contract and throughout its duration, that he or she is aware of the obligations throughout the contractual period. Most of the Romanians are turning their attention to one of the insurance companies found in the top 10 in 2016, supervised by F.S.A. (Financial Supervision Authority, preferring to have a policy of mandatory household and goods insurance, auto liability or life insurance, but are also interested in travel health insurance when going abroad, private health insurance or private pension insurance. Romanians' reluctance regarding the conclusion of an insurance comes from their distrust in insurance companies (see the situations of companies like Astra Insurance, Carpatica Insurance etc., their personal financial situation and the fear that they will not receive protection if the risk is covered but the insured sum is insufficient

  19. The impact of community-based health insurance on health-related quality of life and associated factors in Ethiopia: a comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebru, Teklemichael; Lentiro, Kifle

    2018-05-31

    Quality of life can be used to measure the effect of intervention on health related conditions. Health insurance contributes positive effect on availability of medical supplies and empowerment of women and children on financial healthcare. Therefore, the study was aimed to measure the impact of Community-Based Health Insurance on HRQoL and associated socio-demographic factors. A comparative community based cross-sectional study was employed. Data was collected by trained enumerators using World Health Organization QoL-BREF tool from a sample of 1964 (982 CBHI insured and 982 un-insured) household heads selected by probability proportional to size. A descriptive summery, simple and multiple linear regression analysis was applied to describe the functional predictors of HRQoL. The study was ethically approved by IRB of Wolkite University. The HRQoL score among CBHI insured family heads was 63.02 and 58.92 for un-insured family heads. The overall variation in HRQoL was explained due to; separated marital condition which reduced the HRQoL by 4.30% than those living together [ β  = - 0.044, 95% CI (- 5.67, - 0.10)], daily laborer decreased HRQoL by 7.50% [ β  = - 0.078, 95% CI (- 12.91, - 4.10)], but employment increased by 5.65% than farmers [ β  = 0.055, 95% CI (2.58, 17.59)]. QoL increased by 6.4 and 6.93% among primary and secondary level educated household heads than those household heads who could not read and write [ β  = 0.062, 95% CI (0.75, 4.31)] and [ β  = 0.067, 95% CI (1.84, 7.99)], respectively. As family size increased by one households' head, HRQoL decreased by 18.21% [ β  = - 0.201, 95% CI (- 2.55, - 1.63)], as wealth index increased by one unit, HRQoL decreased by 32.90% [ β  = - 0.306, 95% CI (- 5.15, - 3.86)] and QoL among CBHI insured household heads increased by 12.41% than those un-insured family heads [ β  = 0.117, 95% CI (2.98, 6.16)]. The study revealed that significant difference in

  20. Inpatient care expenditure of the elderly with chronic diseases who use public health insurance: Disparity in their last year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandoevwit, Worawan; Phatchana, Phasith

    2018-06-01

    The Thai elderly are eligible for the Civil Servant Medical Benefit Scheme (CS) or Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS) depending on their pre-retirement or their children work status. This study aimed to investigate the disparity in inpatient care expenditures in the last year of life among Thai elderly individuals who used the two public health insurance schemes. Using death registration and inpatient administrative data from 2007 to 2011, our subpopulation group included the elderly with four chronic disease groups: diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, heart disease, and cancer. Among 1,242,150 elderly decedents, about 40% of them had at least one of the four chronic disease conditions and were hospitalized in their last year of life. The results showed that the means of inpatient care expenditures in the last year of life paid by CS and UCS per decedent were 99,672 Thai Baht and 52,472 Thai Baht, respectively. On average, UCS used higher healthcare resources by diagnosis-related group relative weight measure per decedent compared with CS. In all cases, the rates of payment for inpatient treatment per diagnosis-related group adjusted relative weight were higher for CS than UCS. This study found that the disparities in inpatient care expenditures in the last year of life stemmed mainly from the difference in payment rates. To mitigate this disparity, unified payment rates for various types of treatment that reflect costs of hospital care across insurance schemes were recommended. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. THE ROLE OF REINSURANCE IN INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VĂDUVA MARIA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Insurance companies carry out risk spreading through the co-insurance and reinsurance mechanism, consisting of the participation of more companies in the provision of high-value assets. Reinsurance is a form of insurance whereby an insurance organization can transfer to another reinsurer, partly or fully, its payment obligations arising from the insurance contracts that it has concluded. In the reinsurance ratios, the insurance companies appear in a double position - giving other insurance companies some of the risks assumed under direct insurance, being reinsured, but receiving different risks to reinsurance, acquiring the quality of reinsurers. Reinsurance intends to satisfy some multiple needs of the direct insurer and can provide means to counteract the risks associated with the fluctuations in compensation costs, the reinsurer will contribute to the payment of compensations on behalf of the reinsurer. Life insurance has characteristics that influence reinsurance: the average life of the insurance, the insurance is concluded for a fixed amount insured, the capital accumulation. In life reinsurance, almost all reinsurance arrangements are proportional agreements, and the largest share have the "surplus" agreements. Reinsurance plays an important role because it fulfills the following functions: it confers capacity, creates stability, helps to consolidate financial strength. The adjustment of the client portfolio in terms of the changes of reinsurance agreement, required by the reinsurer, can only be done by concluding the insurance contracts. In life insurance, reinsurance contracts contain provisions that meet the need of the insurer to have long-term protection.

  2. Modern problems in insurance mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Martin-Löf, Anders

    2014-01-01

    This book is a compilation of 21 papers presented at the International Cramér Symposium on Insurance Mathematics (ICSIM) held at Stockholm University in June, 2013. The book comprises selected contributions from several large research communities in modern insurance mathematics and its applications. The main topics represented in the book are modern risk theory and its applications, stochastic modelling of insurance business, new mathematical problems in life and non-life insurance, and related topics in applied and financial mathematics. The book is an original and useful source of inspiration and essential reference for a broad spectrum of theoretical and applied researchers, research students and experts from the insurance business. In this way, Modern Problems in Insurance Mathematics will contribute to the development of research and academy–industry co-operation in the area of insurance mathematics and its applications.

  3. Health Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health insurance helps protect you from high medical care costs. It is a contract between you and your ... Many people in the United States get a health insurance policy through their employers. In most cases, the ...

  4. Insurance crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses the effects of financing and technology advances on the availability of insurance for independent power producers operating gas turbines. Combined cycle units which require new materials and processes make it difficult to assess risk. Insurers are denying coverage, or raising prices and deductibles. Many lenders, however, are requiring insurance prior to financing. Some solutions proposed include information sharing by industry participants and insurers and increased risk acceptance by plant owners/operators

  5. Efficient Metropolitan Resource Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Arnott

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years Calgary has doubled in size, from a population of 640,645 in 1985 to 1,230,915 in 2015. During that time the City has had five different mayors, hosted the Winter Olympics, and expanded the C-Train from 25 platforms to 45. Calgary’s Metropolitan Area has grown too, with Airdrie, Chestermere, Okotoks and Cochrane growing into full-fledged cities, ripe with inter-urban commuters.* And with changes to provincial legislation in the mid-’90s, rural Rocky View County and the Municipal District of Foothills are now real competitors for residential, commercial and industrial development that in the past would have been considered urban. In this metropolitan system, where people live, their household structure, and their place of work informs the services they need to conduct their daily lives, and directly impacts the spatial character of the City and the broader region. In sum, Metropolitan Calgary is increasingly complex. Calgary and the broader metropolitan area will continue to grow, even with the current economic slowdown. Frictions within Calgary, between the various municipalities in the metropolitan area, and the priorities of other local authorities (such as the School Boards and Alberta Health Services will continue to impact the agendas of local politicians and their ability to answer to the needs of their residents. How resources – whether it is hard infrastructure, affordable housing, classrooms, or hospital beds – are allocated over space and how these resources are funded, directly impacts these relationships. This technical paper provides my perspective as an urban economist on the efficient allocation of resources within a metropolitan system in general, with reference to Calgary where appropriate, and serves as a companion to the previously released “Reflections on Calgary’s Spatial Structure: An Urban Economists Critique of Municipal Planning in Calgary.” It is hoped that the concepts reviewed

  6. Probabilistic Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Thaler, R.H.; Tversky, A.

    1997-01-01

    Probabilistic insurance is an insurance policy involving a small probability that the consumer will not be reimbursed. Survey data suggest that people dislike probabilistic insurance and demand more than a 20% reduction in premium to compensate for a 1% default risk. These observations cannot be

  7. Probabilistic Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker (Peter); R.H. Thaler (Richard); A. Tversky (Amos)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractProbabilistic insurance is an insurance policy involving a small probability that the consumer will not be reimbursed. Survey data suggest that people dislike probabilistic insurance and demand more than a 20% reduction in the premium to compensate for a 1% default risk. While these

  8. Nuclear energy and insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    It was the risk of contamination of ships from the Pacific atmospheric atomic bomb tests in the 1940's that seems first to have set insurers thinking that a limited amount of cover would be a practical possibility if not a commercially-attractive proposition. One Chapter of this book traces the early, hesitant steps towards the evolution of ''nuclear insurance'', as it is usually called; a term of convenience rather than exactitude because it seems to suggest an entirely new branch of insurance with a status of its own like that of Marine, Life or Motor insurance. Insurance in the field of nuclear energy is more correctly regarded as the application of the usual, well-established forms of cover to unusual kinds of industrial plant, materials and liabilities, characterised by the peculiar dangers of radioactivity which have no parallel among the common hazards of industry and commerce. It had, and still has, the feature that individual insurance underwriters are none too keen to look upon nuclear risks as a potential source of good business and profit. Only by joining together in Syndicates or Pools have the members of the national insurance markets been able to make proper provision for nuclear risks; only by close international collaboration among the national Pools have the insurers of the world been able to assemble adequate capacity - though still, even after thirty years, not sufficient to provide complete coverage for a large nuclear installation. (author)

  9. 26 CFR 1.61-10 - Alimony and separate maintenance payments; annuities; income from life insurance and endowment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... out of the rents or other income of the land, whether or not it is a charge upon the income of the... paid by reason of death of insured, employees' death benefits, see section 101 and the regulations thereunder; (4) Annuities paid by employees' trusts, see section 402 and the regulations thereunder; (5...

  10. Genetics 'risk carriers' and life style 'risk-takers' : which risks deserve our legal protection in insurance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyweghen, van I.; Horstman, K.; Schepers, R.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past years, one of the most contentious topics in policy debates on genetics has been the use of genetic testing in insurance. In the rush to confront concerns about potential abuses of genetic information, most countries throughout Europe and the US have enacted genetics-specific

  11. An Economic Model of Mortality Salience in Personal Financial Decision Making: Applications to Annuities, Life Insurance, Charitable Gifts, Estate Planning, Conspicuous Consumption, and Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell N James III

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of personal mortality salience and the denial of death have a long history in psychology leading to the modern field of Terror Management Theory. However, a simple consumer utility function predicts many of the outcomes identified in experimental research in this field. Further, this economic approach explains a range of otherwise unexpected financial decision-making behaviors in areas as diverse as annuities, life insurance, charitable gifts and bequests, intra-family gifts and bequests, conspicuous consumption, and healthcare. With its relevance to such a wide range of personal financial decisions, understanding the impact of mortality salience can be particularly useful to advisors in related fields.

  12. Determinants of National Health Insurance enrolment in Ghana across the life course: Are the results consistent between surveys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wielen, Nele; Falkingham, Jane; Channon, Andrew Amos

    2018-04-23

    Ghana is currently undergoing a profound demographic transition, with large increases in the number of older adults in the population. Older adults require greater levels of healthcare as illness and disability increase with age. Ghana therefore provides an important and timely case study of policy implementation aimed at improving equal access to healthcare in the context of population ageing. This paper examines the determinants of National Health Insurance (NHIS) enrolment in Ghana, using two different surveys and distinguishing between younger and older adults. Two surveys are used in order to investigate consistency in insurance enrolment. The comparison between age groups is aimed at understanding whether determinants differ for older adults. Previous studies have mainly focused on the enrolment of young and middle aged adults; thus by widening the focus to include older adults and taking into account differences in their demographic and socio-economic characteristics this paper provides a unique contribution to the literature. Using data from the 2007-2008 Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) and the 2012-2013 Ghanaian Living Standards Survey (GLSS) the determinants of NHIS enrolment among younger adults (aged 18-49) and older adults (aged 50 and over) are compared. Logistic regression explores the socio-economic and demographic determinants of NHIS enrolment and multinomial logistic regression investigates the correlates of insurance drop out. Similar results for people aged 18-49 and people aged 50 plus were revealed, with older adults having a slightly lower probability of dropping out of insurance coverage compared to younger adults. Both surveys confirm that education and wealth increase the likelihood of NHIS affiliation. Further, residential differences in insurance coverage are found, with greater NHIS coverage in urban areas. The findings give assurance that both datasets (SAGE and GLSS) are suitable for research on insurance affiliation

  13. Stochastic Cooperative Games in Insurance and Reinsurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Borm, P.E.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper shows how problems in `non life'-insurance and `non life'-reinsurance can be modelled simultaneously as cooperative games with stochastic payoffs.Pareto optimal allocations of the risks faced by the insurers and the insureds are determined.It is shown that the core of the corresponding

  14. Machine learning and statistical techniques : an application to the prediction of insolvency in Spanish non-life insurance companies

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Zuleyka; Segovia, María Jesús; Fernández, José

    2005-01-01

    Prediction of insurance companies insolvency has arisen as an important problem in the field of financial research. Most methods applied in the past to tackle this issue are traditional statistical techniques which use financial ratios as explicative variables. However, these variables often do not satisfy statistical assumptions, which complicates the application of the mentioned methods. In this paper, a comparative study of the performance of two non-parametric machine learning techniques ...

  15. [Preliminary data of life and health insurance in the Roman Law (The collegium funeraticium and the collegium tenuiorum)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váradi, Agnes

    2007-12-30

    With the explosion of insurance contracts in the last two hundred years both in Europe and around the rest of the world, there is a temptation to think that the financing and insuring on projects on limited or non-recourse terms is a relatively novel concept. This is, however, far from being true. Indeed, there is an early evidence of project financing techniques and insurance contracts being actively used during the ancient times. The first examples come from the Roman law but there are similar legal institutions even in the ancient Greek legal system. - The essay analyses the legal history of assurances on lives and health in the Roman law, especially the question of the collegium tenuiorum and the collegium funeraticium. In the centre of the studies are the analyses of their legal personality, the changes in the regulation concerning their foundation, the purpose and the internal organisation. The treatment of the main topics begins with fragments from the material of the Corpus Iuris Civilis by Justinian. After that the views of the most important authors and the contemporary investigations in the Roman law found the statements of the paper. As a result of these analyses we can see the process of development in the ancient legal systems, especially in the Roman law. And although these results have no immediate influence on the present legal regulation, it can demonstrate original tendencies in the field of insurances. This way we can prove that the Roman law is a still existing basis for the development in contractual law.

  16. MPLS for metropolitan area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Nam-Kee

    2004-01-01

    METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS AND MPLSRequirements of Metropolitan Area Network ServicesMetropolitan Area Network OverviewThe Bandwidth DemandThe Metro Service Provider's Business ApproachesThe Emerging Metro Customer Expectations and NeedsSome Prevailing Metro Service OpportunitiesService Aspects and RequirementsRoles of MPLS in Metropolitan Area NetworksMPLS PrimerMPLS ApplicationsTRAFFIC ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKSTraffic Engineering ConceptsNetwork CongestionHyper Aggregation ProblemEasing CongestionNetwork ControlTactical versus Strategic Traffic EngineeringIP/ATM Overl

  17. Nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The yearbook contains among others the figures of the nuclear insurance line. According to these these the DKVG (German nuclear power plant insurance association) has 102 member insurance companies all registered in the Federal Republic of Germany. By using reinsurance capacities of the other pools at present property insurance amounts to 1.5 billion DM and liability insurance to 200 million DM. In 1991 the damage charges on account of DKV amounted to 3.1 (1990 : 4.3) million DM. From these 0.6 million DM are apportioned to payments and 2.5 million DM to reserves. One large damage would cost a maximum gross sum of 2.2 billion DM property and liability insurance; on account of DKVG 750 million DM. (orig./HSCH) [de

  18. Probabilistic insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Wakker, P.P.; Thaler, R.H.; Tversky, A.

    1997-01-01

    textabstractProbabilistic insurance is an insurance policy involving a small probability that the consumer will not be reimbursed. Survey data suggest that people dislike probabilistic insurance and demand more than a 20% reduction in the premium to compensate for a 1% default risk. While these preferences are intuitively appealing they are difficult to reconcile with expected utility theory. Under highly plausible assumptions about the utility function, willingness to pay for probabilistic i...

  19. The Impact of Industrial Structure of Life Insurance and Business Management Strategy on Profitability%寿险业产业结构与企业经营策略对获利能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴稳胜; 张阿兰; 林桢舜; 谢邦昌

    2004-01-01

    Theory of industrial organization told us that Industry structure affect the profitability, it will also affect the enterprise's market strategy and will have indirect effect on profitability through the effect of strategy. This article present an empirical research on Chinese life insurance industry with the structure equation model as a tool, the results told us that the industrial structure has positive effects on enterprise's profitability and market strategy, and market strategy has negative effect on profitability so the industry structure has negative indirect effect on profitability, but the positive effect is more power than the negative effect. This article suggest that Chinese should continue it's opening policy and advance the cooperation in life insurance industry, and the life insurance companies should be enterprising in product innovation and investing strategy.

  20. School Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964

    The importance of insurance in the school budget is the theme of this comprehensive bulletin on the practices and policies for Texas school districts. Also considered is the development of desirable school board policies in purchasing insurance and operating the program. Areas of discussion are: risks to be covered, amount of coverage, values,…

  1. Forest insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis T. Williams

    1949-01-01

    Standing timber is one of the few important kinds of property that are not generally covered by insurance. Studies made by the Forest Service and other agencies have indicated that the risks involved in the insurance of timber are not unduly great, provided they can be properly distributed. Such studies, however, have thus far failed to induce any notable development...

  2. Structural relations of convenience food satisfaction and quality of life according to dietary style: Focusing on singles in metropolitan area of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boram; Joo, Nami

    2014-10-01

    Although the issues of singles' dietary style and quality of life are becoming important due to the increasing number of singles with economic power, little research has been conducted to date on singles' use of convenience food and quality of life in relation to their dietary style. Thus, the present study intends to provide basic data to improve the quality of life by determining the current status of the use of convenience food and explicating its relationship with quality of life through analyzing the dietary lifestyles of the singles. The targets of this study were singles, identified as adults between the ages of 25 and 54, living alone, either legally or in actuality having no partner. A statistical analysis of 208 surveys from Seoul, respectively, was conducted using SPSS12.0 for Windows and SEM using AMOS 5.0 statistics package. The convenience-oriented was shown to have a significant positive effect on convenience food satisfaction. HMR satisfaction was found to have a significant effect on positive psychological satisfaction and the convenience-oriented was found to have a significant negative effect on all aspects of quality of life satisfaction. There must be persistent development of food industries considering the distinctive characteristics of the lives of singles in order to satisfy their needs and improve the quality of their lives.

  3. Regional Variation of Cost of Care in the Last 12 Months of Life in Switzerland: Small-area Analysis Using Insurance Claims Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panczak, Radoslaw; Luta, Xhyljeta; Maessen, Maud; Stuck, Andreas E; Berlin, Claudia; Schmidlin, Kurt; Reich, Oliver; von Wyl, Viktor; Goodman, David C; Egger, Matthias; Zwahlen, Marcel; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M

    2017-02-01

    Health care spending increases sharply at the end of life. Little is known about variation of cost of end of life care between regions and the drivers of such variation. We studied small-area patterns of cost of care in the last year of life in Switzerland. We used mandatory health insurance claims data of individuals who died between 2008 and 2010 to derive cost of care. We used multilevel regression models to estimate differences in costs across 564 regions of place of residence, nested within 71 hospital service areas. We examined to what extent variation was explained by characteristics of individuals and regions, including measures of health care supply. The study population consisted of 113,277 individuals. The mean cost of care during last year of life was 32.5k (thousand) Swiss Francs per person (SD=33.2k). Cost differed substantially between regions after adjustment for patient age, sex, and cause of death. Variance was reduced by 52%-95% when we added individual and regional characteristics, with a strong effect of language region. Measures of supply of care did not show associations with costs. Remaining between and within hospital service area variations were most pronounced for older females and least for younger individuals. In Switzerland, small-area analysis revealed variation of cost of care during the last year of life according to linguistic regions and unexplained regional differences for older women. Cultural factors contribute to the delivery and utilization of health care during the last months of life and should be considered by policy makers.

  4. Insurance against climate change and flood risk: Insurability and decision processes of insurers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hung-Chih; Hung, Jia-Yi

    2016-04-01

    equivalent,' and 'gamble tradeoff' methods were used. We then synthesized a Tobit and an OLS regression analysis to identify and examine the determinants of insurers' decisions on insurability and pricing for flood risk. Furthermore, the data were collected through a questionnaire survey, which was conducted with the assistance from the Non-life Underwriters Society, Taiwan and the Actuarial Institute, Taiwan. After pretesting, questionnaires were mailed to 410 randomly chosen commercial property-and-casualty insurance firms' actuaries and underwriters. The final sample consisted of 179 questionnaires for a 43.8% response rate. 3. Results Results of the questionnaire survey reveal that flood risk tends to be more uninsurable when there is ambiguity regarding the probability of a particular flood event loss. The presence of insurers' risk aversion appears to be robust. Insurers would charge a significantly higher price for a flood insurance policy than normal property insurance. The findings also show that the insurers who perceived higher levels of flood risk, or/and had a company with smaller size or higher financial leverage, would trigger a higher premium for flood insurance. Governmental risk management strategies, such as land-use planning, building codes, flood-hazard zone regulations, also played a prominent role in enhancing insurability and decreasing insurance premium. Therefore, appropriate incentives should be combined with better public risk communication and mitigation strategies to stimulate insurance coverage in reducing flood loss.

  5. INSURANCE INTERMEDIARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Stoican

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The actual Civil code regulates for the first time in the Romanian legislation the intermediation contract, until its entering into force existing multiple situations that lent themselves to this legal operation, but did not benefit of such particular legal rules. Yet, the case law has shown that the situations that arise in the activity of the legal or natural persons are much more complex, this leading, in time, to the reglementation of such particular rules. Such a case is that found in the matter of insurance contracts, the position of the insurance intermediaries being regulated especially by Law no. 32/2000, according to which they represent the natural or legal persons authorized in the conditions of the above mentioned legal document, that perform intermediation activities in the insurance field, in exchange of a remuneration, as well as the intermediaries from the EU member states that perform such an activity on the Romanian territory, in accordance with the freedom in performing services. Therefore, the present paper aims to analyze the conclusion of such insurance contracts and to underline the particular position of the insurance brokers, having the following structure: 1 Introduction; 2 The reglementation of the intermediation contract/brokerage agreement in the Romanian Law; 3 The importance of the intermediaries in the insurance contracts; 4 The conclusion of the insurance contracts; 5 Conclusions.

  6. Insurance dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Lutz, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    Special technical terms used in the world of insurance can hardly be found in general dictionaries. This is a gap which the 'Insurance dictionary' now presented is designed to fill. In view of its supplementary function, the number of terms covered is limited to 1200. To make this dictionary especially convenient for ready reference, only the most commonly used translations are given for each key word in any of the four languages. This dictionary is subdivided into four parts, each containing the translation of the selected terms in the three other languages. To further facilitate the use of the booklet, paper of different colours was used for the printing of the German, English, French and Greek sections. The present volume was developed from a Swedish insurance dictionary (Fickordbok Foersaekring), published in 1967, which - with Swedish as the key language- offers English, French and German translations of the basic insurance terms. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Directions of improving information system of insurance company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaigorodova, G. N.; Mustafina, A. A.; Alyakina, D. P.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents a study of the information technologies impact on the insurance industry development. At present, any business, especially business in the field of financial intermediation, can count on maintaining its positions only as a technology company. For the insurance business it is now especially important. Other segments of the financial market - the stock and credit market - are actively developing and applying IT-technologies. The insurance business at present is getting opportunities for a technological breakthrough. There is a growing demand for traditional insurance products - property insurance, motor insurance, health insurance. There is a rapidly growing demand for life insurance and insurance against cyber risks. To implement insurance protection in new conditions, the insurance company should actively use information systems. The article presents a possible variant of systematization of the insurer's business processes within the information system of the insurance company.

  8. Nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The German Nuclear Power Plant Insurance (DKVG) Association was able to increase its net capacity in property insurance to 637 million marks in 1993 (1992: 589 million). The reinsurance capacity of the other pools included, the total amount covered now amounts to 2 billion marks in property incurance and 200 million marks in liability incurance. As in the year before the pool can reckon with a stable gross premium yield around 175 million marks. The revival of the US dollar has played a decisive role in this development. In 1993 in the domestic market, the DKVG offered policies for 22 types of property risk and 43 types to third-party risk, operating with a gross target premium of 65 million marks and 16 million marks, respectively. The DKVG also participated in 540 foreign insurance contracts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. Inflation Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Zvi Bodie

    1989-01-01

    A contract to insure $1 against inflation is equivalent to a European call option on the consumer price index. When there is no deductible this call option is equivalent to a forward contract on the CPI. Its price is the difference between the prices of a zero coupon real bond and a zero coupon nominal bond, both free of default risk. Provided that the risk-free real rate of interest is positive, the price of such an inflation insurance policy first rises and then falls with time to maturity....

  10. Metropolitan Lima: area profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1986-11-01

    This profile of metropolitan Lima, Peru, covers administrative divisions; population growth; age distribution; ethnicity and religion; housing and households; education and health care; economic activity, income, and consumption; transport and communication; and sources of information. Nearly 30% of Peru's entire population and 42% of its urban population live in Lima. The trend continues, yet Lima's urban primacy is waning due to the growth of some regional centers like Trujillo and Chimbote. Lima is still almost 10 times as large as the country's next ranking cities, Trujillo on the northern coast and Arequipa in the south. Peru's main administrative divisions are the 24 departments, of which the Department of Lima is one. These departments are further divided into 156 provinces. Greater Lima consists of 2 such provinces, the province of Lima and the constitutional province of Callao. Although the population of Lima continues to grow, its rate of growth slowed from about 5.5% during the 1960s to about 3.9% in the 1970s. Current projections estimate a metropolitan population of 6.7 million by 1990. On the whole, Lima's age structure is somewhat older than that of the rest of Peru. The median age of the population is 22.3 years, compared to a national figure of 20.4. The proportion of persons over age 65 is only 3.6%, lower than the national average of 4.1%, due to the tendency of in-migration to concentrate people of intermediate ages in the cities. Almost 400,000 inhabitants of greater Lima are bilingual in Spanish and an indigenous language. As elsewhere in Peru, the dominant religion is Roman Catholicism. Lima is a spread out city with few high rise buildings due to the danger of earthquakes. Only 12% of Lima's households are found in apartment buildings. As in other cities of Latin America, the formal housing market is beyond the reach of a major segment of the population. Consequently, much of the urban settlement has occurred through informal self

  11. Urban food security at the crossroads between metropolitan food planning and global trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wascher, Dirk Michael; Jeurissen, Leonne

    2017-01-01

    Making use of Life Cycle Thinking, the Metropolitan Foodscape Planner (MFP) tool provides ecological footprint maps and supply/demand data showing a large potential for metropolitan food supplies. In the discussion, we examine these results in the light of recent research on the impacts of the

  12. Company Reaserches Regarding Time and Insurance of Shelf-Life of Carcass, Cut Pieces and Chicken Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Viorica Radu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to study the shelf-life of the housing, cut up pieces and chicken organs in a company slaughterhouseduring the summer. The hybrid is Ross 308. Quality samples, taken randomly during the production process fromvarious parts, was studied by means of specific laboratory from microbiological point of view (determination ofSalmonella and E.coli, NTG, organoleptical and physico-chemical (easily hydrolyzable nitrogen and Kreissreaction during the eight days, until they exceeded the admited limits. Temperatures measured in depth of theproducts of the experiment exceeded the upper limit allowed by 3-4 degrees in the carcasse and 8-10 degrees inorgans. In terms of NTG in the liver they started to decrease in the third day of storage,in the gizzard and heart,there is a continuing increase in values during the entire experiment. This, like the gizzard increase in nitrogen value,although values range, may be a consequence of high temperatures packing and refrigeration products very slow.Storage conditions experienced cyclical deviations from the optimum temperature due to icing phenomenon ofevaporators. As a technical solution for evenly temperature during storage, it may be suggested purchasing a backuprefrigerating space. From the organoleptical point of view, all products undergo changes untill the sixth day, whichrecommends the establishment of shelf-life to this day. Microbiological and physico-chemical exceeding limitsoccurs on days seven and eight. The results, in addition to purely commercial usefulness can be considered abarometer of the correct application of technology to slaughter, hygienic production and the storage conditions ofgoods.

  13. Crop insurance: Risks and models of insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of crop protection is very important because of a variety of risks that could cause difficult consequences. One type of risk protection is insurance. The author in the paper states various models of insurance in some EU countries and the systems of subsidizing of insurance premiums by state. The author also gives a picture of crop insurance in the U.S., noting that in this country pays great attention to this matter. As for crop insurance in Serbia, it is not at a high level. The main problem with crop insurance is not only the risks but also the way of protection through insurance. The basic question that arises not only in the EU is the question is who will insure and protect crops. There are three possibilities: insurance companies under state control, insurance companies that are public-private partnerships or private insurance companies on a purely commercial basis.

  14. HOUSING INSURANCE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLOREA IANC MARIA MIRABELA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Last few years have shown that Romania is not protected from the consequences of climate change. It is clear that type flood events may cause social problems and losses is difficult financing from public resources, especially in the context of the existence of budget constraints. The only viable system to cope with such disasters is insurance system that has the ability to spread risks by reinsurance Natural disasters - earthquakes, floods, landslides - are just some of the risks that may threaten your home. And if natural disasters can seem distant danger, think as fires, floods caused by broken pipes or theft of household goods are trouble can happen anytime to anyone. To protect yourself in such unpleasant situations, whose frequency is unfortunately on the rise, it is necessary to be assured. Thus, you will be able to recover losses in the event that they occur. The house is undoubtedly one of the most important assets we own. Therefore, the Romans began to pay increasingly more attention to domestic insurance products. Since 2011, voluntary home insurance, life insurance with, were the most dynamic segments of the market.

  15. HEALTH INSURANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Division HR

    2000-01-01

    Change of name for AUSTRIA As of October 1, the AUSTRIA Assurances S.A. company will change its name to: UNIQA Assurances S.A. It inherits the same name as its parent Austrian company, which adopted it towards the end of 1999. This change has no effect on the contract which binds it to CERN for the administration of our Health Insurance Scheme. New insurance cards will be sent to you by UNIQA and the printed forms and envelopes will gradually be updated with the new name. Postal and phone addresses remain unaffected by the change. You should address your postal mail to: UNIQA Assurances rue des Eaux Vives 94 case postale 6402 1211 Genève 6 You may telephone your usual contact persons at the same numbers as before and send e-mails to the UNIQA office at CERN at: UNIQA.Assurances@cern.ch

  16. Export insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    These notes are intended as a general guide for the use of members of the Canadian Nuclear Association who are, or may become, involved in supplying goods or services or contracting/ erecting as part of a contract to supply a nuclear facility to an overseas country. They give information to the type of insurances needed and available, the parties normally responsible for providing the coverages, the intent and operation of the various policies, general methods of charging premiums, and main exclusions

  17. HEALTH INSURANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The CERN-AUSTRIA Agreement, which implemented CERN's health insurance scheme, expired on 31 December 1999.In accordance with CERN's rules, a call for tenders for the management of the health insurance scheme was issued and the contract was once again awarded to AUSTRIA. In June 1999, the Finance Committee thus authorised the Management to conclude a new contract with AUSTRIA, which came into force on 1st January 2000.Continuity is thus assured on favourable conditions and the transition from one contract to the other will entail no substantial changes in the system for those insured at CERN except for a few minor and purely formal amendmentsWHAT REMAINS UNCHANGEDThe list of benefits, i.e. the 'cover' provided by the system, is not changed;Neither is the reimbursement procedure.AUSTRIA's office at CERN and its opening hours as well as its city headquarters remain the same. The envelopes containing requests for reimbursement have had to be sent (since the end of 1998) to :Rue des Eaux-Vives 94Case postale 64021...

  18. Printing activity of the Metropolitan Gavriil Banulescu Bodoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Fustei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study is dedicated to the printing activity of the Metropolitan Gavriil Bănulescu-Bodoni’s activity. The religious and secular prints made from Chisinau’s Diocesan typography by Metropolitan Gavriil promote the idea of national unity of people from Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania. Due to the new documents from archives, more evidences and „more light” are being spread over the activity of famous hierarch, whose life is linked with the history of culture of three nations – Romanians, Ukrainians and Russians.

  19. Injuries to Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas in British Columbia, Canada: Incidence and trends, 1986-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Brussoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in injury rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations in British Columbia (BC are well established. Information regarding the influence of residence on disparities is scarce. We sought to fill these gaps by examining hospitalization rates for all injuries, unintentional injuries and intentional injuries across 24 years among i Aboriginal and total populations; ii populations living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas; and iii Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve. Methods We used data spanning 1986 through 2010 from BC’s universal health care insurance plan, linked to vital statistics databases. Aboriginal people were identified by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations, and their residence was determined by postal code. “On-reserve” residence was established by postal code areas associated with an Indian reserve or settlement. Health Service Delivery Areas (HSDAs were classified as “metropolitan” if they contained a population of at least 100,000 with a density of 400 or more people per square kilometre. We calculated the crude hospitalization incidence rate and the Standardized Relative Risk (SRR of hospitalization due to injury standardizing by gender, 5-year age group, and HSDA. We assessed cumulative change in SRR over time as the relative change between the first and last years of the observation period. Results Aboriginal metropolitan populations living off-reserve had the lowest SRR of injury (2.0, but this was 2.3 times greater than the general British Columbia metropolitan population (0.86. For intentional injuries, Aboriginal populations living on-reserve in non-metropolitan areas were at 5.9 times greater risk than the total BC population. In general, the largest injury disparities were evident for Aboriginal non-metropolitan populations living on-reserve (SRR 3.0; 2.5 times greater than the general BC non-metropolitan population (1

  20. Metropolitan City: the Italian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Franco Ferrari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that the definitions of territorial organization are no longer adequate, the concept of “metropolitan areas” arises as a solution to resolve such deficit. This study shows the beginnings of this figure in Italy and the problems of identification and delimitation caused by the abstraction of the norms, therefore entailing a difficult implementation of the concept of metropolitan cities. By identifying these obstacles, this paper presents an analysis where it is possible to ensure compliance with this new reality in the near future.

  1. Metropolitan siting: a historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunch, D.F.

    1978-09-01

    The paper discusses the development and implementation of the Reactor Site Criteria and particularly the evolving posture of the agency on the subject of metropolitan siting. The review actions on nine sites are described to illustrate the various issues and positions and to clarify at least some of the bases for current practices of the NRC staff

  2. Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy has been prepared in close cooperation with the four cities of the metropolitan area (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen), the Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority HSY and other municipal, regional and state level organisations. In the strategy, strategic starting points and policies with which the metropolitan area prepares for the consequences of climate change, are compiled. The Helsinki Metropolitan Area adaptation strategy concentrates on the adaptation of the built and urban environment to the changing climate. The vision of the strategy is climate proof city - the future is built now. The strategy aims to (1) assess the impacts of climate change in the area, (2) prepare for the impacts of climate change and to extreme weather events and (3) to reduce the vulnerabilities of the area to climate variability and change. The target is to secure the well-being of the citizens and the functioning of the cities also in the changing climate conditions. The preparation of the adaptation strategy started in 2009 by producing the background studies. They include the regional climate and sea level scenarios, modelling of river floods in climate change conditions and a survey of climate change impacts in the region. Also, existing programmes, legislation, research and studies concerning adaptation were collected. The background studies are published in a report titled 'The Helsinki metropolitan area climate is changing - Adaptation strategy background studies' (in Finnish) (HSY 2010). HSY coordinated the strategy preparation. The work was carried out is close cooperation with the experts of the metropolitan area cities, regional emergency services, Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki Region Transport Authority and other regional organisations. The strategy work has had a steering group that consists of representatives of the cities and other central cooperation partners. The

  3. Smart City, Metropolitan Areas and Competitiveness: the Case Study of Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In several urban contexts, the definition of a new development process is arising and it is focused on the use and the application of new technologies in different areas of the urban system. Such new development process is aimed at increasing life quality and local communities wellness and at promoting the creation of a more efficient and more sustainable urban system, as well as at making it more competitive. The issue of the reorganization of metropolitan areas is combined with such process, following the recent approval of the Delrio Law that establishes the Metropolitan City in Italy, as government authority of the metropolitan areas. Smart City, Metropolitan Areas and Competitiveness are the three topics of this paper, which aim is the description of the most innovative politics and initiatives adopted in the Metropolitan City of Florence that is proposed as a case study where such topics are combined.

  4. Nuclear insurance and third-party liability. An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Nahrul Khair

    1986-04-01

    As for any other insurance policy, nuclear insurance involves two parties, the insurer and the insured. The coverage provided for can be against any misfortune or peril; material or physical losses, financial losses, third party liability or even the insured himself as in the case of life or personal insurance. In property and liability insurance, the element of certainty does not exist. Accidents cannot be predicted, the insured will only be able to financially recover the present worth of the property insured as evaluated at the time of the accident and to the extent of the damage arising from the event insured against, which in most cases will be lower than the full value of the property.

  5. Insurance risk with variable number of policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adan, I.J.B.F.; Kulkarni, V.G.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we consider an insurance company selling life insurance policies. New policies are sold at random points in time, and each policy stays active for an exponential amount of time with rate µ, during which the policyholder pays premiums continuously at rate r. When the policy expires,

  6. Visualization tools for insurance risk processes

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Burnecki; Rafal Weron

    2006-01-01

    This chapter develops on risk processes which, perhaps, are most suitable for computer visualization of all insurance objects. At the same time, risk processes are basic instruments for any non-life actuary – they are vital for calculating the amount of loss that an insurance company may incur.

  7. Basic characteristics of livestock insurance in Serbia: With reference to the some elements of this type of insurance in some non-European and European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The livestock insurance is a part of agricultural insurance. This type of insurance is also part of a non-life insurance. The livestock insurance is undeveloped in Serbia. In general, a very small number of farms (5% of total decided for the conclusion of livestock insurance contracts. This paper analyzes the basic characteristics of this type of insurance, and the authors pay attention to the implementation of this type of insurance in other countries. Special attention is paid to the livestock insurance in Mongolia, India, Mexico and Ireland who are defined livestock insurance programs that have contributed to a greater number of contracts concluded in this field. Also, the authors speaking about livestock insurance in some European countries. Finally, the authors criticize the way in which is regulated livestock insurance in Serbia, by proposing a series of measures that should be implemented by the insurance companies and state.

  8. 38 CFR 8.4 - Deduction of insurance premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Premiums § 8.4 Deduction of insurance premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension. The insured under a National Service life insurance policy which is not lapsed may authorize the monthly deduction of premiums from disability...

  9. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Insured Banks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Summary of Deposits (SOD) is the annual survey of branch office deposits for all FDIC-insured institutions including insured U.S. branches of foreign banks. Data...

  10. Unemployment Insurance Query (UIQ)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Unemployment Insurance Query (UIQ) provides State Unemployment Insurance agencies real-time online access to SSA data. This includes SSN verification and Title...

  11. 26 CFR 1.101-1 - Exclusion from gross income of proceeds of life insurance contracts payable by reason of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the son of A and B. C receives the proceeds of $1,000 upon the death of A. The amount which C can... insurance contracts payable by reason of death. 1.101-1 Section 1.101-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... contracts payable by reason of death. (a)(1) In general. Section 101(a)(1) states the general rule that the...

  12. Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Urban structure influences directly or indirectly the majority of all green house gas (GHG) emissions in cities. The prevailing belief is that dense metropolitan areas produce less carbon emissions on a per capita basis than less dense surrounding rural areas. Consequently, density targets have a major role in low-carbon urban developments. However, based on the results of this study, the connection seems unclear or even nonexistent when comprehensive evaluation is made. In this letter, we propose a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) method for calculating the consumption-based carbon footprints in metropolitan areas, i.e. carbon consumption, with the emphasis on urban structures. The method is input-output-based hybrid LCA, which operates with the existing data from the region. The study is conducted by performing an analysis of the carbon consumption in two metropolitan areas in Finland, including 11 cities. Both areas consist of a dense city core and a less dense surrounding suburban area. The paper will illustrate that the influence of urban density on carbon emissions is insignificant in the selected metropolitan areas. In addition, the utilized consumption-based method links the climate effects of city-level development to the global production of emissions.

  13. Women's Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women's Health Policy Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Published: Oct 31, 2017 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn ... that many women continue to face. Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Employer-Sponsored Insurance: Approximately 57.9 million ...

  14. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  15. Health Insurance Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Health Insurance Basics What's ... thought advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  16. Experiences obtaining insurance after live kidney donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyarsky, B J; Massie, A B; Alejo, J L; Van Arendonk, K J; Wildonger, S; Garonzik-Wang, J M; Montgomery, R A; Deshpande, N A; Muzaale, A D; Segev, D L

    2014-09-01

    The impact of kidney donation on the ability to change or initiate health or life insurance following donation is unknown. To quantify this risk, we surveyed 1046 individuals who donated a kidney at our center between 1970 and 2011. Participants were asked whether they changed or initiated health or life insurance after donation, and if they had any difficulty doing so. Among 395 donors who changed or initiated health insurance after donation, 27 (7%) reported difficulty; among those who reported difficulty, 15 were denied altogether, 12 were charged a higher premium and 8 were told they had a preexisting condition because they were kidney donors. Among 186 donors who changed or initiated life insurance after donation, 46 (25%) reported difficulty; among those who reported difficulty, 23 were denied altogether, 27 were charged a higher premium and 17 were told they had a preexisting condition because they were kidney donors. In this single-center study, a high proportion of kidney donors reported difficulty changing or initiating insurance, particularly life insurance. These practices by insurers create unnecessary burden and stress for those choosing to donate and could negatively impact the likelihood of live kidney donation among those considering donation. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  17. Value Relevance of Embedded Value and IFRS 4 Insurance Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Chung-Fern Wu; Audrey Wen-Hsin Hsu

    2011-01-01

    In light of the recent exodus of foreign insurers from Taiwan and the local insurers’ outcries against the International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) 4 Insurance Contracts, we examine the value relevance of financial statements for life insurance firms, with particular interests to the embedded value (EV) disclosure. We find that the EV of equity has an incremental information role for book value of equity, which indicates that the accounting mismatching problem in the insurance indust...

  18. STRUCTURE AND TRENDS OF THE INSURANCE SECTOR IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA MONEA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the structure of the insurance sector from Romanian economy and the main trends in this sector in last years, based on the most important aspects such as share of foreign capital in this sector, gross written premiums, and indemnity payments, both from life and general insurance, density and penetration degree of the insurance activity, the results registered by the insurance companies

  19. Insurance of nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.

    1976-01-01

    Insurance for large nuclear installations covers mainly four types of risk: third party liability which in accordance with the nuclear conventions, is borne by a nuclear operator following an incident occurring in his installation or during transport of nuclear substances; material damage to the installation itself, which precisely is not covered by third party liability insurance; machinery breakdown, i.e. accidental damage or interruption of operation. Only the first category must be insured. In view of the magnitude of the risk, nuclear insurance resorts to co-insurance and reinsurance techniques which results in a special organisation of the nuclear insurance market, based on national nuclear insurance pools and on the Standing Committee on Atomic Risk of the European Insurance Committee. Conferences of the chairmen of nuclear insurance pools are convened regularly at a worldwide level. (NEA) [fr

  20. Travel Models for Corridors of Metropolitan Areas Served by Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzeziński A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years adverse processes of suburbanization have been observed in cities. It has become a serious challenge for urban and transport planners, as it influences largely the quality of space, the quality of life, and the cost of running the city. This paper is dedicated to travel models in areas serviced by a railway system, and is based on a real-life survey example of the Błonie community, a district belonging to the Warsaw metropolitan area. Research carried out in 2014 focused on combined travels behaviors recorded using GPS locators as well as quantitative research (volumes of users across various transport systems.

  1. Russian Federation Financial Sector Assessment Program : Insurance Core Principles Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Monetary Fund

    2016-01-01

    With about RUB 988bn (USD 26bn) in gross premium written, in 2014, the Russian insurance industry ranked 27th in the world. Non-life insurance premium accounted for 89 percent of GPW while life insurance for only 11 percent. In 2015, the industry also faced with the consequences of the Western economic sanctions which effectively closed access to the high quality Western reinsurance capaci...

  2. Conceptualising the lack of health insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J B

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the lack of health insurance coverage in the US as a public policy issue. It first compares the problem of health insurance coverage to the problem of unemployment to show that in terms of the numbers of individuals affected lack of health insurance is a problem comparable in importance to the problem of unemployment. Secondly, the paper discusses the methodology involved in measuring health insurance coverage, and argues that the current method of estimation of the uninsured underestimates the extent that individuals go without health insurance. Third, the paper briefly introduces Amartya Sen's functioning and capabilities framework to suggest a way of representing the extent to which individuals are uninsured. Fourth, the paper sketches a means of operationalizing the Sen representation of the uninsured in terms of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) measure.

  3. Chinese nuclear insurance and Chinese nuclear insurance pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zhiqi

    2000-01-01

    Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article

  4. Premises for Shaping Metropolitan Areas in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAULARIAN RUSU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The setting up of metropolitan areas is a process which is still in progress in Romania. The legislative framework for the creation of these areas has been built up only since 2001, and there are still a number of juridical inconsistencies concerning the association of administrative units to form metropolitan areas. On the other hand, political reasons and the fear of losing a certain degree of authority and to become subordinates of the large cities (in the case of rural municipalities also hindered the development of metropolitan areas in Romania. Nevertheless, the metropolitan areas already in existence are running a number of projects that are beneficial for most members of the association. Such positive examples may trigger the creation of the other metropolitan areas. Although the existing metropolitan areas did not yield spectacular results, the time passed since their foundation is yet too short to correctly assess their usefulness and territorial meaning. For the moment, the following metropolitan areas exist in Romania: Iaşi, Oradea, Braşov, Constanţa, Bacău, Cluj-Napoca, Târgu Mureş and Craiova. Bucharest, Timişoara, Ploieşti and Galaţi-Brăila metropolitan areas are still in process of setting up.

  5. Disability Income Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Hayhoe, Celia Ray; Smith, Mike, CPF

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of disability income insurance is to partially replace your income if you are unable to work because of sickness or an accident. This guide reviews the types of disability insurance, important terms and concepts and employer provided benefits.

  6. Understanding health insurance plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... plan for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...

  7. Pet insurance--essential option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, J D

    2000-08-01

    As Hawn (2) says, "insurance is about risk and peace of mind." She reports that the American Humane Society supports pet insurance because companion animals are able to be treated for disease or accidents that are life-threatening where, otherwise, they would have been euthanized. For veterinarians, she suggests that pet insurance allows them to practice veterinary medicine "as if it were free." It is inevitable that pet insurance will grow as a recourse for veterinary fees. This may be a savior to some families whose budget is stretched to the limit at a critical moment in the health care of their cherished pet. We in the veterinary profession have an advantage over other professions. We have seen the good, the bad, and the ugly of insurance, as it applies to human health and dental care. If we work hand-in-hand with our own industries, collectively we may be able to develop a system that wins for everyone, with fees that allow practice to thrive and growth strategies that accommodate new treatment and diagnostic modalities, as well as consistent and exemplary customer service. The path ahead is always fraught with bumps and potholes. We can be a passive passenger and become a victim of the times or an active driver to steer the profession to a clearer route. Pet insurance is but one of the solutions for the profession; the others are a careful assessment of our fees--charging what we are worth, not what we think the client will pay; business management; customer service; leadership of our health care team; lifelong learning; and more efficient delivery systems. Let us stop being a victim, stop shooting ourselves in the professional foot, and seize the day!

  8. 24 CFR 266.602 - Mortgage insurance premium: Insured advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium: Insured... Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 266.602 Mortgage insurance premium: Insured.... On each anniversary of the initial closing, the HFA shall pay an interim mortgage insurance premium...

  9. Farmers Insures Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifeld, Lorri

    2012-01-01

    Farmers Insurance claims the No. 2 spot on the Training Top 125 with a forward-thinking training strategy linked to its primary mission: FarmersFuture 2020. It's not surprising an insurance company would have an insurance policy for the future. But Farmers takes that strategy one step further, setting its sights on 2020 with a far-reaching plan to…

  10. HOW AFFECTED WAS WORLD INSURANCE MARKET BY GLOBAL CRISIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA PREDA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Global economic and financial crisis triggered in 2008 had a significant impact with effects in economical life worldwide. Insurance industry wasn't spared but was less affected than other sectors of the world economy. The aim of the present paper is to underline the main crisis effects on global insurance market through a comparative study between different regions from the world, taking into consideration the main indicators which give us an insurance market dimension, such as: gross premium volume, insurance density and insurance penetration.

  11. Individual savings accounts for social insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovenberg, Lans; Hansen, Martin Ino; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2008-01-01

    Using Danish data, we find that about three-fourths of the taxes levied to finance public transfers actually finance benefits that redistribute income over the life cycle of individual taxpayers rather than redistribute resources across people. This finding and similar results for other countries...... provide a rationale for financing part of social insurance via mandatory individual savings accounts. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of mandatory individual savings accounts for social insurance and survey some recent alternative proposals for such accounts...

  12. The Impact of the Macroeconomic Environment on Insurance Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Čepeláková, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    i Abstract: This thesis assesses the impact of economic, institutional and demographic factors on the life and non-life gross written premiums of insurance companies. A dynamic panel data regression using the system generalized method of mo- ments is applied on data of 29 European countries collected by EIOPA covering the period from 2005 to 2013. The results reveal that economic and institutio- nal factors drive both life and non-life insurance industry. On the other hand, we cannot confirm ...

  13. Risks and nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debaets, M.; Springett, G.D.; Luotonen, K.; Virole, J.

    1988-01-01

    When analysing the nuclear insurance market, three elements must be taken into account: the nuclear operator's liability is regulated by national laws and/or international Conventions, such operators pay large premiums to insure their nuclear installations against property damage and finally, the nuclear insurance market is made up of pools and is mainly a monopoly. This report describes the different types of insurance coverage, the system governing nuclear third party liability under the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention and several national laws in that field. The last part of the report deals with liability and insurance aspects of international transport of nuclear materials [fr

  14. Transfers to metropolitan hospitals and coronary angiography for rural Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients with acute ischaemic heart disease in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Derrick; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Woods, John A; Hobbs, Michael S T; Knuiman, Matthew W; Briffa, Tom G; Thompson, Peter L; Thompson, Sandra C

    2014-05-01

    Aboriginal people have a disproportionately higher incidence rate of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) than non-Aboriginal people. The findings on Aboriginal disparity in receiving coronary artery procedures are inconclusive. We describe the profile and transfers of IHD patients admitted to rural hospitals as emergency admissions and investigate determinants of transfers and coronary angiography. Person-linked hospital and mortality records were used to identify 28-day survivors of IHD events commencing at rural hospitals in Western Australia. Outcome measures were receipt of coronary angiography, transfer to a metropolitan hospital, and coronary angiography if transferred to a metropolitan hospital. Compared to non-Aboriginal patients, Aboriginal patients with IHD were more likely to be younger, have more co-morbidities, reside remotely, but less likely to have private insurance. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, Aboriginal people with MI were less likely to be transferred to a metropolitan hospital, and if transferred were less likely to receive coronary angiography. These disparities were not significant after adjusting for comorbidities and private insurance. In the full multivariate model age, comorbidities and private insurance were adversely associated with transfer to a metropolitan hospital and coronary angiography. Disparity in receiving coronary angiography following emergency admission for IHD to rural hospitals is mediated through the lower likelihood of being transferred to metropolitan hospitals where this procedure is performed. The likelihood of a transfer is increased if the patient has private insurance, however, rural Aboriginal people have a lower rate of private insurance than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Health practitioners and policy makers can continue to claim that they treat Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people alike based upon clinical indications, as private insurance is acting as a filter to reduce rural residents

  15. Public Insurance and Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Néron, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Heath (among other political theorists) considers that the principle of efficiency provides a better normative explanation and justification of public insurance than the egalitarian account. According to this view, the fact that the state is involved in the provision of specific insurance (primarily......Public insurance is commonly assimilated with redistributive tools mobilized by the welfare state in the pursuit of an egalitarian ideal. This view contains some truth, since the result of insurance, at a given moment, is the redistribution of resources from the lucky to unlucky. However, Joseph...... surrounding public insurance as a redistributive tool, advancing the idea that public insurance may be a relational egalitarian tool. It then presents a number of relational arguments in favor of the involvement of the state in the provision of specific forms of insurance, arguments that have been overlooked...

  16. Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng

    2013-08-20

    Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes.

  17. Insurance market development: An empirical study of African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athenia Bongani Sibindi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The insurance industry plays a very crucial role in an economy by fostering intermediation and by its mechanism of risk bearing. As such it could be argued that the insurance industry fosters economic growth. In this article we analyse the global insurance market development trends, particularly focusing on Africa. Our sample comprise of the 10 African countries namely—South Africa, Angola, Nigeria, Kenya, Mauritius, Namibia, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco and Egypt. We employ three insurance market development metrics namely; premium volumes, insurance density and insurance penetrations ratios to establish trends in the level of development of global insurance markets. Our results document that the African countries (excluding South Africa have the least developed insurance markets. For most of the countries in our sample, the non-life insurance industry dominates the life-insurance industry. As such, it is imperative that their respective governments put in place measures that will grow their economies inorder to stimulate the development of insurance markets in Africa.

  18. Mammography screening among Arab American women in metropolitan Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kendra; Fakhouri, Monty; Bartoces, Monina; Monsur, Joseph; Younis, Amani

    2008-12-01

    Mammography screening behavior has not been well studied among Middle Eastern immigrant women. We conducted a telephone survey of 365 Arab American women residing in metropolitan Detroit, home to one of the largest populations of Middle Eastern immigrants in the US, to determine prevalence of factors associated with mammography, and attitudes and beliefs regarding mammography screening. Of 365 participants, only five were born in the US. Mean age was 53.2 years (SD 10.8). Two hundred twelve (58.1%) reported having mammogram every 1-2 years; 70% ever had mammogram. Age 50-64 years, having health insurance, married status, being in the US over 10 years, and being Lebanese were associated with mammography every 1-2 years. After adjusting for demographic factors, perceived seriousness of disease, general health motivation, and having fewer barriers were associated with more frequent screening. Appropriate mammography screening is decreased in this group. Targeted outreach regarding screening is appropriate for this population; however, lack of insurance may prevent adequate follow-up.

  19. Investment Strategy and Efficiency of Investment Activity of European Insurers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhabynets Olga Yo.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article studies investment strategy and efficiency of investment activity of European insurance companies. In particular, it analyses the share of investments of insurance companies of Europe in GDP, investment portfolio of European insurers and its structure, contribution of insurance companies – leaders of investment activity – into the European investment portfolio. It studies influence of the financial crisis upon investment strategy of European insurers and analyses efficiency of investment activity of European insurers in risk insurance and life insurance. The article proves that investment business models of insurance companies are capable of resisting crisis phenomena more efficiently than other financial institutions. It marks out that measures of insurance companies that are directed at increase of profitability of investments require from them both significant expenditures on creation of the system of investment risk management and open access to different categories of financial assets and markets, which influences the general risk level, taken upon by an insurance company. The author draws a conclusion that, taking into account recent developments, European insurers should focus on equity and investment risk management, finding new possibilities for their (investments growth and also adaptation of new systems and operations for solution of these important tasks.

  20. Tokyo Metropolitan Earthquake Preparedness Project - A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, H.

    2010-12-01

    recovery, and life recovery. The primary target for long-term recovery, we propose, should be life recovery. To achieve this, economic recovery should be realized to secure sustainable economic growth. As the tool for economic recovery, physical recovery should deals with restoration of infrastructure, a proper land use planning, and the provision of housing for the victims. Fig. 1 The worst case scenario of Tokyo Metropolitan Earthquake

  1. Broadband availability in metropolitan and non-metropolitan Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E. Wood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years having a broadband connection has become essential for many Internet activities. As broadband increases in importance, it becomes imperative to assess how its use and availability may vary, especially in relation to issues such as geographic location. For rural areas in particular, the availability of broadband service is especially important. This research assesses broadband service availability in rural areas of Pennsylvania, USA. In particular, it examines the extent to which Digital Subscriber Line (DSL and broadband cable modem services are being deployed throughout rural Pennsylvania. It compares this deployment with the availability of such services in the state’s urban and metropolitan areas. The results of this research suggest that there is a “digital divide” in terms of broadband availability between rural and urban areas of Pennsylvania. However, this “divide” is perhaps not as wide as might be expected. Thus, as broadband is becoming increasingly available in rural areas of the U.S. and throughout much of the rest of the world, this research concludes that while research must remain vigilant in terms of assessing advanced telecommunications availability in rural areas, future research should also be sure to focus on how such technologies can be used to promote economic and social concerns, including in relation to building online networks and diminishing social and professional isolation in rural areas.

  2. Preferences and design in insurance and pensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Kenneth

    is on the relation between household preferences and the related optimal product design. Optimal decisions of a household are considered in continuous-time stochastic control theory models. Within a standard expected utility framework we investigate the eects of dierences between household members as well as tax......Life insurance and pension decisions are of the more important fnancial settlements to be decided in a household. In this thesis we investigate dfferent aspects of relevance for decision making within a household, especially focusing on life insurance and pension decisions. The focus......-effects. The focus is on the consumption, investment and life insurance demands. In another modeling framework, we modify the utility measurement and propose a combination of forward and backward looking preferences. At last, a model with very explicit preferences for stability in consumption is investigated and we...

  3. Structural relations in the effect of convenience food satisfaction and quality of life according to dietary style: Comparative study of singles in metropolitan area of Korea, Japan and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boram; Joo, Nami

    2014-06-01

    Due to recent changes in social structure, single-person households are on the rise worldwide and therefore the interest in the quality of life of singles is increasing, but the research on the relationships related to their diet-related quality of life is scarce. This research analyzes the structural relations in the effect of convenience food satisfaction and quality of life according to dietary style of Korean, Japanese and Chinese singles. The targets of this study were Korean, Japanese, and Chinese singles, identified as adults between the ages of 25 and 54, having economic capabilities or working and living alone, either legally or in actuality having no partner. A statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS12.0 for Windows and SEM using AMOS 5.0 statistics package. The reliability of these findings was supported by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.6 and higher for all the factors. In an attempt to study the level of satisfaction with convenience food in accordance to dietary style and the quality of life of singles, a structural equation model was constructed and analyzed. Of the three countries, regarding the effect of dietary style on singles' quality of life, the convenience-oriented style was found to have a negative effect on Korean singles' overall quality of life, but a positive effect on Japanese singles' overall quality of life, and a negative effect on Chinese singles' positive psychological aspect of quality of life. In addition, although Chinese singles have a high level of interest in health, they have an overall high level of satisfaction regarding fast food and its nutritional value. The number of singles in Korea, Japan, and China has been consistently increasing in recent years, and there is a need for continuous interest in their healthy dietary lifestyles in terms of convenience, economy, and taste.

  4. Structural relations in the effect of convenience food satisfaction and quality of life according to dietary style: Comparative study of singles in metropolitan area of Korea, Japan and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boram

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Due to recent changes in social structure, single-person households are on the rise worldwide and therefore the interest in the quality of life of singles is increasing, but the research on the relationships related to their diet-related quality of life is scarce. This research analyzes the structural relations in the effect of convenience food satisfaction and quality of life according to dietary style of Korean, Japanese and Chinese singles. SUBJECTS/METHODS The targets of this study were Korean, Japanese, and Chinese singles, identified as adults between the ages of 25 and 54, having economic capabilities or working and living alone, either legally or in actuality having no partner. A statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS12.0 for Windows and SEM using AMOS 5.0 statistics package. The reliability of these findings was supported by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.6 and higher for all the factors. In an attempt to study the level of satisfaction with convenience food in accordance to dietary style and the quality of life of singles, a structural equation model was constructed and analyzed. RESULTS Of the three countries, regarding the effect of dietary style on singles' quality of life, the convenience-oriented style was found to have a negative effect on Korean singles' overall quality of life, but a positive effect on Japanese singles' overall quality of life, and a negative effect on Chinese singles' positive psychological aspect of quality of life. In addition, although Chinese singles have a high level of interest in health, they have an overall high level of satisfaction regarding fast food and its nutritional value. CONCLUSIONS The number of singles in Korea, Japan, and China has been consistently increasing in recent years, and there is a need for continuous interest in their healthy dietary lifestyles in terms of convenience, economy, and taste. PMID:24944777

  5. Nuclear insurance fire risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, E.G.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear facilities operate under the constant risk that radioactive materials could be accidentally released off-site and cause injuries to people or damages to the property of others. Management of this nuclear risk, therefore, is very important to nuclear operators, financial stakeholders and the general public. Operators of these facilities normally retain a portion of this risk and transfer the remainder to others through an insurance mechanism. Since the nuclear loss exposure could be very high, insurers usually assess their risk first-hand by sending insurance engineers to conduct a nuclear insurance inspection. Because a serious fire can greatly increase the probability of an off-site release of radiation, fire safety should be included in the nuclear insurance inspection. This paper reviews essential elements of a facility's fire safety program as a key factor in underwriting nuclear third-party liability insurance. (author)

  6. Metropolitan Optical Networks 1995 Annual Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin; Jouanno, Jean-Marc; Malone, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    The annual report describes the research carried out in the ACTS-project METON (Metropolitan Optical Networks) in 1995. L.M. Ericsson is prime contractor and 12 partners including DTU is involved in the project.......The annual report describes the research carried out in the ACTS-project METON (Metropolitan Optical Networks) in 1995. L.M. Ericsson is prime contractor and 12 partners including DTU is involved in the project....

  7. Metropolitan Optical Networks 1996 Annual Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin; Jouanno, Jean-Marc; Malone, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    The report desribes the reasearch carried out in the ACTS-project METON (Metropolitan Optical Networks) in 1996. L.M. Ericsson is prime contractor and 12 partners are involved in the project including DTU, i.e. EMI and MIC.......The report desribes the reasearch carried out in the ACTS-project METON (Metropolitan Optical Networks) in 1996. L.M. Ericsson is prime contractor and 12 partners are involved in the project including DTU, i.e. EMI and MIC....

  8. Insurance-growth nexus in Ghana: An autoregressive distributed lag bounds cointegration approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latif Alhassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the long-run causal relationship between insurance penetration and economic growth in Ghana from 1990 to 2010. Using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL bounds approach to cointegration by Pesaran et al. (1996, 2001, the study finds a long-run positive relationship between insurance penetration and economic growth which implies that funds mobilized from insurance business have a long run impact on economic growth. A unidirectional causality was found to run from aggregate insurance penetration, life and non-life insurance penetration to economic growth to support the ‘supply-leading’ hypothesis. The findings have implications for insurance market development in Ghana.

  9. Nonlife Insurance Pricing:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darooneh, Amir H.

    We consider the insurance company as a physical system which is immersed in its environment (the financial market). The insurer company interacts with the market by exchanging the money through the payments for loss claims and receiving the premium. Here, in the equilibrium state, we obtain the premium by using the canonical ensemble theory, and compare it with the Esscher principle, the well-known formula in actuary for premium calculation. We simulate the case of car insurance for quantitative comparison.

  10. Attitudes towards insurance: the role of propensity to hold liquid asset

    OpenAIRE

    Antonino Iero; Giorgio Tassinari

    2011-01-01

    There’s a lack of research on the relationship between families’ attitudes toward insurance and their financial behavior. The Italian insurance market appears weak with regard to non life and non motor insurance: Italy ranks only 18th in Europe in terms of the ratio between non life and non motor premiums and GDP. The propensity to subscribe to an insurance contract appears largely to depend on geographical area, qualification and job activity. Regardless of their wealth, families subscribing...

  11. Catastrophic risks and insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deprimoz, J.

    1988-01-01

    This short communication deals with compensation for nuclear damage and compensation for environmental pollution through industrial activities and compress both systems and their insurance coverage [fr

  12. Prescriptions and Insurance Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Healthcare Management, Insurance & Bills, Your Health ResourcesTags: brand name, co-pay, drug, formulary, generic, isurance, medicine, ...

  13. Uninsured vs. insured population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Z. J.; Lin, Chyongchiou J; Chang, Chung-Chou H

    2003-01-01

    analyzed. Approximately 74 percent of uninsured Americans are nonelderly Americans. Among the nonelderly Americans, about 17 percent are uninsured. Our findings show that insurance status varies significantly by region, age, race, gender, marital status, income, education, employment status, and health......This study identified the underlying demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with insurance status among nonelderly Americans (age 19-64), as well as compared health care utilization between insured and uninsured. Data from the Community Tracking Study 1996-1997 Household Survey were...... status. Also, the insured nonelderly Americans were found to have better access to health care than the uninsured nonelderly....

  14. IoT enabled Insurance Ecosystem - Possibilities Challenges and Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Manral, Jai

    2015-01-01

    Internet of Thing (IoT) is looking over to overhaul the business processes of many industries including insurance domain. The current line of business such as Property and Casualty, Health, and Life Insurance can avail tremendous benefits from the contextual and relevant data being generated from billions of connected devices; Smartphone's, wearable gadget and other electronic smart sensors. For P&C insurer's the biggest challenges is not the rapidly changing environment but tackling these ch...

  15. The insurance of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, H.W.

    1977-01-01

    A brief account is given of the development of nuclear insurance. The subject is dealt with under the following headings: the need for nuclear insurance, nuclear insurance pools, international co-operation, nuclear installations which may be insured, international conventions relating to the liability of operators of nuclear installations, classes of nuclear insurance, nuclear reactor hazards and their assessment, future developments. (U.K.)

  16. China's Insurance Regulatory Reform, Corporate Governance Behavior and Insurers' Governance Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huicong; Zhang, Hongliang; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Qiu, Aichao

    2017-10-17

    External regulation is an important mechanism to improve corporate behavior in emerging markets. China's insurance governance regulation, which began to supervise and guide insurance corporate governance behavior in 2006, has experienced a complex process of reform. This study tested our hypotheses with a sample of 85 firms during 2010-2011, which was obtained by providing a questionnaire to all of China's shareholding insurance companies. The empirical study results generally show that China's insurance governance effectiveness has significantly improved through strict regulation. Insurance corporate governance can improve business acumen and risk-control ability, but no significant evidence was found to prove its influence on profitability, as a result of focusing less attention on governance than on management. State ownership is associated with higher corporate governance effectiveness than non-state ownership. Listed companies tend to outperform non-listed firms, and life insurance corporate governance is more effective than that of property insurers. This study not only contributes to the comprehensive understanding of corporate governance effectiveness but also to the literature by highlighting the effect of corporate governance regulation in China's insurance industry and other emerging economies of the financial sector.

  17. Earthquake Risk Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Kasahara, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Nanjo, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Tsuruoka, H.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic disaster risk mitigation in urban areas constitutes a challenge through collaboration of scientific, engineering, and social-science fields. Examples of collaborative efforts include research on detailed plate structure with identification of all significant faults, developing dense seismic networks; strong ground motion prediction, which uses information on near-surface seismic site effects and fault models; earthquake resistant and proof structures; and cross-discipline infrastructure for effective risk mitigation just after catastrophic events. Risk mitigation strategy for the next greater earthquake caused by the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducting beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area is of major concern because it caused past mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (magnitude M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that the M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. This earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70% in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. In order to mitigate disaster for greater Tokyo, the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (2007-2011) was launched in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions. The results that are obtained in the respective fields will be integrated until project termination to improve information on the strategy assessment for seismic risk mitigation in the Tokyo metropolitan area. In this talk, we give an outline of our project as an example of collaborative research on earthquake risk mitigation. Discussion is extended to our effort in progress and

  18. Insuring against Health Shocks: Health Insurance and Household Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Kai

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the role of public health insurance in mitigating adverse outcomes associated with health shocks. Exploiting the rollout of a universal health insurance program in rural China, I find that total household income and consumption are fully insured against health shocks even without access to health insurance. Household labor supply is an important insurance mechanism against health shocks. Access to health insurance helps households to maintain investme...

  19. Social health insurance

    CERN Document Server

    International Labour Office. Geneva

    1997-01-01

    This manual provides an overview of social health insurance schemes and looks at the development of health care policies and feasibility issues. It also examines the design of health insurance schemes, health care benefits, financing and costs and considers the operational and strategic information requirements.

  20. Insurance industry guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This is an insurance industry guide for the independent power industry. The directory includes the insurance company's name, address, telephone and FAX numbers and a description of the company's area of expertise, products and services, and limitations. The directory is international in scope. Some of the companies specialize in independent power projects

  1. Risk Pricing and Profit Maximization of Insurance Companies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research investigates the impact of pricing of risk on the profitability of Nigeria insurance market and also the relationship between operation expenses and profitability of the non-life insurance market in Nigeria. Results show that economy, competition and government regulation have effect on pricing of risk. Also, it was ...

  2. 1 The Mauritian Insurance Industry in the next Decade: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-11

    May 11, 2015 ... The insurance business is at a critical stage in Mauritius. There has been consistent ... advantage with customers who are more concerned with convenience than price. ..... 2.5.1 Recognize and react to disruptive realities. Two of the ... whether life policies or other sustainable models are needed, insurance.

  3. Unemployment Insurance and Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    This paper examines the impact of higher unemployment insurance on the fraction of the work force paying into an unemployment insurance fond, wage differences and therefore inquality and education letting worker initial wealth being important for the decisions and implied values. As usually higher...... educated workers receive a lower fraction of their wages as unemployment insurance, we consider how the impact on labour market performance and wage differences and thereby inequality differ dependent on whether educated or uneducated workers receive higher benefits. The model can help shed light...... on the the puzzle why only some workers, for given educational level, pay into an unemployment insurance fond, the lower wealth mobility than income mobility as well as the relative compressed wage structure in countries with generous social assistance as well as unemployment insurance for low income workers...

  4. Health insurance for "frontaliers"

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The French government has decided that, with effect from 1 June 2014, persons resident in France but working in Switzerland (hereinafter referred to as “frontaliers”) will no longer be entitled to opt for private French health insurance provision as their sole and principal health insurance.   The right of choice, which was granted by the Bilateral Agreement on the Free Movement of Persons between Switzerland and the European Union and which came into force on 1 June 2002, exempts “frontaliers” from the obligation to become a member of Switzerland’s compulsory health insurance scheme (LAMal) if they can prove that they have equivalent coverage in France, provided by either the French social security system (CMU) or a private French insurance provider. As the latter option of private health insurance as an alternative to membership of LAMal will be revoked under the new French legislation that will come into force on 1 June 2014, current “...

  5. Terrorism Risk Insurance: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webel, Baird

    2005-01-01

    .... Addressing this problem, Congress enacted the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (TRIA) to create a temporary program to share future insured terrorism losses with the property-casualty insurance industry and policyholders...

  6. Risk Management in Insurance Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xufeng

    2006-01-01

    Insurance is the uncertain business in uncertain society. Today, insures face more complex and difficult risks. Efficient risk management mechanisms are essential for the insurers. The paper is set out initially to explore UK insurance companies risk management and risk disclosure by examining companies annual report after all the listed insurance companies are required to disclose risk information in their annual report, which seeks to reflect the recent development in UK insurance companies...

  7. Willingness to Use Health Insurance at a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic: A Survey of Patients at 21 US Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, William S; Cramer, Ryan; Tao, Guoyu; Leichliter, Jami S; Gift, Thomas L; Hoover, Karen W

    2016-08-01

    To survey patients of publicly funded sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics across the United States about their willingness to use health insurance for their visit. In 2013, we identified STD clinics in 21 US metropolitan statistical areas with the highest rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance reports. Patients attending the identified STD clinics completed a total of 4364 surveys (response rate = 86.6%). Nearly half of the insured patients were willing to use their health insurance. Patients covered by government insurance were more likely to be willing to use their health insurance compared with those covered by private insurance (odds ratio [OR] =  3.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.79, 4.65), and patients covered by their parents' insurance were less likely to be willing to use their insurance compared with those covered by private insurance (OR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.52, 1.00). Reasons for unwillingness to use insurance were privacy and out-of-pocket cost. Before full implementation of the Affordable Care Act, privacy and cost were barriers to using health insurance for STD services. Barriers to using health insurance for STD services could be reduced through addressing issues of stigma associated with STD care and considering alternative payment sources for STD services.

  8. Social Insurance in Romania - Concern for Governors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Panaitescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: the comparative research of the public and private insurance systems is important as itprovides financial benefits to the individuals who have lost their income due to their old age, along with theirdecreased labour ability caused by disabilities, disease, motherhood, work related accidents orunemployment, and the resulting benefits are conditioned by the due contributions; Prior Work: this workcontinues previous research conducted for the PhD thesis called “Improving Management in the Public andPrivate Insurance Systems in the Market Economy”; Approach: the main methods that have been used insurveys and observation of the population’s behaviour; Results: in order to reduce the financial restraints thatthe public insurance system has to cope with, the concrete implementation of a social insurance system basedon the needs and value scales of the Romanian state is necessary; Implications: academics and researchersinterested in the Romanian social insurance system management and its long run effects on the population;Value: the insurance systems determins the quality of life for most of the population and strongly influencethe economy, especially the labour market and the capital market. This is why social security is a commonchallenge for all European countries.

  9. Epitaphios of Jovan, the Metropolitan of Skopje, in the treasury of the Hilandar monastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Janko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The epitaphios of Jovan, the Metropolitan of Skopje, was created between 1346 and 1348. It is unique for its beauty and iconographic program and, at the same time, it is the oldest of the epitaphia preserved in our country. The epitaphios was worn in the course of Holy Liturgy, during the Great Entrance in the cathedral churches and the major monasteries. Metropolitan Jovan presented the epitaphios as a gift to Christ 'my life-giver.' Depicted on its central field is the Epitaphios Threnos (Lamentation at the Tomb. Added around it, at a later time it seems, are bands representing the fourteen scenes of Great Feasts and the officiating Church Fathers, in embroidery. Holy Liturgy is served by the greatest fathers and teachers of the Church and Metropolitan Jovan.

  10. Intra-metropolitan inequalities in Rio de Janeiro and the Guanabara Bay cleaning programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo; Silva, Victor

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the impacts of the Guanabara Bay Cleaning Programme (GBCP) on the Rio de Janeiro urban development process. Based on the magnitude of the budget of the programme (HOW MUCH?) and its relevance to the improvement of the life quality of urban dwellers, the main discussion...... of this paper focuses on the role of GBCP in the context of the Rio de Janeiro urban trends and intra-metropolitan inequality dynamics. In studying the impact of the GBCP, we present: (a) a description of the GBCP intervention process and its goals, (b) a spatial analysis of the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area...... the role of the GBCP implementation in the spatial distribution of these patterns throughout these 10 years. The conclusion builds on an analysis of the GBCP role in the current urban development process of the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area, identifying its influences on the dynamics of intra...

  11. Metropolitan planning from an international comparative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel; Grønning, Marius

    2016-01-01

    policies, and thus also to the instrumental orientation within planning. A challenge stemming from this comparison is to understand how similar policies are implemented at a strategic and metropolitan level. Within the institutional framework of Copenhagen, the problem with the Finger Plan directive might...... (Faludi & van der Valk, 1994), thus integrating the archetypal land-use character of municipal plans and the strategic and growth-oriented pursuit of regional plans. A number of questions may be deduced: How explicit is the metropolitan scale? How local and how regional is the knowledge basis? Within......Over the last few years new practices of spatial strategy making at different planning scales have emerged. At the metropolitan level, such spatial strategies are reminiscent of national and supranational competitive strategies (e.g. EU policies) as well as ratifications of international...

  12. Insurability of Terrorism Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbruecker, D.

    2006-01-01

    Until 2001 losses caused by terrorist attacks have been covered under fire policies worldwide with two exceptions: Spain and UK where major and multiple losses caused by ETA and IRA had led to specific insurance solutions. The September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Centre have changed the world in many aspects. This includes the insurance industry, which was compelled to exclude terrorism from coverage and to offer special solutions for extra premium. Nuclear power plants have been repeatedly called targets for terrorists as their destruction could cause a large catastrophe and more victims than the September 2001 attacks. How does the insurance industry respond? (author)

  13. Insuring against health shocks: Health insurance and household choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the role of public health insurance in mitigating adverse outcomes associated with health shocks. Exploiting the rollout of a universal health insurance program in rural China, I find that total household income and consumption are fully insured against health shocks even without access to health insurance. Household labor supply is an important insurance mechanism against health shocks. Access to health insurance helps households to maintain investment in children's human capital during negative health shocks, which suggests that one benefit of health insurance could arise from reducing the use of costly smoothing mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 45 CFR 618.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 618....440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 618.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient...

  15. 40 CFR 5.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 5.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance...

  16. 38 CFR 23.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Prohibited § 23.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 23.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance...

  17. 36 CFR 1211.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits... Activities Prohibited § 1211.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 1211.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its...

  18. 10 CFR 5.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 5.440 Section... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 5.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or...

  19. 18 CFR 1317.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 1317.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 1317.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and insurance...

  20. 34 CFR 106.39 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 106.39... Prohibited § 106.39 Health and insurance benefits and services. In providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not...

  1. 44 CFR 19.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 19.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or...

  2. 41 CFR 101-4.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health and insurance... insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 101-4.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not...

  3. 24 CFR 3.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... Activities Prohibited § 3.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 3.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its...

  4. 49 CFR 25.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 25.440... Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 25.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit...

  5. 10 CFR 1042.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 1042.440... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 1042.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service...

  6. 32 CFR 196.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 196... Activities Prohibited § 196.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 196.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its...

  7. 29 CFR 36.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health and insurance benefits and services. 36.440 Section... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 36.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 36.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or...

  8. 13 CFR 113.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and....440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 113.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient...

  9. 45 CFR 86.39 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 86.39... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.39 Health and insurance benefits and services. In providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service...

  10. 45 CFR 2555.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 2555... Activities Prohibited § 2555.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 2555.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its...

  11. 7 CFR 15a.39 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 15a.39... Programs and Activities Prohibited § 15a.39 Health and insurance benefits and services. In providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a...

  12. Evaluation of the harmonization process of the Czech insurance market with the single insurance market of the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktória Čejková

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available For the Czech insurance industry, it has been 13 years since the passage of the Insurance Act in 1991, which did away with the monopoly and allowed competition in this business sector. In our evaluation, we can state that the positives outweigh the negatives. A relatively high pace of growth in total premiums written was achieved and the ratio of premiums written to GDP increased, up to 4,0% in 2002. In comparison with EU countries, the Czech insurance market is behind in 2 global indicators: the ratio of premiums written to GDP and the share of life insurance in total premiums written. The Czech insurance market must count on greater competition from foreign insurance companies, as the Czech Republic was May 1, 2004, accepted as a member of the European Union.

  13. Transport Nuclear Liability Insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folens, M.

    2006-01-01

    Although transport of nuclear substances represents only a very small part of the global transport of dangerous goods, it takes place every day all over the world and it is part of our daily life. Transport of nuclear material takes also place at every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle; radioactive materials are carried out all over the world by all major modes of transport: sea, air, road and rail. Despite the large number of nuclear transports, they are not considered as posing a serious risk. A major nuclear incident is almost always associated with the operating of fixed installations such as nuclear power plants; just think about Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. This perception is strengthened by the absence so far of serious accidents in the nuclear transport sector and this finding is in fact proof of the very safe conditions of nuclear transport. But accidents can never be excluded entirely and in some cases damages could be as large as those caused by fixed installations. This means that protection of the interests of possible victims should also be covered in a correct way. That is why the special nuclear liability regime has also been developed to cover damage caused by a nuclear transport accident. As stated by Patrick Reyners, the prime motivation for originally adopting a special nuclear regime was the harmonisation of national legislation and that nowhere more than in the field of international transport operations is such harmonisation felt desirable . The international legal regime has been developed along two tracks, one based on the mode of transport and the other based on the notion of dangerous goods. The linkage between those two tracks is of permanent concern and the mode of transport is the key element to determine which international instrument should be applicable. The purpose of this paper is to briefly introduce the financial security provided by the insurance industry to cover the international nuclear liability regime for nuclear

  14. Vaccines as Epidemic Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Mark V

    2017-10-27

    This paper explores the relationship between the research for and development of vaccines against global pandemics and insurance. It shows that development in advance of pandemics of a portfolio of effective and government-approved vaccines does have some insurance properties: it requires incurring costs that are certain (the costs of discovering, developing, and testing vaccines) in return for protection against large losses (if a pandemic treatable with one of the vaccines occurs) but also with the possibility of no benefit (from a vaccine against a disease that never reaches the pandemic stage). It then argues that insurance against the latter event might usefully be offered to organizations developing vaccines, and explores the benefits of insurance payments to or on behalf of countries who suffer from unpredictable pandemics. These ideas are then related to recent government, industry, and philanthropic efforts to develop better policies to make vaccines against pandemics available on a timely basis.

  15. Vaccines as Epidemic Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark V. Pauly

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between the research for and development of vaccines against global pandemics and insurance. It shows that development in advance of pandemics of a portfolio of effective and government-approved vaccines does have some insurance properties: it requires incurring costs that are certain (the costs of discovering, developing, and testing vaccines in return for protection against large losses (if a pandemic treatable with one of the vaccines occurs but also with the possibility of no benefit (from a vaccine against a disease that never reaches the pandemic stage. It then argues that insurance against the latter event might usefully be offered to organizations developing vaccines, and explores the benefits of insurance payments to or on behalf of countries who suffer from unpredictable pandemics. These ideas are then related to recent government, industry, and philanthropic efforts to develop better policies to make vaccines against pandemics available on a timely basis.

  16. M. Nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear insurance and some of the features associated with it, such as the International Conventions and the operation of Atomic Risk Pools, are discussed both in general and with specific reference to the USA, Canada and the United Kingdom

  17. Building and Contents Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, William C.

    Insurance coverage of school buildings and contents is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain, and increases of 50 percent or more in the premium are not uncommon. Methods of reducing premium increases are outlined in this speech. (MLF)

  18. HUD Insured Hospitals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Office of Healthcare Programs (OHP), previously known as the Office of Insured Health Care Facilities, is located within the Office of Housing and administers...

  19. Deductibles in health insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriyadis, I.; Öney, Ü. N.

    2009-11-01

    This study is an extension to a simulation study that has been developed to determine ruin probabilities in health insurance. The study concentrates on inpatient and outpatient benefits for customers of varying age bands. Loss distributions are modelled through the Allianz tool pack for different classes of insureds. Premiums at different levels of deductibles are derived in the simulation and ruin probabilities are computed assuming a linear loading on the premium. The increase in the probability of ruin at high levels of the deductible clearly shows the insufficiency of proportional loading in deductible premiums. The PH-transform pricing rule developed by Wang is analyzed as an alternative pricing rule. A simple case, where an insured is assumed to be an exponential utility decision maker while the insurer's pricing rule is a PH-transform is also treated.

  20. Asset Liability Management in Insurance Company

    OpenAIRE

    Giandomenico, Rossano

    2006-01-01

    The model, by using the option theory, determines the fair value of the insurance life policies with different time of maturity and shows that the effective liabilities duration of an Insurance Company exposed to the default risk is different from the duration of a default free zero coupon bond with the same time of maturity. Furthermore, it shows that the value of equity can be immunized in a dynamic way with respect to the movement of the spot rate by selling and purchasing the default fre...

  1. Prevention in insurance markets

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Cécile FAGART; Bidénam KAMBIA-CHOPIN

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers a competitive insurance market under moral hazard and adverse selection, in which preventive efforts and self-protection costs are unobservable by insurance companies. Under reasonable assumptions, the conclusions of Rothschild and Stiglitz (1976) are preserved in our context even if it involves moral hazard. The riskier agents in equilibrium, who would also be the riskier agents under perfect information, receive their moral hazard contract. For other agents, adverse sel...

  2. Consumer in insurance law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čorkalo Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the notion of consumer in the European Union law, and, in particular, the notion of consumer in insurance law. The author highligts the differences between the notion of consumer is in aquis communautaire and in insurance law, discussing whether the consumer can be defined in both field in the same way, concerning that insurance services differ a lot from other kind of services. Having regarded unequal position of contracting parties and information and technical disadvantages of a weaker party, author pleads for broad definition of consumer in insurance law. In Serbian law, the consumer is not defined in consistent way. That applies on Serbian insurance law as well. Therefore, the necessity of precise and broad definition of consumes is underlined, in order to delimit the circle of subject who are in need for protection. The author holds that the issue of determination of the circle of persons entitled to extended protection as consumers is of vital importance for further development of insurance market in Serbia.

  3. The Audiometric Findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klas, Regina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hearing loss can compromise the language, learning process, and socialization of students. Objective Study the audiometric findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area students. Methods Analysis of data collected at the hearing health service of Paraná State special education and inclusion department. Results The sample consisted of 646 students, children and teenagers of both genders (38.2% female and 61.8% male, with average age of 8.12 years (range 2 to 15; all were students of public or private schools of Curitiba and Metropolitan Area. The justifications to refer the students to audiometric evaluation were: otolaryngologists diagnosis (73.1%, school difficulties (39.6%, and midlevel hearing problems (32%. Audiometric results showed that 29.5% of the students had hearing loss. Conductive hearing losses showed the greatest occurrence among preschool students (right ear 38.6%, left ear 39.8%. The predominant hearing loss degree was mild (RE 20.5%, LE 19.3% to slight (RE 17%, LE 19.3%, as was the horizontal configuration (RE 81.5%, LE 78.4%. A significant relationship (p = 0.0000 between hearing loss and poor school performance was noted. Conclusion Considering the available data, especially the high number of findings of conductive losses, it is necessary to highlight prevention and diagnosis of early hearing alteration. Nevertheless, Brazil, as an emerging country, has been pursuing improvement in health and life quality of all citizens.

  4. Changing Housing Patterns in Metropolitan Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, George; Grier, Eunice

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, summarizes extensive studies of changing minority residential patterns in metropolitan Washington and less extensive studies of other groups; the prospects for future desegregation and for using the growing economic potential of minority families…

  5. Engaging with sustainability issues in metropolitan Chennai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, L.; Varrel, A.; Denis, E.; Dupont, V.; Dhanalakshmi, R.; Roumeau, S.; Baud, I.; Pfeffer, K.; Sridharan, N.; Vijayabaskar, M.; Suresh Babu, M.; Seifelislam, A.; Rouanet, H.; Saharan, T.

    2014-01-01

    Chennai is the largest metropolitan city in South India (8.7 million in 2011) and the provincial capital of the large state of Tamil Nadu (population 72 million in 2011). Before that, under British rule, the city was the capital of the Madras Presidency, and was known as Madras until 1996, when the

  6. Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges. Audit Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Office of the State Auditor, Jefferson City.

    This audit report reviews the employment contracts, related compensation, and other benefits provided for the chancellor and other officers of the Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges (KCMCC) in Missouri. The chancellor is allowed to either solicit bids or negotiate for contracted services such as architects, construction managers,…

  7. Reconceptualization Sexuality and Rethinking Homophobia in Metropolitan Campus Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Caglar

    2017-01-01

    The Metropolitan city gives non-metropolitan students an opportunity to meet new social groups. In this article, the perceptions of sexuality of those students who come from provincial areas to a metropolitan city for university education are examined within a framework of semi-structured interviews. The study on which this article is based used a…

  8. Spatial variations in US poverty: beyond metropolitan and non-metropolitan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man; Kleit, Rachel Garshick; Cover, Jane; Fowler, Christopher S

    2012-01-01

    Because poverty in rural and urban areas of the US often has different causes, correlates and solutions, effective anti-poverty policies depend on a thorough understanding of the ruralness or urbanness of specific places. This paper compares several widely used classification schemes and the varying magnitudes of poverty that they reveal in the US. The commonly used ‘metropolitan/non-metropolitan’ distinction obscures important socioeconomic differences among metropolitan areas, making our understanding of the geography of poverty imprecise. Given the number and concentration of poor people living in mixed-rural and rural counties in metropolitan regions, researchers and policy-makers need to pay more nuanced attention to the opportunities and constraints such individuals face. A cross-classification of the Office of Management and Budget’s metro system with a nuanced RUDC scheme is the most effective for revealing the geographical complexities of poverty within metropolitan areas.

  9. Nutritional Intervention Package to Insure 1000 Safe Days from Conception to the First Two Years of Life and Implication on Human Capital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alshafei, Moetazza; Hussein, Laila

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Egypt is not one of the countries doing well in nutrition during the critical window of development that starts during a mother’s pregnancy and goes through her child’s second birthday. The critical 1000-day window from pregnancy to a child’s second birthday is crucial to developing a child’s cognitive capacity and physical growth. Many of these babies are born with low birth weight which is an indicator of malnourished mother, malnourished children are therefore less likely to develop to their full potential. Recent WHO data Low Birth Weight Deaths in Egypt 13,6%. Furthermore, 30-39 % of Egyptian children under age 5 are stunted due to chronic malnutrition. Preventing under nutrition, means more than just providing food to the hungry. It is a long-term investment in our future, with generational payoff. Save The Children has highlighted six low-cost nutrition interventions for this period: iron, folate, breastfeeding, complementary feeding, vitamin A, zinc and hygiene High protein diet is unaffordable by the poor; solutions are to be discussed with low cost high protein nutritional intervention. The at most objective is strategic preventive and intervention measures to reduce maternal hunger and children malnutrition to achieve the Millennium development Goal 2015 specially child stunting. The study will be conducted on pregnant, lactating women visiting the out-patient clinic of tertiary maternal hospital ( Giza/Egypt) and their of springs till two years of life. Approval was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee. An Integrated Nutrition intervention Project (INP) will be implemented to them,daily prenatal food supplementation to women with a body mass index ≤ 18.5 kg/m2, providing 25 % of the daily energy requirement. Advanced nutritious food product will be used in infant 8 m - 2 years. Starting from September 2013 collecting data of deliveries and prevalence of LBW as well as incidence of neonatal mortality, to design requirements and

  10. The Reallocation of Compensation in Response to Health Insurance Premium Increases

    OpenAIRE

    Dana P. Goldman; Neeraj Sood; Arleen Leibowitz

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines how compensation packages change when health insurance premiums rise. We use data on employee choices within a single large firm with a flexible benefits plan; an increasingly common arrangement among medium and large firms. In these companies, employees explicitly choose how to allocate compensation between cash and various benefits such as retirement, medical insurance, life insurance, and dental benefits. We find that a $1 increase in the price of health insurance leads...

  11. RISK CORRIDORS AND REINSURANCE IN HEALTH INSURANCE MARKETPLACES: Insurance for Insurers

    OpenAIRE

    LAYTON, TIMOTHY J.; MCGUIRE, THOMAS G.; SINAIKO, ANNA D.

    2016-01-01

    In order to encourage entry and lower prices, most regulated markets for health insurance include policies that seek to reduce the uncertainty faced by insurers. In addition to risk adjustment of premiums paid to plans, the Health Insurance Marketplaces established by the Affordable Care Act implement reinsurance and risk corridors. Reinsurance limits insurer costs associated with specific individuals, while risk corridors protect against aggregate losses. Both tighten the insurer's distribut...

  12. Serbian insurance market: Select issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obadović Mirjana M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Every day insurance companies face a number of risks arising from the insurance industry itself, as well as risks arising from insurance company operations. In this constant fight against risks insurance companies use different models and methods that help them better understand, have a more comprehensive view of, and develop greater tolerance towards risks, in order to reduce their exposure to these risks. The model presented in this paper has been developed for implementation in insurance risk management directly related to insurance company risk, i.e. it is a model that can reliably determine the manner and intensity with which deviations in the initial insurance risk assessment affect insurance company operations, in the form of changes in operational risks and consequently in insurance companies’ business strategies. Additionally we present the implementation of the model in the Serbian market for the period 2005-2010.

  13. Dental insurance! Are we ready?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi SS Toor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental insurance is insurance designed to pay the costs associated with dental care. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI bill which was put forward in the winter session of the Lok Sabha (2008 focused on increasing the foreign investment share from the existing 26% to 49% in the insurance companies of India. This will allow the multibillion dollar international insurance companies to enter the Indian market and subsequently cover all aspects of insurance in India. Dental insurance will be an integral a part of this system. Dental insurance is a new concept in Southeast Asia as very few countries in Southeast Asia cover this aspect of insurance. It is important that the dentists in India should be acquainted with the different types of plans these companies are going to offer and about a new relationship which is going to emerge in the coming years between dentist, patient and the insurance company.

  14. Massage Therapy in Outpatient Cancer Care: A Metropolitan Area Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccio, Robin Streit; Parikh, Bijal

    2017-01-01

    Massage offers cancer patients general quality of life benefits as well as alleviation of cancer-related symptoms/cancer-treatment–related symptoms including pain, anxiety, and fatigue. Little is known about whether massage is accessible to cancer patients who receive treatment in the outpatient setting and how massage is incorporated into the overall cancer treatment plan. Outpatient cancer centers (n = 78) in a single metropolitan area were included this mixed-methods project that included a systematic analysis of website information and a telephone survey. Massage was offered at only 40 centers (51.3% of total). A range of massage modalities were represented, with energy-based therapies (Reiki and Therapeutic Touch) most frequently provided. Although massage therapists are licensed health care providers in the states included in this analysis, massage was also provided by nurses, physical therapists, and other health care professionals. PMID:28845677

  15. Massage Therapy in Outpatient Cancer Care: A Metropolitan Area Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Virginia S; Miccio, Robin Streit; Parikh, Bijal

    2017-10-01

    Massage offers cancer patients general quality of life benefits as well as alleviation of cancer-related symptoms/cancer-treatment-related symptoms including pain, anxiety, and fatigue. Little is known about whether massage is accessible to cancer patients who receive treatment in the outpatient setting and how massage is incorporated into the overall cancer treatment plan. Outpatient cancer centers (n = 78) in a single metropolitan area were included this mixed-methods project that included a systematic analysis of website information and a telephone survey. Massage was offered at only 40 centers (51.3% of total). A range of massage modalities were represented, with energy-based therapies (Reiki and Therapeutic Touch) most frequently provided. Although massage therapists are licensed health care providers in the states included in this analysis, massage was also provided by nurses, physical therapists, and other health care professionals.

  16. A Logistic Regression Based Auto Insurance Rate-Making Model Designed for the Insurance Rate Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengmin Duan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Using a generalized linear model to determine the claim frequency of auto insurance is a key ingredient in non-life insurance research. Among auto insurance rate-making models, there are very few considering auto types. Therefore, in this paper we are proposing a model that takes auto types into account by making an innovative use of the auto burden index. Based on this model and data from a Chinese insurance company, we built a clustering model that classifies auto insurance rates into three risk levels. The claim frequency and the claim costs are fitted to select a better loss distribution. Then the Logistic Regression model is employed to fit the claim frequency, with the auto burden index considered. Three key findings can be concluded from our study. First, more than 80% of the autos with an auto burden index of 20 or higher belong to the highest risk level. Secondly, the claim frequency is better fitted using the Poisson distribution, however the claim cost is better fitted using the Gamma distribution. Lastly, based on the AIC criterion, the claim frequency is more adequately represented by models that consider the auto burden index than those do not. It is believed that insurance policy recommendations that are based on Generalized linear models (GLM can benefit from our findings.

  17. Insurance market penetration and economic growth in Eurozone countries: Time series evidence on causality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurav Dash

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the causal relationship between insurance market penetration and per capita economic growth in 19 Eurozone countries for the period 1980–2014. We use three different indicators of insurance market penetration (IMP, namely life insurance penetration, non-life insurance penetration, and total (both life and non-life insurance penetration. We particularly emphasize on whether Granger causality exists between these variables both ways, one way, or not at all. Our empirical results perceive both unidirectional and bidirectional causality between IMP and per capita economic growth. However, these results are mostly non-uniform across the Eurozone countries during this selected period. The policy implication is that the economic policies should recognize the differences in the insurance market and per capita economic growth in order to maintain sustainable growth in the Eurozone. Keywords: IMP, Per capita economic growth, Granger causality, Eurozone countries, JEL codes: L96, O32, O33, O43

  18. Insurance against nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Virtually any type of nuclear risk is insurable in principle, providing, of course, that the necessary standards of safety and control are met. Some of the risks are of a relatively minor character and no more hazardous than a simple conventional risk. But insurers would not consider as a minor risk anything which involves the use of nuclear fuel or other nuclear materials which are in a critical state or capable of releasing dangerous levels of radioactivity. These would include nuclear reactors or, indeed, any type of assembly which can not be regarded as subcritical. Most insurers would also regard installations involved in the manufacturing, processing and enriching of nuclear fuel, and certainly those concerned with the reprocessing of irradiated fuel and plutonium extraction, as major risks. (HP) [de

  19. Exarh of the Bulgarian Church metropolitan Stephen and the Moscow Patriarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostriukov Andrei

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the last period of church-administrative activity of the Sofia’s metropolitan Stephаn (Shokov. The author describes the testimonies of contemporaries about the character and personal qualities of this ambiguous hierarch. In 1945–1948 metropolitan Stephan was the exarch of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church and participated in the Meeting of heads and representatives of Autocephalous Orthodox Churches in 1948. The author considers the circumstances of the dismissal of metropolitan Stephаn and his exile as especially important and interesting ones. The meeting of 1948 became the critical event in the exarch’s destiny. Being the supporter of ecumenism, metropolitan Stephen tried unsuccessfully to convince Patriarch Alexis of his rightness in order not to allow the condemnation of ecumenical contacts by the Moscow meeting. However Moscow looked on ecumenism differently in those days. In Moscow the Soviet management aspired to establishment of the centre of World Orthodoxy and tried to cite the Moscow Patriarchy against Constantinople that was under the influence of the USA and the Great Britain. As the Constantinople Patriarchy approved the ecumenical movement, the Moscow Patriarchy has been forced to take of an opposite position. Therefore, the participation of the Russian Church and Churches of the socialist countries in the ecumenical movement was impossible. Metropolitan Stephan, supporting the superiority of the Moscow Patriarchy in the World Orthodoxy, supported the active participation of all Local Churches in the ecumenical movement. The communistic management applied the maximum force to the exarch in order he has not made undesirable statements at the meeting. The fate of metropolitan Stephan has been decided after this meeting. In 1948 he was fired and exiled. The Moscow Patriarchy did not exclude the possibility of moving of metropolitan Stephаn to Russia and his location in any monastery. However metropolitan

  20. Performance Measurement Of Public Sector Insurance Units After De-Tariffication

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Seema; Sikidar, Dr. Sujit

    2014-01-01

    Insurance sector in India was privatised to publicise insurance products. After privatisation of this industry in India in the year 2000, the next important step taken in the general insurance industry was the removal of tariffs on the non-life insurance products with effect from January1, 2007. The introduction of the free price regime has provided an impetus to the non-life sector. Before the introduction of de-tariffication almost 70% of the business of the non-life sector was driven by va...

  1. Passengers, Crew, Life Support, and Insurance Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeil, Daniel A.; Young, Lawrence R.

    1999-01-01

    This section describes the key issues, barriers, opportunities, and potential trip packages related to the needs and expectations of initial space adventure travelers. A variety of ideas to overcome barriers is presented that address financial, psychological, and sociological problems expected to be encountered in establishing a general PST and tourism business. Tour package descriptions range from near-term surface training facilities to far-term lunar ones. Recommendations include requirements pertaining to human factors in design and needed technology.

  2. Household Consumption, Investment and Life Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Kenneth; Steffensen, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a continuous-time Markov model for utility optimization of households. The household optimizes expected future utility from consumption by controlling consumption, investments and purchase of lifeinsurance for each person in the household. The optimal controls are investigated...... in the special case of a two-person household, and we present graphics illustrating how differences between the two persons affect the controls....

  3. Nuclear insurance and indemnity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovan, D.

    1976-01-01

    A brief account is given of insurance protection in the nuclear industry, and the legislation involved. Aspects discussed are: third part liability and the role of government in setting the maximum amount of compensation; the development and concept of channelling the liability exclusively to the operator; the development of nuclear insurance facilities in Europe and the USA; and the emergence in Europe of international agreements on third party liability for protection of neighbouring countries in the event of a major accident. The development of liability law in the USA from the time of the Price Anderson Act of 1957 through subsequent legislation is described. (U.K.)

  4. American nuclear insurers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear liability insurance covers liability for damages directly caused by the nuclear energy hazard. This coverage includes offsite bodily injury and property damage sustained by members of the general public, and bodily injury to onsite third party personnel. Recent nuclear liability claims allege bodily injury and property damage resulting from releases or radioactive materials to the environmental and occupational radiation worker exposures. Routine reactor operations involving radioactive waste have the potential to result in such claims. The nuclear insurance Pools believe that one way such claims can be minimized is through the implementation of an effective radioactive waste management program

  5. Lectures on insurance models

    CERN Document Server

    Ramasubramanian, S

    2009-01-01

    Insurance has become a necessary aspect of modern society. The mathematical basis of insurance modeling is best expressed in terms of continuous time stochastic processes. This introductory text on actuarial risk theory deals with the Cramer-Lundberg model and the renewal risk model. Their basic structure and properties, including the renewal theorems as well as the corresponding ruin problems, are studied. There is a detailed discussion of heavy tailed distributions, which have become increasingly relevant. The Lundberg risk process with investment in risky asset is also considered. This book will be useful to practitioners in the field and to graduate students interested in this important branch of applied probability.

  6. Counseling as an Insured Benefit: Perspectives from the Insurance Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Wallace C.

    1974-01-01

    Article discusses the feasibility of marriage counseling as an insurance benefit in the future. It is suggested that the physician be used as a marriage counselor in that insurance companies will pay for medical services. (EK)

  7. Metropolitan Quantum Key Distribution with Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Bunandar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Photonic integrated circuits provide a compact and stable platform for quantum photonics. Here we demonstrate a silicon photonics quantum key distribution (QKD encoder in the first high-speed polarization-based QKD field tests. The systems reach composable secret key rates of 1.039 Mbps in a local test (on a 103.6-m fiber with a total emulated loss of 9.2 dB and 157 kbps in an intercity metropolitan test (on a 43-km fiber with 16.4 dB loss. Our results represent the highest secret key generation rate for polarization-based QKD experiments at a standard telecom wavelength and demonstrate photonic integrated circuits as a promising, scalable resource for future formation of metropolitan quantum-secure communications networks.

  8. Metropolitan Quantum Key Distribution with Silicon Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunandar, Darius; Lentine, Anthony; Lee, Catherine; Cai, Hong; Long, Christopher M.; Boynton, Nicholas; Martinez, Nicholas; DeRose, Christopher; Chen, Changchen; Grein, Matthew; Trotter, Douglas; Starbuck, Andrew; Pomerene, Andrew; Hamilton, Scott; Wong, Franco N. C.; Camacho, Ryan; Davids, Paul; Urayama, Junji; Englund, Dirk

    2018-04-01

    Photonic integrated circuits provide a compact and stable platform for quantum photonics. Here we demonstrate a silicon photonics quantum key distribution (QKD) encoder in the first high-speed polarization-based QKD field tests. The systems reach composable secret key rates of 1.039 Mbps in a local test (on a 103.6-m fiber with a total emulated loss of 9.2 dB) and 157 kbps in an intercity metropolitan test (on a 43-km fiber with 16.4 dB loss). Our results represent the highest secret key generation rate for polarization-based QKD experiments at a standard telecom wavelength and demonstrate photonic integrated circuits as a promising, scalable resource for future formation of metropolitan quantum-secure communications networks.

  9. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN INSURANCE SALES SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stofor Ovidiu-Ilie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Insurance system in Romania is carried out with a constant natural activity, evolving quite honorably these times. This is largely due to the difficulty with which insurance is sold in normal economic conditions when it comes to prosperity. Although psychologists, led by Maslow believes that the protection needs are basic needs, along with the physiological one, on the priority list regarding procurement, insurance needs are for some Romanians, of minimum or no importance, so that they are either pushed to the bottom of the list, or even, as it most often happens, they are non existent. Current economic conditions and climate, urges caution on most fields, especially in terms of individual properties, including, how somewhat forced, life and physical integrity which are still considered property, if this aspect is not debated in terms of Christian or other religious dogma. In other words, many Romanians see insurance as a product that “is not up their alley” including it in the luxury category. Furthermore, the media shows, sometimes amplify certain cases of doubt in relations between insurance company - customer. Appropriate marketing, allied with the information technology can improve the complete relationship between the two entities - the offeror and the consumer. Through this study we aim to identify important issues that facilitate the sale of insurance, using information technology, given that the sales of these financial products through the "ancestral" methods are effective but not very efficient. We will follow, byanchoring to the current reality, the insurance utility and how to use information technologies in support of marketing (sales. The study itself was done by observing the results in practical work, from an insurance agency, but also related to what the literature offers. Because this study is currently underway, there are certainly some limitations of accuracy of results, which are adjusted "on the fly". Realizing

  10. Disability Insurance and Health Insurance Reform: Evidence from Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Maestas; Kathleen J. Mullen; Alexander Strand

    2014-01-01

    As health insurance becomes available outside of the employment relationship as a result of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), the cost of applying for Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI)–potentially going without health insurance coverage during a waiting period totaling 29 months from disability onset–will decline for many people with employer-sponsored health insurance. At the same time, the value of SSDI and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) participation will decline for individuals...

  11. BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT IN INSURANCE CASE OF JADRANSKO INSURANCE COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    Sanja Coric; Danijel Bara

    2014-01-01

    Selling insurance products in conditions of today’s modern technological solutions is faced with numerous challenges. Business processes in insurance as well as the results of these business processes are the real interface to policyholders. Modeling and analysis of business process in insurance ensure organizations to focus on the customer and increase the efficiency and quality of work. Managing critical business processes in every single organization, likewise in insurance is a key factor ...

  12. Air pollution holiday effect in metropolitan Kaohsiung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P.; Chen, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Different from Taipei, the metropolitan Kaohsiung which is a coastal and industrial city has the major pollution sources from stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants, petrochemical facilities and steel plants, rather than mobile sources. This study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, over the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where concentrations of NOx, CO, NMHC, SO2 and PM10 were significantly different between holidays and non-holidays, in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area from daily surface measurements of seven air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2010. Concentrations of the five pollutants were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, however, that of O3 was higher in the CNY than in the NCNY period and had no holiday effect. The exclusion of the bad air quality day (PSI > 100) and the Lantern Festival Day showed no significant effects on the holiday effects of air pollutants. Ship transportation data of Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau showed a statistically significant difference in the CNY and NCNY period. This difference was consistent with those found in air pollutant concentrations of some industrial and general stations in coastal areas, implying the possible impact of traffic activity on the air quality of coastal areas. Holiday effects of air pollutants over the Taipei metropolitan area by Tan et al. (2009) are also compared.

  13. Green Infrastructure Concept for JABODETABEKJUR Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan; Gates Chang, Bill

    2017-07-01

    Sixty “Mega Cities” would emerge by 2015 catering of 600 million populations, and were threatened by the climate change, because of cyclones, flooding, etc. Jakarta became a metro region covering Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok and Cianjur. Jakarta metropolitan faced the very high population growth, urban sprawling, traffic jams, flooding, green open space reduction, environmental degradation, urban slums and illegal street hawkers. Flooding and traffic congestions were the two most important issues to solve. SWOT analysis and urban design solutions were produced to create a sustainable solution. Related to transportation issues, Singapore Mass Rapid Transport (MRT) concept was evaluated. Meanwhile the Netherlands’ polder concept as well as Singapore’s Integrated Water Management were also analyzed. The development of above ground MRT as well as Busway could be developed to connect Jakarta Metropolitan Region. The networks were developed on the main toll road networks. The MRT and Busway would eventually replace the need of automobile use in the future. The Transit - Oriented - Development (TOD) with high density can be suggested to be concentrated nearby the MRT and Busway interchange stations. The Netherlands’ polder and were adopted for urban’ low-lying lands in Jakarta Metropolitan Region, A polder system was defined as the Integrated Man-made Drainage System consisting Dikes, Drains, Retention Ponds, Outfall Structures or Pumping Stations. The polder system was proposed to be extended to Tangerang and Bekasi area.

  14. 78 FR 56583 - Deposit Insurance Regulations; Definition of Insured Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... as a potential global deposit insurer, preserve confidence in the FDIC deposit insurance system, and... the United States.\\2\\ The FDIC generally pays out deposit insurance on the next business day after a... since 2001 and total approximately $1 trillion today. In many cases, these branches do not engage in...

  15. [Food satisfaction in Mapuche persons in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Mora, Marcos; Lobos, Germán

    2011-06-01

    Although the study and measurement of satisfaction with life has generated great interest in the last 15 years, there are few works which address satisfaction with food-related life. In order to identify variables which have an influence on satisfaction with food-related life among Mapuche persons, a survey was applied to 400 Mapuche subjects in the Santiago Metropolitan Region, Chile. The scales evaluated in the questionnaire included: SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life), lifestyles, food, and Mapuche acculturation. It was found that 41.0% were extremely satisfied, 40.5% satisfied, 17.2% somewhat satisfied and 1.2% dissatisfied with their food-related life. To identify variables which have an influence on satisfaction with food, an ordinal multinomial logit model was proposed, which was significant (p Mapuche foods, is aged 55 or more, consumes red meat in moderation, consumes foods without additives, try to balance work and private life, does not read the labels of products, and if he/she had Mapuche friends at school. Thus satisfaction with food-related life in Mapuche persons in the Metropolitan Region is related to demographic variables, expenditure on food, consumption of Mapuche foods and life-style.

  16. Evaluation of the external costs of energy production in the Helsinki metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterstroem, T.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the research is to evaluate the external costs of energy production at Helsinki metropolitan area (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa). The previously developed valorization method for effects on population centres is adjusted. All the main health, material and environmental effects will be taken into account in the research. The effects of emissions of the energy production of the Helsinki metropolitan area on concentrations of the impurities in the air and through them on human and environment will be evaluated. The estimates will be based on the relativistic fuels consumption and the emission data of Helsinki metropolitan area. Life-cycle reasoning will be applied so that the emissions of the main components of the fuels used in the metropolitan area will be included in the estimation. The cost-effectiveness of the investments will be estimated by comparing the environmental investments of energy boards with the external costs. The methods of this work can be applied to estimation of the profitability of energy production plants from the point of view of national economy also elsewhere in the country

  17. Daily Mobility and Residential Migrations in the Montréal Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Sénécal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to simultaneously examine two types of mobility by developing a model of metropolitan organization that emphasizes the axis structure of mobility. The model is based on the realities of daily mobility and long-term residential mobility. Origin−Destination study results validated the axis representation of the metropolitan structure. Furthermore, building on data from a telephone survey, we considered the interactions between the two types of mobility along the Center-North axis of Montréal’s Census Metropolitan Area (CMA. The ensuing discussion on various models of metropolitan structure and their relevance today is framed in terms of the axes of mobility defined as territorial practices that are established within the patterns of daily life and are a significant factor in residential location decisions. The study raises broader issues concerning the relevance of drawing on standard models such as Burgess’s concentric zone model, Hoyt’s sector theory, Adam’s directional bias, or recent findings from the literature to understand urban form dynamics in the CMA.

  18. Voluntary Public Unemployment Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O. Parsons, Donald; Tranæs, Torben; Bie Lilleør, Helene

    Denmark has drawn much attention for its active labor market policies, but is almost unique in offering a voluntary public unemployment insurance program requiring a significant premium payment. A safety net program – a less generous, means-tested social assistance plan – completes the system...

  19. Insurance: Covering the bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This article addresses steps to take to improve the economics and risk profiles for independent power projects. The topics discussed in the article include the results of competition in the power industry, custom packages and the lack of competition among insurers in the power industry, mitigating risk through providing technical information, and developing programs

  20. Consumers’ Collision Insurance Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel; Fischhoff, Baruch

    Using interviews with 74 drivers, we elicit and analyse how people think about collision coverage and, more generally, about insurance decisions. We compare the judgments and behaviours of these decision makers to the predictions of a range of theoretical models: (a) A model developed by Lee (200...

  1. Trends in pension insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shterev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a topical for our country problem which is related to the State Social Insurance. It provides a review of the factors having an adverse effect onto the financial state of the Bulgarian pension system. Discussed are the basic parameters related to the economic incentives in connection with the optimal functioning of the pension system

  2. PRICING AND ASSESSING UNIT-LINKED INSURANCE CONTRACTS WITH INVESTMENT GUARANTEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciumas Cristina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting life insurance products to have emerged in recent years in the Romanian insurance market has been the unit-linked contract. Unit-linked insurance products are life insurance policies with investment component. A unit-linked life insurance has two important components: protection and investment. The protection component refers to the insured sum in case of the occurrence of insured risks and the investment component refers to the policyholders’ account that represents the present value of the units from the chosen investment funds. Due to the financial instability caused by the Global Crisis and the amplification of market competitiveness, insurers from international markets have started to incorporate guarantees in unit-linked products. So a unit- linked life insurance policy with an asset value guarantee is an insurance policy whose benefit payable on death or at maturity consists of the greater of some guaranteed amount and the value of the units from the investment funds. One of the most challenging issues concerns the pricing of minimum death benefit and maturity benefit guarantees and the establishing of proper reserves for these guarantees. Insurers granting guarantees of this type must estimate the cost and include the cost in the premium. An important component of the activity carried out by the insurance companies is the investment of the premiums paid by policyholders in various types of assets, in order to obtain higher yields than those guaranteed by the insurance contracts, while providing the necessary liquidity for the payment of insurance claims in case of occurrence of the assumed risks. So the guaranteed benefits can be broadly matched or immunized with various types of financial assets, especially with fixed-interest instruments. According to Romanian legislation which regulates the unit-linked life insurance market, unit-linked life insurance contracts pass most of the investment risk to the

  3. Business intelligence for insurance companies

    OpenAIRE

    IGNATIUK A.

    2016-01-01

    The current state and future trends for the world and domestic insurance markets are analyzed. The description of business intelligence methodology, tools and their practical implication for insurance companies are provided.

  4. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE FOR INSURANCE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ignatiuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current state and future trends for the world and domestic insurance markets are analyzed. The description of business intelligence methodology, tools and their practical implication for insurance companies are provided.

  5. Experiences of pathways, outcomes and choice after severe traumatic brain injury under no-fault versus fault-based motor accident insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Rosamund; Foster, Michele; Fleming, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    To explore experiences of pathways, outcomes and choice after motor vehicle accident (MVA) acquired severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) under fault-based vs no-fault motor accident insurance (MAI). In-depth qualitative interviews with 10 adults with sTBI and 17 family members examined experiences of pathways, outcomes and choice and how these were shaped by both compensable status and interactions with service providers and service funders under a no-fault and a fault-based MAI scheme. Participants were sampled to provide variation in compensable status, injury severity, time post-injury and metropolitan vs regional residency. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed to identify dominant themes under each scheme. Dominant themes emerging under the no-fault scheme included: (a) rehabilitation-focused pathways; (b) a sense of security; and (c) bounded choices. Dominant themes under the fault-based scheme included: (a) resource-rationed pathways; (b) pressured lives; and (c) unknown choices. Participants under the no-fault scheme experienced superior access to specialist rehabilitation services, greater surety of support and more choice over how rehabilitation and life-time care needs were met. This study provides valuable insights into individual experiences under fault-based vs no-fault MAI. Implications for an injury insurance scheme design to optimize pathways, outcomes and choice after sTBI are discussed.

  6. Insurance - Piper Alpha ''et al''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hales, K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper opens with some brief information about the Piper Alpha loss, how the loss was handled and its final cost. More importantly, it discusses the effect of the Piper Alpha loss on the world insurance market including the oil insurance captives such as O.I.L Limited. Finally, the insurance market current status and prognosis for the future are considered. (Author)

  7. Premium Forecasting of an Insurance Company: Automobile Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Fouladvand, M. Ebrahim; Darooneh, Amir H.

    2002-01-01

    We present an analytical study of an insurance company. We model the company's performance on a statistical basis and evaluate the predicted annual income of the company in terms of insurance parameters namely the premium, total number of the insured, average loss claims etc. We restrict ourselves to a single insurance class the so-called automobile insurance. We show the existence a crossover premium p_c below which the company is loss-making. Above p_c, we also give detailed statistical ana...

  8. A utility theory approach for insurance pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Gharakhani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Providing insurance contract with “deductible” is beneficial for both insurer and insured. In this paper, we provide a utility modeling approach to handle insurance pricing and evaluate the tradeoff between discount benefit and deductible level. We analyze four different pricing problems of no insurance, full insurance coverage, insurance with β% deductible and insurance with D-dollar deductible based on a given utility function. A numerical example is also used to illustrate some interesting results.

  9. Narrow Framing and Long-Term Care Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Gottlieb; Olivia S. Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model of narrow framing in insurance and test it using data from a new module we designed and fielded in the Health and Retirement Study. We show that respondents subject to narrow framing are substantially less likely to buy long-term care insurance than average. This effect is distinct from, and much larger than, the effects of risk aversion or adverse selection, and it offers a new explanation for why people underinsure their later-life care needs.

  10. Health Insurance for Government Employees in Bangladesh: A Concept Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid, Syed Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Introducing compulsory health insurance for government employees bears immense importance for stepping towards universal healthcare coverage in Bangladesh. Lack of scientific study on designing such scheme, in the Bangladesh context, motivates this paper. The study aims at designing a comprehensive insurance package simultaneously covering health, life and accident related disability risks of the public employees, where the health component would extend to all dependent family members. ...

  11. Impact of the 2001 Tohoku-oki earthquake to Tokyo Metropolitan area observed by the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Hayashi, H.; Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kasahara, K.; Obara, K.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.; Sato, H.; Okaya, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake brought a great impact to the Tokyo metropolitan area in both seismological aspect and seismic risk management although Tokyo is located 340 km from the epicenter. The event generated very strong ground motion even in the metropolitan area and resulted severe requifaction in many places of Kanto district. National and local governments have started to discuss counter measurement for possible seismic risks in the area taking account for what they learned from the Tohoku-oki event which is much larger than ever experienced in Japan Risk mitigation strategy for the next greater earthquake caused by the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducting beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area is of major concern because it caused past mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. In order to mitigate disaster for greater Tokyo, the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area was launched in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions. We will discuss the main results that are obtained in the respective fields which have been integrated to improve information on the strategy assessment for seismic risk mitigation in the Tokyo metropolitan area; the project has been much improved after the Tohoku event. In order to image seismic structure beneath the Metropolitan Tokyo area we have developed Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net; Hirata et al., 2009). We have installed 296 seismic stations every few km (Kasahara et al., 2011). We conducted seismic

  12. 46 CFR 308.403 - Insured amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... total amount of war risk insurance obtainable from companies authorized to do an insurance business in a... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance § 308.403 Insured amounts. (a) Prelaunching period. The amount insured during...

  13. African urbanization in metropolitan South Africa--differential urbanization perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, H S

    1993-07-01

    "As a potentially important urban development policy consideration, attention is focused in this paper on differential urbanization trends in South Africa at the metropolitan level. Recent informal urban settlement patterns of the African population within the major metropolitan areas are contrasted against these differential urbanization trends to determine the implications of both for residential development in the metropolitan areas during the post-apartheid era." excerpt

  14. Health Insurance without Single Crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Jan; Schottmüller, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Standard insurance models predict that people with high risks have high insurance coverage. It is empirically documented that people with high income have lower health risks and are better insured. We show that income differences between risk types lead to a violation of single crossing...... in an insurance model where people choose treatment intensity. We analyse different market structures and show the following: If insurers have market power, the violation of single crossing caused by income differences and endogenous treatment choice can explain the empirically observed outcome. Our results do...

  15. Labor Force Activity of Women in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan America. Rural Development Research Report No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David L.; O'Leary, Jeanne M.

    Between 1960 and 1970 economic opportunity and progress for women in American non-metropolitan areas was mixed. While women in metropolitan areas were more likely to be labor force members than were non-metropolitan women, the difference in metropolitan and non-metropolitan labor force participation rates narrowed during the period. For women…

  16. Health care utilisation amongst Shenzhen migrant workers: does being insured make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Hanping

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the Pearl River Delta of South China, Shenzhen attracts millions of migrant workers annually. The objectives of this study were to compare health needs, self-reported health and healthcare utilisation of insured and uninsured migrant workers in Shenzhen, China, where a new health insurance scheme targeting at migrant workers was initiated. Methods A cross-sectional survey using multi-staged sampling was conducted to collect data from migrant factory workers. Statistical tests included logistic regression analysis were used. Results Among 4634 subjects (96.54% who responded to the survey, 55.11% were uninsured. Disease patterns were similar irrespective of insurance status. The uninsured were more likely to be female, single, younger and less educated unskilled labourers with a lower monthly income compared with the insured. Out of 1136 who reported illness in the previous two weeks, 62.15% did not visit a doctor. Of the 296 who were referred for inpatient care, 48.65% did not attend because of inability to pay. Amongst those who reported sickness, 548 were insured and 588 were uninsured. Those that were insured, and had easier access to care were more likely to make doctor visits than those who were uninsured. Conclusion Health care utilisation patterns differ between insured and uninsured workers and insurance status appears to be a significant factor. The health insurance system is inequitably distributed amongst migrant workers. Younger less educated women who are paid less are more likely to be uninsured and therefore to pay out of pocket for their care. For greater equity this group need to be included in the insurance schemes as they develop.

  17. Financing and insurance problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurenge, M.-T.

    1975-01-01

    The author analyses the papers presented at the Paris Conference on the maturity of nuclear energy. It is evident that financing possibilities will be a determinant factor in the rate of development of nuclear power during the years to come. After having evaluated the capital requirements necessitated for the development of nuclear programmes, the parties intervening have examined the means at the disposal of electricity manufacturers to meet these needs (self-financing, recourse to external financing, regrouping, on an international scale of the electricity manufacturers of the setting up of high capacity plants). As concerns the insurance problems, they are becoming more and more involved as nuclear applications, are further diversified and intensified. The parties intervening have discussed new tarification techniques likely to be applied and pointed out the possibilities offered by regrouping or pooling of insurers (Market Pool) which allow for a maximum of risks to be covered without exceeding the means proper to each company concerned [fr

  18. Nuclear energy and insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekener, H.

    1997-01-01

    It examines the technical, scientific and legal issues relating to the peaceful use of atomic energy in Turkey. The first fifteen chapters give a general overview of the atom and radioactivity; the chapters which follow this section are more technical and deal with the causes of nuclear accidents in reactors.A number of chapters cover legal issues, for example the conditions and procedures involved in the insurance market and the risks linked to operation of a nuclear power plant.The following subjects are examined in relation to nuclear insurance: risks during construction; fire during operation of the plants and other causes of accidents; risks due to the transport of radioactive materials and waste etc. The final chapters reproduce the principle legislative texts in force in Turkey in the field of nuclear energy, and also certain regulations which establish competent regulatory bodies

  19. 76 FR 64174 - Public Input on the Report to Congress on How To Modernize and Improve the System of Insurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... submit views on: 1. Systemic risk regulation with respect to insurance; 2. Capital standards and the... risk; 3. Consumer protection for insurance products and practices, including gaps in State regulation... general creditor claims; iii. In the case of life insurance companies, on the loss of the special status...

  20. Model LPA Terpadu untuk Wilayah Surabaya Metropolitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimien Bt. M. Al Muhdhar a Henie Irawati

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to establish the integrated LPA model for Surabaya Metropolitan Area. The methods used are literature overviews, comparative studies to well-established areas, and expert assistantships through national seminars. The result shows that the integrated LPA has opportunity to combine some activities such as sorting and classifying, producing, wrapping and containing, selling the compost and decayed materials, and filling residual waste by landfill system. In 25 Ha land area, 14.10 Ha is allocated for waste management, and 10.90 Ha for sanitary landfill.

  1. Metropolitan vision making - using backcasting as a strategic learning process to shape metropolitan futures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuvonen, A.; Ache, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: The need for new forward looking tools in urban planning is immense: The new functional relations and structures are stretching beyond our capacity to 'rationally' capture modern metropolitan spaces Neuman & Hull 2009). At the same time cities struggle to find tools to help manage a

  2. Insurance of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debaets, M.

    1992-01-01

    Electrical utility companies have invested large sums in the establishment of nuclear facilities. For this reason it is normal for these companies to attempt to protect their investments as much as possible. One of the methods of protection is recourse to insurance. For a variety of reasons traditional insurance markets are unable to function normally for a number of reasons including, the insufficient number of risks, an absence of meaningful accident statistics, the enormous sums involved and a lack of familiarity with nuclear risks on the part of insurers, resulting in a reluctance or even refusal to accept such risks. Insurers have, in response to requests for coverage from nuclear power station operators, established an alternative system of coverage - insurance through a system of insurance pools. Insurers in every country unite in a pool, providing a net capacity for every risk which is a capacity covered by their own funds, and consequently without reinsurance. All pools exchange capacity. The inconvenience of this system, for the operators in particular, is that it involves a monopolistic system in which there are consequently few possibilities for the negotiation of premiums and conditions of coverage. The system does not permit the establishment of reserves which could, over time, reduce the need for insurance on the part of nuclear power station operators. Thus the cost of nuclear insurance remains high. Alternatives to the poor system of insurance are explored in this article. (author)

  3. Business profile of metropolitan Las Vegas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, M.R.

    1988-06-01

    This first report describes the present makeup of the Las Vegas metropolitan statistical area (MSA) economy and analyzes the climate for business expansion. The second report contains an assessment of the competitiveness of the area as a location for new or expanded facilities investment by companies in approximately 600 business groups. The third report projects Las Vegas' competitiveness at the start of the next century in the absence of a nuclear waste storage facility and then evaluates the potential impacts of siting that facility near Las Vegas on its ability to attract and retain business investment. The primary purpose of these reports is to contribute to the overall assessment of the environmental impact of the US Department of Energy's proposed action to build and operate an underground nuclear waste storage facility at Yucca Mountain. The first two reports also serve a second purpose -- they can be used by economic development organizations in the Las Vegas metropolitan area in their ongoing efforts to attract new business investment. Information contained in the business climate analysis found in this first report can be incorporated into marketing materials. The competitiveness assessment contained in the second report can be used by these organizations in identifying targets they wish to pursue

  4. Youthification in the Metropolitan Area of Cluj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Cocheci

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This research exercise aims to identify all areas affected by what is now known as ‘youthification’ in the Metropolitan Area of Cluj. Broadly speaking, an area touched by youthification witnesses a massive arrival of young adults, who invest in housing, but only remain there until they age. Youthification is usually the second phase within an encompassing process of gentrification. To gain a clearer picture of this phenomenon, we employed a snapshot of the situation recorded by the Population and Housing Census of 2011. Using this image as a starting point, we then applied statistical thresholds aimed at measuring the presence and intensity of youthification within different areas. Thereafter, we looked at areas exhibiting the same level of youthification, in order to find those common traits of their young adult inhabitants that might prove relevant for their choices in matters of housing. Once completed, our efforts resulted in the first map showing the areas affected by youthification within the Metropolitan Area of Cluj. In addition, we reached the following conclusion: Young adults who live in the city are more likely to still be enrolled in a form of education and less likely to be married or to have children than those who live in the suburbs or in rural areas. This observation implies that there might be some hidden dependency relations, which are at work in shaping the choice of housing.

  5. The Dynamics of Market Insurance, Insurable Assets, and Wealth Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Koeniger, Winfried

    2002-01-01

    We analyze dynamic interactions between market insurance, the stock of insurable assets and liquid wealth accumulation in a model with non-durable and durable consumption. The stock of the durable is exposed to risk against which households can insure. Since the model does not have a closed form solution we first provide an analytical approximation for the case in which households own abundant liquid wealth. It turns out that precautionary motives still matter because of fluctuations of the p...

  6. 78 FR 53270 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District... to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD or District) portion of the..., Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, Rule 214 (Federal New Source Review), Rule 203...

  7. 49 CFR 613.100 - Metropolitan transportation planning and programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... programming. 613.100 Section 613.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 613.100 Metropolitan transportation planning and programming. The regulations in 23 CFR 450, subpart C, shall be followed in complying with the requirements of...

  8. The economic crisis and the insurance industry: The evidence from the ex-Yugoslavia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njegomir Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the impact of the economic crisis on the insurance industries of the ex-Yugoslavia region. The analysis encompasses five countries: Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and FYR Macedonia. We examine insurance industry specifics separately for each country for the period 2004-2008 and for the first six months of 2009. While the impact of the crisis varies between countries, the research results indicate that the global financial crisis has had limited overall impact on the regional insurance industry. However the current recession resulted in negative premium growth in Serbia, Croatia and FYR Macedonia while the growth in Slovenia and Bosnia and Herzegovina declined. At the same time investment returns have declined and claims have risen in all countries. The crisis had more pronounced impact on non-life insurance premium growth in less developed insurance markets. In developed markets, namely Slovenia and Croatia, the crisis had greater impact on life insurance premium growth.

  9. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Cathrine

    2014-01-01

    on the theme, originally proposed by Fischer Black. In CPPI, a financial institution guarantees a floor value for the “insured” portfolio and adjusts the stock/bond mix to produce a leveraged exposure to the risky assets, which depends on how far the portfolio value is above the floor. Plain-vanilla portfolio...... insurance largely died with the crash of 1987, but CPPI is still going strong. In the frictionless markets of finance theory, the issuer’s strategy to hedge its liability under the contract is clear, but in the real world with transactions costs and stochastic jump risk, the optimal strategy is less obvious...

  10. ETHICS IN THE INSURANCE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Gavriletea Marius

    2008-01-01

    The present paper debates the main aspects related to ethics, into an industry that recorded exponential growth in Romania insurance field. A very important role for a good business is enhanced by the ethics. The specialists appreciate that ethics represent a key factor for business success. Obviously, the insurance field into a competition market must follow all the aspects related to ethics. The ethics should be an essential element of every insurance company management. If we talk about et...

  11. Gender and Extended Actuarial Functions in Pension Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Špirková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings analysis of the impact of a ban on the use of gender in insurance, with special stress on pension annuity, according to the requirements of the European Court of Justice. The paper brings a state-of-theart overview of known and extended actuarial functions which relate to modeling of a premium of endowment, term life insurance and pension annuity. Moreover, the amounts of the pension annuities payable thly per year in a model of the third pillar pension are modeled and analyzed for different interest rates using life tables for both genders and unisex.

  12. Indirect costs of absenteeism due to rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and ulcerative colitis in 2012: a study based on real-life data from the Social Insurance Institution in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Krzysztof Piotr; Kawalec, Paweł Piotr; Moćko, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the indirect costs of six major autoimmune diseases including seropositive rheumatoid arthritis, other types of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, Type 1 diabetes, and ulcerative colitis. Relevant data for 2012 on sick leave and short- and long-term work disabilities were obtained from the Social Insurance Institution in Poland. Indirect costs were estimated using the human capital approach based on gross domestic product per capita, gross value added per worker, and gross income per worker in Poland in 2012 and expressed in euro. We recorded data on the total number of 45,500 patients. The total indirect costs were EUR 146,862,569; 353,683,508; and 108,154,271, calculated using gross domestic product, gross value added, and gross income, respectively. Considering only data on absenteeism collected by the Social Insurance Institution in Poland, we can conclude that the selected autoimmune diseases are associated with great indirect costs.

  13. Analysis of Satisfaction Degree of the Public Insurance System Beneficiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela PANAITESCU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The public insurance system provides financial benefits to individuals that are obtained by collecting the due contributions. The analysis of satisfaction degree of the beneficiaries of the system was carried out to determine the challenges the system is facing and for determining the needs of the beneficiaries. In order to reduce the financial constraints the public insurance system is facing, it is necessary to create an appropriate insurance system that meets the needs of the beneficiaries. The research took into account that the public insurance system determines the quality of life of the population and has a strong influence on the economy, particularly on the labour market and the capital market.

  14. The economics of health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Saurabh; Baker, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Insurance plays an important role in the United States, most importantly in but not limited to medical care. The authors introduce basic economic concepts that make medical care and health insurance different from other goods and services traded in the market. They emphasize that competitive pricing in the marketplace for insurance leads, quite rationally, to risk classification, market segmentation, and market failure. The article serves as a springboard for understanding the basis of the reforms that regulate the health insurance market in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance: Are Employers Good Agents for Their Employees?

    OpenAIRE

    Peele, Pamela B.; Lave, Judith R.; Black, Jeanne T.; Evans III, John H.

    2000-01-01

    Employers in the United States provide many welfare-type benefits, such as life insurance, disability insurance, health insurance, and pensions, to their employees. Employers can be viewed as performing an agency role in purchasing pension, health, and other welfare benefits for their employees. An exploration of their competence in this role as agents for their employees indicates that large employers are very helpful to their employees in this arena. They seem to contribute to individual em...

  16. Influence of Intimate Partner Violence on Domestic Relocation in Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan Young Australian Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillon, Gina; Hussain, Rafat; Kibele, Eva; Rahman, Saifur; Loxton, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Data from a national, population-based longitudinal study of Australian women (26-34 years) were analyzed to investigate the association between domestic relocation and multiple explanatory factors, namely intimate partner violence (IPV), metropolitan versus non-metropolitan residence, education,

  17. The Role of Public Health Insurance in Reducing Child Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, Laura R; Kenney, Genevieve M; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 30 years, there have been major expansions in public health insurance for low-income children in the United States through Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and other state-based efforts. In addition, many low-income parents have gained Medicaid coverage since 2014 under the Affordable Care Act. Most of the research to date on health insurance coverage among low-income populations has focused on its effect on health care utilization and health outcomes, with much less attention to the financial protection it offers families. We review a growing body of evidence that public health insurance provides important financial benefits to low-income families. Expansions in public health insurance for low-income children and adults are associated with reduced out of pocket medical spending, increased financial stability, and improved material well-being for families. We also review the potential poverty-reducing effects of public health insurance coverage. When out of pocket medical expenses are taken into account in defining the poverty rate, Medicaid plays a significant role in decreasing poverty for many children and families. In addition, public health insurance programs connect families to other social supports such as food assistance programs that also help reduce poverty. We conclude by reviewing emerging evidence that access to public health insurance in childhood has long-term effects for health and economic outcomes in adulthood. Exposure to Medicaid and CHIP during childhood has been linked to decreased mortality and fewer chronic health conditions, better educational attainment, and less reliance on government support later in life. In sum, the nation's public health insurance programs have many important short- and long-term poverty-reducing benefits for low-income families with children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The National Insurance Academy: Serving India's Insurance Professionals and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Bhagyashree

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how a special library can meet the needs of a specific industry. The author focuses on India's National Insurance Academy (NIA) Library, which serves the insurance industry of India and some neighboring countries. It is where the author serves as the chief librarian.

  19. Insurance premiums and insurance coverage of near-poor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Jack; Reschovsky, James D; Cunningham, Peter; Kenney, Genevieve; Dubay, Lisa

    States increasingly are using premiums for near-poor children in their public insurance programs (Medicaid/SCHIP) to limit private insurance crowd-out and constrain program costs. Using national data from four rounds of the Community Tracking Study Household Surveys spanning the seven years from 1996 to 2003, this study estimates a multinomial logistic regression model examining how public and private insurance premiums affect insurance coverage outcomes (Medicaid/SCHIP coverage, private coverage, and no coverage). Higher public premiums are significantly associated with a lower probability of public coverage and higher probabilities of private coverage and uninsurance; higher private premiums are significantly related to a lower probability of private coverage and higher probabilities of public coverage and uninsurance. The results imply that uninsurance rates will rise if both public and private premiums increase, and suggest that states that impose or increase public insurance premiums for near-poor children will succeed in discouraging crowd-out of private insurance, but at the expense of higher rates of uninsurance. Sustained increases in private insurance premiums will continue to create enrollment pressures on state insurance programs for children.

  20. 78 FR 52780 - National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ...] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of FY... Assistance/Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement), 85 (as of June 2013) private sector property insurers sell... Financial Assistance/ Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement) to notify private insurance companies (Companies...

  1. 77 FR 36566 - National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ...] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of FY... Assistance/Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement), 82 (as of April, 2012) private sector property insurers sell... Financial Assistance/ Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement) to notify private insurance companies (Companies...

  2. Health Insurance: Understanding Your Health Plan's Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know what your insurance company is paying…Health Insurance: Understanding What It CoversRead Article >>Insurance & BillsHealth Insurance: Understanding What It CoversYour insurance policy lists a package of medical benefits such as tests, drugs, and treatment services. These ...

  3. HIAA's The Business of Insurance: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Anita; Lynch, Margaret E.

    This booklet is intended to help students gain a broad understanding of the meaning, characteristics, organization, products, and functions of the insurance industry. The following topics are discussed: the concept of and need for insurance; basic principles of insurance (risk assessment, insurability and insurable interest, determination of…

  4. Radon survey in Metropolitan Toronto schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, E.; Moridi, R.

    1992-01-01

    The radon testing survey in Metropolitan Toronto public schools was the most intensive project of its kind ever undertaken in Canadian schools. It also included an extensive public education program on radiation and radon-in-schools. The radon levels at 632 schools were measured using the CAIRS Radon Monitors. Ninety percent of the locations measured were found to have a radon level equal to or less than 2 mWL. Two locations in two different schools were found to have a radon level at or above the Action Level (20 mWL). The remaining results were between the two extremes. Follow-up testing in those schools where more than 10 mWL of radon was found is in progress. (author)

  5. Suburbanization and sustainability in metropolitan Moscow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Robert J; Nigmatullina, Liliya

    2011-01-01

    Although Soviet-era urban-growth controls produced relatively sustainable metropolitan development patterns, low-density suburban sprawl has accelerated markedly in modern Russia. Distinctive features of Moscow's development history are its greenbelt, which dates from 1935 and is becoming increasingly fragmented, proliferation of satellite cities at the urban fringe, conversion of seasonal dachas into full-time residences, the very exclusive Rublevo Uspenskoe Highway development, and today's crippling traffic congestion. The recent economic crisis has slowed development and actually increased the supply of “economy-class” single-family homes, for which there is much pent-up desire but insufficient credit availability to meet the demand. A renewed commitment to sustainability's triple bottom line—environmental quality, equity, and economic prosperity—will require greater government transparency and fairness, stronger planning controls, and an expanded public transportation system.

  6. Mitigation Index Insurance for Developing Countries: Insure the Loss or Insure the Signal?

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yiting; Miranda, Mario J.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional agricultural index insurance indemnifies based on the observed value of a specified variable, such as rainfall, that is correlated with agricultural production losses. Typically, indemnities are paid to the policyholder after the losses have been experienced. This paper explores alternate timing for index insurance payouts. In particular, we explore the potential benefits of what we call “mitigation index insurance” in which the payouts of the insurance contract arrive before los...

  7. La prima de riesgo recargada en un seguro de rentas: tarificación mediante el uso de una medida de riesgo coherente || The Risk Recharged Premium for a Survival Life Insurance: Recharged Premium through the Use of a Coherent Risk Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Solís, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se obtiene un principio de cálculo de primas, para el ramo de vida, basado en una medida de riesgo coherente, la esperanza distorsionada transformada proporcional del tanto instantáneo (Wang, 1995, que justifique la recomendación de Solvencia II de reducir, para un seguro de rentas, el efecto del tanto instantáneo de mortalidad y conseguir de este modo una prima recargada implícitamente para hacer frente a las desviaciones desfavorables de la siniestralidad real. La modalidad de seguro seleccionada parael estudio ha sido el de rentas, seguro con cobertura de supervivencia, calculándose la prima única de riesgo para las cuatro leyes de supervivencia más aceptadas, como son la primera y segunda de Dormoy, la ley de Gomperzt y la ley de Makeham. La selección de estas leyes ha sido por ser las que mejor se ajustan al modelo mediante el empleo de las tablas de mortalidad elaboradas por Pérez (2000. En los seguros de vida con cobertura de supervivencia, una experiencia de siniestralidad negativa para la compañía significa que los asegurados son más longevos de lo esperado. Así, cuando se calculan las primas, es una práctica común añadir un margen de seguridad implícito, en forma de porcentaje, a las probabilidades de fallecimiento qx, o bien emplear una tabla de mortalidad cuyas probabilidades de fallecimiento sean inferiores a las del grupo humano considerado. Esto se puede interpretar como un decremento del tanto instantáneo con un múltiplo. En este artículo se demuestra que el empleo de la función de distorsión, hasta ahora empleada en el ramo de no vida y siendo la novedad su aplicación al ramo de vida asegurador, produce este mismo efecto, pero mediante el cálculo de una prima recargada de manera implícita. || The goal of this study is to get a premium calculation principle, for the life insurance business, based on a coherent risk measure (Wang, 1995 in the form of power, called Proportional Hazards (PH

  8. 76 FR 77442 - Mutual Insurance Holding Company Treated as Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... insurance industry traces its roots back to England, where, in 1696, the first mutual fire insurer was... FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 380 RIN 3064-AD89 Mutual Insurance Holding Company Treated as Insurance Company AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). ACTION: Notice...

  9. Performance measurement and insurance liabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, A; Huijgen, C

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the authors develop an attribution framework for evaluating the investment performance of institutional investors such as insurance companies. The model is useful in identifying the investment skills of insurance companies. This is accomplished by developing a dual benchmark for the

  10. Your Insurance Dollar. Money Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.

    This booklet provides some practical guidelines for determining total insurance needs, examining options, and comparing costs. It discusses how to fit insurance costs into an overall financial plan, the necessity of adequate liability coverage, and the importance of keeping policies up to date. The next four sections highlight the basic types of…

  11. A RANGELAND GRASSHOPPER INSURANCE PROGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Skold, Melvin D.; Davis, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    The incidence of benefits and costs from controlling rangeland grasshoppers on public grazing lands poses problems of economic efficiency and distributional equity. Public grasshopper control programs operate like public disaster assistance. However, grasshopper infestations are an insurable risk. This article proposes a rangeland grasshopper insurance program which reduces the economic inefficiencies and distributional inequities of the existing program.

  12. Business Cycle Dependent Unemployment Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Svarer, Michael

    The consequences of business cycle contingencies in unemployment insurance systems are considered in a search-matching model allowing for shifts between "good" and "bad" states of nature. We show that not only is there an insurance argument for such contingencies, but there may also be an incentive...

  13. Market Discipline and Deposit Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Peresetsky, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines Russian banks’ household deposit interest rates for the transition period of setting up the deposit insurance system. Monthly observations of Russian banks’ interest rates and balance sheets are used in a fixed effects panel data model. It is shown market discipline has been significantly diminished after switching to the deposit insurance.

  14. 46 CFR Sec. 13 - Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 13 Insurance. Article 9 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract sets forth the Contractor's liabilities and obligations with... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance. Sec. 13 Section 13 Shipping MARITIME...

  15. Hancocked: manulife and the limits of private health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert G

    2011-08-01

    Long-term care (LTC) insurance is a salesman's dream. Millions of well-heeled boomers, anxious to protect their estates from the random expropriation of institutional dependency - what a market! But for Manulife, bleeding $1.5 million a day in LTC claims through subsidiary John Hancock, LTC is a nightmare. Company spokesmen blame unexpected increases in life expectancy. But management's fundamental error was insuring correlated risks. Risk pooling works only when individual risks are uncorrelated. Increases in life expectancy affect all contracts together. Manulife made the same mistake selling equity-linked annuities with guaranteed floors - essentially insuring against stock market declines. Results for shareholders have been catastrophic. Top management, meanwhile, have been honoured and richly rewarded.

  16. INSURANCE - A RISK COVERING STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dan GAVRILETEA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Insurance industry in Romania is facing for a few years a continuous decreasing in Gross Written Premium. The negative trend may be caused by the effects of financial crises for companies and also for individuals. In order to keep theirs market share, insurance companies must identify new opportunities to increase theirs’ GWP. Among these new market niches hospitality industry may represent an option to be followed. In this paper, we will analyze the types of insurance policies available for hospitality industry (except mandatory motors’ third party liability and motors’ own vehicle insurance. The conclusion represents solution both for insurance companies and for hotel as a part of theirs’ risk financing process.

  17. 7 CFR 3019.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the... Standards § 3019.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance...

  18. 29 CFR 95.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the... § 95.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  19. 76 FR 7767 - Student Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Student Health Insurance Coverage AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION... health insurance coverage under the Public Health Service Act and the Affordable Care Act. The proposed rule would define ``student health insurance [[Page 7768

  20. Canadians' access to insurance for prescription medicines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ...-economic circumstances and drug needs. Volume two presents an analysis of the un-insured and under-insured by measuring the extent to which Canadians have access to insurance for prescription drug expenses and the quality of that coverage...

  1. Insurance and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, C.

    1985-01-01

    The Price-Anderson Act is discussed, which establishes procedures for insuring nuclear facilities (including nuclear power plants). The act was enacted with the dual purpose of protecting the public and encouraging the development of a private nuclear energy industry. Criticisms that can generally be grouped into four categories regarding the Act are presented, the most controversial aspect being that should an accident occur, the aggregate liability of the reactor operator, the NRC, or any others who might be at fault is limited to $560 million. Lawsuits for amounts in excess of $560 million are prohibited. The 1975 renewal of the Price-Anderson Act does provide that damages in excess of the $560 million prompt Congress to review the particular incident and take action to protect the public from the consequences of a disaster of such magnitude

  2. Education for Earthquake Disaster Prevention in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, S.; Tsuji, H.; Koketsu, K.; Yazaki, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Japan frequently suffers from all types of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. In the first half of this year, we already had three big earthquakes and heavy rainfall, which killed more than 30 people. This is not just for Japan but Asia is the most disaster-afflicted region in the world, accounting for about 90% of all those affected by disasters, and more than 50% of the total fatalities and economic losses. One of the most essential ways to reduce the damage of natural disasters is to educate the general public to let them understand what is going on during those desasters. This leads individual to make the sound decision on what to do to prevent or reduce the damage. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), therefore, offered for public subscription to choose several model areas to adopt scientific education to the local elementary schools, and ERI, the Earthquake Research Institute, is qualified to develop education for earthquake disaster prevention in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The tectonic setting of this area is very complicated; there are the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates subducting beneath the North America and the Eurasia plates. The subduction of the Philippine Sea plate causes mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M 8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M 7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A magnitude 7 or greater earthquake beneath this area is recently evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years. This is of immediate concern for the devastating loss of life and property because the Tokyo urban region now has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's activities, which may cause great global economic repercussion. To better understand earthquakes in this region, "Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area" has been conducted mainly by ERI. It is a 4-year

  3. Metropolitan migration and population growth in selected developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to estimate the components of metropolitan population growth in selected developing countries during 1960-1970 period. The study examines population growth in 26 cities: 5 are in Africa, 8 in Asia, and 13 in Latin America, using data from national census publications. These cities in general are the political capitals of their countries, but some additional large cities were selected in Brazil, Mexico, and South Africa. All cities, at the beginning of the 1960-1970 decade had over 500,000 population; Accra, the only exception, reached this population level during the 1960s. Some cities had over 4 million residents in 1970. Net migration contributed about 37% to total metropolitan population growth; the remainder of the growth is attributable to natural increase. Migration has a much stronger impact on metropolitan growth than suggested by the above figure: 1) Several metropolitan areas, for various reasons, are unlikely to receive many migrants; without those cities, the share of metropolitan growth from net migration is 44%. 2) Estimates of the natural increase of migrants after their arrival in the metropolitan areas, when added to migration itself, changes the total contribution of migration to 49% in some metropolitan areas. 3) Even where net migration contributes a smaller proportion to metropolitan growth than natural increase, the rates of net migration are generally high and should be viewed in the context of rapid metropolitan population growth from natural increase alone. Finally, the paper also compares the components of metropolitan growth with the components of growth in the remaining urban areas. The results show that the metropolitan areas, in general, grow faster than the remaining urban areas, and that this more rapid growth is mostly due to a higher rate of net migration. Given the significance of migration for metropolitan growth, further investigations of the effects of these migration streams, particularly with

  4. ‘New urbanism' or metropolitan-level centralization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2011-01-01

    Based on a study in Copenhagen Metropolitan Area, this paper compares the influences of macro-level and micro-level urban form characteristics on the respondents' traveling distance by car on weekdays. The Copenhagen study shows that metropolitan-scale urban structural variables generally exert...... stronger influences than neighborhood-scale built environment characteristics on the amount of car travel. In particular, the location of the residence relative to the main city center of the metropolitan region shows a strong effect. Some local scale variables often mentioned in the literature...

  5. Imperfect Tests and Natural Insurance Monopolies

    OpenAIRE

    Emons, Winand

    1997-01-01

    This paper considers a housing insurance market in which buildings have different damage probabilities. Insurers use imperfect tests to find out about buildings’ damage types. The insurance market is a natural monopoly. If more than one insurer is active, high risk house owners continue to apply to insurers until they are eventually assigned to a low-risk class. First we show that the natural insurance monopoly need not be sustainable. Then we show that in the equilibrium industry structure t...

  6. Macroprudential Insurance Regulation: A Swiss Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Deprez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and shocks.

  7. Macroprudential Insurance Regulation: A Swiss Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Deprez; Mario V. Wüthrich

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and sho...

  8. A Comparison between General Population Mortality and Life Tables for Insurance in Mexico under Gender Proportion Inequality || Una comparación entre la mortalidad de la población general y las tablas de vida de los seguros en México ante porcentajes desiguales de género

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornelas, Arelly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We model the mortality behavior of the general population in Mexico using data from 1990 to 2009 and compare it to the mortality assumed in the tables used in Mexico for insured lives. We _t a Lee-Carter model, a Renshaw-Haberman model and an Age-Period-Cohort model. The data used are drawn from the Mexican National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI and the National Population Council (CONAPO. We also fit a Brass-type relational model to compare gaps between general population mortality and the mortality estimates for the insured population used by the National Insurance and Finance Commission in Mexico. As the life tables for insured lives are unisex, i.e. they do not differentiate between men and women, we assume various sex ratios in the mortality tables for insured lives. We compare our results with those obtained for Switzerland and observe very similar outcomes. We emphasize the limitations of the mortality tables used by insurance companies in Mexico. We also discuss the bias incurred when using unisex mortality tables if the proportion of male and female policyholders in an insurance company is not balanced. || Interesados en conocer las diferencias entre la mortalidad general y la de un subgrupo de la población, como son los asegurados en una compañía de seguros, hemos ajustado un modelo relacional Brass-Type. Para ello, en primer lugar, hemos modelado el comportamiento de la mortalidad de la población general de México entre los años 1990 y 2009. Hemos ajustado un modelo Lee-Carter, un modelo Renshaw-Haberman y un modelo edad-período-cohorte. Los datos utilizados proceden del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI y el Consejo Nacional de Población (CONAPO. Una vez estimadas las tasas de mortalidad se han comparado con la mortalidad asumida por las compañías aseguradoras mexicanas. Estas tasas de mortalidad han sido calculadas por la Comisión Nacional de Seguros y Finanzas de México. Como las

  9. An investigation into onshore captive insurance companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ME Le Roux

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance provided by captive insurers is one of various forms of risk financing.  The nature and main types of captive insurance companies are discussed.  This is followed by the results of an empirical study that focused on South African onshore captive insurance companies.  The objectives in establishing and operating a captive insurer, the factors which determine the decision of the parent company to establish and operate a captive insurer and the future and usefulness of insurance provided by captive insurers are some of the aspects that are addressed.

  10. The role of insurance and risk management in new power plant projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, R.

    1988-01-01

    Insurance, and other risk management techniques, can be used to facilitate the financing and construction of power plant projects. This paper describes certain techniques, then it concentrates on insurance based solutions. The objective of this paper is to point out how the insurance industry can help small power producers. First, the standard insurance coverages will be reviewed. Then coverages that have been specifically designed for the alternative energy, cogeneration and small power producing industries will be explained. Some real life examples will be discussed to show how the coverages really work

  11. MOTOR THIRD PARTY LIABILITY INSURANCE – POLISH MARKET IN CONNECTIONS TO EUROPEAN TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Kwiecień

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Motor insurance, despite continuous product development, are still in most European countries, the predominant group of products sold by non-life Insurers. In the countries of Central and Eastern Europe is about 2/3 of the insurance written premiums. In the article authors analyze the areas and factors affecting the development of this class of insurance and current market changes in Poland in comparison to the European trends. The main attention has been devoted to number of accidents and road safety, frequency and amount of claims, other macroeconomics and legal factors. Also the financial issues, such as premium and profitability, were discussed.

  12. Interest rate models for pension and insurance regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, Dirk; de Jong, Frank; Schotman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Liabilities of pension funds and life insurers typically have very long times to maturity. The valuation of such liabilities introduces particular challenges as it relies on long term interest rates. As the market for long term interest rates is less liquid, financial institutions and the regulator

  13. Interest Rate Models for Pension and Insurance Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, D.W.G.A.; de Jong, Frank; Schotman, Peter

    Liabilities of pension funds and life insurers typically have very long times to maturity. The valuation of such liabilities introduces particular challenges as it relies on long term interest rates. As the market for long term interest rates is less liquid, financial institutions and the regulator

  14. The insurance of climatic risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauthier, Alice

    2015-06-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme assesses that the cost of adaptation to climate change could reach 150 billions dollars per year by 2025-2030 and 500 billions dollars by 2050. This raises the issues of financing of adaptation measures, and of compensations in case of natural disaster, and insurance companies here seem to have a major role to play. However, the modification of the climatic risk puts the viability of conventional insurance mechanisms into question again. While discussing these issues, the author outlines that a sustainable insurance against these evolving risks may threaten insurance companies to go to bankrupt, but also all their policyholders who are, for most of them, unable to cope by themselves with the consequences of an extreme climatic event. The author also discusses related aspects such as risk modelling, risk mutualization, a securing of insurance companies based on the financial market, the implementation of public-private partnership, and ways to insure climate anomalies. She also comments the commitment of the insurance sector in adaptation and mitigation policies

  15. Implications of European Directives in the Assessment of Insurance Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel BOSTAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a vision in the sphere of the problematic of assets and liabilities’ evaluation that are reflected in the balance sheet of the insurance companies, inside the theory of the contingent claims, and of the marginal theory inside the insurance sphere. Our references take into consideration all the principles and evaluation norms of a company’s liabilities, company operating in the life insurance domain, including the general request introduced by the IFRS. Also, we argument the fact that the making of the new IFRS standards’ frame must take into consideration the accelerated globalization of the trading and the internalization of the financial markets, factors that have made pass onto the first place the necessity of a standardized financial reporting system. Because for so long the evaluating inadequacy of the assets at their fair value and the liabilities at their fair cost has persisted for so long, we underline that we find even in this a vast debate subject between the insurance companies’ representatives and the IASB, especially in the second step of the IFRS4’s implementation in the life insurance contract.

  16. Intestinal Parasites among Waste-Handlers in Jos Metropolitan Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal Parasites among Waste-Handlers in Jos Metropolitan Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. ... Solid waste management is associated with health hazards. ... Waste disposal workers are at high risk of infection with different species of ...

  17. Statewide and Metropolitan Transportation Planning Processes : a TPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    This report highlights key recommendations and noteworthy practices identified at Statewide and Metropolitan Transportation Planning Processes Peer Exchange held on September 9-10, 2015 in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. This event was sponsored ...

  18. Optimal social insurance with linear income taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovenberg, Lans; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2009-01-01

    We study optimal social insurance aimed at insuring disability risk in the presence of linear income taxation. Optimal disability insurance benefits rise with previous earnings. Optimal insurance is incomplete even though disability risks are exogenous and verifiable so that moral hazard in disab...... in disability insurance is absent. Imperfect insurance is optimal because it encourages workers to insure themselves against disability by working and saving more, thereby alleviating the distortionary impact of the redistributive income tax on labor supply and savings.......We study optimal social insurance aimed at insuring disability risk in the presence of linear income taxation. Optimal disability insurance benefits rise with previous earnings. Optimal insurance is incomplete even though disability risks are exogenous and verifiable so that moral hazard...

  19. Towards a Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram Using Travel Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Using travel diary data from 2000–2001 and 2010–2012 this research examines fundamental traffic relationships at the metropolitan level. The results of this paper can help to explain the causes of some traffic phenomena. Network average speed by time of day can be explained by trip length and cumulative number of vehicles on the road. A clockwise hysteresis loop is found in the Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram in the morning period and a reverse process happens in the afternoon. PMID:26866913

  20. Environmental pollution risk and insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Fragnelli, Vito; Marina, Maria Erminia

    2002-01-01

    We consider environmental risks that are evaluated too much heavy for a single insurance company, but they can be insured by n companies which a premium is assigned to.This is precisely the Italian scenario where a pool of companies co-insures these risks.Under a game theoretic approach we start by analyzing how they should split the risk and the premium in order to be better off. Under suitable hypotheses, there exists an optimal decomposition of the risk, that allow us to define a cooperati...

  1. CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIC PRIORITIES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INVESTMENT INSURANCE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Honcharenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to substantiate the feasibility of expanding the scope of investment insurance in Ukraine, taking into account its advantages over other types of insurance services as well as the possibility of minimizing the possible disadvantages. Methodology. The list of the research methods of the subject under consideration includes the monographic method, analysis, techniques of the abstract-logical method, etc. Results. The urgency of the article is that the disclosure of the internal potential of the insurance market in Ukraine should take place with the introduction or activation of modern insurance products capable of meeting several financial needs at once, not only of their consumers but of the state as a whole. The development of voluntary life insurance plays an important investment role in the country’s economy, therefore, at the moment, the need to develop new financial products aimed at increasing voluntary insurance is urgent. The share of life insurance services in the insurance market of Ukraine in dynamic is analysed. The purpose and positive consequences of expanding the segment of investment insurance are substantiated. Investment insurance as a financial product has both advantages and disadvantages. The benefits include the transparent structure of the insurance product, the choice of investment strategy, the possibility of obtaining increased investment returns while preserving the benefits of the insurance contract, preferential taxation of investment income, the existence of a guaranteed amount of payment in the contract, etc.; to the drawbacks – the lack of the possibility of early termination of the contract with the receipt of all the insurance premiums paid, the absence of a guarantee fund, guaranteed income, long-term contracts, limited range of people who can be insured. To enhance the use of investment insurance in Ukraine and to minimize these shortcomings, the prospects for the development of

  2. Planning Assignments of the Italian Metropolitan Cities. Early Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The last stage of the process of establishment of the Italian Metropolitan Cities, which took place in 2014, follows of a few decades the start of this institutional reform. In 1990, in fact, the Act 142 (Local Autonomies Reform had planned metropolitan areas as the administrative organization more suitable to provide these territories of structures for the management and the strategic development alike the best international models. The paper proposes to analyse the first activities taken by the Italian Metropolitan Cities in the sector of territorial government, three years after the enactment in 2014 of Act nr. 56.  Focal point of the analysis is the jurisdiction in the formation of two plans (the Strategic Plan and the Metropolitan Territorial Plan and the following relationships among them, in the logical assumption that between them a necessary and strict consistency there should be. In the first part, the paper analyses some factors characterizing the metropolitan areas and the functions that the law assigns to the new institution in the territorial government sector. The second part outlines the updated situation with regard to the formation of the sectoral tools (Strategic Plan, Territorial Plan and homogeneous zones. The third part analyses the progresses in three Metropolitan Cities taken as sample (Milan, Genoa and Bologna and, in general, to those of Southern Italy. In the last part, the paper exposes some considerations regarding the issues raised in the article, particularly about the innovativeness of the tools and the timeline for the implementation of the act.

  3. Initiatives towards Carbon Neutrality in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karna Dahal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon neutrality represents one climate strategy adopted by many cities, including the city of Helsinki and the Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland. This study examines initiatives adopted by the Helsinki metropolitan area aimed at reducing energy-related carbon emissions and achieving carbon neutrality through future actions. Various sectorial energy consumption rates per year and carbon emissions from various sectors within the city of Helsinki and the metropolitan area were extracted from an online database and re-calculated (in GWh, MWh/inhabitant and MtCO2e, KtCO2e/inhabitant. We employed a backcasting scenario method to explore the various carbon reduction measures in the Helsinki metropolitan area. About 96% of the emissions produced in the Helsinki metropolitan area are energy-based. District heating represents the primary source of emissions, followed by transportation and electricity consumption, respectively. We also found that accomplishing the carbon reduction strategies of the Helsinki metropolitan area by 2050 remains challenging. Technological advancement for clean and renewable energy sources, smart policies and raising awareness resulting in behavioral changes greatly affect carbon reduction actions. Thus, strong political commitments are also required to formulate and implement stringent climate actions.

  4. INSURANCE MARKET. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF INSURANCES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINEL NEDELUŢ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Insurance is a contract made by a company or society, or by the state, to provide a guarantee for loss, damage, illness, death etc in return for regular payments. In other words it is a means by which one pays a relatively small known cost for protection against an uncertain and much larger cost. Still, this contract (insurance policy makes it possible for the insured to cover only losses that are measurable in terms of money and caused strictly by hazardous events, independent from own doing. If no such events should happen, the benefits won’t exist in a tangible, material form, but will take the shape of security against ruin. Since the insurance industry has developed more during the last decade due to the powerful players that have entered the market, the services provided by the insurance companies, and not only their products have evolved a lot in order to meet the requirements of the consumers, and to make them familiar with this type of investments. Therefore all the means of advertising became essential in this process of implementation and familiarization with this area of activity: mass-media advertising, insurance brokerage companies, the internet are all parts of this process.

  5. Buying greenhouse insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manne, A.S.; Richels, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    A growing concern that the increasing accumulation of greenhouse gases will lead to undesirable changes in global climate has resulted in proposals, both in the United States and internationally, to set physical targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. But what will these proposals cost? This book outlines a way to think about greenhouse-effect decisions under uncertainty. It describes an insightful model for determining the economic costs of limiting CO 2 emissions produced by burning fossil fuels and provides a solid analytical base for rethinking public policy on the far-reaching issue of global warming. It presents region-by-region estimates of the costs that would underlie an international agreement. Using a computer model known as Global 2100, they analyze the economic impacts of limiting CO 2 emissions under alternative supply and conservation scenarios. The results clearly indicate that a reduction in emissions is not the sole policy response to potential climate change. Following a summary of the greenhouse effect, its likely causes, and possible consequences, this book takes up issues that concern the public at large. They provide an overview of Global 2100, look at how the U.S. energy sector is likely to evolve under business-as-usual conditions and under carbon constraints, and describe the concept of greenhouse insurance. They consider possible global agreements, including an estimate of benefits that might result from trading in an international market in emission rights. They conclude with a technical description directed toward modeling specialists

  6. Insurance billing and coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Rebecca H; Bruelheide, Lori S; Demann, Eric T K; Haug, Richard H

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of understanding various numeric and alpha-numeric codes for accurately billing dental and medically related services to private pay or third-party insurance carriers. In the United States, common dental terminology (CDT) codes are most commonly used by dentists to submit claims, whereas current procedural terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD.9.CM) codes are more commonly used by physicians to bill for their services. The CPT and ICD.9.CM coding systems complement each other in that CPT codes provide the procedure and service information and ICD.9.CM codes provide the reason or rationale for a particular procedure or service. These codes are more commonly used for "medical necessity" determinations, and general dentists and specialists who routinely perform care, including trauma-related care, biopsies, and dental treatment as a result of or in anticipation of a cancer-related treatment, are likely to use these codes. Claim submissions for care provided can be completed electronically or by means of paper forms.

  7. Validation of the diagnosis canine epilepsy in a Swedish animal insurance database against practice records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heske, Linda; Berendt, Mette; Jäderlund, Karin Hultin

    2014-01-01

    Canine epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions in dogs but the actual incidence of the disease remains unknown. A Swedish animal insurance database has previously been shown useful for the study of disease occurrence in companion animals. The dogs insured by this company...... represent a unique population for epidemiological studies, because they are representative of the general dog population in Sweden and are followed throughout their life allowing studies of disease incidence to be performed. The database covers 50% of all insured dogs (in the year 2012) which represents 40......% of the national dog population. Most commonly, dogs are covered by both veterinary care insurance and life insurance. Previous studies have shown that the general data quality is good, but the validity of a specific diagnosis should be examined carefully before using the database for incidence calculations...

  8. AREAS FOR INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS IMPLEMENTATION IN THE INSURANCE MARKET OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Tretiak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to assess the prospects for the implementation of the investment life insurance in Ukraine. The study analysed the experience of foreign countries in the investment life insurance market development. Also, an analysis of existing definitions for the "unit-linked" term is carried out; the result is the conclusion that they are limited to only a descriptive characteristic that relates to a particular aspect of the product. Upon that, a comprehensive definition is absent at all now. Methods. The study is based on a comparison of "unitlinked" products with the traditional life insurance, which exist in the world practice. Practical importance. Increase in the inflow of long-term resources in the Ukrainian economy through the implementation of an innovative unitlinked product. Transformation of the life insurance industry into the high-margin business sphere in Ukraine. Importance/originality. A technique of constructing an innovative unit-linked product depending on the specifics of the domestic insurance market performance is developed. Results. The article considers in depth the specific features of unit-linked products, which distinguish this life insurance type from the classic accumulative insurance. In addition, it highlights other important characteristics such as a high level of flexibility and transparency of all the components. Also, the advantages and disadvantages of unit-linked products are considered as compared to alternative products, its classification is held for the selected parameter group. The estimations of the unit-linked product development prospects, as well as its influence on the growth of the insurance market, are made. The study justifies the legislative consolidation of the investment life insurance along with a number of expansionary measures successfully implemented in Eastern European countries, which are similar to Ukraine. The result within the framework of this direction is the

  9. 7 CFR 3560.105 - Insurance and taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Windstorm Coverage. (ii) Earthquake Coverage. (iii) Sinkhole Insurance or Mine Subsidence Insurance. (3) For... the coverage amount. (v) Sinkhole Insurance or Mine Subsidence Insurance. The deductible for sinkhole.... (10) Deductible amounts (excluding flood, windstorm, earthquake and sinkhole insurance or mine...

  10. Environmental insurance: research information support

    OpenAIRE

    Rykova Valentina V.

    2015-01-01

    he article describes information resources to support research on the issue of environmental insurance. It represents a brief analysis of a documentary flow, traces its dynamics and typical-thematic structures, shows the most productive journals

  11. FEMA Flood Insurance Studies Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital data set provides an inventory of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) that have been conducted for communities and...

  12. Pricing of temperature index insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Mohd Imran Che Taib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study pricing of weather insurance contracts based on temperature indices. Three different pricing methods are analysed: the classical burn approach, index modelling and temperature modelling. We take the data from Malaysia as our empirical case. Our results show that there is a significant difference between the burn and index pricing approaches on one hand, and the temperature modelling method on the other. The latter approach is pricing the insurance contract using a seasonal autoregressive time series model for daily temperature variations, and thus provides a precise probabilistic model for the fine structure of temperature evolution. We complement our pricing analysis by an investigation of the profit/loss distribution from the contract, in the perspective of both the insured and the insurer.

  13. HUD Insured Multifamily Properties (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The FHA insured Multifamily Housing portfolio consist primarily of rental housing properties with five or more dwelling units such as apartments or town houses, but...

  14. Nuclear insurance problems in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez del Campo, Julian.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the problems raised in Spain by third party liability insurance for nuclear damage. National law in this field is based on the Paris Convention on nuclear third party liability and defines the conditions of liability of operators of nuclear installations. The insurance contract requirements must comply with the regulations on cover for nuclear risks, under the control of the Finance Ministry's competent services. Certain exceptional nuclear risks which cannot be covered entirely by ordinary insurance policies, are taken over by the Consorcio de Compensacion de Seguros which belongs to this Ministry. From the insurance viewpoint, the regulations make a distinction between nuclear and radioactive installations and nuclear transport. (NEA) [fr

  15. 78 FR 71476 - Health Insurance Providers Fee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    .... The final regulations clarify that these benefits constitute health insurance when they are offered by... insurance. Limited Scope Dental and Vision Benefits The proposed regulations defined health insurance to... revising the definition of health insurance to exclude limited scope dental and vision benefits (sometimes...

  16. Nuclear power plants and their insurances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schludi, H.N.

    1984-01-01

    From the commencement of building to the time of decommissioning of nuclear power plants, the insurances provide continuous coverage, i.e. for construction, nuclear liability, nuclear energy hazards insurance, fire insurance, machinery insurance. The respective financial security is quantified. (DG) [de

  17. 78 FR 12623 - Insurer Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... NHTSA's regulation requiring motor vehicle insurers to submit information on the number of thefts and recoveries of insured vehicles and actions taken by the insurer to deter or reduce motor vehicle theft. NHTSA..., which requires insurers to submit information about the make, model, and year of all vehicle thefts, the...

  18. 24 CFR 266.612 - Insurance endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance endorsement. 266.612... Rights and Obligations Insurance Endorsement § 266.612 Insurance endorsement. (a) Initial endorsement. The Commissioner shall indicate his or her insurance of the mortgage by endorsing the original credit...

  19. 24 CFR 207.259 - Insurance benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance benefits. 207.259 Section... Contract of Insurance § 207.259 Insurance benefits. (a) Method of payment. Upon either an assignment of the... of mortgage. If the mortgage is assigned to the Commissioner, the insurance benefits shall be paid in...

  20. 24 CFR 241.805 - Insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 241.805 Section... Without a HUD-Insured or HUD-Held Mortgage Premiums § 241.805 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium. The... insurance premium equal to one percent of the original face amount of the note. (b) Second premium. The...

  1. 34 CFR 682.505 - Insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance premium. 682.505 Section 682.505 Education... § 682.505 Insurance premium. (a) General. The Secretary charges the lender an insurance premium for each Federal GSL Program loan that is guaranteed, except that no insurance premium is charged on a Federal...

  2. 24 CFR 220.804 - Insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 220.804 Section... and Obligations-Projects Insured Project Improvement Loans § 220.804 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium. The lender, upon the initial endorsement of the loan for insurance, shall pay to the Commissioner...

  3. Social insurance for health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, M I

    1997-06-01

    Implementation of social insurance for financing health services has yielded different patterns depending on a country's economic level and its government's political ideology. By the late 19th century, thousands of small sickness funds operated in Europe, and in 1883 Germany's Chancellor Bismarck led the enactment of a law mandating enrollment by low-income workers. Other countries followed, with France completing Western European coverage in 1928. The Russian Revolution in 1917 led to a National Health Service covering everyone from general revenues by 1937. New Zealand legislated universal population coverage in 1939. After World War II, Scandinavian countries extended coverage to everyone and Britain introduced its National Health Service covering everyone with comprehensive care and financed by general revenues in 1948. Outside of Europe Japan adopted health insurance in 1922, covering everyone in 1946. Chile was the first developing country to enact statutory health insurance in 1924 for industrial workers, with extension to all low-income people with its "Servicio Nacional de Salud" in 1952. India covered 3.5 percent of its large population with the Employees' State Insurance Corporation in 1948, and China after its 1949 revolution developed four types of health insurance for designated groups of workers and dependents. Sub-Saharan African countries took limited health insurance actions in the late 1960s and 1970s. By 1980, some 85 countries had enacted social security programs to finance or deliver health services or both.

  4. Environmental pollution and liability insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boediker, T.

    1980-01-01

    By the declared will of the legislative bodies to give effect to the polluter pays principle on all levels those have to pay the costs of removing impairments of environmental media that are responsible for its occurence. Thus environmental pollution becomes a considerable financial risk for the polluter. Against this risk they try to protect themselves by the corresponding precautionary measures, e.g. by insurance. The insurance industry is consequently requested to meet this new demand. The legal bases are followed by the description of the insurance relationship under the aspect of the theory of risks, which follows, based on the basic model of decision theory, the objective of a quantitative representation of the situation of the decision. In the last chapter the author deals with the financial security for the risks of a third party liability insurance of environmental pollution as it is offered today in the Federal Republic of Germany. The elaboration of the existing financial security is then compared with the legal conditions of liability. In doing this the author describes cases not covered by financial security and its definition by comparison with findings of risk theory. As a result it becomes obvious that numerous exclusions of risks could quite good be included in the financial security and that the argument of the impossibility to insure often put forward by the insurers to justify the exclusion of risks can neither theoretically nor practically be uphold. (orig./HSCH) [de

  5. Role of nuclear insurance in US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardes, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Private insurance companies developed means to provide first-tier nuclear coverage to operators of power plants and other nuclear facilities; US Government initially provided second tier. US insurance companies chose 'pooling' technique as means to provide large amounts of insurance capacity by spreading the risk over a number of insurance companies. Classic example of nuclear risk that presents low frequency, high severity loss potential. Insurers usually spread their risk over a large, fairly stable premium base, as with automobile insurance. The American Nuclear Insurers (ANI) and its roles are introduced in this article

  6. Internal audit risk management in metropolitan municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Ackermann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Internal audit functions (IAFs of organisations are regarded as crucial components of the combined assurance model, alongside the audit committee, management and external auditors. The combined assurance model aims at having integrated and aligned assurance in organisations with the overall aim of maximising risk and governance oversight and control efficiencies. In this regard, internal audit plays a crucial role, insofar as it consists of experts in risk, governance and control consultancy who provide assurance to senior management and the audit committee. Audit committees are dependent on internal audit for information and their effectiveness revolves around a strong and well-resourced internal audit function which is able to aid audit committees to meet their oversight responsibilities. There is thus a growing demand for managing risk through the process of risk management and internal audit is in a perfect position to assist with the improvement of such processes. If internal auditors wish to continue being an important aspect of the combined assurance model, they need to address the critical area, amongst others, of risk management as part of their work. If not, it follows that the board, audit committees and other levels of management will remain uninformed on the status of these matters which, in turn, will negatively impact the ability of these stakeholders to discharge their responsibilities. This study therefore focuses on analysing the functioning of IAFs, with specific reference to their risk management mandate. The study followed a mixed method approach to describe internal audits risk management functioning in the big eight metropolitan municipalities in South Africa. The results show that internal audit provide a broad scope of risk management work which assist senior management in the discharge of their responsibilities. However, in the public eye, internal audits risk management functioning is scant

  7. 76 FR 71276 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ...-0008] RIN 0563-AC35 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY... Corporation (FCIC) proposes to amend the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance... Regulations (7 CFR part 457) by revising Sec. 457.167 Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions, to be effective...

  8. 75 FR 15603 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Avocado Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... to: (1) Theft; or (2) Inability to market the avocados for any reason other than actual physical... Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Avocado Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance... Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Avocado Crop Insurance Provisions to convert the Florida...

  9. 24 CFR 266.600 - Mortgage insurance premium: Insurance upon completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium... MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 266.600 Mortgage insurance premium: Insurance upon completion. (a) Initial premium. For projects insured upon completion, on...

  10. INSURANCE INDUSTRY IN ERITREA - ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Rena, Ravinder

    2007-01-01

    The industrial revolution led to the birth of different types of insurance systems. Insurance business emerged and developed in Eritrea during the Italian period. The insurance industry in Eritrea has been huge profits from its inception in 1992. In spite of the consistent profits by the insurance, the Government privatised it recently due the policy and revenue requirements. An attempt is made in this paper to discuss the background of the insurance and it evolution and development. This pap...

  11. Suggestion of Islamic Insurance Company Model

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Ibrahim Nazal

    2015-01-01

    This study is one of very few studies which have investigated Islamic Insurance Companies as solution. It explained its operations also comparing with Traditional Insurance Companies and theoretical Islamic insurance models. As result to this study Islamic Insurance companies are profit organization. It helps Islamic banks but it costs customer to face expect risk. Islamic Insurance companies have many ways to get profits and consider all customers installments grants. Its operation gap comes...

  12. ROMANIA’S PRIVATE HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE MATEI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The significant gap between the quality of life and the level of health expenditure has led to the need to reconsider the modalities and the sources of collecting and redirecting the funds of the sanitary sector in such a way that sustainable medical results are generated for the entire population of the globe. Under these circumstances, the role of private health insurance is constantly increasing, even though its importance is still being influenced by the types of social policy and the dimension of the public health sector at national level. Due to the impact of these factors, the actual dimension of private health insurance market varies significantly across countries. In order to be able to realistically assess the level of development of the private health insurance market in Romania, the analysis has to be taken further than the simplistic measurement of indicators such as income and expenditure.

  13. Corporate insurance and debt capacity: Empirical evidence from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Santoboni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In banks/enterprises relationships a key role is played by Basel II Framework, which accurately correlates banks’ capital requirement to risks, by stimulating a more precise creditworthiness assessment. As known, the containment of risks inherent in bank financing can be carried out ex ante, through an adequate screening, which allows the proper assessment of enterprises’ economic and financial situation and a sound composition of the total loan portfolio, and ex post, through guarantees, which allow benefiting from a loss reduction only after insolvency has occurred. From this perspective, Basel II Framework brings important changes, since life insurance and surety policy are “eligible” guarantees for Credit Risk Mitigation. Nevertheless, banks could offer a better pricing to borrowers not because they are less risky, but because the whole operation would need a lower capital requirement. Therefore, corporate risks reduction – which would allow, in the absence of credit rationing, a more profitable debt capacity – is necessarily achieved through an appropriate “umbrella insurance”, able to cope with both direct and indirect loss. This work aims at investigating the existence of a “virtuous” relationship among corporate insurance purchases, credit risk and debt capacity. Such aim has been pursued through different steps: review of literature, to identify the reasons of corporate demand for insurance; analysis of Italian enterprises’ corporate insurance purchases; drafting of a questionnaire, to submit to a sample of the main insurance companies working in Italy, intended to identify what kind of role they play in the relation with enterprises and which insurance products they offer; drafting of a questionnaire, to submit to a sample of the main banks working in Italy, intended to investigate whether and how the possession of corporate insurance is taken into consideration in the determination of enterprises

  14. BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS IN INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroe Andreea

    2013-07-01

    In this paper there are showed and debated some situation in which psychological effects like loss aversion, reference point, status-quo and framming effects can influence the deccision of the consumer and are not consistent with the standard economic model.In addition to this aspects, Cumulative Prspect Theory enhance the fact that decision makers overestimate low peobabilities and underestimate high probabilities,thus buying inadequate insurance in many situation.in thiss sense, in order to support this idea I tried to make a qualitative presentation of the model used on the insurance market using Prelec function which is the function related with the Cumulative Prospect Theory which can be used in the insurance context.The weak points of the theory of expected utility are explained through this new perspectives and nevertheless aspects like insensivity to bad news concerning incomes,elasticity of price,displacements of status-quo and default,disposition effect and equity premium are taken into consideration.As example,I chose a Kunreuther experiment about insurance decision in with is underlyined the fact that for moderate risk people buy insurance with premiums that exceed the expected loss.There are demands for low deductibles in the the markets for extended guarantees and insurances for mobile phones where was observed that the insurance underwriting rate increases with the probability of loss keeping the expected loss constant.It is better to mention that the theory and the model that are presented here comes as complementary to the economic standard theory not as a substitute.

  15. Forecasting Fire Insurance Loss Ratio in Misr Insurance Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek TAHA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss ratio is one of the most important indicator that has many strategic decisions applications, such as pricing, underwriting, investment, reinsurance and reserving decisions. It serves as an early warning of financial solvency of insurance companies and it can be judged on the strength of the financial position of these companies. The aim of this study is to identify the reliable time series-forecasting model to forecast loss ratio estimates of fire segment in Misr insurance company. Box-Jenkins Analysis is applied on actual reported loss ratios data for Misr insurance company for the period 1980/1981– 2013/2014. The study concludes that the best forecasting model is ARMA(1,1.

  16. 77 FR 25349 - Mutual Insurance Holding Company Treated as Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ..., the first mutual fire insurer was established. The first American mutual insurance company, the Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire, was founded in 1752.\\3\\ \\3\\ The...

  17. 75 FR 30106 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for Insurers Compensated Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for... Budget. The Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office within the Department of the Treasury is soliciting... original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program, Public Comment Record, Suite 2100...

  18. 75 FR 42766 - National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ...] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of... Financial Assistance/Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement), (90 as of June 1, 2010) private sector property... Financial Assistance/ Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement) to notify private insurance companies (Companies...

  19. 76 FR 45281 - National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ...] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of... Financial Assistance/Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement), 87 (as of July 1, 2011) private sector property... Financial Assistance/ Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement) to notify private insurance companies (Companies...

  20. 78 FR 33690 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ...-0008] RIN 0563-AC35 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction... FR 13454-13460). The regulation pertains to the insurance of Pecans. DATES: Effective Date: June 5...: [[Page 33691